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Sample records for homogeneous conditions etude

  1. Homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions in peristaltic flow with convective conditions.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Tasawar; Tanveer, Anum; Yasmin, Humaira; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the effects of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions in peristaltic transport of Carreau fluid in a channel with wall properties. Mathematical modelling and analysis have been carried out in the presence of Hall current. The channel walls satisfy the more realistic convective conditions. The governing partial differential equations along with long wavelength and low Reynolds number considerations are solved. The results of temperature and heat transfer coefficient are analyzed for various parameters of interest. PMID:25460608

  2. Homogeneous-Heterogeneous Reactions in Peristaltic Flow with Convective Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Tasawar; Tanveer, Anum; Yasmin, Humaira; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the effects of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions in peristaltic transport of Carreau fluid in a channel with wall properties. Mathematical modelling and analysis have been carried out in the presence of Hall current. The channel walls satisfy the more realistic convective conditions. The governing partial differential equations along with long wavelength and low Reynolds number considerations are solved. The results of temperature and heat transfer coefficient are analyzed for various parameters of interest. PMID:25460608

  3. Etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs de dioxyde de carbone operant dans des conditions de givrage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendaoud, Adlane Larbi

    Les evaporateurs de refrigeration sont surtout du type tube a ailettes, appeles serpentins, et fonctionnent dans l'une des conditions suivantes: seche, humide ou avec formation de givre. Il a ete demontre que la formation du givre sur la paroi exterieure de l'echangeur engendre une surconsommation energetique a cause des operations de degivrage puisque 15 a 20% seulement de la chaleur produite sert au degivrage tandis que le reste est dissipee dans l'environnement [1]. Avec l'avenement des nouveaux refrigerants, moins nocifs envers l'environnement, l'industrie du froid se trouve penalisee du fait que peu ou pas de composantes mecaniques (compresseur, pompe, echangeur...etc.) adaptees sont disponibles [3]. Il s'agit pour la communaute des frigoristes de combler ce retard technologique en redeveloppant ces composantes mecaniques afin qu'elles soient adaptees aux nouveaux refrigerants. Dans cette optique, et afin de mieux comprendre le comportement thermique des evaporateurs au CO2 fonctionnant dans des conditions seches, qu'un groupe de chercheurs du CanmetENERGIE avaient lance, en 2000, un programme de R & D. Dans le cadre de programme un outil de simulation des evaporateurs au CO2 a ete developpe et un banc d'essai contenant une boucle secondaire de refrigeration utilisant le CO2 comme refrigerant a ete construit. Comme continuite de ce travail de recherche, en 2006 ce meme groupe de recherche a lance un nouveau projet qui consiste a faire une etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs au CO2 operants dans des conditions de givrage. Et, c'est exactement dans le cadre de ce projet que se positionne ce travail de these. Ce travail de recherche a ete entrepris pour mieux comprendre le comportement thermique et hydrodynamique des serpentins fonctionnant dans des conditions de givrage, l'effet des circuits de refrigerant ainsi que celui des parametres geometriques et d'operation. Pour cela, un travail theorique supporte par une etude experimentale a ete effectue

  4. Homogenized boundary conditions and resonance effects in Faraday cages

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, I. J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a mathematical study of two-dimensional electrostatic and electromagnetic shielding by a cage of conducting wires (the so-called ‘Faraday cage effect’). Taking the limit as the number of wires in the cage tends to infinity, we use the asymptotic method of multiple scales to derive continuum models for the shielding, involving homogenized boundary conditions on an effective cage boundary. We show how the resulting models depend on key cage parameters such as the size and shape of the wires, and, in the electromagnetic case, on the frequency and polarization of the incident field. In the electromagnetic case, there are resonance effects, whereby at frequencies close to the natural frequencies of the equivalent solid shell, the presence of the cage actually amplifies the incident field, rather than shielding it. By appropriately modifying the continuum model, we calculate the modified resonant frequencies, and their associated peak amplitudes. We discuss applications to radiation containment in microwave ovens and acoustic scattering by perforated shells. PMID:27279775

  5. Functions with constant Laplacian satisfying homogeneous Robin boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keady, Grant; McNabb, Alex

    1993-01-01

    The authors study properties of real-valued functions u defined over {Omega}, a simply-connected domain in RN for which the Laplacian of u is constant in {Omega}, and which satisfy, on the boundary of {Omega}, the Robin boundary condition u+{beta}({partial}u/{partial}n)=0. Here n is the outward normal and {beta}[≥]0. When N=2 and {beta}=0, this is the classical St Venant torsion problem, but the concern in this paper is with N[≥]2 and {beta}[≥]0. Results concerning the magnitude um and location zm of the maximum value of u, and estimates for the functional S{beta}={int}{Omega}u, and the maxima pm and qm of |{nabla}u| and |{partial}u/{partial}n|, respectively, are established using comparison theorems and variational arguments.

  6. Research of a boundary condition quantifiable correction method in the assembly homogenization

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, L. H.; Liu, Z. H.; Zhao, J.; Li, W. H.

    2012-07-01

    The methods and codes currently used in assembly homogenization calculation mostly adopt the reflection boundary conditions. The influences of real boundary conditions on the assembly homogenized parameters were analyzed. They were summarized into four quantifiable effects, and then the mathematical expressions could be got by linearization hypothesis. Through the calculation of a test model, it had been found that the result was close to transport calculation result when considering four boundary quantifiable effects. This method would greatly improve the precision of a core design code which using the assembly homogenization methods, but without much increase of the computing time. (authors)

  7. On the resolvent of multidimensional operators with frequently changing boundary conditions in the case of the homogenized Dirichlet condition

    SciTech Connect

    Sharapov, T F

    2014-10-31

    We consider an elliptic operator in a multidimensional domain with frequently changing boundary conditions in the case when the homogenized operator contains the Dirichlet boundary condition. We prove the uniform resolvent convergence of the perturbed operator to the homogenized operator and obtain estimates for the rate of convergence. A complete asymptotic expansion is constructed for the resolvent when it acts on sufficiently smooth functions. Bibliography: 41 titles.

  8. On the Effective Construction of Compactly Supported Wavelets Satisfying Homogenous Boundary Conditions on the Interval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiavassa, G.; Liandrat, J.

    1996-01-01

    We construct compactly supported wavelet bases satisfying homogeneous boundary conditions on the interval (0,1). The maximum features of multiresolution analysis on the line are retained, including polynomial approximation and tree algorithms. The case of H(sub 0)(sup 1)(0, 1)is detailed, and numerical values, required for the implementation, are provided for the Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions.

  9. Periodic solutions of the quasilinear equation of forced beam vibrations with homogeneous boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudakov, I. A.

    2015-10-01

    We prove the existence of a countable family of time-periodic solutions of the quasilinear equation of beam vibrations with homogeneous boundary conditions and time-periodic right-hand side in the case when the non-linear term has power growth.

  10. Necessary conditions for the existence of additional first integrals for Hamiltonian systems with homogeneous potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, Andrzej J.; Przybylska, Maria; Yoshida, Haruo

    2012-02-01

    We consider a natural Hamiltonian system of n degrees of freedom with a homogeneous potential. We assume that the system admits 1 <= m < n independent and commuting first integrals F1, ... Fm. We give easily computable and effective necessary conditions for the existence of one additional first integral Fm+1 such that all integrals F1, ...Fm+1 are independent, pairwise commute and are meromorphic in a connected neighbourhood of a certain phase curve. These conditions are obtained from an analysis of the differential Galois group of variational equations along a particular solution of the system. We apply our result analysing the problem of the existence of one additional first integral for a homogeneous nonlinear lattice on a line.

  11. Massive star evolution in close binaries. Conditions for homogeneous chemical evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, H. F.; Meynet, G.; Maeder, A.; Ekström, S.; Eggenberger, P.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: We investigate the impact of tidal interactions, before any mass transfer, on various properties of the stellar models. We study the conditions for obtaining homogeneous evolution triggered by tidal interactions, and for avoiding any Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) during the main-sequence phase. By homogeneous evolution, we mean stars evolving with a nearly uniform chemical composition from the centre to the surface. Methods: We consider the case of rotating stars computed with a strong core-envelope coupling mediated by an interior magnetic field. Models with initial masses between 15 and 60 M⊙, for metallicities between 0.002 and 0.014 and with initial rotation equal to 30% and 66% the critical rotation on the zero age main sequence, are computed for single stars and for stars in close binary systems. We consider close binary systems with initial orbital periods equal to 1.4, 1.6, and 1.8 days and a mass ratio equal to 3/2. Results: In models without any tidal interaction (single stars and wide binaries), homogeneous evolution in solid body rotating models is obtained when two conditions are realised: the initial rotation must be high enough, and the loss of angular momentum by stellar winds should be modest. This last point favours metal-poor fast rotating stars. In models with tidal interactions, homogeneous evolution is obtained when rotation imposed by synchronisation is high enough (typically a time-averaged surface velocities during the main-sequence phase above 250 km s-1), whatever the mass losses. We present plots that indicate for which masses of the primary and for which initial periods the conditions for the homogenous evolution and avoidance of the RLOF are met, for various initial metallicities and rotations. In close binaries, mixing is stronger at higher than at lower metallicities. Homogeneous evolution is thus favoured at higher metallicities. RLOF avoidance is favoured at lower metallicities because stars with less metals remain more

  12. Bragg band gaps tunability in an homogeneous piezoelectric rod with periodic electrical boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degraeve, S.; Granger, C.; Dubus, B.; Vasseur, J. O.; Pham Thi, M.; Hladky-Hennion, A.-C.

    2014-05-01

    An homogeneous piezoelectric rod is shown to exhibit Bragg band gaps when an electrical boundary condition is applied periodically with the help of metallic electrodes. An analytical model is developed which formulation depends on the applied electric boundary condition and reveals that Bragg band gaps occurring in this very peculiar phononic crystal are related to the electric charge located on the electrodes. Moreover, via an accurate boundary condition (electrodes connected in short circuit, in open circuit, or through an external capacitance), full tunability of the Bragg band gaps can be achieved. Measurements of ultrasonic transmission present an overall excellent agreement with the theoretical results. This phononic crystal can be easily manufactured and presents many potential applications as frequency filters especially for radio frequency telecommunications.

  13. Kovalevskaya exponents and the space of initial conditions of a quasi-homogeneous vector field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Hayato

    2015-12-01

    Formal series solutions and the Kovalevskaya exponents of a quasi-homogeneous polynomial system of differential equations are studied by means of a weighted projective space and dynamical systems theory. A necessary and sufficient condition for the series solution to be a convergent Laurent series is given, which improves the well-known Painlevé test. In particular, if a given system has the Painlevé property, an algorithm to construct Okamoto's space of initial conditions is given. The space of initial conditions is obtained by weighted blow-ups of the weighted projective space, where the weights for the blow-ups are determined by the Kovalevskaya exponents. The results are applied to the first Painlevé hierarchy (2m-th order first Painlevé equation).

  14. The Application of the Unified Homogeneous Periodical Boundary Conditions to the Prediction of Effective Elastic Stiffness in a Widespread Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dong; Yang, Hong; Luo, Dong-Mei

    2011-06-01

    Periodical boundary conditions (PBC) are important for the prediction of effective elastic stiffness of composites by applying the macro-microscopic asymptotic expansion homogenization method (HM). In this paper, two kinds of homogeneous periodical boundary conditions are proposed to satisfy the improved expression for the homogenized effective stiffness with the homogeneous characteristic function, and one is the relaxed periodical boundary condition, and the other is a precise polynomial derived from the first one. A typical example of the off-axis short-fiber reinforced composites is analyzed by the described procedure. The results show that the periodical boundary condition is not unique, and the relaxed periodic boundary condition is the simplest and most convenient method to guarantee periodical displacement and anti-periodical traction boundary conditions simultaneously in a widespread field with a unified form.

  15. Mixed boundary conditions for FFT-based homogenization at finite strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabel, Matthias; Fliegener, Sascha; Schneider, Matti

    2016-02-01

    In this article we introduce a Lippmann-Schwinger formulation for the unit cell problem of periodic homogenization of elasticity at finite strains incorporating arbitrary mixed boundary conditions. Such problems occur frequently, for instance when validating computational results with tensile tests, where the deformation gradient in loading direction is fixed, as is the stress in the corresponding orthogonal plane. Previous Lippmann-Schwinger formulations involving mixed boundary can only describe tensile tests where the vector of applied force is proportional to a coordinate direction. Utilizing suitable orthogonal projectors we develop a Lippmann-Schwinger framework for arbitrary mixed boundary conditions. The resulting fixed point and Newton-Krylov algorithms preserve the positive characteristics of existing FFT-algorithms. We demonstrate the power of the proposed methods with a series of numerical examples, including continuous fiber reinforced laminates and a complex nonwoven structure of a long fiber reinforced thermoplastic, resulting in a speed-up of some computations by a factor of 1000.

  16. Mechanistic studies of two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks rapidly polymerized from initially homogenous conditions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brian J; Dichtel, William R

    2014-06-18

    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are periodic two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) polymer networks with high surface areas, low densities, and designed structures. Despite intense interest in framework materials, the nucleation and growth processes of COFs, and even of more established metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), are poorly understood. The kinetics of COF growth under varied reaction conditions provides mechanistic insight needed to improve their crystallinity and rationally synthesize new materials. Such kinetic measurements are unprecedented and difficult to perform on typical heterogeneous COF reaction mixtures. Here we synthesize 2D boronate ester-linked COF-5 under conditions in which the monomers are fully soluble. These homogeneous growth conditions provide equal or better material quality compared to any previous report and enable the first rigorous studies of the early stages of COF growth. COF-5 forms within minutes, and the precipitation rate is readily quantified from optical turbidity measurements. COF-5 formation follows an Arrhenius temperature dependence between 60-90 °C with an activation energy of 22-27 kcal/mol. The measured rate law includes a second order in both boronic acid and catechol moieties, and inverse second order in MeOH concentration. A competitive monofunctional catechol slows COF-5 formation but does not redissolve already precipitated COF, indicating both dynamic covalent bond formation and irreversible precipitation. Finally, stoichiometric H2O provides a 4-fold increase in crystallite domain areas, representing the first rational link between reaction conditions and material quality. PMID:24892961

  17. Effects of sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide on mercury oxidation and reduction under homogeneous conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yongxin Zhao; Michael D. Mann; Edwin S. Olson; John H. Pavlish; Grant E. Dunham

    2006-05-15

    This paper is particularly related to elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation and divalent mercury (Hg{sup 2+} reduction under simulated flue gas conditions in the presence of nitric oxide (NO) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). As a powerful oxidant and chlorinating reagent, Cl{sub 2} has the potential for Hg oxidation. However, the detailed mechanism for the interactions, especially among chlorine (Cl)-containing species, SO{sub 2}, NO, as well as H{sub 2}O, remains ambiguous. Research described in this paper therefore focused on the impacts of SO{sub 2} and NO on Hg{sup 0} oxidation and Hg{sup 2+} reduction with the intent of unraveling unrecognized interactions among Cl species, SO{sub 2}, and NO most importantly in the presence of H{sub 2}O. The experimental results demonstrated that SO{sub 2} and NO had pronounced inhibitory effects on Hg{sup 0} oxidation at high temperatures when H{sub 2}O was also present in the gas blend. Such a demonstration was further confirmed by the reduction of Hg{sup 2+} back into its elemental form. Data revealed that SO{sub 2} and NO were capable of promoting homogeneous reduction of Hg{sup 2+} to Hg{sup 0} with H{sub 2}O being present. However, the above inhibition or promotion disappeared under homogeneous conditions when H{sub 2}O was removed from the gas blend. 23 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Water oxidation catalysis with nonheme iron complexes under acidic and basic conditions: homogeneous or heterogeneous?

    PubMed

    Hong, Dachao; Mandal, Sukanta; Yamada, Yusuke; Lee, Yong-Min; Nam, Wonwoo; Llobet, Antoni; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2013-08-19

    Thermal water oxidation by cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate (CAN) was catalyzed by nonheme iron complexes, such as Fe(BQEN)(OTf)2 (1) and Fe(BQCN)(OTf)2 (2) (BQEN = N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-bis(8-quinolyl)ethane-1,2-diamine, BQCN = N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-bis(8-quinolyl)cyclohexanediamine, OTf = CF3SO3(-)) in a nonbuffered aqueous solution; turnover numbers of 80 ± 10 and 20 ± 5 were obtained in the O2 evolution reaction by 1 and 2, respectively. The ligand dissociation of the iron complexes was observed under acidic conditions, and the dissociated ligands were oxidized by CAN to yield CO2. We also observed that 1 was converted to an iron(IV)-oxo complex during the water oxidation in competition with the ligand oxidation. In addition, oxygen exchange between the iron(IV)-oxo complex and H2(18)O was found to occur at a much faster rate than the oxygen evolution. These results indicate that the iron complexes act as the true homogeneous catalyst for water oxidation by CAN at low pHs. In contrast, light-driven water oxidation using [Ru(bpy)3](2+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) as a photosensitizer and S2O8(2-) as a sacrificial electron acceptor was catalyzed by iron hydroxide nanoparticles derived from the iron complexes under basic conditions as the result of the ligand dissociation. In a buffer solution (initial pH 9.0) formation of the iron hydroxide nanoparticles with a size of around 100 nm at the end of the reaction was monitored by dynamic light scattering (DLS) in situ and characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements. We thus conclude that the water oxidation by CAN was catalyzed by short-lived homogeneous iron complexes under acidic conditions, whereas iron hydroxide nanoparticles derived from iron complexes act as a heterogeneous catalyst in the light-driven water oxidation reaction under basic conditions. PMID:23895380

  19. How does the dehydration change the host-guest association under homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions?

    PubMed

    Filippini, G; Bonal, C; Malfreyt, P

    2014-05-14

    In this study, the thermodynamic properties of association of some inorganic ions (ClO4(-) and SO4(2-)) with β-cyclodextrins (β-CD) in aqueous solution are determined under both free β-CD and surface confined β-CD conditions using atomistic simulations. The potential of mean force (PMF) is calculated as a function of the environment and the thermodynamic properties of association are deduced by integrating the free energy profiles. No inclusion complex between SO4(2-) and β-CD is detected. Nevertheless, the PMF curve obtained for gold-confined CD seems to evidence a small minimum at a larger separation distance that shows specific interactions such as hydrogen bonding outside the cavity. As concerns ClO4(-), our simulations reveal the formation of an inclusion complex with free β-CD in perfect agreement with the available experimental results. Nevertheless, we do not detect any formation of the host-guest inclusion complex under heterogeneous conditions. Finally, the differences observed as a function of the anions are interpreted through an atomistic description. The general trend of weaker complex stabilities with the increasing free energy of hydration of the anions is found in homogeneous systems. PMID:24676343

  20. Multifrequency radiation diffusion equations for homogeneous, refractive, lossy media and their interface conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Shestakov, Aleksei I.

    2013-06-15

    We derive time-dependent multifrequency diffusion equations for homogeneous, refractive lossy media. The equations are applicable for a domain composed of several materials with distinct refractive indexes. In such applications, the fundamental radiation variable, the intensity I, is discontinuous across material interfaces. The diffusion equations evolve a variable ξ, the integral of I over all directions divided by the square of the refractive index. Attention is focused on boundary and internal interface conditions for ξ. For numerical solutions using finite elements, it is shown that at material interfaces, the usual diffusion coefficient 1/3κ of the multifrequency equation, where κ is the opacity, is modified by a tensor diffusion term consisting of integrals of the reflectivity. Numerical results are presented. For a single material simulation, the ξ equations yield the same result as diffusion equations that evolve the spectral radiation energy density. A second simulation solves a test problem that models radiation transport in a domain comprised of materials with different refractive indexes. Results qualitatively agree with those previously published.

  1. A study on the interaction between two rumors in homogeneous complex networks under symmetric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jie, Renlong; Qiao, Jian; Xu, Genjiu; Meng, Yingying

    2016-07-01

    The propagating dynamics of more than one rumor has received a substantial amount of attention in recent years. To investigate the effects of interactions between two rumors under symmetric conditions, we built a model based on an ordinary differential equation system while assuming that each individual's spreading rate after receiving one rumor depends on whether he/she knows the other rumor. In certain cases, two rumors accelerate the spread of each other, while in a portion of the other cases they impede or decelerate the spread of each other. We discuss these effects by dividing the total population into nine groups that correspond to nine states, and we subsequently build the mean-field equations for the two-rumor interaction based on the SIR model in a homogeneous complex network, and we find their numerical solution with varying interaction factors for the rates of spreading and becoming disinterested. The results show that when we change these interaction factors, the density curves of the nine states and their maximum values will change accordingly by a series of rules, which demonstrates the corresponding effects when there is a positive or negative interaction between the two rumors. Our work could establish a foundation for further study of this issue.

  2. Production of starch nanoparticles using normal maize starch via heat-moisture treatment under mildly acidic conditions and homogenization.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Young; Kim, Min-Jung; Cho, MyoungLae; Lee, Ju Hun; Kim, Jong-Yea

    2016-10-20

    Normal maize starch was subjected to heat-moisture treatment (HMT) under mildly acidic conditions (0.000, 0.050, or 0.075M H2SO4) for various treatment times (3, 5, or 8h) followed by homogenization up to 60min to prepare nanoparticles. The combination of HMT (0.075M, for 8h) and homogenization (60min) produced nanoparticles with diameters of less than 50nm at a yield higher than 80%. X-ray diffractometry and size-exclusion chromatography revealed that HMT under mildly acidic conditions selectively hydrolyzed the starch chains (especially amylose and/or long chains of amylopectin) in the amorphous region of the granules without significant damage to the crystalline structure, however, modification of the molecular structure in the amorphous region increased fragility of the granules during homogenization. Homogenization for 60min caused obvious damage in the long-range crystalline structure of the HMT starch (0.15N, for 8h), while the short-range chain associations (FT-IR) remained intact. PMID:27474568

  3. Characteristics of Spatiotemporally Homogenized Boundary Layers at Atmospheric Reentry-like Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulerich, Rhys; Moser, Robert

    2014-11-01

    Turbulent boundary layers approximating those found on the NASA Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle thermal protection system during atmospheric reentry from the International Space Station have been studied by direct numerical simulation using a ``slow growth'' spatiotemporal homogenization approach recently developed by Topalian et al. The two data sets generated were Mae ~ 0 . 9 and 1 . 15 homogenized boundary layers possessing Reθ ~ 382 and 531, respectively. Edge-to-wall temperature ratios were approximately 4.15 and wall blowing velocities, vw+ =vw /uτ , were roughly 8 ×10-3 . The favorable pressure gradients had Pohlhausen parameters between 25 and 42. Nusselt numbers under 22 were observed. Small or negative displacement effects are evident. Near-wall vorticity fluctuations show qualitatively different profiles than observed by Spalart [J. Fluid Mech. 187 (1988)] or Guarini et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 414 (2000)] suggesting that the simulations have atypical structures perhaps as a consequence of wall blowing or the homogenization. This material is based in part upon work supported by the Department of Energy [National Nuclear Security Administration] under Award Number [DE-FC52-08NA28615].

  4. Influence of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose addition and homogenization conditions on properties and ageing of corn starch based films.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Alberto; Fabra, María José; Talens, Pau; Chiralt, Amparo

    2012-06-20

    Edible films based on corn starch, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and their mixtures were prepared by using two different procedures to homogenize the film forming dispersions (rotor-stator and rotor-stator plus microfluidizer). The influence of both HPMC-starch ratio and the homogenization method on the structural, optical, tensile and barrier properties of the films was analysed. The ageing of the films was also studied by characterizing them after 5 weeks' storage. Starch re-crystallization in newly prepared and stored films was analysed by means of X-ray diffraction. HPMC-corn starch films showed phase separation of polymers, which was enhanced when microfluidization was applied to the film forming dispersion. Nevertheless, HPMC addition inhibited starch re-crystallization during storage, giving rise to more flexible films at the end of the period. Water barrier properties of starch films were hardly affected by the addition of HPMC, although oxygen permeability increased due to its poorer oxygen barrier properties. PMID:24750773

  5. Porcine liver decellularization under oscillating pressure conditions: a technical refinement to improve the homogeneity of the decellularization process.

    PubMed

    Struecker, Benjamin; Hillebrandt, Karl Herbert; Voitl, Robert; Butter, Antje; Schmuck, Rosa B; Reutzel-Selke, Anja; Geisel, Dominik; Joehrens, Korinna; Pickerodt, Philipp A; Raschzok, Nathanael; Puhl, Gero; Neuhaus, Peter; Pratschke, Johann; Sauer, Igor M

    2015-03-01

    Decellularization and recellularization of parenchymal organs may facilitate the generation of autologous functional liver organoids by repopulation of decellularized porcine liver matrices with induced liver cells. We present an accelerated (7 h overall perfusion time) and effective protocol for human-scale liver decellularization by pressure-controlled perfusion with 1% Triton X-100 and 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate via the hepatic artery (120 mmHg) and portal vein (60 mmHg). In addition, we analyzed the effect of oscillating pressure conditions on pig liver decellularization (n=19). The proprietary perfusion device used to generate these pressure conditions mimics intra-abdominal conditions during respiration to optimize microperfusion within livers and thus optimize the homogeneity of the decellularization process. The efficiency of perfusion decellularization was analyzed by macroscopic observation, histological staining (hematoxylin and eosin [H&E], Sirius red, and alcian blue), immunohistochemical staining (collagen IV, laminin, and fibronectin), and biochemical assessment (DNA, collagen, and glycosaminoglycans) of decellularized liver matrices. The integrity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) postdecellularization was visualized by corrosion casting and three-dimensional computed tomography scanning. We found that livers perfused under oscillating pressure conditions (P(+)) showed a more homogenous course of decellularization and contained less DNA compared with livers perfused without oscillating pressure conditions (P(-)). Microscopically, livers from the (P(-)) group showed remnant cell clusters, while no cells were found in livers from the (P(+)) group. The grade of disruption of the ECM was higher in livers from the (P(-)) group, although the perfusion rates and pressure did not significantly differ. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that important matrix components were still present after decellularization. Corrosion casting showed an intact

  6. Homogenization of Environmental Condition and Benthic Communities in Restored Streams of the North Carolina Piedmont.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tullos, D. D.; Penrose, D. L.; Jennings, G. D.; Wentworth, T. R.

    2005-05-01

    Stream ecosystems, as described through benthic communities and twenty environmental variables, exhibited decreased variances and reduced ordinal dimensionality in restored streams when compared to associated upstream reaches in this upstream-downstream investigation of stream restoration in the North Carolina Piedmont. Through paired t-tests of the environmental variables and several descriptions of community structure and function, the variance for restored stream reaches was lower than the upstream reaches for 70% of environmental characteristics, for 75% of Functional Feeding and Habitat Groups, and for all of the community descriptions, including the Q statistic, Shannon Index, Simpson Index, EPT taxa richness, and NCBI. Further, Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling of the sites best expressed the upstream reaches on three axes, while the restored stream reaches required only one axis to effectively describe variation in the benthic communities. These results suggest that simplification of the biota may occur following steam restoration activities, indicating the biological losses associated with early recovery in these streams. While the science of stream restoration has advanced since the early construction and implementation at these sites, the consequential homogenization demonstrated by these biotic and abiotic stream corridor features emphasizes the importance of a concentrated effort to re-establish heterogeneity in restoration designs.

  7. Unraveling the microscopic pathway of homogeneous water crystallization at supercooled conditions from direct simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martelli, Fausto; Palmer, Jeremy; Singh, Rakesh; Debenedetti, Pablo; Car, Roberto

    By means of unbiased classical molecular dynamics simulations, we identify the microscopic pathways of spontaneous homogeneous crystallization in supercooled ST2 water. By introducing a new order parameter, we are able to monitor formation/disruption of locally ordered regions characterized by small ice clusters with intermediate range order. When two of these regions are close each other, they percolate and form a larger ordered region. The process is slow enough to allow for polymorphic selection in favor of cubic ice (Ic). The formation of an ice nucleus requires percolation of many small clusters so that the transformations at the interface of the nucleus do not involve its core, thus guaranteeing the stability of the nucleus. The growth of the crystalline nucleus is fast and involves direct transformation of interfacial liquid molecules as well as percolation of small Ic/Ih clusters. The growth is too fast to allow conversion of Ih into Ic sites, originating the formation of a stacking fault in the final crystal. We recognize Euclidean structures in the oxygen configuration of the second shell in Ic and Ih clusters. This new point of view allows us to explain the source of the ordered stacking fault geometry.

  8. Conditions for invariant spectrum of light generated by scattering of partially coherent wave from quasi-homogeneous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia; Wu, Pinghui; Chang, Liping

    2016-02-01

    Within the first-order Born approximation, the spectrum of light generated by the scattering of a partially coherent wave from a quasi-homogeneous (QH) medium is derived. In particular, the partially coherent incident wave is produced by Young's pinholes. It is shown that the spectrum of the scattered field is identical to the spectrum of incident plane waves if the Fourier transform of the normalized correlation coefficient (NCC) of the scattering potential satisfies a certain scaling law. The scaling law is valid when the medium size is sufficiently small compared with the space between Young' pinholes. Furthermore, comparisons are made between our conditions with the previous results.

  9. Effects of Long-Term Simulated Martian Conditions on a Freeze-Dried and Homogenized Bacterial Permafrost Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Aviaja A.; Jenson, Lars L.; Kristoffersen, Tommy; Mikkelsen, Karina; Merrison, Jonathan; Finster, Kai W.; Lomstein, Bente Aa.

    2009-03-01

    Indigenous bacteria and biomolecules (DNA and proteins) in a freeze-dried and homogenized Arctic permafrost were exposed to simulated martian conditions that correspond to about 80 days on the surface of Mars with respect to the accumulated UV dose. The simulation conditions included UV radiation, freeze-thaw cycles, the atmospheric gas composition, and pressure. The homogenized permafrost cores were subjected to repeated cycles of UV radiation for 3 h followed by 27 h without irradiation. The effects of the simulation conditions on the concentrations of biomolecules; numbers of viable, dead, and cultured bacteria; as well as the community structure were determined. Simulated martian conditions resulted in a significant reduction of the concentrations of DNA and amino acids in the uppermost 1.5 mm of the soil core. The total number of bacterial cells was reduced in the upper 9 mm of the soil core, while the number of viable cells was reduced in the upper 15 mm. The number of cultured aerobic bacteria was reduced in the upper 6 mm of the soil core, whereas the community structure of cultured anaerobic bacteria was relatively unaffected by the exposure conditions. As explanations for the observed changes, we propose three causes that might have been working on the biological material either individually or synergistically: (i) UV radiation, (ii) UV-generated reactive oxygen species, and (iii) freeze-thaw cycles. Currently, the production and action of reactive gases is only hypothetical and will be a central subject in future investigations. Overall, we conclude that in a stable environment (no wind-/pressure-induced mixing) biological material is efficiently shielded by a 2 cm thick layer of dust, while it is relatively rapidly destroyed in the surface layer, and that biomolecules like proteins and polynucleotides are more resistant to destruction than living biota.

  10. Determination of protein carbonyls in plasma, cell extracts, tissue homogenates, isolated proteins: Focus on sample preparation and derivatization conditions

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Daniela; Davies, Michael J.; Grune, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    Protein oxidation is involved in regulatory physiological events as well as in damage to tissues and is thought to play a key role in the pathophysiology of diseases and in the aging process. Protein-bound carbonyls represent a marker of global protein oxidation, as they are generated by multiple different reactive oxygen species in blood, tissues and cells. Sample preparation and stabilization are key steps in the accurate quantification of oxidation-related products and examination of physiological/pathological processes. This review therefore focuses on the sample preparation processes used in the most relevant methods to detect protein carbonyls after derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine with an emphasis on measurement in plasma, cells, organ homogenates, isolated proteins and organelles. Sample preparation, derivatization conditions and protein handling are presented for the spectrophotometric and HPLC method as well as for immunoblotting and ELISA. An extensive overview covering these methods in previously published articles is given for researchers who plan to measure protein carbonyls in different samples. PMID:26141921

  11. Scale-wise coherent vorticity extraction for conditional statistical modeling of homogeneous isotropic two-dimensional turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen van yen, Romain; Farge, Marie; Schneider, Kai

    2012-02-01

    Classical statistical theories of turbulence have shown their limitations, in that they cannot predict much more than the energy spectrum in an idealized setting of statistical homogeneity and stationarity. We explore the applicability of a conditional statistical modeling approach: can we sort out what part of the information should be kept, and what part should be modeled statistically, or, in other words, “dissipated”? Our mathematical framework is the initial value problem for the two-dimensional (2D) Euler equations, which we approximate numerically by solving the 2D Navier-Stokes equations in the vanishing viscosity limit. In order to obtain a good approximation of the inviscid dynamics, we use a spectral method and a resolution going up to 8192 2. We introduce a macroscopic concept of dissipation, relying on a split of the flow between coherent and incoherent contributions: the coherent flow is constructed from the large wavelet coefficients of the vorticity field, and the incoherent flow from the small ones. In previous work, a unique threshold was applied to all wavelet coefficients, while here we also consider the effect of a scale by scale thresholding algorithm, called scale-wise coherent vorticity extraction. We study the statistical properties of the coherent and incoherent vorticity fields, and the transfers of enstrophy between them, and then use these results to propose, within a maximum entropy framework, a simple model for the incoherent vorticity. In the framework of this model, we show that the flow velocity can be predicted accurately in the L2 norm for about 10 eddy turnover times.

  12. A detailed experimental study of the flow in the vicinity of the slotted wall of a wind tunnel with applications to the homogeneous slotted-wall boundary condition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everhart, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of the flow in the vicinity of the slotted wall of a transonic wind tunnel are presented. A general description of the test setup and the wall configurations studied are given as are examples of the pressure data measured on the airfoil and the walls of the tunnel. The flow angles measured in the vicinity of the slot are examined with implications as to their use in the theory of homogeneous slotted walls. Preliminary values of the classical, homogeneous, slotted-wall boundary-condition coefficient are given and compared with theory.

  13. Spectral Quasi-linearization Method for Homogeneous-Heterogeneous Reactions on Nonlinear Convection Flow of Micropolar Fluid Saturated Porous Medium with Convective Boundary Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    RamReddy, Chetteti; Pradeepa, Teegala

    2016-05-01

    Based on the nonlinear variation of density with temperature (NDT) in the buoyancy term, the mixed convection flow along a vertical plate of a micropolar fluid saturated porous medium is considered. In addition, the effect of homogeneous-heterogeneous reaction and convective boundary condition has been taken into account. Using lie scaling group transformations, the similarity representation is attained for the system of partial differential equations, prior to being solved by a spectral quasilinearization method. The results show that in the presence of aiding and opposing flow situations, both the species concentration and mass transfer rate decreases when the strength of homogeneous and heterogeneous reaction parameters are enhanced.

  14. The effects of late homogenization conditions on the Mg2Si particle size in a slow pre-heated 6063 aluminum extrusion billet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayıkcı, R.; Kocaman, E.; Şirin, S.; ćolak, M.

    2015-03-01

    In order to investigate the effect of late homogenization conditions on the Mg2Si precipitation of 6063 grade extrusion billets are slow pre-heated to intentionally have large Mg2Si particle precipitation. Then the billets are water quenched to preserve this microstructure for late homogenizations. Finally billets are re-heated using two different furnace temperature as 450°C and 500°C at which temperatures the billet are held for 0.5 h, 1 h, 1.5 h, 2 h and 2.5 h periods and water quenched before being taken to metallographic examinations.

  15. Kinetic behaviour of acid phosphatase-albumin co-polymers in homogeneous phase and under gel-immobilized conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Cantarella, M; Remy, M H; Scardi, V; Alfani, F; Iorio, G; Greco, G

    1979-01-01

    1. An analysis of the kinetic behaviour of immobilized acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) layers, gelled on the active surface of an ultrafiltration membrane, was carried out. 2. Two possible forms of such immobilized-enzyme systems were dealt with, namely enzyme-polyalbumin co-gelation through an ultrafiltration process, and enzyme co-polymerization to the same albumin polymers and subsequent gelation. 3. A preliminary analysis was also performed on both the corresponding homogeneous-phase (soluble systems to provide reference kinetics. 4. The main conclusions drawn are: (i) the enzyme-albumin co-polymers show a decrease in specific activity compared with the corresponding free enzyme in both soluble and immobilized forms; (ii) in the homogeneous phase a slight increase in the apparent Michaelis constant was measured for the co-polymerized enzyme compared with the free one, which suggests a decrease in affinity towards substrate; (iii) the activation energy in the immobilized phase is halved, compared with that in the homogeneous phase, which indicates that the combined mass-transfer/reaction step is rate-controlling. PMID:475752

  16. Homogeneity Pursuit

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Tracy; Fan, Jianqing; Wu, Yichao

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the homogeneity of coefficients in high-dimensional regression, which extends the sparsity concept and is more general and suitable for many applications. Homogeneity arises when regression coefficients corresponding to neighboring geographical regions or a similar cluster of covariates are expected to be approximately the same. Sparsity corresponds to a special case of homogeneity with a large cluster of known atom zero. In this article, we propose a new method called clustering algorithm in regression via data-driven segmentation (CARDS) to explore homogeneity. New mathematics are provided on the gain that can be achieved by exploring homogeneity. Statistical properties of two versions of CARDS are analyzed. In particular, the asymptotic normality of our proposed CARDS estimator is established, which reveals better estimation accuracy for homogeneous parameters than that without homogeneity exploration. When our methods are combined with sparsity exploration, further efficiency can be achieved beyond the exploration of sparsity alone. This provides additional insights into the power of exploring low-dimensional structures in high-dimensional regression: homogeneity and sparsity. Our results also shed lights on the properties of the fussed Lasso. The newly developed method is further illustrated by simulation studies and applications to real data. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. PMID:26085701

  17. Hysteresis in the nonmonotonic electric response of homogeneous and layered unconsolidated sands under continuous flow conditions with water of various salinities, 100 kHz to 2 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavian, M.; Slob, E. C.; Mulder, W. A.

    2011-08-01

    We measured the electric parameters for four different configurations of unconsolidated homogeneous and layered sands as a function of frequency, water saturation, and salinity under fluid flow conditions. Our objective is to determine if the effect of heterogeneities at scales much smaller than the skin depth can be captured by introducing effective frequency-dependent electrical values whose behavior can be described by simple functions. We employed the parallel plate capacitor technique to measure the complex impedance over a broad frequency range, from 100 kHz up to 3 MHz. We conducted main drainage and secondary imbibition cycles at atmospheric pressure and temperatures between 21°C and 22°C. The hysteretic effect in the real part of the effective complex permittivity at higher concentrations of NaCl is more pronounced for the homogeneous configurations than for the heterogeneous samples. Effective medium theory works well for dry and saturated layered sand, when the NaCl solution concentration is 1 mmol/l. It fails for fully saturated layered sands at salinities of 10 mmol/l or more. It also does not work for partially saturated sands, independent of salinity. A description of the electric properties of a layered sand at all saturation levels by means of an effective homogeneous medium will therefore require a dependence on frequency, saturation level, and salinity of the pore fluid. An extended version of the Cole-Cole model fits the nonmonotonic behavior of the real part of permittivity versus saturation.

  18. Use of SOM networks for delineating hydrologically homogeneous regions in ungauged conditions: application to the Italian watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Elena

    2010-05-01

    For many hydrological applications, and in particular for regionalisation procedures, it is needed to identify catchments that are sufficiently similar to the target catchment to provide a basis for information transfer. The choice of the similar catchments is based on some similarity measure, which may be based on geographical proximity but also on other attributes representing the variables that dominate the main hydrological processes. This work presents the results of the implementation of unsupervised neural networks of the Self Organising Maps (SOM) type (or Kohonen networks) for the identification of hydrologically similar watersheds, on the basis of the homogeneity of some attributes characterising the streamflow generation processes. An extended data base of information on the principal Italian watersheds, from Sicily and Sardinia up to the Alps, is available for the analysis. The data base is formed by attributes describing the watersheds from the geographical, physiographic, climatic and soil use/type points of view: such attributes are independent from the availability of hydrometric measures in the closure section of the catchments and may therefore be used for characterising also ungauged catchments. In addition, the data base includes also hydrometric measures, that may be used to verify if the ungauged characterisation of the watersheds is well-founded also when considering the actual measures of streamflow. A SOM network is implemented with the objective to get a set of disjoint clusters containing all the case study watersheds: each cluster is formed by similar catchments, according to the available descriptors, but the topology of the SOM output layer allows also the identification of the similarity among the classes, so that larger regions may be obtained by merging the most similar classes. The possibility to identify such larger regions may be extremely useful especially in the cases in which the small dimension of the original classes does

  19. Effect of Boundary Conditions on the Axial Compression Buckling of Homogeneous Orthotropic Composite Cylinders in the Long Column Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.; Nemeth, Michael P.; Oremont, Leonard; Jegley, Dawn C.

    2011-01-01

    Buckling loads for long isotropic and laminated cylinders are calculated based on Euler, Fluegge and Donnell's equations. Results from these methods are presented using simple parameters useful for fundamental design work. Buckling loads for two types of simply supported boundary conditions are calculated using finite element methods for comparison to select cases of the closed form solution. Results indicate that relying on Donnell theory can result in an over-prediction of buckling loads by as much as 40% in isotropic materials.

  20. On the Importance of Processing Conditions for the Nutritional Characteristics of Homogenized Composite Meals Intended for Infants.

    PubMed

    Östman, Elin; Forslund, Anna; Tareke, Eden; Björck, Inger

    2016-01-01

    The nutritional quality of infant food is an important consideration in the effort to prevent a further increase in the rate of childhood obesity. We hypothesized that the canning of composite infant meals would lead to elevated contents of carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) and favor high glycemic and insulinemic responses compared with milder heat treatment conditions. We have compared composite infant pasta Bolognese meals that were either conventionally canned (CANPBol), or prepared by microwave cooking (MWPBol). A meal where the pasta and Bolognese sauce were separate during microwave cooking (MWP_CANBol) was also included. The infant meals were tested at breakfast in healthy adults using white wheat bread (WWB) as reference. A standardized lunch meal was served at 240 min and blood was collected from fasting to 360 min after breakfast. The 2-h glucose response (iAUC) was lower following the test meals than with WWB. The insulin response was lower after the MWP_CANBol (-47%, p = 0.0000) but markedly higher after CANPBol (+40%, p = 0.0019), compared with WWB. A combined measure of the glucose and insulin responses (ISIcomposite) revealed that MWP_CANBol resulted in 94% better insulin sensitivity than CANPBol. Additionally, the separate processing of the meal components in MWP_CANBol resulted in 39% lower CML levels than the CANPBol. It was therefore concluded that intake of commercially canned composite infant meals leads to reduced postprandial insulin sensitivity and increased exposure to oxidative stress promoting agents. PMID:27271662

  1. On the Importance of Processing Conditions for the Nutritional Characteristics of Homogenized Composite Meals Intended for Infants

    PubMed Central

    Östman, Elin; Forslund, Anna; Tareke, Eden; Björck, Inger

    2016-01-01

    The nutritional quality of infant food is an important consideration in the effort to prevent a further increase in the rate of childhood obesity. We hypothesized that the canning of composite infant meals would lead to elevated contents of carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) and favor high glycemic and insulinemic responses compared with milder heat treatment conditions. We have compared composite infant pasta Bolognese meals that were either conventionally canned (CANPBol), or prepared by microwave cooking (MWPBol). A meal where the pasta and Bolognese sauce were separate during microwave cooking (MWP_CANBol) was also included. The infant meals were tested at breakfast in healthy adults using white wheat bread (WWB) as reference. A standardized lunch meal was served at 240 min and blood was collected from fasting to 360 min after breakfast. The 2-h glucose response (iAUC) was lower following the test meals than with WWB. The insulin response was lower after the MWP_CANBol (−47%, p = 0.0000) but markedly higher after CANPBol (+40%, p = 0.0019), compared with WWB. A combined measure of the glucose and insulin responses (ISIcomposite) revealed that MWP_CANBol resulted in 94% better insulin sensitivity than CANPBol. Additionally, the separate processing of the meal components in MWP_CANBol resulted in 39% lower CML levels than the CANPBol. It was therefore concluded that intake of commercially canned composite infant meals leads to reduced postprandial insulin sensitivity and increased exposure to oxidative stress promoting agents. PMID:27271662

  2. ETUDE - European Trade Union Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creanor, Linda; Walker, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Describes transnational distance learning activities among European trade union educators carried out as part of the European Trade Union Distance Education (ETUDE) project, supported by the European Commission. Highlights include the context of international trade union distance education; tutor training course; tutors' experiences; and…

  3. Homogeneous and inhomogeneous eddies

    SciTech Connect

    Pavia, E.G.

    1994-12-31

    This work deals with mesoscale warm oceanic eddies; i.e., self-contained bodies of water which transport heat, among other things, for several months and for several hundreds of kilometers. This heat transport is believed to play an important role in the atmospheric and oceanic conditions of the region where it is being transported. Here the author examines the difference in evolution between eddies modeled as blobs of homogeneous water and eddies in which density varies in the horizontal. Preliminary results suggest that instability is enhanced by inhomogeneities, which would imply that traditional modeling studies, based on homogeneous vortices have underestimated the rate of heat-release from oceanic eddies to the surroundings. The approach is modeling in the simplest form; i.e., one single active layer. Although previous studies have shown the drastic effect on stability brought by two or more dynamically-relevant homogeneous layers, the author believes the single-layer eddy-model has not been investigated thoroughly.

  4. HOMOGENEOUS NUCLEAR POWER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    King, L.D.P.

    1959-09-01

    A homogeneous nuclear power reactor utilizing forced circulation of the liquid fuel is described. The reactor does not require fuel handling outside of the reactor vessel during any normal operation including complete shutdown to room temperature, the reactor being selfregulating under extreme operating conditions and controlled by the thermal expansion of the liquid fuel. The liquid fuel utilized is a uranium, phosphoric acid, and water solution which requires no gus exhaust system or independent gas recombining system, thereby eliminating the handling of radioiytic gas.

  5. Mechanical homogenization increases bacterial homogeneity in sputum.

    PubMed

    Stokell, Joshua R; Khan, Ammad; Steck, Todd R

    2014-07-01

    Sputum obtained from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is highly viscous and often heterogeneous in bacterial distribution. Adding dithiothreitol (DTT) is the standard method for liquefaction prior to processing sputum for molecular detection assays. To determine if DTT treatment homogenizes the bacterial distribution within sputum, we measured the difference in mean total bacterial abundance and abundance of Burkholderia multivorans between aliquots of DTT-treated sputum samples with and without a mechanical homogenization (MH) step using a high-speed dispersing element. Additionally, we measured the effect of MH on bacterial abundance. We found a significant difference between the mean bacterial abundances in aliquots that were subjected to only DTT treatment and those of the aliquots which included an MH step (all bacteria, P = 0.04; B. multivorans, P = 0.05). There was no significant effect of MH on bacterial abundance in sputum. Although our results are from a single CF patient, they indicate that mechanical homogenization increases the homogeneity of bacteria in sputum. PMID:24759710

  6. Is the Universe homogeneous?

    PubMed

    Maartens, Roy

    2011-12-28

    The standard model of cosmology is based on the existence of homogeneous surfaces as the background arena for structure formation. Homogeneity underpins both general relativistic and modified gravity models and is central to the way in which we interpret observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and the galaxy distribution. However, homogeneity cannot be directly observed in the galaxy distribution or CMB, even with perfect observations, since we observe on the past light cone and not on spatial surfaces. We can directly observe and test for isotropy, but to link this to homogeneity we need to assume the Copernican principle (CP). First, we discuss the link between isotropic observations on the past light cone and isotropic space-time geometry: what observations do we need to be isotropic in order to deduce space-time isotropy? Second, we discuss what we can say with the Copernican assumption. The most powerful result is based on the CMB: the vanishing of the dipole, quadrupole and octupole of the CMB is sufficient to impose homogeneity. Real observations lead to near-isotropy on large scales--does this lead to near-homogeneity? There are important partial results, and we discuss why this remains a difficult open question. Thus, we are currently unable to prove homogeneity of the Universe on large scales, even with the CP. However, we can use observations of the cosmic microwave background, galaxies and clusters to test homogeneity itself. PMID:22084298

  7. Theoretical nitric oxide production incidental to autoignition and combustion of several fuels homogeneously dispersed in air under some typical hypersonic flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahn, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    A reaction package of 100 chemical reactions and attendant reaction rate constants defined for the autoignition and combustion of four carbonaceous fuels, CH4, CH3OH, C2H6, and C2H5OH. Definition of the package was made primarily by means of comparison between trial calculations and experimental data for the autoignition of CH4. Autoignition and combustion of each of these four fuels was calculated under three sets of conditions realistic for hypersonic flight applications, for comparison to hydrogen fuel, particularly with respect to formation of nitric oxide. Results show that, for all of the fuels including hydrogen, if NO production is a significant problem, compromise must be made between approaching equilibrium heat release and approaching equilibrium NO concentration.

  8. Nonstationary homogeneous nucleation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harstad, K. G.

    1974-01-01

    The theory of homogeneous condensation is reviewed and equations describing this process are presented. Numerical computer solutions to transient problems in nucleation (relaxation to steady state) are presented and compared to a prior computation.

  9. On homogeneous Einstein (α , β) -metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zaili; Deng, Shaoqiang

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we study homogeneous Einstein (α , β) -metrics. First, we deduce a formula for Ricci curvature of a homogeneous (α , β) -metric. Based on this formula, we obtain a sufficient and necessary condition for a compact homogeneous (α , β) -metric to be Einstein and with vanishing S-curvature. Moreover, we prove that any homogeneous Ricci flat (α , β) space with vanishing S-curvature must be a Minkowski space. Finally, we consider left invariant Einstein (α , β) -metrics on Lie groups with negative Ricci constant. Under some appropriate conditions, we show that the underlying Lie groups must be two step solvable. We also present a more convenient sufficient and necessary condition for the metric to be Einstein in this special case.

  10. Homogeneity and Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tignanelli, H. L.; Vazquez, R. A.; Mostaccio, C.; Gordillo, S.; Plastino, A.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Presentamos una metodologia de analisis de la homogeneidad a partir de la Teoria de la Informaci6n, aplicable a muestras de datos observacionales. ABSTRACT:Standard concepts that underlie Information Theory are employed in order design a methodology that enables one to analyze the homogeneity of a given data sample. Key : DATA ANALYSIS

  11. Noncommutative complex structures on quantum homogeneous spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ó Buachalla, Réamonn

    2016-01-01

    A new framework for noncommutative complex geometry on quantum homogeneous spaces is introduced. The main ingredients used are covariant differential calculi and Takeuchi's categorical equivalence for quantum homogeneous spaces. A number of basic results are established, producing a simple set of necessary and sufficient conditions for noncommutative complex structures to exist. Throughout, the framework is applied to the quantum projective spaces endowed with the Heckenberger-Kolb calculus.

  12. Strictly homogeneous laterally complete modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilin, V. I.; Karimov, J. A.

    2016-03-01

    Let A be a laterally complete commutative regular algebra and X be a laterally complete A-module. In this paper we introduce a notion of homogeneous and strictly homogeneous A-modules. It is proved that any homogeneous A-module is strictly homogeneous A-module, if the Boolean algebra of all idempotents in A is multi-σ-finite.

  13. Homogenization method based on the inverse problem

    SciTech Connect

    Tota, A.; Makai, M.

    2013-07-01

    We present a method for deriving homogeneous multi-group cross sections to replace a heterogeneous region's multi-group cross sections; providing that the fluxes and the currents on the external boundary, and the region averaged fluxes are preserved. The method is developed using diffusion approximation to the neutron transport equation in a symmetrical slab geometry. Assuming that the boundary fluxes are given, two response matrices (RMs) can be defined. The first derives the boundary current from the boundary flux, the second derives the flux integral over the region from the boundary flux. Assuming that these RMs are known, we present a formula which reconstructs the multi-group cross-section matrix and the diffusion coefficients from the RMs of a homogeneous slab. Applying this formula to the RMs of a slab with multiple homogeneous regions yields a homogenization method; which produce such homogenized multi-group cross sections and homogenized diffusion coefficients, that the fluxes and the currents on the external boundary, and the region averaged fluxes are preserved. The method is based on the determination of the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors of the RMs. We reproduce the four-group cross section matrix and the diffusion constants from the RMs in numerical examples. We give conditions for replacing a heterogeneous region by a homogeneous one so that the boundary current and the region-averaged flux are preserved for a given boundary flux. (authors)

  14. Heterogeneous nucleation or homogeneous nucleation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X. Y.

    2000-06-01

    The generic heterogeneous effect of foreign particles on three dimensional nucleation was examined both theoretically and experimentally. It shows that the nucleation observed under normal conditions includes a sequence of progressive heterogeneous processes, characterized by different interfacial correlation function f(m,x)s. At low supersaturations, nucleation will be controlled by the process with a small interfacial correlation function f(m,x), which results from a strong interaction and good structural match between the foreign bodies and the crystallizing phase. At high supersaturations, nucleation on foreign particles having a weak interaction and poor structural match with the crystallizing phase (f(m,x)→1) will govern the kinetics. This frequently leads to the false identification of homogeneous nucleation. Genuine homogeneous nucleation, which is the up-limit of heterogeneous nucleation, may not be easily achievable under gravity. In order to check these results, the prediction is confronted with nucleation experiments of some organic and inorganic crystals. The results are in excellent agreement with the theory.

  15. Homogeneous quantum electrodynamic turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1992-01-01

    The electromagnetic field equations and Dirac equations for oppositely charged wave functions are numerically time-integrated using a spatial Fourier method. The numerical approach used, a spectral transform technique, is based on a continuum representation of physical space. The coupled classical field equations contain a dimensionless parameter which sets the strength of the nonlinear interaction (as the parameter increases, interaction volume decreases). For a parameter value of unity, highly nonlinear behavior in the time-evolution of an individual wave function, analogous to ideal fluid turbulence, is observed. In the truncated Fourier representation which is numerically implemented here, the quantum turbulence is homogeneous but anisotropic and manifests itself in the nonlinear evolution of equilibrium modal spatial spectra for the probability density of each particle and also for the electromagnetic energy density. The results show that nonlinearly interacting fermionic wave functions quickly approach a multi-mode, dynamic equilibrium state, and that this state can be determined by numerical means.

  16. HOMOGENEOUS NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, R.P.; Busey, H.M.

    1959-02-17

    Nuclear reactors of the homogeneous liquid fuel type are discussed. The reactor is comprised of an elongated closed vessel, vertically oriented, having a critical region at the bottom, a lower chimney structure extending from the critical region vertically upwardly and surrounded by heat exchanger coils, to a baffle region above which is located an upper chimney structure containing a catalyst functioning to recombine radiolyticallydissociated moderator gages. In operation the liquid fuel circulates solely by convection from the critical region upwardly through the lower chimney and then downwardly through the heat exchanger to return to the critical region. The gases formed by radiolytic- dissociation of the moderator are carried upwardly with the circulating liquid fuel and past the baffle into the region of the upper chimney where they are recombined by the catalyst and condensed, thence returning through the heat exchanger to the critical region.

  17. Homogeneous quantum electrodynamic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Shebalin, J.V.

    1992-10-01

    The electromagnetic field equations and Dirac equations for oppositely charged wave functions are numerically time-integrated using a spatial Fourier method. The numerical approach used, a spectral transform technique, is based on a continuum representation of physical space. The coupled classical field equations contain a dimensionless parameter which sets the strength of the nonlinear interaction (as the parameter increases, interaction volume decreases). For a parameter value of unity, highly nonlinear behavior in the time-evolution of an individual wave function, analogous to ideal fluid turbulence, is observed. In the truncated Fourier representation which is numerically implemented here, the quantum turbulence is homogeneous but anisotropic and manifests itself in the nonlinear evolution of equilibrium modal spatial spectra for the probability density of each particle and also for the electromagnetic energy density. The results show that nonlinearly interacting fermionic wave functions quickly approach a multi-mode, dynamic equilibrium state, and that this state can be determined by numerical means.

  18. A non-asymptotic homogenization theory for periodic electromagnetic structures

    PubMed Central

    Tsukerman, Igor; Markel, Vadim A.

    2014-01-01

    Homogenization of electromagnetic periodic composites is treated as a two-scale problem and solved by approximating the fields on both scales with eigenmodes that satisfy Maxwell's equations and boundary conditions as accurately as possible. Built into this homogenization methodology is an error indicator whose value characterizes the accuracy of homogenization. The proposed theory allows one to define not only bulk, but also position-dependent material parameters (e.g. in proximity to a physical boundary) and to quantify the trade-off between the accuracy of homogenization and its range of applicability to various illumination conditions. PMID:25104912

  19. Homogeneous spaces of Dirac groupoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jotz Lean, Madeleine

    2016-06-01

    A Poisson structure on a homogeneous space of a Poisson groupoid is homogeneous if the action of the Lie groupoid on the homogeneous space is compatible with the Poisson structures. According to a result of Liu, Weinstein and Xu, Poisson homogeneous spaces of a Poisson groupoid are in correspondence with suitable Dirac structures in the Courant algebroid defined by the Lie bialgebroid of the Poisson groupoid. We show that this correspondence result fits into a more natural context: the one of Dirac groupoids, which are objects generalizing Poisson groupoids and multiplicative closed 2-forms on groupoids.

  20. Garde a l'enfance: Etude sur la remuneration et les conditions de travail dans le domaine de la garde a l'enfance au Canada. Rapport final (Caring for a Living: A Study on Wages and Working Conditions in Canadian Child Care. Final Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Child Care Federation, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Between November 1990 and August 1992, a study examined wages and working conditions of child care staff in both licensed group centers and family day care homes in Canada. Three instruments were developed for the study, a short telephone interview for center directors, a follow-up director's questionnaire, and a staff questionnaire. The study…

  1. Etude de l'influence de la temperature et de l'humidite sur les proprietes mecaniques en traction des fibres de chanvre et de coco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho Thi, Thu Nga

    L'objectif de cette etude fut d'etablir l'effet de l'humidite et de la temperature sur la resistance en traction et le module elastique des fibres de chanvre et de coco. Deux etudes ont ete realisees afin d'atteindre cet objectif. La premiere vise l'absorption de l'humidite dans ces fibres en exposition dans l'air (de 0%RH a 80%RH) ainsi que l'absorption de l'eau dans ces fibres immergees dans l'eau aux differentes temperatures. La deuxieme consiste a mesurer la resistance en traction et le module elastique de ces fibres sous differentes conditions d'humidite et de temperature. En basant sur les resultats experimentaux obtenus, les methodes semi empiriques et de reseaux de neurones ont ete utilisees pour but de predire les proprietes en traction (resistance et module d'elasticite) des fibres de chanvre et de coco sous l'influence de l'humidite et de la temperature.

  2. Homogeneous freezing nucleation of stratospheric solution droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Eric J.; Toon, Owen B.; Hamill, Patrick

    1991-01-01

    The classical theory of homogeneous nucleation was used to calculate the freezing rate of sulfuric acid solution aerosols under stratospheric conditions. The freezing of stratospheric aerosols would be important for the nucleation of nitric acid trihydrate particles in the Arctic and Antarctic stratospheres. In addition, the rate of heterogeneous chemical reactions on stratospheric aerosols may be very sensitive to their state. The calculations indicate that homogeneous freezing nucleation of pure water ice in the stratospheric solution droplets would occur at temperatures below about 192 K. However, the physical properties of H2SO4 solution at such low temperatures are not well known, and it is possible that sulfuric acid aerosols will freeze out at temperatures ranging from about 180 to 195 K. It is also shown that the temperature at which the aerosols freeze is nearly independent of their size.

  3. Strongly Interacting Homogeneous Fermi Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Biswaroop; Patel, Parth; Yan, Zhenjie; Struck, Julian; Zwierlein, Martin

    2016-05-01

    We present a homogeneous box potential for strongly interacting Fermi gases. The local density approximation (LDA) allows measurements on traditional inhomogeneous traps to observe a continuous distribution of Fermi gases in a single shot, but also suffer from a broadened response due to line-of-sight averaging over varying densities. We trap ultracold Fermionic (6 Li) in an optical homogeneous potential and characterize its flatness through in-situ tomography. A hybrid approach combining a cylindrical optical potential with a harmonic magnetic trap allows us to exploit the LDA and measure local RF spectra without requiring significant image reconstruction. We extract various quantities from the RF spectra such as the Tan's contact, and discuss further measurements of homogeneous Fermi systems under spin imbalance and finite temperature.

  4. Analysis of homogeneous turbulent reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, A. D.; Hill, J. C.; Mahalingam, S.; Ferziger, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    Full turbulence simulations at low Reynolds numbers were made for the single-step, irreversible, bimolecular reaction between non-premixed reactants in isochoric, decaying homogeneous turbulence. Various initial conditions for the scalar field were used in the simulations to control the initial scalar dissipation length scale, and simulations were also made for temperature-dependent reaction rates and for non-stoichiometric and unequal diffusivity conditions. Joint probability density functions (pdf's), conditional pdf's, and various statistical quantities appearing in the moment equations were computed. Preliminary analysis of the results indicates that compressive strain-rate correlates better than other dynamical quantities with local reaction rate, and the locations of peak reaction rates seem to be insensitive to the scalar field initial conditions.

  5. Homogenizing Developmental Studies and ESL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Margaret E.

    A discussion of pragmatic issues in both developmental studies (DS) and English-as-a-second-language (ESL) instruction at the college level argues that because the two fields have common problems, challenges, and objectives, they have become homogenized as one in many institutions. Because full-time college faculty avoid teaching developmental…

  6. A Locally-Exact Homogenization Approach for Periodic Heterogeneous Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Drago, Anthony S.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy

    2008-02-15

    Elements of the homogenization theory are utilized to develop a new micromechanics approach for unit cells of periodic heterogeneous materials based on locally-exact elasticity solutions. Closed-form expressions for the homogenized moduli of unidirectionally-reinforced heterogeneous materials are obtained in terms of Hill's strain concentration matrices valid under arbitrary combined loading, which yield the homogenized Hooke's law. Results for simple unit cells with off-set fibers, which require the use of periodic boundary conditions, are compared with corresponding finite-element results demonstrating excellent correlation.

  7. Einstein billiards and spatially homogeneous cosmological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Buyl, Sophie; Pinardi, Gaïa; Schomblond, Christiane

    2003-12-01

    In this paper, we analyse the Einstein and Einstein Maxwell billiards for all spatially homogeneous cosmological models corresponding to three- and four-dimensional real unimodular Lie algebras and provide a list of those models which are chaotic in the Belinskii, Khalatnikov and Lifschitz (BKL) limit. Through the billiard picture, we confirm that, in D = 5 spacetime dimensions, chaos is present if off-diagonal metric elements are kept: the finite volume billiards can be identified with the fundamental Weyl chambers of hyperbolic Kac Moody algebras. The most generic cases bring in the same algebras as in the inhomogeneous case, but other algebras appear through special initial conditions.

  8. Isotropic homogeneous universe with viscous fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, N.O.; Dias, R.S.; Banerjee, A.

    1985-04-01

    Exact solutions are obtained for the isotropic homogeneous cosmological model with viscous fluid. The fluid has only bulk viscosity and the viscosity coefficient is taken to be a power function of the mass density. The equation of state assumed obeys a linear relation between mass density and pressure. The models satisfying Hawking's energy conditions are discussed. Murphy's model is only a special case of this general set of solutions and it is shown that Murphy's conclusion that the introduciton of bulk viscosity can avoid the occurrence of space-time singularity at finite past is not, in general, valid.

  9. Carbon dioxide in the ocean surface: The homogeneous buffer factor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundquist, E.T.; Plummer, L.N.; Wigley, T.M.L.

    1979-01-01

    The amount of carbon dioxide that can be dissolved in surface seawater depends at least partially on the homogeneous buffer factor, which is a mathematical function of the chemical equilibrium conditions among the various dissolved inorganic species. Because these equilibria are well known, the homogeneous buffer factor is well known. Natural spatial variations depend very systematically on sea surface temperatures, and do not contribute significantly to uncertainties in the present or future carbon dioxide budget. Copyright ?? 1979 AAAS.

  10. Homogenization models for thin rigid structured surfaces and films.

    PubMed

    Marigo, Jean-Jacques; Maurel, Agnès

    2016-07-01

    A homogenization method for thin microstructured surfaces and films is presented. In both cases, sound hard materials are considered, associated with Neumann boundary conditions and the wave equation in the time domain is examined. For a structured surface, a boundary condition is obtained on an equivalent flat wall, which links the acoustic velocity to its normal and tangential derivatives (of the Myers type). For a structured film, jump conditions are obtained for the acoustic pressure and the normal velocity across an equivalent interface (of the Ventcels type). This interface homogenization is based on a matched asymptotic expansion technique, and differs slightly from the classical homogenization, which is known to fail for small structuration thicknesses. In order to get insight into what causes this failure, a two-step homogenization is proposed, mixing classical homogenization and matched asymptotic expansion. Results of the two homogenizations are analyzed in light of the associated elementary problems, which correspond to problems of fluid mechanics, namely, potential flows around rigid obstacles. PMID:27475151

  11. Homogeneous Pt-bimetallic Electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chao; Chi, Miaofang; More, Karren Leslie; Markovic, Nenad; Stamenkovic, Vojislav

    2011-01-01

    Alloying has shown enormous potential for tailoring the atomic and electronic structures, and improving the performance of catalytic materials. Systematic studies of alloy catalysts are, however, often compromised by inhomogeneous distribution of alloying components. Here we introduce a general approach for the synthesis of monodispersed and highly homogeneous Pt-bimetallic alloy nanocatalysts. Pt{sub 3}M (where M = Fe, Ni, or Co) nanoparticles were prepared by an organic solvothermal method and then supported on high surface area carbon. These catalysts attained a homogeneous distribution of elements, as demonstrated by atomic-scale elemental analysis using scanning transmission electron microscopy. They also exhibited high catalytic activities for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), with improvement factors of 2-3 versus conventional Pt/carbon catalysts. The measured ORR catalytic activities for Pt{sub 3}M nanocatalysts validated the volcano curve established on extended surfaces, with Pt{sub 3}Co being the most active alloy.

