Science.gov

Sample records for honeycomb sandwich structures

  1. Debris Impact on CFRP-AL Honeycomb Sandwich Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashide, Masumi; Nagao, Yosuke; Kibe, Seishiro; Francesconi, Alessandro; Paverin, Daniele

    In order to do risk assessments of debris impacts on unmanned spacecraft, it is necessary to investigate damage of honeycomb sandwich structures caused by debris impacts. However, the study of the honeycomb sandwich panel with CFRP face sheets has not been sufficiently performed. The purpose of this study is to investigate hypervelocity impact phenomena of CFRP-AL honeycomb sandwich structure. Hypervelocity impact tests were performed with a two-stage light gas gun at University of Padova. Three kinds of CFRP-AL honeycomb sandwich panels which are frequently used as a material of a spacecraft structure were tested. The cell size and the core thickness were varied. Aluminum spheres, 0.8 mm in diameter, were used as projectiles. The tests were performed at a velocity range between 2 and 5 km/sec. After the tests, the projectiles perforated all targets. The perforation holes on the panels were measured, and ultrasonic inspection was performed. The area of the perforation holes of the panel were increased with the impact velocity. The core size of the honeycomb core did not influence the relationship between the hole and the impact velocity. Impacts of the projectile on the foil of honeycomb cell caused heavy damage to a face sheet of the opposite side of the impact surface.

  2. Detection of entrapped moisture in honeycomb sandwich structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallmark, W. B.

    1967-01-01

    Thermal neutron moisture detection system detects entrapped moisture in intercellular areas of bonded honeycomb sandwich structures. A radium/beryllium fast neutron source bombards a specimen. The emitted thermal neutrons from the target nucleus are detected and counted by a boron trifluoride thermal neutron detector.

  3. Experimental study of acoustical characteristics of honeycomb sandwich structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Portia Renee

    Loss factor measurements were performed on sandwich panels to determine the effects of different skin and core materials on the acoustical properties. Results revealed inserting a viscoelastic material in the core's mid-plane resulted in the highest loss factor. Panels constructed with carbon-fiber skins exhibited larger loss factors than glass-fiber skins. Panels designed to achieve subsonic wave speed did not show a significant increase in loss factor above the coincidence frequency. The para-aramid core had a larger loss factor value than the meta-aramid core. Acoustic absorption coefficients were measured for honeycomb sandwiches designed to incorporate multiple sound-absorbing devices, including Helmholtz resonators and porous absorbers. The structures consisted of conventional honeycomb cores filled with closed-cell polyurethane foams of various densities and covered with perforated composite facesheets. Honeycomb cores filled with higher density foam resulted in higher absorption coefficients over the frequency range of 50 -- 1250 Hz. However, this trend was not observed at frequencies greater than 1250 Hz, where the honeycomb filled with the highest density foam yielded the lowest absorption coefficient among samples with foam-filled cores. The energy-recycling semi-active vibration suppression method (ERSA) was employed to determine the relationship between vibration suppression and acoustic damping for a honeycomb sandwich panel. Results indicated the ERSA method simultaneously reduced the sound transmitted through the panel and the panel vibration. The largest reduction in sound transmitted through the panel was 14.3% when the vibrations of the panel were reduced by 7.3%. The influence of different design parameters, such as core density, core material, and cell size on wave speeds of honeycomb sandwich structures was experimentally analyzed. Bending and shear wave speeds were measured and related to the transmission loss performance for various material

  4. Water intrusion in thin-skinned composite honeycomb sandwich structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Wade C.; O'Brien, T. Kevin

    1988-01-01

    Thin-skinned composite honeycomb sandwich structures from the trailing edge of the U.S. Army's Apache and Chinook helicopters have been tested to ascertain their susceptibility to water intrusion as well as such intrusions' effects on impact damage and cyclic loading. Minimum-impact and fatigue conditions were determined which would create microcracks sufficiently large to allow the passage of water through the skins; damage sufficient for this to occur was for some skins undetectable under a 40X-magnification optical microscope. Flow rate was a function of moisture content, damage, applied strain, and pressure differences.

  5. Characterizing Facesheet/Core Disbonding in Honeycomb Core Sandwich Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinker, Martin; Ratcliffe, James G.; Adams, Daniel O.; Krueger, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Results are presented from an experimental investigation into facesheet core disbonding in carbon fiber reinforced plastic/Nomex honeycomb sandwich structures using a Single Cantilever Beam test. Specimens with three, six and twelve-ply facesheets were tested. Specimens with different honeycomb cores consisting of four different cell sizes were also tested, in addition to specimens with three different widths. Three different data reduction methods were employed for computing apparent fracture toughness values from the test data, namely an area method, a compliance calibration technique and a modified beam theory method. The compliance calibration and modified beam theory approaches yielded comparable apparent fracture toughness values, which were generally lower than those computed using the area method. Disbonding in the three-ply facesheet specimens took place at the facesheet/core interface and yielded the lowest apparent fracture toughness values. Disbonding in the six and twelve-ply facesheet specimens took place within the core, near to the facesheet/core interface. Specimen width was not found to have a significant effect on apparent fracture toughness. The amount of scatter in the apparent fracture toughness data was found to increase with honeycomb core cell size.

  6. Piezoelectrically-induced guided wave propagation for health monitoring of honeycomb sandwich structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Fei

    Honeycomb sandwich structures have been widely used in marine and aerospace applications due to their high strength/stiffness-to-weight ratio. However, an excessive load or repeated loading in the core tends to induce debonding along the skin-core interface, threatening the integrity and safety of the whole structure. This dissertation focuses on development of guided wave strategies for health monitoring of honeycomb sandwich structures, based on a piezoelectric actuator/sensor network. The honeycomb sandwich panels, which are composed of aluminum alloy (T6061) skins and hexagonal-celled Nomex core, are specifically considered in the study. First, elastic wave propagation mechanism in honeycomb sandwich structures is numerically and experimentally investigated, based on a piezoelectric actuator/sensor system. Influences of cell geometry parameters upon wave propagation are also discussed. Some wave propagation characteristics, such as wave group velocity dispersion relation and mode tuning capabilities, in the honeycomb composite panels are experimentally characterized. Secondly, effects of skin-core debonding upon the leaky guided wave propagation in honeycomb sandwich structures are studied by the finite element simulation. An appropriate signal difference coefficient is defined to represent the differential features caused by debonding. By means of probability analysis of differential features of transmitted guided waves and the image fusion, the final image of the structure is constructed with improved detection precision. A multilevel sensor network strategy is proposed to detect multiple debondings in the honeycomb sandwich structure. Thirdly, an analytical model considering coupled piezo-elastodynamics is developed to quantitatively describe dynamic load transfer between a surface-bonded piezoelectric wafer actuator and a prestressed plate. The finite element method is used to evaluate the accuracy of the analytical prediction. Effects of prestresses on the

  7. Ambient temperature fatigue tests of elements of an actively cooled honeycomb sandwich structural panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, E. L.; Elber, W.

    1977-01-01

    Elements of an actively cooled structural panel for a hypersonic aircraft have been investigated for fatigue characteristics. The study involved a bonded honeycomb sandwich panel with d-shaped coolant tubes. The curved portion of these tubes was embedded in the honeycomb, and the flat portion was bonded or soldered to the inner surface of the outer skin. The elements examined were two plain skin specimens (aluminum alloy); two specimens with skins attached to manifolds and tubes (one specimen was bonded, the other soldered); and a specimen representative of a corner section of the complete cooled sandwich. Sinusoidal loads were applied to all specimens. The honeycomb sandwich specimen was loaded in both tension and compression; the other specimens were loaded in tension only. The cooling tubes were pressurized with oil throughout the fatigue tests. The most significant results of these tests follow: All specimens exceeded their design life of 20,000 cycles without damage. Crack growth rates obtained in the plain skin specimens were used to determine the crack growth characteristics of aluminum alloy. Cracks in skins either bonded or soldered to cooling tubes propagated past the tubes without penetration. The coolant tubes served as crack arresters and temporarily stopped crack growth when a crack reached a tube-skin interface. The honeycomb core demonstrated that it could contain leakage from a tube.

  8. High-Fidelity Modeling for Health Monitoring in Honeycomb Sandwich Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luchinsky, Dimitry G.; Hafiychuk, Vasyl; Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Tyson, Richard W.; Walker, James L.; Miller, Jimmy L.

    2011-01-01

    High-Fidelity Model of the sandwich composite structure with real geometry is reported. The model includes two composite facesheets, honeycomb core, piezoelectric actuator/sensors, adhesive layers, and the impactor. The novel feature of the model is that it includes modeling of the impact and wave propagation in the structure before and after the impact. Results of modeling of the wave propagation, impact, and damage detection in sandwich honeycomb plates using piezoelectric actuator/sensor scheme are reported. The results of the simulations are compared with the experimental results. It is shown that the model is suitable for analysis of the physics of failure due to the impact and for testing structural health monitoring schemes based on guided wave propagation.

  9. Development of beryllium honeycomb sandwich composite for structural and other related applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogan, J. W.; Grant, L. A.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating large beryllium honeycomb panels was demonstrated. Both flat and curved sandwich structures were manufactured using practical, braze bonding techniques. The processes developed prove that metallurgically assembled beryllium honeycomb panels show decided potential where rigid, lightweight structures are required. Three panels, each 10 square feet in surface area, were fabricated, and radiographically inspected to determine integrity. This examination revealed a 97 percent braze in the final panel. It is believed that ceramic dies for forming and brazing would facilitate the fabrication techniques for higher production rates. Ceramic dies would yield a lower thermal gradient in the panel during the braze cycle. This would eliminate the small amount of face sheet wrinkling present in the panels. Hot forming the various panel components demonstrated efficient manufacturing techniques for scaling up and producing large numbers of hot formed beryllium components and panels. The beryllium honeycomb panel demonstrated very good vibrational loading characteristics under test with desirable damping characteristics.

  10. Shape-variable sandwich structure with SMA honeycomb core and CFRP skins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabe, Yoji; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2009-03-01

    The authors proposed a sandwich structure that consists of a shape memory alloy (SMA) honeycomb core and carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) skins as a lightweight geometric-variable structure. This method has the better ability to bend skins with high in-plane stiffness, because the SMA honeycomb core generates a recovery-shear-force and applies the force uniformly to the skins. Hence, although this sandwich beam is really lightweight and has a moderate specific bending stiffness, the beam can be bent by raising the temperature. The honeycomb core was made of thin Ti-Ni SMA foils, and skins were thin unidirectional CFRP laminates. Pre-shear-strain was applied to the SMA honeycomb core, and the both ends of the two skins were fixed. When the beam was heated, it was bent upward taking the form of a sigmoid curve. Furthermore, it was verified that the beam was able to generate the sufficient actuation force. Then, when the specimen was cooled down to the room temperature, the specimen returned to the straight beam again. Hence the twoway actuation is possible by heating and cooling. Also the mechanism of this bending deformation could be clarified by a numerical simulation using the finite element method.

  11. Measuring Core/Facesheet Bond Toughness in Honeycomb Sandwich Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, A. T.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines two test methods to evaluate the peel toughness of the skin to core debond of sandwich panels. The methods tested were the climbing drum (CD) peel test and the double cantilever beam (DCB) test. While the CD peel test is only intended for qualitative measurements, it is shown in this study that qualitative measurements can be performed and compare well with DCB test data. It is also shown that artificially stiffening the facesheets of a DCB specimen can cause the test to behave more like a flatwise tensile test than a peel test.

  12. Evaluation of the in-service performance behavior of honeycomb composite sandwich structures

    SciTech Connect

    Shafizadeh, J.E.; Seferis, J.C.; Chesmar, E.F.; Geyer, R.

    1999-12-01

    When honeycomb composite structures are fabricated for the aerospace industry, they are designed to be closed to their operating environment for the life of the composite structure. However, once in service, this design can break down. Damage can set in motion a chain reaction of events that will ultimately degrade the mechanical integrity of the composite structure. Through thermographic analysis, the tendency of honeycomb composite structures to absorb and retain water was investigated, and an attempt was made to quantify the extent of water ingression in the Boeing 767 aircraft. Through thermographic analysis, the exterior honeycomb composite structures were found to contain less than 50 kg of water per plane. On average, over 90% of the water found on an aircraft was contained in five problematic parts, which included the outboard flap wedge, the nose landing gear doors, the main landing gear doors, the fixed upper wing panels, and the escape slide door. Kevlar lamina induced microcracking, skin porosity problems, and cracked potting compound were the root causes of water ingression and migration in these structures. Ultimately, this research will aid in the fundamental understanding and design of future honeycomb composite sandwich structures.

  13. Application of Air Coupled Acoustic Thermography (ACAT) for Inspection of Honeycomb Sandwich Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winfree, William P.; Zalameda, Joseph N.; Pergantis, Charles; Flanagan, David; Deschepper, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The application of a noncontact air coupled acoustic heating technique is investigated for the inspection of advanced honeycomb composite structures. A weakness in the out of plane stiffness of the structure, caused by a delamination or core damage, allows for the coupling of acoustic energy and thus this area will have a higher temperature than the surrounding area. Air coupled acoustic thermography (ACAT) measurements were made on composite sandwich structures with damage and were compared to conventional flash thermography. A vibrating plate model is presented to predict the optimal acoustic source frequency. Improvements to the measurement technique are also discussed.

  14. A ballistic limit equation for hypervelocity impacts on composite honeycomb sandwich panel satellite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, S.; Schaefer, F.; Destefanis, R.; Lambert, M.

    During a recent experimental test campaign performed in the framework of ESA Contract 16721, the ballistic performance of multiple satellite-representative Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP)/Aluminium honeycomb sandwich panel structural configurations (GOCE, Radarsat-2, Herschel/Planck, BeppoSax) was investigated using the two-stage light-gas guns at EMI. The experimental results were used to develop and validate a new empirical Ballistic Limit Equation (BLE), which was derived from an existing Whipple-shield BLE. This new BLE provided a good level of accuracy in predicting the ballistic performance of stand-alone sandwich panel structures. Additionally, the equation is capable of predicting the ballistic limit of a thin Al plate located at a standoff behind the sandwich panel structure. This thin plate is the representative of internal satellite systems, e.g. an Al electronic box cover, a wall of a metallic vessel, etc. Good agreement was achieved with both the experimental test campaign results and additional test data from the literature for the vast majority of set-ups investigated. For some experiments, the ballistic limit was conservatively predicted, a result attributed to shortcomings in correctly accounting for the presence of high surface density multi-layer insulation on the outer facesheet. Four existing BLEs commonly applied for application with stand-alone sandwich panels were reviewed using the new impact test data. It was found that a number of these common approaches provided non-conservative predictions for sandwich panels with CFRP facesheets.

  15. High heat flux actively cooled honeycomb sandwich structural panel for a hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, L. C.; Pagel, L. L.

    1978-01-01

    The results of a program to design and fabricate an unshielded actively cooled structural panel for a hypersonic aircraft are presented. The design is an all-aluminum honeycomb sandwich with embedded cooling passages soldered to the inside of the outer moldline skin. The overall finding is that an actively cooled structure appears feasible for application on a hypersonic aircraft, but the fabrication process is complex and some material and manufacturing technology developments are required. Results from the program are summarized and supporting details are presented.

  16. Mechanical analysis of confectioning flaw of refractory alloy honeycomb sandwich structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaodong; Kong, Xianghao; Shi, Liping; Li, Mingwei

    2009-03-01

    Thermal protection system is one of the key technology of reusable launch vehicle (RLV). After C/C and ceramic-matrix composite used in space orbiter, one new-typed thermal protection systems (TPS)-ARMOR TPS is coming forth. ARMOR TPS is means adaptable, robust, metallic, operable, reusable TPS. The ARMOR TPS has many advantages, for example: fixing easily, longer life, good properties, short time of maintenance and service. The ARMOR TPS is one of important candidate structure of RLV. ARMOR thermal protection system in foreign countries for reusable launch vehicle is used instead of the traditional ceramic-matrix composite thermal protection system and C/C thermal protection system. Also the constituent feature of ARMOR thermal protection system is much better than the traditional TPS. In comparison with traditional TPS, the ARMOR TPS will be the best selection for all kinds of RLV. So the ARMOR thermal protection system will be used in aviation and spaceflight field more and more widely because of its much better performance. ARMOR TPS panel is above the whole ARMOR TPS, and the metal honeycomb sandwich structure is the surface of the ARMOR TPS panel. So the metal honeycomb sandwich structure plays an important role in the ARMOR TPS, while it bears the flight dynamic pressure and stands against the flight dynamic calefaction. The metal honeycomb sandwich structure is made using the technique of the whole braze welding. In the course of the vacuum high temperature braze welding, its surface will appear concave. The reasons which lead to the shortage are summarized and discussed. The difference of thermal expansion coefficient and pressure between the core and the panels may be the chief reasons. This paper will analyze the mechanics behavior of metal honeycomb sandwich structure in the course of the vacuum high temperature braze welding, then make sure the reasons and get a way to solve it. Haynes214 is a good material of face sheet at present. γ - TiAl and

  17. Vibration and acoustic properties of honeycomb sandwich structures subject to variable incident plane-wave angle pressure loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jiaxue

    Honeycomb structures are widely used in many areas for their material characteristics such as high strength-to-weight ratio, stiffness-to-weight, sound transmission, and other properties. Honeycomb structures are generally constructed from periodically spaced tessellations of unit cells. It can be shown that the effective stiffness and mass properties of honeycomb are controlled by the local geometry and wall thickness of the particular unit cells used. Of particular interest are regular hexagonal (6-sided) honeycomb unit cell geometries which exhibit positive effective Poisson's ratio, and modified 6-sided auxetic honeycomb unit cells with Poisson's ratio which is effectively negative; a property not found in natural materials. One important honeycomb meta-structure is sandwich composites designed with a honeycomb core bonded between two panel layers. By changing the geometry of the repetitive unit cell, and overall depth and material properties of the honeycomb core, sandwich panels with different vibration and acoustic properties can be designed to shift resonant frequencies and improve intensity and Sound Transmission Loss (STL). In the present work, a honeycomb finite element model based on beam elements is programmed in MATLAB and verified with the commercial finite element software ABAQUS for frequency extraction and direct frequency response analysis. The MATLAB program was used to study the vibration and acoustic properties of different kinds of honeycomb sandwich panels undergoing in-plane loading with different incident pressure wave angles and frequency. Results for the root mean square intensity IRMS based on normal velocity on the transmitted side of the panel measure vibration magnitude are reported for frequencies between 0 and 1000 Hz. The relationship between the sound transmission loss computed with ABAQUS and the inverse of the intensity of surface velocity is established. In the present work it is demonstrated that the general trend between the

  18. Mode I Toughness Measurements of Core/Facesheet Bonds in Honeycomb Sandwich Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, Alan T.; Ratcliffe, James G.

    2006-01-01

    Composite sandwich structures will be used in many future applications in aerospace, marine and offshore industries due to the fact that the strength and stiffness to mass ratios surpass any other structural type. Sandwich structure also offers advantages over traditional stiffened panels such as ease of manufacturing and repair. During the last three decades, sandwich structure has been used extensively for secondary structure in aircraft (fuselage floors, rudders and radome structure). Sandwich structure is also used as primary structure in rotorcraft, the most common example being the trailing edge of rotor blades. As with other types of composite construction, sandwich structure exhibits several types of failure mode such as facesheet wrinkling, core crushing and sandwich buckling. Facesheet/core debonding has also been observed in the marine and aerospace industry. During this failure mode, peel stresses applied to an existing facesheet/core debond or an interface low in toughness, results in the facesheet being peeled from the core material, possibly leading to a significant loss in structural integrity of the sandwich panel. In an incident during a test on a liquid hydrogen fuel tank of the X-33 prototype vehicle, the outer graphite/epoxy facesheet and honeycomb core became debonded from the inner facesheet along significant areas, leading to failure of the tank. As a consequence of the accident; significant efforts were made to characterize the toughness of the facesheet/core bond. Currently, the only standardized method available for assessing the quality of the facesheet/core interface is the climbing drum peel test (ASTM D1781). During this test a sandwich beam is removed from a panel and the lip of one of the facesheets is attached to a drum, as shown in Fig. 1. The drum is then rotated along the sandwich beam, causing the facesheet to peel from the core. This method has two major drawbacks. First, it is not possible to obtain quantitative fracture data

  19. Design and fabrication of a radiative actively cooled honeycomb sandwich structural panel for a hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, D. A.; Pagel, L. L.; Schaeffer, D. M.

    1978-01-01

    The panel assembly consisted of an external thermal protection system (metallic heat shields and insulation blankets) and an aluminum honeycomb structure. The structure was cooled to temperature 442K (300 F) by circulating a 60/40 mass solution of ethylene glycol and water through dee shaped coolant tubes nested in the honeycomb and adhesively bonded to the outer skin. Rene'41 heat shields were designed to sustain 5000 cycles of a uniform pressure of + or - 6.89kPa (+ or - 1.0 psi) and aerodynamic heating conditions equivalent to 136 kW sq m (12 Btu sq ft sec) to a 422K (300 F) surface temperature. High temperature flexible insulation blankets were encased in stainless steel foil to protect them from moisture and other potential contaminates. The aluminum actively cooled honeycomb sandwich structural panel was designed to sustain 5000 cycles of cyclic in-plane loading of + or - 210 kN/m (+ or - 1200 lbf/in.) combined with a uniform panel pressure of + or - 6.89 kPa (?1.0 psi).

  20. A Damage Tolerance Comparison of Composite Hat-Stiffened and Honeycomb Sandwich Structure for Launch Vehicle Interstage Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, A. T.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a direct comparison of the compression-after-impact (CAI) strength of impact-damaged, hat-stiffened and honeycomb sandwich structure for launch vehicle use was made. The specimens used consisted of small substructure designed to carry a line load of approx..3,000 lb/in. Damage was inflicted upon the specimens via drop weight impact. Infrared thermography was used to examine the extent of planar damage in the specimens. The specimens were prepared for compression testing to obtain residual compression strength versus damage severity curves. Results show that when weight of the structure is factored in, both types of structure had about the same CAI strength for a given damage level. The main difference was that the hat-stiffened specimens exhibited a multiphase failure whereas the honeycomb sandwich structure failed catastrophically.

  1. Guided wave propagation in a honeycomb composite sandwich structure in presence of a high density core.

    PubMed

    Sikdar, Shirsendu; Banerjee, Sauvik

    2016-09-01

    A coordinated theoretical, numerical and experimental study is carried out in an effort to interpret the characteristics of propagating guided Lamb wave modes in presence of a high-density (HD) core region in a honeycomb composite sandwich structure (HCSS). Initially, a two-dimensional (2D) semi-analytical model based on the global matrix method is used to study the response and dispersion characteristics of the HCSS with a soft core. Due to the complex structural characteristics, the study of guided wave (GW) propagation in HCSS with HD-core region inherently poses many challenges. Therefore, a numerical simulation of GW propagation in the HCSS with and without the HD-core region is carried out, using surface-bonded piezoelectric wafer transducer (PWT) network. From the numerical results, it is observed that the presence of HD-core significantly decreases both the group velocity and the amplitude of the received GW signal. Laboratory experiments are then conducted in order to verify the theoretical and numerical results. A good agreement between the theoretical, numerical and experimental results is observed in all the cases studied. An extensive parametric study is also carried out for a range of HD-core sizes and densities in order to study the effect due to the change in size and density of the HD zone on the characteristics of propagating GW modes. It is found that the amplitudes and group velocities of the GW modes decrease with the increase in HD-core width and density. PMID:27290650

  2. Resonant Transmission of Air-Coupled Ultrasound Through Metallic Inserts in Honeycomb Sandwich Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, J. J.; Dayal, V.; Barnard, D. J.; Hsu, D. K.

    2005-04-01

    Metallic inserts are embedded into composite honeycomb sandwiches as hard points for mechanical connections. Air-coupled ultrasound can be used for detecting disbonds between the insert and the facesheet. It was discovered in such inspections that a surprisingly large amplitude could be transmitted through thick metallic inserts (e.g. 0.75″ thick and 1.5″ diameter), whereas a thin plate of the same material will transmit a much weaker signal. This paper reports an experimental and analytic study of the geometrical effect of inserts on transmitted UT signals. Modal analyses of cylindrical inserts were made using the finite element code ANSYS. The transmission efficiency or air-coupled ultrasound correlated well with the longitudinal vibration mode of the cylinder.

  3. Process Factors and Edgewise Compressive Properties of Scarf-repaired Honeycomb Sandwich Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sui; Guan, Zhidong; Guo, Xia; Sun, Kai; Kong, Jiaoyue; Yan, Dongxiu

    2014-10-01

    Bonded repairs were conducted on flat and edge-closed composite sandwich panels that had undergone different levels of initial damage, and edgewise compression behaviors of repaired panel were tested. Experimental results indicate that these repair techniques can restore the compression performance of damaged panels effectively. The repaired specimens recovered an average of over 83 % of their strength. A k-sample Anderson-Darling test was used to analyze the influence of various parameters, including curing temperature, curing pressure, and repair configurations. After a thorough comparison, it was concluded that a high-temperature, high-pressure treatment can improve the mechanical performance of repaired panels, but the improvement is closely related to the structural complexity of the repaired region. A double-side repair scheme could be used to prevent the degradation of mechanical performance caused by the additional bending moment. The conclusions drawn in the present study provide further insight into the mechanical performance of repaired sandwich panels under edgewise compressive loads. These data facilitate the improved design methodology on bonded repair of composite sandwich structures.

  4. Automated laser-based barely visible impact damage detection in honeycomb sandwich composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girolamo, D.; Girolamo, L.; Yuan, F. G.

    2015-03-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for detection and quantification of damage in composite materials is fundamental in the assessment of the overall structural integrity of modern aerospace systems. Conventional NDE systems have been extensively used to detect the location and size of damages by propagating ultrasonic waves normal to the surface. However they usually require physical contact with the structure and are time consuming and labor intensive. An automated, contactless laser ultrasonic imaging system for barely visible impact damage (BVID) detection in advanced composite structures has been developed to overcome these limitations. Lamb waves are generated by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, raster scanned by a set of galvano-mirrors over the damaged area. The out-of-plane vibrations are measured through a laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) that is stationary at a point on the corner of the grid. The ultrasonic wave field of the scanned area is reconstructed in polar coordinates and analyzed for high resolution characterization of impact damage in the composite honeycomb panel. Two methodologies are used for ultrasonic wave-field analysis: scattered wave field analysis (SWA) and standing wave energy analysis (SWEA) in the frequency domain. The SWA is employed for processing the wave field and estimate spatially dependent wavenumber values, related to discontinuities in the structural domain. The SWEA algorithm extracts standing waves trapped within damaged areas and, by studying the spectrum of the standing wave field, returns high fidelity damage imaging. While the SWA can be used to locate the impact damage in the honeycomb panel, the SWEA produces damage images in good agreement with X-ray computed tomographic (X-ray CT) scans. The results obtained prove that the laser-based nondestructive system is an effective alternative to overcome limitations of conventional NDI technologies.

  5. Automated laser-based barely visible impact damage detection in honeycomb sandwich composite structures

    SciTech Connect

    Girolamo, D. Yuan, F. G.; Girolamo, L.

    2015-03-31

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for detection and quantification of damage in composite materials is fundamental in the assessment of the overall structural integrity of modern aerospace systems. Conventional NDE systems have been extensively used to detect the location and size of damages by propagating ultrasonic waves normal to the surface. However they usually require physical contact with the structure and are time consuming and labor intensive. An automated, contactless laser ultrasonic imaging system for barely visible impact damage (BVID) detection in advanced composite structures has been developed to overcome these limitations. Lamb waves are generated by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, raster scanned by a set of galvano-mirrors over the damaged area. The out-of-plane vibrations are measured through a laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) that is stationary at a point on the corner of the grid. The ultrasonic wave field of the scanned area is reconstructed in polar coordinates and analyzed for high resolution characterization of impact damage in the composite honeycomb panel. Two methodologies are used for ultrasonic wave-field analysis: scattered wave field analysis (SWA) and standing wave energy analysis (SWEA) in the frequency domain. The SWA is employed for processing the wave field and estimate spatially dependent wavenumber values, related to discontinuities in the structural domain. The SWEA algorithm extracts standing waves trapped within damaged areas and, by studying the spectrum of the standing wave field, returns high fidelity damage imaging. While the SWA can be used to locate the impact damage in the honeycomb panel, the SWEA produces damage images in good agreement with X-ray computed tomographic (X-ray CT) scans. The results obtained prove that the laser-based nondestructive system is an effective alternative to overcome limitations of conventional NDI technologies.

  6. Evaluation of the Transient Liquid Phase (TLP) Bonding Process for Ti3Al-Based Honeycomb Core Sandwich Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, R. Keith; Hoffman, Eric K.

    1998-01-01

    The suitability of using transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding to fabricate honeycomb core sandwich panels with Ti-14Al-21Nb (wt%) titanium aluminide (T3Al) face sheets for high-temperature hypersonic vehicle applications was evaluated. Three titanium alloy honeycomb cores and one Ti3Al alloy honeycomb core were investigated. Edgewise compression (EWC) and flatwise tension (FWT) tests on honeycomb core sandwich specimens and tensile tests of the face sheet material were conducted at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1500 F. EWC tests indicated that the honeycomb cores and diffusion bonded joints were able to stabilize the face sheets up to and beyond the face sheet compressive yield strength for all temperatures investigated. The specimens with the T3Al honeycomb core produced the highest FWT strengths at temperatures above 1000 F. Tensile tests indicated that TLP processing conditions resulted in decreases in ductility of the Ti-14Al-21Nb face sheets. Microstructural examination showed that the side of the face sheets to which the filler metals had been applied was transformed from equiaxed alpha2 grains to coarse plates of alpha2 with intergranular Beta. Fractographic examination of the tensile specimens showed that this transformed region was dominated by brittle fracture.

  7. Bismaleimide resins for flame resistant honeycomb sandwich panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenzenberger, H. D.

    1978-01-01

    Bismaleimide resins are prime candidates for nonflammable aircraft interior panels. Three resin types with different structures and processing characteristics were formulated. Resin M 751 was used to fabricate 100 kg of glass fabric prepregs which were used for the preparation of face sheets for honeycomb sandwich panels. Prepreg characteristics and curing cycles for laminate fabrication are provided. In order to advance beyond the current solvent resin technology for fibre and fabric impregnation, a hot melt solvent-less resin system was prepared and characterized. Preliminary tests were performed to develop a wet bonding process for the fabrication of advanced sandwich honeycomb panels by use of polybismaleimide glass fabric face sheets and polybismaleimide Nomex honeycomb core. B-stage material was used for both the core and the face sheet, providing flatwise tensile properties equivalent to those obtained by the state-of-the-art 3-step process which includes an epoxy adhesive resin.

  8. Development of a portable mechanical hysteresis measurement and imaging system for impact characterization in honeycomb sandwich structures

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, Daniel J.; Hsu, David K.

    2011-06-23

    Honeycomb sandwich materials are commonly used for aero-structures, but because the outer skins are typically thin, 2-10 plys, the structures are susceptible to impact damage. NDI methods such as tap tests, bond testers and TTU ultrasound are successfully deployed to find impact damage, but identifying the type/degree of damage is troublesome. As the type/degree of impact damage guides decisions by the maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) community regarding repair, the ability to characterize impacts is of interest. Previous work demonstrated that additional impact characterization may be gleaned from hysteresis loop area, as determined from an out-of-plane load-vs-displacement plot, where this parameter shows a correlation with impact energy. This presentation reports on current work involving the development of a portable hysteresis measurement and imaging system based on an instrumented tapper. Data processing and analysis methods that allow production of the load/displacement data from a single accelerometer are discussed, with additional reporting of tests of software to automatically vary pixel size during scanning to decrease C-scans inspection time.

  9. Development of a Portable Mechanical Hysteresis Measurement and Imaging System for Impact Characterization in Honeycomb Sandwich Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, Daniel J.; Hsu, David K.

    2011-06-01

    Honeycomb sandwich materials are commonly used for aero-structures, but because the outer skins are typically thin, 2-10 plys, the structures are susceptible to impact damage. NDI methods such as tap tests, bond testers and TTU ultrasound are successfully deployed to find impact damage, but identifying the type/degree of damage is troublesome. As the type/degree of impact damage guides decisions by the maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) community regarding repair, the ability to characterize impacts is of interest. Previous work demonstrated that additional impact characterization may be gleaned from hysteresis loop area, as determined from an out-of-plane load-vs-displacement plot, where this parameter shows a correlation with impact energy. This presentation reports on current work involving the development of a portable hysteresis measurement and imaging system based on an instrumented tapper. Data processing and analysis methods that allow production of the load/displacement data from a single accelerometer are discussed, with additional reporting of tests of software to automatically vary pixel size during scanning to decrease C-scans inspection time.

  10. Fatigue and impact properties of metal honeycomb sandwich panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Guang ping; Lu, Jie; Liang, Jun; Chang, Zhong liang

    2008-11-01

    Honeycomb sandwich structures are significant to be used as applied to thermal protection system on reusable launch vehicle. In this paper the fatigue and impact properties of a novel metallic thermal protection material have been investigated and predicted at room temperature. A series of strength tests are carried out to obtain parameters firstly for further experiments. A set of tension-tension stress fatigue tests and impact tests based on split-Hopkinson pressure bar are carried out. Different high strain rate impact experiments are accomplished. The curves of dynamical stress, strain and strain rate are obtained. Also the cell units images after impact are presented. The results show the fatigue properties of honeycomb sandwich panels are comparatively better. And it has the advantages of anti-impact resistance and high, energy absorption capability.

  11. Design and fabrication of brazed Rene 41 honeycomb sandwich structural panels for advanced space transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, A. K.; Swegle, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    The design and fabrication of two large brazed Rene 41 honeycomb panels, the establishment of a test plan, the design and fabrication of a test fixture to subject the panels to cyclic thermal gradients and mechanical loads equivalent to those imposed on an advanced space transportation vehicle during its boost and entry trajectories are discussed. The panels will be supported at four points, creating three spans. The outer spans are 45.7 cm (18 in.) and the center span 76.2 cm (30 in). Specimen width is 30.5 cm (12 in.). The panels were primarily designed by boost conditions simulated by subjecting the panels to liquid nitrogen, 77K (-320 F) on one side and 455K (360 F) on the other side and by mechanically imposing loads representing vehicle fuel pressure loads. Entry conditions were simulated by radiant heating to 1034K (1400 F). The test program subjected the panels to 500 boost thermal conditions. Results are presented.

  12. Hypervelocity impact response of honeycomb sandwich panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonberg, William; Schäfer, Frank; Putzar, Robin

    2010-02-01

    Man-made orbital poses a serious threat to spacecraft that are launched to operate in Earth orbit because it can strike such spacecraft at very high velocities and consequently damage mission-critical systems. This paper describes the findings of a study whose objective was to develop a system of empirical equations that can be used to predict the trajectories and spread of the debris clouds that exit the rear facesheet following a high speed perforating impact of a honeycomb sandwich panel (HC/SP). These equations are based on a database containing the results of nearly 400 tests from 13 previously published papers and reports. Overall the correlation coefficient values for the various regression equations obtained are fairly reasonable, and range from near 60% to well above 90%. This indicates that the chosen forms of the equations are a good fit to the data, and that they are capable of picking up most of the variations in the data that result from changes in test conditions. These equations can now be used to estimate the amount of mass in a debris cloud if an HC/SP is perforated by a high speed impact, where this mass will travel, and what spacecraft components will be impacted by it. This information can then be fed into a risk assessment code to calculate the probability of spacecraft failure under a prescribed set of impact conditions.

  13. Microsandwich honeycomb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, T. Balakrishna; Wang, Taylor G.; Gibson, Lorna J.

    1989-01-01

    Microsandwich honeycombs are honeycombs in which the cell walls are themselves sandwich structures. This article develops the idea of microsandwich honeycombs, outlining their design principles, fabrication techniques and properties.

  14. Modal analysis and acoustic transmission through offset-core honeycomb sandwich panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, Adam Dustin

    The work presented in this thesis is motivated by an earlier research that showed that double, offset-core honeycomb sandwich panels increased thermal resistance and, hence, decreased heat transfer through the panels. This result lead to the hypothesis that these panels could be used for acoustic insulation. Using commercial finite element modeling software, COMSOL Multiphysics, the acoustical properties, specifically the transmission loss across a variety of offset-core honeycomb sandwich panels, is studied for the case of a plane acoustic wave impacting the panel at normal incidence. The transmission loss results are compared with those of single-core honeycomb panels with the same cell sizes. The fundamental frequencies of the panels are also computed in an attempt to better understand the vibrational modes of these particular sandwich-structured panels. To ensure that the finite element analysis software is adequate for the task at hand, two relevant benchmark problems are solved and compared with theory. Results from these benchmark results compared well to those obtained from theory. Transmission loss results from the offset-core honeycomb sandwich panels show increased transmission loss, especially for large cell honeycombs when compared to single-core honeycomb panels.

  15. Titanium honeycomb structure. [for supersonic aircraft wing structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. A.; Elrod, S. D.; Lovell, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    A brazed titanium honeycomb sandwich system for supersonic transport wing cover panels provides the most efficient structure spanwise, chordwise, and loadwise. Flutter testing shows that high wing stiffness is most efficient in a sandwich structure. This structure also provides good thermal insulation if liquid fuel is carried in direct contact with the wing structure in integral fuel tanks.

  16. Honeycomb-laminate composite structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilwee, W. J., Jr.; Parker, J. A. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A honeycomb-laminate composite structure was comprised of: (1) a cellular core of a polyquinoxaline foam in a honeycomb structure, and (2) a layer of a noncombustible fibrous material impregnated with a polyimide resin laminated on the cellular core. A process for producing the honeycomb-laminate composite structure and articles containing the honeycomb-laminate composite structure is described.

  17. Dispersion of Lamb waves in a honeycomb composite sandwich panel.

    PubMed

    Baid, Harsh; Schaal, Christoph; Samajder, Himadri; Mal, Ajit

    2015-02-01

    Composite materials are increasingly being used in advanced aircraft and aerospace structures. Despite their many advantages, composites are often susceptible to hidden damages that may occur during manufacturing and/or service of the structure. Therefore, safe operation of composite structures requires careful monitoring of the initiation and growth of such defects. Ultrasonic methods using guided waves offer a reliable and cost effective method for defects monitoring in advanced structures due to their long propagation range and their sensitivity to defects in their propagation path. In this paper, some of the useful properties of guided Lamb type waves are investigated, using analytical, numerical and experimental methods, in an effort to provide the knowledge base required for the development of viable structural health monitoring systems for composite structures. The laboratory experiments involve a pitch-catch method in which a pair of movable transducers is placed on the outside surface of the structure for generating and recording the wave signals. The specific cases considered include an aluminum plate, a woven composite laminate and an aluminum honeycomb sandwich panel. The agreement between experimental, numerical and theoretical results are shown to be excellent in certain frequency ranges, providing a guidance for the design of effective inspection systems. PMID:25287973

  18. Application of Wave Propagation and Vibration-based Structural Health Monitoring Techniques to Friction Stir Welded Plate and Sandwich Honeycomb Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundararaman, S.; White, J. R.; Adams, D. E.; Jata, K. V.

    2007-03-01

    Wave propagation and vibration-based structural health monitoring methodologies are presented to detect, locate and quantify dent/crack, thermal debond, and corrosion damage in a solid aluminum friction stir weld plate and a sandwich honeycomb thermal protection panel. A wave propagation based method can identify small defects because propagating waves typically consist of small wavelengths while a vibration-based scheme is better equipped to quantify damage over wide areas of large structures. Near-real time online diagnostics is achieved by using localized sensing (wave propagation) and distributed sensing (vibration-based) in an active measurement array. Sensor/actuator arrays have been developed to implement these techniques and portable health management systems have been developed based on the combination of damage detection algorithms, active sensing, and graphical user interfaces. Propagating waves are shown to have a heightened sensitivity to damage located at the anti-nodes of a friction stir wed plate forced by low frequency environmental vibrations. Measurement of the input forcing in the vibration-based method is shown to enable damage quantification.