  12. Homogeneous enzyme immunoassay for netilmicin.

    PubMed Central

    Wenk, M; Hemmann, R; Follath, F

    1982-01-01

    A newly developed homogeneous enzyme immunoassay for the determination of netilmicin in serum was evaluated and compared with a radioenzymatic assay. A total of 102 serum samples from patients treated with netilmicin were measured by both methods. This comparison showed an excellent correlation (r = 0.993). The enzyme immunoassay has proved to be precise, accurate, and specific. Because of its rapidity and the ease of performance, this method is a useful alternative to current assays for monitoring serum netilmicin concentrations. PMID:6760807

  13. Homogenization in micro-magneto-mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar, A.; Keip, M.-A.; Miehe, C.

    2016-07-01

    Ferromagnetic materials are characterized by a heterogeneous micro-structure that can be altered by external magnetic and mechanical stimuli. The understanding and the description of the micro-structure evolution is of particular importance for the design and the analysis of smart materials with magneto-mechanical coupling. The macroscopic response of the material results from complex magneto-mechanical interactions occurring on smaller length scales, which are driven by magnetization reorientation and associated magnetic domain wall motions. The aim of this work is to directly base the description of the macroscopic magneto-mechanical material behavior on the micro-magnetic domain evolution. This will be realized by the incorporation of a ferromagnetic phase-field formulation into a macroscopic Boltzmann continuum by the use of computational homogenization. The transition conditions between the two scales are obtained via rigorous exploitation of rate-type and incremental variational principles, which incorporate an extended version of the classical Hill-Mandel macro-homogeneity condition covering the phase field on the micro-scale. An efficient two-scale computational scenario is developed based on an operator splitting scheme that includes a predictor for the magnetization on the micro-scale. Two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations demonstrate the performance of the method. They investigate micro-magnetic domain evolution driven by macroscopic fields as well as the associated overall hysteretic response of ferromagnetic solids.

  14. Stochastic Homogenization of Nonconvex Unbounded Integral Functionals with Convex Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerinckx, Mitia; Gloria, Antoine

    2016-03-01

    We consider the well-trodden ground of the problem of the homogenization of random integral functionals. When the integrand has standard growth conditions, the qualitative theory is well-understood. When it comes to unbounded functionals, that is, when the domain of the integrand is not the whole space and may depend on the space-variable, there is no satisfactory theory. In this contribution we develop a complete qualitative stochastic homogenization theory for nonconvex unbounded functionals with convex growth. We first prove that if the integrand is convex and has p-growth from below (with p > d, the dimension), then it admits homogenization regardless of growth conditions from above. This result, that crucially relies on the existence and sublinearity at infinity of correctors, is also new in the periodic case. In the case of nonconvex integrands, we prove that a similar homogenization result holds provided that the nonconvex integrand admits a two-sided estimate by a convex integrand (the domain of which may depend on the space variable) that itself admits homogenization. This result is of interest to the rigorous derivation of rubber elasticity from polymer physics, which involves the stochastic homogenization of such unbounded functionals.

  15. Stochastic Homogenization of Nonconvex Unbounded Integral Functionals with Convex Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerinckx, Mitia; Gloria, Antoine

    2016-09-01

    We consider the well-trodden ground of the problem of the homogenization of random integral functionals. When the integrand has standard growth conditions, the qualitative theory is well-understood. When it comes to unbounded functionals, that is, when the domain of the integrand is not the whole space and may depend on the space-variable, there is no satisfactory theory. In this contribution we develop a complete qualitative stochastic homogenization theory for nonconvex unbounded functionals with convex growth. We first prove that if the integrand is convex and has p-growth from below (with p > d, the dimension), then it admits homogenization regardless of growth conditions from above. This result, that crucially relies on the existence and sublinearity at infinity of correctors, is also new in the periodic case. In the case of nonconvex integrands, we prove that a similar homogenization result holds provided that the nonconvex integrand admits a two-sided estimate by a convex integrand (the domain of which may depend on the space variable) that itself admits homogenization. This result is of interest to the rigorous derivation of rubber elasticity from polymer physics, which involves the stochastic homogenization of such unbounded functionals.

  16. ISOTOPE METHODS IN HOMOGENEOUS CATALYSIS.

    SciTech Connect

    BULLOCK,R.M.; BENDER,B.R.

    2000-12-01

    The use of isotope labels has had a fundamentally important role in the determination of mechanisms of homogeneously catalyzed reactions. Mechanistic data is valuable since it can assist in the design and rational improvement of homogeneous catalysts. There are several ways to use isotopes in mechanistic chemistry. Isotopes can be introduced into controlled experiments and followed where they go or don't go; in this way, Libby, Calvin, Taube and others used isotopes to elucidate mechanistic pathways for very different, yet important chemistries. Another important isotope method is the study of kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) and equilibrium isotope effect (EIEs). Here the mere observation of where a label winds up is no longer enough - what matters is how much slower (or faster) a labeled molecule reacts than the unlabeled material. The most careti studies essentially involve the measurement of isotope fractionation between a reference ground state and the transition state. Thus kinetic isotope effects provide unique data unavailable from other methods, since information about the transition state of a reaction is obtained. Because getting an experimental glimpse of transition states is really tantamount to understanding catalysis, kinetic isotope effects are very powerful.

  17. Invariant distributions on compact homogeneous spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbatsevich, V V

    2013-12-31

    In this paper, we study distributions on compact homogeneous spaces, including invariant distributions and also distributions admitting a sub-Riemannian structure. We first consider distributions of dimension 1 and 2 on compact homogeneous spaces. After this, we study the cases of compact homogeneous spaces of dimension 2, 3, and 4 in detail. Invariant distributions on simply connected compact homogeneous spaces are also treated. Bibliography: 18 titles.

  18. Orthogonality Measurement for Homogenous Projects-Bases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivan, Ion; Sandu, Andrei; Popa, Marius

    2009-01-01

    The homogenous projects-base concept is defined. Next, the necessary steps to create a homogenous projects-base are presented. A metric system is built, which then will be used for analyzing projects. The indicators which are meaningful for analyzing a homogenous projects-base are selected. The given hypothesis is experimentally verified. The…

  19. Etude de la resistance en fatigue des materiaux bitumineux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touhara, Radouen

    The goal of this research program is to evaluate and characterize the fatigue behaviour of two GB20 hot mix asphalt made with two different bitumen. One of them is made in laboratory with a straight-run PG58-28 bitumen, while the second mix was made in an asphalt plant with a PG64-28 bitumen. Two characterization tests, in homogeneous conditions, done in traction/compression on cylindrical specimens are used in this study. First, a complex modulus test performed in the linear viscoelasticity (LVE) domain is used to characterize the mixes and second, a fatigue test is done to evaluate the mixes performances. The fatigue tests were done in strain controlled at different amplitude. All fatigue tests were performed at 10Hz, but at different temperatures (10, 20 and 30°C) in order to evaluate the effect of the temperature on the fatigue behaviour of those mixes. In this document, the results are presented, and the analysis of the results as a function of the grade of bitumen, the tests’ temperature and the dispersion of the results is performed. Also, the DGCB method is applied to the fatigue results to calculate the rate of damage per cycle followed by a study of the different failure criteria (Nf) to predict the fatigue life of asphalt mixes. Keywords: bituminous materials, fatigue, complex modulus, Damage.

  20. Numerical experiments in homogeneous turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogallo, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    The direct simulation methods developed by Orszag and Patternson (1972) for isotropic turbulence were extended to homogeneous turbulence in an incompressible fluid subjected to uniform deformation or rotation. The results of simulations for irrotational strain (plane and axisymmetric), shear, rotation, and relaxation toward isotropy following axisymmetric strain are compared with linear theory and experimental data. Emphasis is placed on the shear flow because of its importance and because of the availability of accurate and detailed experimental data. The computed results are used to assess the accuracy of two popular models used in the closure of the Reynolds-stress equations. Data from a variety of the computed fields and the details of the numerical methods used in the simulation are also presented.

  1. Challenges of daily data homogenization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, C.; Auer, I.; Mestre, O.

    2009-04-01

    In recent years the growing demand of extreme value studies has led to the development of methods for the homogenisation of daily data. The behaviour of some of these methods has been investigated: Two methods (HOM: Della-Marta and Wanner, 2006 and SPLIDHOM: Mestre et al., submitted) which adjust the whole distribution of the climate element (especially minimum and maximum temperature) have been compared to the simpler Vincent's method (Vincent et al., 2002) which interpolates monthly adjustment factors onto daily data. The results indicate that the behaviour of the methods HOM and SPLIDHOM is very similar, although the complexity of these methods is different. They can improve the results compared to the Vincent's method when inhomogeneities in higher order moments occur. However, their applicability is limited since highly correlated neighbour series are required. More over, more data in the intervals before and after breaks is needed if the whole distribution shall be adjusted instead of the mean only. Due to these limitations a combination of distribution dependent adjustment methods and the Vincent method seems to be necessary for the homogenization of many time series. A dataset of Austrian daily maximum and minimum temperature data is used to illustrate the challenges of distribution dependent homogenization methods. Emphasis is placed on the estimation of the (sampling) uncertainty of these methods. Therefore a bootstrap approach is used. The accuracy of the calculated adjustments varies mainly between about 0.5°C for mean temperatures and more than one degree Celsius for the margins of the distribution. These uncertainty estimates can be valuable for extreme value studies.

  2. Polyurethane phantoms with homogeneous and nearly homogeneous optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keränen, Ville T.; Mäkynen, Anssi J.; Dayton, Amanda L.; Prahl, Scott A.

    2010-02-01

    Phantoms with controlled optical properties are often used for calibration and standardization. The phantoms are typically prepared by adding absorbers and scatterers to a clear host material. It is usually assumed that the scatterers and absorbers are uniformly dispersed within the medium. To explore the effects of this assumption, we prepared paired sets of polyurethane phantoms (both with identical masses of absorber, India ink and scatterer, titanium dioxide). Polyurethane phantoms were made by mixing two polyurethane parts (a and b) together and letting them cure in a polypropylene container. The mixture was degassed before curing to ensure a sample without bubbles. The optical properties were controlled by mixing titanium dioxide or India ink into polyurethane part (a or b) before blending the parts together. By changing the mixing sequence, we could change the aggregation of the scattering and absorbing particles. Each set had one sample with homogeneously dispersed scatterers and absorbers, and a second sample with slightly aggregated scatterers or absorbers. We found that the measured transmittance could easily vary by a factor of twenty. The estimated optical properties (using the inverse adding-doubling method) indicate that when aggregation is present, the optical properties are no longer proportional to the concentrations of absorbers or scatterers.

  3. Theoretical studies of homogeneous catalysts mimicking nitrogenase.

    PubMed

    Sgrignani, Jacopo; Franco, Duvan; Magistrato, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    The conversion of molecular nitrogen to ammonia is a key biological and chemical process and represents one of the most challenging topics in chemistry and biology. In Nature the Mo-containing nitrogenase enzymes perform nitrogen 'fixation' via an iron molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co) under ambient conditions. In contrast, industrially, the Haber-Bosch process reduces molecular nitrogen and hydrogen to ammonia with a heterogeneous iron catalyst under drastic conditions of temperature and pressure. This process accounts for the production of millions of tons of nitrogen compounds used for agricultural and industrial purposes, but the high temperature and pressure required result in a large energy loss, leading to several economic and environmental issues. During the last 40 years many attempts have been made to synthesize simple homogeneous catalysts that can activate dinitrogen under the same mild conditions of the nitrogenase enzymes. Several compounds, almost all containing transition metals, have been shown to bind and activate N₂ to various degrees. However, to date Mo(N₂)(HIPTN)₃N with (HIPTN)₃N= hexaisopropyl-terphenyl-triamidoamine is the only compound performing this process catalytically. In this review we describe how Density Functional Theory calculations have been of help in elucidating the reaction mechanisms of the inorganic compounds that activate or fix N₂. These studies provided important insights that rationalize and complement the experimental findings about the reaction mechanisms of known catalysts, predicting the reactivity of new potential catalysts and helping in tailoring new efficient catalytic compounds. PMID:21221062

  4. Etude theorique des fluctuations structurales dans les composes organiques a dimensionnalite reduite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumoulin, Benoit

    Les systemes a dimensionnalite reduite constituent maintenant une branche entiere de la physique de la matiere condensee. Cette derniere s'est developpee rapidement au cours des dernieres annees, avec la decouverte des materiaux organiques qui presentent, justement, des proprietes physiques fortement anisotropes. Cette these presente une etude en trois parties de plusieurs composes organiques qui, bien que tres differents du point de vue de leurs compositions chimiques et de leurs proprietes physiques a haute temperature, subissent tous une instabilite structurale a tres basse temperature. De plus, dans chacun des cas, l'instabilite structurale est precedee d'un important regime fluctuatif a partir duquel les proprietes physiques changent de maniere significative. Notre etude suit un ordre chronologique inverse puisque nous nous attardons en premier lieu au cas de composes recemment decouverts: les composes de la famille des (BCPTTF)2X (X = PF6 , AsF6). Ces derniers sont des isolants magnetiques a la temperature ambiante et subissent une instabilite structurale de type spin-Peierls a une temperature appelee TSP. En particulier, nous nous interessons a l'etude des proprietes physiques de ces systemes dans le regime fluctuatif, qui precede cette instabilite. Notre etude theorique nous permet de comprendre en detail comment ces systemes s'approchent de l'instabilite struturale. Dans la seconde partie de cette these, nous etudions le regime fluctuatif (pre-transitionnel) observe experimentalement dans le compose de (TMTTF)2PF6. Ce compose organique, dont la structure s'apparente aux sels de Bechgaard, subit une instabilite de type spin-Peierls a une temperature T SP = 19K. Bien que ce compose possede la particularite d'etre un bon conducteur a la temperature ambiante, il subit une transition de type Mott-Hubbard a une temperature Trho ≈ 220K et devient alors un isolant magnetique, analogue aux composes de la famille des (BCPTTF)2X. Le regime fluctuatif precedant l

  5. Central Andean temperature and precipitation measurements and its homogenization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunziker, Stefan; Gubler, Stefanie

    2015-04-01

    Observation of climatological parameters and the homogenization of these time series have a well-established history in western countries. This is not the case for many other countries, such as Bolivia and Peru. In Bolivia and Peru, the organization of measurements, quality of measurement equipment, equipment maintenance, training of staff and data management are fundamentally different compared to the western standard. The data needs special attention, because many problems are not detected by standard quality control procedures. Information about the weather stations, best achieved by station visits, is very beneficial. If the cause of the problem is known, some of the data may be corrected. In this study, cases of typical problems and measurement errors will be demonstrated. Much of research on homogenization techniques (up to subdaily scale) has been completed in recent years. However, data sets of the quality of western station networks have been used, and little is known about the performance of homogenization methods on data sets from countries such as Bolivia and Peru. HOMER (HOMogenizaton softwarE in R) is one of the most recent and widely used homogenization softwares. Its performance is tested on Peruvian-like data that has been sourced from Swiss stations (similar station density and metadata availability). The Swiss station network is a suitable test bed, because climate gradients are strong and the terrain is complex, as is also found in the Central Andes. On the other hand, the Swiss station network is dense, and long time series and extensive metadata are available. By subsampling the station network and omitting the metadata, the conditions of a Peruvian test region are mimicked. Results are compared to a dataset homogenized by THOMAS (Tool for Homogenization of Monthly Data Series), the homogenization tool used by MeteoSwiss.

  6. Pyroxene Homogenization and the Isotopic Systematics of Eucrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.

    1996-01-01

    The original Mg-Fe zoning of eucritic pyroxenes has in nearly all cases been partly homogenized, an observation that has been combined with other petrographic and compositional criteria to establish a scale of thermal "metamorphism" for eucrites. To evaluate hypotheses explaining development of conditions on the HED parent body (Vesta?) leading to pyroxene homogenization against their chronological implications, it is necessary to know whether pyroxene metamorphism was recorded in the isotopic systems. However, identifying the effects of the thermal metamorphism with specific effects in the isotopic systems has been difficult, due in part to a lack of correlated isotopic and mineralogical studies of the same eucrites. Furthermore, isotopic studies often place high demands on analytical capabilities, resulting in slow growth of the isotopic database. Additionally, some isotopic systems would not respond in a direct and sensitive way to pyroxene homogenization. Nevertheless, sufficient data exist to generalize some observations, and to identify directions of potentially fruitful investigations.

  7. Quantum homogenization for continuous variables: Realization with linear optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaj, Daniel; Štelmachovič, Peter; Bužek, Vladimír; Kim, Myungshik

    2002-12-01

    Recently Ziman et al. [Phys. Rev. A 65, 042105 (2002)] have introduced a concept of a universal quantum homogenizer which is a quantum machine that takes as input a given (system) qubit initially in an arbitrary state ρ and a set of N reservoir qubits initially prepared in the state ξ. The homogenizer realizes, in the limit sense, the transformation such that at the output each qubit is in an arbitrarily small neighborhood of the state ξ irrespective of the initial states of the system and the reservoir qubits. In this paper we generalize the concept of quantum homogenization for qudits, that is, for d-dimensional quantum systems. We prove that the partial-swap operation induces a contractive map with the fixed point which is the original state of the reservoir. We propose an optical realization of the quantum homogenization for Gaussian states. We prove that an incoming state of a photon field is homogenized in an array of beam splitters. Using Simon's criterion, we study entanglement between outgoing beams from beam splitters. We derive an inseparability condition for a pair of output beams as a function of the degree of squeezing in input beams.

  8. AQUEOUS HOMOGENEOUS REACTORTECHNICAL PANEL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, D.J.; Bajorek, S.; Bakel, A.; Flanagan, G.; Mubayi, V.; Skarda, R.; Staudenmeier, J.; Taiwo, T.; Tonoike, K.; Tripp, C.; Wei, T.; Yarsky, P.

    2010-12-03

    Considerable interest has been expressed for developing a stable U.S. production capacity for medical isotopes and particularly for molybdenum- 99 (99Mo). This is motivated by recent re-ductions in production and supply worldwide. Consistent with U.S. nonproliferation objectives, any new production capability should not use highly enriched uranium fuel or targets. Conse-quently, Aqueous Homogeneous Reactors (AHRs) are under consideration for potential 99Mo production using low-enriched uranium. Although the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has guidance to facilitate the licensing process for non-power reactors, that guidance is focused on reactors with fixed, solid fuel and hence, not applicable to an AHR. A panel was convened to study the technical issues associated with normal operation and potential transients and accidents of an AHR that might be designed for isotope production. The panel has produced the requisite AHR licensing guidance for three chapters that exist now for non-power reactor licensing: Reac-tor Description, Reactor Coolant Systems, and Accident Analysis. The guidance is in two parts for each chapter: 1) standard format and content a licensee would use and 2) the standard review plan the NRC staff would use. This guidance takes into account the unique features of an AHR such as the fuel being in solution; the fission product barriers being the vessel and attached systems; the production and release of radiolytic and fission product gases and their impact on operations and their control by a gas management system; and the movement of fuel into and out of the reactor vessel.

  9. STEAM STIRRED HOMOGENEOUS NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Busey, H.M.

    1958-06-01

    A homogeneous nuclear reactor utilizing a selfcirculating liquid fuel is described. The reactor vessel is in the form of a vertically disposed tubular member having the lower end closed by the tube walls and the upper end closed by a removal fianged assembly. A spherical reaction shell is located in the lower end of the vessel and spaced from the inside walls. The reaction shell is perforated on its lower surface and is provided with a bundle of small-diameter tubes extending vertically upward from its top central portion. The reactor vessel is surrounded in the region of the reaction shell by a neutron reflector. The liquid fuel, which may be a solution of enriched uranyl sulfate in ordinary or heavy water, is mainiained at a level within the reactor vessel of approximately the top of the tubes. The heat of the reaction which is created in the critical region within the spherical reaction shell forms steam bubbles which more upwardly through the tubes. The upward movement of these bubbles results in the forcing of the liquid fuel out of the top of these tubes, from where the fuel passes downwardly in the space between the tubes and the vessel wall where it is cooled by heat exchangers. The fuel then re-enters the critical region in the reaction shell through the perforations in the bottom. The upper portion of the reactor vessel is provided with baffles to prevent the liquid fuel from splashing into this region which is also provided with a recombiner apparatus for recombining the radiolytically dissociated moderator vapor and a control means.

  10. Turbulence in homogeneous shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumir, Alain

    1996-11-01

    Homogeneous shear flows with an imposed mean velocity U=Syx̂ are studied in a period box of size Lx×Ly×Lz, in the statistically stationary turbulent state. In contrast with unbounded shear flows, the finite size of the system constrains the large-scale dynamics. The Reynolds number, defined by Re≡SL2y/ν varies in the range 2600⩽Re⩽11300. The total kinetic energy and enstrophy in the volume of numerical integration have large peaks, resulting in fluctuations of kinetic energy of order 30%-50%. The mechanism leading to these fluctuations is very reminiscent of the ``streaks'' responsible for the violent bursts observed in turbulent boundary layers. The large scale anisotropy of the flow, characterized by the two-point correlation tensor depends on the aspect ratio of the system. The probability distribution functions (PDF) of the components of the velocity are found to be close to Gaussian. The physics of the Reynolds stress tensor, uv, is very similar to what is found experimentally in wall bounded shear flows. The study of the two-point correlation tensor of the vorticity <ωiωj> suggests that the small scales become isotropic when the Reynolds number increases, as observed in high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers. However, the skewness of the z component of vorticity is independent of the Reynolds number in this range, suggesting that some small scale anisotropy remains even at very high Reynolds numbers. An analogy is drawn with the problem of turbulent mixing, where a similar anisotropy is observed.

  11. Homogeneous catalysts in hypersonic combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Harradine, D.M.; Lyman, J.L.; Oldenborg, R.C.; Pack, R.T.; Schott, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Density and residence time both become unfavorably small for efficient combustion of hydrogen fuel in ramjet propulsion in air at high altitude and hypersonic speed. Raising the density and increasing the transit time of the air through the engine necessitates stronger contraction of the air flow area. This enhances the kinetic and thermodynamic tendency of H/sub 2/O to form completely, accompanied only by N/sub 2/ and any excess H/sub 2/(or O/sub 2/). The by-products to be avoided are the energetically expensive fragment species H and/or O atoms and OH radicals, and residual (2H/sub 2/ plus O/sub 2/). However, excessive area contraction raises air temperature and consequent combustion-product temperature by adiabatic compression. This counteracts and ultimately overwhelms the thermodynamic benefit by which higher density favors the triatomic product, H/sub 2/O, over its monatomic and diatomic alternatives. For static pressures in the neighborhood of 1 atm, static temperature must be kept or brought below ca. 2400 K for acceptable stability of H/sub 2/O. Another measure, whose requisite chemistry we address here, is to extract propulsive work from the combustion products early in the expansion. The objective is to lower the static temperature of the combustion stream enough for H/sub 2/O to become adequately stable before the exhaust flow is massively expanded and its composition ''frozen.'' We proceed to address this mechanism and its kinetics, and then examine prospects for enhancing its rate by homogeneous catalysts. 9 refs.

  12. Spatially homogeneous rotating world models.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozsvath, I.

    1971-01-01

    The mathematical problem encountered when looking for the simplest expanding and rotating model of the universe without the compactness condition for the space sections is formulated. The Lagrangian function is derived for four different rotating universes simultaneously. These models correspond in a certain sense to Godel's (1950) ?symmetric case.'

  13. Ecological and evolutionary consequences of biotic homogenization.

    PubMed

    Olden, Julian D; Leroy Poff, N; Douglas, Marlis R; Douglas, Michael E; Fausch, Kurt D

    2004-01-01

    Biotic homogenization, the gradual replacement of native biotas by locally expanding non-natives, is a global process that diminishes floral and faunal distinctions among regions. Although patterns of homogenization have been well studied, their specific ecological and evolutionary consequences remain unexplored. We argue that our current perspective on biotic homogenization should be expanded beyond a simple recognition of species diversity loss, towards a synthesis of higher order effects. Here, we explore three distinct forms of homogenization (genetic, taxonomic and functional), and discuss their immediate and future impacts on ecological and evolutionary processes. Our goal is to initiate future research that investigates the broader conservation implications of homogenization and to promote a proactive style of adaptive management that engages the human component of the anthropogenic blender that is currently mixing the biota on Earth. PMID:16701221

  14. Homogenization of precipitation time series with ACMANT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domonkos, Peter

    2015-10-01

    New method for the time series homogenization of observed precipitation (PP) totals is presented; this method is a unit of the ACMANT software package. ACMANT is a relative homogenization method; minimum four time series with adequate spatial correlations are necessary for its use. The detection of inhomogeneities (IHs) is performed with fitting optimal step function, while the calculation of adjustment terms is based on the minimization of the residual variance in homogenized datasets. Together with the presentation of PP homogenization with ACMANT, some peculiarities of PP homogenization as, for instance, the frequency and seasonal variation of IHs in observed PP data and their relation to the performance of homogenization methods are discussed. In climatic regions of snowy winters, ACMANT distinguishes two seasons, namely, rainy season and snowy season, and the seasonal IHs are searched with bivariate detection. ACMANT is a fully automatic method, is freely downloadable from internet and treats either daily or monthly input. Series of observed data in the input dataset may cover different periods, and the occurrence of data gaps is allowed. False zero values instead of missing data code or physical outliers should be corrected before running ACMANT. Efficiency tests indicate that ACMANT belongs to the best performing methods, although further comparative tests of automatic homogenization methods are needed to confirm or reject this finding.

  15. String pair production in non homogeneous backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolognesi, S.; Rabinovici, E.; Tallarita, G.

    2016-04-01

    We consider string pair production in non homogeneous electric backgrounds. We study several particular configurations which can be addressed with the Euclidean world-sheet instanton technique, the analogue of the world-line instanton for particles. In the first case the string is suspended between two D-branes in flat space-time, in the second case the string lives in AdS and terminates on one D-brane (this realizes the holographic Schwinger effect). In some regions of parameter space the result is well approximated by the known analytical formulas, either the particle pair production in non-homogeneous background or the string pair production in homogeneous background. In other cases we see effects which are intrinsically stringy and related to the non-homogeneity of the background. The pair production is enhanced already for particles in time dependent electric field backgrounds. The string nature enhances this even further. For spacial varying electrical background fields the string pair production is less suppressed than the rate of particle pair production. We discuss in some detail how the critical field is affected by the non-homogeneity, for both time and space dependent electric field backgrouds. We also comment on what could be an interesting new prediction for the small field limit. The third case we consider is pair production in holographic confining backgrounds with homogeneous and non-homogeneous fields.

  16. Deforestation homogenizes tropical parasitoid-host networks.

    PubMed

    Laliberté, Etienne; Tylianakis, Jason M

    2010-06-01

    Human activities drive biotic homogenization (loss of regional diversity) of many taxa. However, whether species interaction networks (e.g., food webs) can also become homogenized remains largely unexplored. Using 48 quantitative parasitoid-host networks replicated through space and time across five tropical habitats, we show that deforestation greatly homogenized network structure at a regional level, such that interaction composition became more similar across rice and pasture sites compared with forested habitats. This was not simply caused by altered consumer and resource community composition, but was associated with altered consumer foraging success, such that parasitoids were more likely to locate their hosts in deforested habitats. Furthermore, deforestation indirectly homogenized networks in time through altered mean consumer and prey body size, which decreased in deforested habitats. Similar patterns were obtained with binary networks, suggesting that interaction (link) presence-absence data may be sufficient to detect network homogenization effects. Our results show that tropical agroforestry systems can support regionally diverse parasitoid-host networks, but that removal of canopy cover greatly homogenizes the structure of these networks in space, and to a lesser degree in time. Spatiotemporal homogenization of interaction networks may alter coevolutionary outcomes and reduce ecological resilience at regional scales, but may not necessarily be predictable from community changes observed within individual trophic levels. PMID:20583715

  17. Higher Order Macro Coefficients in Periodic Homogenization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conca, Carlos; San Martin, Jorge; Smaranda, Loredana; Vanninathan, Muthusamy

    2011-09-01

    A first set of macro coefficients known as the homogenized coefficients appear in the homogenization of PDE on periodic structures. If energy is increased or scale is decreased, these coefficients do not provide adequate approximation. Using Bloch decomposition, it is first realized that the above coefficients correspond to the lowest energy and the largest scale. This naturally paves the way to introduce other sets of macro coefficients corresponding to higher energies and lower scales which yield better approximation. The next task is to compare their properties with those of the homogenized coefficients. This article reviews these developments along with some new results yet to be published.

  18. Comparison of homogenized and enhanced diffusion solutions of model PWR problems

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, E. E.; Smith, M. A.

    2012-07-01

    Model problem comparisons in slab geometry are made between two forms of homogenized diffusion theory and enhanced diffusion theory. The pin-cell discontinuity factors for homogenized diffusion calculations are derived from homogenized variational nodal P1 response matrices and from standard finite differencing. Enhanced diffusion theory consists of applying quasi-reflected interface conditions to reduce variational nodal Pn response matrices to one degree of freedom per interface, without homogenization within the cell. As expected both homogenized diffusion methods preserve reaction rates exactly if the discontinuity factors are derived from the P 11 reference solutions. If no reference lattice solution is available, discontinuity factors may be approximated from single cells with reflected boundary conditions; the computational effort is then comparable to calculating the enhanced diffusion response matrices. In this situation enhanced diffusion theory gives the most accurate results and finite difference discontinuity factors the least accurate. (authors)

  19. Non-Homogeneous Fractal Hierarchical Weighted Networks

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yujuan; Dai, Meifeng; Ye, Dandan

    2015-01-01

    A model of fractal hierarchical structures that share the property of non-homogeneous weighted networks is introduced. These networks can be completely and analytically characterized in terms of the involved parameters, i.e., the size of the original graph Nk and the non-homogeneous weight scaling factors r1, r2, · · · rM. We also study the average weighted shortest path (AWSP), the average degree and the average node strength, taking place on the non-homogeneous hierarchical weighted networks. Moreover the AWSP is scrupulously calculated. We show that the AWSP depends on the number of copies and the sum of all non-homogeneous weight scaling factors in the infinite network order limit. PMID:25849619

  20. Producing tritium in a homogenous reactor

    DOEpatents

    Cawley, William E.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for the joint production and separation of tritium. Tritium is produced in an aqueous homogenous reactor and heat from the nuclear reaction is used to distill tritium from the lower isotopes of hydrogen.

  1. Homogeneous cosmological models in Yang's gravitation theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennelly, A. J.; Pavelle, R.

    1979-01-01

    We present a dynamic, spatially homogeneous solution of Yang's pure space gravitational field equations which is non-Einsteinian. The predictions of this cosmological model seem to be at variance with observations.

  2. Layout optimization using the homogenization method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, Katsuyuki; Kikuchi, Noboru

    1993-01-01

    A generalized layout problem involving sizing, shape, and topology optimization is solved by using the homogenization method for three-dimensional linearly elastic shell structures in order to seek a possibility of establishment of an integrated design system of automotive car bodies, as an extension of the previous work by Bendsoe and Kikuchi. A formulation of a three-dimensional homogenized shell, a solution algorithm, and several examples of computing the optimum layout are presented in this first part of the two articles.

  3. Layout optimization using the homogenization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Katsuyuki; Kikuchi, Noboru

    A generalized layout problem involving sizing, shape, and topology optimization is solved by using the homogenization method for three-dimensional linearly elastic shell structures in order to seek a possibility of establishment of an integrated design system of automotive car bodies, as an extension of the previous work by Bendsoe and Kikuchi. A formulation of a three-dimensional homogenized shell, a solution algorithm, and several examples of computing the optimum layout are presented in this first part of the two articles.

  4. Preparation and characterization of paclitaxel nanosuspension using novel emulsification method by combining high speed homogenizer and high pressure homogenization.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Zhao, Xiuhua; Zu, Yuangang; Zhang, Yin

    2015-07-25

    The aim of this study was to develop an alternative, more bio-available, better tolerated paclitaxel nanosuspension (PTXNS) for intravenous injection in comparison with commercially available Taxol(®) formulation. In this study, PTXNS was prepared by emulsification method through combination of high speed homogenizer and high pressure homogenization, followed by lyophilization process for intravenous administration. The main production parameters including volume ratio of organic phase in water and organic phase (Vo:Vw+o), concentration of PTX, content of PTX and emulsification time (Et), homogenization pressure (HP) and passes (Ps) for high pressure homogenization were optimized and their effects on mean particle size (MPS) and particle size distribution (PSD) of PTXNS were investigated. The characteristics of PTXNS, such as, surface morphology, physical status of paclitaxel (PTX) in PTXNS, redispersibility of PTXNS in purified water, in vitro dissolution study and bioavailability in vivo were all investigated. The PTXNS obtained under optimum conditions had an MPS of 186.8 nm and a zeta potential (ZP) of -6.87 mV. The PTX content in PTXNS was approximately 3.42%. Moreover, the residual amount of chloroform was lower than the International Conference on Harmonization limit (60 ppm) for solvents. The dissolution study indicated PTXNS had merits including effect to fast at the side of raw PTX and sustained-dissolution character compared with Taxol(®) formulation. Moreover, the bioavailability of PTXNS increased 14.38 and 3.51 times respectively compared with raw PTX and Taxol(®) formulation. PMID:26027492

  5. Damping the neutrino flavor pendulum by breaking homogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangano, Gianpiero; Mirizzi, Alessandro; Saviano, Ninetta

    2014-04-01

    The most general case of self-induced neutrino flavor evolution is described by a set of kinetic equations for a dense neutrino gas evolving in both space and time. Solutions of these equations have been typically worked out assuming that either the time (in the core-collapse supernova environment) or space (in the early Universe) homogeneity in the initial conditions is preserved through the evolution. In these cases, one can gauge away the homogeneous variable and reduce the dimensionality of the problem. In this paper, we investigate whether small deviations from an initial postulated homogeneity can be amplified by the interacting neutrino gas, leading to a new flavor instability. To this end, we consider a simple two-flavor isotropic neutrino gas evolving in time, and initially composed by only νe and ν ¯e with equal densities. In the homogeneous case, this system shows a bimodal instability in the inverted mass hierarchy scheme, leading to the well-studied flavor pendulum behavior. This would lead to periodic pair conversions νeν ¯e↔νxν ¯x. To break space homogeneity, we introduce small amplitude space-dependent perturbations in the matter potential. By Fourier transforming the equations of motion with respect to the space coordinate, we then numerically solve a set of coupled equations for the different Fourier modes. We find that even for arbitrarily tiny inhomogeneities, the system evolution runs away from the stable pendulum behavior: the different modes are excited and the space-averaged ensemble evolves towards flavor equilibrium. We finally comment on the role of a time decaying neutrino background density in weakening these results.

  6. Recent advances in the understanding of homogeneous dielectric barrier discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massines, F.; Gherardi, N.; Naudé, N.; Ségur, P.

    2009-08-01

    This paper is a state of the art of the understanding on the physics of homogeneous dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure. It is based on the analysis of present and previous work about the behavior of these discharges and the conditions to get them. Mechanisms controlling the homogeneity during gas breakdown and discharge development are successively discussed. The breakdown has to be a Townsend one, the ionization has to be slow enough to avoid a large avalanche development. During the breakdown, the discharge homogeneity is related to the ratio of the secondary emission at the cathode (γ coefficient) on the ionization in the gas bulk (α coefficient). Higher is this ratio, higher is the pressure × gas gap product (Pd) value for which a Townsend breakdown is obtained. Among the phenomena enhancing the secondary emission there is the negative charge of the dielectric on the cathode surface, the trapping of ions in the gas and the existence of excited state having a long lifetime compared to the time between two consecutive discharges. The first phenomenon is always present when the electrodes are covered by a solid dielectric, the second one is related to the formation of a positive column and the third one is specific of the gas. During the discharge development, the homogeneity is mainly controlled by the voltage or the current imposed by the electrical circuit/electrode configuration and by the gas ability to be slowly ionized. Larger is the contribution of a multiple step ionization process like Penning ionization, higher will be the working domain of the discharge. A decrease of the gas voltage during the discharge development is a solution to enhance the contribution of this process. After 20 years of research a lot of mechanisms have been understood however there is still open questions like the nature of the Inhibited homogeneous DBD, surface energy transfers, role of attachment and detachment...

  7. Homogeneous and heterogenized iridium water oxidation catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macchioni, Alceo

    2014-10-01

    The development of an efficient catalyst for the oxidative splitting of water into molecular oxygen, protons and electrons is of key importance for producing solar fuels through artificial photosynthesis. We are facing the problem by means of a rational approach aimed at understanding how catalytic performance may be optimized by the knowledge of the reaction mechanism of water oxidation and the fate of the catalytic site under the inevitably harsh oxidative conditions. For the purposes of our study we selected iridium water oxidation catalysts, exhibiting remarkable performance (TOF > 5 s-1 and TON > 20000). In particular, we recently focused our attention on [Cp*Ir(N,O)X] (N,O = 2-pyridincarboxylate; X = Cl or NO3) and [IrCl(Hedta)]Na water oxidation catalysts. The former exhibited a remarkable TOF whereas the latter showed a very high TON. Furthermore, [IrCl(Hedta)]Na was heterogenized onto TiO2 taking advantage of the presence of a dandling -COOH functionality. The heterogenized catalyst maintained approximately the same catalytic activity of the homogeneous analogous with the advantage that could be reused many times. Mechanistic studies were performed in order to shed some light on the rate-determining step and the transformation of catalysts when exposed to "oxidative stress". It was found that the last oxidative step, preceding oxygen liberation, is the rate-determining step when a small excess of sacrificial oxidant is used. In addition, several intermediates of the oxidative transformation of the catalyst were intercepted and characterized by NMR, X-Ray diffractometry and ESI-MS.

  8. Accurate evaluation of homogenous and nonhomogeneous gas emissivities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Lee, K. P.

    1984-01-01

    Spectral transmittance and total band adsorptance of selected infrared bands of carbon dioxide and water vapor are calculated by using the line-by-line and quasi-random band models and these are compared with available experimental results to establish the validity of the quasi-random band model. Various wide-band model correlations are employed to calculate the total band absorptance and total emissivity of these two gases under homogeneous and nonhomogeneous conditions. These results are compared with available experimental results under identical conditions. From these comparisons, it is found that the quasi-random band model can provide quite accurate results and is quite suitable for most atmospheric applications.

  9. Asymptotic homogenization of three-dimensional thermoelectric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Lei, Chihou; Gao, Cun-Fa; Li, Jiangyu

    2015-03-01

    Thermoelectric composites are promising for high efficiency energy conversion between thermal flows and electric conduction, though their effective behaviors remain poorly understood due to nonlinear thermoelectric coupling. In this paper, we develop an asymptotic homogenization theory to analyze the effective behavior of three-dimensional (3D) thermoelectric composites, built on the observation that the equations governing microscopic field fluctuations in the composite are actually linear instead of nonlinear after separation of length scales. A set of solutions similar to Green's function method are used to construct the unit cell problem, and appropriate interfacial continuity conditions and boundary conditions are derived. The homogenized governing equations are then developed for thermoelectric composites, and they are further reduced for a special case wherein the heat flow and electric conduction in the composite remains one-dimensional (1D) at macroscopic scale, even though the composite itself is 3D in general. The general homogenization theory is implemented using finite element method, and a key constant in the constructed solutions is determined using the reformulated eigenvalue problem. The algorithm is validated, and is applied for a number of case studies for the effective behavior of thermoelectric composites.

  10. Broken Ergodicity in Two-Dimensional Homogeneous Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence has many of the same qualitative features as three-dimensional (3-D) homogeneous MHD turbulence.The se features include several ideal invariants, along with the phenomenon of broken ergodicity. Broken ergodicity appears when certain modes act like random variables with mean values that are large compared to their standard deviations, indicating a coherent structure or dynamo.Recently, the origin of broken ergodicity in 3-D MHD turbulence that is manifest in the lowest wavenumbers was explained. Here, a detailed description of the origins of broken ergodicity in 2-D MHD turbulence is presented. It will be seen that broken ergodicity in ideal 2-D MHD turbulence can be manifest in the lowest wavenumbers of a finite numerical model for certain initial conditions or in the highest wavenumbers for another set of initial conditions.T he origins of broken ergodicity in ideal 2-D homogeneous MHD turbulence are found through an eigen analysis of the covariance matrices of the modal probability density functions.It will also be shown that when the lowest wavenumber magnetic field becomes quasi-stationary, the higher wavenumber modes can propagate as Alfven waves on these almost static large-scale magnetic structures

  11. Microfluidic converging/diverging channels optimised for homogeneous extensional deformation

    PubMed Central

    Zografos, K.; Oliveira, M. S. N.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we optimise microfluidic converging/diverging geometries in order to produce constant strain-rates along the centreline of the flow, for performing studies under homogeneous extension. The design is examined for both two-dimensional and three-dimensional flows where the effects of aspect ratio and dimensionless contraction length are investigated. Initially, pressure driven flows of Newtonian fluids under creeping flow conditions are considered, which is a reasonable approximation in microfluidics, and the limits of the applicability of the design in terms of Reynolds numbers are investigated. The optimised geometry is then used for studying the flow of viscoelastic fluids and the practical limitations in terms of Weissenberg number are reported. Furthermore, the optimisation strategy is also applied for electro-osmotic driven flows, where the development of a plug-like velocity profile allows for a wider region of homogeneous extensional deformation in the flow field. PMID:27478523

  12. Microfluidic converging/diverging channels optimised for homogeneous extensional deformation.

    PubMed

    Zografos, K; Pimenta, F; Alves, M A; Oliveira, M S N

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we optimise microfluidic converging/diverging geometries in order to produce constant strain-rates along the centreline of the flow, for performing studies under homogeneous extension. The design is examined for both two-dimensional and three-dimensional flows where the effects of aspect ratio and dimensionless contraction length are investigated. Initially, pressure driven flows of Newtonian fluids under creeping flow conditions are considered, which is a reasonable approximation in microfluidics, and the limits of the applicability of the design in terms of Reynolds numbers are investigated. The optimised geometry is then used for studying the flow of viscoelastic fluids and the practical limitations in terms of Weissenberg number are reported. Furthermore, the optimisation strategy is also applied for electro-osmotic driven flows, where the development of a plug-like velocity profile allows for a wider region of homogeneous extensional deformation in the flow field. PMID:27478523

  13. An asymptotic homogenized neutron diffusion approximation. I. Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Trahan, T. J.; Larsen, E. W.

    2012-07-01

    A monoenergetic, homogenized, anisotropic diffusion equation is derived asymptotically for large, 3-D, multiplying systems with a periodic lattice structure. The primary assumption is that the system is slightly perturbed from an infinite, periodic lattice, and that the length scale of a lattice element is small relative to the total system size. The perturbed flux is slightly buckled, and the leading order term is the product of a slowly varying amplitude component, and a rapidly varying periodic component. The amplitude function is the solution to the homogenized diffusion equation, while the periodic component is the solution to the unperturbed, infinite system, and can be found using any high-order transport method. The first order term acts as a correction term, and makes it possible to obtain a zero flux extrapolation distance for the diffusion equation by applying the Marshak boundary condition. (authors)

  14. Physical Justification for Negative Remanent Magnetization in Homogeneous Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Shuo; He, Weidong; Zhang, Ming; Zhuang, Taisen; Jin, Yi; ElBidweihy, Hatem; Mao, Yiwu; Dickerson, James H.; Wagner, Michael J.; Torre, Edward Della; Bennett, Lawrence H.

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of negative remanent magnetization (NRM) has been observed experimentally in a number of heterogeneous magnetic systems and has been considered anomalous. The existence of NRM in homogenous magnetic materials is still in debate, mainly due to the lack of compelling support from experimental data and a convincing theoretical explanation for its thermodynamic validation. Here we resolve the long-existing controversy by presenting experimental evidence and physical justification that NRM is real in a prototype homogeneous ferromagnetic nanoparticle, an europium sulfide nanoparticle. We provide novel insights into major and minor hysteresis behavior that illuminate the true nature of the observed inverted hysteresis and validate its thermodynamic permissibility and, for the first time, present counterintuitive magnetic aftereffect behavior that is consistent with the mechanism of magnetization reversal, possessing unique capability to identify NRM. The origin and conditions of NRM are explained quantitatively via a wasp-waist model, in combination of energy calculations. PMID:25183061

  15. Analysis of homogeneous/non-homogeneous nanofluid models accounting for nanofluid-surface interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, R.

    2016-07-01

    This article reports an unbiased analysis for the water based rod shaped alumina nanoparticles by considering both the homogeneous and non-homogeneous nanofluid models over the coupled nanofluid-surface interface. The mechanics of the surface are found for both the homogeneous and non-homogeneous models, which were ignored in previous studies. The viscosity and thermal conductivity data are implemented from the international nanofluid property benchmark exercise. All the simulations are being done by using the experimentally verified results. By considering the homogeneous and non-homogeneous models, the precise movement of the alumina nanoparticles over the surface has been observed by solving the corresponding system of differential equations. For the non-homogeneous model, a uniform temperature and nanofluid volume fraction are assumed at the surface, and the flux of the alumina nanoparticle is taken as zero. The assumption of zero nanoparticle flux at the surface makes the non-homogeneous model physically more realistic. The differences of all profiles for both the homogeneous and nonhomogeneous models are insignificant, and this is due to small deviations in the values of the Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameters.

  16. Desertification, salinization, and biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miyazono, S.; Patino, Reynaldo; Taylor, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study determined long-term changes in fish assemblages, river discharge, salinity, and local precipitation, and examined hydrological drivers of biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem, the Trans-Pecos region of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte (USA/Mexico). Historical (1977-1989) and current (2010-2011) fish assemblages were analyzed by rarefaction analysis (species richness), nonmetric multidimensional scaling (composition/variability), multiresponse permutation procedures (composition), and paired t-test (variability). Trends in hydrological conditions (1970s-2010s) were examined by Kendall tau and quantile regression, and associations between streamfiow and specific conductance (salinity) by generalized linear models. Since the 1970s, species richness and variability of fish assemblages decreased in the Rio Grande below the confluence with the Rio Conchos (Mexico), a major tributary, but not above it. There was increased representation of lower-flow/higher-salinity tolerant species, thus making fish communities below the confluence taxonomically and functionally more homogeneous to those above it. Unlike findings elsewhere, this biotic homogenization was due primarily to changes in the relative abundances of native species. While Rio Conchos discharge was > 2-fold higher than Rio Grande discharge above their confluence, Rio Conchos discharge decreased during the study period causing Rio Grande discharge below the confluence to also decrease. Rio Conchos salinity is lower than Rio Grande salinity above their confluence and, as Rio Conchos discharge decreased, it caused Rio Grande salinity below the confluence to increase (reduced dilution). Trends in discharge did not correspond to trends in precipitation except at extreme-high (90th quantile) levels. In conclusion, decreasing discharge from the Rio Conchos has led to decreasing flow and increasing salinity in the Rio Grande below the confluence. This spatially uneven desertification and

  17. Desertification, salinization, and biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Miyazono, Seiji; Patiño, Reynaldo; Taylor, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    This study determined long-term changes in fish assemblages, river discharge, salinity, and local precipitation, and examined hydrological drivers of biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem, the Trans-Pecos region of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte (USA/Mexico). Historical (1977-1989) and current (2010-2011) fish assemblages were analyzed by rarefaction analysis (species richness), nonmetric multidimensional scaling (composition/variability), multiresponse permutation procedures (composition), and paired t-test (variability). Trends in hydrological conditions (1970s-2010s) were examined by Kendall tau and quantile regression, and associations between streamflow and specific conductance (salinity) by generalized linear models. Since the 1970s, species richness and variability of fish assemblages decreased in the Rio Grande below the confluence with the Rio Conchos (Mexico), a major tributary, but not above it. There was increased representation of lower-flow/higher-salinity tolerant species, thus making fish communities below the confluence taxonomically and functionally more homogeneous to those above it. Unlike findings elsewhere, this biotic homogenization was due primarily to changes in the relative abundances of native species. While Rio Conchos discharge was>2-fold higher than Rio Grande discharge above their confluence, Rio Conchos discharge decreased during the study period causing Rio Grande discharge below the confluence to also decrease. Rio Conchos salinity is lower than Rio Grande salinity above their confluence and, as Rio Conchos discharge decreased, it caused Rio Grande salinity below the confluence to increase (reduced dilution). Trends in discharge did not correspond to trends in precipitation except at extreme-high (90th quantile) levels. In conclusion, decreasing discharge from the Rio Conchos has led to decreasing flow and increasing salinity in the Rio Grande below the confluence. This spatially uneven desertification and

  18. Spatial homogenization methods for pin-by-pin neutron transport calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlowski, Tomasz

    For practical reactor core applications low-order transport approximations such as SP3 have been shown to provide sufficient accuracy for both static and transient calculations with considerably less computational expense than the discrete ordinate or the full spherical harmonics methods. These methods have been applied in several core simulators where homogenization was performed at the level of the pin cell. One of the principal problems has been to recover the error introduced by pin-cell homogenization. Two basic approaches to treat pin-cell homogenization error have been proposed: Superhomogenization (SPH) factors and Pin-Cell Discontinuity Factors (PDF). These methods are based on well established Equivalence Theory and Generalized Equivalence Theory to generate appropriate group constants. These methods are able to treat all sources of error together, allowing even few-group diffusion with one mesh per cell to reproduce the reference solution. A detailed investigation and consistent comparison of both homogenization techniques showed potential of PDF approach to improve accuracy of core calculation, but also reveal its limitation. In principle, the method is applicable only for the boundary conditions at which it was created, i.e. for boundary conditions considered during the homogenization process---normally zero current. Therefore, there exists a need to improve this method, making it more general and environment independent. The goal of proposed general homogenization technique is to create a function that is able to correctly predict the appropriate correction factor with only homogeneous information available, i.e. a function based on heterogeneous solution that could approximate PDFs using homogeneous solution. It has been shown that the PDF can be well approximated by least-square polynomial fit of non-dimensional heterogeneous solution and later used for PDF prediction using homogeneous solution. This shows a promise for PDF prediction for off

  19. Homogenization of Periodic Systems with Large Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaire, Grégoire; Capdeboscq, Yves; Piatnitski, Andrey; Siess, Vincent; Vanninathan, M.

    2004-11-01

    We consider the homogenization of a system of second-order equations with a large potential in a periodic medium. Denoting by ɛ the period, the potential is scaled as ɛ-2. Under a generic assumption on the spectral properties of the associated cell problem, we prove that the solution can be approximately factorized as the product of a fast oscillating cell eigenfunction and of a slowly varying solution of a scalar second-order equation. This result applies to various types of equations such as parabolic, hyperbolic or eigenvalue problems, as well as fourth-order plate equation. We also prove that, for well-prepared initial data concentrating at the bottom of a Bloch band, the resulting homogenized tensor depends on the chosen Bloch band. Our method is based on a combination of classical homogenization techniques (two-scale convergence and suitable oscillating test functions) and of Bloch waves decomposition.

  20. Rapid biotic homogenization of marine fish assemblages.

    PubMed

    Magurran, Anne E; Dornelas, Maria; Moyes, Faye; Gotelli, Nicholas J; McGill, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The role human activities play in reshaping biodiversity is increasingly apparent in terrestrial ecosystems. However, the responses of entire marine assemblages are not well-understood, in part, because few monitoring programs incorporate both spatial and temporal replication. Here, we analyse an exceptionally comprehensive 29-year time series of North Atlantic groundfish assemblages monitored over 5° latitude to the west of Scotland. These fish assemblages show no systematic change in species richness through time, but steady change in species composition, leading to an increase in spatial homogenization: the species identity of colder northern localities increasingly resembles that of warmer southern localities. This biotic homogenization mirrors the spatial pattern of unevenly rising ocean temperatures over the same time period suggesting that climate change is primarily responsible for the spatial homogenization we observe. In this and other ecosystems, apparent constancy in species richness may mask major changes in species composition driven by anthropogenic change. PMID:26400102

  1. Method of Mapping Anomalies in Homogenous Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An electrical conductor and antenna are positioned in a fixed relationship to one another. Relative lateral movement is generated between the electrical conductor and a homogenous material while maintaining the electrical conductor at a fixed distance from the homogenous material. The antenna supplies a time-varying magnetic field that causes the electrical conductor to resonate and generate harmonic electric and magnetic field responses. Disruptions in at least one of the electric and magnetic field responses during this lateral movement are indicative of a lateral location of a subsurface anomaly. Next, relative out-of-plane movement is generated between the electrical conductor and the homogenous material in the vicinity of the anomaly's lateral location. Disruptions in at least one of the electric and magnetic field responses during this out-of-plane movement are indicative of a depth location of the subsurface anomaly. A recording of the disruptions provides a mapping of the anomaly.

  2. Direction of unsaturated flow in a homogeneous and isotropic hillslope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, N.; Kaya, B.S.; Godt, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of soil moisture in a homogeneous and isotropic hillslope is a transient, variably saturated physical process controlled by rainfall characteristics, hillslope geometry, and the hydrological properties of the hillslope materials. The major driving mechanisms for moisture movement are gravity and gradients in matric potential. The latter is solely controlled by gradients of moisture content. In a homogeneous and isotropic saturated hillslope, absent a gradient in moisture content and under the driving force of gravity with a constant pressure boundary at the slope surface, flow is always in the lateral downslope direction, under either transient or steady state conditions. However, under variably saturated conditions, both gravity and moisture content gradients drive fluid motion, leading to complex flow patterns. In general, the flow field near the ground surface is variably saturated and transient, and the direction of flow could be laterally downslope, laterally upslope, or vertically downward. Previous work has suggested that prevailing rainfall conditions are sufficient to completely control these flow regimes. This work, however, shows that under time-varying rainfall conditions, vertical, downslope, and upslope lateral flow can concurrently occur at different depths and locations within the hillslope. More importantly, we show that the state of wetting or drying in a hillslope defines the temporal and spatial regimes of flow and when and where laterally downslope and/or laterally upslope flow occurs. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Direction of unsaturated flow in a homogeneous and isotropic hillslope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Ning; Kaya, Basak Sener; Godt, Jonathan W.

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of soil moisture in a homogeneous and isotropic hillslope is a transient, variably saturated physical process controlled by rainfall characteristics, hillslope geometry, and the hydrological properties of the hillslope materials. The major driving mechanisms for moisture movement are gravity and gradients in matric potential. The latter is solely controlled by gradients of moisture content. In a homogeneous and isotropic saturated hillslope, absent a gradient in moisture content and under the driving force of gravity with a constant pressure boundary at the slope surface, flow is always in the lateral downslope direction, under either transient or steady state conditions. However, under variably saturated conditions, both gravity and moisture content gradients drive fluid motion, leading to complex flow patterns. In general, the flow field near the ground surface is variably saturated and transient, and the direction of flow could be laterally downslope, laterally upslope, or vertically downward. Previous work has suggested that prevailing rainfall conditions are sufficient to completely control these flow regimes. This work, however, shows that under time-varying rainfall conditions, vertical, downslope, and upslope lateral flow can concurrently occur at different depths and locations within the hillslope. More importantly, we show that the state of wetting or drying in a hillslope defines the temporal and spatial regimes of flow and when and where laterally downslope and/or laterally upslope flow occurs.

  4. Commensurability effects in holographic homogeneous lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Tomas; Krikun, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    An interesting application of the gauge/gravity duality to condensed matter physics is the description of a lattice via breaking translational invariance on the gravity side. By making use of global symmetries, it is possible to do so without scarifying homogeneity of the pertinent bulk solutions, which we thus term as "homogeneous holographic lattices." Due to their technical simplicity, these configurations have received a great deal of attention in the last few years and have been shown to correctly describe momentum relaxation and hence (finite) DC conductivities.

  5. Le changement comme tradition dans la recherche et la formation a la recherche en biotechnologie et en peripherie Etude de cas en sciences de la sante, sciences naturelles et genie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourque, Claude Julie

    Le champ de la recherche scientifique et de la formation a la recherche est traverse depuis quelques dizaines d'annees par plusieurs courants et discours associes au changement, mais peu de travaux empiriques permettent de comprendre ce qui change concretement. C'est la contribution originale de cette these au champ de l'education, plus specifiquement a l'etude sociologique de l'enseignement superieur ou sont concentrees les activites liees a la triade thematique du programme doctoral dans lequel elle a ete produite : recherche, formation et pratique. L'enquete-terrain a ete realisee en 2009 et 2010 aupres de 808 repondants affilies a 60 etablissements au Quebec et a produit un vaste materiau de nature mixte (donnees quantitatives et qualitatives). Un portrait de la nebuleuse biotechnologique qui touche les secteurs des sciences de la sante, des sciences naturelles et du genie a ete realise. Ce domaine concerne des dizaines de disciplines et se revele de nature transdisciplinaire, mais les pratiques n'y sont pas davantage marquees par le changement que celles d'autres domaines connexes. Les dynamiques sociales ont fait l'objet d'analyses comparatives dans quatre contextes: le choix des programmes, des objets et des methodes, le financement, la diffusion et la planification de la carriere. Les resultats indiquent que les echanges entre les agents traditionnellement situes au coeur des activites de recherche dominent ces dynamiques dans tous les contextes etudies. L'etude des representations au fondement des pratiques a revele l'existence de trois ecoles de pensee qui coexistent dans le champ scientifique: academique, pragmatique et economiste. Ces ecoles permettent de categoriser les agents en fonction des zones de fractures qui marquent leurs oppositions tout en identifiant ce qu'ils ont en commun. Les representations et les pratiques liees a la formation temoignent d'un habitus plutot homogene, alors que les contradictions semblent plus souvent ancrees dans des

  6. Taxonomic homogenization of woodland plant communities over 70 years

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Sally A.; Newton, Adrian C.; Morecroft, Michael D.; Bealey, Clive E.; Bullock, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Taxonomic homogenization (TH) is the increasing similarity of the species composition of ecological communities over time. Such homogenization represents a form of biodiversity loss and can result from local species turnover. Evidence for TH is limited, reflecting a lack of suitable historical datasets, and previous analyses have generated contrasting conclusions. We present an analysis of woodland patches across a southern English county (Dorset) in which we quantified 70 years of change in the composition of vascular plant communities. We tested the hypotheses that over this time patches decreased in species richness, homogenized, or shifted towards novel communities. Although mean species richness at the patch scale did not change, we found increased similarity in species composition among woodlands over time. We concluded that the woodlands have undergone TH without experiencing declines in local diversity or shifts towards novel communities. Analysis of species characteristics suggested that these changes were not driven by non-native species invasions or climate change, but instead reflected reorganization of the native plant communities in response to eutrophication and increasingly shaded conditions. These analyses provide, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence of TH in the UK and highlight the potential importance of this phenomenon as a contributor to biodiversity loss. PMID:19625318

  7. Homogeneous Catalysis by Transition Metal Compounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawby, Roger

    1988-01-01

    Examines four processes involving homogeneous catalysis which highlight the contrast between the simplicity of the overall reaction and the complexity of the catalytic cycle. Describes how catalysts provide circuitous routes in which all energy barriers are relatively low rather than lowering the activation energy for a single step reaction.…

  8. General Theorems about Homogeneous Ellipsoidal Inclusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korringa, J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Mathematical theorems about the properties of ellipsoids are developed. Included are Poisson's theorem concerning the magnetization of a homogeneous body of ellipsoidal shape, the polarization of a dielectric, the transport of heat or electricity through an ellipsoid, and other problems. (BB)

  9. Homogeneous Immunoassays: Historical Perspective and Future Promise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullman, Edwin F.

    1999-06-01

    The founding and growth of Syva Company is examined in the context of its leadership role in the development of homogeneous immunoassays. The simple mix and read protocols of these methods offer advantages in routine analytical and clinical applications. Early homogeneous methods were based on insensitive detection of immunoprecipitation during antigen/antibody binding. The advent of reporter groups in biology provided a means of quantitating immunochemical binding by labeling antibody or antigen and physically separating label incorporated into immune complexes from free label. Although high sensitivity was achieved, quantitative separations were experimentally demanding. Only when it became apparent that reporter groups could provide information, not only about the location of a molecule but also about its microscopic environment, was it possible to design practical non-separation methods. The evolution of early homogenous immunoassays was driven largely by the development of improved detection strategies. The first commercial spin immunoassays, developed by Syva for drug abuse testing during the Vietnam war, were followed by increasingly powerful methods such as immunochemical modulation of enzyme activity, fluorescence, and photo-induced chemiluminescence. Homogeneous methods that quantify analytes at femtomolar concentrations within a few minutes now offer important new opportunities in clinical diagnostics, nucleic acid detection and drug discovery.

  10. Extension theorems for homogenization on lattice structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    When applying homogenization techniques to problems involving lattice structures, it is necessary to extend certain functions defined on a perforated domain to a simply connected domain. This paper provides general extension operators which preserve bounds on derivatives of order l. Only the special case of honeycomb structures is considered.

  11. RELIABLE COMPUTATION OF HOMOGENEOUS AZEOTROPES. (R824731)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    It is important to determine the existence and composition of homogeneous azeotropes in the analysis of phase behavior and in the synthesis and design of separation systems, from both theoretical and practical standpoints. A new method for reliably locating an...

  12. Homogeneity analysis of precipitation series in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinzadeh Talaee, P.; Kouchakzadeh, Mahdi; Shifteh Some'e, B.

    2014-10-01

    Assessment of the reliability and quality of historical precipitation data is required in the modeling of hydrology and water resource processes and for climate change studies. The homogeneity of the annual and monthly precipitation data sets throughout Iran was tested using the Bayesian, Cumulative Deviations, and von Neumann tests at a significance level of 0.05. The precipitation records from 41 meteorological stations covering the years between 1966 and 2005 were considered. The annual series of Iranian precipitation were found to be homogeneous by applying the Bayesian and Cumulative Deviations tests, while the von Neumann test detected inhomogeneities at seven stations. Almost all the monthly precipitation data sets are homogeneous and considered as "useful." The outputs of the statistical tests for the homogeneity analysis of the precipitation time series had discrepancies in some cases which are related to different sensitivities of the tests to break in the time series. It was found that the von Neumann test is more sensitive than the Bayesian and Cumulative Deviations tests in the determination of inhomogeneity in the precipitation series.

  13. Can spherical eukaryotic microalgae cells be treated as optically homogeneous?

    PubMed

    Bhowmik, Arka; Pilon, Laurent

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to answer the question of whether spherical unicellular photoautotrophic eukaryotic microalgae cells, consisting of various intracellular compartments with their respective optical properties, can be modeled as homogeneous spheres with some effective complex index of refraction. The spectral radiation characteristics in the photosynthetically active region of a spherical heterogeneous microalgae cell, representative of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and consisting of spherical compartments corresponding to the cell wall, cytoplasm, chloroplast, nucleus, and mitochondria, were estimated using the superposition T-matrix method. The effects of the presence of intracellular lipids and/or starch accumulation caused by stresses, such as nitrogen limitation, were explored. Predictions by the T-matrix method were qualitatively and quantitatively consistent with experimental measurements for various microalgae species. The volume-equivalent homogeneous sphere approximation with volume-averaged effective complex index of refraction gave accurate estimates of the spectral (i) absorption and (ii) scattering cross sections of the heterogeneous cells under both nitrogen-replete and nitrogen-limited conditions. In addition, the effect of a strongly refracting cell wall, representative of Chlorella vulgaris, was investigated. In this case, for the purpose of predicting their integral radiation characteristics, the microalgae should be represented as a coated sphere with a coating corresponding to the cell wall and a homogeneous core with volume-averaged complex index of refraction for the rest of the cell. However, both homogeneous sphere and coated sphere approximations predicted strong resonances in the scattering phase function and spectral backscattering cross section that were not observed in that of the heterogeneous cells. PMID:27505647

  14. On cell problems for Hamilton-Jacobi equations with non-coercive Hamiltonians and their application to homogenization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamamuki, Nao; Nakayasu, Atsushi; Namba, Tokinaga

    2015-12-01

    We study a cell problem arising in homogenization for a Hamilton-Jacobi equation whose Hamiltonian is not coercive. We introduce a generalized notion of effective Hamiltonians by approximating the equation and characterize the solvability of the cell problem in terms of the generalized effective Hamiltonian. Under some sufficient conditions, the result is applied to the associated homogenization problem. We also show that homogenization for non-coercive equations fails in general.

  15. Hydrogenation of carboxylic acids with a homogeneous cobalt catalyst.

    PubMed

    Korstanje, Ties J; van der Vlugt, Jarl Ivar; Elsevier, Cornelis J; de Bruin, Bas

    2015-10-16

    The reduction of esters and carboxylic acids to alcohols is a highly relevant conversion for the pharmaceutical and fine-chemical industries and for biomass conversion. It is commonly performed using stoichiometric reagents, and the catalytic hydrogenation of the acids previously required precious metals. Here we report the homogeneously catalyzed hydrogenation of carboxylic acids to alcohols using earth-abundant cobalt. This system, which pairs Co(BF4)2·6H2O with a tridentate phosphine ligand, can reduce a wide range of esters and carboxylic acids under relatively mild conditions (100°C, 80 bar H2) and reaches turnover numbers of up to 8000. PMID:26472903

  16. Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    DOEpatents

    Duffy, Kevin P.; Kieser, Andrew J.; Rodman, Anthony; Liechty, Michael P.; Hergart, Carl-Anders; Hardy, William L.