  19. Analysis of an Aircraft Honeycomb Sandwich Panel with Circular Face Sheet/Core Disbond Subjected to Ground-Air Pressurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinker, Martin; Krueger, Ronald; Ratcliffe, James

    2013-01-01

    The ground-air pressurization of lightweight honeycomb sandwich structures caused by alternating pressure differences between the enclosed air within the honeycomb core and the ambient environment is a well-known and controllable loading condition of aerospace structures. However, initial face sheet/core disbonds intensify the face sheet peeling effect of the internal pressure load significantly and can decrease the reliability of the sandwich structure drastically. Within this paper, a numerical parameter study was carried out to investigate the criticality of initial disbonds in honeycomb sandwich structures under ground-air pressurization. A fracture mechanics approach was used to evaluate the loading at the disbond front. In this case, the strain energy release rate was computed via the Virtual Crack Closure Technique. Special attention was paid to the pressure-deformation coupling which can decrease the pressure load within the disbonded sandwich section significantly when the structure is highly deformed.

  20. Load-dependent Optimization of Honeycombs for Sandwich Components - New Possibilities by Using Additive Layer Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riss, Fabian; Schilp, Johannes; Reinhart, Gunther

    Due to their feasible geometric complexity, additive layer manufacturing (ALM) processes show a highpotential for the production of lightweight components.Therefore, ALM processes enable the realization of bionic-designedcomponents like honeycombs, which are optimized depending upon load and outer boundary conditions.This optimization is based on a closed-loop, three-steps methodology: At first, each honeycomb is conformed to the surface of the part. Secondly, the structure is optimizedfor lightweight design.It is possible to achieve a homogeneous stress distribution in the part by varying the wall thickness, honeycombdiameter and the amount of honeycombs, depending on the subjected stresses and strains. At last, the functional components like threads or bearing carriers are integrated directly into the honeycomb core.Using all these steps as an iterative process, it is possible to reduce the mass of sandwich components about 50 percent compared to conventional approaches.

  1. Non-destructive inspection of drilled holes in reinforced honeycomb sandwich panels using active thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usamentiaga, R.; Venegas, P.; Guerediaga, J.; Vega, L.; López, I.

    2012-11-01

    The aerospace industry is in constant need of ever-more efficient inspection methods for quality control. Product inspection is also essential to maintain the safe operation of aircraft components designed to perform for decades. This paper proposes a method for non-destructive inspection of drilled holes in reinforced honeycomb sandwich panels. Honeycomb sandwich panels are extensively employed in the aerospace industry due to their high strength and stiffness to weight ratios. In order to attach additional structures to them, panels are reinforced by filling honeycomb cells and drilling holes into the reinforced areas. The proposed procedure is designed to detect the position of the holes within the reinforced area and to provide a robust measurement of the distance between each hole and the boundary of the reinforced area. The result is a fast, safe and clean inspection method for drilled holes in reinforced honeycomb sandwich panels that can be used to robustly assess a possible displacement of the hole from the center of the reinforced area, which could have serious consequences. The proposed method is based on active infrared thermography, and uses state of the art methods for infrared image processing, including signal-to-nose ratio enhancement, hole detection and segmentation. Tests and comparison with X-ray inspections indicate that the proposed system meets production needs.

  2. Symplectic analysis of dynamic properties of hexagonal honeycomb sandwich tubes with plateau borders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Deng, Zichen; Meng, Junmiao; Xu, Xiaojian; Wang, Yan

    2015-09-01

    A new type of hexagonal honeycomb sandwich tube with plateau borders are introduced in this work and the Symplectic analysis with its high computational efficiency and high accuracy is applied to obtain the structural dynamic properties. The effects of material distribution (β) and relative density (ρbar) on the dynamic properties of the structure are also studied. Based on the definition of the elastic constants and the homogenization method, the independent elastic constants are obtained. By introducing dual variables and applying the variational principle, the canonical equations of Hamiltonian system are constructed. The precise integration method and extended Wittrick-Williams algorithm are adopted to solve the canonical equations. The dispersion relations of sandwich tubes are obtained, and the effects of material distribution and relative density on the normalized frequencies of the sandwich tubes are investigated. The proposed homogenization method is verified by comparing with other researchers' works. Dispersion relations of the sandwich tubes are obtained. The material distribution parameter and the relative density have significant effects on the dynamic properties of the structures. This work expects to offer new opportunities for the optimal design of metallic honeycomb sandwich tubes and future applications in the engineering sector.

  3. Fabrication and development of several heat pipe honeycomb sandwich panel concepts. [airframe integrated scramjet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanzer, H. J.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating and processing liquid metal heat pipes in a low mass honeycomb sandwich panel configuration for application on the NASA Langley airframe-integrated Scramjet engine was investigated. A variety of honeycomb panel facesheet and core-ribbon wick concepts was evaluated within constraints dictated by existing manufacturing technology and equipment. The chosen design consists of an all-stainless steel structure, sintered screen facesheets, and two types of core-ribbon; a diffusion bonded wire mesh and a foil-screen composite. Cleaning, fluid charging, processing, and process port sealing techniques were established. The liquid metals potassium, sodium and cesium were used as working fluids. Eleven honeycomb panels 15.24 cm X 15.24 cm X 2.94 cm were delivered to NASA Langley for extensive performance testing and evaluation; nine panels were processed as heat pipes, and two panels were left unprocessed.

  4. Fabrication and development of several heat pipe honeycomb sandwich panel concepts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzer, H.J.

    1982-06-01

    The feasibility of fabricating and processing liquid metal heat pipes in a low mass honeycomb sandwich panel configuration for application on the NASA Langley airframe-integrated Scramjet engine was investigated. A variety of honeycomb panel facesheet and core-ribbon wick concepts was evaluated within constraints dictated by existing manufacturing technology and equipment. The chosen design consists of an all-stainless steel structure, sintered screen facesheets, and two types of core-ribbon, a diffusion bonded wire mesh and a foil-screen composite. Cleaning, fluid charging, processing, and process port sealing techniques were established. The liquid metals, potassium, sodium and cesium were used as working fluids. Eleven honeycomb panels 15.24 cm X 15.24 cm X 2.94 cm were delivered to NASA Langley for extensive performance testing and evaluation, nine panels were processed as heat pipes, and two panels were left unprocessed.

  5. Elastic wave propagation in hexagonal honeycomb sandwich composite by using piezoelectric actuators/sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, G. L.; Song, F.; Kim, J.

    2009-03-01

    Honeycomb composite structures have been widely used in aerospace and aeronautic industries due to their unique characteristics. Due to the complex nature of honeycomb composite with the celled core, structural health monitoring (SHM) of honeycomb composite panels inherently imposes many challenges, which requires a detailed knowledge of dynamic elastic responses of such complex structures in a broad frequency domain. This paper gives numerical and experimental analyses of elastic wave propagation phenomena in sandwich panels with a honeycomb core, especially when the frequency domain of interest is relative high. Numerical simulation based on the Finite Element (FE) method is first performed to investigate wave generation and reception using piezoelectric actuators/sensors. The effectiveness of homogenized core model is discussed, compared with the dynamic responses based on honeycomb celled core model. The reliability of the simulated wave will be verified with the experimental results. Specific attention will be paid on core effects on group wave velocity. This research will establish a solid theoretical foundation for the future study of the structural health monitoring in the composites.

  6. The structural behavior of a graphite-polymide honeycomb sandwich panel with quasi-isotropic face sheets and an orthotropic core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, M. W.; Hagaman, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a series of tests of graphite-polyimide honeycomb sandwich panels are presented. The panels were 1.22 m long, 0.508 m wide, and approximately 13.3 m thick. The face sheets were a T-300/PMR-15 fabric in a quasi-isotropic layup and were 0.279 mm thick. The core was Hexcel HRH 327-3/16 - 4.0 glass reinforced polyimide honeycomb, 12.7 mm thick. Three panels were used in the test: one was cut into smaller pieces for testing as beam, compression, and shear specimens; a second panel was used for plate bending tests; the third panel was used for in-plane stability tests. Presented are the experimental results of four point bending tests, short block compression tests, core transverse shear modulus, three point bending tests, vibration tests, plate bending tests, and panel stability tests. The results of the first three tests are used to predict the results of some of the other tests. The predictions and experimental results are compared, and the agreement is quite good.

  7. Compression After Impact Experiments and Analysis on Honeycomb Core Sandwich Panels with Thin Facesheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuigg, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    A better understanding of the effect of impact damage on composite structures is necessary to give the engineer an ability to design safe, efficient structures. Current composite structures suffer severe strength reduction under compressive loading conditions, due to even light damage, such as from low velocity impact. A review is undertaken to access the current state-of-development in the areas of experimental testing, and analysis methods. A set of experiments on honeycomb core sandwich panels, with thin woven fiberglass cloth facesheets, is described, which includes detailed instrumentation and unique observation techniques.

  8. Low-energy impact resistance of graphite-epoxy plates and ALS honeycomb sandwich panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hui, David

    1989-01-01

    Low energy impact may be potentially dangerous for many highly optimized stiff structures. Impact by foreign objects such as birds, ice, and runways stones or dropping of tools occur frequently and the resulting damage and stress concentrations may be unacceptable from a designer's standpoint. The barely visible, yet potentially dangerous dents due to impact of foreign objects on the Advanced Launch System (ALS) structure are studied. Of particular interest is the computation of the maximum peak impact force for a given impactor mass and initial velocity. The theoretical impact forces will be compared with the experimental dropweight results for the ALS face sheets alone as well as the ALS honeycomb sandwich panels.

  9. Chiral hexagonal cellular sandwich structure: a vibro-acoustic assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lew, Tze L.; Spadoni, Alessandro; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Ruzzene, Massimo

    2005-05-01

    In this work we describe the vibroacoustic behavior of a novel concept of core for sandwich structures featuring auxetic characteristics, enhanced shear stiffness and compressive strength compared to classical cellular cores in sandwich components for sandwich applications. The out-plane properties and density values are described in terms of geometric parameters of the honeycomb unit cells. Opposite to classical honeycomb cellular applications, the hexagonal chiral structure presents a noncentresymemetric configuration, i.e., a "mirror" symmetrical topology. The derived mechanical properties are used to assess the modal behaviour and modal densities of sandwich plate elements with chiral and standard cellular cores. The analytical findings are backed up by structural tests on chiral honeycomb plates and sandwich beams.

  10. Methods for Assessing Honeycomb Sandwich Panel Wrinkling Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalewski, Bart F.; Dial, William B.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.

    2012-01-01

    Efficient closed-form methods for predicting the facesheet wrinkling failure mode in sandwich panels are assessed. Comparisons were made with finite element model predictions for facesheet wrinkling, and a validated closed-form method was implemented in the HyperSizer structure sizing software.

  11. The numerical simulation of laser-generated ultrasound to detect the debonding in the honeycomb sandwich board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ling; Cui, Yi-ping; Gu, Zhujun; Shen, Zhong-hua; Ni, Xiao-wu

    2011-06-01

    Among complex materials, honeycomb sandwich structure has a lot of advantages. However, it is usually found poor bonding or even debonding. Some convenient nondestructive methods should be found to measure the defect efficiently. Laser-generated ultrasound detection is a new nondestructive method with a bright future. Compared with traditional methods, the advantages of non-contact and high resolution in spatial and temporal made it applicable not only in measuring defects with high precision, but also in the characterization of various complex shapes. In this paper, to detect the debonding of the honeycomb sandwich board, the laser-generated ultrasound technology was used. By the use of the finite element method (FEM), a 2D model dealing with laser-generated ultrasound in the honeycomb sandwich board was presented. Take into account of the debonding problem, by adopting the scanned laser source, the propagation of Lamb wave and longitudinal wave were studied. The debonding in the honeycomb sandwich board was assessed though the characteristic of the Lamb wave and longitudinal wave in time domain and frequency domain.

  12. Vibroacoustic flexural properties of symmetric honeycomb sandwich panels with composite faces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaumie, Laurent

    2015-05-01

    The vibroacoustic bending properties of honeycomb sandwich panels with composite faces are studied from the wavenumber modulus to the mechanical impedance, passing through the modal density. Numerical results extracted from finite element software computations are compared with analytical results. In both cases, the homogenization method is used to calculate the global properties of the sandwich panel. Since faces are made of composite material, the classical laminate theory serves as reference. With particular conditions used in the application for symmetric panels, the original orthotropic mechanical properties can be reduced simply to three parameters commonly used in vibroacoustic characterizations. These three parameters are the mass per unit area, the bending rigidity and the out-of-plane shear rigidity. They simultaneously govern the wavenumber modulus, the modal frequencies, the modal density and the mechanical impedance. For all of these vibroacoustic characterizations, a special frequency called the transition frequency separates two domains. In the first domain, below the transition frequency or for low frequencies, the orthotropic sandwich panel has a classical isotropic plate behavior. In the second domain, above the transition frequency or for high frequencies, the out-of-plane shear rigidity is very significant and changes the behavior. However, the results discussed are only valid up to a certain frequency which is determined by the thickness and out-of-plane shear stiffness of the honeycomb core, the thickness and the bending stiffness of the laminated face sheets and then the mass per unit area and bending stiffness of the total sandwich structure. All these parameters influence the final choice of model and simplifications presented. Experimental measurements of the bending wavenumber modulus and modal frequencies for our own application were carried out. In the vibroacoustic domain, the critical frequency is also an important frequency. It again

  13. Post-Buckling Analysis of Curved Honeycomb Sandwich Panels Containing Interfacial Disbonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Krivanek, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    A numerical study on the effect of facesheet-core disbonds on the post-buckling response of curved honeycomb sandwich panels is presented herein. This work was conducted as part of the development of a damage tolerance plan for the next-generation Space Launch System heavy lift launch vehicle payload fairing. As such, the study utilized full-scale fairing barrel segments as the structure of interest. The panels were composed of carbon fiber reinforced polymer facesheets and aluminum honeycomb core. The panels were analyzed numerically using the finite element method incorporating geometric nonlinearity. In a predetermined circular region, facesheet and core nodes were detached to simulate a disbond, between the outer mold line facesheet and honeycomb core, induced via low-speed impact. Surface-to-surface contact in the disbonded region was invoked to prevent interpenetration of the facesheet and core elements and obtain realistic stresses in the core. The diameter of this disbonded region was varied and the effect of the size of the disbond on the post-buckling response was observed. Significant changes in the slope of the edge load-deflection response were used to determine the onset of global buckling and corresponding buckling load. Finally, several studies were conducted to determine the sensitivity of the numerical predictions to refinement in the finite element mesh.

  14. Ballistic Resistance of Honeycomb Sandwich Panels under In-Plane High-Velocity Impact

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shu; Wang, Dong; Yang, Li-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic responses of honeycomb sandwich panels (HSPs) subjected to in-plane projectile impact were studied by means of explicit nonlinear finite element simulations using LS-DYNA. The HSPs consisted of two identical aluminum alloy face-sheets and an aluminum honeycomb core featuring three types of unit cell configurations (regular, rectangular-shaped, and reentrant hexagons). The ballistic resistances of HSPs with the three core configurations were first analyzed. It was found that the HSP with the reentrant auxetic honeycomb core has the best ballistic resistance, due to the negative Poisson's ratio effect of the core. Parametric studies were then carried out to clarify the influences of both macroscopic (face-sheet and core thicknesses, core relative density) and mesoscopic (unit cell angle and size) parameters on the ballistic responses of the auxetic HSPs. Numerical results show that the perforation resistant capabilities of the auxetic HSPs increase as the values of the macroscopic parameters increase. However, the mesoscopic parameters show nonmonotonic effects on the panels' ballistic capacities. The empirical equations for projectile residual velocities were formulated in terms of impact velocity and the structural parameters. It was also found that the blunter projectiles result in higher ballistic limits of the auxetic HSPs. PMID:24187526

  15. Method of fabricating a honeycomb structure

    DOEpatents

    Holleran, L.M.; Lipp, G.D.

    1999-08-03

    A method of fabricating a monolithic honeycomb structure product involves shaping a first mixture of raw materials and a binder into a green honeycomb, extruding a second mixture of raw materials and a binder into one or more green members that each define an opening extending longitudinally therethrough. The raw materials of the second mixture are compatible with the raw materials of the first mixture. The green honeycomb and member(s) are dried. The binders of the green honeycomb and member(s) are softened at the surfaces that are to be bonded. The green member(s) is inserted into the honeycomb and bonded to the honeycomb to form an assembly thereof, which is then dried and fired to form a unified monolithic honeycomb structure. The insertion is best carried out by mounting a member in the shape of a tube on a mandrel, and inserting the mandrel into the honeycomb opening to bond the tube to the honeycomb. 7 figs.

  16. Method of fabricating a honeycomb structure

    DOEpatents

    Holleran, Louis M.; Lipp, G. Daniel

    1999-01-01

    A method of fabricating a monolithic honeycomb structure product involves shaping a first mixture of raw materials and a binder into a green honeycomb, extruding a second mixture of raw materials and a binder into one or more green members that each define an opening extending longitudinally therethrough. The raw materials of the second mixture are compatible with the raw materials of the first mixture. The green honeycomb and member(s) are dried. The binders of the green honeycomb and member(s) are softened at the surfaces that are to be bonded. The green member(s) is inserted into the honeycomb and bonded to the honeycomb to form an assembly thereof, which is then dried and fired to form a unified monolithic honeycomb structure. The insertion is best carried out by mounting a member in the shape of a tube on a mandrel, and inserting the mandrel into the honeycomb opening to bond the tube to the honeycomb.

  17. Fabrication and evaluation of enhanced diffusion bonded titanium honeycomb core sandwich panels with titanium aluminide face sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffmann, E. K.; Bird, R. K.; Bales, T. T.

    1989-01-01

    A joining process was developed for fabricating lightweight, high temperature sandwich panels for aerospace applications using Ti-14Al-21Nb face sheets and Ti-3Al-2.5V honeycomb core. The process, termed Enhanced Diffusion Bonding (EDB), relies on the formation of a eutectic liquid through solid-state diffusion at elevated temperatures and isothermal solidification to produce joints in thin-gage titanium and titanium aluminide structural components. A technique employing a maskant on the honeycomb core was developed which permitted electroplating a controlled amount of EDB material only on the edges of the honeycomb core in order to minimize the structural weight and metallurgical interaction effects. Metallurgical analyses were conducted to determine the interaction effects between the EDB materials and the constituents of the sandwich structure following EDB processing. The initial mechanical evaluation was conducted with butt joint specimens tested at temperatures from 1400 - 1700 F. Further mechanical evaluation was conducted with EDB sandwich specimens using flatwise tension tests at temperatures from 70 - 1100 F and edgewise compression tests at ambient temperature.

  18. Sound Transmission through a Cylindrical Sandwich Shell with Honeycomb Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Yvette Y.; Robinson, Jay H.; Silcox, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    Sound transmission through an infinite cylindrical sandwich shell is studied in the context of the transmission of airborne sound into aircraft interiors. The cylindrical shell is immersed in fluid media and excited by an oblique incident plane sound wave. The internal and external fluids are different and there is uniform airflow in the external fluid medium. An explicit expression of transmission loss is derived in terms of modal impedance of the fluids and the shell. The results show the effects of (a) the incident angles of the plane wave; (b) the flight conditions of Mach number and altitude of the aircraft; (c) the ratios between the core thickness and the total thickness of the shell; and (d) the structural loss factors on the transmission loss. Comparisons of the transmission loss are made among different shell constructions and different shell theories.

  19. Elevated-Temperature Tests Under Static and Aerodynamic Conditions on Honeycomb-Core Sandwich Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groen, Joseph M.; Johnson, Aldie E., Jr.

    1959-01-01

    Stainless-steel honeycomb-core sandwich panels which differed primarily in skin thicknesses were tested at elevated temperatures under static and aerodynamic conditions. The results of these tests were evaluated to determine the insulating effectiveness and structural integrity of the panels. The static radiant-heating tests were performed in front of a quartz-tube radiant heater at panel skin temperatures up to 1,5000 F. The aerodynamic tests were made in a Mach 1.4 heated blowdown wind tunnel. The tunnel temperature was augmented by additional heat supplied by a radiant heater which raised the panel surface temperature above 8000 F during air flow. Static radiant-heating tests of 2 minutes duration showed that all the panels protected the load-carrying structure about equally well. Thin-skin panels showed an advantage for this short-time test over thick-skin panels from a standpoint of weight against insulation. Permanent inelastic strains in the form of local buckles over each cell of the honeycomb core caused an increase in surface roughness. During the aero- dynamic tests all of the panels survived with little or no damage, and panel flutter did not occur.