    2008-05-27

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

  17. Refined Zigzag Theory for Homogeneous, Laminated Composite, and Sandwich Plates: A Homogeneous Limit Methodology for Zigzag Function Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tessler, Alexander; DiSciuva, Marco; Gherlone, marco

    2010-01-01

    The Refined Zigzag Theory (RZT) for homogeneous, laminated composite, and sandwich plates is presented from a multi-scale formalism starting with the inplane displacement field expressed as a superposition of coarse and fine contributions. The coarse kinematic field is that of first-order shear-deformation theory, whereas the fine kinematic field has a piecewise-linear zigzag distribution through the thickness. The condition of limiting homogeneity of transverse-shear properties is proposed and yields four distinct sets of zigzag functions. By examining elastostatic solutions for highly heterogeneous sandwich plates, the best-performing zigzag functions are identified. The RZT predictive capabilities to model homogeneous and highly heterogeneous sandwich plates are critically assessed, demonstrating its superior efficiency, accuracy ; and a wide range of applicability. The present theory, which is derived from the virtual work principle, is well-suited for developing computationally efficient CO-continuous finite elements, and is thus appropriate for the analysis and design of high-performance load-bearing aerospace structures.

  18. Homogenization of tissues via picosecond-infrared laser (PIRL) ablation: Giving a closer view on the in-vivo composition of protein species as compared to mechanical homogenization

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatkowski, M.; Wurlitzer, M.; Krutilin, A.; Kiani, P.; Nimer, R.; Omidi, M.; Mannaa, A.; Bussmann, T.; Bartkowiak, K.; Kruber, S.; Uschold, S.; Steffen, P.; Lübberstedt, J.; Küpker, N.; Petersen, H.; Knecht, R.; Hansen, N.O.; Zarrine-Afsar, A.; Robertson, W.D.; Miller, R.J.D.; Schlüter, H.

    2016-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications and proteolytic processing regulate almost all physiological processes. Dysregulation can potentially result in pathologic protein species causing diseases. Thus, tissue species proteomes of diseased individuals provide diagnostic information. Since the composition of tissue proteomes can rapidly change during tissue homogenization by the action of enzymes released from their compartments, disease specific protein species patterns can vanish. Recently, we described a novel, ultrafast and soft method for cold vaporization of tissue via desorption by impulsive vibrational excitation (DIVE) using a picosecond-infrared-laser (PIRL). Given that DIVE extraction may provide improved access to the original composition of protein species in tissues, we compared the proteome composition of tissue protein homogenates after DIVE homogenization with conventional homogenizations. A higher number of intact protein species was observed in DIVE homogenates. Due to the ultrafast transfer of proteins from tissues via gas phase into frozen condensates of the aerosols, intact protein species were exposed to a lesser extent to enzymatic degradation reactions compared with conventional protein extraction. In addition, total yield of the number of proteins is higher in DIVE homogenates, because they are very homogenous and contain almost no insoluble particles, allowing direct analysis with subsequent analytical methods without the necessity of centrifugation. Biological significance Enzymatic protein modifications during tissue homogenization are responsible for changes of the in-vivo protein species composition. Cold vaporization of tissues by PIRL-DIVE is comparable with taking a snapshot at the time of the laser irradiation of the dynamic changes that occur continuously under in-vivo conditions. At that time point all biomolecules are transferred into an aerosol, which is immediately frozen. PMID:26778141

  19. Homogeneous crystal nucleation in binary metallic melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, C. V.; Spaepen, F.

    1983-01-01

    A method for calculating the homogeneous crystal nucleation frequency in binary metallic melts is developed. The free energy of crystallization is derived from regular solution models for the liquid and solid and is used, together with model-based estimates of the interfacial tension, to calculate the nucleation frequency from the classical theory. The method can account for the composition dependence of the maximum undercooling observed in a number of experiments on small droplet dispersions. It can also be used to calculate the driving force for crystal growth and to obtain more precise estimates of the homogeneous crystal nucleation frequency in glass-forming alloys. This method, although approximate, is simple to apply, and requires only knowledge of the phase diagram and a few readily available thermodynamic quantities as input data.

  20. Beyond relationships between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, David A.; Katz, Alexander; Arslan, Ilke; Gates, Bruce C.

    2014-08-13

    Scientists who regard catalysis as a coherent field have been striving for decades to articulate the fundamental unifying principles. But because these principles seem to be broader than chemistry, chemical engineering, and materials science combined, catalytic scientists commonly interact within the sub-domains of homogeneous, heterogeneous, and bio-catalysis, and increasingly within even narrower domains such as organocatalysis, phase-transfer catalysis, acid-base catalysis, zeolite catalysis, etc. Attempts to unify catalysis have motivated researchers to find relationships between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis and to mimic enzymes. These themes have inspired vibrant international meetings and workshops, and we have benefited from the idea exchanges and have some thoughts about a path forward.

  1. Homogeneous Superpixels from Markov Random Walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perbet, Frank; Stenger, Björn; Maki, Atsuto

    This paper presents a novel algorithm to generate homogeneous superpixels from Markov random walks. We exploit Markov clustering (MCL) as the methodology, a generic graph clustering method based on stochastic flow circulation. In particular, we introduce a graph pruning strategy called compact pruning in order to capture intrinsic local image structure. The resulting superpixels are homogeneous, i.e. uniform in size and compact in shape. The original MCL algorithm does not scale well to a graph of an image due to the square computation of the Markov matrix which is necessary for circulating the flow. The proposed pruning scheme has the advantages of faster computation, smaller memory footprint, and straightforward parallel implementation. Through comparisons with other recent techniques, we show that the proposed algorithm achieves state-of-the-art performance.

  2. Detonation in shocked homogeneous high explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, C.S.; Holmes, N.C.; Souers, P.C.

    1995-11-01

    We have studied shock-induced changes in homogeneous high explosives including nitromethane, tetranitromethane, and single crystals of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) by using fast time-resolved emission and Raman spectroscopy at a two-stage light-gas gun. The results reveal three distinct steps during which the homogeneous explosives chemically evolve to final detonation products. These are (1) the initiation of shock compressed high explosives after an induction period, (2) thermal explosion of shock-compressed and/or reacting materials, and (3) a decay to a steady-state representing a transition to the detonation of uncompressed high explosives. Based on a gray-body approximation, we have obtained the CJ temperatures: 3800 K for nitromethane, 2950 K for tetranitromethane, and 4100 K for PETN. We compare the data with various thermochemical equilibrium calculations. In this paper we will also show a preliminary result of single-shot time-resolved Raman spectroscopy applied to shock-compressed nitromethane.

  3. Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy and homogeneity in polycrystals.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Gunes; Darling, T W; McCall, K R

    2009-01-01

    Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) is capable of determining the bulk elastic properties of a solid from its characteristic vibration frequencies, given the dimensions, density and shape of the sample. The model used for extracting values of the elastic constants assumes perfect homogeneity, which can be approximated by average-isotropic polycrystals. This approximation is excellent in the small grain regime assumed for most averaging procedures, but for real samples with indeterminate grain size distributions, it is not clear where the approximation breaks down. RUS measurements were made on pure copper samples where the grain size distribution was changed by progressive heat treatments in order to find a quantitative limit for the loss of homogeneity. It is found that when a measure of the largest grains is 15% of the sample's smallest dimension, the deviation in RUS fits indicates elastic inhomogeneity. PMID:18804831

  4. Broken Ergodicity in Ideal, Homogeneous, Incompressible Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morin, Lee; Shebalin, John; Fu, Terry; Nguyen, Phu; Shum, Victor

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the statistical mechanics of numerical models of ideal homogeneous, incompressible turbulence and their relevance for dissipative fluids and magnetofluids. These numerical models are based on Fourier series and the relevant statistical theory predicts that Fourier coefficients of fluid velocity and magnetic fields (if present) are zero-mean random variables. However, numerical simulations clearly show that certain coefficients have a non-zero mean value that can be very large compared to the associated standard deviation. We explain this phenomena in terms of broken ergodicity', which is defined to occur when dynamical behavior does not match ensemble predictions on very long time-scales. We review the theoretical basis of broken ergodicity, apply it to 2-D and 3-D fluid and magnetohydrodynamic simulations of homogeneous turbulence, and show new results from simulations using GPU (graphical processing unit) computers.

  5. CUDA Simulation of Homogeneous, Incompressible Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morin, Lee; Shebalin, John V.; Shum, Victor; Fu, Terry

    2011-01-01

    We discuss very fast Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) simulations of ideal homogeneous incompressible turbulence based on Fourier models. These models have associated statistical theories that predict that Fourier coefficients of fluid velocity and magnetic fields (if present) are zero-mean random variables. Prior numerical simulations have shown that certain coefficients have a non-zero mean value that can be very large compared to the associated standard deviation. We review the theoretical basis of this "broken ergodicity" as applied to 2-D and 3-D fluid and magnetohydrodynamic simulations of homogeneous turbulence. Our new simulations examine the phenomenon of broken ergodicity through very long time and large grid size runs performed on a state-of-the-art CUDA platform. Results comparing various CUDA hardware configurations and grid sizes are discussed. NS and MHD results are compared.

  6. Homogeneity of kappa statistics in multiple samples.

    PubMed

    Reed, J F

    2000-08-01

    The measurement of intra-observer agreement when the data are categorical has been the subject of several investigators since Cohen first proposed the kappa (kappa) as a chance-corrected coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Subsequent procedures have been developed to assess the agreement of several raters using a dichotomous classification scheme, assess majority agreement among several raters using a polytomous classification scheme, and the use of kappa as an indicator of the quality of a measurement. Further developments include inference procedures for testing the homogeneity of k>/=2 independent kappa statistics. An executable FORTRAN code for testing the homogeneity of kappa statistics (kappa(h)) across multiple sites or studies is given. The FORTRAN program listing and/or executable programs are available from the author on request. PMID:10927153

  7. A homogenization model of the annulus fibrosus.

    PubMed

    Yin, Luzhong; Elliott, Dawn M

    2005-08-01

    The objective of this study was to use a homogenization model of the anisotropic mechanical behavior of annulus fibrosus (AF) to address some of the issues raised in structural finite element and fiber-reinforced strain energy models. Homogenization theory describes the effect of microstructure on macroscopic material properties by assuming the material is composed of repeating representative volume elements. We first developed the general homogenization model and then specifically prescribed the model to in-plane single lamella and multi-lamellae AF properties. We compared model predictions to experimentally measured AF properties and performed parametric studies. The predicted tensile moduli (E theta and E z) and their dependence on fiber volume fraction and fiber angle were consistent with measured values. However, the model prediction for shear modulus (G thetaz) was two orders of magnitude larger than directly measured values. The values of E theta and E z were strongly dependent on the model input for matrix modulus, much more so than the fiber modulus. These parametric analyses demonstrated the contribution of the matrix in AF load support, which may play a role when protoeglycans are decreased in disc degeneration, and will also be an important design factor in tissue engineering. We next compared the homogenization model to a 3-D structural finite element model and fiber-reinforced energy models. Similarities between the three model types provided confidence in the ability of these models to predict AF tissue mechanics. This study provides a direct comparison between the several types of AF models and will be useful for interpreting previous studies and elucidating AF structure-function relationships in disc degeneration and for functional tissue engineering. PMID:15958225

  8. The Architecture of a Homogeneous Vector Supercomputer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafson, J. L.; Hawkinson, S.; Scott, K.

    A new homogeneous computer architecture combines two fundamental techniques for high-speed computing: parallelism based on the binary n-cube interconnect, and pipelined vector arithmetic. The design makes extensive use of VLSI technology, resulting in a processing node that can be economically replicated. The new system achieves a careful balance between high-speed communication and floating-point computation. This paper describes the new architecture in detail and explores some of the issues in developing effective software.

  9. Spherical cloaking with homogeneous isotropic multilayered structures.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Hu, Li; Xu, Xiaofei; Feng, Yijun

    2009-04-01

    We propose a practical realization of electromagnetic spherical cloaking by layered structure of homogeneous isotropic materials. By mimicking the classic anisotropic cloak by many alternating thin layers of isotropic dielectrics, the permittivity and permeability in each isotropic layer can be properly determined by effective medium theory in order to achieve invisibility. The model greatly facilitates modeling by Mie theory and realization by multilayer coating of dielectrics. Eigenmode analysis is also presented to provide insights of the discretization in multilayers. PMID:19518392

  10. MULTIGRID HOMOGENIZATION OF HETEROGENEOUS POROUS MEDIA

    SciTech Connect

    Dendy, J.E.; Moulton, J.D.

    2000-10-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); this report, however, reports on only two years research, since this project was terminated at the end of two years in response to the reduction in funding for the LDRD Program at LANL. The numerical simulation of flow through heterogeneous porous media has become a vital tool in forecasting reservoir performance, analyzing groundwater supply and predicting the subsurface flow of contaminants. Consequently, the computational efficiency and accuracy of these simulations is paramount. However, the parameters of the underlying mathematical models (e.g., permeability, conductivity) typically exhibit severe variations over a range of significantly different length scales. Thus the numerical treatment of these problems relies on a homogenization or upscaling procedure to define an approximate coarse-scale problem that adequately captures the influence of the fine-scale structure, with a resultant compromise between the competing objectives of computational efficiency and numerical accuracy. For homogenization in models of flow through heterogeneous porous media, We have developed new, efficient, numerical, multilevel methods, that offer a significant improvement in the compromise between accuracy and efficiency. We recently combined this approach with the work of Dvorak to compute bounded estimates of the homogenized permeability for such flows and demonstrated the effectiveness of this new algorithm with numerical examples.

  11. Homogeneous cooling state of frictionless rod particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio-Largo, S. M.; Alonso-Marroquin, F.; Weinhart, T.; Luding, S.; Hidalgo, R. C.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we report some theoretical results on granular gases consisting of frictionless 3D rods with low energy dissipation. We performed simulations on the temporal evolution of soft spherocylinders, using a molecular dynamics algorithm implemented on GPU architecture. A homogeneous cooling state for rods, where the time dependence of the system's intensive variables occurs only through a global granular temperature, has been identified. We have found a homogeneous cooling process, which is in excellent agreement with Haff's law, when using an adequate rescaling time τ(ξ), the value of which depends on the particle elongation ξ and the restitution coefficient. It was further found that scaled particle velocity distributions remain approximately Gaussian regardless of the particle shape. Similarly to a system of ellipsoids, energy equipartition between rotational and translational degrees of freedom was better satisfied as one gets closer to the elastic limit. Taking advantage of scaling properties, we have numerically determined the general functionality of the magnitude Dc(ξ), which describes the efficiency of the energy interchange between rotational and translational degrees of freedom, as well as its dependence on particle shape. We have detected a range of particle elongations (1.5 < ξ < 4.0), where the average energy transfer between the rotational and translational degrees of freedom results greater for spherocylinders than for homogeneous ellipsoids with the same aspect ratio.

  12. Homogeneous Biosensing Based on Magnetic Particle Labels

    PubMed Central

    Schrittwieser, Stefan; Pelaz, Beatriz; Parak, Wolfgang J.; Lentijo-Mozo, Sergio; Soulantica, Katerina; Dieckhoff, Jan; Ludwig, Frank; Guenther, Annegret; Tschöpe, Andreas; Schotter, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    The growing availability of biomarker panels for molecular diagnostics is leading to an increasing need for fast and sensitive biosensing technologies that are applicable to point-of-care testing. In that regard, homogeneous measurement principles are especially relevant as they usually do not require extensive sample preparation procedures, thus reducing the total analysis time and maximizing ease-of-use. In this review, we focus on homogeneous biosensors for the in vitro detection of biomarkers. Within this broad range of biosensors, we concentrate on methods that apply magnetic particle labels. The advantage of such methods lies in the added possibility to manipulate the particle labels by applied magnetic fields, which can be exploited, for example, to decrease incubation times or to enhance the signal-to-noise-ratio of the measurement signal by applying frequency-selective detection. In our review, we discriminate the corresponding methods based on the nature of the acquired measurement signal, which can either be based on magnetic or optical detection. The underlying measurement principles of the different techniques are discussed, and biosensing examples for all techniques are reported, thereby demonstrating the broad applicability of homogeneous in vitro biosensing based on magnetic particle label actuation. PMID:27275824

  13. TESTING HOMOGENEITY WITH GALAXY STAR FORMATION HISTORIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyle, Ben; Jimenez, Raul; Tojeiro, Rita; Maartens, Roy; Heavens, Alan; Clarkson, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Observationally confirming spatial homogeneity on sufficiently large cosmological scales is of importance to test one of the underpinning assumptions of cosmology, and is also imperative for correctly interpreting dark energy. A challenging aspect of this is that homogeneity must be probed inside our past light cone, while observations take place on the light cone. The star formation history (SFH) in the galaxy fossil record provides a novel way to do this. We calculate the SFH of stacked luminous red galaxy (LRG) spectra obtained from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We divide the LRG sample into 12 equal-area contiguous sky patches and 10 redshift slices (0.2 < z < 0.5), which correspond to 120 blocks of volume {approx}0.04 Gpc{sup 3}. Using the SFH in a time period that samples the history of the universe between look-back times 11.5 and 13.4 Gyr as a proxy for homogeneity, we calculate the posterior distribution for the excess large-scale variance due to inhomogeneity, and find that the most likely solution is no extra variance at all. At 95% credibility, there is no evidence of deviations larger than 5.8%.

  14. Homogeneous Biosensing Based on Magnetic Particle Labels.

    PubMed

    Schrittwieser, Stefan; Pelaz, Beatriz; Parak, Wolfgang J; Lentijo-Mozo, Sergio; Soulantica, Katerina; Dieckhoff, Jan; Ludwig, Frank; Guenther, Annegret; Tschöpe, Andreas; Schotter, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    The growing availability of biomarker panels for molecular diagnostics is leading to an increasing need for fast and sensitive biosensing technologies that are applicable to point-of-care testing. In that regard, homogeneous measurement principles are especially relevant as they usually do not require extensive sample preparation procedures, thus reducing the total analysis time and maximizing ease-of-use. In this review, we focus on homogeneous biosensors for the in vitro detection of biomarkers. Within this broad range of biosensors, we concentrate on methods that apply magnetic particle labels. The advantage of such methods lies in the added possibility to manipulate the particle labels by applied magnetic fields, which can be exploited, for example, to decrease incubation times or to enhance the signal-to-noise-ratio of the measurement signal by applying frequency-selective detection. In our review, we discriminate the corresponding methods based on the nature of the acquired measurement signal, which can either be based on magnetic or optical detection. The underlying measurement principles of the different techniques are discussed, and biosensing examples for all techniques are reported, thereby demonstrating the broad applicability of homogeneous in vitro biosensing based on magnetic particle label actuation. PMID:27275824

  15. Evaluation of a locally homogeneous flow model of spray combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, C. P.; Szekely, G. A., Jr.; Faeth, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    A model of spray combustion which employs a second-order turbulence model was developed. The assumption of locally homogeneous flow is made, implying infinitely fast transport rates between the phase. Measurements to test the model were completed for a gaseous n-propane flame and an air atomized n-pentane spray flame, burning in stagnant air at atmospheric pressure. Profiles of mean velocity and temperature, as well as velocity fluctuations and Reynolds stress, were measured in the flames. The predictions for the gas flame were in excellent agreement with the measurements. The predictions for the spray were qualitatively correct, but effects of finite rate interphase transport were evident, resulting in a overstimation of the rate development of the flow. Predictions of spray penetration length at high pressures, including supercritical combustion conditions, were also completed for comparison with earlier measurements. Test conditions involved a pressure atomized n-pentane spray, burning in stagnant air at pressures of 3, 5, and 9 MPa. The comparison between predictions and measurements was fair. This is not a very sensitive test of the model, however, and further high pressure experimental and theoretical results are needed before a satisfactory assessment of the locally homogeneous flow approximation can be made.

  16. Elastostatics of a spherical inclusion in homogeneous biological media.

    PubMed

    Bilgen, M; Insana, M F

    1998-01-01

    A three-dimensional spherical inclusion model that approximates a lesion bonded to a tissue matrix is proposed for biomedical elastography. Analytical formulae describing spatial strain and stress distributions generated in infinite media by uniform loading are given under a linear, homogeneous, isotropic elasticity assumption. Strain and stress distributions are also calculated using finite-element analysis (FEA) for a variety of cases to determine the effects of shear modulus distribution, external loading conditions (uniform stress versus uniform displacement), compressor size and matrix dimensions on the elastostatics of the tissue. Analytical strain and stress predictions are shown to agree with the FEA results to within 10% accuracy provided that the matrix dimensions are at least ten times that of the inclusion. Also for these cases, uniform-stress boundary conditions can be equivalently represented by uniform displacement of the boundary. Spherical inclusions exhibit a lower efficiency for transferring elastic shear modulus contrast into strain contrast than cylindrical or planar inclusions. Additional compression will increase the strain contrast. However, large compressions also lead to increases in ultrasonic signal decorrelation and strain and stress concentrations in the homogeneous matrix around the inclusion. Although strain concentrations may help describe the boundaries of the inclusion more clearly, they also increase the risk of damaging the tissue. Understanding the strain and stress distributions in a biological tissue containing a lesion is necessary for optimizing the experimental configurations and consequently improving the diagnostic values of elasticity imaging. PMID:9483620

  17. All-sky homogeneity of precipitable water vapour over Paranal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querel, Richard R.; Kerber, Florian

    2014-08-01

    A Low Humidity and Temperature Profiling (LHATPRO) microwave radiometer, manufactured by Radiometer Physics GmbH (RPG), is used to monitor sky conditions over ESO's Paranal observatory in support of VLT science operations. The unit measures several channels across the strong water vapour emission line at 183 GHz, necessary for resolving the low levels of precipitable water vapour (PWV) that are prevalent on Paranal (median ~2.4 mm). The instrument consists of a humidity profiler (183-191 GHz), a temperature profiler (51-58 GHz), and an infrared camera (~10 μm) for cloud detection. We present, for the first time, a statistical analysis of the homogeneity of all-sky PWV using 21 months of periodic (every 6 hours) all-sky scans from the radiometer. These data provide unique insight into the spatial and temporal variation of atmospheric conditions relevant for astronomical observations, particularly in the infrared. We find the PWV over Paranal to be remarkably homogeneous across the sky down to 27.5° elevation with a median variation of 0.32 mm (peak to valley) or 0.07 mm (rms). The homogeneity is a function of the absolute PWV but the relative variation is fairly constant at 10-15% (peak to valley) and 3% (rms). Such variations will not be a significant issue for analysis of astronomical data. Users at ESO can specify PWV - measured at zenith - as an ambient constraint in service mode to enable, for instance, very demanding observations in the infrared that can only be conducted during periods of very good atmospheric transmission and hence low PWV. We conclude that in general it will not be necessary to add another observing constraint for PWV homogeneity to ensure integrity of observations. For demanding observations requiring very low PWV, where the relative variation is higher, the optimum support could be provided by observing with the LHATPRO in the same line-of-sight simultaneously. Such a mode of operations has already been tested but will have to be

  18. Dark energy homogeneity in general relativity: Are we applying it correctly?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duniya, Didam G. A.

    2016-04-01

    Thus far, there does not appear to be an agreed (or adequate) definition of homogeneous dark energy (DE). This paper seeks to define a valid, adequate homogeneity condition for DE. Firstly, it is shown that as long as w_x ≠ -1, DE must have perturbations. It is then argued, independent of w_x, that a correct definition of homogeneous DE is one whose density perturbation vanishes in comoving gauge: and hence, in the DE rest frame. Using phenomenological DE, the consequence of this approach is then investigated in the observed galaxy power spectrum—with the power spectrum being normalized on small scales, at the present epoch z=0. It is found that for high magnification bias, relativistic corrections in the galaxy power spectrum are able to distinguish the concordance model from both a homogeneous DE and a clustering DE—on super-horizon scales.

  19. Microphysical Modelling of the 1999-2000 Arctic Winter. 3; Impact of Homogeneous Freezing on PSCs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drdla, K.

    2003-01-01

    Simulations of the 1999-2000 winter have tested the effect on polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) of the homogeneous freezing of liquid ternary solutions into nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and nitric acid dihydrate (NAD). Proposed laboratory-derived volume-based and surface-based homogeneous freezing rates have both been examined, including different assumptions about the extrapolation of laboratory measurements to atmospheric conditions. Widespread PSC formation and denitrification are possible in several of the scenarios examined. However, the simulations are all unable to explain the solid-phase PSCs observed early in the 1999-2000 winter, and are unable to reproduce the measured extent of vortex denitrification. These problems can both be attributed to the relatively cold temperatures, more than 5 K below the NAT condensation point, necessary for effective homogeneous freezing. Therefore synoptic-scale homogeneous freezing appears unlikely to be the primary mechanism responsible for solid-phase PSC formation.

  20. The Chemical Homogeneity of Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovy, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Determining the level of chemical homogeneity in open clusters is of fundamental importance in the study of the evolution of star-forming clouds and that of the Galactic disk. Yet limiting the initial abundance spread in clusters has been hampered by difficulties in obtaining consistent spectroscopic abundances for different stellar types. Without reference to any specific model of stellar photospheres, a model for a homogeneous cluster is that it forms a one-dimensional sequence, with any differences between members due to variations in stellar mass and observational uncertainties. I present a novel method for investigating the abundance spread in open clusters that tests this one-dimensional hypothesis at the level of observed stellar spectra, rather than constraining homogeneity using derived abundances as is traditionally done. Using high-resolution APOGEE spectra for 49 giants in M67, NGC 6819, and NGC 2420 I demonstrate that these spectra form one-dimensional sequences for each cluster. With detailed forward modeling of the spectra and Approximate Bayesian Computation, I derive strong limits on the initial abundance spread of 15 elements: <0.01 (0.02) {dex} for C and Fe, ≲0.015 (0.03) {dex} for N, O, Mg, Si, and Ni, ≲0.02 (0.03) {dex} for Al, Ca, and Mn, and ≲0.03 (0.05) {dex} for Na, S, K, Ti, and V (at 68% and 95% confidence, respectively). The strong limits on C and O imply that no pollution by massive core-collapse supernovae occurred during star formation in open clusters, which, thus, need to form within ≲6 {Myr}. Further development of this and related techniques will bring the power of differential abundances to stars other than solar twins in large spectroscopic surveys and will help unravel the history of star formation and chemical enrichment in the Milky Way through chemical tagging.

  1. Sulfur isotope homogeneity of lunar mare basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wing, Boswell A.; Farquhar, James

    2015-12-01

    We present a new set of high precision measurements of relative 33S/32S, 34S/32S, and 36S/32S values in lunar mare basalts. The measurements are referenced to the Vienna-Canyon Diablo Troilite (V-CDT) scale, on which the international reference material, IAEA-S-1, is characterized by δ33S = -0.061‰, δ34S ≡ -0.3‰ and δ36S = -1.27‰. The present dataset confirms that lunar mare basalts are characterized by a remarkable degree of sulfur isotopic homogeneity, with most new and published SF6-based sulfur isotope measurements consistent with a single mass-dependent mean isotopic composition of δ34S = 0.58 ± 0.05‰, Δ33S = 0.008 ± 0.006‰, and Δ36S = 0.2 ± 0.2‰, relative to V-CDT, where the uncertainties are quoted as 99% confidence intervals on the mean. This homogeneity allows identification of a single sample (12022, 281) with an apparent 33S enrichment, possibly reflecting cosmic-ray-induced spallation reactions. It also reveals that some mare basalts have slightly lower δ34S values than the population mean, which is consistent with sulfur loss from a reduced basaltic melt prior to eruption at the lunar surface. Both the sulfur isotope homogeneity of the lunar mare basalts and the predicted sensitivity of sulfur isotopes to vaporization-driven fractionation suggest that less than ≈1-10% of lunar sulfur was lost after a potential moon-forming impact event.

  2. Compressible homogeneous shear: Simulation and modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkar, S.; Erlebacher, G.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    1992-01-01

    Compressibility effects were studied on turbulence by direct numerical simulation of homogeneous shear flow. A primary observation is that the growth of the turbulent kinetic energy decreases with increasing turbulent Mach number. The sinks provided by compressible dissipation and the pressure dilatation, along with reduced Reynolds shear stress, are shown to contribute to the reduced growth of kinetic energy. Models are proposed for these dilatational terms and verified by direct comparison with the simulations. The differences between the incompressible and compressible fields are brought out by the examination of spectra, statistical moments, and structure of the rate of strain tensor.

  3. Multifractal spectra in homogeneous shear flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deane, A. E.; Keefe, L. R.

    1988-01-01

    Employing numerical simulations of 3-D homogeneous shear flow, the associated multifractal spectra of the energy dissipation, scalar dissipation and vorticity fields were calculated. The results for (128) cubed simulations of this flow, and those obtained in recent experiments that analyzed 1- and 2-D intersections of atmospheric and laboratory flows, are in some agreement. A two-scale Cantor set model of the energy cascade process which describes the experimental results from 1-D intersections quite well, describes the 3-D results only marginally.

  4. Homogeneous system UTBLI for 1964 - 1986.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanović, B.; Durović, L.; Jovanović, M.

    1993-09-01

    Homogeneous results of universal time determinations derived from the observations by the Transit Instrument of Belgrade Astronomical Observatory (BLI) for the interval 1964 - 1986 are presented. They were prepared in accordance with IERS standards and listed in a table. In addition, using the smoothed values of monthly averaged UT1BLI-UT1BIH, an analysis on the variation of the local system UT1BLI is carried out, and also, systematic deviations after the adopted BIH model are shown. Undoubtedly, there exists a significant 11 - 14 year periodic change of UT1BLI system.

  5. Mirror Symmetry for Quasi-Homogeneous Singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathnakumara, Himal; Jarvis, Tyler

    2008-10-01

    I will present an introduction to mirror symmetry in the context of string theory. Then I will describe an instance of mirror symmetry for singularties defined by quasi-homogeneous polynomials in weighted projective spaces. Milnor rings and the FJRW (Fan-Jarvis-Ruan-Witten) rings associated with these singularities and their relation to the Landua-Ginzburg A model and the Landua-Ginzburg B model will be explained. Results of the calculations for certain singularities for which the mirror symmetry conjecture has been verified will be presented.

  6. Heterogeneity versus homogeneity of multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Fumitaka; Martinez, Nicholas E; Omura, Seiichi; Tsunoda, Ikuo

    2011-01-01

    The 10th International Congress of Neuroimmunology, including the 10th European School of Neuroimmunology Course, was held by the International Society of Neuroimmunology in Sitges (Barcelona, Spain) on 26–30 October 2010. The conference covered a wide spectrum of issues and challenges in both basic science and clinical aspects of neuroimmunology. Data and ideas were shared through a variety of programs, including review talks and poster sessions. One of the topics of the congress was whether multiple sclerosis is a homogenous or heterogenous disease, clinically and pathologically, throughout its course. PMID:21426254

  7. Local structures of homogeneous Hall MHD turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, H.; Araki, K.

    2011-12-01

    Local structures of decaying homogeneous and isotropic Hall MHD turbulence are studied by means of direct numerical simulations. Regions of strong vorticity and strong current density in Hall MHD turbulence are compared to those of single-fluid MHD turbulence. An analysis by the use of a low-pass filter reveals that the introduction of the Hall term can modify not only small-scale structures of the current density but also structures of the vorticity field, especially at the scales smaller than the ion skin depth.

  8. Homogeneous and hypersurface-homogeneous shear-free perfect fluids ingeneral relativity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, C. B.

    1988-08-01

    Shear-free, general-relativistic perfect fluids are investigated in the case where they are either homogeneous or hypersurface-homogeneous (and, in particular, spatially homogeneous). It is assumed that the energy density μ and the presurep of the fluid are related by a barotropic equation of statep = p(μ), where μ +p ≠ 0. Under such circumstances, it follows that either the fluid's volume expansion rate θ or the fluid's vorticity (i.e., rotation) ω must vanish. In the homogeneous case, this leads to only two possibilities: either ω = θ = 0 (the Einstein static solution), or ω ≠ 0,θ = 0 (the Gödel solution). In the hypersurface-homogeneous case, the situation is more complicated: either ω = 0, θ≠ 0 (as exemplified,inter alia, by the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models), or ω ≠ 0, θ = 0 (which pertains, for example, in general stationary cylindrically symmetric fluids with rigid rotation, or ω = θ = 0 (as occurs for static spherically symmetric solutions). Each possibility is further subdivided in an invariant way, and related to the studies of other authors, thereby unifying and extending these earlier works.

  9. The Statistical Mechanics of Ideal Homogeneous Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    2002-01-01

    Plasmas, such as those found in the space environment or in plasma confinement devices, are often modeled as electrically conducting fluids. When fluids and plasmas are energetically stirred, regions of highly nonlinear, chaotic behavior known as turbulence arise. Understanding the fundamental nature of turbulence is a long-standing theoretical challenge. The present work describes a statistical theory concerning a certain class of nonlinear, finite dimensional, dynamical models of turbulence. These models arise when the partial differential equations describing incompressible, ideal (i.e., nondissipative) homogeneous fluid and magnetofluid (i.e., plasma) turbulence are Fourier transformed into a very large set of ordinary differential equations. These equations define a divergenceless flow in a high-dimensional phase space, which allows for the existence of a Liouville theorem, guaranteeing a distribution function based on constants of the motion (integral invariants). The novelty of these particular dynamical systems is that there are integral invariants other than the energy, and that some of these invariants behave like pseudoscalars under two of the discrete symmetry transformations of physics, parity, and charge conjugation. In this work the 'rugged invariants' of ideal homogeneous turbulence are shown to be the only significant scalar and pseudoscalar invariants. The discovery that pseudoscalar invariants cause symmetries of the original equations to be dynamically broken and induce a nonergodic structure on the associated phase space is the primary result presented here. Applicability of this result to dissipative turbulence is also discussed.

  10. Emergence of Leadership within a Homogeneous Group

    PubMed Central

    Eskridge, Brent E.; Valle, Elizabeth; Schlupp, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Large scale coordination without dominant, consistent leadership is frequent in nature. How individuals emerge from within the group as leaders, however transitory this position may be, has become an increasingly common question asked. This question is further complicated by the fact that in many of these aggregations, differences between individuals are minor and the group is largely considered to be homogeneous. In the simulations presented here, we investigate the emergence of leadership in the extreme situation in which all individuals are initially identical. Using a mathematical model developed using observations of natural systems, we show that the addition of a simple concept of leadership tendencies which is inspired by observations of natural systems and is affected by experience can produce distinct leaders and followers using a nonlinear feedback loop. Most importantly, our results show that small differences in experience can promote the rapid emergence of stable roles for leaders and followers. Our findings have implications for our understanding of adaptive behaviors in initially homogeneous groups, the role experience can play in shaping leadership tendencies, and the use of self-assessment in adapting behavior and, ultimately, self-role-assignment. PMID:26226381

  11. Emergence of Leadership within a Homogeneous Group.

    PubMed

    Eskridge, Brent E; Valle, Elizabeth; Schlupp, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Large scale coordination without dominant, consistent leadership is frequent in nature. How individuals emerge from within the group as leaders, however transitory this position may be, has become an increasingly common question asked. This question is further complicated by the fact that in many of these aggregations, differences between individuals are minor and the group is largely considered to be homogeneous. In the simulations presented here, we investigate the emergence of leadership in the extreme situation in which all individuals are initially identical. Using a mathematical model developed using observations of natural systems, we show that the addition of a simple concept of leadership tendencies which is inspired by observations of natural systems and is affected by experience can produce distinct leaders and followers using a nonlinear feedback loop. Most importantly, our results show that small differences in experience can promote the rapid emergence of stable roles for leaders and followers. Our findings have implications for our understanding of adaptive behaviors in initially homogeneous groups, the role experience can play in shaping leadership tendencies, and the use of self-assessment in adapting behavior and, ultimately, self-role-assignment. PMID:26226381

  12. Si isotope homogeneity of the solar nebula

    SciTech Connect

    Pringle, Emily A.; Savage, Paul S.; Moynier, Frédéric; Jackson, Matthew G.; Barrat, Jean-Alix E-mail: savage@levee.wustl.edu E-mail: moynier@ipgp.fr E-mail: Jean-Alix.Barrat@univ-brest.fr

    2013-12-20

    The presence or absence of variations in the mass-independent abundances of Si isotopes in bulk meteorites provides important clues concerning the evolution of the early solar system. No Si isotopic anomalies have been found within the level of analytical precision of 15 ppm in {sup 29}Si/{sup 28}Si across a wide range of inner solar system materials, including terrestrial basalts, chondrites, and achondrites. A possible exception is the angrites, which may exhibit small excesses of {sup 29}Si. However, the general absence of anomalies suggests that primitive meteorites and differentiated planetesimals formed in a reservoir that was isotopically homogenous with respect to Si. Furthermore, the lack of resolvable anomalies in the calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion measured here suggests that any nucleosynthetic anomalies in Si isotopes were erased through mixing in the solar nebula prior to the formation of refractory solids. The homogeneity exhibited by Si isotopes may have implications for the distribution of Mg isotopes in the solar nebula. Based on supernova nucleosynthetic yield calculations, the expected magnitude of heavy-isotope overabundance is larger for Si than for Mg, suggesting that any potential Mg heterogeneity, if present, exists below the 15 ppm level.

  13. On shearing fluids with homogeneous densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, D. C.; Srivastava, V. C.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we study shearing spherically symmetric homogeneous density fluids in comoving coordinates. It is found that the expansion of the four-velocity of a perfect fluid is homogeneous, whereas its shear is generated by an arbitrary function of time M( t), related to the mass function of the distribution. This function is found to bear a functional relationship with density. The field equations are reduced to two coupled first order ordinary differential equations for the metric coefficients g_{11} and g_{22}. We have explored a class of solutions assuming that M is a linear function of the density. This class embodies, as a subcase, the complete class of shear-free solutions. We have discussed the off quoted work of Kustaanheimo (Comment Phys Math XIII:12, 1, 1947) and have noted that it deals with shear-free fluids having anisotropic pressure. It is shown that the anisotropy of the fluid is characterized by an arbitrary function of time. We have discussed some issues of historical priorities and credentials related to shear-free solutions. Recent controversial claims by Mitra (Astrophys Space Sci 333:351, 2011 and Gravit Cosmol 18:17, 2012) have also been addressed. We found that the singularity and the shearing motion of the fluid are closely related. Hence, there is a need for fresh look to the solutions obtained earlier in comoving coordinates.

  14. Homogeneous cooling of mixtures of particle shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, R. C.; Serero, D.; Pöschel, T.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we examine theoretically the cooling dynamics of binary mixtures of spheres and rods. To this end, we introduce a generalized mean field analytical theory, which describes the free cooling behavior of the mixture. The relevant characteristic time scale for the cooling process is derived, depending on the mixture composition and the aspect ratio of the rods. We simulate mixtures of spherocylinders and spheres using a molecular dynamics algorithm implemented on graphics processing unit (GPU) architecture. We systematically study mixtures composed of spheres and rods with several aspect ratios and varying the mixture composition. A homogeneous cooling state, where the time dependence of the system's intensive variables occurs only through a global granular temperature, is identified. We find cooling dynamics in excellent agreement with Haff's law, when using an adequate time scale. Using the scaling properties of the homogeneous cooling dynamics, we estimated numerically the efficiency of the energy interchange between rotational and translational degrees of freedom for collisions between spheres and rods.

  15. Confocal detection of planar homogeneous and heterogeneous immunosorbent assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafari, Homanaz; Zhou, Yanzhou; Ali, Selman; Hanley, Quentin S.

    2009-11-01

    Optically sectioned detection of fluorescence immunoassays using a confocal microscope enables the creation of both homo- and heterogeneous planar format assays. We report a set assays requiring optically sectioned detection using a model system and analysis procedures for separating signals of a surface layer from an overlying solution. A model sandwich assay with human immunoglobulin G as the target antigen is created on a glass substrate. The prepared surfaces are exposed to antigen and a FITC-labeled secondary antibody. The resulting preparations are either read directly to provide a homogeneous assay or after wash steps, giving a heterogeneous assay. The simplicity of the object shapes arising from the planar format makes the decomposition of analyte signals from the thin film bound to the surface and overlayer straightforward. Measured response functions of the thin film and overlayer fit well to the Cauchy-Lorentz and cumulative Cauchy-Lorentz functions, respectively, enabling the film and overlayer to be separated. Under the conditions used, the detection limits for the homogeneous and heterogeneous forms of the assay are 2.2 and 5.5 ng/ml, respectively. Planar format, confocally read fluorescence assays enable wash-free detection of antigens and should be applicable to a wide range of assays involving surface-bound species.

  16. Ketone-body utilization by homogenates of adult rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes-Cardozo, M.; Klein, W.

    1982-06-01

    The regulation of ketone-body metabolism and the quantitative importance of ketone bodies as lipid precursors in adult rat brain has been studied in vitro. Utilization of ketone bodies and of pyruvate by homogenates of adult rat brain was measured and the distribution of /sup 14/C from (3-/sup 14/C)ketone bodies among the metabolic products was analysed. The rate of ketone-body utilization was maximal in the presence of added Krebs-cycle intermediates and uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. The consumption of acetoacetate was faster than that of D-3-hydroxybutyrate, whereas, pyruvate produced twice as much acetyl-CoA as acetoacetate under optimal conditions. Millimolar concentrations of ATP in the presence of uncoupler lowered the consumption of ketone bodies but not of pyruvate. Indirect evidence is presented suggesting that ATP interferes specifically with the mitochondrial uptake of ketone bodies. Interconversion of ketone bodies and the accumulation of acid-soluble intermediates (mainly citrate and glutamate) accounted for the major part of ketone-body utilization, whereas only a small part was oxidized to CO/sub 2/. Ketone bodies were not incorporated into lipids or protein. We conclude that adult rat-brain homogenates use ketone bodies exclusively for oxidative purposes.

  17. Homogeneous Protein Analysis by Magnetic Core-Shell Nanorod Probes.

    PubMed

    Schrittwieser, Stefan; Pelaz, Beatriz; Parak, Wolfgang J; Lentijo-Mozo, Sergio; Soulantica, Katerina; Dieckhoff, Jan; Ludwig, Frank; Altantzis, Thomas; Bals, Sara; Schotter, Joerg

    2016-04-13

    Studying protein interactions is of vital importance both to fundamental biology research and to medical applications. Here, we report on the experimental proof of a universally applicable label-free homogeneous platform for rapid protein analysis. It is based on optically detecting changes in the rotational dynamics of magnetically agitated core-shell nanorods upon their specific interaction with proteins. By adjusting the excitation frequency, we are able to optimize the measurement signal for each analyte protein size. In addition, due to the locking of the optical signal to the magnetic excitation frequency, background signals are suppressed, thus allowing exclusive studies of processes at the nanoprobe surface only. We study target proteins (soluble domain of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 - sHER2) specifically binding to antibodies (trastuzumab) immobilized on the surface of our nanoprobes and demonstrate direct deduction of their respective sizes. Additionally, we examine the dependence of our measurement signal on the concentration of the analyte protein, and deduce a minimally detectable sHER2 concentration of 440 pM. For our homogeneous measurement platform, good dispersion stability of the applied nanoprobes under physiological conditions is of vital importance. To that end, we support our measurement data by theoretical modeling of the total particle-particle interaction energies. The successful implementation of our platform offers scope for applications in biomarker-based diagnostics as well as for answering basic biology questions. PMID:27023370

  18. Non-constant positive steady-states of a diffusive predator-prey system in homogeneous environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Wonlyul; Ryu, Kimun

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the existence and non-existence of non-constant positive steady-states of a diffusive predator-prey interaction system under homogeneous Neumann boundary condition. In homogeneous environment, we show that the predator-prey model with Leslie-Gower functional response has no non-constant positive solution, but the system with a general functional response may have at least one non-constant positive steady-state under some conditions.

  19. A Monte-Carlo step-by-step simulation code of the non-homogeneous chemistry of the radiolysis of water and aqueous solutions--Part II: calculation of radiolytic yields under different conditions of LET, pH, and temperature.

    PubMed

    Plante, Ianik

    2011-08-01

    The importance of the radiolysis of water in the initial events following irradiation of biological systems has motivated considerable theoretical and experimental work in the field of radiation chemistry of water and aqueous systems. These studies include Monte-Carlo simulations of the radiation track structure and of the non-homogeneous chemical stage, which have been successfully used to calculate the yields of radiolytic species (H(·), (·)OH, H(2), H(2)O(2), e (aq) (-) , …). Most techniques used for the simulation of the non-homogeneous chemical stage such as the independent reaction time (IRT) technique and diffusion kinetics methods do not calculate the time evolution of the positions of the radiolytic species. This is a major limitation to their extension to the simulation of the irradiation of radiobiological systems. Step-by-step (SBS) simulation programs provide such information, but they are very demanding in term of computer power and storage capacity. Recent improvements in computer performance now allow the regular use of the SBS method in radiation chemistry simulations. In the first of a series of two papers, the SBS method has been reviewed in details and the implementation of a SBS code has been discussed. In this second paper, the results of several studies are presented: (1) the time evolution of the radiolytic yields from the formation of the radiation track to 10(-6) s; (2) the effect of pH on yields (pH ~ 0.4-7.0); (3) the effect of proton energy (and LET) on yields (300 MeV-0.1 MeV), and iv) the effect of the ion type ((1)H(+), (4)He(2+), (12)C(6+)) on yields. Nonbiological applications, i.e., the study of the temperature on the yields (about 25-300°C) and the simulation of the time evolution of G(Fe(3+)) in the Fricke dosimeter are also discussed. PMID:21594646

  20. Etude analytique d'interface dynamique aeronef-navire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrier, Bernard

    This report introduces an approach for the solution of real-time aircraft/ship dynamic interface problems using ship motion filtered by helicopter stability limits. The Landing Period Designator (LPD) calculates quiescent periods using the Energy Index scale. A test plan was developed in three phases. The purpose of the first phase was to demonstrate the proof-of-concept. During the second phase, a prototype was developed and tested without the pilot in the loop at-sea. In the third phase, a full-scale system was developed and tested with the pilot in the loop at-sea. The first phase was composed of simulation, assembly and test of a pre-prototype system. This report concentrates on this phase. The simulation test program was based on three hypothesis regarding the reliability of the energy index. The energy index must distinguish between various helicopter models for the same sea and ship conditions. The rise-time must always respect an inertial delay between excitation and ship displacement. Finally, the characteristics of the index using synthetic (simulated) time history must resemble a similar result using recorded time histories (for similar conditions). Aircraft-ship rise-times vary, depending the ship characteristics, between 4 to 5.5 seconds (corvette to destroyer class ships). With more than 6,200 simulation runs of the LPD, the rise-time delays were always respected. The LPD calculated with simulated data always resembled similar conditions calculated with recorded ship motion data. A strong correlation between the LPD value and its physical significance was established early in phase 1. This prompted the US Government to award a grant for the assembly of a ship motion instrumentation system which was connected to the LPD through a signal conditioning unit. The US Government furnished the means by which the pre-prototype system could be tested at-sea. By the end of phase one, the pre-prototype system was tested on three frigates (US and German) at

  1. Homogenate extraction of gardenia yellow pigment from Gardenia Jasminoides Ellis fruit using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xingyi; Mang, Yili; Shen, Fengqiong; Xie, Jie; Su, Weike

    2014-08-01

    Homogenate extraction technology was developed for extraction of gardenia yellow pigment from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit. The operating parameters affecting the color value of gardenia yellow pigment were studied on the basis of a Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology. Results showed that the optimum extraction conditions were as follows: extraction time 41 s, ethanol concentration 50 %, ratio of liquid to material 15:1 (mL:g) and particle size 1.7 mm. Under the optimum condition, the experimental color value was 52.37 g(-1), which was in keeping with the predicted one. Compared with the heat extraction method, the color value of gardenia yellow pigment of homogenate extraction was higher and the extraction time was shorter. Homogenate extraction method is an ideal means for extraction of gardenia yellow pigment from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit. PMID:25114350

  2. Homogeneous liquid-liquid solvent extraction. [Propylene carbonate-water system

    SciTech Connect

    Ting, C.S.; Williams, E.T.; Finston, H.L.

    1980-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to extend the technique of homogeneous liquid-liquid solvent extraction into propylene carbonate. The mutual solubilities of propylene carbonate in water and vice-versa are shown in the phase diagram. The extraction of a variety of monodentate and bidentate ligand complexes with Fe(III) as a function of ligand concentration and pH were investigated. The monodentate ligands studied include, thiocyanate, chloride, bromide, benzoate, and bathophenanthrolines. The bidentate ligands studied include the various ..beta..-diketones, 8-quinolinol, and also cupferron which was studied under normal conditions, i.e., not under conditions of homogeneous extraction. The homogeneous extraction proved effective for a variety of chelate complexes and ion association complexes of iron giving, in all cases, very rapid extraction as compared with the slow rate of conventional extraction methods.

  3. Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Propane-Air Combustion with Non-Homogeneous Reactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haworth, D.; Cuenot, B.; Poinsot, T.; Blint, R.

    1998-11-01

    Two-dimensional numerical simulations of turbulent propane-air combustion have been performed including complex chemistry and realistic molecular transport. The aerothermochemical conditions simulated (reactant temperature and pressure, turbulence rms velocity and integral length scale) correspond to conditions at the time of ignition in an automotive gasoline direct-injection reciprocating IC engine at low speed and light load. Both stoichiometric homogeneous reactants and non-homogeneous reactants with fuel-based equivalence ratios ranging from zero to four have been simulated. In the case of non-homogeneous reactants, a primary premixed flame (defined based on disappearance of the propane fuel) is followed by a secondary heat-release zone that is dominated by CO kinetics and turbulent mixing. Beyond a few flame thicknesses behind the primary flame, any remaining fuel has been broken down into carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Quantitative information relevant for modeling turbulent flame propagation through nonhomogeneous reactants has been extracted.

  4. Evidence that homogenization of BSA-stabilized hexadecane-in-water emulsions induces structure modification of the nonadsorbed protein.

    PubMed

    Rampon, V; Riaublanc, A; Anton, M; Genot, C; McClements, D J

    2003-09-24

    The structural modification of globular proteins (bovine serum albumin, BSA) in the aqueous phase of emulsions produced by homogenization was studied using front-face fluorescence spectroscopy (FFFS). A series of hydrocarbon oil-in-water emulsions (30 wt % n-hexadecane, 0.35 wt % BSA, pH 7.0) were homogenized to differing degrees with a high-speed blender and a high-pressure valve homogenizer. The wavelength of the maximum in the tryptophan emission spectrum (lambda(max)) of serum phases collected from the emulsions by centrifugation was measured and compared to lambda(max) values of BSA solutions subjected to the same homogenization conditions. There was no significant (p < 0.05) change in lambda(max) with homogenization conditions for BSA solutions. In contrast, lambda(max) of serum phases from emulsions blended for 2 min in a high-speed blender was significantly smaller (p < 0.05) than nontreated BSA solutions (Deltalambda(max) = 2 nm). In addition, there was a further significant decrease in lambda(max) of the serum phases with an increasing number of passes of the emulsion through the high-pressure valve homogenizer (e.g., Deltalambda(max) = 4 nm for 12 passes). This study shows that globular proteins present in the aqueous phase of a hexadecane-in-water emulsion after homogenization could be altered, which is probably caused by surface modification of the protein structure during temporary adsorption to emulsion droplet surfaces during homogenization. PMID:13129292

  5. To homogenize, or not to homogenize, that is the question: Quartz-hosted melt inclusion analysis avenues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, C. N.; Roberge, J.; Todorov, T. I.; Hofstra, A. H.

    2013-12-01

    Melt inclusions hosted in quartz can provide the only direct information about the pressure, temperature, and melt composition of pre-eruptive rhyolitic magmas, many of which are the precursors to mineralizing aqueous fluids [1]. With ideal, rapidly-quenched pumice samples, analysis of glassy quartz-hosted melt inclusions is relatively straightforward. These data can be directly interpreted to represent snapshots of metal and volatile concentrations during magma crystallization and degassing. However, most ore deposit-related igneous samples are non-ideal; being older, potentially hydrothermally altered, and often crystallized due to slow cooling in subvolcanic regions (e.g., porphyry-type deposits). In this case, analysis of crystalline melt inclusions in quartz is not straightforward and resulting data must be meticulously examined before interpretation. Many melt inclusions may have experienced post-entrapment modifications [1] such as diffusion of elements (e.g., H, Li, Na, Ag, Cu) [2], which may lead to changes in measured oxygen fugacity. Slowly cooled inclusions may crystallize, producing a heterogeneous "micro-rock" that cannot be analyzed by spectroscopic methods or electron microprobe. While crystallized inclusions can be homogenized in a high-temperature furnace, many new problems may arise such as inclusion decrepitation [3], diffusion of elements [2], and incorporation of too little or too much Si from the inclusion rim or host crystal. However, if unwanted homogenization effects are minimized by choosing ideal experimental conditions, then these homogenized inclusions can be analyzed by traditional FTIR and electron microprobe methods. The electron microprobe data from homogenized inclusions can be used as accurate internal standards for laser ablation-ICP-MS data reduction. Alternatively, crystalline inclusions can be directly analyzed for major and trace elements by laser ablation-ICP-MS [4], which considerably reduces sample preparation time, but

  6. Nanodosimetric track structure in homogeneous extended beams.

    PubMed

    Conte, V; Moro, D; Colautti, P; Grosswendt, B

    2015-09-01

    Physical aspects of particle track structure are important in determining the induction of clustered damage in relevant subcellular structures like the DNA and higher-order genomic structures. The direct measurement of track-structure properties of ionising radiation is feasible today by counting the number of ionisations produced inside a small gas volume. In particular, the so-called track-nanodosimeter, installed at the TANDEM-ALPI accelerator complex of LNL, measures ionisation cluster-size distributions in a simulated subcellular structure of dimensions 20 nm, corresponding approximately to the diameter of the chromatin fibre. The target volume is irradiated by pencil beams of primary particles passing at specified impact parameter. To directly relate these measured track-structure data to radiobiological measurements performed in broad homogeneous particle beams, these data can be integrated over the impact parameter. This procedure was successfully applied to 240 MeV carbon ions and compared with Monte Carlo simulations for extended fields. PMID:25848108

  7. Homogeneously dispersed multimetal oxygen-evolving catalysts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Zheng, Xueli; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Bajdich, Michal; García-Melchor, Max; Han, Lili; Xu, Jixian; Liu, Min; Zheng, Lirong; García de Arquer, F Pelayo; Dinh, Cao Thang; Fan, Fengjia; Yuan, Mingjian; Yassitepe, Emre; Chen, Ning; Regier, Tom; Liu, Pengfei; Li, Yuhang; De Luna, Phil; Janmohamed, Alyf; Xin, Huolin L; Yang, Huagui; Vojvodic, Aleksandra; Sargent, Edward H

    2016-04-15

    Earth-abundant first-row (3d) transition metal-based catalysts have been developed for the oxygen-evolution reaction (OER); however, they operate at overpotentials substantially above thermodynamic requirements. Density functional theory suggested that non-3d high-valency metals such as tungsten can modulate 3d metal oxides, providing near-optimal adsorption energies for OER intermediates. We developed a room-temperature synthesis to produce gelled oxyhydroxides materials with an atomically homogeneous metal distribution. These gelled FeCoW oxyhydroxides exhibit the lowest overpotential (191 millivolts) reported at 10 milliamperes per square centimeter in alkaline electrolyte. The catalyst shows no evidence of degradation after more than 500 hours of operation. X-ray absorption and computational studies reveal a synergistic interplay between tungsten, iron, and cobalt in producing a favorable local coordination environment and electronic structure that enhance the energetics for OER. PMID:27013427

  8. The homogeneity conjecture for supergravity backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, José Miguel

    2009-06-01

    These notes record three lectures given at the workshop "Higher symmetries in Physics", held at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid in November 2008. In them we explain how to construct a Lie (super)algebra associated to a spin manifold, perhaps with extra geometric data, and a notion of privileged spinors. The typical examples are supersymmetric supergravity backgrounds; although there are more classical instances of this construction. We focus on two results: the geometric constructions of compact real forms of the simple Lie algebras of type B4, F4 and E8 from S7, S8 and S15, respectively; and the construction of the Killing superalgebra of eleven-dimensional supergravity backgrounds. As an application of this latter construction we show that supersymmetric supergravity backgrounds with enough supersymmetry are necessarily locally homogeneous.

  9. RF Spectroscopy on a Homogeneous Fermi Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhenjie; Mukherjee, Biswaroop; Patel, Parth; Struck, Julian; Zwierlein, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Over the last two decades RF spectroscopy has been established as an indispensable tool to probe a large variety of fundamental properties of strongly interacting Fermi gases. This ranges from measurement of the pairing gap over tan's contact to the quasi-particle weight of Fermi polarons. So far, most RF spectroscopy experiments have been performed in harmonic traps, resulting in an averaged response over different densities. We have realized an optical uniform potential for ultracold Fermi gases of 6 Li atoms, which allows us to avoid the usual problems connected to inhomogeneous systems. Here we present recent results on RF spectroscopy of these homogeneous samples with a high signal to noise ratio. In addition, we report progress on measuring the contact of a unitary Fermi gas across the normal to superfluid transition.

  10. Soliton production with nonlinear homogeneous lines

    SciTech Connect

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.; Coleman, Phillip D.; Moorman, Matthew W.; Petney, Sharon Joy Victor; Dudley, Evan C.; Youngman, Kevin; Penner, Tim Dwight; Fang, Lu; Myers, Katherine M.

    2015-11-24

    Low- and high-voltage Soliton waves were produced and used to demonstrate collision and compression using diode-based nonlinear transmission lines. Experiments demonstrate soliton addition and compression using homogeneous nonlinear lines. We built the nonlinear lines using commercially available diodes. These diodes are chosen after their capacitance versus voltage dependence is used in a model and the line design characteristics are calculated and simulated. Nonlinear ceramic capacitors are then used to demonstrate high-voltage pulse amplification and compression. The line is designed such that a simple capacitor discharge, input signal, develops soliton trains in as few as 12 stages. We also demonstrated output voltages in excess of 40 kV using Y5V-based commercial capacitors. The results show some key features that determine efficient production of trains of solitons in the kilovolt range.

  11. Soliton production with nonlinear homogeneous lines

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.; Coleman, Phillip D.; Moorman, Matthew W.; Petney, Sharon Joy Victor; Dudley, Evan C.; Youngman, Kevin; Penner, Tim Dwight; Fang, Lu; Myers, Katherine M.

    2015-11-24

    Low- and high-voltage Soliton waves were produced and used to demonstrate collision and compression using diode-based nonlinear transmission lines. Experiments demonstrate soliton addition and compression using homogeneous nonlinear lines. We built the nonlinear lines using commercially available diodes. These diodes are chosen after their capacitance versus voltage dependence is used in a model and the line design characteristics are calculated and simulated. Nonlinear ceramic capacitors are then used to demonstrate high-voltage pulse amplification and compression. The line is designed such that a simple capacitor discharge, input signal, develops soliton trains in as few as 12 stages. We also demonstrated outputmore » voltages in excess of 40 kV using Y5V-based commercial capacitors. The results show some key features that determine efficient production of trains of solitons in the kilovolt range.« less

  12. Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production

    DOEpatents

    Mahajan, Devinder; Sapienza, Richard S.; Slegeir, William A.; O'Hare, Thomas E.

    1991-02-12

    There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.-), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

  13. Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production

    DOEpatents

    Mahajan, Devinder; Sapienza, Richard S.; Slegeir, William A.; O'Hare, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.13 ), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

  14. Extended narrow escape problem: Boundary homogenization-based analysis

    PubMed Central

    Berezhkovskii, A. M.; Barzykin, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion of particles in confined domains with absorbing spots on the otherwise reflecting boundaries is ubiquitous in nature and technology. Because of nonuniform boundary conditions, the problem of finding the mean first passage time (MFPT) of the particle to one of the spots is extremely complicated. We show how the difficulties can be overcome by means of boundary homogenization when the domain is a circular disk whose boundary contains n nonoverlapping identical absorbing arcs, which may occupy an arbitrary fraction of the boundary. We find the MFPT as a function of the fraction of the boundary occupied by the arcs (i) for n evenly spaced arcs and (ii) for two arcs arbitrarily located on the boundary. As the arc length tends to zero, our approximate solution reduces to the known asymptotic formula for the MFPT rigorously derived in studies devoted of the narrow escape problem. PMID:20866572

  15. Dense and homogenous silicon nitride composites containing carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Osendi, M I; Gautheron, F; Miranzo, P; Belmonte, M

    2009-10-01

    Silicon nitride (Si3N4) materials with 1.8 and 5.3 vol.% of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were densified using 7 wt% of sintering additives (Y2O3 +Al2O3). The mixing and sintering procedures produced quite homogenous and dense MWCNT/Si3N4 composites. The nanotubes condition was followed by micro-Raman spectroscopy and no alteration was observed in spite of the relatively high sintering temperatures (approximately 1600 degrees C). Mechanical parameters (hardness, elastic modulus and fracture toughness) of the composites and comparative blank specimens were measured by instrumented indentation and discussed in parallel. Thermal conductivity was also estimated for these specimens. The nanotube orientation effect inherent to pressure assisted sintering methods and the weak interfacial bond between nanotubes and Si3N4 are important factors to explain the mechanical and thermal behaviours of these composites. PMID:19908514

  16. [Type IIb primary hyperlipoproteinemia. An homogenous series of 412 cases].

    PubMed

    Rouffy, J; Loeper, J; Dreux, C; Lemogne, M; Loeper, J; Pestel, M; Dakkak, R

    1976-03-20

    On the basis of a homogeneous series of 412 cases of type IIb primary hyperlipoproteinaemia, the authors compare their experience with findings in the literature. The prevalence of this type of hyperlipoproteinaemia in the general population has been underestimated at 3%. Biological diagnosis remains simple (identification of a double and distinct excess in beta and pre beta lipoproteins). Extravascular lipid deposits (gerontoxon, xanthelasma, tendon xanthomata) are not type specific. Hyperlipidaemic syndrome is rare. Above all, the importance of type IIb in atheromatous disease in the young subject now seems obvious. The mode of hereditary transmission of the familial anomaly is not certain but would appear to be often associated with a double heterozygote condition. PMID:1264609

  17. Stress waves in transversely isotropic media: The homogeneous problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marques, E. R. C.; Williams, J. H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The homogeneous problem of stress wave propagation in unbounded transversely isotropic media is analyzed. By adopting plane wave solutions, the conditions for the existence of the solution are established in terms of phase velocities and directions of particle displacements. Dispersion relations and group velocities are derived from the phase velocity expressions. The deviation angles (e.g., angles between the normals to the adopted plane waves and the actual directions of their propagation) are numerically determined for a specific fiber-glass epoxy composite. A graphical method is introduced for the construction of the wave surfaces using magnitudes of phase velocities and deviation angles. The results for the case of isotropic media are shown to be contained in the solutions for the transversely isotropic media.

  18. High frequency homogenization for structural mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolde, E.; Craster, R. V.; Kaplunov, J.

    2011-03-01

    We consider a net created from elastic strings as a model structure to investigate the propagation of waves through semi-discrete media. We are particularly interested in the development of continuum models, valid at high frequencies, when the wavelength and each cell of the net are of similar order. Net structures are chosen as these form a general two-dimensional example, encapsulating the essential physics involved in the two-dimensional excitation of a lattice structure whilst retaining the simplicity of dealing with elastic strings. Homogenization techniques are developed here for wavelengths commensurate with the cellular scale. Unlike previous theories, these techniques are not limited to low frequency or static regimes, and lead to effective continuum equations valid on a macroscale with the details of the cellular structure encapsulated only through integrated quantities. The asymptotic procedure is based upon a two-scale approach and the physical observation that there are frequencies that give standing waves, periodic with the period or double-period of the cell. A specific example of a net created by a lattice of elastic strings is constructed, the theory is general and not reliant upon the net being infinite, none the less the infinite net is a useful special case for which Bloch theory can be applied. This special case is explored in detail allowing for verification of the theory, and highlights the importance of degenerate cases; the specific example of a square net is treated in detail. An additional illustration of the versatility of the method is the response to point forcing which provides a stringent test of the homogenized equations; an exact Green's function for the net is deduced and compared to the asymptotics.

  19. Homogenization of global radiosonde humidity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaschek, Michael; Haimberger, Leopold

    2016-04-01

    The global radiosonde network is an important source of upper-air measurements and is strongly connected to reanalysis efforts of the 20th century. However, measurements are strongly affected by changes in the observing system and require a homogenization before they can be considered useful in climate studies. In particular humidity measurements are known to show spurious trends and biases induced by many sources, e.g. reporting practices or freezing of the sensor. We propose to detect and correct these biases in an automated way, as has been done with temperature and winds. We detect breakpoints in dew point depression (DPD) time series by employing a standard normal homogeneity test (SNHT) on DPD-departures from ERA-Interim. In a next step, we calculate quantile departures between the latter and the earlier part near the breakpoints of the time series, going back in time. These departures adjust the earlier distribution of DPD to the latter distribution, called quantile matching, thus removing for example a non climatic shift. We employ this approach to the existing radiosonde network. In a first step to verify our approach we compare our results with ERA-Interim data and brightness temperatures of humidity-sensitive channels of microwave measuring radiometers (SSMIS) onboard DMSP F16. The results show that some of the biases can be detected and corrected in an automated way, however large biases that impact the distribution of DPD values originating from known reporting practices (e.g. 30 DPD on US stations) remain. These biases can be removed but not corrected. The comparison of brightness temperatures from satellite and radiosondes proofs to be difficult as large differences result from for example representative errors.

  20. Transitory versus Persistent Effects of Connectivity in Environmentally Homogeneous Metacommunities

    PubMed Central

    Limberger, Romana; Wickham, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    While the effect of habitat connectivity on local and regional diversity has been analysed in a number of studies, time-dependent dynamics in metacommunities have received comparatively little consideration. When local patches of a metacommunity are identical in environmental conditions but differ in initial community composition, dispersal among patches may result in homogenization of local communities. In a microcosm experiment with benthic ciliates, we tested the hypothesis that the effect of connectivity on diversity is time-dependent and only transitory, with the degree of connectivity affecting the time to homogenization but not the final outcome. Six microcosms were connected to a metacommunity with one of three levels of connectivity. The six patches differed in initial community composition but were identical in environmental conditions. We found a time-dependent and transitory effect of connectivity on local and regional richness and on local Shannon diversity, while Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and regional Shannon diversity were persistently affected by connectivity. Local richness increased and regional richness decreased with connectivity during the initial phase of the experiment but soon converged to similar values in all three connectivity treatments. Local Shannon diversity was unimodally related to time, with maximum diversity reached sooner with high than with medium or low connectivity. Eventually, however, local diversity converged to similar values irrespective of connectivity. At the regional scale, Shannon diversity was persistently lower with high than with low connectivity. While initial differences in community composition vanished with medium and high connectivity, they were maintained with low connectivity resulting in persistently high beta and regional diversity. The effect of connectivity on ciliate community composition translated down to the algal resource, as stronger dominance of the superior competitor with high and medium

  1. Homogeneity study of candidate reference material in fish matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, J. C.; Sarkis, J. E. S.; Hortellani, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    A material is perfectly homogeneous with respect to a given characteristic, or composition, if there is no difference between the values obtained from one part to another. Homogeneity is usually evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA). However, the requirement that populations of data to be processed must have a normal distribution and equal variances greatly limits the use of this statistical tool. A more suitable test for assessing the homogeneity of RMs, known as "sufficient homogeneity", was proposed by Fearn and Thompson. In this work, we evaluate the performance of the two statistical treatments for assessing homogeneity of methylmercury (MeHg) in candidate reference material of fish tissue.

  2. Effects of sample homogenization on solid phase sediment toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, B.S.; Hunt, J.W.; Newman, J.W.; Tjeerdema, R.S.; Fairey, W.R.; Stephenson, M.D.; Puckett, H.M.; Taberski, K.M.

    1995-12-31

    Sediment toxicity is typically assessed using homogenized surficial sediment samples. It has been recognized that homogenization alters sediment integrity and may result in changes in chemical bioavailability through oxidation-reduction or other chemical processes. In this study, intact (unhomogenized) sediment cores were taken from a Van Veen grab sampler and tested concurrently with sediment homogenate from the same sample in order to investigate the effect of homogenization on toxicity. Two different solid-phase toxicity test protocols were used for these comparisons. Results of amphipod exposures to samples from San Francisco Bay indicated minimal difference between intact and homogenized samples. Mean amphipod survival in intact cores relative to homogenates was similar at two contaminated sites. Mean survival was 34 and 33% in intact and homogenized samples, respectively, at Castro Cove. Mean survival was 41% and 57%, respectively, in intact and homogenized samples from Islais Creek. Studies using the sea urchin development protocol, modified for testing at the sediment/water interface, indicated considerably more toxicity in intact samples relative to homogenized samples from San Diego Bay. Measures of metal flux into the overlying water demonstrated greater flux of metals from the intact samples. Zinc flux was five times greater, and copper flux was twice as great in some intact samples relative to homogenates. Future experiments will compare flux of metals and organic compounds in intact and homogenized sediments to further evaluate the efficacy of using intact cores for solid phase toxicity assessment.

  3. Power and Reliability: The Case of Homogeneous True Score Regression across Treatments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisicaro, Sebastiano A.; Lautenschlager, Gary J.

    1992-01-01

    An equation derived by W. A. Nicewander and J. M. Price relating statistical power to reliability of dependent variable measures when true score regression is homogeneous across treatment conditions is enhanced through overcoming the problem of directly estimating the squared linear correlation between true scores for X and Y. (SLD)

  4. Stability of vitamin C in frozen raw fruit and vegetable homogenates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Retention of vitamin C in homogenized raw fruits and vegetables stored under laboratory conditions prior to analysis was investigated. Raw collard greens, clementines, and potatoes were chosen, to be representative of food matrices to be sampled in USDA’s National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program...

  5. Contributions a L'etude de la Dynamique des Lasers a Modes Synchronises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, Michel

    Cette these examine theoriquement deux aspects de la synchronisation des modes d'un laser. D'une part, on etudie l'influence de la desyntonisation de la frequence de modulation sur la stabilite des impulsions produites par la synchronisation modale AM. On montre que la desyntonisation provoque une perte de convergence intrinseque du processus de synchronisation active independante de la presence de bruit dans la cavite. La plage de convergence est d'autant plus etroite que le nombre de modes sous la courbe de gain est eleve. En pratique, elle est considerablement reduite par le bruit present dans la cavite. La synchronisation interferentielle, realisee a l'aide d'une cavite couplee contenant un element non-lineaire, est aussi etudiee. On decrit les principes generaux de la compression resultant de l'interference de deux impulsions. On evalue les performances realisables en fonction du taux de compression et de modulation de phase de l'element non-lineaire. Une etude detaillee du laser a interferometre de Michelson non-lineaire et non dispersif est presentee.

  6. [Chemiluminescence spectroscopic analysis of homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion processes].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-feng; Yao, Ming-fa; Jin, Chao; Zhang, Peng; Li, Zhe-ming; Zheng, Zun-qing

    2010-10-01

    To study the combustion reaction kinetics of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) under different port injection strategies and intake temperature conditions, the tests were carried out on a modified single-cylinder optical engine using chemiluminescence spectroscopic analysis. The experimental conditions are keeping the fuel mass constant; fueling the n-heptane; controlling speed at 600 r x min(-1) and inlet pressure at 0.1 MPa; controlling inlet temperature at 95 degrees C and 125 degrees C, respectively. The results of chemiluminescence spectrum show that the chemiluminescence is quite faint during low temperature heat release (LTHR), and these bands spectrum originates from formaldehyde (CH2O) chemiluminescence. During the phase of later LTHR-negative temperature coefficient (NTC)-early high temperature heat release (HTHR), these bands spectrum also originates from formaldehyde (CH2O) chemiluminescence. The CO--O* continuum is strong during HTHR, and radicals such as OH, HCO, CH and CH2O appear superimposed on this CO--O* continuum. After the HTHR, the chemiluminescence intensity is quite faint. In comparison to the start of injection (SOI) of -30 degrees ATDC, the chemiluminescence intensity is higher under the SOI = -300 degrees ATDC condition due to the more intense emissions of CO--O* continuum. And more radicals of HCO and OH are formed, which also indicates a more intense combustion reaction. Similarly, more intense CO--O* continuum and more radicals of HCO and OH are emitted under higher intake temperature case. PMID:21137383

  7. Turbulence generation in homogeneous dilute particle- laden flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jeng-Horng

    Homogeneous turbulence generated by the motion of particles in dispersed multiphase flows was studied both theoretically and experimentally, motivated by applications to sprays, particle-laden jets, bubble plumes and rainstorms, among others. The experiments involved uniform fluxes of monodisperse spherical particles falling through a slow upflow of air. Particle fluxes and phase velocities were measured by sampling and phase-discriminating laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), respectively. Measured particle velocities included mean and fluctuating streamwise and cross-stream velocities and probability density functions (PDF's). Measured continuous-phase velocities included mean and fluctuating streamwise and cross-stream velocities, PDF's and the higher moments of velocity fluctuations such as skewness and kurtosis, energy spectra of velocity fluctuations and integral length scales based on streamwise velocity fluctuations. Continuous-phase velocity measurements included conditional averages for particle wake disturbances and the turbulent inter-wake region surrounding these disturbances as well as overall flow properties. Present and earlier results in the literature provided particle Reynolds numbers of 38-990, particle volume fractions less than 0.01% and turbulence intensities (normalized by mean particle relative velocities) of 0.1-10.0%. Theory included characterization of particle wake disturbances as laminar-like turbulent wakes observed for intermediate particle Reynolds numbers in turbulent environments, characterization of the turbulent inter-wake region by analogy to grid-generated isotropic turbulence, and estimation of overall flow properties by conditional averaging of the properties of the wake disturbances and the turbulent inter-wake region. Present measurements showed that particle wake disturbances during turbulence generation were properly characterized by the properties of laminar-like turbulent wakes. The turbulent inter-wake region was

  8. Etudes physiques des mélanges eau-cryoprotecteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassoille, R.; Perez, J.

    The aim of the following review is to present the most important studies concerning the physical properties of water-solutes mixtures used in cryobiology. Cryobiology is a branch of biology which deals with the very low temperature behaviour of cells. This technique is developed today in several directions. The creation of banks of cells and perhaps in a short time of small organs, is the purpose of much research in this domain. Before freezing, living cells are generally put in a solution containing one or more solutes. The role of these solutes is to protect the cells against damage due to crystallization of water (cryoprotectors). The mechanisms of cryoprotection are not well known ; nevertheless the vitreous state formation during cooling is often invoked. So, it is possible to avoid crystallization damage such as mechanical strain (due to an increase of volume of about 10 %) and salt effects (due to osmotic pressure). The conditions in which the vitreous state is obtained, maintained during cooling, storage at low temperature and rewarming can be defined by physical studies presented in the following review. Le présent travail est essentiellement une revue bibliographique des principales études physiques qui ont été réalisées avec des solutions de composés habituellement employés en cryobiologie. La cryobiologie est une branche de la biologie qui s'intéresse au comportement des cellules à basse température. Cette discipline est actuellement en plein développement dans des domaines très divers. Son principal but est la création de banques de cellules de plus en plus complexes avec comme perspective la conservation des organes. Les cellules vivantes sont généralement placées avant congélation dans une solution contenant divers composés dont le rôle est de protéger les cellules contre les effets de la cristallisation de l'eau. L'action protectrice de ces cryoprotecteurs est encore mal connue; cependant, la formation d'un état vitreux lors du

  9. Etude numerique des mecanismes d'autodiffusion dans les semiconducteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Mellouhi, Fedwa

    The most promising and most natural physical process for the formation of elementary structures in nanotechnology such as quantum dots and nanocrystals remains self-assembly. Self-assembly is governed by the atomic diffusion which is the fundamental process of mass transport due to defects (vacancies, interstitials, impurities, etc.). This work exploits recent developments in ab-initio methods based on density functional theory in order to give a reliable description of the electronic structure and migration mechanisms of vacancy type defects in semiconductors. Four main achievements in this direction are covered by this thesis. First, frequent and rare events connected to the neutral Si vacancy in silicon are identified. The calculated migration barrier to the first neighbor agrees with the experimental results obtained by Watkins et al. [1]. Second, a detailed study focuses on the stability and the charge state of As and Ga vacancies in the binary semiconducting compound GaAs with respect to experimental preparation conditions (doping, stoichiometry). Next, activated events associated to Ga vacancies are studied together with the effect of charge states on the path and the migration barrier. Gallium vacancy can migrate by jumps to the second, first and fourth neighbors with an increasing barrier for more negatively charged vacancies. In addition, a new mechanism for migration to the second neighbor have been found for negatively charged vacancies. Finally, the debate about the stability of charged Ga vacancies in GaAs at elevated temperature is analyzed. Gibbs free energy of formation is calculated by adding entropic effects. The thermal dependence of the Fermi level and of the ionization levels lead to a reversal of the preferred charge state as the temperature increases. This single set of calculated energies is suitable to fit at the same time experimental concentration profiles from positron annihilation experiments and diffusion profiles obtained from

  10. Foam Generation in Homogeneous Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Friedman, F.; Kam, S. I.; Rossen, W. R.

    2002-10-01

    In steady gas-liquid flow in homogeneous porous media with surfactant present, there is often observed a critical injection velocity or pressure gradient ?grad p min? at which ?weak? or ?coarse? foam is abruptly converted into ?strong foam,? with reduction of one to two orders of magnitude in total mobility: i.e., ?foam generation.? Earlier research on foam generation is extended here with extensive data for a variety of porous media, permeabilities, gases (N2 and C02), surfactants, and temperatures. For bead and sandpacks, ?grad p min? scales like (1/k), where k is permeability, over 2 1/2 orders of magnitude in k; for consolidated media the relation is more complex. For dense C02 foam, ?grad p min? exists but can be less than 1 psi/ft. If pressure drop, rather than flow rates, is fixed, one observes and unstable regime between stable ?strong? and ?coarse? foam regimes; in the unstable regime ?grad p? is nonuniform in space or variable in time.

  11. Homogeneously dispersed, multimetal oxygen-evolving catalysts

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Bo; Zheng, Xueli; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Bajdich, Michal; Garcia-Melchor, Max; Han, Lili; Xu, Jixian; Liu, Min; Zheng, Lirong; et al

    2016-03-24

    Earth-abundant first-row (3d) transition-metal-based catalysts have been developed for the oxygen-evolution reaction (OER); however, they operate at overpotentials significantly above thermodynamic requirements. Density functional theory suggested that non-3d high-valency metals such as tungsten can modulate 3d metal oxides, providing near-optimal adsorption energies for OER intermediates. We developed a room-temperature synthesis to produce gelled oxy-hydroxide materials with an atomically homogeneous metal distribution. These gelled FeCoW oxy-hydroxide exhibits the lowest overpotential (191 mV) reported at 10 mA per square centimeter in alkaline electrolyte. Here, the catalyst shows no evidence of degradation following more than 500 hours of operation. X-ray absorption and computationalmore » studies reveal a synergistic interplay between W, Fe and Co in producing a favorable local coordination environment and electronic structure that enhance the energetics for OER.« less

  12. Nearsightedness of Finite Homogeneous Model Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsuta, Yuki; Yamanaka, Shusuke; Kawakami, Takashi; Okumura, Mitsutaka; Yamaguchi, Kizashi; Nakamura, Haruki

    On the basis of linear response function (LRF) analysis, nearsightedness of finite systems is examined for nearly homogeneous molecular systems. We first treated with Hn (n = 2-100) to inspect the local or nonlocal responses of these systems, which are, in other words, the magnitudes of nearsightedness of the finite systems. Further, the LRFs of H100n+ (n = 0-98) have been examined in order to clarify whether the magnitude of nearsightedness depends either the size of systems or the number of electrons in systems. From our calculations, we conjectured that the number of electrons are essential for nearsightedness of electronic matter (NEM) of this type of systems. This conjecture has been confirmed from the fact that the LRFs of H100n+ (n = 0-98) are similar to those of N electrons (N = 2-100) in a square well potential, showing that attractive potentials of H100n+ (n = 0-98) do not change significantly the dependence of the magnitudes of NEM on the number of electrons.

  13. Simulation and modeling of homogeneous, compressed turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. T.; Ferziger, J. H.; Chapman, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Low Reynolds number homogeneous turbulence undergoing low Mach number isotropic and one-dimensional compression was simulated by numerically solving the Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical simulations were performed on a CYBER 205 computer using a 64 x 64 x 64 mesh. A spectral method was used for spatial differencing and the second-order Runge-Kutta method for time advancement. A variety of statistical information was extracted from the computed flow fields. These include three-dimensional energy and dissipation spectra, two-point velocity correlations, one-dimensional energy spectra, turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate, integral length scales, Taylor microscales, and Kolmogorov length scale. Results from the simulated flow fields were used to test one-point closure, two-equation models. A new one-point-closure, three-equation turbulence model which accounts for the effect of compression is proposed. The new model accurately calculates four types of flows (isotropic decay, isotropic compression, one-dimensional compression, and axisymmetric expansion flows) for a wide range of strain rates.

  14. Numerical study of homogeneous nanodroplet growth.

    PubMed

    Quang, Tran Si Bui; Leong, Fong Yew; Mirsaidov, Utkur M

    2015-01-15

    We investigate the axisymmetric homogeneous growth of 10-100 nm water nanodroplets on a substrate surface. The main mechanism of droplet growth is attributed to the accumulation of laterally diffusing water monomers, formed by the absorption of water vapour in the environment onto the substrate. Under assumptions of quasi-steady thermodynamic equilibrium, the nanodroplet evolves according to the augmented Young-Laplace equation. Using continuum theory, we model the dynamics of nanodroplet growth including the coupled effects of disjoining pressure, contact angle and monomer diffusion. Our numerical results show that the initial droplet growth is dominated by monomer diffusion, and the steady late growth rate of droplet radius follows a power law of 1/3, which is unaffected by the substrate disjoining pressure. Instead, the disjoining pressure modifies the growth rate of the droplet height, which then follows a power law of 1/4. We demonstrate how spatial depletion of monomers could lead to a growth arrest of the nanodroplet, as observed experimentally. This work has further implications on the growth kinetics, transport and phase transition of liquids at the nanoscale. PMID:25454424

  15. Redatuming Operators Analysis in Homogeneous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Fransisco de Souza; Figueiredo, Jose J. S. de; Freitas, Lucas

    2015-04-01

    A redatuming operation is used to simulate the acquisition of data in new levels, avoiding distortions produced by near-surface irregularities related to either geometric or material property heterogeneities. In this work, the application of the true-amplitude Kirchhoff redatuming (TAKR) operator on homogeneous media is compared with conventional Kirchhoff redatuming (KR) operator restricted to the zero-offset case. The TAKR and the KR operators are analytically and numerically compared in order to verify their impacts on the data at a new level. Analyses of amplitude and velocity sensitivity of the TAKR and KR were performed: one concerning the difference between the weight functions and the other related to the velocity variation. The comparisons between operators were performed using numerical examples. The feasibility of the KR and TAKR operators was demonstrated not only kinematically but also dynamically for their purposes. In other words, one preserves amplitude (KR), and the other corrects the amplitude (TAKR). In the end, we applied the operators to a GPR data set.

  16. Numerical computation of homogeneous slope stability.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shuangshuang; Li, Kemin; Ding, Xiaohua; Liu, Tong

    2015-01-01

    To simplify the computational process of homogeneous slope stability, improve computational accuracy, and find multiple potential slip surfaces of a complex geometric slope, this study utilized the limit equilibrium method to derive expression equations of overall and partial factors of safety. This study transformed the solution of the minimum factor of safety (FOS) to solving of a constrained nonlinear programming problem and applied an exhaustive method (EM) and particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) to this problem. In simple slope examples, the computational results using an EM and PSO were close to those obtained using other methods. Compared to the EM, the PSO had a small computation error and a significantly shorter computation time. As a result, the PSO could precisely calculate the slope FOS with high efficiency. The example of the multistage slope analysis indicated that this slope had two potential slip surfaces. The factors of safety were 1.1182 and 1.1560, respectively. The differences between these and the minimum FOS (1.0759) were small, but the positions of the slip surfaces were completely different than the critical slip surface (CSS). PMID:25784927

  17. Homogenization models for 2-D grid structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Cioranescu, D.; Rebnord, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    In the past several years, we have pursued efforts related to the development of accurate models for the dynamics of flexible structures made of composite materials. Rather than viewing periodicity and sparseness as obstacles to be overcome, we exploit them to our advantage. We consider a variational problem on a domain that has large, periodically distributed holes. Using homogenization techniques we show that the solution to this problem is in some topology 'close' to the solution of a similar problem that holds on a much simpler domain. We study the behavior of the solution of the variational problem as the holes increase in number, but decrease in size in such a way that the total amount of material remains constant. The result is an equation that is in general more complex, but with a domain that is simply connected rather than perforated. We study the limit of the solution as the amount of material goes to zero. This second limit will, in most cases, retrieve much of the simplicity that was lost in the first limit without sacrificing the simplicity of the domain. Finally, we show that these results can be applied to the case of a vibrating Love-Kirchhoff plate with Kelvin-Voigt damping. We rely heavily on earlier results of (Du), (CS) for the static, undamped Love-Kirchhoff equation. Our efforts here result in a modification of those results to include both time dependence and Kelvin-Voigt damping.

  18. Fluorescent homogeneous immunosensors for detecting pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Heyduk, Ewa; Heyduk, Tomasz

    2010-01-15

    We developed a straightforward antibody-based assay for rapid homogeneous detection of bacteria. Our sensors utilize antibody recognizing cell-surface epitopes of the target cell. Two samples of the antibody are prepared, each labeled via nanometer size flexible linkers with short complementary oligonucleotides that are modified with fluorochromes that could participate in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The length of the complementary oligonucleotide sequences was designed such that very little annealing occurred in the absence of the target cells. In the presence of the target cells the two labeled antibodies bind to the surface of the cell resulting in a large local concentration of the complementary oligonucleotides that are attached to the antibody. This in turn drives the annealing of the complementary oligonucleotides which brings the fluorescence probes to close proximity producing large FRET signals proportional to the amount of target cells. Long flexible linkers used to attach the oligonucleotides to the antibody enable target-induced oligonucleotide annealing even if the density of surface antigens is only modest. We used Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium to demonstrate that this design produced sensors exhibiting rapid response time, high specificity, and sensitivity in detecting the target bacteria. PMID:19782039

  19. Homogeneous cosmology with aggressively expanding civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, S. Jay

    2015-11-01

    In the context of a homogeneous Universe, we note that the appearance of aggressively expanding advanced life is geometrically similar to the process of nucleation and bubble growth in a first-order cosmological phase transition. We exploit this similarity to describe the dynamics of life saturating the Universe on a cosmic scale, adapting the phase transition model to incorporate probability distributions of expansion and resource consumption strategies. Through a series of numerical solutions spanning several orders of magnitude in the input assumption parameters, the resulting cosmological model is used to address basic questions related to the intergalactic spreading of life, dealing with issues such as timescales, observability, competition between strategies, and first-mover advantage. Finally, we examine physical effects on the Universe itself, such as reheating and the backreaction on the evolution of the scale factor, if such life is able to control and convert a significant fraction of the available pressureless matter into radiation. We conclude that the existence of life, if certain advanced technologies are practical, could have a significant influence on the future large-scale evolution of the Universe.

  20. Homogeneity of Antibody Responses in Tuberculosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Samanich, K.; Belisle, J. T.; Laal, S.

    2001-01-01

    The goals of the present study were twofold: (i) to compare the repertoires of antigens in culture filtrates of in vitro-grown Mycobacterium tuberculosis that are recognized by antibodies from noncavitary and cavitary tuberculosis (TB) patients and (ii) to determine the extent of variation that exists between the antigen profiles recognized by individual TB patients. Lipoarabinomannan-free culture filtrate proteins of M. tuberculosis were fractionated by one-dimensional (1-D) and 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the Western blots were probed with sera from non-human immunodeficiency virus (non-HIV)-infected cavitary and noncavitary TB patients and from HIV-infected, noncavitary TB patients. In contrast to earlier studies based on recombinant antigens of M. tuberculosis which suggested that antibody responses in TB patients were heterogeneous (K. Lyashchenko et al., 1998, Infect. Immun. 66:3936–3940, 1998), our studies with native culture filtrate proteins show that the antibody responses in TB patients show significant homogeneity in being directed against a well-defined subset of antigens. Thus, there is a well-defined subset of culture filtrate antigens that elicits antibodies during noncavitary and cavitary disease. In addition, another set of antigens is recognized primarily by cavitary TB patients. The mapping with individual patient sera presented here suggests that serodiagnostic tests based on the subset of antigens recognized during both noncavitary and cavitary TB will enhance the sensitivity of antibody detection in TB patients, especially in difficult-to-diagnose, smear-negative, noncavitary TB patients. PMID:11402004

  1. Inhomogeneous radiative forcing of homogeneous greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi; Tan, Xiaoxiao; Xia, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Radiative forcing of a homogeneous greenhouse gas (HGG) can be very inhomogeneous because the forcing is dependent on other atmospheric and surface variables. In the case of doubling CO2, the monthly mean instantaneous forcing at the top of the atmosphere is found to vary geographically and temporally from positive to negative values, with the range (-2.5-5.1 W m-2) being more than 3 times the magnitude of the global mean value (2.3 W m-2). The vertical temperature change across the atmospheric column (temperature lapse rate) is found to be the best single predictor for explaining forcing variation. In addition, the masking effects of clouds and water vapor also contribute to forcing inhomogeneity. A regression model that predicts forcing from geophysical variables is constructed. This model can explain more than 90% of the variance of the forcing. Applying this model to analyzing the forcing variation in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 models, we find that intermodel discrepancy in CO2 forcing caused by model climatology leads to considerable discrepancy in their projected change in poleward energy transport.

  2. Simulation and modeling of homogeneous, compressed turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. T.; Ferziger, J. H.; Chapman, D. R.

    1985-05-01

    Low Reynolds number homogeneous turbulence undergoing low Mach number isotropic and one-dimensional compression was simulated by numerically solving the Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical simulations were performed on a CYBER 205 computer using a 64 x 64 x 64 mesh. A spectral method was used for spatial differencing and the second-order Runge-Kutta method for time advancement. A variety of statistical information was extracted from the computed flow fields. These include three-dimensional energy and dissipation spectra, two-point velocity correlations, one-dimensional energy spectra, turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate, integral length scales, Taylor microscales, and Kolmogorov length scale. Results from the simulated flow fields were used to test one-point closure, two-equation models. A new one-point-closure, three-equation turbulence model which accounts for the effect of compression is proposed. The new model accurately calculates four types of flows (isotropic decay, isotropic compression, one-dimensional compression, and axisymmetric expansion flows) for a wide range of strain rates.

  3. Dynamic contact angle cycling homogenizes heterogeneous surfaces.

    PubMed

    Belibel, R; Barbaud, C; Mora, L

    2016-12-01

    In order to reduce restenosis, the necessity to develop the appropriate coating material of metallic stent is a challenge for biomedicine and scientific research over the past decade. Therefore, biodegradable copolymers of poly((R,S)-3,3 dimethylmalic acid) (PDMMLA) were prepared in order to develop a new coating exhibiting different custom groups in its side chain and being able to carry a drug. This material will be in direct contact with cells and blood. It consists of carboxylic acid and hexylic groups used for hydrophilic and hydrophobic character, respectively. The study of this material wettability and dynamic surface properties is of importance due to the influence of the chemistry and the potential motility of these chemical groups on cell adhesion and polymer kinetic hydrolysis. Cassie theory was used for the theoretical correction of contact angles of these chemical heterogeneous surfaces coatings. Dynamic Surface Analysis was used as practical homogenizer of chemical heterogeneous surfaces by cycling during many cycles in water. In this work, we confirmed that, unlike receding contact angle, advancing contact angle is influenced by the difference of only 10% of acidic groups (%A) in side-chain of polymers. It linearly decreases with increasing acidity percentage. Hysteresis (H) is also a sensitive parameter which is discussed in this paper. Finally, we conclude that cycling provides real information, thus avoiding theoretical Cassie correction. H(10)is the most sensible parameter to %A. PMID:27612817

  4. Homogeneous assay technology based on upconverting phosphors.

    PubMed

    Kuningas, Katri; Rantanen, Terhi; Ukonaho, Telle; Lövgren, Timo; Soukka, Tero

    2005-11-15

    Upconversion photoluminescence can eliminate problems associated with autofluorescence and scattered excitation light in homogeneous luminescence-based assays without need for temporal resolution. We have demonstrated a luminescence resonance energy-transfer-based assay utilizing inorganic upconverting (UPC) lanthanide phosphor as a donor and fluorescent protein as an acceptor. UPC phosphors are excited at near-infrared and they have narrow-banded anti-Stokes emission at visible wavelengths enabling measurement of the proximity-dependent sensitized emission with minimal background. The acceptor alone does not generate any direct emission at shorter wavelengths under near-infrared excitation. A competitive model assay for biotin was constructed using streptavidin-conjugated Er3+,Yb3+-doped UPC phosphor as a donor and biotinylated phycobiliprotein as an acceptor. UPC phosphor was excited at near-infrared (980 nm) and sensitized acceptor emission was measured at red wavelength (600 nm) by using a microtitration plate fluorometer equipped with an infrared laser diode and suitable excitation and emission filters. Lower limit of detection was in the subnanomolar concentration range. Compared to time-resolved fluorometry, the developed assay technology enabled simplified instrumentation. Excitation at near-infrared and emission at red wavelengths render the technology also suitable to analysis of strongly colored and fluorescent samples, which are often of concern in clinical immunoassays and in high-throughput screening. PMID:16285685

  5. Homogeneous piecewise polynomial Lyapunov function for robust stability of uncertain piecewise linear system

    SciTech Connect

    BenAbdallah, Abdallah; Hammami, Mohamed Ali; Kallel, Jalel

    2009-03-05

    In this paper we present some sufficient conditions for the robust stability and stabilization of time invariant uncertain piecewise linear system using homogenous piecewise polynomial Lyapunov function. The proposed conditions are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities which can be numerically solved. An application of the obtained result is given. It consists in resolving the stabilization of piecewise uncertain linear control systems by using a state piecewise linear feedback.

  6. Microscopic investigations of homogeneous nucleation in charged sphere suspensions.

    PubMed

    Wette, Patrick; Schöpe, Hans Joachim; Palberg, Thomas

    2005-11-01

    We studied the homogeneous nucleation kinetics of an aqueous suspension of charged colloidal spheres under de-ionized conditions. Samples of equilibrium crystalline structure were shear molten and the metastable melt left to solidify after cessation of shear. At low particle number densities n, corresponding to low metastability of the melt, nucleation was monitored directly via video microscopy. We determined the nucleation rates gamma(t) by counting the number of newly appearing crystals in the observation volume per unit time. Using a suitable discrete adaptation of Avrami's [J. Chem. Phys. 7, 1003 (1939); ibid.8, 212 (1940); ibid.9, 177 (1941)] model for solidification via homogeneous nucleation and subsequent growth, we calculate the remaining free volume VF(t) to obtain the rate densities J(t) = gamma(t)/VF(t). We observe J(t) to rise steeply, display a plateau at a maximum rate density Jmax, and to decrease again. With increased n the plateau duration shrinks while Jmax increases. At low to moderate number densities fully solidified samples were analyzed by microscopy to obtain the grain-size distribution and the average crystallite size angle brackets(L). Under the assumption of stationarity, we obtained the nucleation rate density J(Avr), which increased strongly with increasing n. Interestingly, J(Avr) agrees quantitatively to Jmax and to J(Avr) as obtained previously from scattering data taken on the same sample at large n. Thus, by combination of different methods, reliable nucleation rate densities are now available over roughly one order of magnitude in n and eight orders of magnitude in J. PMID:16375564

  7. Advances in the homogenization of monthly and daily climate surface data in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Füllemann, C.; Begert, M.; Z'graggen, L.; Croci-Maspoli, M.

    2009-04-01

    Homogenization of surface climate data is essential for the accurate monitoring of climate variability, climate extremes and climate change. The intention of MeteoSwiss by providing long term series of surface climate data in Switzerland is to a) systematically preserve historical climate data in respect to national and international guidelines and b) to homogenize these data on monthly and daily time scales. The former aspect has been considered by the definition of the Swiss National Basic Climatological Network (Swiss NBCN). This network defines the most valuable climatological surface stations in Switzerland and provides a basis to ensure a long-term perspective of their operation. For the latter aspect well established monthly homogenization methods are applied to the Swiss surface climate data. In addition, a spline method is used to derive daily adjustment values from monthly adjustments for temperature and precipitation. In line with the COST Action "Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME)" which dedicates a main focus on the comparison and development of daily homogenization methods we present first results of the comparison of the spline method with a labour intensive semi-objective homogenization procedure using long-term temperature series. The semi-objective method is based upon physical dependences of the inhomogenities on radiation and wind conditions and is believed to produce the most accurate daily adjustments. In this presentation results will be presented of the comparison of homogenization techniques for daily mean and extreme values of the temperature during the period 1901 until 2003 for 6 Swiss surface stations.

  8. Homogeneity of lithium distribution in cylinder-type Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senyshyn, A.; Mühlbauer, M. J.; Dolotko, O.; Hofmann, M.; Ehrenberg, H.

    2015-12-01

    Spatially-resolved neutron powder diffraction with a gauge volume of 2 × 2 × 20 mm3 has been applied as an in situ method to probe the lithium concentration in the graphite anode of different Li-ion cells of 18650-type in charged state. Structural studies performed in combination with electrochemical measurements and X-ray computed tomography under real cell operating conditions unambiguously revealed non-homogeneity of the lithium distribution in the graphite anode. Deviations from a homogeneous behaviour have been found in both radial and axial directions of 18650-type cells and were discussed in the frame of cell geometry and electrical connection of electrodes, which might play a crucial role in the homogeneity of the lithium distribution in the active materials within each electrode.

  9. Homogeneity of lithium distribution in cylinder-type Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Senyshyn, A; Mühlbauer, M J; Dolotko, O; Hofmann, M; Ehrenberg, H

    2015-01-01

    Spatially-resolved neutron powder diffraction with a gauge volume of 2 × 2 × 20 mm(3) has been applied as an in situ method to probe the lithium concentration in the graphite anode of different Li-ion cells of 18650-type in charged state. Structural studies performed in combination with electrochemical measurements and X-ray computed tomography under real cell operating conditions unambiguously revealed non-homogeneity of the lithium distribution in the graphite anode. Deviations from a homogeneous behaviour have been found in both radial and axial directions of 18650-type cells and were discussed in the frame of cell geometry and electrical connection of electrodes, which might play a crucial role in the homogeneity of the lithium distribution in the active materials within each electrode. PMID:26681110

  10. Homogeneity of lithium distribution in cylinder-type Li-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Senyshyn, A.; Mühlbauer, M. J.; Dolotko, O.; Hofmann, M.; Ehrenberg, H.

    2015-01-01

    Spatially-resolved neutron powder diffraction with a gauge volume of 2 × 2 × 20 mm3 has been applied as an in situ method to probe the lithium concentration in the graphite anode of different Li-ion cells of 18650-type in charged state. Structural studies performed in combination with electrochemical measurements and X-ray computed tomography under real cell operating conditions unambiguously revealed non-homogeneity of the lithium distribution in the graphite anode. Deviations from a homogeneous behaviour have been found in both radial and axial directions of 18650-type cells and were discussed in the frame of cell geometry and electrical connection of electrodes, which might play a crucial role in the homogeneity of the lithium distribution in the active materials within each electrode. PMID:26681110

  11. NORDHOM - a Nordic collaboration to homogenize long-term climate data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engström, Erik; Carlund, Thomas; Laapas, Mikko; Aalto, Juha; Drebs, Achim; Lundstad, Elin; Motrøen Gjelte, Herdis; Vint, Kairi

    2015-04-01

    High-quality instrumental climate records are crucial for analysis of climate variability. Long-term climate series are however often affected by inhomogeneities (artificial shifts) due to changes in measurement conditions (relocations, instrumentation, change in environment, etc.). To deal with this problem homogenization procedures have been developed for detecting and adjusting inhomogeneities. The climate services at the Nordic NMHSs have a long profound tradition in cooperation on activities of common interest. One successful activity within this collaboration was establishing the North Atlantic Climatological Dataset (NACD) in the 1990s. The NACD data set (1890-) was later continued as the Nordic Climate Dataset (NkDS). Since the mid-1990s there have been little systematic homogenization efforts at the Nordic NMHSs. It was agreed at an expert meeting within the "Nordic Framework for Climate services (NFCS)" in 2012, to establish a NFCS-project NORDHOM: "Nordic collaboration on long-term homogeneous climate data records". The ongoing activities in NORDHOM are to establish common methods for homogeneity testing and adjustment for inhomogeneities, homogenize long Nordic temperature and precipitation series, and update the Nordic Climate Dataset. We are now summarizing what we have achieved during the first phase (2013-2014) of the project and have an outlook what will follow during the second phase (2015-2016). There will also be some examples from each participating country in the collaboration.

  12. A novel approach to computational homogenization and its application to fully coupled two-scale thermomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischhauer, Robert; Božić, Marko; Kaliske, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The paper introduces a novel approach to computational homogenization by bridging the scales from microscale to macroscale. Whenever the microstructure is in an equilibrium state, the macrostructure needs to be in equilibrium, too. The novel approach is based on the concept of representative volume elements, stating that an assemblage of representative elements should be able to resemble the macrostructure. The resulting key assumption is the continuity of the appropriate kinematic fields across both scales. This assumption motivates the following idea. In contrast to existing approaches, where mostly constitutive quantities are homogenized, the balance equations, that drive the considered field quantities, are homogenized. The approach is applied to the fully coupled partial differential equations of thermomechanics solved by the finite element (FE) method. A novel consistent finite homogenization element is given with respect to discretized residual formulations and linearization terms. The presented FE has no restrictions regarding the thermomechanical constitutive laws that are characterizing the microstructure. A first verification of the presented approach is carried out against semi-analytical and reference solutions within the range of one-dimensional small strain thermoelasticity. Further verification is obtained by a comparison to the classical FE^2 method and its different types of boundary conditions within a finite deformation setting of purely mechanical problems. Furthermore, the efficiency of the novel approach is investigated and compared. Finally, structural examples are shown in order to demonstrate the applicability of the presented homogenization framework in case of finite thermo-inelasticity at different length scales.

  13. The endothelial glycocalyx promotes homogenous blood flow distribution within the microvasculature.

    PubMed

    McClatchey, P Mason; Schafer, Michal; Hunter, Kendall S; Reusch, Jane E B

    2016-07-01

    Many common diseases involve impaired tissue perfusion, and heterogeneous distribution of blood flow in the microvasculature contributes to this pathology. The physiological mechanisms regulating homogeneity/heterogeneity of microvascular perfusion are presently unknown. Using established empirical formulations for blood viscosity modeling in vivo (blood vessels) and in vitro (glass tubes), we showed that the in vivo formulation predicts more homogenous perfusion of microvascular networks at the arteriolar and capillary levels. Next, we showed that the more homogeneous blood flow under simulated in vivo conditions can be explained by changes in red blood cell interactions with the vessel wall. Finally, we demonstrated that the presence of a space-filling, semipermeable layer (such as the endothelial glycocalyx) at the vessel wall can account for the changes of red blood cell interactions with the vessel wall that promote homogenous microvascular perfusion. Collectively, our results indicate that the mechanical properties of the endothelial glycocalyx promote homogeneous microvascular perfusion. Preservation or restoration of normal glycocalyx properties may be a viable strategy for improving tissue perfusion in a variety of diseases. PMID:27199117

  14. Exploring an approximation for the homogeneous freezing temperature of water droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O, Kuan-Ting; Wood, Robert

    2016-06-01

    In this work, based on the well-known formulae of classical nucleation theory (CNT), the temperature TNc = 1 at which the mean number of critical embryos inside a droplet is unity is derived from the Boltzmann distribution function and explored as an approximation for homogeneous freezing temperature of water droplets. Without including the information of the applied cooling rate γcooling and the number of observed droplets Ntotal_droplets in the calculation, the approximation TNc = 1 is able to reproduce the dependence of homogeneous freezing temperature on drop size V and water activity aw of aqueous drops observed in a wide range of experimental studies for droplet diameter > 10 µm and aw > 0.85, suggesting the effect of γcooling and Ntotal_droplets may be secondary compared to the effect of V and aw on homogeneous freezing temperatures in these size and water activity ranges under realistic atmospheric conditions. We use the TNc = 1 approximation to argue that the distribution of homogeneous freezing temperatures observed in the experiments may be partly explained by the spread in the size distribution of droplets used in the particular experiment. It thus appears that the simplicity of this approximation makes it potentially useful for predicting homogeneous freezing temperatures of water droplets in the atmosphere.

  15. A numerical homogenization method for heterogeneous, anisotropic elastic media based on multiscale theory

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gao, Kai; Chung, Eric T.; Gibson, Richard L.; Fu, Shubin; Efendiev, Yalchin

    2015-06-05

    The development of reliable methods for upscaling fine scale models of elastic media has long been an important topic for rock physics and applied seismology. Several effective medium theories have been developed to provide elastic parameters for materials such as finely layered media or randomly oriented or aligned fractures. In such cases, the analytic solutions for upscaled properties can be used for accurate prediction of wave propagation. However, such theories cannot be applied directly to homogenize elastic media with more complex, arbitrary spatial heterogeneity. We therefore propose a numerical homogenization algorithm based on multiscale finite element methods for simulating elasticmore » wave propagation in heterogeneous, anisotropic elastic media. Specifically, our method used multiscale basis functions obtained from a local linear elasticity problem with appropriately defined boundary conditions. Homogenized, effective medium parameters were then computed using these basis functions, and the approach applied a numerical discretization that is similar to the rotated staggered-grid finite difference scheme. Comparisons of the results from our method and from conventional, analytical approaches for finely layered media showed that the homogenization reliably estimated elastic parameters for this simple geometry. Additional tests examined anisotropic models with arbitrary spatial heterogeneity where the average size of the heterogeneities ranged from several centimeters to several meters, and the ratio between the dominant wavelength and the average size of the arbitrary heterogeneities ranged from 10 to 100. Comparisons to finite-difference simulations proved that the numerical homogenization was equally accurate for these complex cases.« less

  16. A numerical homogenization method for heterogeneous, anisotropic elastic media based on multiscale theory

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Kai; Chung, Eric T.; Gibson, Richard L.; Fu, Shubin; Efendiev, Yalchin

    2015-06-05

    The development of reliable methods for upscaling fine scale models of elastic media has long been an important topic for rock physics and applied seismology. Several effective medium theories have been developed to provide elastic parameters for materials such as finely layered media or randomly oriented or aligned fractures. In such cases, the analytic solutions for upscaled properties can be used for accurate prediction of wave propagation. However, such theories cannot be applied directly to homogenize elastic media with more complex, arbitrary spatial heterogeneity. We therefore propose a numerical homogenization algorithm based on multiscale finite element methods for simulating elastic wave propagation in heterogeneous, anisotropic elastic media. Specifically, our method used multiscale basis functions obtained from a local linear elasticity problem with appropriately defined boundary conditions. Homogenized, effective medium parameters were then computed using these basis functions, and the approach applied a numerical discretization that is similar to the rotated staggered-grid finite difference scheme. Comparisons of the results from our method and from conventional, analytical approaches for finely layered media showed that the homogenization reliably estimated elastic parameters for this simple geometry. Additional tests examined anisotropic models with arbitrary spatial heterogeneity where the average size of the heterogeneities ranged from several centimeters to several meters, and the ratio between the dominant wavelength and the average size of the arbitrary heterogeneities ranged from 10 to 100. Comparisons to finite-difference simulations proved that the numerical homogenization was equally accurate for these complex cases.

  17. Simulation and Modeling of Homogeneous, Compressed Turbulence.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chung-Teh

    Low Reynolds number homogeneous turbulence undergoing low Mach number isotropic and one-dimensional compression has been simulated by numerically solving the Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical simulations were carried out on a CYBER 205 computer using a 64 x 64 x 64 mesh. A spectral method was used for spatial differencing and the second -order Runge-Kutta method for time advancement. A variety of statistical information was extracted from the computed flow fields. These include three-dimensional energy and dissipation spectra, two-point velocity correlations, one -dimensional energy spectra, turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate, integral length scales, Taylor microscales, and Kolmogorov length scale. It was found that the ratio of the turbulence time scale to the mean-flow time scale is an important parameter in these flows. When this ratio is large, the flow is immediately affected by the mean strain in a manner similar to that predicted by rapid distortion theory. When this ratio is small, the flow retains the character of decaying isotropic turbulence initially; only after the strain has been applied for a long period does the flow accumulate a significant reflection of the effect of mean strain. In these flows, the Kolmogorov length scale decreases rapidly with increasing total strain, due to the density increase that accompanies compression. Results from the simulated flow fields were used to test one-point-closure, two-equation turbulence models. The two-equation models perform well only when the compression rate is small compared to the eddy turn-over rate. A new one-point-closure, three-equation turbulence model which accounts for the effect of compression is proposed. The new model accurately calculates four types of flows (isotropic decay, isotropic compression, one-dimensional compression, and axisymmetric expansion flows) for a wide range of strain rates.

  18. Evaluation of a locally homogeneous model of spray evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, A. J.; Faeth, G. M.; Tamura, H.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements were conducted on an evaporating spray in a stagnant environment. The spray was formed using an air-atomizing injector to yield a Sauter mean diameter of the order of 30 microns. The region where evaporation occurred extended approximately 1 m from the injector for the test conditions. Profiles of mean velocity, temperature, composition, and drop size distribution, as well as velocity fluctuations and Reynolds stress, were measured. The results are compared with a locally homogeneous two-phase flow model which implies no velocity difference and thermodynamic equilibrium between the phases. The flow was represented by a k-epsilon-g turbulence model employing a clipped Gaussian probability density function for mixture fraction fluctuations. The model provides a good representation of earlier single-phase jet measurements, but generally overestimates the rate of development of the spray. Using the model predictions to represent conditions along the centerline of the spray, drop life-history calculations were conducted which indicate that these discrepancies are due to slip and loss of thermodynamic equilibrium between the phases.

  19. Operator Algebra Quantum Homogeneous Spaces of Universal Gauge Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahanta, Snigdhayan; Mathai, Varghese

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we quantize universal gauge groups such as SU(∞), as well as their homogeneous spaces, in the σ- C*-algebra setting. More precisely, we propose concise definitions of σ- C*-quantum groups and σ- C*-quantum homogeneous spaces and explain these concepts here. At the same time, we put these definitions in the mathematical context of countably compactly generated spaces as well as C*-compact quantum groups and homogeneous spaces. We also study the representable K-theory of these spaces and compute these groups for the quantum homogeneous spaces associated to the quantum version of the universal gauge group SU(∞).

  20. Reactivity of D-fructose and D-xylose in acidic media in homogeneous phases.

    PubMed

    Fusaro, Maxime B; Chagnault, Vincent; Postel, Denis

    2015-05-29

    Chemistry development of renewable resources is a real challenge. Carbohydrates from biomass are complex and their use as substitutes for fossil materials remains difficult (European involvement on the incorporation of 20% raw material of plant origin in 2020). Most of the time, the transformation of these polyhydroxylated structures are carried out in acidic conditions. Recent reviews on this subject describe homogeneous catalytic transformations of pentoses, specifically toward furfural, and also the transformation of biomass-derived sugars in heterogeneous conditions. To complete these informations, the objective of this review is to give an overview of the structural variety described during the treatment of two monosaccharides (D-Fructose and D-xylose) in acidic conditions in homogeneous phases. The reaction mechanisms being not always determined with certainty, we will also provide a brief state of the art regarding this. PMID:25889471

  1. Feeding premature infants banked human milk homogenized by ultrasonic treatment.

    PubMed

    Rayol, M R; Martinez, F E; Jorge, S M; Gonçalves, A L; Desai, I D

    1993-12-01

    Premature neonates fed ultrasonically homogenized human milk had better weight gain and triceps skin-fold thickness than did a control group given untreated human milk (p < 0.01) and also had lower fat loss during tube feeding (p < 0.01). Ultrasonic homogenization of human milk appears to minimize loss of fat and thus allows better growth of premature infants. PMID:8229535

  2. Sensitivity of liquid clouds to homogenous freezing parameterizations

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Ross J; Murray, Benjamin J; Dobbie, Steven J; Koop, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Water droplets in some clouds can supercool to temperatures where homogeneous ice nucleation becomes the dominant freezing mechanism. In many cloud resolving and mesoscale models, it is assumed that homogeneous ice nucleation in water droplets only occurs below some threshold temperature typically set at −40°C. However, laboratory measurements show that there is a finite rate of nucleation at warmer temperatures. In this study we use a parcel model with detailed microphysics to show that cloud properties can be sensitive to homogeneous ice nucleation as warm as −30°C. Thus, homogeneous ice nucleation may be more important for cloud development, precipitation rates, and key cloud radiative parameters than is often assumed. Furthermore, we show that cloud development is particularly sensitive to the temperature dependence of the nucleation rate. In order to better constrain the parameterization of homogeneous ice nucleation laboratory measurements are needed at both high (>−35°C) and low (<−38°C) temperatures. Key Points Homogeneous freezing may be significant as warm as −30°C Homogeneous freezing should not be represented by a threshold approximation There is a need for an improved parameterization of homogeneous ice nucleation PMID:26074652

  3. Bounded Correctors in Almost Periodic Homogenization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Scott; Gloria, Antoine; Kuusi, Tuomo

    2016-05-01

    We show that certain linear elliptic equations (and systems) in divergence form with almost periodic coefficients have bounded, almost periodic correctors. This is proved under a new condition we introduce which quantifies the almost periodic assumption and includes (but is not restricted to) the class of smooth, quasiperiodic coefficient fields which satisfy a Diophantine-type condition previously considered by uc(Kozlov) (Mat Sb (N.S), 107(149):199-217, 1978). The proof is based on a quantitative ergodic theorem for almost periodic functions combined with the new regularity theory recently introduced by uc(Armstrong) and uc(Shen) (Pure Appl Math, 2016) for equations with almost periodic coefficients. This yields control on spatial averages of the gradient of the corrector, which is converted into estimates on the size of the corrector itself via a multiscale Poincaré-type inequality.

  4. Turbulent Diffusion in Non-Homogeneous Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez, M.; Redondo, J. M.; Mahjoub, O. B.; Sekula, E.

    2012-04-01

    Many experimental studies have been devoted to the understanding of non-homogeneous turbulent dynamics. Activity in this area intensified when the basic Kolmogorov self-similar theory was extended to two-dimensional or quasi 2D turbulent flows such as those appearing in the environment, that seem to control mixing [1,2]. The statistical description and the dynamics of these geophysical flows depend strongly on the distribution of long lived organized (coherent) structures. These flows show a complex topology, but may be subdivided in terms of strongly elliptical domains (high vorticity regions), strong hyperbolic domains (deformation cells with high energy condensations) and the background turbulent field of moderate elliptic and hyperbolic characteristics. It is of fundamental importance to investigate the different influence of these topological diverse regions. Relevant geometrical information of different areas is also given by the maximum fractal dimension, which is related to the energy spectrum of the flow. Using all the available information it is possible to investigate the spatial variability of the horizontal eddy diffusivity K(x,y). This information would be very important when trying to model numerically the behaviour in time of the oil spills [3,4] There is a strong dependence of horizontal eddy diffusivities with the Wave Reynolds number as well as with the wind stress measured as the friction velocity from wind profiles measured at the coastline. Natural sea surface oily slicks of diverse origin (plankton, algae or natural emissions and seeps of oil) form complicated structures in the sea surface due to the effects of both multiscale turbulence and Langmuir circulation. It is then possible to use the topological and scaling analysis to discriminate the different physical sea surface processes. We can relate higher orden moments of the Lagrangian velocity to effective diffusivity in spite of the need to calibrate the different regions determining the

  5. Development of Dynamic Explicit Crystallographic Homogenization Finite Element Analysis Code to Assess Sheet Metal Formability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Yasunori; Tam, Nguyen Ngoc; Ohata, Tomiso; Morita, Kiminori; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2004-06-01

    The crystallographic texture evolution induced by plastic deformation in the sheet metal forming process has a great influence on its formability. In the present study, a dynamic explicit finite element (FE) analysis code is newly developed by introducing a crystallographic homogenization method to estimate the polycrystalline sheet metal formability, such as the extreme thinning and "earing." This code can predict the plastic deformation induced texture evolution at the micro scale and the plastic anisotropy at the macro scale, simultaneously. This multi-scale analysis can couple the microscopic crystal plasticity inhomogeneous deformation with the macroscopic continuum deformation. In this homogenization process, the stress at the macro scale is defined by the volume average of those of the corresponding microscopic crystal aggregations in satisfying the equation of motion and compatibility condition in the micro scale "unit cell," where the periodicity of deformation is satisfied. This homogenization algorithm is implemented in the conventional dynamic explicit finite element code by employing the updated Lagrangian formulation and the rate type elastic/viscoplastic constitutive equation. At first, it has been confirmed through a texture evolution analyses in cases of typical deformation modes that Taylor's "constant strain homogenization algorithm" yields extreme concentration toward the preferred crystal orientations compared with our homogenization one. Second, we study the plastic anisotropy effects on "earing" in the hemispherical cup deep drawing process of pure ferrite phase sheet metal. By the comparison of analytical results with those of Taylor's assumption, conclusions are drawn that the present newly developed dynamic explicit crystallographic homogenization FEM shows more reasonable prediction of plastic deformation induced texture evolution and plastic anisotropy at the macro scale.

  6. Chemical zoning and homogenization of olivines in ordinary chondrites and implications for thermal histories of chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyamoto, Masamichi; Mckay, David S.; Mckay, Gordon A.; Duke, Michael B.

    1986-01-01

    The extent and degree of homogenization of chemical zoning of olivines in type 3 ordinary chondrites is studied in order to obtain some constraints on cooling histories of chondrites. Based on Mg-Fe and CaO zoning, olivines in type 3 chondrites are classified into four types. A single chondrule usually contains olivines with the same type of zoning. Microporphyritic olivines show all four zoning types. Barred olivines usually show almost homogenized chemical zoning. The cooling rates or burial depths needed to homogenize the chemical zoning are calculated by solving the diffusion equation, using the zoning profiles as an initial condition. Mg-Fe zoning of olivine may be altered during initial cooling, whereas CaO zoning is hardly changed. Barred olivines may be homogenized during initial cooling because their size is relatively small. To simulated microporphyritic olivine chondrules, cooling from just below the liquidus at moderately high rates is preferable to cooling from above the liquidus at low rates. For postaccumulation metamorphism of type 3 chondrites to keep Mg-Fe zoning unaltered, the maximum metamorphic temperature must be less than about 400 C if cooling rates based on Fe-Ni data are assumed. Calculated cooling rates for both Fa and CaO homogenization are consistent with those by Fe-Ni data for type 4 chondrites. A hot ejecta blanket several tens of meters thick on the surface of a parent body is sufficient to homogenize Mg-Fe zoning if the temperature of the blanket is 600-700 C. Burial depths for petrologic types of ordinary chondrites in a parent body heated by Al-26 are broadly consistent with those previously proposed.

  7. Homogenization techniques for the analysis of porous SMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepe, V.; Auricchio, F.; Marfia, S.; Sacco, E.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper the mechanical response of porous Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) is modeled. The porous SMA is considered as a composite medium made of a dense SMA matrix with voids treated as inclusions. The overall response of this very special composite is deduced performing a micromechanical and homogenization analysis. In particular, the incremental Mori-Tanaka averaging scheme is provided; then, the Transformation Field Analysis procedure in its uniform and nonuniform approaches, UTFA and NUTFA respectively, are presented. In particular, the extension of the NUTFA technique proposed by Sepe et al. (Int J Solids Struct 50:725-742, 2013) is presented to investigate the response of porous SMA characterized by closed and open porosity. A detailed comparison between the outcomes provided by the Mori-Tanaka, the UTFA and the proposed NUTFA procedures for porous SMA is presented, through numerical examples for two- and three-dimensional problems. In particular, several values of porosity and different loading conditions, inducing pseudoelastic effect in the SMA matrix, are investigated. The predictions assessed by the Mori-Tanaka, the UTFA and the NUTFA techniques are compared with the results obtained by nonlinear finite element analyses. A comparison with experimental data available in literature is also presented.

  8. Biotic homogenization can decrease landscape-scale forest multifunctionality.

    PubMed

    van der Plas, Fons; Manning, Pete; Soliveres, Santiago; Allan, Eric; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Verheyen, Kris; Wirth, Christian; Zavala, Miguel A; Ampoorter, Evy; Baeten, Lander; Barbaro, Luc; Bauhus, Jürgen; Benavides, Raquel; Benneter, Adam; Bonal, Damien; Bouriaud, Olivier; Bruelheide, Helge; Bussotti, Filippo; Carnol, Monique; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Charbonnier, Yohan; Coomes, David Anthony; Coppi, Andrea; Bastias, Cristina C; Dawud, Seid Muhie; De Wandeler, Hans; Domisch, Timo; Finér, Leena; Gessler, Arthur; Granier, André; Grossiord, Charlotte; Guyot, Virginie; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Jactel, Hervé; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Joly, François-Xavier; Jucker, Tommaso; Koricheva, Julia; Milligan, Harriet; Mueller, Sandra; Muys, Bart; Nguyen, Diem; Pollastrini, Martina; Ratcliffe, Sophia; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Selvi, Federico; Stenlid, Jan; Valladares, Fernando; Vesterdal, Lars; Zielínski, Dawid; Fischer, Markus

    2016-03-29

    Many experiments have shown that local biodiversity loss impairs the ability of ecosystems to maintain multiple ecosystem functions at high levels (multifunctionality). In contrast, the role of biodiversity in driving ecosystem multifunctionality at landscape scales remains unresolved. We used a comprehensive pan-European dataset, including 16 ecosystem functions measured in 209 forest plots across six European countries, and performed simulations to investigate how local plot-scale richness of tree species (α-diversity) and their turnover between plots (β-diversity) are related to landscape-scale multifunctionality. After accounting for variation in environmental conditions, we found that relationships between α-diversity and landscape-scale multifunctionality varied from positive to negative depending on the multifunctionality metric used. In contrast, when significant, relationships between β-diversity and landscape-scale multifunctionality were always positive, because a high spatial turnover in species composition was closely related to a high spatial turnover in functions that were supported at high levels. Our findings have major implications for forest management and indicate that biotic homogenization can have previously unrecognized and negative consequences for large-scale ecosystem multifunctionality. PMID:26979952

  9. Clustering of vertically constrained passive particles in homogeneous isotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pietro, Massimo; van Hinsberg, Michel A. T.; Biferale, Luca; Clercx, Herman J. H.; Perlekar, Prasad; Toschi, Federico

    2015-05-01

    We analyze the dynamics of small particles vertically confined, by means of a linear restoring force, to move within a horizontal fluid slab in a three-dimensional (3D) homogeneous isotropic turbulent velocity field. The model that we introduce and study is possibly the simplest description for the dynamics of small aquatic organisms that, due to swimming, active regulation of their buoyancy, or any other mechanism, maintain themselves in a shallow horizontal layer below the free surface of oceans or lakes. By varying the strength of the restoring force, we are able to control the thickness of the fluid slab in which the particles can move. This allows us to analyze the statistical features of the system over a wide range of conditions going from a fully 3D incompressible flow (corresponding to the case of no confinement) to the extremely confined case corresponding to a two-dimensional slice. The background 3D turbulent velocity field is evolved by means of fully resolved direct numerical simulations. Whenever some level of vertical confinement is present, the particle trajectories deviate from that of fluid tracers and the particles experience an effectively compressible velocity field. Here, we have quantified the compressibility, the preferential concentration of the particles, and the correlation dimension by changing the strength of the restoring force. The main result is that there exists a particular value of the force constant, corresponding to a mean slab depth approximately equal to a few times the Kolmogorov length scale η , that maximizes the clustering of the particles.

  10. Effective property models for homogeneous two-phase flows

    SciTech Connect

    Awad, M.M.; Muzychka, Y.S.

    2008-10-15

    Using an analogy between thermal conductivity of porous media and viscosity in two-phase flow, new definitions for two-phase viscosity are proposed. These new definitions satisfy the following two conditions: namely (i) the two-phase viscosity is equal to the liquid viscosity at the mass quality = 0% and (ii) the two-phase viscosity is equal to the gas viscosity at the mass quality = 100%. These new definitions can be used to compute the two-phase frictional pressure gradient using the homogeneous modeling approach. These new models are assessed using published experimental data of two-phase frictional pressure gradient in circular pipes, minichannels and microchannels in the form of Fanning friction factor (f{sub m}) versus Reynolds number (Re{sub m}). The published data include different working fluids such as R-12, R-22, argon (R740), R717, R134a, R410A and propane (R290) at different diameters and different saturation temperatures. Models are assessed on the basis minimizing the root mean square error (e{sub RMS}). It is shown that these new definitions of two-phase viscosity can be used to analyze the experimental data of two-phase frictional pressure gradient in circular pipes, minichannels and microchannels using simple friction models. (author)

  11. Degeneracy allows for both apparent homogeneity and diversification in populations

    PubMed Central

    Whitacre, James M.; Atamas, Sergei P.

    2013-01-01

    Trait diversity – the substrate for natural selection – is necessary for adaptation through selection, particularly in populations faced with environmental changes that diminish population fitness. In habitats that remain unchanged for many generations, stabilizing selection maximizes exploitation of resources by reducing trait diversity to a narrow optimal range. One might expect that such ostensibly homogeneous populations would have a reduced potential for heritable adaptive responses when faced with fitness-reducing environmental changes. However, field studies have documented populations that, even after long periods of evolutionary stasis, can still rapidly evolve in response to changed environmental conditions. We argue that degeneracy, the ability of diverse population elements to function similarly, can satisfy both the current need to maximize fitness and the future need for diversity. Degenerate ensembles appear functionally redundant in certain environmental contexts and functionally diverse in others. We propose that genetic variation not contributing to the observed range of phenotypes in a current population, also known as cryptic genetic variation (CGV), is a specific case of degeneracy. We argue that CGV, which gradually accumulates in static populations in stable environments, reveals hidden trait differences when environments change. By allowing CGV accumulation, static populations prepare themselves for future rapid adaptations to environmental novelty. A greater appreciation of degeneracy’s role in resolving the inherent tension between current stabilizing selection and future directional selection has implications in conservation biology and may be applied in social and technological systems to maximize current performance while strengthening the potential for future changes. PMID:22910487

  12. Homogeneous Entropy-Driven Amplified Detection of Biomolecular Interactions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donghyuk; Garner, Omai B; Ozcan, Aydogan; Di Carlo, Dino

    2016-08-23

    While a range of artificial biochemical circuits is likely to play a significant role in biological engineering, one of the challenges in the field is the design of circuits that can transduce between biomolecule classes (e.g., moving beyond nucleic acid only circuits). Herein, we design a transduction mechanism whereby a protein signal is transduced into an amplified nucleic acid output using DNA nanotechnology. In this system, a protein is recognized by nucleic acid bound recognition elements to form a catalytic complex that drives a hybridization/displacement reaction on a multicomponent nucleic acid substrate, releasing multiple target single-stranded oligonucleotides in an amplified fashion. Amplification power and simple one-pot reaction conditions lead us to apply the scheme in an assay format, achieving homogeneous and rapid (∼10 min) analyte detection that is also robust (operable in whole blood and plasma). In addition, we demonstrate the assay in a microfluidic digital assay format leading to improved quantification and sensitivity approaching single-molecule levels. The present scheme we believe will have a significant impact on a range of applications from fundamental molecular interaction studies to design of artificial circuits in vivo to high-throughput, multiplexed assays for screening or point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:27462995

  13. Multimode instabilities in a homogeneously broadened ring laser

    SciTech Connect

    Lugiato, L.A.; Narducci, L.M.; Eschenazi, E.V.; Bandy, D.K.; Abraham, N.B.

    1985-09-01

    This paper contains a description of the behavior of a multimode unidirectional ring laser with a homogeneously broadened active medium. Our formulation is based on the conventional Maxwell-Bloch (MB) equations, but is distinguished from other treatments by the inclusion of a finite mirror reflectivity and an arbitrary value of the gain parameter. We review the steady-state behavior of the system and analyze the longitudinal profile of the field and of the atomic variables. With an appropriate transformation of variables, we transform the boundary conditions of the ring cavity into standard periodicity type, even in the presence of a finite reflectivity, and derive an infinite hierarchy of coupled mode equations. We analyze exactly the linear stability of the system, and investigate the dependence of the instability domain on the reflectivity and gain parameters. A numerical study of the full MB equations for a parameter range of the type explored in the recent experiments by Hillman et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1605 (1984)) reveals similarities, but also considerable differences between the results of the theory and the main experimental signatures of their instability. However, the injection of numerical noise shows the presence of numerous coexisting basins of attraction which are likely to play a significant role in the dynamics of a noisy laser.