  20. Nondestructive testing techniques used in analysis of honeycomb structure bond strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdman, D. C.; Martin, G.; Moore, J. F.; Thomas, G.; Varney, H. S.

    1967-01-01

    DOT /Driver-Displacement Oriented Transducer/, applicable to both lap shear type application and honeycomb sandwich structures, measures the displacement of the honeycomb composite face sheet. It incorporates an electromagnetic driver and a displacement measuring system into a single unit to provide noncontact bond strength measurements.

  1. Thermal behavior of a titanium honeycomb-core sandwich panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Jackson, Raymond H.

    1991-01-01

    Finite element thermal stress analysis was performed on a rectangular titanium honecomb-core sandwich panel which is subjected to thermal load with a temperature gradient across its depth. The distributions of normal stresses in the face sheets and the face-sheet/sandwich-core interfacial shear stresses are presented. The thermal buckling of the heated face sheet was analyzed by assuming the face sheet to be resting on an elastic foundation representing the sandwich core. Thermal buckling curves and thermal buckling load surface are presented for setting the limit for temperature gradient across the panel depth.

  2. Light-weight sandwich panel honeycomb core with hybrid carbon-glass fiber composite skin for electric vehicle application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahyono, Sukmaji Indro; Widodo, Angit; Anwar, Miftahul; Diharjo, Kuncoro; Triyono, Teguh; Hapid, A.; Kaleg, S.

    2016-03-01

    The carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite is relative high cost material in current manufacturing process of electric vehicle body structure. Sandwich panels consisting polypropylene (PP) honeycomb core with hybrid carbon-glass fiber composite skin were investigated. The aim of present paper was evaluate the flexural properties and bending rigidity of various volume fraction carbon-glass fiber composite skins with the honeycomb core. The flexural properties and cost of panels were compared to the reported values of solid hybrid Carbon/Glass FRP used for the frame body structure of electric vehicle. The finite element model of represented sandwich panel was established to characterize the flexural properties of material using homogenization technique. Finally, simplified model was employed to crashworthiness analysis for engine hood of the body electric vehicle structure. The good cost-electiveness of honeycomb core with hybrid carbon-glass fiber skin has the potential to be used as a light-weight alternative material in body electric vehicle fabricated.

  3. Structural Physics of Bee Honeycomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaatz, Forrest; Bultheel, Adhemar; Egami, Takeshi

    2008-03-01

    Honeybee combs have aroused interest in the ability of honeybees to form regular hexagonal geometric constructs since ancient times. Here we use a real space technique based on the pair distribution function (PDF) and radial distribution function (RDF), and a reciprocal space method utilizing the Debye-Waller Factor (DWF) to quantify the order for a range of honeycombs made by Apis mellifera. The PDFs and RDFs are fit with a series of Gaussian curves. We characterize the order in the honeycomb using a real space order parameter, OP3, to describe the order in the combs and a two-dimensional Fourier transform from which a Debye-Waller order parameter, u, is derived. Both OP3 and u take values from [0, 1] where the value one represents perfect order. The analyzed combs have values of OP3 from 0.33 to 0.60 and values of u from 0.83 to 0.98. RDF fits of honeycomb histograms show that naturally made comb can be crystalline in a 2D ordered structural sense, yet is more `liquid-like' than cells made on `foundation' wax. We show that with the assistance of man-made foundation wax, honeybees can manufacture highly ordered arrays of hexagonal cells.

  4. Design data for brazed Rene 41 honeycomb sandwich

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, A. K.; Arnquist, J.; Koetje, E. L.; Esposito, J. J.; Lindsay, V. E. J.; Swegle, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    Strength data, creep data and residual strength data after cyclic thermal exposure were obtained at temperatures from 78 K to 1144 K (-320 F to 1600 F). The influences of face thickness, core depth, core gage, cell size and thermal/stress exposure conditions on the mechanical design properties were investigated. A braze alloy and process was developed that is adequate to fully develop the strength of the honeycomb core while simultaneously solution treating and aging the Rene 41 fact sheets. New test procedures and test specimen configurations were developed to avoid excessive thermal stresses during cyclic thermal exposure.

  5. Hypervelocity Impact Evaluation of Metal Foam Core Sandwich Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasensky, John; Christiansen, Eric L.

    2007-01-01

    A series of hypervelocity impact (HVI) tests were conducted by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HITF) [1], building 267 (Houston, Texas) between January 2003 and December 2005 to test the HVI performance of metal foams, as compared to the metal honeycomb panels currently in service. The HITF testing was conducted at the NASA JSC White Sands Testing Facility (WSTF) at Las Cruces, New Mexico. Eric L. Christiansen, Ph.D., and NASA Lead for Micro-Meteoroid Orbital Debris (MMOD) Protection requested these hypervelocity impact tests as part of shielding research conducted for the JSC Center Director Discretionary Fund (CDDF) project. The structure tested is a metal foam sandwich structure; a metal foam core between two metal facesheets. Aluminum and Titanium metals were tested for foam sandwich and honeycomb sandwich structures. Aluminum honeycomb core material is currently used in Orbiter Vehicle (OV) radiator panels and in other places in space structures. It has many desirable characteristics and performs well by many measures, especially when normalized by density. Aluminum honeycomb does not perform well in Hypervelocity Impact (HVI) Testing. This is a concern, as honeycomb panels are often exposed to space environments, and take on the role of Micrometeoroid / Orbital Debris (MMOD) shielding. Therefore, information on possible replacement core materials which perform adequately in all necessary functions of the material would be useful. In this report, HVI data is gathered for these two core materials in certain configurations and compared to gain understanding of the metal foam HVI performance.

  6. Compression After Impact on Honeycomb Core Sandwich Panels with Thin Facesheets, Part 2: Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcquigg, Thomas D.; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Scotti, Stephen J.; Walker, Sandra P.

    2012-01-01

    A two part research study has been completed on the topic of compression after impact (CAI) of thin facesheet honeycomb core sandwich panels. The research has focused on both experiments and analysis in an effort to establish and validate a new understanding of the damage tolerance of these materials. Part 2, the subject of the current paper, is focused on the analysis, which corresponds to the CAI testings described in Part 1. Of interest, are sandwich panels, with aerospace applications, which consist of very thin, woven S2-fiberglass (with MTM45-1 epoxy) facesheets adhered to a Nomex honeycomb core. Two sets of materials, which were identical with the exception of the density of the honeycomb core, were tested in Part 1. The results highlighted the need for analysis methods which taken into account multiple failure modes. A finite element model (FEM) is developed here, in Part 2. A commercial implementation of the Multicontinuum Failure Theory (MCT) for progressive failure analysis (PFA) in composite laminates, Helius:MCT, is included in this model. The inclusion of PFA in the present model provided a new, unique ability to account for multiple failure modes. In addition, significant impact damage detail is included in the model. A sensitivity study, used to assess the effect of each damage parameter on overall analysis results, is included in an appendix. Analysis results are compared to the experimental results for each of the 32 CAI sandwich panel specimens tested to failure. The failure of each specimen is predicted using the high-fidelity, physicsbased analysis model developed here, and the results highlight key improvements in the understanding of honeycomb core sandwich panel CAI failure. Finally, a parametric study highlights the strength benefits compared to mass penalty for various core densities.

  7. Compression After Impact on Honeycomb Core Sandwich Panels With Thin Facesheets. Part 1; Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuigg, Thomas D.; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Scotti, Stephen J.; Walker, Sandra P.

    2012-01-01

    A two part research study has been completed on the topic of compression after impact (CAI) of thin facesheet honeycomb core sandwich panels. The research has focused on both experiments and analysis in an effort to establish and validate a new understanding of the damage tolerance of these materials. Part one, the subject of the current paper, is focused on the experimental testing. Of interest are sandwich panels, with aerospace applications, which consist of very thin, woven S2-fiberglass (with MTM45-1 epoxy) facesheets adhered to a Nomex honeycomb core. Two sets of specimens, which were identical with the exception of the density of the honeycomb core, were tested. Static indentation and low velocity impact using a drop tower are used to study damage formation in these materials. A series of highly instrumented CAI tests was then completed. New techniques used to observe CAI response and failure include high speed video photography, as well as digital image correlation (DIC) for full-field deformation measurement. Two CAI failure modes, indentation propagation, and crack propagation, were observed. From the results, it can be concluded that the CAI failure mode of these panels depends solely on the honeycomb core density.

  8. Steps toward 8m honeycomb mirror blanks. III - 1.8m honeycomb sandwich blanks cast from borosilicate glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, J. R. P.; Hill, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The design, fabrication techniques, and equipment used for producing two 1.8-m honeycomb sandwich blanks, eventually leading to production of 8-m blanks, are reported. The procedure employed 85 cast hexagonal tiles at the bottom section, affixed against flotation by SiC bolts. The two plano concave mirrors are 1.83 m thick, weight 500 kg, and are each designed for 19 supports of astatic-lever type. Both blanks are of high quality and with an adequately low bubble content; one is to be figured to high-precision 0.25-arcsecond images, and is to be tested on the Multiple Mirror Telescope. Construction of a spin-casting facility based on the same principle is being planned for test-fabricating spin-cast mirrors on a smaller scale.

  9. Ceramic Honeycomb Structures and Method Thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagliostro, Domenick E.; Riccitiello, Salvatore R.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for producing ceramic articles and the articles, the process comprising the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and/or chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) of a honeycomb structure. Specifically the present invention relates to a method for the production of a ceramic honeycomb structure, including: (a) obtaining a loosely woven fabric/binder wherein the fabric consists essentially of metallic, ceramic or organic fiber and the binder consists essentially of an organic or inorganic material wherein the fabric/binder has and retains a honeycomb shape, with the proviso that when the fabric is metallic or ceramic the binder is organic only; (b) substantially evenly depositing at least one layer of a ceramic on the fabric/binder of step (a); and (c) recovering the ceramic coated fiber honeycomb structure. In another aspect, the present invention relates to a method for the manufacture of a lightweight ceramic-ceramic composite honeycomb structure, which process comprises: (d) pyrolyzing a loosely woven fabric a honeycomb shaped and having a high char yield and geometric integrity after pyrolysis at between about 700 degrees and 1,100 degrees Centigrade; (e) substantially evenly depositing at least one layer of ceramic material on the pyrolyzed fabric of step (a); and (f) recovering the coated ceramic honeycomb structure. The ceramic articles produced have enhanced physical properties and are useful in aircraft and aerospace uses.

  10. A Numerical Study on the Effect of Facesheet-Core Disbonds on the Buckling Load of Curved Honeycomb Sandwich Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Myers, David E.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Krivanek, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    A numerical study on the effect of facesheet-core disbonds on the post-buckling response of curved honeycomb sandwich panels is presented herein. This work was conducted as part of the development of a damage tolerance approach for the next-generation Space Launch System heavy lift vehicle payload fairing. As such, the study utilized full-scale fairing barrel segments as the structure of interest. The panels were composed of carbon fiber reinforced polymer facesheets and aluminum honeycomb core. The panels were analyzed numerically using the finite element method. Facesheet and core nodes in a predetermined circular region were detached to simulate a disbond induced via low-speed impact between the outer mold line facesheet and honeycomb core. Surface-to-surface contact in the disbonded region was invoked to prevent interpenetration of the facesheet and core elements. The diameter of this disbonded region was varied and the effect of the size of the disbond on the post-buckling response was observed. A significant change in the slope of the edge load-deflection response was used to determine the onset of global buckling and corresponding buckling load.

  11. Sandwich Construction Solar Structural Facets

    SciTech Connect

    Diver, R. B.; Grossman, J.W.

    1998-12-22

    Silver/glass mirrors have excellent optical properties but need a method of support in order to be used in concentrating solar thermal systems. In collaboration with the Cummins dish/Stirling development program, they started investigating sandwich construction as a way to integrate silver/glass mirrors into solar optical elements. In sandwich construction, membranes such as sheet metal or plastic are bonded to the front and back of a core (like a sandwich). For solar optical elements, a glass mirror is bonded to one of the membranes. This type of construction has the advantages of a high strength-to-weight ratio, and reasonable material and manufacturing cost. The inherent stiffness of sandwich construction mirror panels also facilitates large panels. This can have cost advantages for both the amount of hardware required as well as reduced installation and alignment costs. In addition, by incorporating the panels into the support structure reductions in the amount of structural support required are potentially possible.

  12. Ceramic honeycomb structures and the method thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, Salvatore R. (Inventor); Cagliostro, Domenick E. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The subject invention pertains to a method of producing an improved composite-composite honeycomb structure for aircraft or aerospace use. Specifically, the subject invention relates to a method for the production of a lightweight ceramic-ceramic composite honeycomb structure, which method comprises: (1) pyrolyzing a loosely woven fabric/binder having a honeycomb shape and having a high char yield and geometric integrity after pyrolysis at between about 700 and 1,100 C; (2) substantially evenly depositing at least one layer of ceramic material on the pyrolyzed fabric/binder of step (1); (3) recovering the coated ceramic honeycomb structure; (4) removing the pyrolyzed fabric/binder of the structure of step (3) by slow pyrolysis at between 700 and 1000 C in between about a 2 to 5% by volume oxygen atmosphere for between about 0.5 and 5 hr.; and (5) substantially evenly depositing on and within the rigid hollow honeycomb structure at least one additional layer of the same or a different ceramic material by chemical vapor deposition and chemical vapor infiltration. The honeycomb shaped ceramic articles have enhanced physical properties and are useful in aircraft and aerospace uses.

  13. A comparative investigation for the nondestructive testing of honeycomb structures by holographic interferometry and infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sfarra, S.; Ibarra-Castanedo, C.; Avdelidis, N. P.; Genest, M.; Bouchagier, L.; Kourousis, D.; Tsimogiannis, A.; Anastassopoulous, A.; Bendada, A.; Maldague, X.; Ambrosini, D.; Paoletti, D.

    2010-03-01

    The nondestructive testing (NDT) of honeycomb sandwich structures has been the subject of several studies. Classical techniques such as ultrasound testing and x-rays are commonly used to inspect these structures. Holographic interferometry (HI) and infrared thermography (IT) have shown to be interesting alternatives. Holography has been successfully used to detect debonding between the skin and the honeycomb core on honeycomb panels under a controlled environment. Active thermography has proven to effectively identify the most common types of defects (water ingress, debonding, crushed core, surface impacts) normally present in aeronautical honeycomb parts while inspecting large surfaces in a fast manner. This is very attractive for both the inspection during the manufacturing process and for in situ regular NDT assessment. A comparative experimental investigation is discussed herein to evaluate the performance of HI and IT for the NDT on a honeycomb panel with fabricated defects. The main advantages and limitations of both techniques are enumerated and discussed.

  14. Crashworthiness analysis on alternative square honeycomb structure under axial loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Meng; Deng, Zongquan; Guo, Hongwei; Liu, Rongqiang; Ding, Beichen

    2013-07-01

    Hexagonal metal honeycomb is widely used in energy absorption field for its special construction. However, many other metal honeycomb structures also show good energy absorption characteristics. Currently, most of the researches focus on hexagonal honeycomb, while few are performed into different honeycomb structures. Therefore, a new alternative square honeycomb is developed to expand the non-hexagonal metal honeycomb applications in the energy absorption fields with the aim of designing low mass and low volume energy absorbers. The finite element model of alternative square honeycomb is built to analyze its specific energy absorption property. As the diversity of honeycomb structure, the parameterized metal honeycomb finite element analysis program is conducted based on PCL language. That program can automatically create finite element model. Numerical results show that with the same foil thickness and cell length of metal honeycomb, the alternative square has better specific energy absorption than hexagonal honeycomb. Using response surface method, the mathematical formulas of honeycomb crashworthiness properties are obtained and optimization is done to get the maximum specific energy absorption property honeycomb. Optimal results demonstrate that to absorb same energy, alternative square honeycomb can save 10% volume of buffer structure than hexagonal honeycomb can do. This research is significant in providing technical support in the extended application of different honeycomb used as crashworthiness structures, and is absolutely essential in low volume and low mass energy absorber design.

  15. Water ingress detection in honeycomb sandwich panels by passive infrared thermography using a high-resolution thermal imaging camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra-Castanedo, C.; Brault, L.; Marcotte, F.; Genest, M.; Farley, V.; Maldague, X.

    2012-06-01

    Water ingress in honeycomb structures is of great concern for the civil and military aerospace industries. Pressure and temperature variations during take-off and landing produce considerable stress on aircraft structures, promoting moisture ingress (by diffusion through fibers or by direct ingress through voids, cracks or unsealed joints) into the core. The presence of water (or other fluids such as kerosene, hydraulic fluid and de-icing agents) in any of its forms (gas vapor, liquid or ice) promotes corrosion, cell breakage, and induce composite layer delaminations and skin disbonds. In this study, testing specimens were produced from unserviceable parts from military aircraft. In order to simulate atmospheric conditions during landing, selected core areas were filled with measured quantities of water and then frozen in a cold chamber. The specimens were then removed from the chamber and monitored for over 20 minutes as they warm up using a cooled high-resolution infrared camera. Results have shown that detection and quantification of water ingress on honeycomb sandwich structures by passive infrared thermography is possible using a HD mid-wave infrared cameras for volumes of water as low as 0.2 ml and from a distance as far as 20 m from the target.

  16. Analysis of propagation characteristics of flexural wave in honeycomb sandwich panel and design of loudspeaker for radiating inclined sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Ayaka; Wakatsuki, Naoto; Mizutani, Koichi

    2015-07-01

    A loudspeaker for an auditory guiding system is proposed. This loudspeaker utilizes inclined sound transformed from a flexural wave in a honeycomb sandwich panel. We focused on the fact that the inclined sound propagates extensively with uniform level and direction. Furthermore, sound can be generated without group delay dispersion because the phase velocity of the flexural wave in the sandwich panel becomes constant with increasing frequency. These characteristics can be useful for an auditory guiding system in public spaces since voice-guiding navigation indicates the right direction regardless of position on a pathway. To design the proposed loudspeaker, the behavior of the sandwich panel is predicted using a theoretical equation in which the honeycomb core is assumed as an orthotropic continuum. We calculated the phase velocity dispersion of the flexural wave in the sandwich panel and compared the results obtained using the equation with those of a simulation based on the finite element method and an experiment in order to confirm the applicability of the theoretical equation. It was confirmed that the phase velocities obtained using the theoretical equation and by the simulation were in good agreement with that obtained experimentally. The obtained results suggest that the behavior of the sandwich panel can be predicted using the parameters of the panel. In addition, we designed an optimized honeycomb sandwich panel for radiating inclined sound by calculating the phase velocity characteristics of various panels that have different parameters of core height and cell size using the theoretical equation. Sound radiation from the optimized panel was simulated and compared with that of a homogeneous plate. It was clear that the variance of the radiation angle with varying frequency of the optimized panel was smaller than that of the homogeneous plate. This characteristic of sound radiation with a uniform angle is useful for indicating the destination direction. On

  17. Study made to control depth of potting compound for honeycomb sandwich fasteners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cushman, J.

    1966-01-01

    Study determines optimum fastener insert size and shape, type of embedding cement, diameter, undercut and depth control by fiber glass plug in a honeycomb structure for maximum tensile strength The best potting compound is 5-5-1 weight mixture of epoxy resin, curing agent, and milled glass fibers.

  18. The Definition of Quality of Honeycomb Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitalo, V. G.; Tykhyy, V. G.; Primakov, V. D.

    2002-01-01

    In the represented report the comprehensive approach to quality inspection of honeycomb structures is considered and substantiated to provide their high structural characteristics. The structures are intended for manufacturing micro satellite solar arrays. The investigated structures involve two skins of composite materials by a thickness from 0,1 to 0,3 mm and a filler by hexagonal honeycomb cells of aluminum alloy. It may be glued in a variety of ways: with a film glue or a glue deposited on end faces of cells. Variants and possibilities of nondestructive methods for quality inspection - holographic interferometer and infrared testing ones - are considered for various materials of skins and used glues. The various methods of loading the constructions is appreciated in order to get the required sensitivity of nondestructive besting methods. To provide the required structural properties in addition to the nondestructive testing the application of mechanical tests of honeycomb structure samples is substantiated. The kinds of mechanical tests are described and the results are given. The indicated approach provides the asked level of characteristics for honeycomb structures.