  14. Microstructurally-based homogenization of electromagnetic properties of periodic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirkhizi, Alireza V.; Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    2008-01-01

    A general method for homogenization of the electromagnetic properties of a heterogeneous periodic medium is developed, based on its microstructure. This method is inspired by micromechanics (Nemat-Nasser and Hori, 1999). Contrary to other conventional techniques, commonly used in electromagnetism to calculate the overall properties of composites, this microstructurally-based method does not require an explicit numerical solution of the Maxwell equations. We define the macroscopic field quantities as volume averages of the spatially variable fields, taken over a representative volume element (RVE), consisting of a unit cell of the periodic medium (Hill, 1963; Willis, 1981; Hashin, 1983; Nemat-Nasser, 1986). The boundary conditions are based on the Bloch representation of wave propagation in the heterogeneous media. Instead of explicitly solving the Maxwell equations, these equations are directly used in the averaging scheme. This distinguishes our method from others, where usually a known point-wise solution is used to obtain the average field quantities. The resulting constitutive relations therefore may be used to directly estimate the response of any heterogeneous periodic assembly of material constituents of given geometry and properties. To cite this article: A.V. Amirkhizi, S. Nemat-Nasser, C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  15. Information Geometry Formalism for the Spatially Homogeneous Boltzmann Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lods, Bertrand; Pistone, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    Information Geometry generalizes to infinite dimension by modeling the tangent space of the relevant manifold of probability densities with exponential Orlicz spaces. We review here several properties of the exponential manifold on a suitable set $\\mathcal E$ of mutually absolutely continuous densities. We study in particular the fine properties of the Kullback-Liebler divergence in this context. We also show that this setting is well-suited for the study of the spatially homogeneous Boltzmann equation if $\\mathcal E$ is a set of positive densities with finite relative entropy with respect to the Maxwell density. More precisely, we analyse the Boltzmann operator in the geometric setting from the point of its Maxwell's weak form as a composition of elementary operations in the exponential manifold, namely tensor product, conditioning, marginalization and we prove in a geometric way the basic facts i.e., the H-theorem. We also illustrate the robustness of our method by discussing, besides the Kullback-Leibler divergence, also the property of Hyv\\"arinen divergence. This requires to generalise our approach to Orlicz-Sobolev spaces to include derivatives.%

  16. Dynamic control of a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    DOEpatents

    Duffy, Kevin P.; Mehresh, Parag; Schuh, David; Kieser, Andrew J.; Hergart, Carl-Anders; Hardy, William L.; Rodman, Anthony; Liechty, Michael P.

    2008-06-03

    A homogenous charge compression ignition engine is operated by compressing a charge mixture of air, exhaust and fuel in a combustion chamber to an autoignition condition of the fuel. The engine may facilitate a transition from a first combination of speed and load to a second combination of speed and load by changing the charge mixture and compression ratio. This may be accomplished in a consecutive engine cycle by adjusting both a fuel injector control signal and a variable valve control signal away from a nominal variable valve control signal. Thereafter in one or more subsequent engine cycles, more sluggish adjustments are made to at least one of a geometric compression ratio control signal and an exhaust gas recirculation control signal to allow the variable valve control signal to be readjusted back toward its nominal variable valve control signal setting. By readjusting the variable valve control signal back toward its nominal setting, the engine will be ready for another transition to a new combination of engine speed and load.

  17. Occupancy is nine-tenths of the law: occupancy rates determine the homogenizing and differentiating effects of exotic species.

    PubMed

    Harris, David J; Smith, Kevin G; Hanly, Patrick J

    2011-04-01

    Biotic homogenization, the loss of local biotic distinctiveness among locations (beta diversity), is a form of global change that can result from the widespread introduction of non-native species. Here, we model this process using only species' occupancy rates--the proportion of sites they occupy--without reference to their spatial arrangement. The nonspatial model unifies many empirical results and reliably explains >90% of the variance in species' effects on beta diversity. It also provides new intuitions and principles, including the conditions under which species' appearance, spread, or extirpation will homogenize or differentiate landscapes. Specifically, the addition or spread of exotic species that are more common than the native background rate (effective occupancy) homogenizes landscapes, while driving such species to extinction regionally or introducing rarer species differentiates them. Given the primacy of occupancy and our model's ability to explain its role, homogenization research can now focus on other factors. PMID:21460574

  18. Use of antioxidants to reduce lipid oxidation and off-odor volatiles of irradiated pork homogenates and patties.

    PubMed

    Nam, K C; Ahn, D U

    2003-01-01

    Pork homogenates and patties treated with antioxidants (200 μM, final) were irradiated with an electron beam. Lipid oxidation of the pork homogenates and patties were determined at day 0 and 5 and volatile compounds were analyzed soon after irradiation. Ionizing radiation accelerated lipid oxidation and produced S-containing volatiles in pork homogenates and patties. Addition of an antioxidant (sesamol, gallate, Trolox, or α-tocopherol) and their combinations decreased, but carnosine did not affect the production of off-odor volatiles and lipid oxidation of pork homogenates and patties by irradiation. Antioxidant combinations showed distinct beneficial reduction in lipid oxidation of aerobically packaged irradiated pork patties. The effect of antioxidant combinations in reducing sulfur volatiles of irradiated pork patties was clearer under vacuum than aerobic conditions. PMID:22061977

  19. Three-dimensional vortex dynamics in superfluid /sup 4/He: Homogeneous superfluid turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, K.W.

    1988-08-01

    The behavior of a tangle of quantized vortex lines subject to uniform superfluid and normal-fluid driving velocities is investigated. The dynamical equation of the quantized vortices in the local approximation is supplemented by the assumption that when two such singularities cross, they undergo a reconnection. The properties of the dynamical equation, when combined with the assumption of homogeneity, imply numerous scaling relations, which are in fact observed experimentally. The primitive dynamical rules are utilized to perform extensive numerical simulations of the vortex tangle, using not only periodic, but also smooth-wall and rough-wall boundary conditions. All lead to the same homogeneous vortex-tangle state, although the case of periodic boundary conditions requires an additional trick to eliminate artificial features. The quantitative results obtained from these simulations are found to be in excellent absolute agreement with a large variety of experiments, including recent studies of the vortex-tangle anisotropy.

  20. Pattern and process of biotic homogenization in the New Pangaea.

    PubMed

    Baiser, Benjamin; Olden, Julian D; Record, Sydne; Lockwood, Julie L; McKinney, Michael L

    2012-12-01

    Human activities have reorganized the earth's biota resulting in spatially disparate locales becoming more or less similar in species composition over time through the processes of biotic homogenization and biotic differentiation, respectively. Despite mounting evidence suggesting that this process may be widespread in both aquatic and terrestrial systems, past studies have predominantly focused on single taxonomic groups at a single spatial scale. Furthermore, change in pairwise similarity is itself dependent on two distinct processes, spatial turnover in species composition and changes in gradients of species richness. Most past research has failed to disentangle the effect of these two mechanisms on homogenization patterns. Here, we use recent statistical advances and collate a global database of homogenization studies (20 studies, 50 datasets) to provide the first global investigation of the homogenization process across major faunal and floral groups and elucidate the relative role of changes in species richness and turnover. We found evidence of homogenization (change in similarity ranging from -0.02 to 0.09) across nearly all taxonomic groups, spatial extent and grain sizes. Partitioning of change in pairwise similarity shows that overall change in community similarity is driven by changes in species richness. Our results show that biotic homogenization is truly a global phenomenon and put into question many of the ecological mechanisms invoked in previous studies to explain patterns of homogenization. PMID:23055062

  1. Homogenization and improvement in energy dissipation of nonlinear composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Luv; Sivakumar, Srinivasan M.; Vedantam, S.

    2016-04-01

    Due to their high strength to weight and stiffness to weight ratio, there is a huge shift towards the composite materials from the conventional metals, but composites have poor damage resistance in the transverse direction. Undergoing impact loads, they can fail in wide variety of modes which severely reduces the structural integrity of the component. This paper deals with the homogenization of glass-fibers and epoxy composite with a material introduced as an inelastic inclusion. This nonlinearity is being modelled by kinematic hardening procedure and homogenization is done by one of the mean field homogenization technique known as Mori-Tanaka method. The homogenization process consider two phases, one is the matrix and another is the inelastic inclusion, thus glass-fibers and epoxy are two phases which can be considered as one phase and act as a matrix while homogenizing non-linear composite. Homogenization results have been compared to the matrix at volume fraction zero of the inelastic inclusions and to the inelastic material at volume fraction one. After homogenization, increase of the energy dissipation into the composite due to addition of inelastic material and effects onto the same by changing the properties of the matrix material have been discussed.

  2. Reduction of pantethine in rabbit ocular lens homogenate.

    PubMed

    Fisher, D H; Szulc, M E

    1997-02-01

    In several animal models, preliminary studies have indicated that pantethine may inhibit cataract formation. Therefore, preclinical trials need to be conducted to study the pharmacology of pantethine in the ocular lens and to establish its efficacy. Since pantethine, which is a disulfide, can undergo a variety of chemical modifications such as reduction and formation of mixed disulfides, a detailed study was first conducted to determine the stability of pantethine in rabbit lens homogenate. A knowledge of the stability of pantethine in lens homogenate was necessary to establish if pantethine could be metabolized in the time it takes to harvest and homogenize a lens. The results of this study will be used to establish a protocol for harvesting and homogenizing lens samples. Pantethine (100 microM) is completely reduced to pantetheine in rabbit lens homogenate in about 16 min. About 1.5% of the pantethine added to lens homogenate forms a mixed disulfide with lens proteins, and the remainder is found in the supernatant. The supernatant pantethine concentration decreases exponentially as a function of time, and the terminal half-life for this process is 3.3 min. The free supernatant pantetheine concentration increases in pseudo first order manner as a function of time with a rate constant of 4.3 min. Pantethinase activity is not significant, because the free supernatant pantetheine concentration did not decrease. The exact mechanism of pantethine reduction in rabbit lens homogenate remains to be determined. PMID:9127277

  3. Toward a mechanistic understanding and prediction of biotic homogenization.

    PubMed

    Olden, Julian D; Poff, N LeRoy

    2003-10-01

    The widespread replacement of native species with cosmopolitan, nonnative species is homogenizing the global fauna and flora. While the empirical study of biotic homogenization is substantial and growing, theoretical aspects have yet to be explored. Consequently, the breadth of possible ecological mechanisms that can shape current and future patterns and rates of homogenization remain largely unknown. Here, we develop a conceptual model that describes 14 potential scenarios by which species invasions and/or extinctions can lead to various trajectories of biotic homogenization (increased community similarity) or differentiation (decreased community similarity); we then use a simulation approach to explore the model's predictions. We found changes in community similarity to vary with the type and number of nonnative and native species, the historical degree of similarity among the communities, and, to a lesser degree, the richness of the recipient communities. Homogenization is greatest when similar species invade communities, causing either no extinction or differential extinction of native species. The model predictions are consistent with current empirical data for fish, bird, and plant communities and therefore may represent the dominant mechanisms of contemporary homogenization. We present a unifying model illustrating how the balance between invading and extinct species dictates the outcome of biotic homogenization. We conclude by discussing a number of critical but largely unrecognized issues that bear on the empirical study of biotic homogenization, including the importance of spatial scale, temporal scale, and data resolution. We argue that the study of biotic homogenization needs to be placed in a more mechanistic and predictive framework in order for studies to provide adequate guidance in conservation efforts to maintain regional distinctness of the global biota. PMID:14582007

  4. Homogeneity requirements for minimizing self-focusing damage by strong electromagnetic waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jokipii, J. R.; Marburger, J.

    1973-01-01

    The Rytov approximation for wave propagation in random media is generalized to include the effects of self-focusing. Solutions are obtained which show how the intensity fluctuations, which are either initially present in the wave or which are induced by the random inhomogeneities in the media, grow catastrophically. These solutions may be used to obtain conditions on the homogeneity of the medium, or of the incident beam, for reduction or elimination of catastrophic self-focusing in the medium.

  5. Microfluidic Generation of Monodisperse, Structurally Homogeneous Alginate Microgels for Cell Encapsulation and 3D Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Utech, Stefanie; Prodanovic, Radivoje; Mao, Angelo S; Ostafe, Raluca; Mooney, David J; Weitz, David A

    2015-08-01

    Monodisperse alginate microgels (10-50 μm) are created via droplet-based microfluidics by a novel crosslinking procedure. Ionic crosslinking of alginate is induced by release of chelated calcium ions. The process separates droplet formation and gelation reaction enabling excellent control over size and homogeneity under mild reaction conditions. Living mesenchymal stem cells are encapsulated and cultured in the generated 3D microenvironments. PMID:26039892

  6. Equation of state of homogeneous nuclear matter and the symmetry coefficient

    SciTech Connect

    Onsi, M. ); Przysiezniak, H.; Pearson, J.M. )

    1994-07-01

    For different Skyrme-type forces we investigate the equation of state of homogeneous nuclear matter under the conditions appropriate to a collapsing star. We find that the stiffness of the equation of state increases significantly as the symmetry coefficient [ital J] of nuclear matter increases over the range of its experimental uncertainty. We present analytic expressions for the adiabatic index [Gamma] permitting the elimination of all numerical derivatives.

  7. Discrete analogue of generalized Hardy spaces and multiplication operators on homogenous trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthukumar, Perumal; Ponnusamy, Saminathan

    2016-08-01

    In this article, we define discrete analogue of generalized Hardy spaces and its separable subspace on a homogenous rooted tree and study some of its properties such as completeness, inclusion relations with other spaces, separability, growth estimate for functions in these spaces and their consequences. Equivalent conditions for multiplication operators to be bounded and compact are also obtained. Furthermore, we discuss about point spectrum, approximate point spectrum and spectrum of multiplication operators and discuss when a multiplication operator is an isometry.

  8. Heterogenization of Homogeneous Catalysts: the Effect of the Support

    SciTech Connect

    Earl, W.L.; Ott, K.C.; Hall, K.A.; de Rege, F.M.; Morita, D.K.; Tumas, W.; Brown, G.H.; Broene, R.D.

    1999-06-29

    We have studied the influence of placing a soluble, homogeneous catalyst onto a solid support. We determined that such a 'heterogenized' homogeneous catalyst can have improved activity and selectivity for the asymmetric hydrogenation of enamides to amino acid derivatives. The route of heterogenization of RhDuPhos(COD){sup +} cations occurs via electrostatic interactions with anions that are capable of strong hydrogen bonding to silica surfaces. This is a novel approach to supported catalysis. Supported RhDuPhos(COD){sup +} is a recyclable, non-leaching catalyst in non-polar media. This is one of the few heterogenized catalysts that exhibits improved catalytic performance as compared to its homogeneous analog.

  9. Evaluation of atomic homogeneity in mixed oxide fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuya, H.; Tajiri, H.; Koizumi, M.

    1982-04-01

    Atomic homogeneities of UC 2-PuO 2 and ThO 2-UO 2 fuels fabricated by the mechanical blending were evaluated, using an X-ray diffraction method which has been developed to investigate the homogeneity in a binary metal powder compact. The X-ray diffraction line profile obtained on the plane (620) of specimen was converted to the composition distribution, after removing Kα 2 line profile and instrumental broadening function. Effective penetration curve obtained from the composition distribution and subsequently Matano interface was determined, and finally atomic homogeneity was evaluated.

  10. Hydrogen storage materials and method of making by dry homogenation

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, Craig M.; Zidan, Ragaiy A.

    2002-01-01

    Dry homogenized metal hydrides, in particular aluminum hydride compounds, as a material for reversible hydrogen storage is provided. The reversible hydrogen storage material comprises a dry homogenized material having transition metal catalytic sites on a metal aluminum hydride compound, or mixtures of metal aluminum hydride compounds. A method of making such reversible hydrogen storage materials by dry doping is also provided and comprises the steps of dry homogenizing metal hydrides by mechanical mixing, such as be crushing or ball milling a powder, of a metal aluminum hydride with a transition metal catalyst. In another aspect of the invention, a method of powering a vehicle apparatus with the reversible hydrogen storage material is provided.

  11. Evaluation of dose homogenization and radiation carcinogenesis risk in total body irradiation for bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Oysul, K; Dirican, B; Beyzadeoglu, M; Sürenkok, S; Arpaci, F; Pak, Y

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report on the dose homogeneity in total body irradiated patients undergoing Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT), and carcinogenic risk in surviving patients. Between 1987 and 2001, 105 patients received hyperfractionated (6 fractions in 3 days) 12 Gy Total Body Irradiation (TBI) in our institution with lateral opposed fields. All the patients had measurements with thermoluminiscence dosimetry (TLD100) placed on seven bilateral body sites in vivo, controlled by the randophantom measurements to verify reasonable dose homogeneity achievement. The comorbid effects in the whole TBI conditioning group with at least three months post BMT follow-up were noted and surviving patients who had a minimum 5-year and maximum 14-year follow-up (median 7.8 years) have been evaluated for carcinogenic radiation risk on the basis of tissue weighting factors as defined by ICRP 60. Reasonable dose homogeneity by lateral opposed beam TBI has been obtained in all 105 patients in whom lateral TLD100 measurement means were within +5% of the planned doses. Calculated carcinogenesis risk factor was 11.34% for males and 12.40% for females, and no second-cancer has been detected whilst radiation-induced 5 cataracts and 10 interstitial pneumonia comorbidities were noted. Dose homogenization can be well achieved for hyperfractionated lateral-beam TBI with acceptable comorbidities and estimated second-cancer risk is significant but relatively low compared to the risk from the clinical indications for TBI. PMID:14628091

  12. A homogeneous immunoassay for cyclic nucleotides based on chemiluminescence energy transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, A K; Patel, A

    1983-01-01

    A chemiluminescent derivative of cyclic AMP, aminobutylethylisoluminol succinyl cyclic AMP (ABEI-scAMP), was synthesized in order to develop a homogeneous immunoassay based on non-radiative energy transfer. ABEI-scAMP was chemiluminescent (5.1 X 10(18) luminescent counts X mol-1 at pH 13), pure (greater than 95%) stable and immunologically active. A conventional immunoassay was established using ABEI-scAMP and a solid-phase anti-(cyclic AMP) immunoglobulin G which could detect cyclic AMP at least down to 25fmol. A homogeneous immunoassay for cyclic AMP was established by measuring the shift in wavelength from 460 to 525nm which occurred when ABEI-scAMP was bound to fluorescein-labelled anti-(cyclic AMP) immunoglobulin G. The assay was at least as sensitive as the conventional radioimmunoassay using cyclic [3H]AMP and could measure cyclic AMP over the range 1-1000nM. The homogeneous chemiluminescent energy transfer assay was also able to quantify the association and dissociation of antibody-antigen complexes. Chemiluminescence energy transfer occurred between fluorescein-labelled antibodies and several other ABEI-labelled antigens (Mr values 314-150000) including progesterone, cyclic GMP, complement component C9 and immunoglobulin G. The results provide a homogeneous immunoassay capable of measuring free cyclic AMP under conditions likely to exist inside cells. PMID:6316935

  13. Homogeneous solar photodegradation of contaminants in water

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, J.R.; Ravel, M.; Cater, S.R.; Safarzadeh-Amiri, A.

    1996-12-31

    Solarchem has developed a new patented process (Rayox{reg_sign}-A), involving the use of ferrioxalate, which absorbs out to 500 nm and thus uses a much larger fraction of the spectral output of a medium pressure mercury lamp, compared to the UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process. The new process generates hydroxyl radicals, so the chemistry is very similar to that in UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatments. A variant of this process (called Solaqua{reg_sign}) uses solar energy as the light source. This paper describes the use of solar radiation to destroy contaminants in ground and process waters. Results will be presented of the treatment of 1,4-dioxane spiked into tap water in a 1.45 m{sup 2} test solar reactor, where they have obtained quantum yields of {approximately} 1 for the removal of 1,4-dioxane. Figures-of-merit, based on the collector area (m{sup 2}) required to achieve a certain treatment under standard solar conditions, are introduced, defined and applied to the Solaqua{reg_sign} process for the treatment of 1,4-dioxane.

  14. Colour Image Segmentation Using Homogeneity Method and Data Fusion Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Chaabane, Salim; Sayadi, Mounir; Fnaiech, Farhat; Brassart, Eric

    2009-12-01

    A novel method of colour image segmentation based on fuzzy homogeneity and data fusion techniques is presented. The general idea of mass function estimation in the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory of the histogram is extended to the homogeneity domain. The fuzzy homogeneity vector is used to determine the fuzzy region in each primitive colour, whereas, the evidence theory is employed to merge different data sources in order to increase the quality of the information and to obtain an optimal segmented image. Segmentation results from the proposed method are validated and the classification accuracy for the test data available is evaluated, and then a comparative study versus existing techniques is presented. The experimental results demonstrate the superiority of introducing the fuzzy homogeneity method in evidence theory for image segmentation.

  15. Tritium Technology Program TTP-1-3089 TPBAR Homogenized Composition

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Edward F.

    2014-10-12

    Homogenized TPBAR number densities contained herein have been derived for unclassified core physics calculations. The use of this information may not provide accurate, conservative or representative results and must be evaluated for applicability to the specific problem.

  16. Nonasymptotic homogenization of periodic electromagnetic structures: Uncertainty principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukerman, Igor; Markel, Vadim A.

    2016-01-01

    We show that artificial magnetism of periodic dielectric or metal/dielectric structures has limitations and is subject to at least two "uncertainty principles." First, the stronger the magnetic response (the deviation of the effective permeability tensor from identity), the less accurate ("certain") the predictions of any homogeneous model. Second, if the magnetic response is strong, then homogenization cannot accurately reproduce the transmission and reflection parameters and, simultaneously, power dissipation in the material. These principles are general and not confined to any particular method of homogenization. Our theoretical analysis is supplemented with a numerical example: a hexahedral lattice of cylindrical air holes in a dielectric host. Even though this case is highly isotropic, which might be thought of as conducive to homogenization, the uncertainty principles remain valid.

  17. HOMOGENEOUS CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF HYDROCARBONS IN ALTERNATIVE SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Homogeneous Catalytic Oxidations of Hydrocarbons in Alternative Solvent Systems

    Michael A. Gonzalez* and Thomas M. Becker, Sustainable Technology Division, Office of Research and Development; United States Environmental Protection Agency, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, ...

  18. Sequential Degradation of Insulin by Rat Liver Homogenates

    PubMed Central

    Varandani, P. T.; Shroyer, Lois A.; Nafz, Mary Ann

    1972-01-01

    Insulin was incubated with rat liver homogenate in the presence of glutathione. The products formed were examined by chromatography on a Sephadex G-75 column, with 50% acetic acid as eluent. The results show that insulin is degraded by rat liver homogenates in sequential order: first, a splitting of insulin into A and B chains by glutathione-insulin transhydrogenase, followed by proteolysis of the resulting polypeptides to small molecular weight components. PMID:4625885

  19. Homogeneous vortex model for liquid slosh in spinning spherical tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Raheb, M.; Wagner, P.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of forced fluid sloshing in a partially filled spinning spherical tank is solved numerically using the finite element method. The governing equations include Coriolis acceleration, empirical fluid damping and spatially homogeneous vorticity first introduced by Pfeiffer. An exponential instability similar to flutter is detected in the present simulation for fill ratios below 50 percent. This instability appears in the model as a result of the homogeneous vortex assumption since the free slosh equations are neutrally stable in the Liapunov sense.

  20. A Wald test with enhanced selectivity properties in homogeneous environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weijian; Xie, Wenchong; Wang, Yongliang

    2013-12-01

    A Wald test with enhanced selectivity capabilities is proposed in homogeneous environments. At the design stage, we assume that the cell under test contains a noise-like interferer in addition to colored noise and possible signal of interest. We show that the Wald test is equivalent to a recently proposed Rao test. We also observe that this Rao/Wald test possesses constant false alarm rate property in homogeneous environments.

  1. Matrix-dependent multigrid-homogenization for diffusion problems

    SciTech Connect

    Knapek, S.

    1996-12-31

    We present a method to approximately determine the effective diffusion coefficient on the coarse scale level of problems with strongly varying or discontinuous diffusion coefficients. It is based on techniques used also in multigrid, like Dendy`s matrix-dependent prolongations and the construction of coarse grid operators by means of the Galerkin approximation. In numerical experiments, we compare our multigrid-homogenization method with homogenization, renormalization and averaging approaches.

  2. Electroosmosis in Non-homogeneously Charged Microporous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Wang, M.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding electroosmosis in microporous media is important for species separation in electrochromatography, flooding control in fuel cells, contaminants removal in soil and electrokinetic displacement in oil extraction. Because of the complexity of transport and randomness of porous media, investigation of electroosmosis in porous media is mostly based on the assumption that the solid surface is homogeneously charged. However, based on the surface complexation model, the surface charge and zeta potential are much dependent on the local chemical environment of the solution. Therefore, variations of concentration, pH and temperature and so on will lead to a non-homogeneous charge distribution in the porous media. In addition, since the characteristic length of the pore is comparable to the characteristic length of the double layer in the microporous media, overlap of the double layer occurs and this will further regulate the surface charge distribution. In this work, we propose a 3-D lattice Poisson-Boltzmann model for electroosmosis in porous media with non-homogeneous charge for above reasons. We employ a generation-growth method to reproduce the 3-D random microstructures of natural porous media and solve the Navier-Stokes equation and Poisson-Boltzmann equation using lattice Boltzmann method. To determine the surface charge and zeta potential, we adopt the Basic-Stern model to describe the electrical double layer. Electroosmotic permeability is investigated for various cases with non-homogeneous charge and compared to the results with homogeneous charge to determine the validity of the homogeneous charge assumption.

  3. Homogenization patterns of the world’s freshwater fish faunas

    PubMed Central

    Villéger, Sébastien; Blanchet, Simon; Beauchard, Olivier; Oberdorff, Thierry; Brosse, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    The world is currently undergoing an unprecedented decline in biodiversity, which is mainly attributable to human activities. For instance, nonnative species introduction, combined with the extirpation of native species, affects biodiversity patterns, notably by increasing the similarity among species assemblages. This biodiversity change, called taxonomic homogenization, has rarely been assessed at the world scale. Here, we fill this gap by assessing the current homogenization status of one of the most diverse vertebrate groups (i.e., freshwater fishes) at global and regional scales. We demonstrate that current homogenization of the freshwater fish faunas is still low at the world scale (0.5%) but reaches substantial levels (up to 10%) in some highly invaded river basins from the Nearctic and Palearctic realms. In these realms experiencing high changes, nonnative species introductions rather than native species extirpations drive taxonomic homogenization. Our results suggest that the “Homogocene era” is not yet the case for freshwater fish fauna at the worldwide scale. However, the distressingly high level of homogenization noted for some biogeographical realms stresses the need for further understanding of the ecological consequences of homogenization processes. PMID:22025692

  4. String-like cooperative motion in homogeneous melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Khalkhali, Mohammad; Liu, Qingxia; Douglas, Jack F.

    2013-03-01

    Despite the fundamental nature and practical importance of melting, there is still no generally accepted theory of this ubiquitous phenomenon. Even the earliest simulations of melting of hard discs by Alder and Wainwright indicated the active role of collective atomic motion in melting and here we utilize molecular dynamics simulation to determine whether these correlated motions are similar to those found in recent studies of glass-forming (GF) liquids and other condensed, strongly interacting, particle systems. We indeed find string-like collective atomic motion in our simulations of "superheated" Ni crystals, but other observations indicate significant differences from GF liquids. For example, we observe neither stretched exponential structural relaxation, nor any decoupling phenomenon, while we do find a boson peak, findings that have strong implications for understanding the physical origin of these universal properties of GF liquids. Our simulations also provide a novel view of "homogeneous" melting in which a small concentration of interstitial defects exerts a powerful effect on the crystal stability through their initiation and propagation of collective atomic motion. These relatively rare point defects are found to propagate down the strings like solitons, driving the collective motion. Crystal integrity remains preserved when the permutational atomic motions take the form of ring-like atomic exchanges, but a topological transition occurs at higher temperatures where the rings open to form linear chains similar in geometrical form and length distribution to the strings of GF liquids. The local symmetry breaking effect of the open strings apparently destabilizes the local lattice structure and precipitates crystal melting. The crystal defects are thus not static entities under dynamic conditions, such as elevated temperatures or material loading, but rather are active agents exhibiting a rich nonlinear dynamics that is not addressed in conventional "static

  5. String-like cooperative motion in homogeneous melting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Khalkhali, Mohammad; Liu, Qingxia; Douglas, Jack F

    2013-03-28

    Despite the fundamental nature and practical importance of melting, there is still no generally accepted theory of this ubiquitous phenomenon. Even the earliest simulations of melting of hard discs by Alder and Wainwright indicated the active role of collective atomic motion in melting and here we utilize molecular dynamics simulation to determine whether these correlated motions are similar to those found in recent studies of glass-forming (GF) liquids and other condensed, strongly interacting, particle systems. We indeed find string-like collective atomic motion in our simulations of "superheated" Ni crystals, but other observations indicate significant differences from GF liquids. For example, we observe neither stretched exponential structural relaxation, nor any decoupling phenomenon, while we do find a boson peak, findings that have strong implications for understanding the physical origin of these universal properties of GF liquids. Our simulations also provide a novel view of "homogeneous" melting in which a small concentration of interstitial defects exerts a powerful effect on the crystal stability through their initiation and propagation of collective atomic motion. These relatively rare point defects are found to propagate down the strings like solitons, driving the collective motion. Crystal integrity remains preserved when the permutational atomic motions take the form of ring-like atomic exchanges, but a topological transition occurs at higher temperatures where the rings open to form linear chains similar in geometrical form and length distribution to the strings of GF liquids. The local symmetry breaking effect of the open strings apparently destabilizes the local lattice structure and precipitates crystal melting. The crystal defects are thus not static entities under dynamic conditions, such as elevated temperatures or material loading, but rather are active agents exhibiting a rich nonlinear dynamics that is not addressed in conventional "static

  6. Singularities in the Elastic Tidal Deformation of a Homogeneous Sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurford, T. A.; Frey, S. E.; Greenberg, R.

    2005-05-01

    Numerical evaluation of Love's 1911 solution [1] for the tidal amplitude of a uniform, compressible, self-gravitating body reveals portions of parameter space where the coefficients known as Love numbers approach infinity. Love's solution depends only on (a) the ratio of gravity to the rigidity, ρ g R / μ , and (b) the ratio of rigidity to Lamé constant, μ / λ . The solution is not continuous; it includes the above singularities, around which values approach plus-or-minus infinity, even for parameters appropriate for realistic planetary materials. However, Love's model assumed that initially (prior to imposing the tidal potential) the sphere is homogeneous in density throughout the body. This condition is artificial, because for a real body, self-gravity would have increased the internal density. Nevertheless, Love's solutions have been the standard textbook formula for tidal amplitudes, usually only considering the incompressible limit. The singularities occur only for specific values of the parameters when compressibility is taken into account. For most typical planetary materials, with compressibility, the tidal amplitude is within ˜ 20% of the incompressible case. We have also evaluated the solution for the more complicated case of multi-layered bodies. Such results are more relevant to real layered planets, and address the question of whether the instabilities that resulted in infinite Love numbers were due to the artificially low densities near the core. We find that the singularities do persist even for multi-layered models, and even for cases that are not extremely different from parameters for real planets. This work was supported by NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics program. [1] Love, A.E.H., Some Problems of Geodynamics, New York Dover Publications, 1967 (reprint of work done in 1911)

  7. Studies of Immobilized Homogeneous Metal Catalysts on Silica Supports

    SciTech Connect

    Keith James Stanger

    2003-05-31

    The tethered, chiral, chelating diphosphine rhodium complex, which catalyzes the enantioselective hydrogenation of methyl-{alpha}-acetamidocinnamate (MAC), has the illustrated structure as established by {sup 31}P NMR and IR studies. Spectral and catalytic investigations also suggest that the mechanism of action of the tethered complex is the same as that of the untethered complex in solution. The rhodium complexes, [Rh(COD)H]{sub 4}, [Rh(COD){sub 2}]{sup +}BF{sub 4}{sup -}, [Rh(COD)Cl]{sub 2}, and RhCl{sub 3} {center_dot} 3H{sub 2}O, adsorbed on SiO{sub 2} are optimally activated for toluene hydrogenation by pretreatment with H{sub 2} at 200 C. The same complexes on Pd-SiO{sub 2} are equally active without pretreatments. The active species in all cases is rhodium metal. The catalysts were characterized by XPS, TEM, DRIFTS, and mercury poisoning experiments. Rhodium on silica catalyzes the hydrogenation of fluorobenzene to produce predominantly fluorocyclohexane in heptane and 1,2-dichloroethane solvents. In heptane/methanol and heptane/water solvents, hydrodefluorination to benzene and subsequent hydrogenation to cyclohexane occurs exclusively. Benzene inhibits the hydrodefluorination of fluorobenzene. In DCE or heptane solvents, fluorocyclohexane reacts with hydrogen fluoride to form cyclohexene. Reaction conditions can be chosen to selectively yield fluorocyclohexane, cyclohexene, benzene, or cyclohexane. The oxorhenium(V) dithiolate catalyst [-S(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}s-]Re(O)(Me)(PPh{sub 3}) was modified by linking it to a tether that could be attached to a silica support. Spectroscopic investigation and catalytic oxidation reactivity showed the heterogenized catalyst's structure and reactivity to be similar to its homogeneous analog. However, the immobilized catalyst offered additional advantages of recyclability, extended stability, and increased resistance to deactivation.

  8. Numerical simulations of non-homogeneous viscoelastic turbulent channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housiadas, Kostas; Beris, Antony

    2004-11-01

    The effect of the polymer mixing in turbulent channel flow is studied through numerical simulations, using a spectral technique. In particular, we simulate injection of polymeric material through a slit very close to the wall and parallel to it in pre-established Newtonian turbulent flow. The governing equations consist of the mass conservation, the modified Navier-Stokes equation (in order to take into account the polymer extra-stress), the evolution equation for the conformation tensor and an advection-diffusion equation for the polymer concentration. The injection process is simulated by dividing the computational domain in three different regions: (a) the entrance region where the polymer is introduced (b) the developing region where the polymer is allowed to convect freely interacting/modifying the turbulent flow and (c) the recovering region where we use a reacting sink to force the removal of the polymer from the solvent in order to re-establish the inlet conditions. A fully spectral method is used in order to solve the set of governing equations similar to that developed for homogenous viscoelastic turbulent DNS (Housiadas & Beris, Phys. Fluids, 15, (2003)). Although a significantly improved numerical algorithm has been successfully used before (Housiadas & Beris, to appear in J. Non-Newt. Fluid Mech. (2004)) a further improved version of that algorithm is presented in this work. The new algorithm has enabled us to extend the simulations for much wider range of viscoelasticity parameter values as well as for many viscoelastic models like the FENE-P, Giesekus, Oldroyd-B and the modified Giesekus/FENE-P model. Results for illustrative sets of parameter values are going to be presented.

  9. Homogeneous melting of superheated crystals: Molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsblom, Mattias; Grimvall, Göran

    2005-08-01

    The homogeneous melting mechanism in a superheated fcc lattice is studied through molecular dynamics simulations, usually for about 20 000 atoms, with the Ercolessi and Adams interaction that represents aluminum. The periodic boundary conditions for the simulation cell suppress the usual surface-initiated melting at Tm=939K , and the solid-to-liquid transition takes place at the temperature Ts=1.3Tm . By logging the position of each atom at every time step in the simulation, we can follow the melting process in detail at the atomic level. Thermal fluctuations close to Ts create interstitial-vacancy pairs, which occasionally separate into mobile interstitials and almost immobile vacancies. There is an attraction between two interstitials, with a calculated maximum interaction energy of about 0.7eV . When three to four migrating interstitials have come close enough to form a bound aggregate of point defects, and a few thermally created interstitial-vacancy pairs have been added to the aggregate, such a defect configuration usually continues to grow irreversibly to the liquid state. For 20 000 atoms in the simulation cell, the growth process takes about 102τ to be completed, where τ is the period of a typical atomic vibration in the solid phase. This melting mechanism involves fewer atoms in its crucial initial phase than has been suggested in other melting models. The elastic shear moduli c44 and c'=(c11-c12)/2 were calculated as a function of temperature and were shown to be finite at the onset of melting.

  10. Size and spatial homogeneity of SiGe quantum dots in amorphous silica matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Buljan, Maja; Pinto, Sara R. C.; Rolo, Anabela G.; Levichev, Sergey; Gomes, Maria J. M.; Kashtiban, Reza J.; Bangert, Ursel; Chahboun, Adil; Holy, Vaclav

    2009-10-15

    In this paper, we present a study of structural properties of SiGe quantum dots formed in amorphous silica matrix by magnetron sputtering technique. We investigate deposition conditions leading to the formation of dense and uniformly sized quantum dots, distributed homogeneously in the matrix. X-ray and Raman spectroscopy were used to estimate the Si content. A detailed analysis based on grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering revealed the influence of the deposition conditions on quantum dot sizes, size distributions, spatial arrangement, and concentration of quantum dots in the matrix, as well as the Si:Ge content.

  11. Immunization of guinea-pigs and cattle against adult Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks using semipurified nymphal homogenates and adult gut homogenate.

    PubMed Central

    Rechav, Y; Spickett, A M; Dauth, J; Tembo, S D; Clarke, F C; Heller-Haupt, A; Trinder, P K

    1992-01-01

    Guinea-pigs inoculated with crude homogenate of unfed nymphs of the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and with three semipurified fractions of the homogenate obtained by gel permeation chromatography, acquired a significant degree of immunity to infestation with adults of this tick. Fraction 2 induced the highest reduction (66%) in mean weight of engorged females followed by crude homogenate and fractions 1 and 3. Calves immunized with crude homogenates of unfed nymphs, fraction 2 of nymphal homogenate, and gut homogenate of unfed females also acquired immunity against adults of R. appendiculatus. The mean weight of engorged females fed on calves inoculated with nymphal fraction 2 was the lowest of all five groups of calves on which females fed. The reduction in weight (38%) was not significantly different from that observed for females fed on calves inoculated with crude nymphal homogenate (31%) or females from third infestation of adult ticks. No differences in the weight and hatchability of egg batches produced by engorged females collected from the five groups of calves were observed. Analysis of sera collected from the five groups of calves showed that the concentration of albumin, alpha-1, alpha-2 and beta-globulins fluctuated and no significant differences between the treated groups were observed. The levels of gamma-globulin increased in treated groups including the group inoculated with adjuvant only, but unlike previous reports no increase in gamma-globulin or a correlation between the level of gamma-globulin and the degree of resistance acquired were observed in calves exposed to repeated tick infestations. However, the increase in the concentration of gamma-globulin in calves inoculated with fraction 2 or crude nymphal homogenate was higher than that observed in the other groups. PMID:1375584

  12. Characteristics of cinnamaldehyde nanoemulsion prepared using APV-high pressure homogenizer and ultra turrax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmawati, Mustapha, Wan Aida Wan; Yusop, Salma Mohamad; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof; Shamsuddin, Ahmad Fuad

    2014-09-01

    This work aims at determining the optimized parameter to prepare cinnamaldehyde nanoemulsion by using high pressure homogenizer (2 passes at 900 bar) and ultra turrax T25 (12000 rpm for 5 min). Thirteen formulation of cinnamaldehyde nanoemulsion obtained by Design Expert software were prepared at a range of oil and surfactant concentration between of 5% and 10% (v/v). Commercial cinnamaldehyde was blended with deionized water and Tween 80 (emulsifier). The responses used in obtaining the optimized condition were droplet size, polydispersity index (PDI) and emulsion stability (ζ-potential). Result showed that nanoemulsion prepared using 5% (v/v) cinnamaldehyde and 5% (v/v) Tween 80 and homogenized using high pressure homogenizer (APV, Germany) has the smallest size of droplet. The response surface plots for droplet size showed that droplet size (diameter, nm) decreased as the concentration of cinnamaldehyde oil and Tween 80 decreased. However ζ-potential value (mV) showed an increment as the cinnamaldehyde oil concentration decreased and Tween 80 increased. The optimum formulation as predicted by response surface methodology in order to produce a stable cinnamaldehyde nanoemulsion was at 5% cinnamaldehyde oil and 7.11% Tween 80. At this optimized conditions the droplet size and ζ-potential values were 56.56 nm and -4.32 mV, respectively.

  13. Homogenization of Heterogeneous Elastic Materials with Applications to Seismic Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vel, S. S.; Johnson, S. E.; Okaya, D. A.; Cook, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    The velocities of seismic waves passing through a complex Earth volume can be influenced by heterogeneities at length scales shorter than the seismic wavelength. As such, seismic wave propagation analyses can be performed by replacing the actual Earth volume by a homogeneous i.e., "effective", elastic medium. Homogenization refers to the process by which the elastic stiffness tensor of the effective medium is "averaged" from the elastic properties, orientations, modal proportions and spatial distributions of the finer heterogeneities. When computing the homogenized properties of a heterogeneous material, the goal is to compute an effective or bulk elastic stiffness tensor that relates the average stresses to the average strains in the material. Tensor averaging schemes such as the Voigt and Reuss methods are based on certain simplifying assumptions. The Voigt method assumes spatially uniform strains while the Reuss method assumes spatially uniform stresses within the heterogeneous material. Although they are both physically unrealistic, they provide upper and lower bounds for the actual homogenized elastic stiffness tensor. In order to more precisely determine the homogenized stiffness tensor, the stress and strain distributions must be computed by solving the three-dimensional equations of elasticity over the heterogeneous region. Asymptotic expansion homogenization (AEH) is one such structure-based approach for the comprehensive micromechanical analysis of heterogeneous materials. Unlike modal volume methods, the AEH method takes into account how geometrical orientation and alignment can increase elastic stiffness in certain directions. We use the AEH method in conjunction with finite element analysis to calculate the bulk elastic stiffnesses of heterogeneous materials. In our presentation, wave speeds computed using the AEH method are compared with those generated using stiffness tensors derived from commonly-used analytical estimates. The method is illustrated

  14. The homogeneity of the retinal illumination is restricted by some ERG lenses.

    PubMed

    Kooijman, A C

    1986-03-01

    Are all types of available electroretinographic contact lenses suited for Ganzfeld stimulation? To answer this question, calculations have been made of the retinal light distribution with several types of ERG lenses placed on a theoretical eye. The results make possible a division of the ERG lenses into three categories. Category 1: Lenses with which the homogeneity of the retinal illumination is nearly perfect and independent of pupil size. These lenses are especially well designed for Ganzfeld electroretinography. Category 2: Lenses which illuminate a large retinal area but with which the light distribution depends on the size of the pupil. The suitability of these lenses is questionable, because Ganzfeld electroretinography is used in order to obtain a homogeneous retinal light distribution under most conditions. Category 3: Lenses with which the size of the illuminated retinal area changes strongly with the size of the pupil. These lenses are unsuitable for Ganzfeld electroretinography. PMID:3949465

  15. Improved turbulence models based on large eddy simulation of homogeneous, incompressible turbulent flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardino, J.; Ferziger, J. H.; Reynolds, W. C.

    1983-01-01

    The physical bases of large eddy simulation and subgrid modeling are studied. A subgrid scale similarity model is developed that can account for system rotation. Large eddy simulations of homogeneous shear flows with system rotation were carried out. Apparently contradictory experimental results were explained. The main effect of rotation is to increase the transverse length scales in the rotation direction, and thereby decrease the rates of dissipation. Experimental results are shown to be affected by conditions at the turbulence producing grid, which make the initial states a function of the rotation rate. A two equation model is proposed that accounts for effects of rotation and shows good agreement with experimental results. In addition, a Reynolds stress model is developed that represents the turbulence structure of homogeneous shear flows very well and can account also for the effects of system rotation.

  16. A new computational method for homogenized tangent moduli of a soft magnetoelastic composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayat, Alireza; Gordaninejad, Faramarz

    2015-07-01

    A finite element methods based homogenization approach is presented to simulate the nonlinear behavior of magnetoactive composites under a macroscopic deformation and an external magnetic field. The coupled magnetoelastic constitutive law and governing equations are developed in micro-scale for large deformations. Micro-scale formulation is employed on a characteristic volume element, taking into account periodic boundary conditions. A periodic homogenization method is utilized to compute macroscopic properties of the magnetoelastic composite at different mechanical and magnetic loading paths. A new and cost effective numerical scheme is used to develop the magnetoelastic tangent moduli tensors. A sensitivity analysis is proposed to compute the overall tangent moduli tensors of the composite through the finite difference method. The presented approach is useful in the characterization of magnetoactive and electroactive composites and FE2 methods. Results are presented for typical equilibrium states.

  17. Controlling gas diffusion layer oxidation by homogeneous hydrophobic coating for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiramitsu, Yusuke; Sato, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Kenji; Hori, Michio

    Reduced production costs and enhanced durability are necessary for practical application of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. There has been a great deal of concern about degradation of the gas diffusion layer located outside the membrane electrode assembly. However, very few studies have been carried out on the degradation process, and no suitable methods for improving the durability of the cell have been found. In this work, the influence on the cell performance and factors involved in the degradation of the gas diffusion layer has been clarified through power generation tests. Long-term power generation tests on single cells for 6000 h were carried out under high humidity conditions with homogeneous and inhomogeneous hydrophobic coating gas diffusion layers. The results showed that the increase in the diffusion overvoltage from the gas diffusion layer could be controlled by the use of a homogeneous coating. Post-analyses indicated that this occurred by controlling oxidation of the carbon fiber.

  18. Homogenization of Large-Scale Movement Models in Ecology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garlick, M.J.; Powell, J.A.; Hooten, M.B.; McFarlane, L.R.

    2011-01-01

    A difficulty in using diffusion models to predict large scale animal population dispersal is that individuals move differently based on local information (as opposed to gradients) in differing habitat types. This can be accommodated by using ecological diffusion. However, real environments are often spatially complex, limiting application of a direct approach. Homogenization for partial differential equations has long been applied to Fickian diffusion (in which average individual movement is organized along gradients of habitat and population density). We derive a homogenization procedure for ecological diffusion and apply it to a simple model for chronic wasting disease in mule deer. Homogenization allows us to determine the impact of small scale (10-100 m) habitat variability on large scale (10-100 km) movement. The procedure generates asymptotic equations for solutions on the large scale with parameters defined by small-scale variation. The simplicity of this homogenization procedure is striking when compared to the multi-dimensional homogenization procedure for Fickian diffusion,and the method will be equally straightforward for more complex models. ?? 2010 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  19. Homogeneous switching mechanism in pure polyvinylidene fluoride ultrathin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, B. B.; Chen, L. F.; Liu, Y.; Bai, X. F.; Wang, J. L.; Sun, Sh.; Yuan, G. L.; Sun, J. L.; Dkhil, B.; Meng, X. J.; Chu, J. H.

    2015-08-01

    Polarization switching kinetics is one of the key issues for future development of nanoelectronic devices based on ferroelectrics. Up to now, such kinetics still remains poorly studied despite its crucial impact on the device performances. Here, the switching mechanism in 11-nm-thick ferroelectric films of pure homopolymer of polyvinylidene fluoride is investigated. While the usual mechanism involves nucleation and growth of domains, a homogeneous ferroelectric switching is evidenced in such ultrathin films. Indeed, the dependence of the switching rate on applied voltage reveals a critical behavior with the existence of a true threshold field (of ˜0.26 GV /m ) which is required to overcome the energy barrier to reverse the whole polarization homogeneously as suggested by Landau-Ginzburg mean-field theory. Such finding not only supports few previous works but also raises the question on the general aspect of such homogeneous mechanism that might exist in any other nanoscale ferroelectric materials.

  20. Variable valve timing in a homogenous charge compression ignition engine

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, Keith E.; Faletti, James J.; Funke, Steven J.; Maloney, Ronald P.

    2004-08-03

    The present invention relates generally to the field of homogenous charge compression ignition engines, in which fuel is injected when the cylinder piston is relatively close to the bottom dead center position for its compression stroke. The fuel mixes with air in the cylinder during the compression stroke to create a relatively lean homogeneous mixture that preferably ignites when the piston is relatively close to the top dead center position. However, if the ignition event occurs either earlier or later than desired, lowered performance, engine misfire, or even engine damage, can result. The present invention utilizes internal exhaust gas recirculation and/or compression ratio control to control the timing of ignition events and combustion duration in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. Thus, at least one electro-hydraulic assist actuator is provided that is capable of mechanically engaging at least one cam actuated intake and/or exhaust valve.

  1. Cryogenic Homogenization and Sampling of Heterogeneous Multi-Phase Feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, Glenn M.; Ideker, Virgene D.; Siegwarth, James D.

    1999-09-21

    An apparatus and process for producing a homogeneous analytical sample from a heterogeneous feedstock by: providing the mixed feedstock, reducing the temperature of the feedstock to a temperature below a critical temperature, reducing the size of the feedstock components, blending the reduced size feedstock to form a homogeneous mixture; and obtaining a representative sample of the homogeneous mixture. The size reduction and blending steps are performed at temperatures below the critical temperature in order to retain organic compounds in the form of solvents, oils, or liquids that may be adsorbed onto or absorbed into the solid components of the mixture, while also improving the efficiency of the size reduction. Preferably, the critical temperature is less than 77K (-196 C). Further, with the process of this invention the representative sample maybe maintained below the critical temperature until being analyzed.

  2. Defining least community as a homogeneous group in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bin; Ma, Ding

    2015-06-01

    This paper introduces a new concept of least community that is as homogeneous as a random graph, and develops a new community detection algorithm from the perspective of homogeneity or heterogeneity. Based on this concept, we adopt head/tail breaks-a newly developed classification scheme for data with a heavy-tailed distribution-and rely on edge betweenness given its heavy-tailed distribution to iteratively partition a network into many heterogeneous and homogeneous communities. Surprisingly, the derived communities for any self-organized and/or self-evolved large networks demonstrate very striking power laws, implying that there are far more small communities than large ones. This notion of far more small things than large ones constitutes a new fundamental way of thinking for community detection.

  3. Despeckling fly's eye homogenizer for single mode laser diodes.

    PubMed

    Mizuyama, Yosuke; Harrison, Nathan; Leto, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    A novel fly's eye homogenizer for single mode laser diodes is presented. This technology overcomes the speckle problem that has been unavoidable for fly's eye homogenizers used with coherent light sources such as single mode laser diodes. Temporal and spatial coherence are reduced simultaneously by introducing short pulse driving of the injection current and a staircase element. Speckle has been dramatically reduced to 5% from 87% compared to a conventional system and a uniform laser line illumination was obtained by the proposed fly's eye homogenizer with a single mode UV-blue laser diode for the first time. A new spatial coherence function was mathematically formulated to model the proposed system and was applied to a partially coherent intensity formula that was newly developed in this study from Wolf's theory to account for the results. PMID:23571997

  4. Homogeneous versus heterogeneous shielding modeling of spent-fuel casks

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, J.J.; Lindner, C.N. )

    1992-01-01

    The design of spent-fuel casks for storage and transport requires modeling the cask for criticality, shielding, thermal, and structural analyses. While some parts of the cask are homogeneous, other regions are heterogeneous with different materials intermixed. For simplicity, some of the heterogeneous regions may be modeled as homogeneous. This paper evaluates the effect of homogenizing some regions of a cask on calculating radiation dose rates outside the cask. The dose rate calculations were performed with the one-dimensional discrete ordinates shielding XSDRNPM code coupled with the XSDOSE code and with the three-dimensional QAD-CGGP code. Dose rates were calculated radially at the midplane of the cask at two locations, cask surface and 2.3 m from the radial surface. The last location corresponds to a point 2 m from the lateral sides of a transport railroad car.

  5. Cryogenic homogenization and sampling of heterogeneous multi-phase feedstock

    DOEpatents

    Doyle, Glenn Michael; Ideker, Virgene Linda; Siegwarth, James David

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and process for producing a homogeneous analytical sample from a heterogenous feedstock by: providing the mixed feedstock, reducing the temperature of the feedstock to a temperature below a critical temperature, reducing the size of the feedstock components, blending the reduced size feedstock to form a homogeneous mixture; and obtaining a representative sample of the homogeneous mixture. The size reduction and blending steps are performed at temperatures below the critical temperature in order to retain organic compounds in the form of solvents, oils, or liquids that may be adsorbed onto or absorbed into the solid components of the mixture, while also improving the efficiency of the size reduction. Preferably, the critical temperature is less than 77 K (-196.degree. C.). Further, with the process of this invention the representative sample may be maintained below the critical temperature until being analyzed.

  6. Absolute homogeneity test of Kelantan catchment precipitation series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Faizah Che; Tosaka, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Kenji; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Basri, Hidayah

    2015-05-01

    Along the Kelantan River in north east of Malaysia Peninsular, there are several areas often damaged by flood during north-east monsoon season every year. It is vital to predict the expected behavior of precipitation and river runoff for reducing flood damages of the area under rapid urbanization and future planning. Nevertheless, the accuracy and reliability of any hydrological and climate studies vary based on the quality of the data used. The factors causing variations on these data are the method of gauging and data collection, stations environment, station relocation and the reliability of the measurement tool affect the homogenous precipitation records. Hence in this study, homogeneity of long precipitation data series is checked via the absolute homogeneity test consisting of four methods namely Pettitt test, standard normal homogeneity test (SNHT), Buishand range test and Von Neumann ratio test. For homogeneity test, the annual rainfall amount from the daily precipitation records at stations located in Kelantan operated by Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia were considered in this study. The missing values were completed using the correlation and regression and inverse distance method. The data network consists of 103 precipitation gauging stations where 31 points are inactive, 6 gauging stations had missing precipitation values more than five years in a row and 16 stations have records less than twenty years. So total of 50 stations gauging stations were evaluated in this analysis. With the application of the mentioned methods and further graphical analysis, inhomogeneity was detected at 4 stations and 46 stations are found to be homogeneous.

  7. Roles of Clonal Integration in both Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haijie; Liu, Fenghong; Wang, Renqing; Liu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown that clonal integration can promote the performance of clonal plants in heterogeneous habitats, but the roles of clonal integration in both heterogeneous and homogeneous habitats were rarely studied simultaneously. Ramet pairs of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb were placed in two habitats either heterogeneous or homogeneous in soil nutrient availability, with stolon connections left intact or severed. Total biomass, total length of stolons, and number of new ramets of distal (relatively young) ramets located in low-nutrient environments were significantly greater when the distal ramets were connected to than when they were disconnected from proximal (relatively old) ramets located in high-nutrient environments. Total length of stolons of proximal ramets growing in low-nutrient environments was significantly higher when the proximal ramets were connected to than when they were disconnected from the distal ramets growing in high-nutrient environments, but stolon connection did not affect total biomass or number of new ramets of the proximal ramets. Stolon severing also did not affect the growth of the whole ramet pairs in heterogeneous environments. In homogeneous high-nutrient environments stolon severing promoted the growth of the proximal ramets and the ramet pairs, but in homogeneous low-nutrient environments it did not affect the growth of the proximal or distal ramets. Hence, for A. philoxeroides, clonal fragmentation appears to be more advantageous than clonal integration in resource-rich homogeneous habitats, and clonal integration becomes beneficial in heterogeneous habitats. Our study contributes to revealing roles of clonal integration in both heterogeneous and homogeneous habitats and expansion patterns of invasive clonal plants such as A. philoxeroides in multifarious habitats. PMID:27200026

  8. Does prescribed burning result in biotic homogenization of coastal heathlands?

    PubMed

    Velle, Liv Guri; Nilsen, Liv Sigrid; Norderhaug, Ann; Vandvik, Vigdis

    2014-05-01

    Biotic homogenization due to replacement of native biodiversity by widespread generalist species has been demonstrated in a number of ecosystems and taxonomic groups worldwide, causing growing conservation concern. Human disturbance is a key driver of biotic homogenization, suggesting potential conservation challenges in seminatural ecosystems, where anthropogenic disturbances such as grazing and burning are necessary for maintaining ecological dynamics and functioning. We test whether prescribed burning results in biotic homogenization in the coastal heathlands of north-western Europe, a seminatural landscape where extensive grazing and burning has constituted the traditional land-use practice over the past 6000 years. We compare the beta-diversity before and after fire at three ecological scales: within local vegetation patches, between wet and dry heathland patches within landscapes, and along a 470 km bioclimatic gradient. Within local patches, we found no evidence of homogenization after fire; species richness increased, and the species that entered the burnt Calluna stands were not widespread specialists but native grasses and herbs characteristic of the heathland system. At the landscapes scale, we saw a weak homogenization as wet and dry heathland patches become more compositionally similar after fire. This was because of a decrease in habitat-specific species unique to either wet or dry habitats and postfire colonization by a set of heathland specialists that established in both habitat types. Along the bioclimatic gradient, species that increased after fire generally had more specific environmental requirements and narrower geographical distributions than the prefire flora, resulting in a biotic 'heterogenisation' after fire. Our study demonstrates that human disturbance does not necessarily cause biotic homogenization, but that continuation of traditional land-use practices can instead be crucial for the maintenance of the diversity and ecological

  9. Preparation and use of sea urchin egg homogenates.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Anthony J; Galione, Antony

    2014-01-01

    Cell homogenates provide a simple and yet powerful means of investigating the actions of Ca(2+)-mobilizing second messengers and their target Ca(2+) stores. The sea urchin egg homogenate is particularly useful and almost unique in retaining robust Ca(2+) responses to all three major messengers, i.e., inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), cyclic ADP-ribose, and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) (Lee and Aarhus. J Biol Chem 270: 2152-2172, 1995). It is not only invaluable for probing the pharmacology and mechanism of action of these messengers, but can also be used to assay Ca(2+) uptake mechanisms (Churchill et al. Cell 111: 703-708, 2002), second messenger production (Morgan et al. Methods in cADPR and NAADP research. In: Putney JW Jr (ed) Methods in calcium signalling, CRC: Boca Raton, FL, 2006), and dynamics of luminal pH (pHL) changes within acidic Ca(2+) stores (Lee and Epel. Dev Biol 98: 446-454, 1983; Morgan and Galione. Biochem J 402: 301-310, 2007). Here, we detail the protocols for preparing and using egg homogenates, wherein eggs are shed and collected into artificial sea water (ASW), dejellied, washed several times in Ca(2+)-free ASW, and then finally washed and resuspended in an intracellular-like medium. Homogenization is effected with a Dounce glass tissue homogenizer (at 50 % (v/v)) and aliquots frozen and stored at -80 °C. For Ca(2+) (or pHL) measurements, homogenate is thawed and sequentially diluted in an intracellular-like medium and the fluorescence of Ca(2+)- or pHL-sensitive dyes monitored in a standard fluorimeter or plate-reader. PMID:24567213

  10. Encapsulation of volatiles by homogenized partially-cross linked alginates.

    PubMed

    Inguva, Pavan K; Ooi, Shing Ming; Desai, Parind M; Heng, Paul W S

    2015-12-30

    Cross-linked calcium alginate gels are too viscous to be efficaciously incorporated into spray dried formulations. Thus, viscosity reduction is essential to ensure the processability of calcium alginate gels to be sprayed. Viscosity reduction by high pressure homogenization can open new formulation possibilities. Presently, testing of microcapsule integrity is also limited because either single particle tests neglect collective particle behaviours in bulk or bulk testing methods are often associated with single compressions which may not fully characterize individual particle strengths. The aim of this study was sub-divided into three objectives. First objective was to evaluate the impact of high pressure homogenization on gel viscosity. Second objective was to explore the use of the homogenized gels with modified starch for microencapsulation by spray drying. The final objective was to develop a stamping system as microcapsule strength tester that can assess microcapsules in bulk and evaluate the impact of multiple compressions. Collectively, this study would lead towards developing a pressure-activated patch of microcapsules with encapsulated volatiles and the method to assess the patch efficacy. The alginate gels largely experienced an exponential decay in viscosity when homogenized. Furthermore, the homogenized gels were successfully incorporated in spray drying formulations for microencapsulation. The custom-designed microcapsule strength tester was successfully used and shown to possess the required sensitivity to discern batches of microcapsules containing volatiles to have different release profiles. Addition of homogenized gels strengthened the microcapsules only at high wall to core ratios with low mass-load alginate gels. High mass-load gels weaken the microcapsules, exhibiting a higher release at low stamping pressures and wrinkling on the microcapsules surface. PMID:26581772

  11. Roles of Clonal Integration in both Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Habitats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haijie; Liu, Fenghong; Wang, Renqing; Liu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown that clonal integration can promote the performance of clonal plants in heterogeneous habitats, but the roles of clonal integration in both heterogeneous and homogeneous habitats were rarely studied simultaneously. Ramet pairs of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb were placed in two habitats either heterogeneous or homogeneous in soil nutrient availability, with stolon connections left intact or severed. Total biomass, total length of stolons, and number of new ramets of distal (relatively young) ramets located in low-nutrient environments were significantly greater when the distal ramets were connected to than when they were disconnected from proximal (relatively old) ramets located in high-nutrient environments. Total length of stolons of proximal ramets growing in low-nutrient environments was significantly higher when the proximal ramets were connected to than when they were disconnected from the distal ramets growing in high-nutrient environments, but stolon connection did not affect total biomass or number of new ramets of the proximal ramets. Stolon severing also did not affect the growth of the whole ramet pairs in heterogeneous environments. In homogeneous high-nutrient environments stolon severing promoted the growth of the proximal ramets and the ramet pairs, but in homogeneous low-nutrient environments it did not affect the growth of the proximal or distal ramets. Hence, for A. philoxeroides, clonal fragmentation appears to be more advantageous than clonal integration in resource-rich homogeneous habitats, and clonal integration becomes beneficial in heterogeneous habitats. Our study contributes to revealing roles of clonal integration in both heterogeneous and homogeneous habitats and expansion patterns of invasive clonal plants such as A. philoxeroides in multifarious habitats. PMID:27200026

  12. On the Atkinson-Johnson Homogeneous Solution for Infinite Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laraudogoitia, Jon Pérez

    2015-05-01

    This paper shows that the general homogeneous solution to equations of evolution for some infinite systems of particles subject to mutual binary collisions does not depend on a single arbitrary constant but on a potentially infinite number of such constants. This is because, as I demonstrate, a single self-excitation of a system of particles can depend on a potentially infinite number of parameters. The recent homogeneous solution obtained by Atkinson and Johnson, which depends on a single arbitrary constant, is only a particular case.

  13. Homogeneous irradiation of the ''short-necked'' laryngeal cancer patient

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew, J.W.; Eapen, L.; Kulkarni, N.S.

    1984-04-01

    A technique for homogeneous irradiation of the ''short-necked'' laryngeal cancer patient is presented. The method is similar to a previously described technique in that inferiorly angled opposed lateral beams are used with tissue compensators and beam wedges. The advantages of the technique presented here are that the patient is treated supine rather than sitting and therapy simulation is more easily carried out. Experimental verification of the calculated radiation distributions was carried out in a water phantom having the same shape as the patient. These results show the extent of dose homogeneity and in addition show that neglecting tissue inhomogeneity, the measured and calculated dose distribuion agree within 2%.

  14. Homogeneous Open Quantum Random Walks on a Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Raffaella; Pautrat, Yan

    2015-09-01

    We study open quantum random walks (OQRWs) for which the underlying graph is a lattice, and the generators of the walk are homogeneous in space. Using the results recently obtained in Carbone and Pautrat (Ann Henri Poincaré, 2015), we study the quantum trajectory associated with the OQRW, which is described by a position process and a state process. We obtain a central limit theorem and a large deviation principle for the position process. We study in detail the case of homogeneous OQRWs on the lattice , with internal space.

  15. Automated homogeneous oxalate precipitation of Pu(III)

    SciTech Connect

    Yarbro, S.L.; Schreiber, S.B.; Dunn, S.L.; Mills, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    Homogeneous oxalate precipitation using diethyl oxalate was compared to precipitating Pu(III) oxalate with solid oxalic acid. The diethyl oxalate technique at 75{degree}C is better because it gives 50% less plutonium in the filtrate with a reasonable filtering time. Also, the procedure for the homogeneous precipitation is easier to automate because the liquid diethyl oxalate is simpler to introduce into the precipitator than solid oxalic acid. It also provides flexibility because the hydrolysis rate and therefore the precipitation rate can be controlled by varying the temperature. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Analysis of stability of a homogeneous state of anisotropic plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharov, V. Yu. Chernova, T. G. Stepanov, S. E.

    2015-04-15

    Small-amplitude waves in collisionless magnetized plasma are considered in the framework of one-fluid anisotropic magnetohydrodynamics with allowance for the anisotropy of the pressure and thermal flux. Stability of a homogeneous plasma state is analyzed using an eighth-order dispersion relation. Restrictions on the parameters of the homogeneous state at which the dispersion relation has no complex roots at any value of the angle between the wave vector and the unperturbed magnetic field are obtained. The applied method also makes it possible to determine the types of unstable waves.

  17. Early capillary flux homogenization in response to neural activation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jonghwan; Wu, Weicheng; Boas, David A

    2016-02-01

    This Brief Communication reports early homogenization of capillary network flow during somatosensory activation in the rat cerebral cortex. We used optical coherence tomography and statistical intensity variation analysis for tracing changes in the red blood cell flux over hundreds of capillaries nearly at the same time with 1-s resolution. We observed that while the mean capillary flux exhibited a typical increase during activation, the standard deviation of the capillary flux exhibited an early decrease that happened before the mean flux increase. This network-level data is consistent with the theoretical hypothesis that capillary flow homogenizes during activation to improve oxygen delivery. PMID:26661145

  18. Wave propagation within some non-homogeneous continua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonio Tamarasselvame, Nirmal; Buisson, Manuel; Rakotomanana, Lalaonirina R.

    We investigate the elastic wave propagation within a non-homogeneous continuum according to W. Noll. After some preliminaries in geometry approach suggested by E. Cartan, the linear momentum equation of so-called weakly continuous medium is written. A first example illustrates the modal analysis of an axisymmetric non-homogeneous thick tube. The overall solution is the product of an attenuating exponential response with Kummer's functions. The second example deals with a Timoshenko beam involving transversal displacement and angular rotation of section. We observe the presence of various waves with spatial attenuation, either for the displacement or the section rotation, together with the occurring waves at different scale levels.

  19. Homogeneous illusion device exhibiting transformed and shifted scattering effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Jin-Shuo; Wu, Qun; Zhang, Kuang; He, Xun-Jun; Wang, Yue

    2016-06-01

    Based on the theory of transformation optics, a type of homogeneous illusion device exhibiting transformed and shifted scattering effect is proposed in this paper. The constitutive parameters of the proposed device are derived, and full-wave simulations are performed to validate the electromagnetic properties of transformed and shifted scattering effect. The simulation results show that the proposed device not only can visually shift the image of target in two dimensions, but also can visually transform the shape of target. It is expected that such homogeneous illusion device could possess potential applications in military camouflage and other field of electromagnetic engineering.