  19. Acoustic scattering response of hierarchic honeycomb structures for cylindrical and spherical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mor, Arun

    Sandwich panels with honeycomb core are often employed in structures for improved mechanical properties with lightweight. Honeycombs are defined by non-overlapping and periodic unit cells. Most research conducted on these sandwich panels focuses on stiffness and strength properties. The acoustic aspect of these panels has been focused on sound transmission loss. For acoustics, previous studies used effective honeycomb orthotropic elastic moduli based on Cartesian unit cell geometry to model the core as a homogeneous structure. While efficient, this modeling approach loses accuracy at higher frequencies. Furthermore, when used for curved panels, the effective moduli are only approximate. In this work, mechanical and acoustic characteristics of cylindrical and spherical honeycomb panels are studied using finite element analysis. The unit cell geometry core is oriented both radially and in the transverse direction. The models are analyzed for sound scattering measured by target strength with interactions between structure and the acoustic medium through coupling between the domains. Both air and water are compared for the acoustic region. Different honeycomb core geometries varying in the hexagon arrangement, number of unit cells and level of hierarchy are studied. The structures developed are constrained to have the same total mass allowing for comparisons based on only changes in stiffness properties. The effect of face sheet thickness on the mechanical and acoustic properties of the curved sandwich structures is also studied. The vibration and acoustic scattering behavior of these structures have been investigated for natural frequencies between 1-1000 Hz to predict and understand the different responses near and at resonances. The target strength response of the structures has been studied in the near field at both front and back of the structures. The effect of acoustic coupling is observed clearly on varying the outer domains properties between air and water. It

  20. Thermal Inspection of Composite Honeycomb Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Parker, F. Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Composite honeycomb structures continue to be widely used in aerospace applications due to their low weight and high strength advantages. Developing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) inspection methods are essential for their safe performance. Pulsed thermography is a commonly used technique for composite honeycomb structure inspections due to its large area and rapid inspection capability. Pulsed thermography is shown to be sensitive for detection of face sheet impact damage and face sheet to core disbond. Data processing techniques, using principal component analysis to improve the defect contrast, are presented. In addition, limitations to the thermal detection of the core are investigated. Other NDE techniques, such as computed tomography X-ray and ultrasound, are used for comparison to the thermography results.

  1. Thermal inspection of composite honeycomb structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Parker, F. Raymond

    2014-05-01

    Composite honeycomb structures continue to be widely used in aerospace applications due to their low weight and high strength advantages. Developing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) inspection methods are essential for their safe performance. Pulsed thermography is a commonly used technique for composite honeycomb structure inspections due to its large area and rapid inspection capability. Pulsed thermography is shown to be sensitive for detection of face sheet impact damage and face sheet to core disbond. Data processing techniques, using principal component analysis to improve the defect contrast, are presented. In addition, limitations to the thermal detection of the core are investigated. Other NDE techniques, such as computed tomography X-ray and ultrasound, are used for comparison to the thermography results.

  2. Evaluation of Composite Honeycomb Sandwich Panels Under Compressive Loads at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Sandra P.

    1998-01-01

    Fourteen composite honeycomb sandwich panels were tested to failure under compressive loading. The test specimens included panels with both 8 and 24-ply graphite-bismaleimide composite facesheets and both titanium and graphite-polyimide core materials. The panels were designed to have the load introduced through fasteners attached to pairs of steel angles on the ends of the panels to simulate double shear splice joints. The unloaded edges were unconstrained. Test temperatures included room temperature, 250F, and 300F. For the room and 250F temperature tests, the 24-ply specimen failure strains were close to the unnotched allowable strain values and failure loads were well above the design loads. However, failure strains much lower than the unnotched allowable strain values, and failure loads below the design loads were observed with several of the 8-ply specimens. For each individual test temperature, large variations in the failure strains and loads were observed for the 8-ply specimens. Dramatic decreases in the failure strains and loads were observed for the 24-ply specimens as the test temperature was increased from 250F to 300F. All 8-ply specimens appeared to have failed in a facesheet strength failure mode for all test temperatures. The 24-ply specimens displayed appreciably greater amounts of bending prior to failure than the 8-ply specimens, and panel buckling occurred prior to facesheet strength failure for the 24-ply room and 250F temperature tests.

  3. Evaluation of modal-based damage detection techniques for composite aircraft sandwich structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, J. A.; Kosmatka, J. B.

    2005-05-01

    Composite sandwich structures are important as structural components in modern lightweight aircraft, but are susceptible to catastrophic failure without obvious forewarning. Internal damage, such as disbonding between skin and core, is detrimental to the structures' strength and integrity and thus must be detected before reaching critical levels. However, highly directional low density cores, such as Nomex honeycomb, make the task of damage detection and health monitoring difficult. One possible method for detecting damage in composite sandwich structures, which seems to have received very little research attention, is analysis of global modal parameters. This study will investigate the viability of modal analysis techniques for detecting skin-core disbonds in carbon fiber-Nomex honeycomb sandwich panels through laboratory testing. A series of carbon fiber prepreg and Nomex honeycomb sandwich panels-representative of structural components used in lightweight composite airframes-were fabricated by means of autoclave co-cure. All panels were of equal dimensions and two were made with predetermined sizes of disbonded areas, created by substituting areas of Teflon release film in place of epoxy film adhesive during the cure. A laser vibrometer was used to capture frequency response functions (FRF) of all panels, and then real and imaginary FRFs at different locations on each plate and operating shapes for each plate were compared. Preliminary results suggest that vibration-based techniques hold promise for damage detection of composite sandwich structures.

  4. Optimal locations of piezoelectric patches for supersonic flutter control of honeycomb sandwich panels, using the NSGA-II method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nezami, M.; Gholami, B.

    2016-03-01

    The active flutter control of supersonic sandwich panels with regular honeycomb interlayers under impact load excitation is studied using piezoelectric patches. A non-dominated sorting-based multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, called non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) is suggested to find the optimal locations for different numbers of piezoelectric actuator/sensor pairs. Quasi-steady first order supersonic piston theory is employed to define aerodynamic loading and the p-method is applied to find the flutter bounds. Hamilton’s principle in conjunction with the generalized Fourier expansions and Galerkin method are used to develop the dynamical model of the structural systems in the state-space domain. The classical Runge-Kutta time integration algorithm is then used to calculate the open-loop aeroelastic response of the system. The maximum flutter velocity and minimum voltage applied to actuators are calculated according to the optimal locations of piezoelectric patches obtained using the NSGA-II and then the proportional feedback is used to actively suppress the closed loop system response. Finally the control effects, using the two different controllers, are compared.

  5. The actuated performance of multi-layer piezoelectric actuator in active vibration control of honeycomb sandwich panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yajun; Xie, Shilin; Zhang, Xinong

    2008-11-01

    This paper discusses the use of the multi-layer piezoelectric actuator (MPA) in the active vibration control of the honeycomb sandwich panel (HSP). A literature overview of the available works is first presented. And the main motivation using the MPA in the AVC of HSP is discussed. Then, the honeycomb core is in advance treated as an orthotropic plate. The governing equations of the system are derived by the Hamilton principle on the basis of both displacement and transverse tress assumptions. The formulations of the actuation force/moment are obtained and indicate that the actuation force/moment are two four-order polynomial function of the piezoelectric layers number. Finally, active control experiments of a cantilever honeycomb sandwich panel (CHSP) are performed using the MPA. The control law of proportional velocity feedback is adopted in the experiments. These experiments include the resonant vibration control and the sinusoidal swept of the control system at the case of different piezoelectric layers number. The results show that the MPA can effectively control the vibration of the high damping HSP, and the control performance per voltage by the proposed actuator can be improved significantly through increasing the piezoelectric patch number. Consequently, the MPA exhibits better actuation capability than that with only single layer.

  6. Heat Shielding Characteristics and Thermostructural Performance of a Superalloy Honeycomb Sandwich Thermal Protection System (TPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.

    2004-01-01

    Heat-transfer, thermal bending, and mechanical buckling analyses have been performed on a superalloy "honeycomb" thermal protection system (TPS) for future hypersonic flight vehicles. The studies focus on the effect of honeycomb cell geometry on the TPS heat-shielding performance, honeycomb cell wall buckling characteristics, and the effect of boundary conditions on the TPS thermal bending behavior. The results of the study show that the heat-shielding performance of a TPS panel is very sensitive to change in honeycomb core depth, but insensitive to change in honeycomb cell cross-sectional shape. The thermal deformations and thermal stresses in the TPS panel are found to be very sensitive to the edge support conditions. Slight corrugation of the honeycomb cell walls can greatly increase their buckling strength.

  7. Insulated Honeycomb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Balakrishna T.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed insulated honeycomb structure similar to reinforced honeycomb structure described in NPO-17538. Panels of insulated honeycomb used to make supports for solar-energy collectors and radar antennas.

  8. Prospects of pulse phase thermography for finding disbonds in CFRP-sandwich parts with aluminum honeycomb cores compared to ultrasonic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, J.; Stotter, B.; Mayr, G.; Hendorfer, G.

    2013-01-01

    This work shows the prospects of pulse phase thermography (PPT) compared to ultrasonic testing when applied to carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sandwich parts with aluminum honeycomb cores. Measurements were carried out on full-scale components with flaws like disbonds, septum disbonds, staggers and displaced cores, where the last two are not literally flaws, but nevertheless regions of interest. The effect of the measurement time and the feasibility of extrapolating temperature decays were evaluated. Phase images, gathered with PPT, are compared with ultrasonic Cscan images to show the capability of PPT for quality assurance purposes. Finally, the saving on inspection time when using pulse phase thermography instead of ultrasonic testing is considered.

  9. Modeling and structural analysis of honeycomb structure mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yeping

    2012-09-01

    In development of large-scale astronomical telescopes, some promising new technology and method such as honeycomb structure mirrors and silicon carbide mirrors are applied for primary mirrors. Especially in space telescopes, the mirror lightweight design is becoming the key technology and honeycomb structure mirrors are normally required more and more to reduce the cost and increase the feasibility of the telescopes system. In this paper, a parameter FEA model of a two meters honeycomb structure mirror has been built, by using the engineering analysis software ANSYS. Through this model, the structural analysis, thermal deformation analysis and the simulation active correction of low-order frequency aberration by the finite element method have been presented.

  10. Method of fabricating lightweight honeycomb structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goela, Jitendra S. (Inventor); Pickering, Michael (Inventor); Taylor, Raymond L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process is disclosed for fabricating lightweight honeycomb type structures out of material such as silicon carbide (SiC) and silicon (S). The lightweight structure consists of a core to define the shape and size of the structure. The core is coated with an appropriate deposit such as SiC or Si to give the lightweight structure strength and stiffness and for bonding the lightweight structure to another surface. The core is fabricated from extremely thin ribs of appropriately stiff and strong material such as graphite. First, a graphite core consisting of an outer hexagonal cell with six inner triangular cells is constructed from the graphite ribs. The graphite core may be placed on the back-up side of a SiC faceplate and then coated with SiC to produce a monolithic structure without the use of any bonding agent. Cores and methods for the fabrication thereof in which the six inner triangular cells are further divided into a plurality of cells are also disclosed.

  11. Hypervelocity Impact Performance of Open Cell Foam Core Sandwich Panel Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Shannon; Christiansen, Eric; Lear, Dana

    2009-01-01

    Metallic foams are a relatively new class of materials with low density and novel physical, mechanical, thermal, electrical and acoustic properties. Although incompletely characterized, they offer comparable mechanical performance to traditional spacecraft structural materials (i.e. honeycomb sandwich panels) without detrimental through-thickness channeling cells. There are two competing types of metallic foams: open cell and closed cell. Open cell foams are considered the more promising technology due to their lower weight and higher degree of homogeneity. Leading micrometeoroid and orbital debris shields (MMOD) incorporate thin plates separated by a void space (i.e. Whipple shield). Inclusion of intermediate fabric layers, or multiple bumper plates have led to significant performance enhancements, yet these shields require additional non-ballistic mass for installation (fasteners, supports, etc.) that can consume up to 35% of the total shield weight [1]. Structural panels, such as open cell foam core sandwich panels, that are also capable of providing sufficient MMOD protection, represent a significant potential for increased efficiency in hypervelocity impact shielding from a systems perspective through a reduction in required non-ballistic mass. In this paper, the results of an extensive impact test program on aluminum foam core sandwich panels are reported. The effect of pore density, and core thickness on shielding performance have been evaluated over impact velocities ranging from 2.2 - 9.3 km/s at various angles. A number of additional tests on alternate sandwich panel configurations of comparable-weight have also been performed, including aluminum honeycomb sandwich panels (see Figure 1), Nomex honeycomb core sandwich panels, and 3D aluminum honeycomb sandwich panels. A total of 70 hypervelocity impact tests are reported, from which an empirical ballistic limit equation (BLE) has been derived. The BLE is in the standard form suitable for implementation in

  12. Crystallography of rare galactic honeycomb structure near supernova 1987a

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Near supernova 1987a, the rare honeycomb structure of 20-30 galactic bubbles measures 30 x 90 light years. Its remarkable regularity in bubble size suggests a single-event origin which may correlate with the nearby supernova. To test the honeycomb's regularity in shape and size, the formalism of statistical crystallography is developed here for bubble sideness. The standard size-shape relations (Lewis's law, Desch's law, and Aboav-Weaire's law) govern area, perimeter and nearest neighbor shapes. Taken together, they predict a highly non-equilibrium structure for the galactic honeycomb which evolves as a bimodal shape distribution without dominant bubble perimeter energy.

  13. Impact damage detection in sandwich composite structures using Lamb waves and laser vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamboul, B.; Passilly, B.; Roche, J.-M.; Osmont, D.

    2013-01-01

    This experimental study explores the feasibility of impact damage detection in composite sandwich structures using Lamb wave excitation and signals acquired with a laser Doppler vibrometer. Energy maps are computed from the transient velocity wave fields and used to highlight defect areas in impacted coupons of foam core and honeycomb core sandwich materials. The technique performs well for the detection of barely visible damage in this type of material, and is shown to be robust in the presence of wave reverberation. Defect extent information is not always readily retrieved from the obtained defect signatures, which depend on the wave - defect interaction mechanisms.

  14. Response of Honeycomb Core Sandwich Panel with Minimum Gage GFRP Face-Sheets to Compression Loading After Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuigg, Thomas D.; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Scotti, Stephen J.; Walker, Sandra P.

    2011-01-01

    A compression after impact study has been conducted to determine the residual strength of three sandwich panel constructions with two types of thin glass fiber reinforced polymer face-sheets and two hexagonal honeycomb Nomex core densities. Impact testing is conducted to first determine the characteristics of damage resulting from various impact energy levels. Two modes of failure are found during compression after impact tests with the density of the core precipitating the failure mode present for a given specimen. A finite element analysis is presented for prediction of the residual compressive strength of the impacted specimens. The analysis includes progressive damage modeling in the face-sheets. Preliminary analysis results were similar to the experimental results; however, a higher fidelity core material model is expected to improve the correlation.

  15. A Model for Simulating the Response of Aluminum Honeycomb Structure to Transverse Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratcliffe, James G.; Czabaj, Michael W.; Jackson, Wade C.

    2012-01-01

    A 1-dimensional material model was developed for simulating the transverse (thickness-direction) loading and unloading response of aluminum honeycomb structure. The model was implemented as a user-defined material subroutine (UMAT) in the commercial finite element analysis code, ABAQUS(Registered TradeMark)/Standard. The UMAT has been applied to analyses for simulating quasi-static indentation tests on aluminum honeycomb-based sandwich plates. Comparison of analysis results with data from these experiments shows overall good agreement. Specifically, analyses of quasi-static indentation tests yielded accurate global specimen responses. Predicted residual indentation was also in reasonable agreement with measured values. Overall, this simple model does not involve a significant computational burden, which makes it more tractable to simulate other damage mechanisms in the same analysis.

  16. Fatigue studies of polyurethane sandwich structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S. C.; Krishna, M.; Narasimha Murthy, H. N.; Sathyamoorthy, M.; Bhattacharya, Debes

    2004-10-01

    The fatigue characteristics of polyurethane foam-cored (PUF) composite sandwich structures were investigated using three-point bending tests carried out according to ASTM C 393. Three types of specimens (epoxy/glass-PUF-epoxy/glass, polyester/glass-PUF-polyester/glass, and epoxy/glass-PUF-polyester/glass) were considered for investigation. Experimental results indicate that degradation of stiffness occurs due to debonding and sliding between the skin and the foam during fatigue cycles. Epoxy/glass-PUF-epoxy/glass sandwich structures exhibit higher bending strength along with higher stiffness degradation than the other two types of sandwich panels, due to higher initial fatigue loading. The lowest fatigue properties have been obtained for the polyester/glass-PUF-polyester/glass sandwich panel specimens. Better performance of the epoxy/glass-PUF-epoxy/glass sandwich panels is most likely due to the superior properties of the outer thin skins. Most of the specimens fail within the foam region and not at the skin level. This situation is possibly due to debonding between the foam and the skin. The fatigue damage development in the foam and skin has been investigated using scanning electron microscopy.

  17. Face Sheet/Core Disbond Growth in Honeycomb Sandwich Panels Subjected to Ground-Air-Ground Pressurization and In-Plane Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Zhi M.; Krueger, Ronald; Rinker, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Typical damage modes in light honeycomb sandwich structures include face sheet/core disbonding and core fracture, both of which can pose a threat to the structural integrity of a component. These damage modes are of particular interest to aviation certification authorities since several in-service occurrences, such as rudder structural failure and other control surface malfunctions, have been attributed to face sheet/core disbonding. Extensive studies have shown that face sheet/core disbonding and core fracture can lead to damage propagation caused by internal pressure changes in the core. The increasing use of composite sandwich construction in aircraft applications makes it vitally important to understand the effect of ground-air-ground (GAG) cycles and conditions such as maneuver and gust loads on face sheet/core disbonding. The objective of the present study was to use a fracture mechanics based approach developed earlier to evaluate the loading at the disbond front caused by ground-air-ground pressurization and in-plane loading. A honeycomb sandwich panel containing a circular disbond at one face sheet/core interface was modeled with three-dimensional (3D) solid finite elements. The disbond was modeled as a discrete discontinuity and the strain energy release rate along the disbond front was computed using the Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT). Special attention was paid to the pressure-deformation coupling which can decrease the pressure load within the disbonded sandwich section significantly when the structure is highly deformed. The commercial finite element analysis software, Abaqus/Standard, was used for the analyses. The recursive pressure-deformation coupling problem was solved by representing the entrapped air in the honeycomb cells as filled cavities in Abaqus/Standard. The results show that disbond size, face sheet thickness and core thickness are important parameters that determine crack tip loading at the disbond front. Further, the pressure

  18. Development of Rene' 41 honeycomb structure as an integral cryogenic tankage/fuselage concept for future space transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shideler, J. J.; Swegle, A. R.; Fields, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The status of the structural development of an integral cryogenic-tankage/hot-fuselage concept for future space transportation systems (STS) is discussed. The concept consists of a honeycomb sandwich structure which serves the combined functions of containment of cryogenic fuel, support of vehicle loads, and thermal protection from an entry heating environment. The inner face sheet is exposed to a cryogenic (LH2) temperature of -423 F during boost; and the outer face sheet, which is slotted to reduce thermal stress, is exposed to a maximum temperature of 1400 F during a high altitude, gliding entry. A fabrication process for a Rene' 41 honeycomb sandwich panel with a core density less than 1 percent was developed which is consistent with desirable heat treatment processes for high strength.

  19. Distortion-free single point imaging of multi-layered composite sandwich panel structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marble, Andrew E.; Mastikhin, Igor V.; MacGregor, Rod P.; Akl, Mohamad; LaPlante, Gabriel; Colpitts, Bruce G.; Lee-Sullivan, Pearl; Balcom, Bruce J.

    2004-05-01

    The results of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigation concerning the effects of an aluminum honeycomb sandwich panel on the B1 and B0 fields and on subsequent image quality are presented. Although the sandwich panel structure, representative of an aircraft composite material, distorts B0 and attenuates B1, distortion-free imaging is possible using single point (constant time) imaging techniques. A new expression is derived for the error caused by gradient field distortion due to the heterogeneous magnetic susceptibility within a sample and this error is shown not to cause geometric distortion in the image. The origin of the B0 distortion in the sample under investigation was also examined. The graphite-epoxy `skin' of the panel is the principal source of the B0 distortion. Successful imaging of these structures sets the stage for the development of methods for detecting moisture ingress and degradation within composite sandwich structures.