  20. Etude par spectroscopie de Coulomb de points quantiques lateraux individuels et couples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pioro-Ladriere, Michel

    Des points quantiques contenant un nombre discret et variable d'electrons sont formes dans un gaz bi-dimensionnel d'electrons a l'aide de grilles metalliques. Le transport electrique, le blocage de spin et la detection de charge sont employes comme outils spectroscopiques permettant de sonder les proprietes de ces nanostructures. Ces techniques permettent aussi de controler exactement le nombres d'electrons confines dans des points quantiques individuels et couples en utilisant un patron de grille judicieux. Une technique de refroidissement en tension est developpee afin de minimiser les effets parasites du bruit telegraphique. Ce type de bruit de charge deteriore la stabilite des nanostructures laterales par l'activation d'un minuscule courant de fuite entre les grilles et le gaz bi-dimensionnel. Un modele expliquant le role du refroidissement en tension sur le courant de fuite est presente. L'activation du courant de fuite est confirmee par detection de charge. Les effets des interactions entre les electrons pieges dans un point quantique sont ensuite etudies dans un regime ou il est possible de comparer les resulats experimentaux avec ceux obtenus par diagonalisation exacte. L'etude demontre que la phase associee au facteur de remplissage nu = 2 est instable au-dessus d'un nombre critique d'electrons. Cette instabilite est confirmee experimentalement par blocage de spin. On demontre aussi l'existence d'etats correles dans le regime des renversements de spin, associe au passage de la phase nu = 2 a nu = 1. Les etats correles sont identifies par spectroscopie en transport non lineaire. Cette caracterisation du diagramme de phase de points individuels permet de coupler deux points quantiques configures a nu = 2. Pour ce regime, la nanostructure se comporte comme un systeme a deux niveaux pouvant contenir entre un et quatre electrons de valence et ce, meme si le nombre total d'electrons est plus eleve. Les degres de liberte de charge et de spin des deux points

  1. La structure de l'eau liquide: Une etude thermique par spectroscopie infrarouge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larouche, Pascal

    Le probleme de la structure de l'eau liquide est important car l'eau est le liquide le plus present sur Terre, et complexe, la quete d'un modele precis pour decrire comment fonctionne ce liquide ayant debute des la fin du dix-neuvieme siecle. Cette etude aborde ce probleme en etudiant l'effet de l'augmentation de la temperature sur H2O et D 2O purs a l'aide de la spectroscopie infrarouge. L'intervalle de temperatures scrute est 29--93.1°C. Les spectres enregistres sont des spectres MIR-ATR entre 650 et 6000 cm-1 . L'analyse par facteurs de ces donnees permet de montrer que deux et seulement deux facteurs principaux sont necessaires pour decomposer tous les spectres experimentaux. Ces resultats sont confirmes grace a l'analyse par facteurs de spectres de la region FIR. Par la suite, la transformation en spectres de la partie reelle n et imaginaire k de l'indice de refraction permet de combiner les donnees des regions MIR et FIR. Une fois ce calcul termine, les spectres de transmission complets de H 2O et D2O entre 25 et 90°C sont connus. Ils sont ensuite utilises pour calculer par extrapolation le spectre des especes constituant l'eau liquide, puis leur abondance en fonction de la temperature. L'extrapolation de ces abondances montre que les especes correspondent a des temperatures limites de --18 et 122°C. Par la suite, la decomposition gaussienne des spectres d'especes met en evidence la riche structure de ces objets et permet de demontrer que l'apparent deplacement du massif d'absorption OH (OD) est produit par une variation de l'intensite des bandes et non pas de leur deplacement. L'examen attentif des spectres des especes prouve qu'il n'y a pas de OH libres crees par l'augmentation de la temperature: meme a 93.1°C, chaque molecule possede quatre liens-H. Ces conclusions sont de plus confirmees par une analyse thermodynamique du passage des molecules de la phase solide a la phase gazeuse. Pour diversifier la nature des resultats experimentaux utilises, des

  2. QUANTITATIVE HOMOGENEITY AND IN-CONTACT PARTICLES OF HIGH TEMPERATURE REACTORS (HTR) COMPACTS DETERMINATION VIA X-RAY TOMOGRAPHY

    SciTech Connect

    Lecomte, G.; Letang, J. M.; Tisseur, D.; Banchet, J.; Vitali, M. P.

    2008-02-28

    In AREVA Nuclear Power's High Temperature Reactor (HTR) design called ANTARES, fuel consists of compacts composed of few thousands millimetric quasi-spherical particles dispersed in a graphite matrix. Compact homogeneity, defined as the homogeneous particles spatial distribution in the matrix, as well as the possibility of obtaining particles in contact, need to be assessed since they condition the thermo-mechanical behavior of the nuclear fuel under irradiation. In this paper, image and data processing algorithms are developed to do so, based on X-Ray tomographic images.

  3. Quantitative Homogeneity and In-Contact Particles of High Temperature Reactors (htr) Compacts Determination via X-Ray Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecomte, G.; Tisseur, D.; Létang, J. M.; Banchet, J.; Vitali, M. P.

    2008-02-01

    In AREVA Nuclear Power's High Temperature Reactor (HTR) design called ANTARES, fuel consists of compacts composed of few thousands millimetric quasi-spherical particles dispersed in a graphite matrix. Compact homogeneity, defined as the homogeneous particles spatial distribution in the matrix, as well as the possibility of obtaining particles in contact, need to be assessed since they condition the thermo-mechanical behavior of the nuclear fuel under irradiation. In this paper, image and data processing algorithms are developed to do so, based on X-Ray tomographic images.

  4. Metabolism of propionate by sheep liver. Oxidation of propionate by homogenates

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R. M.; Osborne-White, W. S.

    1965-01-01

    1. The rate and stability to aging of the metabolism of propionate by sheep-liver slices and sucrose homogenates were examined. Aging for up to 20min. at 37° in the absence of added substrate had little effect with slices, whole homogenates or homogenates without the nuclear fraction. 2. Metabolism of propionate by sucrose homogenates was confined to the mitochondrial fraction, but the mitochondrial supernatant (microsomes plus cell sap) stimulated propionate removal. 3. The rate of propionate metabolism by liver slices was higher in a high potassium phosphate–bicarbonate medium [0·88(±s.e.m. 0·16)μmole/mg. of N/hr.] than in Krebs–Ringer bicarbonate medium [0·44(±s.e.m. 0·13)μmole/mg. of N/hr.]. 4. Metabolism of propionate by sucrose homogenates freed from nuclei was dependent on the presence of oxygen, carbon dioxide and ATP. Propionate removal was stimulated 250% by Mg2+ ions and 670% by cytochrome c. 5. In the complete medium 2·39(±s.e.m. 0·15)μmoles of propionate were consumed/mg. of N/hr. 6. The ratio of oxygen consumption to propionate utilization was sufficient to account for the complete oxidation of half the propionate consumed. 7. The only products detected under these conditions were succinate, fumarate and malate. Propionate had no effect on the production of lactate from endogenous sources and did not itself give rise to lactate. 8. Methylmalonate did not accumulate when propionate was metabolized and was not oxidized. It was detected as an intermediate in the conversion of propionyl-CoA into succinate. The rate of this reaction sequence was adequate to account for the rate of propionate metabolism by sucrose homogenates or slices, provided that the rate of formation of propionyl-CoA was not limiting. 9. The methylmalonate pathway was predominantly a mitochondrial function. 10. The metabolism of propionate appeared to be dependent on active oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:14340092

  5. Homogenization of Daily Temperature Series for Detecting Heat Waves in the Mediterranean Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuglitsch, F. G.; Toreti, A.; Xoplaki, E.; Luterbacher, J.

    2008-12-01

    Extreme temperature events such as the 2003 European summer heat wave have a strong impact on the environment, society and economy (Kovats, R.S. and C. Koppe, 2005; Poumadere, M. et al., 2005). In order to perform reliable and detailed analysis of extreme temperature events it is important to use long daily and high quality and temperature series. However, many long instrumental climate records are characterised by artificial shifts due to changed measuring conditions such as site displacement, technical development or land-use changes among others. The detection and correction of these aberrations is necessary to get homogeneous time-series which are indispensable for reliable climate and climate impact studies. The Mediterranean region has a long and rich history in monitoring the atmosphere, going back to the 19th century. This area is considered as a "Hot Spot" of climate change (Giorgi, F., 2006) which will suffer from even more severe and frequent heat waves in the future (Diffenbaugh, N.A. et al., 2007). Unfortunately most climate studies are based on non-homogenized and not necessarily valid for climate analysis. To address this problem we developed and applied a new homogenization procedure based on well-established homogenization-methods to adjust more than 170 Mediterranean daily maximum temperature series. An adapted penalized log-likelihood procedure based on (Caussinus H. and O. Mestre, 2004), to detect an unknown number of breaks and outliers is used in combination with a nonlinear model based on (Della-Marta, P.M. and H. Wanner, 2006), for the correction of the time series. The strengths of this approach are: (i) that no metadata is needed for break detection, and (ii) an adjustment of mean daily values, variance, skewness and higher order moments becomes possible. Beside the innovative daily data homogenization approach, a new percentile based heat-wave definition considering Tmax and an adapted bootstrap resample procedure (Zhang, X. et al., 2005

  6. Analysis of the fuzzy greatest of CFAR detector in homogeneous and non-homogeneous Weibull clutter title

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baadeche, Mohamed; Soltani, Faouzi

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we analyze the distributed FGO-CFAR detector in homogeneous and Non-Homogeneous Weibull clutter with an assumption of known shape parameter. The non-homogeneity is modeled by the presence of a clutter edge in the reference window. We derive membership function which maps the observations to the false alarm space and compute the threshold at the data fusion center. Applying the `Maximum', `Minimum', `Algebraic Sum' and `Algebraic Product' fuzzy rules for L detectors considered at the data fusion center, the obtained results showed that the best performance is obtained by the `Algebraic Product' fuzzy rule followed by the `Minimum' one and in these two cases the probability of detection increases significantly with the number of detectors.

  7. Evolution of flow properties in homogeneously altered limestone specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinsmeister, L.; Dautriat, J.; Dimanov, A.; Raphanel, J.; Bornert, M.; Gland, N.

    2012-04-01

    CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers is a way to limit the anthropogenic part of the greenhouse effect. The injection of supercritical CO2 in aquifer leads to geochemical reactions with the host rock, resulting for instance in dissolution and precipitation processes. These phenomena impact the flow properties of the porous network. To study this impact, we make use of thermally activated retarded acid. This treatment allows us to realize an homogeneous alteration. The materiel is an oolitic limestone from the Lavoux quarry in the Paris basin. We analyse the evolution of flow properties using porosity and permeability measurements in connection with the micro-structural evolution, studied with mercury porosimetry, NMR, medical scanner, laser diffraction, SEM and thin section analyses. A particular attention has been paid to the permeability evolution and the distribution of fines. Intact samples show a bimodal porosity distribution, with a micro-porosity ranging from 0.5µm to 3µm, a macro-porosity ranging from 10µm to 100µm, and a total porosity exceeding 20%. Permeability is about 100mD. Porosity increases by 0.4% per alteration cycle together with the proportion of micro pore throats and the size of the macro pore throat, as evidenced by mercury porosimetry. The permeability is measured using a differential pressure sensor before and after alteration, back and forth in the axis direction of the plug. The results show that while the alteration in general results in an increase of the permeability, some complex non monotoneous behaviour can be observed. We infer that fines are mobilized in the porous network, clogging some pore throats. We also analyse the outgoing fluids after alteration with laser diffraction. A familly of particles ranging from 3µm to 10µm is detected, suggesting that bigger fines remain stuck in the porosity. These larger particles can be observed using comparative µ-CT imaging. Thin sections and SEM analyses do not show any evidence of

  8. A program generating homogeneous random graphs with given weights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogacz, L.; Burda, Z.; Janke, W.; Waclaw, B.

    2005-12-01

    We present a program package to generate homogeneous random graphs with probabilities prescribed by the user. The statistical weight of a labeled graph α is given in the form W(α)=∏i=1Np(q), where p(q) is an arbitrary user function and q are the degrees of the graph nodes. The program can be used to generate two types of graphs (simple graphs and pseudo-graphs) from three types of ensembles (micro-canonical, canonical and grand-canonical). Program summaryTitle of the program:GraphGen Catalogue identifier:ADWL Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWL Program obtainable from:CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: PC, Alpha workstation Operating systems or monitors under which the program has been tested:Linux, Unix, MS Windows XP Programing language used:C Memory required to execute with typical data:300 k words for a graph with 1000 nodes and up to 50 000 links No. of bits in a word:32 No. of processor used:1 Has the code been vectorized or parallelized:No No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:2253 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:14 330 Distribution format:tar.gz Keywords:Random graphs, complex networks, Markov process, Monte Carlo method Nature of the problem:The program generates random graphs. The probabilities of graph occurrence are proportional to their statistical weight, dependent on node degrees defined by arbitrary distributions Method of solution:The starting graph is taken arbitrary and then a sequence of graphs is generated. Each graph is obtained from the previous one by means of a simple modification. The probability of accepting or rejecting the new graph results from a detailed balance condition realized as Metropolis algorithm. When the length of the generated Markov chain increases, the probabilities of graph occurrence approach the stationary distribution given by

  9. Theoretical and computational studies of isotropic homogeneous turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Mei-Jiau

    Numerical simulations are presented for viscous incompressible homogeneous turbulent flows with periodic boundary conditions. Our numerical method is based on the spectral Fourier method. Rogallo's code is modified and extended to trace fluid particles and simulate the evolution of material line elements. The first part of the thesis is about modifying and applying the code to simulate a passive vector field convected and stretched by the so called ABC flows in the presence of viscosity. The correlation of the geometry of the physical structures of the passive vector with the external straining is investigated. It is observed that most amplifications either occur in the neighborhoods of local unstable manifolds of the stagnation points of the ABC flows, if they exist, especially those with only one positive eigenvalue, or they are confined within the chaotic regions of the ABC flows if there is no stagnation point. The second part of the thesis is an investigation of the power-law energy decay of turbulence. Two decay exponents, 1.24 and 1.54, are measured from simulations. A new similarity form for the double and triple velocity autocorrelation functions using the Taylor microscale as the scaling, consistent with the Karman-Howarth equation and a power-law energy decay, is proposed and compared with numerical results. The proposed similarity form seems applicable at small to intermediate Reynolds number. For flows with very large Reynolds number, an expansion form of energy spectrum is proposed instead. The third part of the thesis is a presentation of the Lagrangian data collected by tracking fluid particles in decaying turbulent flows. The mean growth rates of the magnitudes of material line elements, that of the vorticity due to nonlinear forces, and the mean principal rates of strain tensors are found to be proportional to the square root of the mean enstrophy. The proportional coefficients remain constant during the decay. The mean angles between material

  10. Theoretical and Computational Studies of Isotropic Homogeneous Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Mei-Jiau

    Numerical simulations are presented for viscous incompressible homogeneous turbulent flows with periodic boundary conditions. Our numerical method is based on the spectral Fourier method. Rogallo's code is modified and extended to trace fluid particles and simulate the evolution of material line elements. The first part of the thesis is about modifying and applying the code to simulate a passive vector field convected and stretched by the so-called ABC flows in the presence of viscosity. The correlation of the geometry of the physical structures of the passive vector with the external straining is investigated. It is observed that most amplifications either occur in the neighborhoods of local unstable manifolds of the stagnation points of the ABC flows, if they exist, especially those with only one positive eigenvalue, or they are confined within the chaotic regions of the ABC flows if there is no stagnation point. The second part of the thesis is an investigation of the power-law energy decay of turbulence. Two decay exponents, 1.24 and 1.54, are measured from simulations. A new similarity form for the double and triple velocity autocorrelation functions using the Taylor microscale as the scaling, consistent with the Karman-Howarth equation and a power-law energy decay, is proposed and compared with numerical results. The proposed similarity form seems applicable at small to intermediate Reynolds number. For flows with very large Reynolds number, an expansion form of energy spectrum is proposed instead. The third part of the thesis is a presentation of the Lagrangian data collected by tracking fluid particles in decaying turbulent flows. The mean growth rates of the magnitudes of material line elements, that of the vorticity due to nonlinear forces, and the mean principal rates of strain tensors are found to be proportional to the square root of the mean enstrophy. The proportional coefficients remain constant during the decay. The mean angles between material

  11. Hysteresis Effects and Strain-Induced Homogeneity Effects in Base Metal Thermocouples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlasek, P.; Elliott, C. J.; Pearce, J. V.; Duris, S.; Palencar, R.; Koval, M.; Machin, G.

    2015-03-01

    Thermocouples are used in a wide variety of industrial applications in which they play an important role for temperature control and monitoring. Wire inhomogeneity and hysteresis effects are major sources of uncertainty in thermocouple measurements. To efficiently mitigate these effects, it is first necessary to explore the impact of strain-induced inhomogeneities and hysteresis, and their contribution to the uncertainty. This article investigates homogeneity and hysteresis effects in Types N and K mineral-insulated metal-sheathed (MIMS) thermocouples. Homogeneity of thermocouple wires is known to change when mechanical strain is experienced by the thermoelements. To test this influence, bends of increasingly small radii, typical in industrial applications, were made to a number of thermocouples with different sheath diameters. The change in homogeneity was determined through controlled immersion of the thermocouple into an isothermal liquid oil bath at and was found to be very small at for Type K thermocouples, with no measureable change in Type N thermocouples found. An experiment to determine the hysteresis effect in thermocouples was performed on swaged, MIMS Type N and Type K thermocouples, in the temperature range from to . The hysteresis measurements presented simulate the conditions that thermocouples may be exposed to in industrial applications through continuous cycling over 136 h. During this exposure, a characteristic drift from the reference function has been observed but no considerable difference between the heating and cooling measurements was measureable. The measured differences were within the measurement uncertainties; therefore, no hysteresis was observed.

  12. Photochemical degradation of triazine herbicides - comparison of homogeneous and heterogeneous photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Klementova, Sarka; Zlamal, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Photochemical degradation of atrazine under different conditions was studied and compared, namely degradation via photocatalysis on TiO2, UV C photolysis, and homogeneous photocatalysis in the presence of added ferric ions. The reaction rate constants in heterogeneous photocatalytic reactions on TiO2 and of photolytic degradation by means of UV C light are similar, 0.018 min(-1) and 0.020 min(-1), respectively. The reaction rate constants in homogeneous photocatalytic reactions with Fe(III) added depend strongly on the Fe(III) concentration, 0.0017 min(-1) for 1.6 × 10(-6) mol l(-1) Fe(III) to 0.105 min(-1) for 3.3 × 10(-4) mol l(-1) Fe(III). In all types of reactions, dechlorination was observed; in homogeneous photocatalytic reactions and in UV C (250-300 nm) photolysis, dechlorination proceeds with a 1 : 1 stoichiometry to atrazine degradation, in photocatalytic reactions on TiO2, dechlorination measured as chloride ion release reaches only 1/5 of the substrate degradation. In photocatalytic reactions on TiO2, mineralisation of 40% carbon was observed. PMID:23069861

  13. Construction of homogeneous loading functions for elastoplastic damage models for concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ji; Li, Jie

    2014-03-01

    Over the past 2 decades, tight restriction has been imposed on strength criteria of concrete by the combination of plasticity and damage in one theory. The present study aims at constructing plastic/damage loading functions for elastoplastic damage models for concrete that can perform more satisfactorily in 3D stress states. Numerous strength criteria of concrete are reorganized according to their simplest representations as Cartesian, cylindrical, mixed cylindrical-Cartesian, and other forms, and the homogeneity of loading functions discussed. It is found that under certain supplementary conditions from physical meanings, an unambiguous definition of the cohesion in a strength criterion, which is demanded in an elastoplastic damage model, is usually available in an explicit or implicit form, and in each case the loading function is still homogeneous. To apply and validate the presented theory, we construct the respective homogeneous damage and plastic loading functions and implant them into some widely used elastoplastic damage models for concrete, and their performances in triaxial compression prove to have improved significantly.

  14. Effect of high pressure homogenization on aqueous phase solvent extraction of lipids from Nannochloris Oculata microalgae

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Samarasinghe, Nalin; Fernando, Sandun; Faulkner, William B.

    2012-12-01

    The ability to extract lipids from high-moisture Nannochloris Oculata algal biomass disrupted with high pressure homogenization was investigated. During the first phase, the effect of high pressure homogenization (system pressure and number of passes) on disrupting aqueous algae (of different concentrations and degree of stress) was investigated. Secondly, the effect of degree of cell wall disruption on the amount of lipids extracted with three solvents, namely: hexane, dichloromethane and chloroform, were compared. Studies reveled that high pressure homogenization is effective on cell disruption while the amount of system pressure being the most significant factor affecting the degree of cell breakage.more » Although the number of passes had some impact, the level of disruption seemed to level-off after a certain number of passes. The study revealed that slightly polar solvents (such as chloroform and dichloromethane) performed better in aqueous-phase lipid extractions as compared to hexane. Also, it was revealed that it was not necessary to disrupt the algal cells completely to achieve appreciable levels of lipid yields. In fact, conditions that exerted only 20% of the cells to completely disrupt, allowed sufficient damage to liberate most of the lipids contained in the remainder of the cells.« less

  15. Effect of high pressure homogenization on aqueous phase solvent extraction of lipids from Nannochloris Oculata microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Samarasinghe, Nalin; Fernando, Sandun; Faulkner, William B.

    2012-12-01

    The ability to extract lipids from high-moisture Nannochloris Oculata algal biomass disrupted with high pressure homogenization was investigated. During the first phase, the effect of high pressure homogenization (system pressure and number of passes) on disrupting aqueous algae (of different concentrations and degree of stress) was investigated. Secondly, the effect of degree of cell wall disruption on the amount of lipids extracted with three solvents, namely: hexane, dichloromethane and chloroform, were compared. Studies reveled that high pressure homogenization is effective on cell disruption while the amount of system pressure being the most significant factor affecting the degree of cell breakage. Although the number of passes had some impact, the level of disruption seemed to level-off after a certain number of passes. The study revealed that slightly polar solvents (such as chloroform and dichloromethane) performed better in aqueous-phase lipid extractions as compared to hexane. Also, it was revealed that it was not necessary to disrupt the algal cells completely to achieve appreciable levels of lipid yields. In fact, conditions that exerted only 20% of the cells to completely disrupt, allowed sufficient damage to liberate most of the lipids contained in the remainder of the cells.

  16. Investigation of BaCO3 Powders Synthesized by Microwave Homogeneous Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guo; Chang, Xiaodong; Chen, Jin; Zhao, Wei; Peng, Jinhui

    2015-12-01

    BaCO3 powders have been successfully synthesized by the microwave homogeneous precipitation method, using BaCl2 · 2H2O, NaOH and (NH2)2CO as raw materials with variety of different guide reagents. The phases and morphologies of raw materials after microwave homogeneous precipitation were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The results showed that 85°C of reaction temperature, 2 h of reaction time, 0.8 mol/L of Ba2+ concentration, 2.5 of amount of sodium hydroxide and 6 of amount of urea were used in the further research work, and the optimum conditions for preparation of BaCO3 powders were obtained. The XRD results show that the well-crystallized BaCO3 powder synthesized has an orthorhombic unit cell. The characterization results show that different guide reagents play a significant role in determining uniform morphology of products. Based on the mentioned results, microwave homogeneous precipitation method can be applied effectively and efficiently for preparing BaCO3 powders.

  17. Homogeneous ice nucleation from aqueous inorganic/organic particles representative of biomass burning: water activity, freezing temperatures, nucleation rates.

    PubMed

    Knopf, Daniel A; Rigg, Yannick J

    2011-02-10

    Homogeneous ice nucleation plays an important role in the formation of cirrus clouds with subsequent effects on the global radiative budget. Here we report on homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures and corresponding nucleation rate coefficients of aqueous droplets serving as surrogates of biomass burning aerosol. Micrometer-sized (NH(4))(2)SO(4)/levoglucosan droplets with mass ratios of 10:1, 1:1, 1:5, and 1:10 and aqueous multicomponent organic droplets with and without (NH(4))(2)SO(4) under typical tropospheric temperatures and relative humidities are investigated experimentally using a droplet conditioning and ice nucleation apparatus coupled to an optical microscope with image analysis. Homogeneous freezing was determined as a function of temperature and water activity, a(w), which was set at droplet preparation conditions. The ice nucleation data indicate that minor addition of (NH(4))(2)SO(4) to the aqueous organic droplets renders the temperature dependency of water activity negligible in contrast to the case of aqueous organic solution droplets. The mean homogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficient derived from 8 different aqueous droplet compositions with average diameters of ∼60 μm for temperatures as low as 195 K and a(w) of 0.82-1 is 2.18 × 10(6) cm(-3) s(-1). The experimentally derived freezing temperatures and homogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficients are in agreement with predictions of the water activity-based homogeneous ice nucleation theory when taking predictive uncertainties into account. However, the presented ice nucleation data indicate that the water activity-based homogeneous ice nucleation theory overpredicts the freezing temperatures by up to 3 K and corresponding ice nucleation rate coefficients by up to ∼2 orders of magnitude. A shift of 0.01 in a(w), which is well within the uncertainty of typical field and laboratory relative humidity measurements, brings experimental and predicted freezing temperatures and homogeneous ice

  18. HOMOGENEOUS AIR OXIDATION OF HYDROCARBONS UTILIZING MN AND CO CATALYSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Homogeneous Air Oxidation of Hydrocarbons Utilizing Mn and Co Catalysts

    Thomas M. Becker and Michael A. Gonzalez*, Sustainable Technology Division, Office of Research and Development; United States Environmental Protection Agency, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Mail Sto...

  19. Quantum gravity stability of isotropy in homogeneous cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broda, Bogusław

    2011-10-01

    It has been shown that anisotropy of homogeneous spacetime described by the general Kasner metric can be damped by quantum fluctuations coming from perturbative quantum gravity in one-loop approximation. Also, a formal argument, not limited to one-loop approximation, is put forward in favor of stability of isotropy in the exactly isotropic case.

  20. Homogeneity of Moral Judgment? Apprentices Solving Business Conflicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Klaus; Heinrichs, Karin; Minnameier, Gerhard; Parche-Kawik, Kirsten

    In an ongoing longitudinal study that started in 1994, the moral development of business apprentices is being studied. The focal point of this project is a critical analysis of L. Kohlberg's thesis of homogeneity, according to which people should judge every moral issue from the point of view of their "modal" stage (the most frequently used stage…

  1. Clonal integration in homogeneous environments increases performance of Alternanthera philoxeroides.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bi-Cheng; Alpert, Peter; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2015-10-01

    Physiological integration between connected ramets can increase the performance of clonal plants when ramets experience contrasting levels of resource availabilities in heterogeneous environments. It has generally been shown or assumed that clonal integration has little effect on clonal performance in homogeneous environments. However, a conceptual model suggests that integration could increase performance in a homogeneous environment when connected ramets differ in uptake ability and external resource supply is high. We tested this hypothesis in a greenhouse experiment with the amphibious plant Alternanthera philoxeroides. Ramets in clonal fragments containing three rooted and two unrooted ramets were either left connected or divided into a basal part with two rooted ramets and an apical part with the other ramets. To simulate realistic, homogeneous environments of the species with different levels of resource supply, plants were grown at 0, 20, or 40 cm of water depth. Water depth had a positive effect on most measures of growth, indicating that resource supply increased with depth. Connection had negative to neutral effects on total growth of fragments at a water depth of 0 cm, and neutral to positive effects at 20- and 40-cm depths; effects on the apical part were generally positive and larger at greater depth; effects on the basal part were generally negative and smaller at greater depth. Results largely supported the hypothesis and further suggest that clonal integration of allocation and reproduction may modify benefits of resource sharing in homogeneous environments. PMID:26009243

  2. Demographic Homogeneity and Spousal Consensus: A Methodological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaco, Daniel E.; Shepard, Jon M.

    1975-01-01

    The findings in this study were generally inconsistent and nonsupportive of a relationship between demographic homogeneity and spousal response consensus within or across the two areas of sex knowledge and family planning attitudes. Consideration of the limitations, implications, and future directions of this research are presented. (Author/PC)

  3. Stability of rehydrated Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine homogeneity over time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper vaccine application is required to maximize the results of the vaccination, with maintenance of a homogenous solution is critical to obtain uniform results. This study was designed to analyze the need for continued mixing of a Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine solution in order to maintain a ...

  4. Segmenting Demographically Homogeneous Radio Audiences: An Exploratory Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planchon, John M.

    The possibility that the benefits sought by radio listeners could be used to further define demographically homogeneous audiences for marketing purposes was investigated by surveying a segment of college undergraduate listeners. Twenty-five interviews were conducted to determine where, why, what time of day, and to what station an individual…

  5. Class Management and Homogeneous Grouping in Kindergarten Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Guanglei; Pelletier, Janette; Hong, Yihua; Corter, Carl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold. Firstly the authors examine, given the amount of time allocated to literacy instruction, whether homogeneous grouping helps improve class manageability over the kindergarten year and whether individual students' externalizing problem behaviors will decrease in tandem. Secondly, they investigate whether the…

  6. A modified homogeneous freezing rate parameterization for aqueous solution droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moehler, O.; Benz, S.; Hoehler, K.; Wagner, R.

    2012-12-01

    It is still a matter of debate wether cirrus cloud formation is dominated by heterogeneous ice nucleation, leading to low ice crystal number concentrations, or is also influenced by homogeneous freezing of solution aerosols leading to higher ice crystal number concentrations. Part of the discussion is due to the fact that current models seem to overestimate ice crystal numbers from homogeneous freezing compared to measurements, though the formation rate of cirrus ice crystals by homogeneous freezing of aqueous particles is believed to be well understood and formulated in terms of e.g. the concept of effective freezing temperatures or the water activity dependent ice nucleation rates. Series of recent cirrus cloud simulation experiments at the cloud chamber facility AIDA at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology at temperatures between -40°C and -80°C together with process modeling studies demonstrated, that the freezing formulations tend to show a low bias in the humidity onset thresholds for homogeneous ice formation at temperatures below about 210 K, and furthermore overestimate the ice formation rate by at least a factor of 2. The experimental results will be summarized and a new empirical fit to the experimental data will be suggested for use in atmospheric models.

  7. A homogeneous superconducting magnet design using a hybrid optimization algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Zhipeng; Wang, Qiuliang; Liu, Feng; Yan, Luguang

    2013-12-01

    This paper employs a hybrid optimization algorithm with a combination of linear programming (LP) and nonlinear programming (NLP) to design the highly homogeneous superconducting magnets for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The whole work is divided into two stages. The first LP stage provides a global optimal current map with several non-zero current clusters, and the mathematical model for the LP was updated by taking into account the maximum axial and radial magnetic field strength limitations. In the second NLP stage, the non-zero current clusters were discretized into practical solenoids. The superconducting conductor consumption was set as the objective function both in the LP and NLP stages to minimize the construction cost. In addition, the peak-peak homogeneity over the volume of imaging (VOI), the scope of 5 Gauss fringe field, and maximum magnetic field strength within superconducting coils were set as constraints. The detailed design process for a dedicated 3.0 T animal MRI scanner was presented. The homogeneous magnet produces a magnetic field quality of 6.0 ppm peak-peak homogeneity over a 16 cm by 18 cm elliptical VOI, and the 5 Gauss fringe field was limited within a 1.5 m by 2.0 m elliptical region.

  8. Matrix algorithms for solving (in)homogeneous bound state equations

    PubMed Central

    Blank, M.; Krassnigg, A.

    2011-01-01

    In the functional approach to quantum chromodynamics, the properties of hadronic bound states are accessible via covariant integral equations, e.g. the Bethe–Salpeter equation for mesons. In particular, one has to deal with linear, homogeneous integral equations which, in sophisticated model setups, use numerical representations of the solutions of other integral equations as part of their input. Analogously, inhomogeneous equations can be constructed to obtain off-shell information in addition to bound-state masses and other properties obtained from the covariant analogue to a wave function of the bound state. These can be solved very efficiently using well-known matrix algorithms for eigenvalues (in the homogeneous case) and the solution of linear systems (in the inhomogeneous case). We demonstrate this by solving the homogeneous and inhomogeneous Bethe–Salpeter equations and find, e.g. that for the calculation of the mass spectrum it is as efficient or even advantageous to use the inhomogeneous equation as compared to the homogeneous. This is valuable insight, in particular for the study of baryons in a three-quark setup and more involved systems. PMID:21760640

  9. Homogenization of viscoplastic constitutive laws within a phase field approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rancourt, Victor; Ammar, Kais; Appolaire, Benoît; Forest, Samuel

    2016-03-01

    The present work provides an original consistent framework for combining different constitutive laws, possibly nonlinear, within diffuse interface models (phase field) by homogenization rather than by mixing the material parameters, such as to offer a greater flexibility. The framework relies on the choice of relevant thermodynamic potentials such that the homogenization schemes are natural choices in the thermodynamic formulation. Thus, it justifies previously proposed classic schemes (Ammar et al., 2009b) and gives clues to explore new schemes (Durga et al., 2013; Mosler et al., 2014) by defining relevant potentials. The proposed framework is illustrated by addressing two issues. First, Reuss and Voigt homogenization schemes are shown to deliver the same kinetics of diffusion-controlled transformations in the pure elastic case in the limit of vanishing diffuse interface width. Second, using the Voigt homogenization scheme, we demonstrate that the influence of viscoplasticity, either isotropic or crystalline, on diffusion-controlled transformations is non-trivial and cannot be inferred from simple qualitative arguments. Depending on the competition between the time scales of diffusion and viscoplasticity, the growth kinetics may exhibit intermediate behaviors between purely chemical and elastic cases. Moreover, it is shown how viscoplasticity can change the morphological stability of growing circular precipitates.

  10. Intergroup Attitudes of European American Children Attending Ethnically Homogeneous Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlothlin, Heidi; Killen, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    Intergroup attitudes were assessed in European American 1st-grade (M=6.99 years, SD=0.32) and 4th-grade (M=10.01 years, SD=0.36) children (N=138) attending ethnically homogeneous schools to test hypotheses about racial biases and interracial friendships. An Ambiguous Situations Task and an Intergroup Contact Assessment were administered to all…

  11. On the Autonomy and Homogeneity of Canadian English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollinger, Stefan; Clarke, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This introduction to the symposium approaches the themes of autonomy and homogeneity in Canadian English from a historical perspective. We trace the debates on these topics back to the late 19th century and relate them to changing public attitudes toward Canadian linguistic autonomy over time. We review the scholarly evidence on autonomy and…

  12. Homogenization of periodic elastic composites and locally resonant sonic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemat-Nasser, Sia; Willis, John R.; Srivastava, Ankit; Amirkhizi, Alireza V.

    2011-03-01

    A method for homogenization of an elastic composite with periodic microstructure is presented, focusing on the Floquet-type elastic waves. The resulting homogenized frequency-dependent elasticity and mass density then automatically satisfy the overall conservation laws and by necessity produce the exact dispersion relations. It is also shown that the dispersion relations and the associated field quantities can be accurately calculated using a mixed variational approach, based on the microstructure of the associated unit cell. The method is used to calculate the dynamic effective parameters for a layered composite by using both the exact solution and the results of the mixed variational formulation. The exact and approximate results are shown to be in close agreement, which makes it possible to use the approximate method for the proposed type of homogenization in cases where an exact solution does not exist. The homogenized frequency-dependent effective parameters give rise to the concept of dynamic Ashby charts that can be used to illustrate the effect of the microstructural architecture on the dynamic properties of a composite. In particular, the charts vividly display how this effective stiffness and density vary with frequency and may attain negative values within certain frequency ranges which can be changed as desired using the microarchitecture while keeping the volume fraction of the unit cell’s constituents constant.

  13. Gravitational influences on the liquid-state homogenization and solidification of aluminum antimonide. [space processing of solar cell material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ang, C.-Y.; Lacy, L. L.

    1979-01-01

    Typical commercial or laboratory-prepared samples of polycrystalline AlSb contain microstructural inhomogeneities of Al- or Sb-rich phases in addition to the primary AlSb grains. The paper reports on gravitational influences, such as density-driven convection or sedimentation, that cause microscopic phase separation and nonequilibrium conditions to exist in earth-based melts of AlSb. A triple-cavity electric furnace is used to homogenize the multiphase AlSb samples in space and on earth. A comparative characterization of identically processed low- and one-gravity samples of commercial AlSb reveals major improvements in the homogeneity of the low-gravity homogenized material.

  14. Homogeneity and stability studies during the preparation of a laboratory reference material of soy leaves for the determination of metals.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Ana M P; Lima, Daniel C; de Jesus, Robson M; Ferreira, Sergio L C

    2011-01-01

    The homogeneity and stability of metals were tested in a candidate laboratory reference material of soy leaves. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry was used to quantify calcium, magnesium, manganese, iron, zinc, copper, and vanadium. A 6 kg amount of the material, which was dried, ground, and classified as mesh 60, was distributed among 100 bottles. The between-bottle homogeneity test was established by analyzing two subsamples from nine bottles. For the within-bottle test, five determinations of each element of a single bottle were performed. The stability test was performed at temperatures of -10, +27, and +40 degrees C, and after storage times of 4, 12, 24, and 52 weeks. The obtained results indicated that the material was homogeneous and stable under the conditions studied. PMID:22320099

  15. Distribution-enhanced homogenization framework and model for heterogeneous elasto-plastic problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alleman, Coleman; Luscher, D. J.; Bronkhorst, Curt; Ghosh, Somnath

    2015-12-01

    Multi-scale computational models offer tractable means to simulate sufficiently large spatial domains comprised of heterogeneous materials by resolving material behavior at different scales and communicating across these scales. Within the framework of computational multi-scale analyses, hierarchical models enable unidirectional transfer of information from lower to higher scales, usually in the form of effective material properties. Determining explicit forms for the macroscale constitutive relations for complex microstructures and nonlinear processes generally requires numerical homogenization of the microscopic response. Conventional low-order homogenization uses results of simulations of representative microstructural domains to construct appropriate expressions for effective macroscale constitutive parameters written as a function of the microstructural characterization. This paper proposes an alternative novel approach, introduced as the distribution-enhanced homogenization framework or DEHF, in which the macroscale constitutive relations are formulated in a series expansion based on the microscale constitutive relations and moments of arbitrary order of the microscale field variables. The framework does not make any a priori assumption on the macroscale constitutive behavior being represented by a homogeneous effective medium theory. Instead, the evolution of macroscale variables is governed by the moments of microscale distributions of evolving field variables. This approach demonstrates excellent accuracy in representing the microscale fields through their distributions. An approximate characterization of the microscale heterogeneity is accounted for explicitly in the macroscale constitutive behavior. Increasing the order of this approximation results in increased fidelity of the macroscale approximation of the microscale constitutive behavior. By including higher-order moments of the microscale fields in the macroscale problem, micromechanical analyses do

  16. Sensitivity of Homogeneous Freezing to Aerosol Perturbation and Implication for Aerosol Indirect Forcing through Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Shi, X.; Zhang, K.

    2014-12-01

    The susceptibility of cloud properties to aerosol perturbation is critical for the aerosol-cloud-climate interactions. Burdens of aerosols such as sulfate have substantially increased from preindustrial time to present-day. However, it is still not clear whether the number of ice crystals (Ni) resulting from homogeneous freezing of sulfate solution droplets is sensitive to the change in sulfate number concentration (Na) in the upper troposphere. Some cloud parcel modeling studies show that Ni is insensitive to Na (Kärcher and Lohmann, 2002; Kay and Wood, 2008), while others show moderate sensitivity of Ni to Na (Liu and Penner, 2005; Barahona and Nenes, 2008). The poorly understood cirrus cloud processes lead to large uncertainties in ice nucleation parameterizations in global climate models, with implications for climate change studies. In this study, we examine the sensitivity of Ni from homogeneous freezing to Na with a cloud parcel model running at different input aerosol and cloud conditions and under different model assumptions. By these sensitivity tests, we are able to reconcile the contrasting results from previous studies on the sensitivity of Ni to Na. Furthermore, the implications of these results on aerosol indirect forcing through ice clouds are quantified by comparing three ice nucleation parameterizations (Liu and Penner, 2005; Barahona and Nenes, 2008; Kärcher and Lohmann, 2002) implemented in the Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5). The global and annual mean longwave aerosol indirect forcing through cirrus clouds ranges from -0.03 (Kärcher and Lohmann, 2002) to ~0.3 W m-2 (Liu and Penner, 2005; Barahona and Nenes, 2008). Future studies should quantify the occurrence frequency of homogeneous nucleation in the upper troposphere and the relative contribution between homogeneous versus heterogeneous freezing to Ni in cirrus clouds to further narrow down the aerosol indirect forcing through cirrus clouds.

  17. Homogenization of regional river dynamics by dams and global biodiversity implications.

    PubMed

    Poff, N Leroy; Olden, Julian D; Merritt, David M; Pepin, David M

    2007-04-01

    Global biodiversity in river and riparian ecosystems is generated and maintained by geographic variation in stream processes and fluvial disturbance regimes, which largely reflect regional differences in climate and geology. Extensive construction of dams by humans has greatly dampened the seasonal and interannual streamflow variability of rivers, thereby altering natural dynamics in ecologically important flows on continental to global scales. The cumulative effects of modification to regional-scale environmental templates caused by dams is largely unexplored but of critical conservation importance. Here, we use 186 long-term streamflow records on intermediate-sized rivers across the continental United States to show that dams have homogenized the flow regimes on third- through seventh-order rivers in 16 historically distinctive hydrologic regions over the course of the 20th century. This regional homogenization occurs chiefly through modification of the magnitude and timing of ecologically critical high and low flows. For 317 undammed reference rivers, no evidence for homogenization was found, despite documented changes in regional precipitation over this period. With an estimated average density of one dam every 48 km of third- through seventh-order river channel in the United States, dams arguably have a continental scale effect of homogenizing regionally distinct environmental templates, thereby creating conditions that favor the spread of cosmopolitan, nonindigenous species at the expense of locally adapted native biota. Quantitative analyses such as ours provide the basis for conservation and management actions aimed at restoring and maintaining native biodiversity and ecosystem function and resilience for regionally distinct ecosystems at continental to global scales. PMID:17360379

  18. Effects of clonal integration on the invasive clonal plant Alternanthera philoxeroides under heterogeneous and homogeneous water availability

    PubMed Central

    You, Wen-Hua; Han, Cui-Min; Liu, Chun-Hua; Yu, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Many notorious invasive plants are clonal, living in heterogeneous or homogeneous habitats. To understand how clonal integration affects the performance of these plants in different habitat conditions, an 8-week greenhouse experiment was conducted: ramet pairs of A. philoxeroides were grown in two habitats, either heterogeneous or homogeneous in water availability, with the stolon connections either severed or kept intact. Under heterogeneous water availability, compared with ramets in homogeneous habitats, clonal integration significantly promoted the growth and photosynthetic performance of water-stressed apical ramets, whereas it only increased the photosynthetic performance but did not affect the growth of water-stressed basal ramets. Moreover, clonal integration markedly increased the root/shoot ratios of ramets grown in habitats with high water supply but decreased it under low water availability. Under homogeneous water availability, stolon connection (clonal integration) did not influence the growth, photosynthetic performance and biomass allocation of water-stressed ramets, but it significantly promoted the growth of well-watered ramets in both apical and basal sections. These findings deepen our understanding of the bidirectional and differentiated (mainly acropetal) clonal integration of A. philoxeroides, suggesting that the invasive plant A. philoxeroides can benefit from clonal integration in both heterogeneous and homogeneous habitats. PMID:27416868

  19. Effects of clonal integration on the invasive clonal plant Alternanthera philoxeroides under heterogeneous and homogeneous water availability.

    PubMed

    You, Wen-Hua; Han, Cui-Min; Liu, Chun-Hua; Yu, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Many notorious invasive plants are clonal, living in heterogeneous or homogeneous habitats. To understand how clonal integration affects the performance of these plants in different habitat conditions, an 8-week greenhouse experiment was conducted: ramet pairs of A. philoxeroides were grown in two habitats, either heterogeneous or homogeneous in water availability, with the stolon connections either severed or kept intact. Under heterogeneous water availability, compared with ramets in homogeneous habitats, clonal integration significantly promoted the growth and photosynthetic performance of water-stressed apical ramets, whereas it only increased the photosynthetic performance but did not affect the growth of water-stressed basal ramets. Moreover, clonal integration markedly increased the root/shoot ratios of ramets grown in habitats with high water supply but decreased it under low water availability. Under homogeneous water availability, stolon connection (clonal integration) did not influence the growth, photosynthetic performance and biomass allocation of water-stressed ramets, but it significantly promoted the growth of well-watered ramets in both apical and basal sections. These findings deepen our understanding of the bidirectional and differentiated (mainly acropetal) clonal integration of A. philoxeroides, suggesting that the invasive plant A. philoxeroides can benefit from clonal integration in both heterogeneous and homogeneous habitats. PMID:27416868

  20. Homogeneity of the geochemical reference material BRP-1 (paraná basin basalt) and assessment of minimum mass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cotta, Aloisio J. B.; Enzweiler, Jacinta; Wilson, Stephen A.; Perez, Carlos A.; Nardy, Antonio J. R.; Larizzatti, Joao H.

    2007-01-01

    Reference materials (RM) are required for quantitative analyses and their successful use is associated with the degree of homogeneity, and the traceability and confidence limits of the values established by characterisation. During the production of a RM, the chemical characterisation can only commence after it has been demonstrated that the material has the required level of homogeneity. Here we describe the preparation of BRP-1, a proposed geochemical reference material, and the results of the tests to evaluate its degree of homogeneity between and within bottles. BRP-1 is the first of two geochemical RM being produced by Brazilian institutions in collaboration with the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the International Association of Geoanalysts (IAG). Two test portions of twenty bottles of BRP-1 were analysed by wavelength dispersive-XRF spectrometry and major, minor and eighteen trace elements were determined. The results show that for most of the investigated elements, the units of BRP-1 were homogeneous at conditions approximately three times more rigorous than those strived for by the test of “sufficient homogeneity”. Furthermore, the within bottle homogeneity of BRP-1 was evaluated using small beam (1 mm2) synchrotron radiation XRF spectrometry and, for comparison, the USGS reference materials BCR-2 and GSP-2 were also evaluated. From our data, it has been possible to assign representative minimum masses for some major constituents (1 mg) and for some trace elements (1-13 mg), except Zr in GSP-2, for which test portions of 74 mg are recommended.

  1. Biotic homogenization of three insect groups due to urbanization.

    PubMed

    Knop, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Cities are growing rapidly, thereby expected to cause a large-scale global biotic homogenization. Evidence for the homogenization hypothesis is mostly derived from plants and birds, whereas arthropods have so far been neglected. Here, I tested the homogenization hypothesis with three insect indicator groups, namely true bugs, leafhoppers, and beetles. In particular, I was interested whether insect species community composition differs between urban and rural areas, whether they are more similar between cities than between rural areas, and whether the found pattern is explained by true species turnover, species diversity gradients and geographic distance, by non-native or specialist species, respectively. I analyzed insect species communities sampled on birch trees in a total of six Swiss cities and six rural areas nearby. In all indicator groups, urban and rural community composition was significantly dissimilar due to native species turnover. Further, for bug and leafhopper communities, I found evidence for large-scale homogenization due to urbanization, which was driven by reduced species turnover of specialist species in cities. Species turnover of beetle communities was similar between cities and rural areas. Interestingly, when specialist species of beetles were excluded from the analyses, cities were more dissimilar than rural areas, suggesting biotic differentiation of beetle communities in cities. Non-native species did not affect species turnover of the insect groups. However, given non-native arthropod species are increasing rapidly, their homogenizing effect might be detected more often in future. Overall, the results show that urbanization has a negative large-scale impact on the diversity specialist species of the investigated insect groups. Specific measures in cities targeted at increasing the persistence of specialist species typical for the respective biogeographic region could help to stop the loss of biodiversity. PMID:26367396

  2. Metric reconstruction of straight homogeneous generalized cylinders with elliptical cross-section from a single image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Richen; Wu, Zhihong; Guo, Dequan

    2015-11-01

    A new three-dimensional metric reconstruction method for straight homogeneous generalized cylinders with elliptical cross-section (SHGC-E) from a single image is addressed. By using an elliptical truncated cone shape, the elliptical cross-section is computed by back-projection. The conditions under which the imaged limb can be considered an imaged meridian under perspective projection are discussed and proved. Furthermore, the imaged meridian of SHGC-E is identified and recovered by some of the proposed special properties of SHGC-E.

  3. Plasmodium falciparum: analysis of chromosomes separated by contour-clamped homogenous electric fields.

    PubMed

    Gu, H; Inselburg, J W; Bzik, D J; Li, W B

    1990-08-01

    We have established improved conditions for separating the chromosomes of Plasmodium falciparum by pulsed field gradient gel electrophoresis (PFG) using a contour-clamped homogenous electric field (CHEF) apparatus. Thirteen clearly separable chromosomal bands were reproducibly isolated from the strain FCR3 and their sizes have been determined. Evidence that indicates one band may contain two chromosomes is presented. The relationship between the PFG separable DNA and the number of unique chromosomes in P. falciparum is considered. We have established a relationship between the maximum resolvable sizes of the chromosomes and the pulse times. The chromosomal location of twenty-seven P. falciparum DNA probes is also reported. PMID:2197113

  4. High-throughput method for optimum solubility screening for homogeneity and crystallization of proteins

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Sung-Hou; Kim, Rosalind; Jancarik, Jamila

    2012-01-31

    An optimum solubility screen in which a panel of buffers and many additives are provided in order to obtain the most homogeneous and monodisperse protein condition for protein crystallization. The present methods are useful for proteins that aggregate and cannot be concentrated prior to setting up crystallization screens. A high-throughput method using the hanging-drop method and vapor diffusion equilibrium and a panel of twenty-four buffers is further provided. Using the present methods, 14 poorly behaving proteins have been screened, resulting in 11 of the proteins having highly improved dynamic light scattering results allowing concentration of the proteins, and 9 were crystallized.

  5. An improved classical mapping method for homogeneous electron gases at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yu; Wu, Jianzhong

    2014-08-14

    We introduce a modified classical mapping method to predict the exchange-correlation free energy and the structure of homogeneous electron gases (HEG) at finite temperature. With the classical map temperature parameterized on the basis of the quantum Monte Carlo simulation data for the correlation energy and exact results at high and low temperature limits, the new theoretical procedure greatly improves the classical mapping method for correlating the energetic properties HEG over a broad range of thermodynamic conditions. Improvement can also be identified in predicting the long-range components of the spin-averaged pair correlation functions.

  6. A criterion for assessing homogeneity distribution in hyperspectral images. Part 2: application of homogeneity indices to solid pharmaceutical dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Juan G; Blanco, Marcelo

    2012-11-01

    This article is the second of a series of two articles detailing the application of mixing index to assess homogeneity distribution in oral pharmaceutical solid dosage forms by image analysis. Chemical imaging (CI) is an emerging technique integrating conventional imaging and spectroscopic techniques with a view to obtaining spatial and spectral information from a sample. Near infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) has proved an excellent analytical tool for extracting high-quality information from sample surfaces. The primary objective of this second part was to demonstrate that the approach developed in the first part could be successfully applied to near infrared hyperspectral images of oral pharmaceutical solid dosage forms such as coated, uncoated and effervescent tablets, as well as to powder blends. To this end, we assessed a new criterion for establishing mixing homogeneity by using four different methods based on a three-dimensional (M×N×λ) data array of hyperspectral images (spectral standard deviations and correlation coefficients) or a two-dimensional (M×N) data array (concentration maps and binary images). The four methods were used applying macropixel analysis to the Poole (M(P)) and homogeneity (H%(Poole)) indices. Both indices proved useful for assessing the degree of homogeneity of pharmaceutical samples. The results testify that the proposed approach can be effectively used in the pharmaceutical industry, in the finished products (e.g., tablets) and in mixing unit operations for example, as a process analytical technology tool for the blending monitoring (see part 1). PMID:22840977

  7. Characterization of the homogeneous tissue mixture approximation in breast imaging dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Bliznakova, Kristina; Qin Xulei; Fei Baowei; Feng, Steve Si Jia

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To compare the estimate of normalized glandular dose in mammography and breast CT imaging obtained using the actual glandular tissue distribution in the breast to that obtained using the homogeneous tissue mixture approximation. Methods: Twenty volumetric images of patient breasts were acquired with a dedicated breast CT prototype system and the voxels in the breast CT images were automatically classified into skin, adipose, and glandular tissue. The breasts in the classified images underwent simulated mechanical compression to mimic the conditions present during mammographic acquisition. The compressed thickness for each breast was set to that achieved during each patient's last screening cranio-caudal (CC) acquisition. The volumetric glandular density of each breast was computed using both the compressed and uncompressed classified images, and additional images were created in which all voxels representing adipose and glandular tissue were replaced by a homogeneous mixture of these two tissues in a proportion corresponding to each breast's volumetric glandular density. All four breast images (compressed and uncompressed; heterogeneous and homogeneous tissue) were input into Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the normalized glandular dose during mammography (compressed breasts) and dedicated breast CT (uncompressed breasts). For the mammography simulations the x-ray spectra used was that used during each patient's last screening CC acquisition. For the breast CT simulations, two x-ray spectra were used, corresponding to the x-ray spectra with the lowest and highest energies currently being used in dedicated breast CT prototype systems under clinical investigation. The resulting normalized glandular dose for the heterogeneous and homogeneous versions of each breast for each modality was compared. Results: For mammography, the normalized glandular dose based on the homogeneous tissue approximation was, on average, 27% higher than that estimated using the

  8. A homogenization approach for characterization of the fluid-solid coupling parameters in Biot's equations for acoustic poroelastic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, K.; van Dommelen, J. A. W.; Göransson, P.; Geers, M. G. D.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, a homogenization method is proposed to obtain the parameters of Biot's poroelastic theory from a multiscale perspective. It is assumed that the behavior of a macroscopic material point can be captured through the response of a microscopic Representative Volume Element (RVE) consisting of both a solid skeleton and a gaseous fluid. The macroscopic governing equations are assumed to be Biot's poroelastic equations and the RVE is governed by the conservation of linear momentum and the adopted linear constitutive laws under the isothermal condition. With boundary conditions relying on the macroscopic solid displacement and fluid pressure, the homogenized solid stress and fluid displacement are obtained based on energy consistency. This homogenization framework offers an approach to obtain Biot's parameters directly through the response of the RVE in the regime of Darcy's flow where the pressure gradient is dominating. A numerical experiment is performed in the form of a sound absorption test on a porous material with an idealized partially open microstructure that is described by Biot's equations where the parameters are obtained through the proposed homogenization approach. The result is evaluated by comparison with Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS), showing a superior performance of this approach compared to an alternative semi-phenomenological model for estimating Biot's parameters of the studied porous material.

  9. The effects of temperature on nitrous oxide and oxygen mixture homogeneity and stability

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background For many long standing practices, the rationale for them is often lost as time passes. This is the situation with respect to the storage and handling of equimolar 50% nitrous oxide and 50% oxygen volume/volume (v/v) mixtures. Methods A review was undertaken of existing literature to examine the developmental history of nitrous oxide and oxygen mixtures for anesthesia and analgesia and to ascertain if sufficient bibliographic data was available to support the position that the contents of a cylinder of a 50%/50% volume/volume (v/v) mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen is in a homogenous single gas phase in a filled cylinder under normal conditions of handling and storage and if justification could be found for the standard instructions given for handling before use. Results After ranking and removing duplicates, a total of fifteen articles were identified by the various search strategies and formed the basis of this literature review. Several studies were identified that confirmed that 50%/50% v/v mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen is in a homogenous single gas phase in a filled cylinder under normal conditions of handling and storage. The effect of temperature on the change of phase of the nitrous oxide in this mixture was further examined by several authors. These studies demonstrated that although it is possible to cause condensation and phase separation by cooling the cylinder, by allowing the cylinder to rewarm to room temperature for at least 48 hours, preferably in a horizontal orientation, and inverting it three times before use, the cylinder consistently delivered the proper proportions of the component gases as a homogenous mixture. Conclusions The contents of a cylinder of a 50%/50% volume/volume (v/v) mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen is in a homogenous single gas phase in a filled cylinder under normal conditions of handling and storage. The standard instructions given for handling before are justified based on previously conducted studies

  10. Chromosomal Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... 150 babies is born with a chromosomal condition. Down syndrome is an example of a chromosomal condition. Because ... all pregnant women be offered prenatal tests for Down syndrome and other chromosomal conditions. A screening test is ...

  11. Inactivation of Bacillus spores inoculated in milk by Ultra High Pressure Homogenization.

    PubMed

    Amador Espejo, Genaro Gustavo; Hernández-Herrero, M M; Juan, B; Trujillo, A J

    2014-12-01

    Ultra High-Pressure Homogenization treatments at 300 MPa with inlet temperatures (Ti) of 55, 65, 75 and 85 °C were applied to commercial Ultra High Temperature treated whole milk inoculated with Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus sporothermodurans, Bacillus coagulans, Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus subtilis spores in order to evaluate the inactivation level achieved. Ultra High-Pressure Homogenization conditions at 300 MPa with Ti = 75 and 85 °C were capable of a spore inactivation of ∼5 log CFU/mL. Furthermore, under these processing conditions, commercial sterility (evaluated as the complete inactivation of the inoculated spores) was obtained in milk, with the exception of G. stearothermophilus and B. subtilis treated at 300 MPa with Ti = 75 °C. The results showed that G. stearothermophilus and B. subtilis have higher resistance to the Ultra High-Pressure Homogenization treatments applied than the other microorganisms inoculated and that a treatment performed at 300 MPa with Ti = 85 °C was necessary to completely inactivate these microorganisms at the spore level inoculated (∼1 × 10(6) CFU/mL). Besides, a change in the resistance of B. licheniformis, B. sporothermodurans, G. stearothermophilus and B. subtilis spores was observed as the inactivation obtained increased remarkably in treatments performed with Ti between 65 and 75 °C. This study provides important evidence of the suitability of UHPH technology for the inactivation of spores in high numbers, leading to the possibility of obtaining commercially sterile milk. PMID:25084664

  12. Homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions of phenanthrene with ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Yang, Bo; Meng, Junwang; Gao, Shaokai; Dong, Xinyu; Shu, Jinian

    2010-02-01

    The reactions of gas-phase phenanthrene and suspended phenanthrene particles with ozone were conducted in a 200l chamber. The secondary organic aerosol formation was observed in the reaction of gas-phase phenanthrene with ozone and simultaneously the size distribution of the secondary organic aerosol was monitored with a scanning mobility particle sizer during the formation process. The particulate ozonation products from both reactions were analyzed with a vacuum ultraviolet photoionization aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer. 2,2'-Diformylbiphenyl was identified as the dominant product in both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions of phenanthrene with ozone. GC/MS analysis of ozonation products of phenanthrene in glacial acetic acid was carried out for assigning time-of-flight mass spectra of reaction products formed in the homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions of phenanthrene with ozone.

  13. Homogeneous Crystal Nucleation: To Fold or Not to Fold?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crist, Buckley

    2007-03-01

    Recent simulations and related theories have addressed interesting aspects of homogeneous nucleation of polymer crystals in very dilute solutions; embryos and very small crystals are composed of folded chains. At the same time there has been renewed activity with experimental studies of homogeneous nucleation in molten polymers, either with dispersed droplets or with microphase-separated block copolymers. Compared to dilute solutions, melts offer enhanced possibilities for nucleation by fringed micelle structures with stems from different chains. Basal or ``end'' surface energy is estimated for unfolded and folded chain nuclei and employed with classical nucleation theory to distinguish between nucleation rates in the two cases. The effect of chain length on the nucleation barrier offers a way to test model predictions.

  14. An asymptotic homogenized neutron diffusion approximation. II. Numerical comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Trahan, T. J.; Larsen, E. W.

    2012-07-01

    In a companion paper, a monoenergetic, homogenized, anisotropic diffusion equation is derived asymptotically for large, 3-D, multiplying systems with a periodic lattice structure [1]. In the present paper, this approximation is briefly compared to several other well known diffusion approximations. Although the derivation is different, the asymptotic diffusion approximation matches that proposed by Deniz and Gelbard, and is closely related to those proposed by Benoist. The focus of this paper, however, is a numerical comparison of the various methods for simple reactor analysis problems in 1-D. The comparisons show that the asymptotic diffusion approximation provides a more accurate estimate of the eigenvalue than the Benoist diffusion approximations. However, the Benoist diffusion approximations and the asymptotic diffusion approximation provide very similar estimates of the neutron flux. The asymptotic method and the Benoist methods both outperform the standard homogenized diffusion approximation, with flux weighted cross sections. (authors)

  15. Design and testing of a refractive laser beam homogenizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernelius, N. C.; Bradley, K. R.; Hoekstra, B. L.

    1984-09-01

    A survey is made of various techniques to create a homogeneous or flat top laser beam profile. A refractive homogenizer was designed for use with a ND:YAG laser with output at its fundamental (1.06 micrometer) and frequency doubled (532 nm) modes. The system consists of a 2X beam expander and two faceted cylindrical lenses with differing focal lengths. Each cylindrical lens focusses its input into a strip the width of a facet. By orienting their axes at a 90 degree angle and focussing them on the same plane, the beam is concentrated into a square focus. Formulae for calculating the facet angles are derived and a FORTRAN computer square focus. Formulae for calculating the facet angles are derived and a FORTRAN computer program was written to calculate them with a precision greater than one is able to fabricate them.

  16. On homogeneous L-bonds and heterogeneous L-bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konecny, Jan; Ojeda-Aciego, Manuel

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we deal with suitable generalizations of the notion of bond between contexts, as part of the research area of Formal Concept Analysis. We study different generalizations of the notion of bond within the ? -fuzzy setting. Specifically, given a formal context, there are three prototypical pairs of concept-forming operators, and this immediately leads to three possible versions of the notion of bond (so-called homogeneous bond wrt certain pair of concept-forming operators). The first results show a close correspondence between a homogeneous bond between two contexts and certain special types of mappings between the sets of extents (or intents) of the corresponding concept lattices. Later, we introduce the so-called heterogeneous bonds (considering simultaneously two types of concept-forming operators) and generalize the previous relationship to mappings between the sets of extents (or intents) of the corresponding concept lattices.

  17. Stochastic homogenization of interfaces moving with changing sign velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciomaga, Adina; Souganidis, Panagiotis E.; Tran, Hung V.

    2015-02-01

    We are interested in the averaging behavior of interfaces moving in stationary ergodic environments with oscillatory normal velocity which changes sign. The problem can be reformulated as the homogenization of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation with a positively homogeneous of degree one non-coercive Hamiltonian. The periodic setting was studied earlier by Cardaliaguet, Lions and Souganidis (2009) [16]. Here we concentrate in the random media and show that the solutions of the oscillatory Hamilton-Jacobi equation converge in L∞-weak ⋆ to a linear combination of the initial datum and the solutions of several initial value problems with deterministic effective Hamiltonian(s), determined by the properties of the random media.

  18. Some variance reduction methods for numerical stochastic homogenization.

    PubMed

    Blanc, X; Le Bris, C; Legoll, F

    2016-04-28

    We give an overview of a series of recent studies devoted to variance reduction techniques for numerical stochastic homogenization. Numerical homogenization requires that a set of problems is solved at the microscale, the so-called corrector problems. In a random environment, these problems are stochastic and therefore need to be repeatedly solved, for several configurations of the medium considered. An empirical average over all configurations is then performed using the Monte Carlo approach, so as to approximate the effective coefficients necessary to determine the macroscopic behaviour. Variance severely affects the accuracy and the cost of such computations. Variance reduction approaches, borrowed from other contexts in the engineering sciences, can be useful. Some of these variance reduction techniques are presented, studied and tested here. PMID:27002065

  19. A Fermi gas in a homogeneous box potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Biswaroop; Ku, Mark; Yan, Zhenjie; Patel, Parth; Guardado-Sanchez, Elmer; Yefsah, Tarik; Struck, Julian; Zwierlein, Martin; Zwierlein Group Team

    2015-05-01

    Traditionally, bulk quantum gas experiments take place in inhomogeneous optical and/or magnetic traps. The properties of the homogeneous gas are in many cases masked by line-of-sight integration over the inhomogeneous sample. We report on the trapping of strongly interacting fermionic atoms (6Li) in a quasi-homogenous all-optical potential. We characterize the potential flatness through in-trap imaging, and discuss progress towards directly observing the momentum distribution of the fermions in a box, with the prospect to test predictions from Fermi liquid theory for interacting gases. In contrast to inhomogeneous traps, box potentials prepare a system in one particular point of the phase diagram, giving access to the properties of bulk matter with a high signal-to-noise ratio. This sets a new direction for the exploration of strongly interacting Fermi gases at finite temperature and in the presence of spin imbalance.

  20. Homogeneity of doping with paramagnetic ions by NMR.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenyu; Celinski, Vinicius R; Weber, Johannes; Kunkel, Nathalie; Kohlmann, Holger; Schmedt auf der Günne, Jörn

    2016-04-14

    In NMR, paramagnetic dopants change the relaxation behavior and the chemical shift of the nuclei in their immediate environment. Based on the concept that the "immediate environment" in a diamagnetic host material can be described as a sphere with radius r0, we developed a function for the fraction of unperturbed nuclei (the fraction of nuclei outside the sphere) which gives a link between the effective radius and the doping concentration. In the case of a homogeneous doping scenario a characteristic dependence is observed in both theory and experiment. We validated the model on a sample series where paramagnetic Eu(II) ions are doped into crystalline SrH2. The fraction of unperturbed nuclei was determined from the (1)H NMR signal and follows the predicted curve for a homogeneous doping scenario where the radius r0 is 17 Å. PMID:27003194

  1. An epidemic model to evaluate the homogeneous mixing assumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnes, P. P.; Monteiro, L. H. A.