  20. Distortion-free single point imaging of multi-layered composite sandwich panel structures.

    PubMed

    Marble, Andrew E; Mastikhin, Igor V; MacGregor, Rod P; Akl, Mohamad; LaPlante, Gabriel; Colpitts, Bruce G; Lee-Sullivan, Pearl; Balcom, Bruce J

    2004-05-01

    The results of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigation concerning the effects of an aluminum honeycomb sandwich panel on the B1 and B0 fields and on subsequent image quality are presented. Although the sandwich panel structure, representative of an aircraft composite material, distorts B0 and attenuates B1, distortion-free imaging is possible using single point (constant time) imaging techniques. A new expression is derived for the error caused by gradient field distortion due to the heterogeneous magnetic susceptibility within a sample and this error is shown not to cause geometric distortion in the image. The origin of the B0 distortion in the sample under investigation was also examined. The graphite-epoxy 'skin' of the panel is the principal source of the B0 distortion. Successful imaging of these structures sets the stage for the development of methods for detecting moisture ingress and degradation within composite sandwich structures. PMID:15082262

  1. Investigation of honeycomb structure using pulse infrared thermography method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huijuan

    2010-11-01

    To reduce weight and improve strength in the aerospace industry, composite structure has gained popularity as a replacement for conventional materials and structures, such as adhesive bonding and honeycomb structure. Honeycomb structures composed by a honeycomb core between two facesheets are very common on aerospace parts. However, the adhesive bonding process is more susceptible to quality variations during manufacturing than traditional joining methods. With the large increase in the use of composite materials and honeycomb structures, the need for high speed, large area inspection for fracture critical, sub-surface defects in aircraft, missiles and marine composites led to broad acceptance of infrared based NDT methods. Infrared thermography is one of several non-destructive testing techniques which can be used for defect detection in aircraft materials. Infrared thermography can be potentially useful, as it is quick, real time, non-contact and can examine over a relatively large area in one inspection procedure. In this paper, two kinds of defects which are of various size, shape and location below the test surface are planted in the honeycomb structure, they are all tested by pulsed thermography, analyze the thermal sequence and intensity graph got by this methods, it shows that pulsed thermography is an effective nondestructive technique for inspecting disbonding defect, can distinguish the location and the dimension of the defect exactly.

  2. Identical band gaps in structurally re-entrant honeycombs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhu-Wei; Deng, Zi-Chen

    2016-08-01

    Structurally re-entrant honeycomb is a sort of artificial lattice material, characterized by star-like unit cells with re-entrant topology, as well as a high connectivity that the number of folded sheets jointing at each vertex is at least six. In-plane elastic wave propagation in this highly connected honeycomb is investigated through the application of the finite element method in conjunction with the Bloch's theorem. Attention is devoted to exploring the band characteristics of two lattice configurations with different star-like unit cells, defined as structurally square re-entrant honeycomb (SSRH) and structurally hexagonal re-entrant honeycomb (SHRH), respectively. Identical band gaps involving their locations and widths, interestingly, are present in the two considered configurations, attributed to the resonance of the sketch folded sheets, the basic component elements for SSRH and SHRH. In addition, the concept of heuristic models is implemented to elucidate the underlying physics of the identical gaps. The phenomenon of the identical bandgaps is not only beneficial for people to further explore the band characteristics of lattice materials, but also provides the structurally re-entrant honeycombs as potential host structures for the design of lattice-based metamaterials of interest for elastic wave control. PMID:27586722

  3. Structural Analysis of Sandwich Foam Panels

    SciTech Connect

    Kosny, Jan; Huo, X. Sharon

    2010-04-01

    The Sandwich Panel Technologies including Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs) can be used to replace the conventional wooden-frame construction method. The main purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC and SGI Venture, Inc. was to design a novel high R-value type of metal sandwich panelized technology. This CRADA project report presents design concept discussion and numerical analysis results from thermal performance study of this new building envelope system. The main objective of this work was to develop a basic concept of a new generation of wall panel technologies which will have R-value over R-20 will use thermal mass to improve energy performance in cooling dominated climates and will be 100% termite resistant. The main advantages of using sandwich panels are as follows: (1) better energy saving structural panels with high and uniform overall wall R-value across the elevation that could not be achieved in traditional walls; and (2) reducing the use of raw materials or need for virgin lumber. For better utilization of these Sandwich panels, engineers need to have a thorough understanding of the actual performance of the panels and system. Detailed analysis and study on the capacities and deformation of individual panels and its assembly have to be performed to achieve that goal. The major project activity was to conduct structural analysis of the stresses, strains, load capacities, and deformations of individual sandwich components under various load cases. The analysis simulated the actual loading conditions of the regular residential building and used actual material properties of the steel facings and foam.

  4. Prospects and limitations of digital Shearography and Active Thermography in finding and rating flaws in CFRP sandwich parts with honeycomb core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, J.; Mayr, G.; Hendorfer, G.

    2012-05-01

    This work shows the prospects and limitations of the non-destructive testing methods Digital Shearography and Active Thermography when applied to CFRP sandwich parts with honeycomb cores. Two specimens with different core materials (aluminum, NOMEX) and artificial flaws such as delaminations, disbonds and inclusions of foreign material, are tested with Digital Shearography and Pulse Thermography including Pulse Phase Thermography. Both methods provide a good ability for finding and rating the flaws.

  5. Finite element analysis of effective mechanical properties, vibration and acoustic performance of auxetic chiral core sandwich structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Hrishikesh Ravindra

    Honeycomb cellular materials are widely used in engineering applications due to their high strength to weight ratio and controllable effective mechanical properties. The effective properties are controlled by varying the geometry of the repetitive unit cells of honeycomb structure. Sandwich panels made of honeycomb cores are beneficial in many applications including vibration isolation and sound transmission reduction. Sandwich panels with standard honeycomb core configurations have previously been studied with regards to sound transmission behavior. It has been established that the auxetic honeycomb cores, having negative in-plane Poisson's ratio, exhibit higher sound transmission loss as compared to regular honeycomb cores. In this study, the vibration and sound transmission response of novel auxetic chiral honeycomb structures (both hexa-chiral and anti-tetra chiral), have been investigated in detail using finite element analysis with two-dimensional plane elasticity elements. Chiral honeycomb structures are made up of a linear tessellation of periodic unit cell, which consists of circular nodes of radius ' r ' connected to each other by tangent ligaments of length ' L '. The distance between two adjacent circular nodes is ' R '. These geometric parameters are tailored to obtain the chiral structure with desired effective mechanical properties of in-plane Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus and shear modulus. Results show that, for both the hexa-chiral and anti-tetra-chiral configurations with same thickness, structures with smaller node radius 'r' have higher in-plane negative Poisson's ratio, effective Young's modulus, and shear modulus. The Poisson's ratio of anti-tetra-chiral structure with small node radius and thickness is found to approach the limit of -1. A steady state dynamic response of the chiral honeycomb sandwich panel subjected to uniform pressure load on the bottom face-sheet is also investigated over a frequency range of 1 Hz to 2000 Hz. It is

  6. Hollow needle used to cut metal honeycomb structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, E. A.

    1966-01-01

    Hollow needle tool cuts metal honeycomb structures without damaging adjacent material. The hollow needle combines an electrostatic discharge and a stream of oxygen at a common point to effect rapid, accurate metal cutting. The tool design can be varied to use the hollow needle principle for cutting a variety of shapes.

  7. Pulsed phase thermography for defect detection of honeycomb structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Feng, Lichun; Li, Yanhong; Zhang, Cunlin

    2009-07-01

    Pulse Phase Thermography (PPT) has been reported as a powerful technique of the thermal NDE. In this paper, the authors show that the original phase-images of two kinds of honeycomb structure defects by PPT based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) for the signal of temperature-time of each pixel. One is the artificial defects in honeycomb structure core under surface skin, and the defects can be identified easily. The other is disbonding defect between surface skin and core, and the difference is apparent compared with bonding and no-bonding between surface skin and core. To improve the signal to noise ratio for defect inspection of honeycomb structure, the temperature decay curve of each pixel is smoothed by moving average filter and then fitted by exponential function. After FFT on the fitted data of temperature, the fitted phase-images of two kinds of honeycomb structure defects are given. Compared with the original thermal-images of PT and original phase-images, the calculated phase-images are much more improved. Another advantage is the data could be represented by coefficients of fitting functions, and the storage of data could be greatly reduced. At last, the calculation process of temperature decay curve and analysis of the influence caused by increasing sampling time and frequency are given.

  8. Titanium Honeycomb Panel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, W. Lance; Thompson, Randolph C.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal-mechanical tests were performed on a titanium honeycomb sandwich panel to experimentally validate the hypersonic wing panel concept and compare test data with analysis. Details of the test article, test fixture development, instrumentation, and test results are presented. After extensive testing to 900 deg. F, non-destructive evaluation of the panel has not detected any significant structural degradation caused by the applied thermal-mechanical loads.

  9. Propogation loss with frequency of ultrasound guided waves in a composite metal-honeycomb structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Indu F.; Baid, Harsh K.; Guzman, Narciso; Kempen, Lothar U.; Mal, Ajit

    2009-05-01

    Non-destructive testing of critical structural components is time consuming, while necessary for maintaining safe operation. Large aerospace structures, such as the vertical stabilizers of aircraft undergo inspection at regular intervals for damage diagnostics. However, conventional techniques for damage detection and identification before repair can be scheduled are conducted off-line and therefore can take weeks. The use of guided ultrasound waves is being investigated to expedite damage detection in composites. We measure the frequency dependent loss of ultrasonic guided waves for a structure comprising a boron-nitride composite skin sandwiching an aluminum honeycomb. A wide range of ultrasound frequencies propagate as measured using PZTs, with the lowest attenuation observed about 200-250 kHz. These measurements are confirmed using optical fiber Bragg grating arrays used as ultrasound transducers.

  10. Development of Pyrrone structural forms for honeycomb filler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimmel, B. G.

    1973-01-01

    The development of techniques for the preparation of Pyrrone structural foams for use as honeycomb filler is described. The feasibility of preparing foams from polymers formed by the condensation of 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB), or 3,3',4,4'-tetraaminobenzophenone (TABP), with 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) was investigated. Initially, most of the effort was devoted to preparing Pyrrone prepolymers with improved and more reproducible foaming properties for making chemically blown foams. When it became apparent that very high curing shrinkages would not allow the use of unfilled Pyrrone prepolymers in a foam-in-place process, emphasis was shifted from chemically blown foams to syntactic foams. Syntactic foam formulations containing hollow carbon microspheres were developed. Syntactic foams made from selected formulations were found to have very low coefficients of thermal expansion. A technique was developed for the emplacement of Pyrrone syntactic foam formulations in honeycomb core structures.

  11. A preliminary report on the effect of elevated temperature exposure on the mechanical properties of titanium-alloy honeycomb-core sandwich panels.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, T. T.; Cain, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    A study has been initiated to determine the effects of elevated-temperature exposure on the room-temperature mechanical properties of titanium honeycomb-core sandwich panels fabricated by brazing or spot diffusion bonding. Only flatwise tensile properties following exposure have been determined to date. Preliminary results indicate very little change in the flatwise tensile strength of sandwich panels fabricated by spot diffusion bonding following exposures of 10,000 hr at 600 and 800 F and 1000 hr at 1000 F. Titanium panels fabricated by using a Ti-Zr-Be braze alloy are susceptible to oxidation at elevated temperature and experience flatwise tensile strength degradation after continuous exposures of 7500 hr at 600 F, 1000 hr at 800 F, and less than 100 hr at 1000 F. It is possible that the exposure life of the brazed panels may be substantially increased if the panel edges are sealed to prevent oxidation of the braze alloy.

  12. Total heat transport data for plastic honeycomb-type structures

    SciTech Connect

    Platzer, W.J. )

    1992-11-01

    The total heat transport within honeycomb-type structures consists mainly of radiation and conduction heat transport, as convection is usually suppressed. For surface emissivities larger than 0.7, independent mode analysis may be used, and a splitting of the measured total heat transport into parts is possible. Only a few parameters used in simple modeling equations are needed to describe the heat transport in this approximation. They have been obtained by fitting the functions to experimental results and are presented in tabular form for 11 different materials. The thickness and temperature dependence is included in the results. The presented data may be used as input parameters either for simple calculations in an independent mode analysis (IMA) or for a dependent mode analysis (DMA). Thus even selective flat-plate honeycomb collectors may be modeled reliably.

  13. Characterization of Thermal and Mechanical Impact on Aluminum Honeycomb Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Christen M.

    2013-01-01

    This study supports NASA Kennedy Space Center's research in the area of intelligent thermal management systems and multifunctional thermal systems. This project addresses the evaluation of the mechanical and thermal properties of metallic cellular solid (MCS) materials; those that are lightweight; high strength, tunable, multifunctional and affordable. A portion of the work includes understanding the mechanical properties of honeycomb structured cellular solids upon impact testing under ambient, water-immersed, liquid nitrogen-cooled, and liquid nitrogen-immersed conditions. Additionally, this study will address characterization techniques of the aluminum honeycomb's ability to resist multiple high-rate loadings or impacts in varying environmental conditions, using various techniques for the quantitative and qualitative determination for commercial applicability.

  14. Efficient Design and Analysis of Lightweight Reinforced Core Sandwich and PRSEUS Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Yarrington, Phillip W.; Lucking, Ryan C.; Collier, Craig S.; Ainsworth, James J.; Toubia, Elias A.

    2012-01-01

    Design, analysis, and sizing methods for two novel structural panel concepts have been developed and incorporated into the HyperSizer Structural Sizing Software. Reinforced Core Sandwich (RCS) panels consist of a foam core with reinforcing composite webs connecting composite facesheets. Boeing s Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) panels use a pultruded unidirectional composite rod to provide axial stiffness along with integrated transverse frames and stitching. Both of these structural concepts are ovencured and have shown great promise applications in lightweight structures, but have suffered from the lack of efficient sizing capabilities similar to those that exist for honeycomb sandwich, foam sandwich, hat stiffened, and other, more traditional concepts. Now, with accurate design methods for RCS and PRSEUS panels available in HyperSizer, these concepts can be traded and used in designs as is done with the more traditional structural concepts. The methods developed to enable sizing of RCS and PRSEUS are outlined, as are results showing the validity and utility of the methods. Applications include several large NASA heavy lift launch vehicle structures.

  15. Buckling Testing and Analysis of Honeycomb Sandwich Panel Arc Segments of a Full-Scale Fairing Barrel. Part 3; 8-ply Out-of-Autoclave Facesheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Myers, David E.; Kosareo, Daniel N.; Kellas, Sotiris

    2014-01-01

    Four honeycomb sandwich panels, representing 1/16th arc segments of a 10 m diameter barrel section of the heavy lift launch vehicle, were manufactured under the NASA Composites for Exploration program and the NASA Constellation Ares V program. Two configurations were chosen for the panels: 6-ply facesheets with 1.125 in. honeycomb core and 8-ply facesheets with 1.000 in. honeycomb core. Additionally, two separate carbon fiber/epoxy material systems were chosen for the facesheets: inautoclave IM7/977-3 and out-of-autoclave T40-800B/5320-1. Smaller 3- by 5-ft panels were cut from the 1/16th barrel sections. These panels were tested under compressive loading at the NASA Langley Research Center. Furthermore, linear eigenvalue and geometrically nonlinear finite element analyses were performed to predict the compressive response of the 3- by 5-ft panels. This manuscript summarizes the experimental and analytical modeling efforts pertaining to the panel composed of 8-ply, T40-800B/5320-1 facesheets (referred to as Panel C). To improve the robustness of the geometrically nonlinear finite element model, measured surface imperfections were included in the geometry of the model. Both the linear and nonlinear, two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D), models yield good qualitative and quantitative predictions. Additionally, it was predicted correctly that the panel would fail in buckling prior to failing in strength.

  16. Buckling Testing and Analysis of Honeycomb Sandwich Panel Arc Segments of a Full-Scale Fairing Barrel: Comparison of In- and Out-of-Autoclave Facesheet Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pineda, Evan Jorge; Myers, David E.; Kosareo, Daniel N.; Zalewski, Bart F.; Kellas, Sotiris; Dixon, Genevieve D.; Krivanek, Thomas M.; Gyekenyesi, Thomas G.

    2014-01-01

    Four honeycomb sandwich panels, representing 1/16th arc segments of a 10-m diameter barrel section of the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle, were manufactured and tested under the NASA Composites for Exploration and the NASA Constellation Ares V programs. Two configurations were chosen for the panels: 6-ply facesheets with 1.125 in. honeycomb core and 8-ply facesheets with 1.0 in. honeycomb core. Additionally, two separate carbon fiber/epoxy material systems were chosen for the facesheets: in-autoclave IM7/977-3 and out-of-autoclave T40-800b/5320-1. Smaller 3 ft. by 5 ft. panels were cut from the 1/16th barrel sections and tested under compressive loading. Furthermore, linear eigenvalue and geometrically nonlinear finite element analyses were performed to predict the compressive response of each 3 ft. by 5 ft. panel. To improve the robustness of the geometrically nonlinear finite element model, measured surface imperfections were included in the geometry of the model. Both the linear and nonlinear models yielded good qualitative and quantitative predictions. Additionally, it was correctly predicted that the panel would fail in buckling prior to failing in strength. Furthermore, several imperfection studies were performed to investigate the influence of geometric imperfections, fiber angle misalignments, and three-dimensional effects on the compressive response of the panel.

  17. The dynamic shear properties of structural honeycomb materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, R. D.; Maheri, M. R.

    A technique is described for measuring the dynamic modulus and damping of honeycomb materials. Results of tests on both aluminium and Nomex honeycombs are presented and compared with those reported in the literature.

  18. Hypervelocity Impact Performance of Open Cell Foam Core Sandwich Panel Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, S.; Ordonez, E.; Christiansen, E. L.; Lear, D. M.

    2010-01-01

    Open cell metallic foam core sandwich panel structures are of interest for application in spacecraft micrometeoroid and orbital debris shields due to their novel form and advantageous structural and thermal performance. Repeated shocking as a result of secondary impacts upon individual foam ligaments during the penetration process acts to raise the thermal state of impacting projectiles ; resulting in fragmentation, melting, and vaporization at lower velocities than with traditional shielding configurations (e.g. Whipple shield). In order to characterize the protective capability of these structures, an extensive experimental campaign was performed by the Johnson Space Center Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility, the results of which are reported in this paper. Although not capable of competing against the protection levels achievable with leading heavy shields in use on modern high-risk vehicles (i.e. International Space Station modules), metallic foam core sandwich panels are shown to provide a substantial improvement over comparable structural panels and traditional low weight shielding alternatives such as honeycomb sandwich panels and metallic Whipple shields. A ballistic limit equation, generalized in terms of panel geometry, is derived and presented in a form suitable for application in risk assessment codes.

  19. High Velocity Impact Response of Composite Lattice Core Sandwich Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bing; Zhang, Guoqi; Wang, Shixun; Ma, Li; Wu, Linzhi

    2014-04-01

    In this research, carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite sandwich structures with pyramidal lattice core subjected to high velocity impact ranging from 180 to 2,000 m/s have been investigated by experimental and numerical methods. Experiments using a two-stage light gas gun are conducted to investigate the impact process and to validate the finite element (FE) model. The energy absorption efficiency (EAE) in carbon fiber composite sandwich panels is compared with that of 304 stainless-steel and aluminum alloy lattice core sandwich structures. In a specific impact energy range, energy absorption efficiency in carbon fiber composite sandwich panels is higher than that of 304 stainless-steel sandwich panels and aluminum alloy sandwich panels owing to the big density of metal materials. Therefore, in addition to the multi-functional applications, carbon fiber composite sandwich panels have a potential advantage to substitute the metal sandwich panels as high velocity impact resistance structures under a specific impact energy range.