    2014-11-01

    Many epidemic models are written in terms of ordinary differential equations (ODE). This approach relies on the homogeneous mixing assumption; that is, the topological structure of the contact network established by the individuals of the host population is not relevant to predict the spread of a pathogen in this population. Here, we propose an epidemic model based on ODE to study the propagation of contagious diseases conferring no immunity. The state variables of this model are the percentages of susceptible individuals, infectious individuals and empty space. We show that this dynamical system can experience transcritical and Hopf bifurcations. Then, we employ this model to evaluate the validity of the homogeneous mixing assumption by using real data related to the transmission of gonorrhea, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and obesity.

  2. Solubility of inert gases in homogenates of canine lung tissue.

    PubMed

    Young, I H; Wagner, P D

    1979-06-01

    The solubility of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), ethane, cyclopropane, halothane, diethyl ether, and acetone in homogenates of dog lung tissue were measured and compared with values obtained in dog blood. The measurements were made to provide data for a method for determining distribution of ventilation, blood flow, and tissue volume (Physiologist 20: 95, 1977) and for reasons discussed, the blood was not washed from the tissue prior to homogenization. All gases except SF6 were significantly more soluble in blood than lung tissue, whereas SF6 was 3.7 times more soluble in tissue than blood. It was further found that SF6 is 5 times more soluble, and ethane is twice as soluble in tissue obtained from lungs containing blood than in tissue obtained from rinsed lungs, suggesting that measurements of parenchymal solubility made on tissue from sinsed lungs may be considerably in error for some lipid-soluble gases. PMID:224018

  3. Cross-helicity in rotating homogeneous shear-stratified turbulence.

    PubMed

    Pieri, A B; Godeferd, F S; Cambon, C; Dubrulle, B; Thalabard, S

    2014-03-21

    We consider homogeneous shear-stratified turbulence in a rotating frame, that exhibits complex nonlinear dynamics. Since the analysis of relative orientation between coupled fluctuating fields helps us to understand turbulence dynamics, we focus on the alignment properties of both the velocity and gravity fields with the potential vorticity gradient. With the help of statistical mechanics, we define a vector field which plays a role in the analogous so-called cross-helicity in magnetohydrodynamics. High-resolution direct numerical simulations of developed homogeneous baroclinic turbulence are performed, and a detailed analysis of probability density functions for cross-helicity is provided. A net preference for positive cross-helicity is shown to be related to a new alignment mechanism. We argue that the analysis of cross-helicity is crucial for understanding the dynamics of buoyancy driven flows. PMID:24702376

  4. Apparatus for unilateral generation of a homogeneous magnetic field

    DOEpatents

    Fukushima, Eiichi; Rath, Alan R.; Roeder, Stephen B. W.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for unilaterally producing a substantially homogeneous magnetic field. The apparatus includes two circular electromagnet coils, a small coil and a large coil, which are coaxial with one another and which are separated by a distance equal to one-half the difference in the radius of the two coils. By appropriate selection of electrical currents, which are passed through the coil in opposite directions, a region of homogeneous magnetic field is formed. This region is centered on the common axis of the two coils, at a point on the axis which is at a distance from the small coil equal to one-half the radius of the small coil, and which is on the opposite side of the small coil from the large coil. The apparatus has particular application in the field of diagnostic medical NMR and other NMR applications.

  5. Homogeneous Thermal Cloak with Constant Conductivity and Tunable Heat Localization

    PubMed Central

    Han, Tiancheng; Yuan, Tao; Li, Baowen; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Invisible cloak has long captivated the popular conjecture and attracted intensive research in various communities of wave dynamics, e.g., optics, electromagnetics, acoustics, etc. However, their inhomogeneous and extreme parameters imposed by transformation-optic method will usually require challenging realization with metamaterials, resulting in narrow bandwidth, loss, polarization-dependence, etc. In this paper, we demonstrate that thermodynamic cloak can be achieved with homogeneous and finite conductivity only employing naturally available materials. It is demonstrated that the thermal localization inside the coating layer can be tuned and controlled robustly by anisotropy, which enables an incomplete cloak to function perfectly. Practical realization of such homogeneous thermal cloak has been suggested by using two naturally occurring conductive materials, which provides an unprecedentedly plausible way to flexibly realize thermal cloak and manipulate heat flow with phonons. PMID:23549139

  6. Homogeneous thermal cloak with constant conductivity and tunable heat localization.

    PubMed

    Han, Tiancheng; Yuan, Tao; Li, Baowen; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Invisible cloak has long captivated the popular conjecture and attracted intensive research in various communities of wave dynamics, e.g., optics, electromagnetics, acoustics, etc. However, their inhomogeneous and extreme parameters imposed by transformation-optic method will usually require challenging realization with metamaterials, resulting in narrow bandwidth, loss, polarization-dependence, etc. In this paper, we demonstrate that thermodynamic cloak can be achieved with homogeneous and finite conductivity only employing naturally available materials. It is demonstrated that the thermal localization inside the coating layer can be tuned and controlled robustly by anisotropy, which enables an incomplete cloak to function perfectly. Practical realization of such homogeneous thermal cloak has been suggested by using two naturally occurring conductive materials, which provides an unprecedentedly plausible way to flexibly realize thermal cloak and manipulate heat flow with phonons. PMID:23549139

  7. Canonical distributions on Riemannian homogeneous k-symmetric spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balashchenko, Vitaly V.

    2015-01-01

    It is known that distributions generated by almost product structures are applicable, in particular, to some problems in the theory of Monge-Ampère equations. In this paper, we characterize canonical distributions defined by canonical almost product structures on Riemannian homogeneous k-symmetric spaces in the sense of types AF (anti-foliation), F (foliation), TGF (totally geodesic foliation). Algebraic criteria for all these types on k-symmetric spaces of orders k = 4, 5, 6 were obtained. Note that canonical distributions on homogeneous k-symmetric spaces are closely related to special canonical almost complex structures and f-structures, which were recently applied by I. Khemar to studying elliptic integrable systems.

  8. Homogeneity of gels and gel-derived glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukherjee, S. P.

    1984-01-01

    The significance and implications of gel preparation procedures in controlling the homogeneity of multicomponent oxide gels are discussed. The role of physicochemical factors such as the structure and chemical reactivities of alkoxides, the formation of double-metal alkoxides, and the nature of solvent(s) are critically analyzed in the context of homogeneity of gels during gelation. Three procedures for preparing gels in the SiO2-B2O3-Na2O system are examined in the context of cation distribution. Light scattering results for glasses in the SiO2-B2O3-Na2O system prepared by both the gel technique and the conventional technique are examined.

  9. Homogeneity study of ointment dosage forms by infrared imaging spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Renato Lajarim; Poppi, Ronei Jesus

    2012-01-25

    Ointment dosage forms are semi-solid preparations intended for local or transdermal delivery of active substances usually for application to the skin and it is important that they present a homogeneous appearance. In this work, a study of the homogeneity of a tacrolimus ointment dosage form was performed using infrared imaging spectroscopy coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) to interpret the imaging data. Optical visible microscopy images indicated possible phase separation in the ointment and, based on the results presented by distribution concentration maps from infrared imaging, it was possible to conclude that, in fact, there was phase separation incorporated in the ointment. Thus, infrared imaging spectroscopy associated to PCA and MCR-ALS is demonstrated to be a powerful tool for the development process of ointment dosage forms. PMID:22018891

  10. Apparatus for unilateral generation of a homogeneous magnetic field

    DOEpatents

    Fukushima, E.; Rath, A.R.; Roeder, S.B.W.

    1984-05-01

    An apparatus for unilaterally producing a substantially homogeneous magnetic field. The apparatus includes two circular electromagnet coils, a small coil and a large coil, which are coaxial with one another and which are separated by a distance equal to one-half the difference in the radius of the two coils. By appropriate selection of electrical currents, which are passed through the coils in opposite directions, a region of homogeneous magnetic field is formed. This region is centered on the common axis of the two coils, at a point on the axis which is at a distance from the small coil equal to one-half the radius of the small coil, and which is on the opposite side of the small coil from the large coil. The apparatus has particular application in the field of diagnostic medical NMR and other NMR applications.

  11. Homogenization and simulation for compositional flow in naturally fractured reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhangxin

    2007-02-01

    A dual porosity model of multidimensional, multicomponent, multiphase flow in naturally fractured reservoirs is derived by the mathematical theory of homogenization. A fully compositional model is considered where there are N chemical components, each of which may exist in any or all of the three phases: gas, oil, and water. Special attention is paid to developing a general approach to incorporating gravitational forces, pressure gradient effects, and effects of mass transfer between phases. In particular, general equations for the interactions between matrix and fracture systems are obtained under homogenization by a careful scaling of these effects. Using this dual porosity compositional model, numerical experiments are reported for the benchmark problems of the sixth comparative solution project organized by the society of petroleum engineers.

  12. Homogeneous nucleation rate measurements in supersaturated water vapor.

    PubMed

    Brus, David; Zdímal, Vladimír; Smolík, Jirí

    2008-11-01

    The rate of homogeneous nucleation in supersaturated vapors of water was studied experimentally using a thermal diffusion cloud chamber. Helium was used as a carrier gas. Our study covers a range of nucleation rates from 3x10(-1) to 3x10(2) cm(-3) s(-1) at four isotherms: 290, 300, 310, and 320 K. The molecular content of critical clusters was estimated from the slopes of experimental data. The measured isothermal dependencies of nucleation rate of water on saturation ratio were compared with the prediction of the classical theory of homogeneous nucleation, the empirical prediction of Wolk et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 117, 10 (2002)], the scaled model of Hale [Phys. Rev. A 33, 4156 (1986)], and the former nucleation onset data. PMID:19045352

  13. Using homogenization, sonication and thermo-sonication to inactivate fungi.

    PubMed

    Campaniello, Daniela; Bevilacqua, Antonio; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound (US), Thermo-sonication (TS) and High Pressure Homogenization (HPH) were studied as tools to inactivate the spores of Penicillium spp. and Mucor spp. inoculated in distilled water. For US, the power ranged from 40% to 100%, pulse from 2 to 10 s, and duration of the treatment from 2 to 10 min. TS was performed combining US (40-80% of power, for 8 min and pulse of 2 s) with a thermal treatment (50, 55 and 60°C at 4, 8 and 12 min). Homogenization was done at 30-150 MPa for 1, 2 and 3 times. Power was the most important factors to determine the antifungal effect of US and TS towards the conidia of Penicillium spp.; on the other hand, in US treatments Mucor spp. was also affected by pulse and time. HPH exerted a significant antifungal effect only if the highest pressures were applied for 2-3 times. PMID:27375964

  14. Mixing and chemical reaction in sheared and nonsheared homogeneous turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Andy D.; Hill, James C.

    1992-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations were made to examine the local structure of the reaction zone for a moderately fast reaction between unmixed species in decaying, homogeneous turbulence and in a homogeneous turbulent shear flow. Pseudospectral techniques were used in domains of 64 exp 3 and higher wavenumbers. A finite-rate, single step reaction between non-premixed reactants was considered, and in one case temperature-dependent Arrhenius kinetics was assumed. Locally intense reaction rates that tend to persist throughout the simulations occur in locations where the reactant concentration gradients are large and are amplified by the local rate of strain. The reaction zones are more organized in the case of a uniform mean shear than in isotropic turbulence, and regions of intense reaction rate appear to be associated with vortex structures such as horseshoe vortices and fingers seen in mixing layers. Concentration gradients tend to align with the direction of the most compressive principal strain rate, more so in the isotropic case.

  15. Voigt waves in electro-optic homogenized composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Tom G.

    2014-08-01

    A study was undertaken into Voigt wave propagation in a homogenized composite material (HCM). The HCM investigated arose from a porous electro-optic host material infiltrated by a fluid of refractive index na, considered in the long-wavelength regime. The extended Bruggeman homogenization formalism was employed to estimate the constitutive parameters of the HCM. In principle, the directions which support Voigt wave propagation in the HCM may be controlled by means of an applied dc electric field; and the degree of control may be sensitive to the porosity of the host material, the shapes, sizes and orientations of the pores, as well as the refractive index na. Here the theoretical methodology is presented; numerical results are presented elsewhere.

  16. Using homogenization, sonication and thermo-sonication to inactivate fungi

    PubMed Central

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound (US), Thermo-sonication (TS) and High Pressure Homogenization (HPH) were studied as tools to inactivate the spores of Penicillium spp. and Mucor spp. inoculated in distilled water. For US, the power ranged from 40% to 100%, pulse from 2 to 10 s, and duration of the treatment from 2 to 10 min. TS was performed combining US (40–80% of power, for 8 min and pulse of 2 s) with a thermal treatment (50, 55 and 60°C at 4, 8 and 12 min). Homogenization was done at 30–150 MPa for 1, 2 and 3 times. Power was the most important factors to determine the antifungal effect of US and TS towards the conidia of Penicillium spp.; on the other hand, in US treatments Mucor spp. was also affected by pulse and time. HPH exerted a significant antifungal effect only if the highest pressures were applied for 2–3 times. PMID:27375964

  17. Symmetry Breaking Drift of Particles Settling in Homogeneous Shear Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hinsberg, M. A. T.; Clercx, H. J. H.; Toschi, Federico

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the influence of shear on the gravitational settling of heavy inertial particles in homogeneous shear turbulence (HST). In addition to the well-known enhanced settling velocity, observed for heavy inertial particles in homogeneous isotropic turbulence (HIT), a horizontal drift velocity is also observed in the shearing direction due to the presence of a nonzero mean vorticity (introducing symmetry breaking due to the mean shear). This drift velocity is due to the combination of shear, gravity, and turbulence, and all three of these elements are needed for this effect to occur. We extend the mechanism responsible for the enhanced settling velocity in HIT to the case of HST. Two separate regimes are observed, characterized by positive or negative drift velocity, depending on the particle settling velocity.

  18. Homogenization of long fiber reinforced composites including fiber bending effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Niordson, Christian F.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a homogenization method, which accounts for intrinsic size effects related to the fiber diameter in long fiber reinforced composite materials with two independent constitutive models for the matrix and fiber materials. A new choice of internal kinematic variables allows to maintain the kinematics of the two material phases independent from the assumed constitutive models, so that stress-deformation relationships, can be expressed in the framework of hyper-elasticity and hyper-elastoplasticity for the fiber and the matrix materials respectively. The bending stiffness of the reinforcing fibers is captured by higher order strain terms, resulting in an accurate representation of the micro-mechanical behavior of the composite. Numerical examples show that the accuracy of the proposed model is very close to a non-homogenized finite-element model with an explicit discretization of the matrix and the fibers.

  19. The structure of correlation tensors in homogeneous anisotropic turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthaeus, W. H.; Smith, C.

    1980-01-01

    The study of turbulence with spatially homogeneous but anisotropic statistical properties has applications in space physics and laboratory plasma physics. The first step in the systematic study of such fluctuations is the elucidation of the kinematic properties of the relevant statistical objects, which are the correlation tensors. The theory of isotropic tensors, developed by Robertson, Chandrasekhar and others, is reviewed and extended to cover the general case of turbulence with a pseudo-vector preferred direction, without assuming mirror reflection invariance. Attention is focused on two point correlation functions and it is shown that the form of the decomposition into proper and pseudo-tensor contributions is restricted by the homogeneity requirement. It is also shown that the vector and pseudo-vector preferred direction cases yield different results. An explicit form of the two point correlation tensor is presented which is appropriate for analyzing interplanetary magnetic fluctuations. A procedure for determining the magnetic helicity from experimental data is presented.

  20. Symmetry Breaking Drift of Particles Settling in Homogeneous Shear Turbulence.

    PubMed

    van Hinsberg, M A T; Clercx, H J H; Toschi, Federico

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the influence of shear on the gravitational settling of heavy inertial particles in homogeneous shear turbulence (HST). In addition to the well-known enhanced settling velocity, observed for heavy inertial particles in homogeneous isotropic turbulence (HIT), a horizontal drift velocity is also observed in the shearing direction due to the presence of a nonzero mean vorticity (introducing symmetry breaking due to the mean shear). This drift velocity is due to the combination of shear, gravity, and turbulence, and all three of these elements are needed for this effect to occur. We extend the mechanism responsible for the enhanced settling velocity in HIT to the case of HST. Two separate regimes are observed, characterized by positive or negative drift velocity, depending on the particle settling velocity. PMID:27541467

  1. Simulator for SUPO, a Benchmark Aqueous Homogeneous Reactor (AHR)

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Steven Karl; Determan, John C.

    2015-10-14

    A simulator has been developed for SUPO (Super Power) an aqueous homogeneous reactor (AHR) that operated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) from 1951 to 1974. During that period SUPO accumulated approximately 600,000 kWh of operation. It is considered the benchmark for steady-state operation of an AHR. The SUPO simulator was developed using the process that resulted in a simulator for an accelerator-driven subcritical system, which has been previously reported.

  2. Supercompact cardinals, sets of reals, and weakly homogeneous trees.

    PubMed

    Woodin, W H

    1988-09-01

    It is shown that if there exists a supercompact cardinal then every set of reals, which is an element of L(R), is the projection of a weakly homogeneous tree. As a consequence of this theorem and recent work of Martin and Steel [Martin, D. A. & Steel, J. R. (1988) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 6582-6586], it follows that (if there is a supercompact cardinal) every set of reals in L(R) is determined. PMID:16593979

  3. Asymptotic Expansion Homogenization for Multiscale Nuclear Fuel Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, J. D.; Tonks, M. R.; Chockalingam, K.; Perez, D. M.; Novascone, S. R.; Spencer, B. W.; Williamson, R. L.

    2015-03-01

    Engineering scale nuclear fuel performance simulations can benefit by utilizing high-fidelity models running at a lower length scale. Lower length-scale models provide a detailed view of the material behavior that is used to determine the average material response at the macroscale. These lower length-scale calculations may provide insight into material behavior where experimental data is sparse or nonexistent. This multiscale approach is especially useful in the nuclear field, since irradiation experiments are difficult and expensive to conduct. The lower length-scale models complement the experiments by influencing the types of experiments required and by reducing the total number of experiments needed. This multiscale modeling approach is a central motivation in the development of the BISON-MARMOT fuel performance codes at Idaho National Laboratory. These codes seek to provide more accurate and predictive solutions for nuclear fuel behavior. One critical aspect of multiscale modeling is the ability to extract the relevant information from the lower length-scale sim- ulations. One approach, the asymptotic expansion homogenization (AEH) technique, has proven to be an effective method for determining homogenized material parameters. The AEH technique prescribes a system of equations to solve at the microscale that are used to compute homogenized material constants for use at the engineering scale. In this work, we employ AEH to explore the effect of evolving microstructural thermal conductivity and elastic constants on nuclear fuel performance. We show that the AEH approach fits cleanly into the BISON and MARMOT codes and provides a natural, multidimensional homogenization capability.

  4. Homogenization of soil properties map by Principal Component Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valverde Arias, Omar; Garrido, Alberto; Villeta, Maria; Tarquis, Ana Maria

    2016-04-01

    It is widely known that extreme climatic phenomena occur with more intensity and frequency. This fact has put more pressure over farming, becoming very important to implement agriculture risk management policies by governments and institutions. One of the main strategies is transfer risk by agriculture insurance. Agriculture insurance based in indexes has gained importance in the last decade. And consist in a comparison between measured index values with a defined threshold that triggers damage losses. However, based index insurance could not be based on an isolated measurement. It is necessary to be integrated in a complete monitoring system that uses many sources of information and tools. For example, index influence areas, crop production risk maps, crop yields, claim statistics, and so on. To establish index influence area is necessary to have a secondary information that show us homogeneous climatic and soil areas, which inside of each homogeneous classes, index measurements on crops of interest are going to be similar, and in this way reduce basis risk. But it is necessary an efficient method to accomplish this aim, to get homogeneous areas that not depends on only in expert criteria and that could be widely used, for this reason this study asses two conventional agricultural and geographic methods (control and climatic maps) based in expert criteria, and one classical statistical method of multi-factorial analysis (factorial map), all of them to homogenize soil and climatic characteristics. Resulting maps were validated by agricultural and spatial analysis, obtaining very good results in statistical method (Factorial map) that proves to be an efficient and accuracy method that could be used for similar porpoises.

  5. Spectral homogenization techniques for the hyperspectral image projector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillberry, Logan E.; Rice, Joseph P.

    2015-05-01

    In an effort to improve technology for performance testing and calibration of multispectral and hyperspectral imagers, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has been developing a Hyperspectral Image Projector (HIP) capable of projecting dynamic scenes than include distinct, programmable spectra in each of its 1024x768 spatial pixels. The HIP is comprised of a spectral engine, which is a light source capable generating the spectra in the scene, coupled to a spatial engine, capable of projecting the spectra into the correct locations of the scene. In the prototype HIP, the light exiting the Visible-Near-Infrared (VNIR) / Short-Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) spectral engine is spectrally dispersed and needs to be spectrally homogenized before it enters the spatial engine. In this paper we describe the results from a study of several different techniques for performing this spectral homogenization. These techniques include an integrating sphere, a liquid light guide, a randomized fiber bundle, and an engineered diffuser, in various combinations. The spectral uniformity of projected HIP scenes is measured and analyzed using the spectral angle mapper (SAM) algorithm over the VNIR spectral range. The SAM provides a way to analyze the spectral uniformity independently from the radiometric uniformity. The goal of the homogenizer is a spectrally uniform and bright projected image. An integrating sphere provides the most spectrally uniform image, but at a great loss of light compared with the other methods. The randomized fiber bundle generally outperforms the liquid light guide in both spectral homogenization and brightness. Using an engineered diffuser with the randomized fiber bundle increases the spectral uniformity by a factor of five, with a decrease in brightness by a factor of five, compared with the randomized fiber bundle alone. The combination of an engineered diffuser with a randomized fiber bundle provides comparable spectral uniformity to the

  6. Homogenous Surface Nucleation of Solid Polar Stratospheric Cloud Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabazadeh, A.; Hamill, P.; Salcedo, D.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A general surface nucleation rate theory is presented for the homogeneous freezing of crystalline germs on the surfaces of aqueous particles. While nucleation rates in a standard classical homogeneous freezing rate theory scale with volume, the rates in a surface-based theory scale with surface area. The theory is used to convert volume-based information on laboratory freezing rates (in units of cu cm, seconds) of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and nitric acid dihydrate (NAD) aerosols into surface-based values (in units of sq cm, seconds). We show that a surface-based model is capable of reproducing measured nucleation rates of NAT and NAD aerosols from concentrated aqueous HNO3 solutions in the temperature range of 165 to 205 K. Laboratory measured nucleation rates are used to derive free energies for NAT and NAD germ formation in the stratosphere. NAD germ free energies range from about 23 to 26 kcal mole, allowing for fast and efficient homogeneous NAD particle production in the stratosphere. However, NAT germ formation energies are large (greater than 26 kcal mole) enough to prevent efficient NAT particle production in the stratosphere. We show that the atmospheric NAD particle production rates based on the surface rate theory are roughly 2 orders of magnitude larger than those obtained from a standard volume-based rate theory. Atmospheric volume and surface production of NAD particles will nearly cease in the stratosphere when denitrification in the air exceeds 40 and 78%, respectively. We show that a surface-based (volume-based) homogeneous freezing rate theory gives particle production rates, which are (not) consistent with both laboratory and atmospheric data on the nucleation of solid polar stratospheric cloud particles.

  7. Time required to achieve homogeneity in swine feed mixtures.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, G J; Miller, E; King, M T; Perfetti, G A; Warner, C R; Adamo, N C; Sporn, E M

    1982-03-01

    FD&C Red No. 3 was mixed with 20 kg pig feed to give a concentration of 0.1%. A mixing time of 30 min was sufficient to achieve homogeneity for this mixture. For larger amounts or more flocculent types of additives, a longer time may be required. Ammoniated glycyrrhizin was mixed with 8 separate batches of pig feed at a concentration of 1%; 1 h was sufficient mixing time. PMID:7200977

  8. Polynomial Solutions of Nth Order Non-Homogeneous Differential Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Lawrence E.; Maleh, Ray

    2002-01-01

    It was shown by Costa and Levine that the homogeneous differential equation (1-x[superscript N])y([superscript N]) + A[subscript N-1]x[superscript N-1)y([superscript N-1]) + A[subscript N-2]x[superscript N-2])y([superscript N-2]) + ... + A[subscript 1]xy[prime] + A[subscript 0]y = 0 has a finite polynomial solution if and only if [for…

  9. Homogenization of EN AW 6005A Alloy for Improved Extrudability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birol, Yucel

    2013-01-01

    The homogenization practice for EN AW 6005A was investigated. It requires an 8-hour soaking at 853 K (580 °C) to even out the Mg and Si distribution in the aluminum matrix and to fully transform the monoclinic β-Al5FeSi plates into relatively small round αc-Al12(Fe,Mn)3Si particles with a "necklace" type configuration. It is predominantly the equilibrium β-Mg2Si phase that precipitates during subsequent cooling at 1000 K h-1 while orthogonal β'-Mg2Si platelets are also noted starting at 500 K h-1. The hardness decreases with decreasing cooling rate from 41.1 ± 1 HV to 35.8 ± 0.8 HV, by 15 pct, over the range investigated. The precipitation capacity retained in homogenized samples cooled to room temperature at less than 250 K h-1 is reduced substantially. The solvus temperatures of these samples are below 773 K (500 °C) ensuring full solutionizing of the Mg2Si precipitates below the press exit temperatures typically employed by extruders. An 8-hour soaking at 853 K (580 °C) followed by cooling at 250 K h-1 is identified to be the optimum homogenization treatment as it gives a homogeneous structure with predominantly spherical-shaped αc-Al12(Fe,Mn)3Si particles and sufficiently low hardness for improved extrudability and a solvus temperature below 773 K (500 °C) to ensure adequate age-hardening capacity.

  10. A model of liquid phase sintering by the homogenization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernin, Jean-Noël; Clementz, Philippe

    We study the first stage of liquid phase sintering, when the particles rearrangement due to capillary forces is over. We give the boundary value problem satisfied by the displacement field of points of the medium in the phase of elastic compression of solid particles, for given capillary forces acting as a density of external forces, by using the homogenization method and we characterize the mechanical behavior of this constrained medium from the material properties of each elementary components.

  11. High load operation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, Kevin P.; Kieser, Andrew J.; Liechty, Michael P.; Hardy, William L.; Rodman, Anthony; Hergart, Carl-Anders

    2008-12-23

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine is set up by first identifying combinations of compression ratio and exhaust gas percentages for each speed and load across the engines operating range. These identified ratios and exhaust gas percentages can then be converted into geometric compression ratio controller settings and exhaust gas recirculation rate controller settings that are mapped against speed and load, and made available to the electronic

  12. The water vapour radiometer of Paranal: homogeneity of precipitable water vapour from two years of operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerber, Florian; Querel, Richard R.; Neureiter, Bianca

    2015-04-01

    A Low Humidity and Temperature Profiling (LHATPRO) microwave radiometer, manufactured by Radiometer Physics GmbH (RPG), is used to monitor sky conditions over ESO's Paranal observatory in support of VLT science operations. The unit measures several channels across the strong water vapour emission line at 183 GHz, necessary for resolving the low levels of precipitable water vapour (PWV) that are prevalent on Paranal (median ∼2.4 mm). The instrument consists of a humidity profiler (183-191 GHz), a temperature profiler (51-58 GHz), and an infrared camera (∼10 μm) for cloud detection. We present a statistical analysis of the homogeneity of all-sky PWV using 24 months of PWV observations. The question we tried to address was whether PWV is homogeneous enough across the sky such that service mode observations with the VLT can routinely be conducted with a user-provided constraint for PWV measured at zenith. We find the PWV over Paranal to be remarkably homogeneous across the sky down to 27.5° elevation with a median variation of 0.07 mm (rms). The homogeneity is a function of the absolute PWV but the relative variation is fairly constant at 2 to 3% (rms). Such variations will not be a significant issue for analysis of astronomical data. Users at ESO can specify PWV - measured at zenith - as an ambient constraint in service mode to enable, for instance, very demanding observations in the infrared. We conclude that in general it will not be necessary to add another observing constraint for PWV homogeneity to ensure integrity of observations. For demanding observations requiring very low PWV, where the relative variation is higher, the optimum support could be provided by observing with the LHATPRO in the same line-of-sight simultaneously. Such a mode of operations has already been tested but will have to be justified in terms of scientific gain before implementation can be considered. We plan to extend our analysis of PWV variations covering a larger parameters space

  13. Tissue homogeneity requires inhibition of unequal gene silencing during development.

    PubMed

    Le, Hai H; Looney, Monika; Strauss, Benjamin; Bloodgood, Michael; Jose, Antony M

    2016-08-01

    Multicellular organisms can generate and maintain homogenous populations of cells that make up individual tissues. However, cellular processes that can disrupt homogeneity and how organisms overcome such disruption are unknown. We found that ∼100-fold differences in expression from a repetitive DNA transgene can occur between intestinal cells in Caenorhabditis elegans These differences are caused by gene silencing in some cells and are actively suppressed by parental and zygotic factors such as the conserved exonuclease ERI-1. If unsuppressed, silencing can spread between some cells in embryos but can be repeat specific and independent of other homologous loci within each cell. Silencing can persist through DNA replication and nuclear divisions, disrupting uniform gene expression in developed animals. Analysis at single-cell resolution suggests that differences between cells arise during early cell divisions upon unequal segregation of an initiator of silencing. Our results suggest that organisms with high repetitive DNA content, which include humans, could use similar developmental mechanisms to achieve and maintain tissue homogeneity. PMID:27458132

  14. Multicomponent homogeneous alloys and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Dutta, Partha S.; Miller, Thomas R.

    2003-09-02

    The present application discloses a method for preparing a homogeneous ternary or quaternary alloy from a quaternary melt. The method includes providing a family of phase diagrams for the quaternary melt which shows (i) composition/temperature data, (ii) tie lines connecting equilibrium liquid and solid compositions, and (iii) isotherms representing boundaries of a miscibility gap. Based on the family of phase diagrams, a quaternary melt composition and an alloy growth temperature is selected. A quaternary melt having the selected quaternary melt composition is provided and a ternary or quaternary alloy is grown from the quaternary melt at the selected alloy growth temperature. A method for making homogeneous ternary or quaternary alloy from a ternary or quaternary melt is also disclosed, as are homogeneous quaternary single-crystal alloys which are substantially free from crystal defects and which have the formula A.sub.x B.sub.1-x C.sub.y D.sub.1-y, x and y being the same or different and in the range of 0.001 to 0.999.

  15. Homogeneous UVA system for corneal cross-linking treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres Pereira, Fernando R.; Stefani, Mario A.; Otoboni, José A.; Richter, Eduardo H.; Ventura, Liliane

    2010-02-01

    The treatment of keratoconus and corneal ulcers by collagen cross-linking using ultraviolet type A irradiation, combined with photo-sensitizer Riboflavin (vitamin B2), is a promising technique. The standard protocol suggests instilling Riboflavin in the pre-scratched cornea every 5min for 30min, during the UVA irradiation of the cornea at 3mW/cm2 for 30 min. This process leads to an increase of the biomechanical strength of the cornea, stopping the progression, or sometimes, even reversing Keratoconus. The collagen cross-linking can be achieved by many methods, but the utilization of UVA light, for this purpose, is ideal because of its possibility of a homogeneous treatment leading to an equal result along the treated area. We have developed a system, to be clinically used for treatment of unhealthy corneas using the cross-linking technique, which consists of an UVA emitting delivery device controlled by a closed loop system with high homogeneity. The system is tunable and delivers 3-5 mW/cm2, at 365nm, for three spots (6mm, 8mm and 10mm in diameter). The electronics close loop presents 1% of precision, leading to an overall error, after the calibration, of less than 10% and approximately 96% of homogeneity.

  16. Magnetized boxes for housing polarized spins in homogeneous fields.

    PubMed

    Hiebel, S; Grossmann, T; Kiselev, D; Schmiedeskamp, J; Gusev, Y; Heil, W; Karpuk, S; Krimmer, J; Otten, E W; Salhi, Z

    2010-05-01

    We present novel types of permanently magnetized as well as current powered boxes built from soft-ferromagnetic materials. They provide shielded magnetic fields which are homogeneous within a large fraction of the enclosed volume, thus minimizing size, weight, and costs. For the permanently magnetized solutions, homogenization is achieved either by an optimized distribution of the permanent field sources or by jacketing the field with a soft-ferromagnetic cylindrical shell which is magnetized in parallel to the enclosed field. The latter principle may be applied up to fields of about 0.1T. With fields of about 1mT, such boxes are being used for shipping spin-polarized (3)He worldwide for MRI purposes. For current powered boxes, we present concepts and realizations of uniaxial and tri-axial shielded magnetic fields which are homogeneous on the level of 10(-4) within the entire shielded volume. This is achieved by inserting tightly fitting solenoids into a box from soft-magnetic material. The flexible tri-axial solution suits in particular laboratory applications, e.g. for establishing a spin quantization axis. PMID:20211572

  17. Non-homogeneous flow profiles in sheared bacterial suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Devranjan; Cheng, Xiang

    Bacterial suspensions under shear exhibit interesting rheological behaviors including the remarkable ``superfluidic'' state with vanishing viscosity at low shear rates. Theoretical studies have shown that such ``superfluidic'' state is linked with non-homogeneous shear flows, which are induced by coupling between nematic order of active fluids and hydrodynamics of shear flows. However, although bulk rheology of bacterial suspensions has been experimentally studied, shear profiles within bacterial suspensions have not been explored so far. Here, we experimentally investigate the flow behaviors of E. coli suspensions under planar oscillatory shear. Using confocal microscopy and PIV, we measure velocity profiles across gap between two shear plates. We find that with increasing shear rates, high-concentration bacterial suspensions exhibit an array of non-homogeneous flow behaviors like yield-stress flows and shear banding. We show that these non-homogeneous flows are due to collective motion of bacterial suspensions. The phase diagram of sheared bacterial suspensions is systematically mapped as functions of shear rates an bacterial concentrations. Our experiments provide new insights into rheology of bacterial suspensions and shed light on shear induced dynamics of active fluids. Chemical Engineering and Material Science department.

  18. Homogeneous Nucleation Rate for Highly Supercooled Cirrus Cloud Droplets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Dodd, Gregory C.

    1988-04-01

    A mixed-phase hydrometer growth model has been applied to determining the nucleation mode and rate responsible for the glaciation of a highly supercooled liquid cloud studied jointly by ground-based polarization lidar and aircraft in situ probes. The cloud droplets were detected at the base of an orographically induced cirrus cloud at temperatures between 34.3° and 37.3°C. The vertical distribution above cloud base of two independent data quantities, the aircraft-measured water and ice particle concentrations and the lidar linear depolarization ratio, have been compared to model predictions for both the homogeneous and heterogeneous drop-freezing. modes. It is concluded that, although activated ice nuclei may have contributed to the glaciation of the cloud, homogeneous nucleation was the dominant mode. Accordingly, a homogeneous nucleation rate 106 times greater than that predicted by classical theory, but 103 times less than laboratory measurements would suggest is found to be appropriate at the measured cloud temperatures.

  19. Identification of homogeneous and heterogeneous variables in pooled cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xin; Lu, Wenbin; Liu, Mengling

    2015-06-01

    Pooled analyses integrate data from multiple studies and achieve a larger sample size for enhanced statistical power. When heterogeneity exists in variables' effects on the outcome across studies, the simple pooling strategy fails to present a fair and complete picture of the effects of heterogeneous variables. Thus, it is important to investigate the homogeneous and heterogeneous structure of variables in pooled studies. In this article, we consider the pooled cohort studies with time-to-event outcomes and propose a penalized Cox partial likelihood approach with adaptively weighted composite penalties on variables' homogeneous and heterogeneous effects. We show that our method can characterize the variables as having heterogeneous, homogeneous, or null effects, and estimate non-zero effects. The results are readily extended to high-dimensional applications where the number of parameters is larger than the sample size. The proposed selection and estimation procedure can be implemented using the iterative shooting algorithm. We conduct extensive numerical studies to evaluate the performance of our proposed method and demonstrate it using a pooled analysis of gene expression in patients with ovarian cancer. PMID:25732747

  20. Critical assessment of Reynolds stress turbulence models using homogeneous flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shabbir, Aamir; Shih, Tsan-Hsing

    1992-01-01

    In modeling the rapid part of the pressure correlation term in the Reynolds stress transport equations, extensive use has been made of its exact properties which were first suggested by Rotta. These, for example, have been employed in obtaining the widely used Launder, Reece and Rodi (LRR) model. Some recent proposals have dropped one of these properties to obtain new models. We demonstrate, by computing some simple homogeneous flows, that doing so does not lead to any significant improvements over the LRR model and it is not the right direction in improving the performance of existing models. The reason for this, in our opinion, is that violation of one of the exact properties can not bring in any new physics into the model. We compute thirteen homogeneous flows using LRR (with a recalibrated rapid term constant), IP and SSG models. The flows computed include the flow through axisymmetric contraction; axisymmetric expansion; distortion by plane strain; and homogeneous shear flows with and without rotation. Results show that for most general representation for a model linear in the anisotropic tensor, performs either better or as good as the other two models of the same level.

  1. Dosimetry in Mammography: Average Glandular Dose Based on Homogeneous Phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benevides, Luis A.; Hintenlang, David E.

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate that a clinical dosimetry protocol that utilizes a dosimetric breast phantom series based on population anthropometric measurements can reliably predict the average glandular dose (AGD) imparted to the patient during a routine screening mammogram. AGD was calculated using entrance skin exposure and dose conversion factors based on fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness, mammography unit parameters and modifying parameters for homogeneous phantom (phantom factor), compressed breast lateral dimensions (volume factor) and anatomical features (anatomical factor). The patient fibroglandular content was evaluated using a calibrated modified breast tissue equivalent homogeneous phantom series (BRTES-MOD) designed from anthropomorphic measurements of a screening mammography population and whose elemental composition was referenced to International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 44 and 46 tissues. The patient fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness along with unit parameters and spectrum half-value layer were used to derive the currently used dose conversion factor (DgN). The study showed that the use of a homogeneous phantom, patient compressed breast lateral dimensions and patient anatomical features can affect AGD by as much as 12%, 3% and 1%, respectively. The protocol was found to be superior to existing methodologies. The clinical dosimetry protocol developed in this study can reliably predict the AGD imparted to an individual patient during a routine screening mammogram.

  2. Dosimetry in Mammography: Average Glandular Dose Based on Homogeneous Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Benevides, Luis A.; Hintenlang, David E.

    2011-05-05

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate that a clinical dosimetry protocol that utilizes a dosimetric breast phantom series based on population anthropometric measurements can reliably predict the average glandular dose (AGD) imparted to the patient during a routine screening mammogram. AGD was calculated using entrance skin exposure and dose conversion factors based on fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness, mammography unit parameters and modifying parameters for homogeneous phantom (phantom factor), compressed breast lateral dimensions (volume factor) and anatomical features (anatomical factor). The patient fibroglandular content was evaluated using a calibrated modified breast tissue equivalent homogeneous phantom series (BRTES-MOD) designed from anthropomorphic measurements of a screening mammography population and whose elemental composition was referenced to International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 44 and 46 tissues. The patient fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness along with unit parameters and spectrum half-value layer were used to derive the currently used dose conversion factor (DgN). The study showed that the use of a homogeneous phantom, patient compressed breast lateral dimensions and patient anatomical features can affect AGD by as much as 12%, 3% and 1%, respectively. The protocol was found to be superior to existing methodologies. The clinical dosimetry protocol developed in this study can reliably predict the AGD imparted to an individual patient during a routine screening mammogram.

  3. Ventilation Homogeneity Improves with Growth Early in Life

    PubMed Central

    Chakr, Valentina C.; Llapur, Conrado J.; Sarria, Edgar E.; Mattiello, Rita; Kisling, Jeffrey; Tiller, Christina; Kimmel, Risa; Poindexter, Brenda; Tepper, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Some studies have suggested that lung clearance index (LCI) is age-independent among healthy subjects early in life, which implies that ventilation distribution does not vary with growth. However, other studies of older children and adolescents suggest that ventilation becomes more homogenous with somatic growth. We describe a new technique to obtain multiple breath washout (MBWO) in sedated infants and toddlers using slow augmented inflation breaths that yields an assessment of LCI and the slope of phase III, which is another index of ventilation inhomogeneity. We evaluated whether ventilation becomes more homogenous with increasing age early in life, and whether infants with chronic lung disease of infancy (CLDI) have increased ventilation inhomogeneity relative to full term controls. Fullterm controls (N = 28) and CLDI (N = 22) subjects between 3 and 28 months corrected-age were evaluated. LCI decreased with increasing age; however, there was no significant difference between the two groups (9.3 vs. 9.5; p = 0.56). Phase III slopes adjusted for expired volume (SND) increased with increasing breath number during the washout and decreased with increasing age. There was no significant difference in SND between fullterm and CLDI subjects (211 vs. 218; P = 0.77). Our findings indicate that ventilation becomes more homogenous with lung growth and maturation early in life; however, there is no evidence that ventilation inhomogeneity is a significant component of the pulmonary pathophysiology of CLDI. PMID:21901860

  4. Etude des phenomenes dynamiques ultrarapides et des caracteristiques impulsionnelles d'emission terahertz du supraconducteur YBCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savard, Stephane

    Les premieres etudes d'antennes a base de supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique emettant une impulsion electromagnetique dont le contenu en frequence se situe dans le domaine terahertz remontent a 1996. Une antenne supraconductrice est formee d'un micro-pont d'une couche mince supraconductrice sur lequel un courant continu est applique. Un faisceau laser dans le visible est focalise sur le micro-pont et place le supraconducteur dans un etat hors-equilibre ou des paires sont brisees. Grace a la relaxation des quasiparticules en surplus et eventuellement de la reformation des paires supraconductrices, nous pouvons etudier la nature de la supraconductivite. L'analyse de la cinetique temporelle du champ electromagnetique emis par une telle antenne terahertz supraconductrice s'est averee utile pour decrire qualitativement les caracteristiques de celle-ci en fonction des parametres d'operation tels que le courant applique, la temperature et la puissance d'excitation. La comprehension de l'etat hors-equilibre est la cle pour comprendre le fonctionnement des antennes terahertz supraconductrices a haute temperature critique. Dans le but de comprendre ultimement cet etat hors-equilibre, nous avions besoin d'une methode et d'un modele pour extraire de facon plus systematique les proprietes intrinseques du materiau qui compose l'antenne terahertz a partir des caracteristiques d'emission de celle-ci. Nous avons developpe une procedure pour calibrer le spectrometre dans le domaine temporel en utilisant des antennes terahertz de GaAs bombarde aux protons H+ comme emetteur et detecteur. Une fois le montage calibre, nous y avons insere une antenne emettrice dipolaire de YBa 2Cu3O7-delta . Un modele avec des fonctions exponentielles de montee et de descente du signal est utilise pour lisser le spectre du champ electromagnetique de l'antenne de YBa 2Cu3O7-delta, ce qui nous permet d'extraire les proprietes intrinseques de ce dernier. Pour confirmer la validite du modele

  5. Suppression of turbulent energy cascade due to phase separation in homogenous binary mixture fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Youhei; Okamoto, Sachiya

    2015-11-01

    When a multi-component fluid mixture becomes themophysically unstable state by quenching from well-melting condition, phase separation due to spinodal decomposition occurs, and a self-organized structure is formed. During phase separation, free energy is consumed for the structure formation. In our previous report, the phase separation in homogenous turbulence was numerically simulated and the coarsening process of phase separation was discussed. In this study, we extended our numerical model to a high Schmidt number fluid corresponding to actual polymer solution. The governing equations were continuity, Navier-Stokes, and Chan-Hiliard equations as same as our previous report. The flow filed was an isotropic homogenous turbulence, and the dimensionless parameters in the Chan-Hilliard equation were estimated based on the thermophysical condition of binary mixture. From the numerical results, it was found that turbulent energy cascade was drastically suppressed in the inertial subrange by phase separation for the high Schmidt number flow. By using the identification of turbulent and phase separation structure, we discussed the relation between total energy balance and the structures formation processes. This study is financially supported by the Grand-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B) (No. T26820045) from the Ministry of Education, Cul-ture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.

  6. A second-order two-scale homogenization procedure using macrolevel discretization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesičar, Tomislav; Tonković, Zdenko; Sorić, Jurica

    2014-08-01

    The present study deals with a second-order two-scale computational homogenization procedure for modeling deformation responses of heterogeneous materials at small strains. The macro to micro transition and the application of generalized periodic boundary conditions on the representative volume element (RVE) at the microlevel are investigated. The structure at macroscale level is discretized by the two dimensional triangular finite elements, while the quadrilateral finite element is used for the discretization of the RVE. The finite element formulations and the new proposed multiscale scheme have been implemented into the finite element software ABAQUS using user subroutines derived. Due to the continuity transition, an additional integral condition on microlevel fluctuation field has to be imposed, as expected. The integration has been performed using various numerical integration techniques and the results obtained are compared in a few examples. It is concluded that only trapezoidal rule gives a physically based deformed shape of the RVE. Finally, the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed multiscale homogenization approach are demonstrated by the modeling of a shear layer problem, usually used as a benchmark in multiscale analyses.

  7. Global stabilisation of a class of generalised cascaded systems by homogeneous method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Shihong; Zheng, Wei Xing

    2016-04-01

    This paper considers the problem of global stabilisation of a class of generalised cascaded systems. By using the extended adding a power integrator technique, a global controller is first constructed for the driving subsystem. Then based on the homogeneous properties and polynomial assumption, it is shown that the stabilisation of the driving subsystem implies the stabilisation of the overall cascaded system. Meanwhile, by properly choosing some control parameters, the global finite-time stability of the closed-loop cascaded system is also established. The proposed control method has several new features. First, the nonlinear cascaded systems considered in the paper are more general than the conventional ones, since the powers in the nominal part of the driving subsystem are not required to be restricted to ratios of positive odd numbers. Second, the proposed method has some flexible parameters which provide the possibility for designing continuously differentiable controllers for cascaded systems, while the existing designed controllers for such kind of cascaded systems are only continuous. Third, the homogenous and polynomial conditions adopted for the driven subsystem are easier to verify when compared with the matching conditions that are widely used previously. Furthermore, the efficiency of the proposed control method is validated by its application to finite-time tracking control of non-holonomic wheeled mobile robot.

  8. Homogenized stiffness matrices for mineralized collagen fibrils and lamellar bone using unit cell finite element models.

    PubMed

    Vercher, Ana; Giner, Eugenio; Arango, Camila; Tarancón, José E; Fuenmayor, F Javier

    2014-04-01

    Mineralized collagen fibrils have been usually analyzed like a two-phase composite material where crystals are considered as platelets that constitute the reinforcement phase. Different models have been used to describe the elastic behavior of the material. In this work, it is shown that when Halpin-Tsai equations are applied to estimate elastic constants from typical constituent properties, not all crystal dimensions yield a model that satisfy thermodynamic restrictions. We provide the ranges of platelet dimensions that lead to positive definite stiffness matrices. On the other hand, a finite element model of a mineralized collagen fibril unit cell under periodic boundary conditions is analyzed. By applying six canonical load cases, homogenized stiffness matrices are numerically calculated. Results show a monoclinic behavior of the mineralized collagen fibril. In addition, a 5-layer lamellar structure is also considered where crystals rotate in adjacent layers of a lamella. The stiffness matrix of each layer is calculated applying Lekhnitskii transformations, and a new finite element model under periodic boundary conditions is analyzed to calculate the homogenized 3D anisotropic stiffness matrix of a unit cell of lamellar bone. Results are compared with the rule-of-mixtures showing in general good agreement. PMID:23793930

  9. Effect of gravity wave temperature variations on homogeneous ice nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, Tra; Podglajen, Aurélien; Hertzog, Albert; Legras, Bernard; Plougonven, Riwal

    2015-04-01

    Observations of cirrus clouds in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) have shown various ice number concentrations (INC) (e.g., Jensen et al. 2013), which has lead to a puzzle regarding their formation. In particular, the frequently observed low numbers of ice crystals seemed hard to reconcile with homogeneous nucleation knowing the ubuquity of gravity waves with vertical velocity of the order of 0.1 m/s. Using artificial time series, Spichtinger and Krämer (2013) have illustrated that the variation of vertical velocity during a nucleation event could terminate it and limit the INC. However, their study was limited to constructed temperature time series. Here, we carry out numerical simulations of homogeneous ice nucleation forced by temperature time series data collected by isopycnic balloon flights near the tropical tropopause. The balloons collected data at high frequency (30 s), so gravity wave signals are well resolved in the temperature time series. With the observed temperature time series, the numerical simulations with homogeneous freezing show a full range of ice number concentrations (INC) as previously observed in the tropical upper troposphere. The simulations confirm that the dynamical time scale of temperature variations (as seen from observations) can be shorter than the nucleation time scale. They show the existence of two regimes for homogeneous ice nucleation : one limited by the depletion of water vapor by the nucleated ice crystals (those we name vapor events) and one limited by the reincrease of temperature after its initial decrease (temperature events). Low INC may thus be obtained for temperature events when the gravity wave perturbations produce a non-persistent cooling rate (even with large magnitude) such that the absolute change in temperature remains small during nucleation. This result for temperature events is explained analytically by a dependence of the INC on the absolute drop in temperature (and not on the cooling rate). This

  10. Potential of high pressure homogenization to induce autolysis of wine yeasts.

    PubMed

    Comuzzo, Piergiorgio; Calligaris, Sonia; Iacumin, Lucilla; Ginaldi, Federica; Palacios Paz, Anthony Efrain; Zironi, Roberto

    2015-10-15

    High pressure homogenization (HPH) was tested for inducing autolysis in a commercial strain of Saccharomyces bayanus for winemaking. The effects on cell viability, the release of soluble proteins, glucidic colloids and amino acids in wine-like medium and the volatile composition of the autolysates were investigated after processing, in comparison with thermolysis. HPH seemed a promising technique for inducing autolysis of wine yeasts. One pass at 150 MPa was the best operating conditions. Soluble colloids, proteins and free amino acids were similar after HPH and thermolysis, but the former gave a more interesting volatile composition after processing, with higher concentrations of ethyl esters (fruity odors) and lower fatty acids (potential off-flavors). This might allow different winemaking applications for HPH, such as the production of yeast derivatives for wine ageing. In the conditions tested, HPH did not allow the complete inactivation of yeast cells; the treatment shall be optimized before winemaking use. PMID:25952877

  11. Fluid Dynamics Prize Lecture: Homogeneous Dynamos in Planets and in the Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busse, F. H.

    2000-11-01

    Numerical simulations of the dynamo problem of the generation of magnetic fields by convection flows in rotating spherical fluid shells have been extended to a sufficiently large parameter regime such that extrapolation to the condition of planetary cores have become feasible. Besides dipolar fields, hemispherical and quadrupolar fields are preferred in various regimes of the parameter space. In the latter two cases oscillating time dependances are always found inspite of the chaotic nature of the dynamos. Subcritical dynamo states are typical and multiple dynamo states are possible. On the experimental side the homogeneous dynamo process has recently been demonstrated without the use of ferromagnetic material in Riga and Karlsruhe. Further experiments at other laboratories are expected to realize dynamos under conditions of strong turbulence.

  12. Simulation of Homogeneous Condensation of Ethanol in High Pressure Supersonic Nozzle Flows using BGK Condensation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Levin, D. A.

    2011-05-01

    In the present work, we have simulated the homogeneous condensation flow of ethanol using the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) based condensation model for the experimental conditions of Wegener et al. [1]. In an earlier work carried out by Gallagher-Rogers et al. [2], it was found not possible to simulate the experimental conditions using the direct simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) based condensation model. In this work we use a statistical-BGK approach to model condensation and compare our simulated predictions of the point of condensation onset and the distribution of mass fraction along the nozzle centerline with experiments. The experiments provide data for different cases corresponding to varying amounts of ethanol concentration, compared to air, for total mixture pressures which remains mostly constant for all cases. Our numerical results show good agreement with the experiments, thus validating our BGK based condensation model for high pressure flow applications.

  13. Control Synthesis of Discrete-Time T-S Fuzzy Systems via a Multi-Instant Homogenous Polynomial Approach.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiangpeng; Yue, Dong; Zhang, Huaguang; Xue, Yusheng

    2016-03-01

    This paper deals with the problem of control synthesis of discrete-time Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy systems by employing a novel multiinstant homogenous polynomial approach. A new multiinstant fuzzy control scheme and a new class of fuzzy Lyapunov functions, which are homogenous polynomially parameter-dependent on both the current-time normalized fuzzy weighting functions and the past-time normalized fuzzy weighting functions, are proposed for implementing the object of relaxed control synthesis. Then, relaxed stabilization conditions are derived with less conservatism than existing ones. Furthermore, the relaxation quality of obtained stabilization conditions is further ameliorated by developing an efficient slack variable approach, which presents a multipolynomial dependence on the normalized fuzzy weighting functions at the current and past instants of time. Two simulation examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and benefits of the results developed in this paper. PMID:25823054

  14. Conversion of 5-aminolaevulinate into haem by homogenates of human liver. Comparison with rat and chick-embryo liver homogenates.

    PubMed

    Bonkovsky, H L; Healey, J F; Sinclair, P R; Sinclair, J F

    1985-05-01

    To assess whether the synthesis of haem can be studied in small amounts of human liver, we measured kinetics of the conversion of 5-aminolaevulinate into haem and haem precursors in homogenates of human livers. We used methods previously developed in our laboratory for studies of rat and chick-embryo livers [Healey, Bonkowsky, Sinclair & Sinclair (1981) Biochem. J. 198, 595-604]. The maximal rate at which homogenates of human livers converted 5-aminolaevulinate into protoporphyrin was only 26% of that for rat, and 58% of that for chick embryo. In the absence of added Fe2+, homogenates of fresh human liver resembled those of chick embryos in that protoporphyrin and haem accumulated in similar amounts, whereas fresh rat liver homogenate accumulated about twice as much haem as protoporphyrin. However, when Fe2+ (0.25 mM) was added to human liver homogenates, mainly haem accumulated, indicating that the supply of reduced iron limited the activity of haem synthase, the final enzyme in the haem-biosynthesis pathway. Addition of the potent iron chelator desferrioxamine after 30 min of incubation with 5-amino[14C]laevulinate stopped further haem synthesis without affecting synthesis of protoporphyrin. Thus the prelabelled haem was stable after addition of desferrioxamine. Since the conversion of 5-amino[14C]laevulinate into haem and protoporphyrin was carried out at pH 7.4, whereas the pH optimum for rat or bovine hepatic 5-aminolaevulinate dehydratase is about 6.3, we determined kinetic parameters of the human hepatic dehydrase at both pH values. The Vmax was the same at both pH values, whereas the Km was slightly higher at the lower pH. Our results indicate that the synthesis of porphyrins and haem from 5-aminolaevulinate can be studied with the small amounts of human liver obtainable by percutaneous needle biopsy. We discuss the implications of our results in relation to use of rat or chick-embryo livers as experimental models for the biochemical features of human acute

  15. New developments on the homogenization of Canadian daily temperature data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Lucie A.; Wang, Xiaolan L.

    2010-05-01

    Long-term and homogenized surface air temperature datasets had been prepared for the analysis of climate trends in Canada (Vincent and Gullett 1999). Non-climatic steps due to instruments relocation/changes and changes in observing procedures were identified in the annual mean of the daily maximum and minimum temperatures using a technique based on regression models (Vincent 1998). Monthly adjustments were derived from the regression models and daily adjustments were obtained from an interpolation procedure using the monthly adjustments (Vincent et al. 2002). Recently, new statistical tests have been developed to improve the power of detecting changepoints in climatological data time series. The penalized maximal t (PMT) test (Wang et al. 2007) and the penalized maximal F (PMF) test (Wang 2008b) were developed to take into account the position of each changepoint in order to minimize the effect of unequal and small sample size. A software package RHtestsV3 (Wang and Feng 2009) has also been developed to implement these tests to homogenize climate data series. A recursive procedure was developed to estimate the annual cycle, linear trend, and lag-1 autocorrelation of the base series in tandem, so that the effect of lag-1 autocorrelation is accounted for in the tests. A Quantile Matching (QM) algorithm (Wang 2009) was also developed for adjusting Gaussian daily data so that the empirical distributions of all segments of the detrended series match each other. The RHtestsV3 package was used to prepare a second generation of homogenized temperatures in Canada. Both the PMT test and the PMF test were applied to detect shifts in monthly mean temperature series. Reference series was used in conducting a PMT test. Whenever possible, the main causes of the shifts were retrieved through historical evidence such as the station inspection reports. Finally, the QM algorithm was used to adjust the daily temperature series for the artificial shifts identified from the respective

  16. Emergence of space-time from topologically homogeneous causal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauro D'Ariano, Giacomo; Tosini, Alessandro

    2013-08-01

    In this paper we study the emergence of Minkowski space-time from a discrete causal network representing a classical information flow. Differently from previous approaches, we require the network to be topologically homogeneous, so that the metric is derived from pure event-counting. Emergence from events has an operational motivation in requiring that every physical quantity-including space-time-be defined through precise measurement procedures. Topological homogeneity is a requirement for having space-time metric emergent from the pure topology of causal connections, whereas physically homogeneity corresponds to the universality of the physical law. We analyze in detail the case of 1+1 dimensions. If we consider the causal connections as an exchange of classical information, we can establish coordinate systems via an Einsteinian protocol, and this leads to a digital version of the Lorentz transformations. In a computational analogy, the foliation construction can be regarded as the synchronization with a global clock of the calls to independent subroutines (corresponding to the causally independent events) in a parallel distributed computation. Thus the Lorentz time-dilation emerges as an increased density of leaves within a single tic-tac of a clock, whereas space-contraction results from the corresponding decrease of density of events per leaf. The operational procedure of building up the coordinate system introduces an in-principle indistinguishability between neighboring events, resulting in a network that is coarse-grained, the thickness of the event being a function of the observer's clock. The illustrated simple classical construction can be extended to space dimension greater than one, with the price of anisotropy of the maximal speed, due to the Weyl-tiling problem. This issue is cured if the causal network is quantum, as e.g. in a quantum cellular automaton, and isotropy is recovered by quantum coherence via superposition of causal paths. We thus argue

  17. Tidal spin down rates of homogeneous triaxial viscoelastic bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quillen, Alice C.; Kueter-Young, Andrea; Frouard, Julien; Ragozzine, Darin

    2016-08-01

    We use numerical simulations to measure the sensitivity of the tidal spin down rate of a homogeneous triaxial ellipsoid to its axis ratios by comparing the drift rate in orbital semi-major axis to that of a spherical body with the same mass, volume and simulated rheology. We use a mass-spring model approximating a viscoelastic body spinning around its shortest body axis, with spin aligned with orbital spin axis, and in circular orbit about a point mass. The torque or drift rate can be estimated from that predicted for a sphere with equivalent volume if multiplied by 0.5 (1 + b^4/a^4)(b/a)^{-4/3} (c/a)^{-α _c} where b/a and c/a are the body axis ratios and index αc ≈ 1.05 is consistent with the random lattice mass spring model simulations but αc = 4/3 suggested by scaling estimates. A homogeneous body with axis ratios 0.5 and and 0.8, like Haumea, has orbital semi-major axis drift rate about twice as fast as a spherical body with the same mass, volume and material properties. A simulation approximating a mostly rocky body but with 20% of its mass as ice concentrated at its ends has a drift rate 10 times faster than the equivalent homogeneous rocky sphere. However, this increase in drift rate is not enough to allow Haumea's satellite, Hi'iaka, to have tidally drifted away from Haumea to its current orbital semi-major axis.

  18. Technical Note: Homogeneity of Gafchromic EBT2 film

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, Bernadette; Martisikova, Maria; Jaekel, Oliver

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: The self-developing Gafchromic EBT film is a radiochromic film, widely used for relative photon dosimetry. Recently, the manufacturer has replaced the well-investigated EBT film by the new Gafchromic EBT2 film. It has the same sensitive component and, in addition, it contains a yellow marker dye in order to protect the film against ambient light exposure and to serve as a base for corrections of small differences in film response. Furthermore, the configuration of the film layers as well as the binder material have been changed in comparison to the EBT film. When investigating the properties of EBT2 film, all characteristics were found to be similar to those of EBT film, except for the film response homogeneity. Thus, in this article special focus was put on examining the homogeneity of EBT2 film. Methods: A scan protocol established for EBT film and published previously was used. The uniformity of the film coloration was investigated for unirradiated and irradiated EBT2 film sheets. The dose response of EBT2 film was measured and the influence of film inhomogeneities on dose determination was evaluated. Results: Inhomogeneities in pixel values of up to {+-}3.7% within one film were detected. The relative inhomogeneities were found to be approximately independent of the dose. Nonuniformities of the film response lead to uncertainties in dose determination of {+-}8.7% at 1 Gy. When using net optical densities for dose calibration, uncertainties in dose determination amount to more than {+-}6%. Conclusions: EBT2 films from the lot investigated in this study show response inhomogeneities, which lead to uncertainties in dose determination exceeding the commonly accepted tolerance levels. It is important to test further EBT2 lots regarding homogeneity before using the film in clinical routine.

  19. A rapid mechanism to remobilize and homogenize highly crystalline magma bodies.

    PubMed

    Burgisser, Alain; Bergantz, George W

    2011-03-10

    The largest products of magmatic activity on Earth, the great bodies of granite and their corresponding large eruptions, have a dual nature: homogeneity at the large scale and spatial and temporal heterogeneity at the small scale. This duality calls for a mechanism that selectively removes the large-scale heterogeneities associated with the incremental assembly of these magmatic systems and yet occurs rapidly despite crystal-rich, viscous conditions seemingly resistant to mixing. Here we show that a simple dynamic template can unify a wide range of apparently contradictory observations from both large plutonic bodies and volcanic systems by a mechanism of rapid remobilization (unzipping) of highly viscous crystal-rich mushes. We demonstrate that this remobilization can lead to rapid overturn and produce the observed juxtaposition of magmatic materials with very disparate ages and complex chemical zoning. What distinguishes our model is the recognition that the process has two stages. Initially, a stiff mushy magma is reheated from below, producing a reduction in crystallinity that leads to the growth of a subjacent buoyant mobile layer. When the thickening mobile layer becomes sufficiently buoyant, it penetrates the overlying viscous mushy magma. This second stage rapidly exports homogenized material from the lower mobile layer to the top of the system, and leads to partial overturn within the viscous mush itself as an additional mechanism of mixing. Model outputs illustrate that unzipping can rapidly produce large amounts of mobile magma available for eruption. The agreement between calculated and observed unzipping rates for historical eruptions at Pinatubo and at Montserrat demonstrates the general applicability of the model. This mechanism furthers our understanding of both the formation of periodically homogenized plutons (crust building) and of ignimbrites by large eruptions. PMID:21368760

  20. Kinetics of homogeneous and surface-catalyzed mercury(II) reduction by iron(II)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amirbahman, Aria; Kent, Douglas B.; Curtis, Gary P.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    Production of elemental mercury, Hg(0), via Hg(II) reduction is an important pathway that should be considered when studying Hg fate in environment. We conducted a kinetic study of abiotic homogeneous and surface-catalyzed Hg(0) production by Fe(II) under dark anoxic conditions. Hg(0) production rate, from initial 50 pM Hg(II) concentration, increased with increasing pH (5.5–8.1) and aqueous Fe(II) concentration (0.1–1 mM). The homogeneous rate was best described by the expression, rhom = khom [FeOH+] [Hg(OH)2]; khom = 7.19 × 10+3 L (mol min)−1. Compared to the homogeneous case, goethite (α-FeOOH) and hematite (α-Fe2O3) increased and γ-alumina (γ-Al2O3) decreased the Hg(0) production rate. Heterogeneous Hg(0) production rates were well described by a model incorporating equilibrium Fe(II) adsorption, rate-limited Hg(II) reduction by dissolved and adsorbed Fe(II), and rate-limited Hg(II) adsorption. Equilibrium Fe(II) adsorption was described using a surface complexation model calibrated with previously published experimental data. The Hg(0) production rate was well described by the expression rhet = khet [>SOFe(II)] [Hg(OH)2], where >SOFe(II) is the total adsorbed Fe(II) concentration; khet values were 5.36 × 10+3, 4.69 × 10+3, and 1.08 × 10+2 L (mol min)−1 for hematite, goethite, and γ-alumina, respectively. Hg(0) production coupled to reduction by Fe(II) may be an important process to consider in ecosystem Hg studies.

  1. Impact of homogeneous strain on uranium vacancy diffusion in uranium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Anuj; Phillpot, Simon R.; Subramanian, Gopinath; Andersson, David A.; Stanek, Chris R.; Uberuaga, Blas P.