  20. Sound transmission loss of composite sandwich panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ran

    Light composite sandwich panels are increasingly used in automobiles, ships and aircraft, because of the advantages they offer of high strength-to-weight ratios. However, the acoustical properties of these light and stiff structures can be less desirable than those of equivalent metal panels. These undesirable properties can lead to high interior noise levels. A number of researchers have studied the acoustical properties of honeycomb and foam sandwich panels. Not much work, however, has been carried out on foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels. In this dissertation, governing equations for the forced vibration of asymmetric sandwich panels are developed. An analytical expression for modal densities of symmetric sandwich panels is derived from a sixth-order governing equation. A boundary element analysis model for the sound transmission loss of symmetric sandwich panels is proposed. Measurements of the modal density, total loss factor, radiation loss factor, and sound transmission loss of foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels with different configurations and thicknesses are presented. Comparisons between the predicted sound transmission loss values obtained from wave impedance analysis, statistical energy analysis, boundary element analysis, and experimental values are presented. The wave impedance analysis model provides accurate predictions of sound transmission loss for the thin foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels at frequencies above their first resonance frequencies. The predictions from the statistical energy analysis model are in better agreement with the experimental transmission loss values of the sandwich panels when the measured radiation loss factor values near coincidence are used instead of the theoretical values for single-layer panels. The proposed boundary element analysis model provides more accurate predictions of sound transmission loss for the thick foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels than either the wave impedance analysis model or the

  1. Numerically simulating the sandwich plate system structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Guo-Qing; Li, Gang; Liu, Zhi-Hui; Niu, Huai-Lei; Li, Chen-Feng

    2010-09-01

    Sandwich plate systems (SPS) are advanced materials that have begun to receive extensive attention in naval architecture and ocean engineering. At present, according to the rules of classification societies, a mixture of shell and solid elements are required to simulate an SPS. Based on the principle of stiffness decomposition, a new numerical simulation method for shell elements was proposed. In accordance with the principle of stiffness decomposition, the total stiffness can be decomposed into the bending stiffness and shear stiffness. Displacement and stress response related to bending stiffness was calculated with the laminated shell element. Displacement and stress response due to shear was calculated by use of a computational code write by FORTRAN language. Then the total displacement and stress response for the SPS was obtained by adding together these two parts of total displacement and stress. Finally, a rectangular SPS plate and a double-bottom structure were used for a simulation. The results show that the deflection simulated by the elements proposed in the paper is larger than the same simulated by solid elements and the analytical solution according to Hoff theory and approximate to the same simulated by the mixture of shell-solid elements, and the stress simulated by the elements proposed in the paper is approximate to the other simulating methods. So compared with calculations based on a mixture of shell and solid elements, the numerical simulation method given in the paper is more efficient and easier to do.

  2. Foam core materials for structural sandwich panels

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Jongshin.

    1991-01-01

    The author first investigates the creep of polymer foam cores. Models for the creep of linear and nonlinear viscoelastic polymer foams are proposed. Experimental results for the creep of a rigid polyurethane foam are compared to the mode; agreement is good. The results indicate that creep can limit the design of building panels with polymer foam cores. Next, he studies the potential of using ceramic foams as a core material in building panels. Ceramic foams have a high stiffness, high creep resistance, low cost, and are incombustible. Ceramic foams, however, have a low fracture toughness and tensile strength. Assuming that the variability of cell wall modulus of rupture follows a Weibull distribution, there is a cell size effect on both the fracture toughness and tensile strength. Both the tensile strength and fracture toughness of ceramic foams can be improved by controlling the cell size. Since cell wall deformation of cellular materials is primarily by bending, the mechanical properties of cellular materials may be improved by making cell walls into sandwich structures. Hollow-sphere composites are made by introducing thin-walled hollow spheres into a matrix.

  3. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) for Inspection of Composite Sandwich Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Parker, F. Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Composite honeycomb structures are widely used in aerospace applications due to their low weight and high strength advantages. Developing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) inspection methods are essential for their safe performance. Flash thermography is a commonly used technique for composite honeycomb structure inspections due to its large area and rapid inspection capability. Flash thermography is shown to be sensitive for detection of face sheet impact damage and face sheet to core disbond. Data processing techniques, using principal component analysis to improve the defect contrast, are discussed. Limitations to the thermal detection of the core are investigated. In addition to flash thermography, X-ray computed tomography is used. The aluminum honeycomb core provides excellent X-ray contrast compared to the composite face sheet. The X-ray CT technique was used to detect impact damage, core crushing, and skin to core disbonds. Additionally, the X-ray CT technique is used to validate the thermography results.

  4. Thermographic nondestructive testing (TNDT) of honeycomb composite structural parts of Atlas space launch vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Burleigh, D.D.; Kuhns, D.R.; Cowell, S.D.; Engel, J.E.

    1994-12-31

    Thermography is a means of recording the patterns of heat emission from a surface. Thermographic nondestructive testing (TNDT) uses this technology to detect sub-surface defects. Generally, a heat pulse is applied to a surface that is thermographically monitored. If a sub-surface defect exists that locally reduces or improves the thermal properties of the material, the surface thermal pattern will be perturbed over the defect. TNDT has been used successfully on a wide variety of composite laminates, filament-wound structures, sandwich structures, and foam-insulated cryogenic tanks. Both real structures with real delamination and impact damage, as well as test panels with simulated delaminations, face sheet disbonds, and interply implants have been tested. For some of these applications, TNDT is the best technique. The thrust structure at the aft end of the Atlas space launch vehicle is a composite sandwich comprised of aluminum honeycomb core with fiberglass/phenolic face sheets. The surface area of this structure is approximately 600 ft{sup 2}. In 1992, General Dynamics Space Systems Division (GDSS) began using TNDT for quality verification of these complex composite parts. TNDT has been used on these parts during manufacture and assembly, and on the launch pad at Cape Canaveral. The NDT technique previously used on these parts, since their design in 1957, was ``coin tap.`` Compared to this method, TNDT provides a greatly improved inspection in less time and at a lower cost. A heat gun with a diffuser attachment is used to heat the inspection area while the area is monitored thermographically. TNDT is a rapid, remote, non-contact, highly portable, real-time scanning technique that can provide a well-documented video record of subsurface structural details including facesheet disbonds and skin delaminations. A specification and test procedure has been written, equipment has been procured, and personnel have been trained and certified.

  5. Fiber Composite Sandwich Thermostructural Behavior: Computational Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Aiello, R. A.; Murthy, P. L. N.

    1986-01-01

    Several computational levels of progressive sophistication/simplification are described to computationally simulate composite sandwich hygral, thermal, and structural behavior. The computational levels of sophistication include: (1) three-dimensional detailed finite element modeling of the honeycomb, the adhesive and the composite faces; (2) three-dimensional finite element modeling of the honeycomb assumed to be an equivalent continuous, homogeneous medium, the adhesive and the composite faces; (3) laminate theory simulation where the honeycomb (metal or composite) is assumed to consist of plies with equivalent properties; and (4) derivations of approximate, simplified equations for thermal and mechanical properties by simulating the honeycomb as an equivalent homogeneous medium. The approximate equations are combined with composite hygrothermomechanical and laminate theories to provide a simple and effective computational procedure for simulating the thermomechanical/thermostructural behavior of fiber composite sandwich structures.

  6. Buckling Testing and Analysis of Honeycomb Sandwich Panel Arc Segments of a Full-Scale Fairing Barrel. Part 2; 6-Ply In-Autoclave Facesheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Meyers, David E.; Kosareo, Daniel N.; Zalewski, Bart F.; Dixon, Genevieve D.

    2013-01-01

    Four honeycomb sandwich panel types, representing 1/16th arc segments of a 10-m diameter barrel section of the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), were manufactured and tested under the NASA Composites for Exploration program and the NASA Constellation Ares V program. Two configurations were chosen for the panels: 6-ply facesheets with 1.125 in. honeycomb core and 8-ply facesheets with 1.000 in. honeycomb core. Additionally, two separate carbon fiber/epoxy material systems were chosen for the facesheets: in-autoclave IM7/977-3 and out-of-autoclave T40-800b/5320-1. Smaller 3- by 5-ft panels were cut from the 1/16th barrel sections. These panels were tested under compressive loading at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Furthermore, linear eigenvalue and geometrically nonlinear finite element analyses were performed to predict the compressive response of each 3- by 5-ft panel. This manuscript summarizes the experimental and analytical modeling efforts pertaining to the panels composed of 6-ply, IM7/977-3 facesheets (referred to as Panels B-1 and B-2). To improve the robustness of the geometrically nonlinear finite element model, measured surface imperfections were included in the geometry of the model. Both the linear and nonlinear models yield good qualitative and quantitative predictions. Additionally, it was correctly predicted that the panel would fail in buckling prior to failing in strength. Furthermore, several imperfection studies were performed to investigate the influence of geometric imperfections, fiber angle misalignments, and three-dimensional (3-D) effects on the compressive response of the panel.

  7. Phosphorenes with Non-Honeycomb Structures: A Much Extended Family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Menghao; Fu, Huahua; Zhou, Ling; Yao, Kailun; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Huazhong University of Science; Technology Team; University of Nebraska-Lincoln Team

    We predict a new class of monolayer phosphorous allotropes, namely, ɛ-P, ζ-P, η-P and θ-P. Distinctly different from the monolayer α-P (black) and previously predicted β-P (Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 176802 (2014)), γ-P and δ-P (Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 046804 (2014)) with buckled honeycomb lattice, the new allotropes are composed of P4 square or P5 pentagon units that favor tricoordination for P atoms. The new four phases, together with 5 hybrid phases, are confirmed stable by first-principles calculations. In particularly, the θ-P is shown to be equally stable as the α-P (black) and more stable than all previously reported phosphorene allotropes. Prediction of nonvolatile ferroelastic switching and structural transformation among different phases under strains points out their potential applications via strain engineering. MHW was supported by start-up fund from Huazhong University of Science and Technology.

  8. Methods for Using Durable Adhesively Bonded Joints for Sandwich Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smeltzer, Stanley S., III (Inventor); Lundgren, Eric C. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems, methods, and apparatus for increasing durability of adhesively bonded joints in a sandwich structure. Such systems, methods, and apparatus includes an first face sheet and an second face sheet as well as an insert structure, the insert structure having a first insert face sheet, a second insert face sheet, and an insert core material. In addition, sandwich core material is arranged between the first face sheet and the second face sheet. A primary bondline may be coupled to the face sheet(s) and the splice. Further, systems, methods, and apparatus of the present disclosure advantageously reduce the load, provide a redundant path, reduce structural fatigue, and/or increase fatigue life.

  9. Toughness of composite steel-concrete structure of sandwich system

    SciTech Connect

    Iwata, Setsuo; Hattori, Yoichi

    1994-12-31

    Offshore structure should have a high degree of structural safety not only under normal conditions but also extreme conditions even under collision loadings. The authors carried out both experimental and theoretical investigations on the toughness of the sandwich composite structures. Experiments were carried out for the two-dimensional models of composite structures under pure bending and combined shear and bending as well. A nonlinear analysis was developed to predict the toughness of sandwich beam under pure bending. In the analysis the material nonlinearity of both concrete and steel plate were taken into consideration. The analysis were found to be very close to the experimental results.

  10. Stiff, Strong Splice For A Composite Sandwich Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmaling, D.

    1991-01-01

    New type of splice for composite sandwich structure reduces peak shear stress in structure. Layers of alternating fiber orientation interposed between thin ears in adhesive joint. Developed for structural joint in spar of helicopter rotor blade, increases precision of control over thickness of adhesive at joint. Joint easy to make, requires no additional pieces, and adds little weight.

  11. In situ processing methods for composite fuselage sandwich structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saatchi, Hossein; Durako, Bill; Reynolds, Dick; Dost, Ernest; Willden, Kurtis

    1993-01-01

    Conventional sandwich structure fabrication methods are labor intensive and high in cost. A low cost method is needed to produce lightweight sandwich structures. Sundstrand has developed a series of in situ composite fabrication methods in which the raw materials (skin and core materials) are placed in a closed mold, and the component is produced in one heating cycle. Internal pressure is generated by chemical agents during the thermal cycles, which consolidates the skins and produces the foam core. The finished part is a net-shape composite sandwich structure with skins and a foamed core. The in situ process reduces cost by eliminating several secondary operations that are used in conventional fabrication methods. Further, a strong molecular bond is produced between the core and skin, which eliminates adhesive bonding and prevents a weak bond section in the sandwich structure. In this investigation, we evaluated the feasibility of the in situ process using thermoset materials currently under consideration for commercial airplane fuselage applications, such as keel sections. The materials used were Hercules 855340 toughened epoxy resin in both liquid and powder forms, and 3M Scotchply PR500 resin, manufactured by 3M Corporation, in powder form. We successfully foamed these resins and produced experimental panels with AS-4/855340 Hercules prepreg skins. Chopped fibers were added to the core to increase performance of the foam. Mechanical property testing on these panels showed properties competitive with other foams. Additional experiments are required to optimize the in situ foam core sandwiches for specific properties and applications.

  12. Actively cooled plate fin sandwich structural panels for hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, L. M.; Beuyukian, C. S.

    1979-01-01

    An unshielded actively cooled structural panel was designed for application to a hypersonic aircraft. The design was an all aluminum stringer-stiffened platefin sandwich structure which used a 60/40 mixture of ethylene glycol/water as the coolant. Eight small test specimens of the basic platefin sandwich concept and three fatigue specimens from critical areas of the panel design was fabricated and tested (at room temperature). A test panel representative of all features of the panel design was fabricated and tested to determine the combined thermal/mechanical performance and structural integrity of the system. The overall findings are that; (1) the stringer-stiffened platefin sandwich actively cooling concept results in a low mass design that is an excellent contender for application to a hypersonic vehicle, and (2) the fabrication processes are state of the art but new or modified facilities are required to support full scale panel fabrication.

  13. Combined compressive and shear buckling analysis of hypersonic aircraft structural sandwich panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Jackson, Raymond H.

    1991-01-01

    The combined-load (compression and shear) buckling equations were established for orthotropic sandwich panels by using the Rayleigh-Ritz method to minimize the panel total potential energy. The resulting combined-load buckling equations were used to generate buckling interaction curves for super-plastically-formed/diffusion-bonded titanium truss-core sandwich panels and titanium honeycomb-core sandwich panels having the same specific weight. The relative combined-load buckling strengths of these two types of sandwich panels are compared with consideration of their sandwich orientations. For square and nearly square panels of both types, the combined load always induces symmetric buckling. As the panel aspect ratios increase, antisymmetric buckling will show up when the loading is shear-dominated combined loading. The square panel (either type) has the highest combined buckling strength, but the combined load buckling strength drops sharply as the panel aspect ratio increases. For square panels, the truss-core sandwich panel has higher compression-dominated combined load buckling strength. However, for shear dominated loading, the square honeycomb-core sandwich panel has higher shear-dominated combined load buckling strength.

  14. Composite Cocured Modular Eggcrate-Core Sandwich Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magurany, Charles J.

    1995-01-01

    Lightweight composite-material (e.g., graphite fiber/epoxy matrix) cocured sandwich panels with eggcratelike cores developed for use as principal components of optical benches and other structures that support precise optical instruments. Structures offer greater thermal and mechanical stability. Advantages include easier fabrication and better mechanical properties.

  15. Thermal and structural tests of Rene 41 honeycomb integral-tank concept for future space transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shideler, John L.; Fields, Roger A.; Reardon, Lawrence F.; Gong, Leslie

    1992-01-01

    Two flat 12 by 72 inch Rene 41 honeycomb sandwich panels were tested in a manner to produce combined thermal and mechanical longitudinal stresses that simulated those that would occur in a larger, more complex integral tank and fuselage structure of an earth to orbit vehicle. Elastic strains measured at temperatures below 400 F are compared with calculated values obtained from a linear elastic finite element analysis to verify the analytical model and to establish confidence in the calculated strains. Elastic strain measurement at higher temperatures (between 600 F and 1400 F), where strain measurement is more difficult and less certain, are also compared with calculated strains. Agreement between measured and calculated strains for the lower temperatures is good, but agreement for the higher temperatures is poor because of unreliable strain measurements. Test results indicate that an ascent and entry life cycle of 500 is attainable under high combined thermal and mechanical elastic strains.

  16. Surface deformation monitoring and reconstruction of honeycomb structure based on FBG sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shulin; Lu, Jiyun; Zheng, Zhaoyu

    2015-07-01

    Honeycomb structure with high stiffness and light weight is expected to be more applied in the field of morphing wing. We propose a surface reconstruction algorithm based on FBG sensors to reconstruct the surface deformation of honeycomb structure real-timely and rapidly. When flexible honeycomb cores are driven by SMA actuators, the surface curvature monitored by FBG sensing array can be inferred from the changes of central wavelength. According to the surface reconstruction algorithm we proposed, the surface shape can be reconstructed. Composite single-row honeycomb structure specimen consisting of 8 cores, whose cell walls length and thickness is 8mm and 2mm respectively, is bended by electrified SMA actuators into the new steady shape. The experiment shows that the reconstructed surface shape has great agreement with the visual recording surface shape and the error is 5.76% on average.

  17. Directed Self-Assembly of Large Scaffold-free Multicellular Honeycomb Structures

    PubMed Central

    Tejavibulya, Nalin; Youssef, Jacquelyn; Bao, Brian; Ferruccio, Toni-Marie; Morgan, Jeffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    A significant challenge to the field of biofabrication is the rapid construction of large three dimensional (3D) living tissues and organs. Multi-cellular spheroids have been used as building blocks. In this paper, we create large multi-cellular honeycomb building blocks using directed self-assembly, whereby cell-to-cell adhesion, in the context of the shape and obstacles of a micromold, drives the formation of a 3D structure. Computer aided design, rapid prototyping and replica molding were used to fabricate honeycomb-shaped micro-molds. Nonadhesive hydrogels cast from these micro-molds were equilibrated in cell culture medium and seeded with two types of mammalian cells. The cells settled into the honeycomb recess, were unable to attach to the nonadhesive hydrogel and so cell-to-cell adhesion drove the self-assembly of a large multicellular honeycomb within 24 hours. Distinct morphological changes occurred to the honeycomb and its cells indicating the presence of significant cell-mediated tension. Unlike the spheroid, whose size is constrained by a critical diffusion distance needed to maintain cell viability, the overall size of the honeycomb is not limited. The rapid production of the honeycomb building unit, with its multiple rings of high density cells and open lumen spaces, offers interesting new possibilities for biofabrication strategies. PMID:21828905

  18. Response of fiber reinforced sandwich structures subjected to explosive loading

    SciTech Connect

    Perotti, Luigi E.; El Sayed, Tamer; Deiterding, Ralf; Ortiz, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The capability to numerically simulate the response of sandwich structures to explosive loading constitutes a powerful tool to analyze and optimize their design by investigating the influence of different parameters. In order to achieve this objective, the necessary models for foam core and fiber reinforced materials in finite kinematics have been developed together with a finite element scheme which includes C1 finite elements for shells and cohesive elements able to capture the fracture propagation in composite fiber reinforced materials. This computational capability has been used to investigate the response of fiber reinforced sandwich shells to explosive loading. Based on the dissipated fracture energy resulting from these simulations, a factorial design has been carried out to assess the effect of different parameters on the sandwich shell response creating a tool for its optimization.

  19. Star cell type core configuration for structural sandwich materials

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    A new pattern for cellular core material used in sandwich type structural materials. The new pattern involves star shaped cells intermixed with hexagonal shaped cells. The new patterned cellular core material includes star shaped cells interconnected at points thereof and having hexagonal shape cells positioned adjacent the star points. The new pattern allows more flexibility and can conform more easily to curved shapes.

  20. Increased power to weight ratio of piezoelectric energy harvesters through integration of cellular honeycomb structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekharan, N.; Thompson, L. L.

    2016-04-01

    The limitations posed by batteries have compelled the need to investigate energy harvesting methods to power small electronic devices that require very low operational power. Vibration based energy harvesting methods with piezoelectric transduction in particular has been shown to possess potential towards energy harvesters replacing batteries. Current piezoelectric energy harvesters exhibit considerably lower power to weight ratio or specific power when compared to batteries the harvesters seek to replace. To attain the goal of battery-less self-sustainable device operation the power to weight ratio gap between piezoelectric energy harvesters and batteries need to be bridged. In this paper the potential of integrating lightweight honeycomb structures with existing piezoelectric device configurations (bimorph) towards achieving higher specific power is investigated. It is shown in this study that at low excitation frequency ranges, replacing the solid continuous substrate of conventional bimorph with honeycomb structures of the same material results in a significant increase in power to weight ratio of the piezoelectric harvester. At higher driving frequency ranges it is shown that unlike the traditional piezoelectric bimorph with solid continuous substrate, the honeycomb substrate bimorph can preserve optimum global design parameters through manipulation of honeycomb unit cell parameters. Increased operating lifetime and design flexibility of the honeycomb core piezoelectric bimorph is demonstrated as unit cell parameters of the honeycomb structures can be manipulated to alter mass and stiffness properties of the substrate, resulting in unit cell parameter significantly influencing power generation.