    2015-03-01

    We present a detailed mechanism of, and the effect of homogeneous strains on, the migration of uranium vacancies in UO2. Vacancy migration pathways and barriers are identified using density functional theory and the effect of uniform strain fields are accounted for using the dipole tensor approach. We report complex migration pathways and noncubic symmetry associated with the uranium vacancy in UO2 and show that these complexities need to be carefully accounted for to predict the correct diffusion behavior of uranium vacancies. We show that under homogeneous strain fields, only the dipole tensor of the saddle with respect to the minimum is required to correctly predict the change in the energy barrier between the strained and the unstrained case. Diffusivities are computed using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations for both neutral and fully charged state of uranium single and divacancies. We calculate the effect of strain on migration barriers in the temperature range 800-1800 K for both vacancy types. Homogeneous strains as small as 2 % have a considerable effect on diffusivity of both single and divacancies of uranium, with the effect of strain being more pronounced for single vacancies than divacancies. In contrast, the response of a given defect to strain is less sensitive to changes in the charge state of the defect. Further, strain leads to anisotropies in the mobility of the vacancy and the degree of anisotropy is very sensitive to the nature of the applied strain field for strain of equal magnitude. Our results suggest that the influence of strain on vacancy diffusivity will be significantly greater when single vacancies dominate the defect structure, such as sintering, while the effects will be much less substantial under irradiation conditions where divacancies dominate.

  2. Study on the kinetics of homogeneous enzyme reactions in a micro/nanofluidics device.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Li, Su-Juan; Wu, Zeng-Qiang; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan; Xia, Xing-Hua

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, a micro/nanofluidic preconcentration device integrated with an electrochemical detector has been used to study the enrichment of enzymes and homogeneous enzyme reaction kinetics. The enzymes are first concentrated in front of a nanochannel via an exclusion-enrichment effect (EEE) mechanism of the nanochannel integrated in a microfluidics device. If a substrate is electrokinetically transported to the concentrated enzymes, homogeneous enzymatic reaction occurs. The enzymatic reaction product can penetrate through the nanochannel to be detected electrochemically. In this device, the enriched enzymes can be well retained and repeatedly used, thus, the enzymatic reaction occurs in a continuous-flow mode. For demonstration, Glucose oxidase (GOx) was chosen as the model enzyme to study the influence of enzyme concentration on its reaction kinetics. The different concentration of GOx in front of the nanochannel was simply achieved by using different enrichment time. When substrate glucose was introduced electrokinetically, a rapid electrochemical steady-state response could be obtained. It was found that the electrochemical response to a constant glucose concentration increased with the increase of enzyme enrichment time, which is expected for homogeneous enzymatic reactions. Under proper conditions, the electrochemical responds linearly to the glucose concentration ranging from 0 to 15 mM, and the Michaelis constants (K(m)) are relatively low, which indicates a more efficient complex formation between enzyme and substrate. These results suggest that the present micro/nanofluidics device is promising for the study of enzymatic reaction kinetics and other bioassays such as cell assays, drug discovery, and clinical diagnosis. PMID:20162240

  3. Impact of homogeneous strain on uranium vacancy diffusion in uranium dioxide

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Goyal, Anuj; Phillpot, Simon R.; Subramanian, Gopinath; Andersson, David A.; Stanek, Chris R.; Uberuaga, Blas P.

    2015-03-03

    We present a detailed mechanism of, and the effect of homogeneous strains on, the migration of uranium vacancies in UO2. Vacancy migration pathways and barriers are identified using density functional theory and the effect of uniform strain fields are accounted for using the dipole tensor approach. We report complex migration pathways and noncubic symmetry associated with the uranium vacancy in UO2 and show that these complexities need to be carefully accounted for to predict the correct diffusion behavior of uranium vacancies. We show that under homogeneous strain fields, only the dipole tensor of the saddle with respect to the minimummore » is required to correctly predict the change in the energy barrier between the strained and the unstrained case. Diffusivities are computed using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations for both neutral and fully charged state of uranium single and divacancies. We calculate the effect of strain on migration barriers in the temperature range 800–1800 K for both vacancy types. Homogeneous strains as small as 2% have a considerable effect on diffusivity of both single and divacancies of uranium, with the effect of strain being more pronounced for single vacancies than divacancies. In contrast, the response of a given defect to strain is less sensitive to changes in the charge state of the defect. Further, strain leads to anisotropies in the mobility of the vacancy and the degree of anisotropy is very sensitive to the nature of the applied strain field for strain of equal magnitude. Our results indicate that the influence of strain on vacancy diffusivity will be significantly greater when single vacancies dominate the defect structure, such as sintering, while the effects will be much less substantial under irradiation conditions where divacancies dominate.« less

  4. Impact of homogeneous strain on uranium vacancy diffusion in uranium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, Anuj; Phillpot, Simon R.; Subramanian, Gopinath; Andersson, David A.; Stanek, Chris R.; Uberuaga, Blas P.

    2015-03-03

    We present a detailed mechanism of, and the effect of homogeneous strains on, the migration of uranium vacancies in UO2. Vacancy migration pathways and barriers are identified using density functional theory and the effect of uniform strain fields are accounted for using the dipole tensor approach. We report complex migration pathways and noncubic symmetry associated with the uranium vacancy in UO2 and show that these complexities need to be carefully accounted for to predict the correct diffusion behavior of uranium vacancies. We show that under homogeneous strain fields, only the dipole tensor of the saddle with respect to the minimum is required to correctly predict the change in the energy barrier between the strained and the unstrained case. Diffusivities are computed using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations for both neutral and fully charged state of uranium single and divacancies. We calculate the effect of strain on migration barriers in the temperature range 800–1800 K for both vacancy types. Homogeneous strains as small as 2% have a considerable effect on diffusivity of both single and divacancies of uranium, with the effect of strain being more pronounced for single vacancies than divacancies. In contrast, the response of a given defect to strain is less sensitive to changes in the charge state of the defect. Further, strain leads to anisotropies in the mobility of the vacancy and the degree of anisotropy is very sensitive to the nature of the applied strain field for strain of equal magnitude. Our results indicate that the influence of strain on vacancy diffusivity will be significantly greater when single vacancies dominate the defect structure, such as sintering, while the effects will be much less substantial under irradiation conditions where divacancies dominate.

  5. Homogeneous-heterogeneous reaction effects in peristalsis through curved geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Tanveer, Anum; Alsaadi, Fuad; Alotaibi, Naif D.

    2015-06-01

    This paper looks at the influence of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions on the peristaltic transport of non-Newtonian fluid in a curved channel with wall properties. Constitutive relations for thermodynamic third grade material are utilized in the problem development. An electrically conducting fluid in the presence of radial applied magnetic field is considered. The governing flow equations are developed in the presence of viscous heating. Mathematical computations are simplified employing long wavelength and low Reynolds number considerations. The solutions for velocity, temperature, concentration and heat transfer coefficient are obtained and examined. The features of sundry parameters are analyzed by plotting graphs.

  6. Rapidly rotating Bose-Einstein condensates in homogeneous traps

    SciTech Connect

    Correggi, M.; Rindler-Daller, T.; Yngvason, J.

    2007-10-15

    We extend the results of a previous paper on the Gross-Pitaevskii description of rotating Bose-Einstein condensates in two-dimensional traps to confining potentials of the form V(r)=r{sup s}, 2homogeneous potentials is also discussed.

  7. Homogeneous and heterogeneous chemistry along air parcel trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. L.; Mckenna, D. L.; Poole, L. R.; Solomon, S.

    1990-01-01

    The study of coupled heterogeneous and homogeneous chemistry due to polar stratospheric clouds (PSC's) using Lagrangian parcel trajectories for interpretation of the Airborne Arctic Stratosphere Experiment (AASE) is discussed. This approach represents an attempt to quantitatively model the physical and chemical perturbation to stratospheric composition due to formation of PSC's using the fullest possible representation of the relevant processes. Further, the meteorological fields from the United Kingdom Meteorological office global model were used to deduce potential vorticity and inferred regions of PSC's as an input to flight planning during AASE.

  8. Time Evolution of Modeled Reynolds Stresses in Planar Homogeneous Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jongen, T.; Gatski, T. B.

    1997-01-01

    The analytic expression of the time evolution of the Reynolds stress anisotropy tensor in all planar homogeneous flows is obtained by exact integration of the modeled differential Reynolds stress equations. The procedure is based on results of tensor representation theory, is applicable for general pressure-strain correlation tensors, and can account for any additional turbulence anisotropy effects included in the closure. An explicit solution of the resulting system of scalar ordinary differential equations is obtained for the case of a linear pressure-strain correlation tensor. The properties of this solution are discussed, and the dynamic behavior of the Reynolds stresses is studied, including limit cycles and sensitivity to initial anisotropies.

  9. Preliminary development of thermal nuclear cell homogenization code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su'ud, Z.; Shafii, M. A.; Yudha, S. P.; Waris, A.; Rijal, K.

    2012-06-01

    Nuclear fuel cell homogenization for thermal reactors usually include three main parts, i.e., fast energy resonance part which usually adopt narrow resonance approximation to treat the resonance, low (intermediate) energy region in which the resonance can not be treated accurately using NR approximation and therefore we should use intermediate resonance treatment, and thermal energy region (very low) in which the effect of thermal must be treated properly. In n this study the application of the intermediate resonance approximation treatment for low energy nuclear resonance is discussed. The method is iterative based. As a sample the method is applied in U-235 low lying resonance and the result is presented and discussed.

  10. Nonlinear fast sausage waves in homogeneous magnetic flux tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhalyaev, Badma B.; Ruderman, Michael S.

    2015-12-01

    > We consider fast sausage waves in straight homogeneous magnetic tubes. The plasma motion is described by the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations in the cold plasma approximation. We derive the nonlinear Schrödinger equation describing the nonlinear evolution of an envelope of a carrier wave. The coefficients of this equation are expressed in terms Bessel and modified Bessel functions. They are calculated numerically for various values of parameters. In particular, we show that the criterion for the onset of the modulational or Benjamin-Fair instability is satisfied. The implication of the obtained results for solar physics is discussed.

  11. Te homogeneous precipitation in Ge dislocation loop vicinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin Toinin, J.; Portavoce, A.; Texier, M.; Bertoglio, M.; Hoummada, K.

    2016-06-01

    High resolution microscopies were used to study the interactions of Te atoms with Ge dislocation loops, after a standard n-type doping process in Ge. Te atoms neither segregate nor precipitate on dislocation loops, but form Te-Ge clusters at the same depth as dislocation loops, in contradiction with usual dopant behavior and thermodynamic expectations. Atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo simulations show that Te atoms are repulsed from dislocation loops due to elastic interactions, promoting homogeneous Te-Ge nucleation between dislocation loops. This phenomenon is enhanced by coulombic interactions between activated Te2+ or Te1+ ions.

  12. Chemical kinetics of homogeneous atmospheric oxidation of sulfur dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sander, S. P.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    A systematic evaluation of known homogeneous SO2 reactions which might be important in air pollution chemistry is carried out. A mechanism is developed to represent the chemistry of NOx/hydrocarbon/SO2 systems, and the mechanism is used to analyze available experimental data appropriate for quantitative analysis of SO2 oxidation kinetics. Detailed comparisons of observed and predicted concentration behavior are presented. In all cases, observed SO2 oxidation rates cannot be explained solely on the basis of those SO2 reactions for which rate constants have been measured. The role of ozone-olefin reactions in SO2 oxidation is elucidated.

  13. Homogeneous turbulence subjected to mean flow with elliptic streamlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaisdell, G. A.; Shariff, K.

    1994-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations are performed for homogeneous turbulence with a mean flow having elliptic streamlines. This flow combines the effects of rotation and strain on the turbulence. Qualitative comparisons are made with linear theory for cases with high Rossby number. The nonlinear transfer process is monitored using a generalized skewness. In general, rotation turns off the nonlinear cascade; however, for moderate ellipticities and rotation rates the nonlinear cascade is turned off and then reestablished. Turbulence statistics of interest in turbulence modeling are calculated, including full Reynolds stress budgets.

  14. Hydrodynamic stability of three-dimensional homogeneous flow topologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Aashwin A.; Girimaji, Sharath S.

    2015-11-01

    This article examines the hydrodynamic stability of various homogeneous three-dimensional flow topologies. The influence of inertial and pressure effects on the stability of flows undergoing strain, rotation, convergence, divergence, and swirl are isolated. In marked contrast to two-dimensional topologies, for three-dimensional flows the inertial effects are always destabilizing, whereas pressure effects are always stabilizing. In streamline topologies with a negative velocity-gradient third invariant, inertial effects prevail leading to instability. Vortex-stretching is identified as the underlying instability mechanism. In flows with positive velocity-gradient third derivative, pressure overcomes inertial effects to stabilize the flow.

  15. Activated instability of homogeneous droplet nucleation and growth.

    PubMed

    Uline, Mark J; Corti, David S

    2008-12-21

    For the pure-component supercooled Lennard-Jones vapor, the free energy of forming a droplet with a given particle number and volume is calculated using density-functional theory. In contrast to what was noted in previous studies, the free energy surface beyond the pseudosaddle point no longer exhibits a valley but rather channels the nuclei toward a locus of instabilities, initiating an unstable growth phase. Similar to a previous study of bubble formation in superheated liquids [M. J. Uline and D. S. Corti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 076102 (2007)], a new picture of homogeneous droplet nucleation and growth emerges. PMID:19102538

  16. Determining the alpha dynamo parameter in incompressible homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthaeus, W. H.; Goldstein, M. L.; Lantz, S. R.

    1983-01-01

    Alpha, an important parameter in dynamo theory, is proportional to either the kinetic, current, magnetic, or velocity helicity of the fluctuating magnetic field and fluctuating velocity field. The particular helicity to which alpha is proportional depends on the assumptions used in deriving the first order smoothed equations that describe the alpha effect. In two cases, when alpha is proportional to either the magnetic helicity or velocity helicity, alpha is determined experimentally from two point measurements of the fluctuating fields in incompressible, homogeneous turbulence having arbitrary symmetry. For the other two possibilities, alpha is determined if the turbulence is isotropic.

  17. Metrics with prescribed Ricci curvature on homogeneous spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulemotov, Artem

    2016-08-01

    Let G be a compact connected Lie group and H a closed subgroup of G. Suppose the homogeneous space G / H is effective and has dimension 3 or higher. Consider a G-invariant, symmetric, positive-semidefinite, nonzero (0, 2)-tensor field T on G / H. Assume that H is a maximal connected Lie subgroup of G. We prove the existence of a G-invariant Riemannian metric g and a positive number c such that the Ricci curvature of g coincides with cT on G / H. Afterwards, we examine what happens when the maximality hypothesis fails to hold.

  18. Adaptive waveguide bends with homogeneous, nonmagnetic, and isotropic materials.

    PubMed

    Han, Tiancheng; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Tang, Xiaohong

    2011-01-15

    We propose a method for adaptive waveguide bends using homogeneous, nonmagnetic, and isotropic materials, which simplifies the parameters of the bends to the utmost extent. The proposed bend has an adaptive and compact shape because of all the flat boundaries. The nonmagnetic property is realized by selecting OB'/OC = 0.5. Only two nonmagnetic isotropic dielectrics are needed throughout, and the transmission is not sensitive to nonmagnetic isotropic dielectrics. Results validate and illustrate these functionalities, which make the bend much easier to fabricate and apply, owing to its simple parameters, compact shape, and versatility in connecting different waveguides. PMID:21263493

  19. Controlling And Operating Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (Hcci) Engines

    DOEpatents

    Flowers, Daniel L.

    2005-08-02

    A Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine system includes an engine that produces exhaust gas. A vaporization means vaporizes fuel for the engine an air induction means provides air for the engine. An exhaust gas recirculation means recirculates the exhaust gas. A blending means blends the vaporized fuel, the exhaust gas, and the air. An induction means inducts the blended vaporized fuel, exhaust gas, and air into the engine. A control means controls the blending of the vaporized fuel, the exhaust gas, and the air and for controls the inducting the blended vaporized fuel, exhaust gas, and air into the engine.

  20. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Free Piston Linear Alternator

    SciTech Connect

    Janson Wu; Nicholas Paradiso; Peter Van Blarigan; Scott Goldsborough

    1998-11-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) free piston powered linear alternator has been conducted to determine if improvements can be made in the thermal and conversion efficiencies of modern electrical generator systems. Performance of a free piston engine was investigated using a rapid compression expansion machine and a full cycle thermodynamic model. Linear alternator performance was investigated with a computer model. In addition linear alternator testing and permanent magnet characterization hardware were developed. The development of the two-stroke cycle scavenging process has begun.

  1. Full dynamic homogenization of a unidirectional viscoelastic composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollette, M.; Lhémery, A.; Aristégui, C.

    2012-05-01

    The full homogenization of a unidirectional fiber-reinforced viscoelastic composite is proposed assuming transversely isotropic symmetry. It relies on two model-based inversion methods. The first considers bulk waves propagating normally to fibers and allows us to obtain three of the five independent Cij. The second method considers guided waves propagating in the fiber direction; it allows us to obtain the two remaining coefficients. Both methods account for multiple-scattering by fibers coupled to viscous losses in the matrix. They can deal with a variety of fiber volume fractions and fiber sizes and a variety of viscoelastic properties of the constituents.

  2. Cloaking of arbitrarily shaped objects with homogeneous coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forestiere, Carlo; Dal Negro, Luca; Miano, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    We present a theory for the cloaking of arbitrarily shaped objects and demonstrate electromagnetic scattering cancellation through designed homogeneous coatings. First, in the small-particle limit, we expand the dipole moment of a coated object in terms of its resonant modes. By zeroing the numerator of the resulting rational function, we accurately predict the permittivity values of the coating layer that abates the total scattered power. Then, we extend the applicability of the method beyond the small-particle limit, deriving the radiation corrections of the scattering-cancellation permittivity within a perturbation approach. Our method permits the design of invisibility cloaks for irregularly shaped devices such as complex sensors and detectors.

  3. Homogeneous-heterogeneous reaction effects in peristalsis through curved geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hayat, Tasawar; Tanveer, Anum Alsaadi, Fuad; Alotaibi, Naif D.

    2015-06-15

    This paper looks at the influence of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions on the peristaltic transport of non-Newtonian fluid in a curved channel with wall properties. Constitutive relations for thermodynamic third grade material are utilized in the problem development. An electrically conducting fluid in the presence of radial applied magnetic field is considered. The governing flow equations are developed in the presence of viscous heating. Mathematical computations are simplified employing long wavelength and low Reynolds number considerations. The solutions for velocity, temperature, concentration and heat transfer coefficient are obtained and examined. The features of sundry parameters are analyzed by plotting graphs.

  4. A scheme to calculate higher-order homogenization as applied to micro-acoustic boundary value problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagh, Hardik A.; Baghai-Wadji, Alireza

    2008-12-01

    Current technological challenges in materials science and high-tech device industry require the solution of boundary value problems (BVPs) involving regions of various scales, e.g. multiple thin layers, fibre-reinforced composites, and nano/micro pores. In most cases straightforward application of standard variational techniques to BVPs of practical relevance necessarily leads to unsatisfactorily ill-conditioned analytical and/or numerical results. To remedy the computational challenges associated with sub-sectional heterogeneities various sophisticated homogenization techniques need to be employed. Homogenization refers to the systematic process of smoothing out the sub-structural heterogeneities, leading to the determination of effective constitutive coefficients. Ordinarily, homogenization involves a sophisticated averaging and asymptotic order analysis to obtain solutions. In the majority of the cases only zero-order terms are constructed due to the complexity of the processes involved. In this paper we propose a constructive scheme for obtaining homogenized solutions involving higher order terms, and thus, guaranteeing higher accuracy and greater robustness of the numerical results. We present

  5. Reconstruction de la surface de Fermi dans l'etat normal d'un supraconducteur a haute Tc: Une etude du transport electrique en champ magnetique intense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Boeuf, David

    Des mesures de resistance longitudinale et de resistance de Hall en champ magnetique intense transverse (perpendiculaire aux plans CuO2) ont ete effectuees au sein de monocristaux de YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) demacles, ordonnes et de grande purete, afin d'etudier l'etat fondamental des supraconducteurs a haute Tc dans le regime sous-dope. Cette etude a ete realisee en fonction du dopage et de l'orientation du courant d'excitation J par rapport a l'axe orthorhombique b de la structure cristalline. Les mesures en champ magnetique intense revelent par suppression de la supraconductivite des oscillations magnetiques des resistances longitudinale et de Hall dans YBa2Cu 3O6.51 et YBa2Cu4O8. La conformite du comportement de ces oscillations quantiques au formalisme de Lifshitz-Kosevich, apporte la preuve de l'existence d'une surface de Fermi fermee a caractere quasi-2D, abritant des quasiparticules coherentes respectant la statistique de Fermi-Dirac, dans la phase pseudogap d'YBCO. La faible frequence des oscillations quantiques, combinee avec l'etude de la partie monotone de la resistance de Hall en fonction de la temperature indique que la surface de Fermi d'YBCO sous-dope comprend une petite poche de Fermi occupee par des porteurs de charge negative. Cette particularite de la surface de Fermi dans le regime sous-dope incompatible avec les calculs de structure de bande est en fort contraste avec la structure electronique presente dans le regime surdope. Cette observation implique ainsi l'existence d'un point critique quantique dans le diagramme de phase d'YBCO, au voisinage duquel la surface de Fermi doit subir une reconstruction induite par l'etablissement d'une brisure de la symetrie de translation du reseau cristallin sous-jacent. Enfin, l'etude en fonction du dopage de la resistance de Hall et de la resistance longitudinale en champ magnetique intense suggere qu'un ordre du type onde de densite (DW) est responsable de la reconstruction de la surface de Fermi. L'analogie de

  6. Asymptotic splitting in the three-dimensional problem of elasticity for non-homogeneous piezoelectric plates.

    PubMed

    Vetyukov, Yury; Kuzin, Alexey; Krommer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A novel asymptotic approach to the theory of non-homogeneous anisotropic plates is suggested. For the problem of linear static deformations we consider solutions, which are slowly varying in the plane of the plate in comparison to the thickness direction. A small parameter is introduced in the general equations of the theory of elasticity. According to the procedure of asymptotic splitting, the principal terms of the series expansion of the solution are determined from the conditions of solvability for the minor terms. Three-dimensional conditions of compatibility make the analysis more efficient and straightforward. We obtain the system of equations of classical Kirchhoff's plate theory, including the balance equations, compatibility conditions, elastic relations and kinematic relations between the displacements and strain measures. Subsequent analysis of the edge layer near the contour of the plate is required in order to satisfy the remaining boundary conditions of the three-dimensional problem. Matching of the asymptotic expansions of the solution in the edge layer and inside the domain provides four classical plate boundary conditions. Additional effects, like electromechanical coupling for piezoelectric plates, can easily be incorporated into the model due to the modular structure of the analysis. The results of the paper constitute a sound basis to the equations of the theory of classical plates with piezoelectric effects, and provide a trustworthy algorithm for computation of the stressed state in the three-dimensional problem. Numerical and analytical studies of a sample electromechanical problem demonstrate the asymptotic nature of the present theory. PMID:21760642

  7. Asymptotic splitting in the three-dimensional problem of elasticity for non-homogeneous piezoelectric plates

    PubMed Central

    Vetyukov, Yury; Kuzin, Alexey; Krommer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A novel asymptotic approach to the theory of non-homogeneous anisotropic plates is suggested. For the problem of linear static deformations we consider solutions, which are slowly varying in the plane of the plate in comparison to the thickness direction. A small parameter is introduced in the general equations of the theory of elasticity. According to the procedure of asymptotic splitting, the principal terms of the series expansion of the solution are determined from the conditions of solvability for the minor terms. Three-dimensional conditions of compatibility make the analysis more efficient and straightforward. We obtain the system of equations of classical Kirchhoff’s plate theory, including the balance equations, compatibility conditions, elastic relations and kinematic relations between the displacements and strain measures. Subsequent analysis of the edge layer near the contour of the plate is required in order to satisfy the remaining boundary conditions of the three-dimensional problem. Matching of the asymptotic expansions of the solution in the edge layer and inside the domain provides four classical plate boundary conditions. Additional effects, like electromechanical coupling for piezoelectric plates, can easily be incorporated into the model due to the modular structure of the analysis. The results of the paper constitute a sound basis to the equations of the theory of classical plates with piezoelectric effects, and provide a trustworthy algorithm for computation of the stressed state in the three-dimensional problem. Numerical and analytical studies of a sample electromechanical problem demonstrate the asymptotic nature of the present theory. PMID:21760642

  8. Water gas shift reaction: homogeneous catalysis by ruthenium and other metal carbonyls

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, P.C.

    1981-02-01

    A number of chemical systems are active for homogeneous, solution phase catalysis of the water gas shift reaction (WGSR). Catalysis of the shift reaction appears to be a quite general property of carbonyl complexes in alkaline solutions. The key mechanistic steps for which some kinetics information is available are the activation of coordinated CO by reaction with hydroxide and the reductive elimination of dihydrogen from a resulting metal hydride. Which of these is rate limiting in a cycle is a function of the specific metal system and the specific reaction conditions. A basic solution is not a necessary condition for WGSR catalysis. Although WGSR catalysis is not as general a phenomenon in acidic media, several such systems have been characterized with activities which compare very favorably to those seen in basic solutions. While logical mechanisms have been proposed for several of the better characterized catalysts, it is clear that a more complete mechanistic understanding of the key steps in potential cycles is greatly needed. Recognition of such needs has led to fundamental studies into the acid/base natures of metal carbonyl hydride clusters, of CO activation on cluster and mononuclear metal carbonyls by bases, and of dihydrogen elimination from and declusterification and clusterification reactions of metal carbonyl hydrides. While none of these processes is in itself catalytic, the sum of several represents possible cycles. With regard to the future of homogeneous WGSR catalysts, it is obvious that under the conditions which these have been tested, the known systems are not commercially viable. Certainly, for a reaction such as the WGSR for which effective heterogeneous catalysts are known, it will take substantial advantages for a new system to be an attractive alternative to established technology.

  9. Homogenization of Earthquake Catalog for Northeast India and Adjoining Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ranjit; Wason, H. R.; Sharma, M. L.

    2012-04-01

    A catalog for northeast India and the adjoining region for the period 1897-2009 with 4,497 earthquakes events is compiled for homogenization to moment magnitude M w,GCMT in the magnitude range 3-8.7. Relations for conversion of m b and M s magnitudes to M w,GCMT are derived using three different methods, namely, linear standard regression, inverted standard regression (ISR) and orthogonal standard regression (OSR), for different magnitude ranges based on events data for the catalog period 1976-2006. The OSR relations for M s to M w,GCMT conversion derived in this paper have significantly lower errors in regression parameters compared to the relations reported in other studies. Since the number of events with magnitude ≥7 for this region is scanty, we, therefore, considered whole India region to obtain the regression relationships between M w,GCMT and M s,ISC. A relationship between M w,GCMT and M w,NEIC is also obtained based on 17 events for the range 5.2 ≤ magnitude ≤ 6.6. A unified homogeneous catalog prepared using the conversion relations derived in this paper can serve as a reference catalog for seismic hazard assessment studies in northeast India and the adjoining region.

  10. Fluidic delivery of homogeneous solutions through carbon tube bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srikar, R.; Yarin, A. L.; Megaridis, C. M.

    2009-07-01

    A wide array of technological applications requires localized high-rate delivery of dissolved compounds (in particular, biological ones), which can be achieved by forcing the solutions or suspensions of such compounds through nano or microtubes and their bundled assemblies. Using a water-soluble compound, the fluorescent dye Rhodamine 610 chloride, frequently used as a model drug release compound, it is shown that deposit buildup on the inner walls of the delivery channels and its adverse consequences pose a severe challenge to implementing pressure-driven long-term fluidic delivery through nano and microcapillaries, even in the case of such homogeneous solutions. Pressure-driven delivery (3-6 bar) of homogeneous dye solutions through macroscopically-long (~1 cm) carbon nano and microtubes with inner diameters in the range 100 nm-1 µm and their bundled parallel assemblies is studied experimentally and theoretically. It is shown that the flow delivery gradually shifts from fast convection-dominated (unobstructed) to slow jammed convection, and ultimately to diffusion-limited transport through a porous deposit. The jamming/clogging phenomena appear to be rather generic: they were observed in a wide concentration range for two fluorescent dyes in carbon nano and microtubes, as well as in comparable transparent glass microcapillaries. The aim of the present work is to study the physics of jamming, rather than the chemical reasons for the affinity of dye molecules to the tube walls.

  11. Coherent Vortex Simulations of linearly forced homogeneous turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyev, Oleg V.; Goldstein, Daniel E.; de Stefano, Giuliano

    2007-11-01

    This is the first of two talks on the wavelet based eddy capturing computational methodology that is capable of identifying and tracking on an adaptive mesh energetic coherent vortical structures in a turbulent flow field. This talk focuses on Coherent Vortex Simulations (CVS) approach, where the velocity field is decomposed into two parts: a coherent, inhomogeneous, non-Gaussian component and an incoherent, homogeneous, Gaussian component. This separation of coherent and incoherent components is achieved by wavelet thresholding, which can be viewed as a non-linear filter that depends on each flow realization. The essence of the CVS approach is to solve for the coherent non-Gaussian component of a turbulent flow field. It has been shown previously that second generation bi-orthogonal wavelet threshold filtering is able to decompose a turbulent velocity field such that the total resulting SGS dissipation is approximately zero. The results of Coherent Vortex Simulations of linearly forced incompressible 3D homogeneous turbulence for different Reynolds numbers demonstrated that CVS with no SGS model is capable to recover not only low order statistics, but also energy and, more importantly, enstrophy spectra up to the dissipative wavenumber range.

  12. Functional homogenization effect of urbanization on bird communities.

    PubMed

    Devictor, Vincent; Julliard, Romain; Couvet, Denis; Lee, Alexandre; Jiguet, Frédéric

    2007-06-01

    We studied the community richness and dynamics of birds in landscapes recently affected by urbanization to test the prediction that biotic communities living in degraded landscapes are increasingly composed of generalist species. We analyzed bird communities in 657 plots monitored by the French Breeding Bird Survey from 2001 to 2005, accounting for the probability of species detection and spatial autocorrelation. We used an independent land-cover program to assess urbanization intensity in each FBBS plot, from 1992 to 2002. We found that urbanization induced community homogenization and that populations of specialist species became increasingly unstable with increasing urbanization of the landscape. Our results emphasize that urbanization has a substantial impact on the spatial component of communities and highlight the destabilizing effect of urbanization on communities over time. These results illustrate that urbanization may be a strong driving force in functional community composition and that measuring community homogenization is a powerful tool in the assessment of the effects of landscape changes and thus aides sustainable urban planning. PMID:17531052

  13. Subfilter scalar-flux vector orientation in homogeneous isotropic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Verma, Siddhartha; Blanquart, G

    2014-06-01

    The geometric orientation of the subfilter-scale scalar-flux vector is examined in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. Vector orientation is determined using the eigenframe of the resolved strain-rate tensor. The Schmidt number is kept sufficiently large so as to leave the velocity field, and hence the strain-rate tensor, unaltered by filtering in the viscous-convective subrange. Strong preferential alignment is observed for the case of Gaussian and box filters, whereas the sharp-spectral filter leads to close to a random orientation. The orientation angle obtained with the Gaussian and box filters is largely independent of the filter width and the Schmidt number. It is shown that the alignment direction observed numerically using these two filters is predicted very well by the tensor-diffusivity model. Moreover, preferred alignment of the scalar gradient vector in the eigenframe is shown to mitigate any probable issues of negative diffusivity in the tensor-diffusivity model. Consequentially, the model might not suffer from solution instability when used for large eddy simulations of scalar transport in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. Further a priori tests indicate poor alignment of the Smagorinsky and stretched vortex model predictions with the exact subfilter flux. Finally, strong filter dependence of subfilter scalar-flux orientation suggests that explicit filtering may be preferable to implicit filtering in large eddy simulations. PMID:25019887

  14. Genetic background of clinical homogeneity of phenylketonuria in Poland.

    PubMed Central

    Jaruzelska, J; Matuszak, R; Lyonnet, S; Rey, F; Rey, J; Filipowicz, J; Borski, K; Munnich, A

    1993-01-01

    In order to elucidate the clinical homogeneity and severity of the hyperphenylalaninaemias in Poland, a total of 71 children with typical phenylketonuria (PKU) originating from western and northern Poland were screened for 13 mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. Eighty percent of all PKU alleles tested were found to carry an identified mutation. One mutation, namely the R408W mutation, accounted for more than 63% of mutant PAH alleles in Poland, the other 27% being accounted for by six mutations: IVS12nt1 (5%), IVSnt546 (5%), Y414C (4%), R252W (1.5%), R261Q (< 1%), and G272ter (< 1%). The predominance of the R408W mutation resulted in a high rate of homozygotes (35.2%) and compound heterozygotes for this mutation in children from western and northern Poland. The frequency and deleterious nature of this mutation probably accounts for the clinical homogeneity and severity of the hyperphenylalaninaemias in Poland. In addition, the high rate of the R408W mutation and its association with mutant haplotype 2 at the PAH locus in Poland give additional support to the Balto-Slavic origin of this mutant gene. PMID:8097262

  15. Homogeneous assay for whole blood folate using photon upconversion.

    PubMed

    Arppe, Riikka; Mattsson, Leena; Korpi, Krista; Blom, Sami; Wang, Qi; Riuttamäki, Terhi; Soukka, Tero

    2015-02-01

    Red blood cell folate is measured for folate deficiency diagnosis, because it reflects the long-term folate level in tissues, whereas serum folate only represents the dietary intake. Direct homogeneous assay from whole blood would be ideal but conventional fluorescence techniques in blood suffer from high background and strong absorption of light at ultraviolet and visible wavelengths. In this study, a new photon upconversion-based homogeneous assay for whole blood folate is introduced based on resonance energy transfer from upconverting nanophosphor donor coated with folate binding protein to a near-infrared fluorescent acceptor dye conjugated to folate analogue. The sensitized acceptor emission is measured at 740 nm upon 980 nm excitation. Thus, optically transparent wavelengths are utilized for both donor excitation and sensitized acceptor emission to minimize the sample absorption, and anti-Stokes detection completely eliminates the Stokes-shifted autofluorescence. The IC50 value of the assay was 6.0 nM and the limit of detection (LOD) was 1 nM. The measurable concentration range was 2 orders of magnitude between 1.0-100 nM, corresponding to 40-4000 nM folate in the whole blood sample. Recoveries of added folic acid were 112%-114%. A good correlation was found when compared to a competitive heterogeneous assay based on the DELFIA-technology. The introduced assay provides a simple and fast method for whole blood folate measurement. PMID:25548870

  16. Studies of Shock Wave Interactions with Homogeneous and Isotropic Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briassulis, G.; Agui, J.; Watkins, C. B.; Andreopoulos, Y.

    1998-01-01

    A nearly homogeneous nearly isotropic compressible turbulent flow interacting with a normal shock wave has been studied experimentally in a large shock tube facility. Spatial resolution of the order of 8 Kolmogorov viscous length scales was achieved in the measurements of turbulence. A variety of turbulence generating grids provide a wide range of turbulence scales. Integral length scales were found to substantially decrease through the interaction with the shock wave in all investigated cases with flow Mach numbers ranging from 0.3 to 0.7 and shock Mach numbers from 1.2 to 1.6. The outcome of the interaction depends strongly on the state of compressibility of the incoming turbulence. The length scales in the lateral direction are amplified at small Mach numbers and attenuated at large Mach numbers. Even at large Mach numbers amplification of lateral length scales has been observed in the case of fine grids. In addition to the interaction with the shock the present work has documented substantial compressibility effects in the incoming homogeneous and isotropic turbulent flow. The decay of Mach number fluctuations was found to follow a power law similar to that describing the decay of incompressible isotropic turbulence. It was found that the decay coefficient and the decay exponent decrease with increasing Mach number while the virtual origin increases with increasing Mach number. A mechanism possibly responsible for these effects appears to be the inherently low growth rate of compressible shear layers emanating from the cylindrical rods of the grid.

  17. Experimental study of multiple steady states in homogeneous azeotropic distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Guettinger, T.E.; Dorn, C.; Morari, M.

    1997-03-01

    Bekiaris et al. (1993) explained the existence of multiple steady states in homogeneous ternary azeotropic distillation, on the basis of the analysis of the case of infinite reflux and infinite column length (infinite number of trays). They showed that the predictions of multiple steady states for such infinite columns have relevant implications for columns of finite length operated at finite reflux. In this article, experiments are described for the ternary homogeneous system methanol-methyl butyrate-toluene which demonstrate the existence of multiple steady states (output multiplicities) caused by the vapor-liquid-equilibrium. The experiments on an industrial pilot column show two stable steady states for the same feed flow rate and composition and the same set of operating parameters. The measurements are in excellent agreement with the predictions obtained for infinite columns using the {infinity}/{infinity} analysis tool as well as with stage-by-stage simulation results. These experiments represent the first published study reporting evidence for the predictions and simulations by various researchers showing that type of output multiplicities in distillation.

  18. Asymptotic Sensitivity of Homogeneous Turbulent Shear Flow to the

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaza, Juan; Warhaft, Zellman; Collins, Lance

    2007-11-01

    Our recent numerical studies of homogeneous turbulent shear flow suggest the dynamics of the large and small scales are sensitive to the initial value of the shear parameter. In particular for initial values of S^* = S k /ɛ>=10, we find that the asymptotic state of the turbulence depends upon this parameter. Rapid distortion theory (RDT) predicts the dependence of both large- and small-scale statistics on S^* reasonably well, but the theory is applicable only for relatively short times (S t < 2). Direct numerical simulation (DNS) has a somewhat longer window, but it too eventually fails when the integral length scale becomes too large. Motivated by this earlier work, we performed experimental measurements of large- and small-scale velocity statistics in homogeneous turbulent shear flow in a wind tunnel. We are able to vary the initial shear parameter over the relevant range and observe the aforementioned asymptotic statistics. The experimental results will be presented, including detailed comparisons with earlier DNS and RDT.

  19. Simulating Timescale Dynamics of Network Traffic Using Homogeneous Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jian; Mills, Kevin L.

    2006-01-01

    Simulating and understanding traffic dynamics in large networks are difficult and challenging due to the complexity of such networks and the limitations inherent in simulation modeling. Typically, simulation models used to study traffic dynamics include substantial detail representing protocol mechanisms across several layers of functionality. Such models must be restricted in space and time in order to be computationally tractable. We propose an alternative simulation approach that uses homogeneous modeling with an increased level of abstraction, in order to explore networks at larger space-time scales than otherwise feasible and to develop intuition and insight about the space-time dynamics of large networks. To illustrate the utility of our approach, we examine some current understandings of the timescale dynamics of network traffic, and we discuss some speculative results obtained with homogeneous modeling. Using a wavelet-based technique, we show correlation structures, and changes in correlation structures, of network traffic under variations in traffic sources, transport mechanisms, and network structure. Our simulation results justify further investigation of our approach, which might benefit from cross-verifications against more detailed simulation models. PMID:27274931

  20. Rate of Homogenous Nucleation of Ice in Supercooled Water.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, James D; Murray, Benjamin J; O'Sullivan, Daniel

    2016-08-25

    The homogeneous freezing of water is of fundamental importance to a number of fields, including that of cloud formation. However, there is considerable scatter in homogeneous nucleation rate coefficients reported in the literature. Using a cold stage droplet system designed to minimize uncertainties in temperature measurements, we examined the freezing of over 1500 pure water droplets with diameters between 4 and 24 μm. Under the assumption that nucleation occurs within the bulk of the droplet, nucleation rate coefficients fall within the spread of literature data and are in good agreement with a subset of more recent measurements. To quantify the relative importance of surface and volume nucleation in our experiments, where droplets are supported by a hydrophobic surface and surrounded by oil, comparison of droplets with different surface area to volume ratios was performed. From our experiments it is shown that in droplets larger than 6 μm diameter (between 234.6 and 236.5 K), nucleation in the interior is more important than nucleation at the surface. At smaller sizes we cannot rule out a significant contribution of surface nucleation, and in order to further constrain surface nucleation, experiments with smaller droplets are necessary. Nevertheless, in our experiments, it is dominantly volume nucleation controlling the observed nucleation rate. PMID:27410458

  1. An agglomerative approach for shot summarization based on content homogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannidis, Antonis; Chasanis, Vasileios; Likas, Aristidis

    2015-02-01

    An efficient shot summarization method is presented based on agglomerative clustering of the shot frames. Unlike other agglomerative methods, our approach relies on a cluster merging criterion that computes the content homogeneity of a merged cluster. An important feature of the proposed approach is the automatic estimation of the number of a shot's most representative frames, called keyframes. The method starts by splitting each video sequence into small, equal sized clusters (segments). Then, agglomerative clustering is performed, where from the current set of clusters, a pair of clusters is selected and merged to form a larger unimodal (homogeneous) cluster. The algorithm proceeds until no further cluster merging is possible. At the end, the medoid of each of the final clusters is selected as keyframe and the set of keyframes constitutes the summary of the shot. Numerical experiments demonstrate that our method reasonable estimates the number of ground-truth keyframes, while extracting non-repetitive keyframes that efficiently summarize the content of each shot.

  2. Numerical Homogenization of Jointed Rock Masses Using Wave Propagation Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasmi, Hatem; Hamdi, Essaïeb; Bouden Romdhane, Nejla

    2014-07-01

    Homogenization in fractured rock analyses is essentially based on the calculation of equivalent elastic parameters. In this paper, a new numerical homogenization method that was programmed by means of a MATLAB code, called HLA-Dissim, is presented. The developed approach simulates a discontinuity network of real rock masses based on the International Society of Rock Mechanics (ISRM) scanline field mapping methodology. Then, it evaluates a series of classic joint parameters to characterize density (RQD, specific length of discontinuities). A pulse wave, characterized by its amplitude, central frequency, and duration, is propagated from a source point to a receiver point of the simulated jointed rock mass using a complex recursive method for evaluating the transmission and reflection coefficient for each simulated discontinuity. The seismic parameters, such as delay, velocity, and attenuation, are then calculated. Finally, the equivalent medium model parameters of the rock mass are computed numerically while taking into account the natural discontinuity distribution. This methodology was applied to 17 bench fronts from six aggregate quarries located in Tunisia, Spain, Austria, and Sweden. It allowed characterizing the rock mass discontinuity network, the resulting seismic performance, and the equivalent medium stiffness. The relationship between the equivalent Young's modulus and rock discontinuity parameters was also analyzed. For these different bench fronts, the proposed numerical approach was also compared to several empirical formulas, based on RQD and fracture density values, published in previous research studies, showing its usefulness and efficiency in estimating rapidly the Young's modulus of equivalent medium for wave propagation analysis.

  3. Condensation of water vapor in rarefaction waves. I - Homogeneous nucleation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sislian, J. P.; Glass, I. I.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed theoretical investigation has been made of the condensation of water vapor/carrier gas mixtures in the nonstationary rarefaction wave generated in a shock tube. It is assumed that condensation takes place by homogeneous nucleation. The equations of motion together with the nucleation rate and the droplet growth equations were solved numerically by the method of characteristics and Lax's method of implicit artificial viscosity. It is found that, for the case considered, the condensation wave formed by the collapse of the metastable nonequilibrium state is followed by a shock wave generated by the intersection of characteristics of the same family. The expansion is practically isentropic up to the onset of condensation. The condensation front accelerates in the x,t plane. The results of the computations for a chosen case of water vapor/nitrogen mixture are presented by plotting variations of pressure, nucleation rate, number density of critical clusters, and condensate mass-fraction along three particle paths. Some consideration is given to homogeneous condensation experiments conducted in a shock tube. Although a direct comparison of the present theoretical work and these experiments is not possible, several worthwhile interpretative features have resulted nevertheless.

  4. Temperature Trends over Germany from Homogenized Radiosonde Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbrecht, W.; Pattantyús Ábráham, M.

    2015-12-01

    We present homogenization procedure and results for Germany's historical radiosonde records, dating back to the 1950s. Our manual homogenization makes use of the different RS networks existing in East and West-Germany from the 1950s until 1990. The largest temperature adjustments, up to 2.5K, are applied to Freiberg sondes used in the East in the 1950s and 1960s. Adjustments for Graw H50 and M60 sondes, used in the West from the 1950s to the late 1980s, and for RKZ sondes, used in the East in the 1970s and 1980s, are also significant, 0.3 to 0.5K. Small differences between Vaisala RS80 and RS92 sondes used throughout Germany since 1990 and 2005, respectively, were not corrected for at levels from the ground to 300 hPa. Comparison of the homogenized data with other radiosonde datasets, RICH (Haimberger et al., 2012) and HadAT2 (McCarthy et al., 2008), and with Microwave Sounding Unit satellite data (Mears and Wentz, 2009), shows generally good agreement. HadAT2 data exhibit a few suspicious spikes in the 1970s and 1980s, and some suspicious offsets up to 1K after 1995. Compared to RICH, our homogenized data show slightly different temperatures in the 1960s and 1970s. We find that the troposphere over Germany has been warming by 0.25 ± 0.1K per decade since the early 1960s, slightly more than reported in other studies (Hartmann et al., 2013). The stratosphere has been cooling, with the trend increasing from almost no change near 230hPa (the tropopause) to -0.5 ± 0.2K per decade near 50hPa. Trends from the homogenized data are more positive by about 0.1K per decade compared to the original data, both in troposphere and stratosphere. References: Haimberger, L., C. Tavolato, and S. Sperka, 2012. J. Climate, 25, 8108-8131, doi:10.1175/ JCLI-D-11-00668.1. Hartmann, D., et al., 2013: Observations: Atmosphere and surface in IPCC AR5, Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. [Available at http://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1/.] McCarthy, M., et al., 2008. J. Climate

  5. Modes of oscillation of a uniformly rotating, homogeneous spheroid of stars

    SciTech Connect

    Vandervoort, P.O. )

    1991-08-01

    This paper describes an investigation of the oscillations and the stability of a family of stellar systems which are uniformly rotating, homogeneous spheroids. The members of this family are distinguished by the shapes of their figures, the rates of their rotations, and the shapes of their velocity ellipsoids. The characteristic value problem governing the normal modes of oscillation is formulated in a Lagrangian representation, and a method of solution is described. Solutions of the characteristic value problem are obtained explicitly for seven distinct families of modes. These include counterparts of the second-harmonic modes of oscillation in the classical Maclaurin spheroids and modes that can exhibit so-called 'firehose' instabilities. The Eulerian perturbations of the gravitational potentials of these modes are polynomials of degrees 2 and 3, respectively, in the Cartesian components of the position. For each family of modes examples are presented of the dependence of the characteristic frequencies on the structures and kinematics of the equilibrium configurations, and conditions for instability are delineated. This work generalizes and extends a number of earlier investigations of small perturbations in a homogeneous spheroid of stars. The results are of interest as a guide in the investigation of the stability of more 'realistic' models of stellar systems, as a source of exact models with which to test N-body codes, and as a guide in the Lagrangian formulation of variational and matrix methods for more general investigations of the oscillations and stability of stellar systems. 42 refs.

  6. A Lagrangian PDF Model for the Scalar Dissipation in Homogeneous Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Rodney O.

    1996-11-01

    The scalar dissipation is a key quantity in the description of turbulent mixing. The spectral relaxation model (SRM) was developed to account for the effect of the evolution of the scalar spectrum on the mean scalar dissipation < ɛ_φ >, and it successfully predicts the observed (DNS, grid turbulence) dependence on Re, Sc (>= 1), and the initial scalar spectrum without recourse to fitting parameters. In this work, we present a Lagrangian PDF version (LSRM) for the PDF of ɛ_φ conditioned on the turbulent vortex stretching history of Kolmogorov-scale fluid particles. In homogeneous turbulence, the LSRM is coupled to a Lagrangian PDF model for the turbulent dissipation (ɛ) which strongly influences the statistics of ɛ_φ. Closure of scalar molecular dissipation term (< Γ nabla^2 φ | φ, ɛ^*_φ, ɛ^* >) is carried out using the Fokker-Planck model that was developed earlier for the joint scalar, scalar gradient PDF following fluid particles with the identical vortex stretching histories. Model predictions for inert scalar mixing in homogeneous turbulence with and without a uniform mean scalar gradient are compared to DNS data. In particular, the effect of the mean scalar gradient on the correlation between ɛ_φ and ɛ (i.e. local anisotropy) is examined, as well as the effect of the initial scalar spectrum and small-scale random vortex stretching on non-Gaussian behavior of the scalar PDF.

  7. Dispersing away from bad genotypes: the evolution of Fitness-Associated Dispersal (FAD) in homogeneous environments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dispersal is a major factor in ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Although empirical evidence shows that the tendency to disperse varies among individuals in many organisms, the evolution of dispersal patterns is not fully understood. Previous theoretical studies have shown that condition-dependent dispersal may evolve as a means to move to a different environment when environments are heterogeneous in space or in time. However, dispersal is also a means to genetically diversify offspring, a genetic advantage that might be particularly important when the individual fitness is low. We suggest that plasticity in dispersal, in which fit individuals are less likely to disperse (Fitness-Associated Dispersal, or FAD), can evolve due to its evolutionary advantages even when the environment is homogeneous and stable, kin competition is weak, and the cost of dispersal is high. Results Using stochastic simulations we show that throughout the parameter range, selection favors FAD over uniform dispersal (in which all individuals disperse with equal probability). FAD also has significant long-term effects on the mean fitness and genotypic variance of the population. Conclusions We show that FAD evolves under a very wide parameter range, regardless of its effects on the population mean fitness. We predict that individuals of low quality will have an increased tendency for dispersal, even when the environment is homogeneous, there is no direct competition with neighbors, and dispersal carries significant costs. PMID:23777293

  8. Differentiation of immature DCs into endothelial-like cells in human esophageal carcinoma tissue homogenates.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Bai, Ruihua; Qin, Zhenzhu; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Yanan; Yang, Hongyan; Huang, Youtian; Li, Gang; Zhao, Mingyao; Dong, Ziming

    2013-08-01

    We previously reported endothelial-like differentiation (ELD) of immature dendritic cells (iDCs) in the microenvironment derived from EC9706 human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma conditioned medium (CM). However, the CM is far different from the esophageal carcinoma tissue of patients. In addition, the potential role of peri-esophageal carcinoma in the ELD of iDCs is also unknown. In the present study, we showed that the tumor microenvironment derived from esophageal carcinoma homogenate promoted iDCs to differentiate from the DC pathway toward endothelial cells, while the peri-esophageal carcinoma homogenate did not have this function. During the course of ELD, ERK signaling pathway and CREB were activated. Blocking MEK, both the phosphorylation of ERK and CREB, and the ELD of iDCs were inhibited. These data suggest that esophageal carcinoma tissue, not peri-esophageal carcinoma tissue, can drive iDCs to differentiate into endothelial-like cells, instead of differentiation into mature DCs, thereby losing the ability of antigen presentation. PMID:23708958

  9. Development of Triple Scale Finite Element Analyses Based on Crystallographic Homogenization Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamachi, Eiji

    2004-06-01

    Crystallographic homogenization procedure is implemented in the piezoelectric and elastic-crystalline plastic finite element (FE) code to assess its macro-continuum properties of piezoelectric ceramics and BCC and FCC sheet metals. Triple scale hierarchical structure consists of an atom cluster, a crystal aggregation and a macro- continuum. In this paper, we focus to discuss a triple scale numerical analysis for piezoelectric material, and apply to assess a macro-continuum material property. At first, we calculate material properties of Perovskite crystal of piezoelectric material, XYO3 (such as BaTiO3 and PbTiO3) by employing ab-initio molecular analysis code CASTEP. Next, measured results of SEM and EBSD observations of crystal orientation distributions, shapes and boundaries of a real material (BaTiO3) are employed to define an inhomogeneity of crystal aggregation, which corresponds to a unit cell of micro-structure, and satisfies the periodicity condition. This procedure is featured as a first scaling up from the molecular to the crystal aggregation. Finally, the conventional homogenization procedure is implemented in FE code to evaluate a macro-continuum property. This final procedure is featured as a second scaling up from the crystal aggregation (unit cell) to macro-continuum. This triple scale analysis is applied to design piezoelectric ceramic and finds an optimum crystal orientation distribution, in which a macroscopic piezoelectric constant d33 has a maximum value.

  10. Titin domains progressively unfolded by force are homogenously distributed along the molecule.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Pasquale; Mártonfalvi, Zsolt; Naftz, Katalin; Kőszegi, Dorina; Kellermayer, Miklós

    2015-07-21

    Titin is a giant filamentous protein of the muscle sarcomere in which stretch induces the unfolding of its globular domains. However, the mechanisms of how domains are progressively selected for unfolding and which domains eventually unfold have for long been elusive. Based on force-clamp optical tweezers experiments we report here that, in a paradoxical violation of mechanically driven activation kinetics, neither the global domain unfolding rate, nor the folded-state lifetime distributions of full-length titin are sensitive to force. This paradox is reconciled by a gradient of mechanical stability so that domains are gradually selected for unfolding as the magnitude of the force field increases. Atomic force microscopic screening of extended titin molecules revealed that the unfolded domains are distributed homogenously along the entire length of titin, and this homogeneity is maintained with increasing overstretch. Although the unfolding of domains with progressively increasing mechanical stability makes titin a variable viscosity damper, the spatially randomized variation of domain stability ensures that the induced structural changes are not localized but are distributed along the molecule's length. Titin may thereby provide complex safety mechanims for protecting the sarcomere against structural disintegration under excessive mechanical conditions. PMID:26200869

  11. Line contribution to the critical Casimir force between a homogeneous and a chemically stepped surface.

    PubMed

    Toldin, Francesco Parisen; Tröndle, Matthias; Dietrich, S

    2015-06-01

    Recent experimental realizations of the critical Casimir effect have been implemented by monitoring colloidal particles immersed in a binary liquid mixture near demixing and exposed to a chemically structured substrate. In particular, critical Casimir forces have been measured for surfaces consisting of stripes with periodically alternating adsorption preferences, forming chemical steps between them. Motivated by these experiments, we analyze the contribution of such chemical steps to the critical Casimir force for the film geometry and within the Ising universality class. By means of Monte Carlo simulations, mean-field theory and finite-size scaling analysis we determine the universal scaling function associated with the contribution to the critical Casimir force due to individual, isolated chemical steps facing a surface with homogeneous adsorption preference or with Dirichlet boundary condition. In line with previous findings, these results allow one to compute the critical Casimir force for the film geometry and in the presence of arbitrarily shaped, but wide stripes. In this latter limit the force decomposes into a sum of the contributions due to the two homogeneous parts of the surface and due to the chemical steps between the stripes. We assess this decomposition by comparing the resulting sum with actual simulation data for the critical Casimir force in the presence of a chemically striped substrate. PMID:25966039

  12. Line contribution to the critical Casimir force between a homogeneous and a chemically stepped surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisen Toldin, Francesco; Tröndle, Matthias; Dietrich, S.

    2015-06-01

    Recent experimental realizations of the critical Casimir effect have been implemented by monitoring colloidal particles immersed in a binary liquid mixture near demixing and exposed to a chemically structured substrate. In particular, critical Casimir forces have been measured for surfaces consisting of stripes with periodically alternating adsorption preferences, forming chemical steps between them. Motivated by these experiments, we analyze the contribution of such chemical steps to the critical Casimir force for the film geometry and within the Ising universality class. By means of Monte Carlo simulations, mean-field theory and finite-size scaling analysis we determine the universal scaling function associated with the contribution to the critical Casimir force due to individual, isolated chemical steps facing a surface with homogeneous adsorption preference or with Dirichlet boundary condition. In line with previous findings, these results allow one to compute the critical Casimir force for the film geometry and in the presence of arbitrarily shaped, but wide stripes. In this latter limit the force decomposes into a sum of the contributions due to the two homogeneous parts of the surface and due to the chemical steps between the stripes. We assess this decomposition by comparing the resulting sum with actual simulation data for the critical Casimir force in the presence of a chemically striped substrate.

  13. ISHHC XIII International Symposium on the Relations betweenHomogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Somorjai , G.A.

    2007-06-11

    The International Symposium on Relations between Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysis (ISHHC) has a long and distinguished history. Since 1974, in Brussels, this event has been held in Lyon, France (1977), Groeningen, The Netherlands (1981); Asilomar, California (1983); Novosibirsk, Russia (1986); Pisa, Italy (1989); Tokyo, Japan (1992); Balatonfuered, Hungary (1995); Southampton, United Kingdom (1999); Lyon, France (2001); Evanston, Illinois (2001) and Florence, Italy (2005). The aim of this international conference in Berkeley is to bring together practitioners in the three fields of catalysis, heterogeneous, homogeneous and enzyme, which utilize mostly nanosize particles. Recent advances in instrumentation, synthesis and reaction studies permit the nanoscale characterization of the catalyst systems, often for the same reaction, under similar experimental conditions. It is hoped that this circumstance will permit the development of correlations of these three different fields of catalysis on the molecular level. To further this goal we aim to uncover and focus on common concepts that emerge from nanoscale studies of structures and dynamics of the three types of catalysts. Another area of focus that will be addressed is the impact on and correlation of nanosciences with catalysis. There is information on the electronic and atomic structures of nanoparticles and their dynamics that should have importance in catalyst design and catalytic activity and selectivity.

  14. Nutrient enrichment homogenizes lake benthic assemblages at local and regional scales.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Ian; Jackson, Andrew L; Pusch, Martin T; Irvine, Kenneth

    2009-12-01

    The compositional heterogeneity of biotic assemblages among sites, or beta-diversity, regulates the relationship between local and regional species diversity across scales. Recent work has suggested that increased harshness of environmental conditions tends to reduce beta-diversity by decreasing the importance of stochastic processes in structuring assemblages. We investigated the effect of nutrient enrichment on the compositional heterogeneity of lake benthic invertebrate assemblages in Ireland at both local (within-lake) and regional (among-lake) scales. At local scales, we found that the compositional heterogeneity of benthic assemblages was related inversely to the extent of nutrient enrichment (as indicated by measurements of water column total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and chlorophyll a), after effects of lake morphology (i.e., surface area, connectivity, and depth of sampling) and alkalinity were accounted for. At regional scales, we found that nutrient-rich lakes had significantly more homogenous benthic assemblages than nutrient-poor lakes, over and above the effect of alkalinity and across a similar range of lake morphologies. These findings have profound implications for global aquatic biodiversity, as the homogenization of benthic assemblages at both local and regional scales may have important and unpredictable effects on whole aquatic ecosystems, with potentially considerable ecological and evolutionary consequences. PMID:20120814

  15. Drivers of observed biotic homogenization in pine barrens of central Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Li, Daijiang; Waller, Donald

    2015-04-01

    Fire suppression throughout the 20th century greatly altered plant communities in fire-dominated systems across North America. Our ability to assess these effects over the long-term, however, is handicapped by the paucity of baseline data. Here, we used detailed baseline data from the 1950s to track changes in the over- and understory composition of pine-barrens vegetation growing on sandy, glacial lake-bed sediments in central Wisconsin. We expected fire suppression to favor succession to closed-canopy conditions, leading to decreases in shade-intolerant and fire-adapted species and consequent reductions in alpha and gamma diversity. We also expected beta diversity to decline due to increases in shade-tolerant, fire-sensitive, and exotic species. In fact, fire suppression has greatly altered the structure and composition of these pine-barrens communities over the past 54 years. Woody, wind-pollinated, and shade-tolerant species all increased in richness and abundance, as expected, with succession following fire suppression. Contrary to expectations, local and regional species richness increased by 12% and 26%, respectively, while Shannon beta diversity declined 24.1%. Increases in canopy coverage and number of native species appear to have driven this biotic homogenization. In contrast, increases in exotic species in our study did not promote biotic homogenization, reflecting their relative rarity across sites. Our findings highlight the key role fire plays in shaping the assembly of these pine-barrens communities. PMID:26230023

  16. SEM-EBSD based Realistic Modeling and Crystallographic Homogenization FE Analyses of LDH Formability Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuramae, Hiroyuki; Ngoc Tam, Nguyen; Nakamura, Yasunori; Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Morimoto, Hideo; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2007-05-01

    Homogenization algorithm is introduced to the elastic/crystalline viscoplastic finite element (FE) procedure to develop multi-scale analysis code to predict the formability of sheet metal in macro scale, and simultaneously the crystal texture and hardening evolutions in micro scale. The isotropic and kinematical hardening lows are employed in the crystalline plasticity constitutive equation. For the multi-scale structure, two scales are considered. One is a microscopic polycrystal structure and the other a macroscopic elastic plastic continuum. We measure crystal morphologies by using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) with electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD), and define a three dimensional representative volume element (RVE) of micro ploycrystal structure, which satisfy the periodicity condition of crystal orientation distribution. Since nonlinear multi-scale FE analysis requires large computation time, development of parallel computing technique is needed. To realize the parallel analysis on PC cluster system, the dynamic explicit FE formulations are employed. Applying the domain partitioning technique to FE mesh of macro continuum, homogenized stresses based on micro crystal structures are computed in parallel without solving simultaneous linear equation. The parallel FEM code is applied to simulate the limit dome height (LDH) test problem and hemispherical cup deep drawing problem of aluminum alloy AL6022, mild steel DQSK, high strength steel HSLA, and dual phase steel DP600 sheet metals. The localized distribution of thickness strain and the texture evolution are obtained.

  17. On the selective photoexcitation of molecules within the homogeneous width of optical lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izmailov, Azad Ch.; Mahmoudi, Mohammad; Tajalli, Habib

    2000-03-01

    We investigate the photoexcitation of molecules of a gas, caused by the change of the state of the coherent population trapping of the open Λ-system of quantum levels at the sharp change of phase and amplitude parameters of the two-frequency laser pumping. Analysis is carried out both on the basis of the Schrödinger equation and in the formalism of the density matrix of molecules in the case of homogeneously broadened spectral lines. The maximum photoexcitation takes place at the two-quantum resonance between lower long-lived states of the Λ-system. It is shown, that the narrow, high-contrast peak of the photoexcitation appears on the comparatively low and wide background, caused by collisions of molecules. Conditions are determined, when the influence of this background is minimum and the spectral width of the photoexcitation peak is much less than the homogeneous widths of the optical lines of resonance transitions in the Λ-system. Such photoexcitation may be used in the technology of isotope (isomer) separation, selective photochemistry and photobiology even at essential overlap of optical spectra of different molecules.

  18. Streamlines in stationary homogeneous isotropic turbulence and fractal-generated turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschung, J.; Peters, N.; Laizet, S.; Vassilicos, J. C.

    2016-04-01

    We compare streamline statistics in stationary homogeneous isotropic turbulence and in turbulence generated by a fractal square grid. We examine streamline segments characterised by the velocity difference {{Δ }}u and the distance l between extremum points. We find close agreement between the stationary homogeneous isotropic turbulence and the decay region of the fractal-generated turbulence as well as the production region of the fractal flow for small segments. The statistics of larger segments are very similar for the isotropic turbulence and the decay region, but differ for the production region. Specifically, we examine the first, second and third conditional mean < {[{{Δ }}u]}n| l> . Noticeably, non-vanishing < {[{{Δ }}u]}n| l> for n=1,3 are due to an asymmetry of positive and negative segments, i.e. those for which {{Δ }}u\\gt 0 and {{Δ }}u\\lt 0, respectively. This asymmetry is not only kinematic, but is also due to dissipative effects and therefore < {[{{Δ }}u]}n| l> contains cascade information.

  19. Propagation of SH waves in a regular non-homogeneous monoclinic crustal layer lying over a non-homogeneous semi-infinite medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethi, Munish; Sharma, Arvind; Sharma, Vishal; Sharma, Anupamdeep

    2016-08-01

    This study discusses the dispersion equation for SH waves in a non-homogeneous monoclinic layer over a semi-infinite isotropic medium. The wave velocity equation has been obtained. In the isotropic case, when the non-homogeneity is absent, the dispersion equation reduces to a standard SH wave equation. The dispersion curves are depicted by means of graphs for different values of non-homogeneity parameters for the layer and semi-infinite medium.

  20. A priori evaluation of the Pantano and Sarkar model in compressible homogeneous shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlifi, Hechmi; Abdallah, J.; Aïcha, H.; Taïeb, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a Reynolds stress closure, including the Pantano and Sarkar model of the mean part of the pressure-strain correlation is used for the computation of compressible homogeneous at high-speed shear flow. Several studies concerning the compressible homogeneous shear flow show that the changes of the turbulence structures are principally due to the structural compressibility effects which significantly affect the pressure field and then the pressure-strain correlation. Eventually, this term appears as the main term responsible for the changes in the magnitude of the Reynolds stress anisotropies. The structure of the gradient Mach number is similar to that of turbulence, therefore this parameter may be appropriate to study the changes in turbulence structures that arise from structural compressibility effects. Thus, the incompressible model of the pressure strain correlation and its corrected form by using the turbulent Mach turbulent only, fail to correctly evaluate the compressibility effects at high shear flow. An extension of the widely used incompressible Launder, Reece and Rodi model on compressible homogeneous shear flow is the major aim of the present work. From this extension, the standard coefficients C become a function of the extra compressibility parameters (the turbulent Mach number M and the gradient Mach number M) through the Pantano and Sarkar model. Application of the model on compressible homogeneous shear flow by considering various initial conditions shows reasonable agreement with the DNS results of Simone et al. and Sarkar. The observed trend of the dramatic increase in the normal Reynolds stress anisotropies, the significant decrease in the Reynolds shear stress anisotropy and the increase of the turbulent kinetic energy amplification rate with increasing the gradient Mach number are well predicted by the model. The ability of the model to predict the equilibrium states for the flow in cases A to A from DNS results of Sarkar is