  1. Permeability and flammability study of composite sandwich structures for cryogenic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubacz, Monika

    Fiber reinforced plastics offer advantageous specific strength and stiffness compared to metals and has been identified as candidates for the reusable space transportation systems primary structures including cryogenic tanks. A number of carbon and aramid fiber reinforced plastics have been considered for the liquid hydrogen tanks. Materials selection is based upon mechanical properties and containment performance (long and short term) and upon manufacturing considerations. The liquid hydrogen tank carries shear, torque, end load, and bending moment due to gusts, maneuver, take-off, landing, lift, drag, and fuel sloshing. The tank is pressurized to about 1.5 atmosphere (14.6psi or 0.1 MPa) differential pressure and on ascent maintains the liquid hydrogen at a temperature of 20K. The objective of the research effort into lay the foundation for developing the technology required for reliable prediction of the effects of various design, manufacturing, and service parameters on the susceptibility of composite tanks to develop excessive permeability to cryogenic fuels. Efforts will be expended on developing the materials and structural concepts for the cryogenic tanks that can meet the functional requirements. This will include consideration for double wall composite sandwich structures, with inner wall to meet the cryogenic requirements. The structure will incorporate nanoparticles for properties modifications and developing barriers. The main effort will be extended to tank wall's internal skin design. The main requirements for internal composite stack are: (1) introduction of barrier film (e.g. honeycomb material paper sheet) to reduce the wall permeability to hydrogen, (2) introduction of nanoparticles into laminate resin to prevent micro-cracking or crack propagation. There is a need to characterize and analyze composite sandwich structural damage due to burning and explosion. Better understanding of the flammability and blast resistance of the composite structures

  2. Development of biobased sandwich structures for mass transit application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munusamy, Sethu Raaj

    Efforts to increase the biobased content in sandwich composites are being investigated to reduce the dependence on synthetically produced or mined, energy-intensive materials for numerous composite applications. Vegetable oil-based polyurethane foams are gaining recognition as good substitutes for synthetic counter parts while utilizing bast fiber to replace fiberglass is also gaining credence. In this study, soy oil-based polyurethane foam was evaluated as a core in a sandwich construction with facesheets of hybridized kenaf and E-glass fibers in a vinyl ester resin matrix to replace traditionally used plywood sheeting on steel frame for mass transit bus flooring systems. As a first step towards implementation, the static performance of the biobased foam was compared to 100% synthetic foam. Secondly, biobased sandwich structures were processed and their static performance was compared to plywood. The biobased sandwich composites designed and processed were shown to hold promise towards replacing plywood for bus flooring applications by displaying an increase of 130% for flexural strength and 135% for flexural modulus plus better indentation values.

  3. Detection of disbonds in a honeycomb composite structure using guided waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baid, Harsh; Banerjee, Sauvik; Joshi, Shiv; Mal, Siddhartha

    2008-03-01

    Advanced composites are being used increasingly in state-of-the-art aircraft and aerospace structures. In spite of their many advantages composite materials are highly susceptible to hidden flaws that may occur at any time during the life cycle of a structure and if undetected, may cause sudden and catastrophic failure of the entire structure. An example of such a defects critical structural component is the "honeycomb composite" in which thin composite skins are bonded with adhesives to the two faces of extremely lightweight and relatively thick metallic honeycombs. These components are often used in aircraft and aerospace structures due to their high strength to weight ratio. Unfortunately, the bond between the honeycomb and the skin may degrade with age and service loads leading to separation of the load-bearing skin from the honeycomb (called "disbonds") and compromising the safety of the structure. This paper is concerned with the noninvasive detection of disbonds using ultrasonic guided waves. Laboratory experiments are carried out on a composite honeycomb specimen containing localized disbonded regions. Ultrasonic waves are launched into the specimen using a broadband PZT transducer and are detected by a distributed array of identical transducers located on the surface of the specimen. The guided wave components of the signals are shown to be very strongly influenced by the presence of a disbond. The experimentally observed results are being used to develop an autonomous scheme to locate the disbonds and to estimate their size.

  4. Sandwiched structural panel having a bi-directional core structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A structural panel assembly has a bi-directional core structure sandwiched between and secured to a pair of outer side wall members. The core structure is formed from first and second perpendicular series of elongated strip members having crenelated configurations. The strip members in the first series thereof are transversely interwoven with the strip members in the second series thereof in a manner such that crest portions of the strip members in the first series overlie and oppose trough portions of the strip members in the second series, and trough portions of the strip members in the first series underlie and oppose crest portions of the strip members in the second series. The crest portions of all of the strip members lie generally in a first plane and are secured to the inner side of one of the panel assembly outer side walls, and the trough portions of all of the strip members lie generally in a second plane and are secured to the inner side of the other panel assembly outer side wall.

  5. The use of neutron imaging for the study of honeycomb structures in aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hungler, P. C.; Bennett, L. G. I.; Lewis, W. J.; Brenizer, J. S.; Heller, A. K.

    2009-06-01

    Highly maneuverable aircraft, such as the CF188 Hornet, have several flight control surfaces on both the leading and the trailing edges of the wing surfaces. They are composed of composite panels constructed of aluminum honeycomb core usually covered with graphite epoxy skins. Although very light and structurally stiff, they are being compromised by water ingress. The trapped water degrades their structural integrity by interacting with the adhesive. Various studies are underway to understand the movement of water in the honeycomb core as well as to determine a method of removing the water. With a vertical neutron beam tube at Royal Military College (RMC), the component can be positioned horizontally and the pooled water in each honeycomb cell can be imaged. These images have been compared with those from a horizontal beam and thus vertical placement of the structure at the Pennsylvania State University Radiation Science and Engineer Center's Breazeale reactor. Thereby, both the filet bond between the honeycomb and the skin as well as the node bond between the honeycomb cells can be studied to determine their contribution to the movement of water throughout the structure. Moreover, the exit path for water has been visualized as part of developing a drying procedure for these flight control surfaces.

  6. Star cell type core configuration for structural sandwich materials

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, R.M.

    1995-08-01

    A new pattern for cellular core material used in sandwich type structural materials is disclosed. The new pattern involves star shaped cells intermixed with hexagonal shaped cells. The new patterned cellular core material includes star shaped cells interconnected at points thereof and having hexagonal shape cells positioned adjacent the star points. The new pattern allows more flexibility and can conform more easily to curved shapes. 3 figs.

  7. A study of structurally efficient graphite-thermoplastic trapezoidal-corrugation sandwich and semi-sandwich panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jegley, Dawn C.

    1993-01-01

    The structural efficiency of compression-loaded trapezoidal-corrugation sandwich and semi-sandwich composite panels is studied to determine their weight savings potential. Sandwich panels with two identical face sheets and a trapezoidal corrugated core between them, and semi-sandwich panels with a corrugation attached to a single skin are considered. An optimization code is used to find the minimum weight designs for critical compressive load levels ranging from 3,000 to 24,000 lb/in. Graphite-thermoplastic panels based on the optimal minimum weight designs were fabricated and tested. A finite-element analysis of several test specimens was also conducted. The results of the optimization study, the finite-element analysis, and the experiments are presented.

  8. Nonlinear excitations in the honeycomb lattice: Beyond the high-symmetry points of the band structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arévalo, Edward; Morales-Molina, Luis

    2016-05-01

    The interplay between nonlinearity and the band structure of pristine honeycomb lattices is systematically explored. For that purpose, a theory of collective excitations valid for the first Brillouin zone of the lattice is developed. Closed-form expressions of two-dimensional excitations are derived for Bloch wave numbers beyond the high-symmetry points of the band structure. A description of the regions of validity of different nonlinear excitations in the first-Brillouin zone is given. We find that the unbounded nature of these excitations in nonlinear honeycomb latices is a signature of the strong influence of the Dirac cones in other parts of the band structure.

  9. Probability of Detection Study on Impact Damage to Honeycomb Composite Structure using Thermographic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, Andrew J.; Walker, James L., II

    2008-01-01

    A probability of detection study was performed for the detection of impact damage using flash heating infrared thermography on a full scale honeycomb composite structure. The honeycomb structure was an intertank structure from a previous NASA technology demonstration program. The intertank was fabricated from IM7/8552 carbon fiber/epoxy facesheets and aluminum honeycomb core. The intertank was impacted in multiple locations with a range of impact energies utilizing a spherical indenter. In a single blind study, the intertank was inspected with thermography before and after impact damage was incurred. Following thermographic inspection several impact sites were sectioned from the intertank and cross-sectioned for microscopic comparisons of NDE detection and actual damage incurred. The study concluded that thermographic inspection was a good method of detecting delamination damage incurred by impact. The 90/95 confidence level on the probability of detection was close to the impact energy that delaminations were first observed through cross-sectional analysis.

  10. Novel MRE/CFRP sandwich structures for adaptive vibration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlowska, J.; Boczkowska, A.; Czulak, A.; Przybyszewski, B.; Holeczek, K.; Stanik, R.; Gude, M.

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work was the development of sandwich structures formed by embedding magnetorheological elastomers (MRE) between constrained layers of carbon fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminates. The MREs were obtained by mechanical stirring of a reactive mixture of substrates with carbonyl-iron particles, followed by orienting the particles into chains under an external magnetic field. Samples with particle volume fractions of 11.5% and 33% were examined. The CFRP/MRE sandwich structures were obtained by compressing MREs samples between two CFRP laminates composed. The used A.S.SET resin was in powder form and the curing process was carried out during pressing with MRE. The microstructure of the manufactured sandwich beams was inspected using SEM. Moreover, the rheological and damping properties of the examined materials with and without a magnetic field were experimentally investigated. In addition, the free vibration responses of the adaptive three-layered MR beams were studied at different fixed magnetic field levels. The free vibration tests revealed that an applied non-homogeneous magnetic field causes a shift in natural frequency values and a reduction in the vibration amplitudes of the CFRP/MRE adaptive beams. The reduction in vibration amplitude was attributed mainly to the stiffening effect of the MRE core and only a minor contribution was made by the enhanced damping capacity, which was evidenced by the variation in damping ratio values.

  11. Flow past an array of catalyst blocks with a honeycomb structure

    SciTech Connect

    Bespalov, A.V.

    1992-07-10

    There is interest in an organized stationary catalyst beds consisting of block catalysts with a honeycomb structure: The flow is directed between vertically positioned blocks, in which the through channels are oriented perpendicularly to the direction of the incident flow ({alpha} = 90{degrees}). Calculations of the flow past a single block of honey comb structure were performed for this case, and it has been shown that the surface of the through channel is accessible to the reaction flow. The authors continued this effort to quantitate the flow with honeycomb catalysts. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Sensing and actuation of smart chiral honeycombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramovitch, H.; Burgard, M.; Edery-Azulay, Lucy; Evans, K. E.; Hoffmeister, M.; Miller, W.; Scarpa, F.; Smith, C. W.; Tee, K. F.; Schönecker, A.; Seffner, L.

    2008-03-01

    A chiral honeycomb configuration is developed with embedded piezosensors and actuators for smart sandwich panel applications. The chiral honeycomb concept is made of repeating units of cylinders and plates (ligaments), featuring an in-plane negative Poisson's ratio. Rapid Prototyping vacuum-cast and FDM (Fusion Deposition Moulding) techniques are developed to embed micro fibres composites to be used for potential structural health monitoring (SHM) applications, and microwave absorption screens for electromagnetic compatibility. Finite Element models are also developed to prototype and simulate the response, sensing and actuation capability of the honeycombs for design purposes. Dynamic tests using scanning laser vibrometers and acoustic wave propagation are carried out to assess the feasibility of the concept.

  13. Open-die forging of structurally porous sandwich panels

    SciTech Connect

    Elzey, D.M.; Wadley, H.N.G.

    1999-10-01

    Structurally porous metal sandwich panels consisting of dense face sheets and porous cores of controlled relative density can be manufactured by trapping inert gas during hot isostatic pressing and modifying its distribution via subsequent thermomechanical forming. A plane-strain solution for analyzing the open-die forging of such a plastically compressible sandwich panel is developed. An effective yield potential for the face sheet/core sandwich is constructed from the Mises yield criterion for the rigid-plastic face sheet and Doraivelu et al's density-dependent yield function for the compressible core. This effective constitutive response is used in a classical slab analysis of open-die forging. The analysis predicts the upsetting force and the distributions of pressure, core relative density, and average stresses within both the face sheet and the core. During upsetting, a zone of fully constrained material (i.e., with zero lateral strain) is predicted to occur at the center of the workpiece, and this densifies first. A densification front then advances laterally from the panel center toward the outer edges. The nonuniform densification complicates the use of forging for the production of components requiring a uniform density core.

  14. An elastic analysis of a honeycomb structure with negative Poisson’s ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. K.; Hu, H.; Xu, B. G.

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents a novel honeycomb structure that exhibits a negative Poisson’s ratio (NPR). In contrast to other NPR honeycomb structures studied in the past, the new structure can be easily fabricated using conventional technology and materials on a large scale of production with a low cost. The geometry of the structure is first described, and then an elastic analysis based on standard beam theory is carried out to establish the relation of its Young’s modulus with relevant geometrical parameters and material properties. The effects of the geometrical parameters in non-dimensional forms on the Young’s modulus of the structure are discussed. The compressive tests were performed on samples of the structure made with the same aluminum alloy but with different geometrical parameters to verify the theoretical analysis. The results obtained from both the theoretical calculations and experiments show that the proposed NPR honeycomb structure has a very obvious NPR behavior. Moreover, its elastic modulus is significantly affected by its geometrical parameters, and can be optimized for specific applications through the design and control of honeycomb geometry parameters.

  15. Damage-Tolerance Characteristics of Composite Fuselage Sandwich Structures with Thick Facesheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, David M.; Ambur, Damodar R.

    1997-01-01

    Damage tolerance characteristics and results from experimental and analytical studies of a composite fuselage keel sandwich structure subjected to low-speed impact damage and discrete-source damage are presented. The test specimens are constructed from graphite-epoxy skins borided to a honeycomb core, and they are representative of a highly loaded fuselage keel structure. Results of compression-after-impact (CAI) and notch-length sensitivity studies of 5-in.-wide by 10-in.long specimens are presented. A correlation between low-speed-impact dent depth, the associated damage area, and residual strength for different impact-energy levels is described; and a comparison of the strength for undamaged and damaged specimens with different notch-length-to-specimen-width ratios is presented. Surface strains in the facesheets of the undamaged specimens as well as surface strains that illustrate the load redistribution around the notch sites in the notched specimens are presented and compared with results from finite element analyses. Reductions in strength of as much as 53.1 percent for the impacted specimens and 64.7 percent for the notched specimens are observed.

  16. Elastic constants for superplastically formed/diffusion-bonded corrugated sandwich core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    Formulas and associated graphs for evaluating the effective elastic constants for a superplastically formed/diffusion bonded (SPF/DB) corrugated sandwich core, are presented. A comparison of structural stiffnesses of the sandwich core and a honeycomb core under conditions of equal sandwich core density was made. The stiffness in the thickness direction of the optimum SPF/DB corrugated core (that is, triangular truss core) is lower than that of the honeycomb core, and that the former has higher transverse shear stiffness than the latter.

  17. Nonlinear acoustics and honeycomb materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, D. O.

    2012-05-01

    The scope of research activity that Bruce Thompson embraced was very large. In this talk three different research topics that the author shared with Bruce are reviewed. They represent Bruce's introduction to NDE and include nonlinear acoustics, nondestructive measurements of adhesive bond strengths in honeycomb panels, and studies of flexural wave dispersion in honeycomb materials. In the first of these, four harmonics of a 30 Mhz finite amplitude wave were measured for both fused silica and aluminum single crystals with varying lengths and amounts of cold work using a capacity microphone with heterodyne receiver with a flat frequency response from 30 to 250 Mhz. The results for fused silica with no dislocation structure could be described by a model due to Fubini, originally developed for gases, that depends upon only the second and third order elastic constants and not the fourth and higher order constants. The same was not true for the aluminum with dislocation structures. These results raised some questions about models for harmonic generation in materials with dislocations. In the second topic, experiments were made to determine the adhesive bond strengths of honeycomb panels using the vibrational response of the panels (Chladni figures). The results showed that both the damping characteristics of panel vibrations as a whole and velocity of propagation of elastic waves that travel along the surface and sample the bondline can be correlated with destructively determined bond strengths. Finally, the phase velocity of flexural waves traveling along a 1-inch honeycomb sandwich panel was determined from 170 Hz to 50 Khz, ranging from 2.2×104 cm/sec at the low end to 1.18×105 cm/sec at 40 Khz. The dispersion arises from the finite thickness of the panel and agreed with the results of continuum models for the honeycomb. Above 40 Khz, this was not the case. The paper concludes with a tribute to Bruce for his many wonderful contributions and lessons beyond his

  18. Transient Dynamic Response and Failure of Sandwich Composite Structures under Impact Loading with Fluid Structure Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Y. W.; Violette, M. A.; McCrillis, R. D.; Didoszak, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) effect on transient dynamic response and failure of sandwich composite structures under impact loading. The primary sandwich composite used in this study consisted of a 6.35 mm balsa core and a multi-ply symmetrical plain weave 6 oz E-glass skin. Both clamped sandwich composite plates and beams were studied using a uniquely designed vertical drop-weight testing machine. There were three impact conditions on which these experiments focused. The first of these conditions was completely dry (or air surrounded) testing. The second condition was completely water submerged. The final condition was also a water submerged test with air support at the backside of the plates. The tests were conducted sequentially, progressing from a low to high drop height to determine the onset and spread of damage to the sandwich composite when impacted with the test machine. The study showed the FSI effect on sandwich composite structures is very critical such that impact force, strain response, and damage size are generally much greater with FSI under the same impact condition. As a result, damage initiates at much lower impact energy conditions with the effect of FSI. Neglecting to account for FSI effects on sandwich composite structures results in very non-conservative analysis and design. Additionally, it was observed that the damage location changed for sandwich composite beams with the effect of FSI.

  19. Evaluation of Sandwich Structure Bonding In Out-of-Autoclave Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Tan-Hung; Baughman, James M.; Zimmerman, Thomas J.; Sutter, James K.; Gardner, John M.

    2010-01-01

    The out-of-autoclave-vacuum-bag-only (OOA-VBO) process is low in capital expenditures compared to the traditional autoclave, however, the material challenges for OOA-VBO workable material systems are high. Presently there are few such aerospace grade prepreg materials available commercially. In this study, we evaluated processing and properties of honeycomb sandwich structure (HC/SS) panels fabricated by co-curing composite face sheet with adhesives by the OOA-VBO process in an oven. The prepreg materials were IM7/MTM 45-1 and T40-800B/5320. Adhesives studied were AF-555M, XMTA-241/PM15, FM-309-1M and FM-300K. Aluminum H/C cores with and without perforations were included. It was found that adhesives in IM7/MTM 45-1/AF-555M, T40-800B/5320/FM 309-1M and T40-800B/5320/FM-300K panels all foamed but yielded high flatwise tensile (FWT) strength values above 8,275 kPA (1,200 psi). IM7/MTM 45-1/XMTA-241/PM15 did not foam, yet yielded a low FWT strength. SEM photomicrographs revealed that the origin of this low strength was poor adhesion in the interfaces between the adhesive and face sheet composite due to poor wetting associated with the high initial viscosity of the XMTA-241/PM15 adhesive.

  20. Mechanical behavior of Kenaf/Epoxy corrugated sandwich structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhori, S.; Hassan, M. Z.; Daud, Y.; Sarip, S.; Rahman, N.; Ismail, Z.; Aziz, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents the response of kenaf/epoxy corrugated sandwich structure during quasi-static test. Force-displacements curves have been deducted to determine the deformation pattern and collapse behavior of the structure. Kenaf/epoxy sandwich structures skins fabricated by using hand layup technique and the corrugated core were moulded by using steel mould. Different thicknesses of corrugated core web with two sizes of kenaf fibers were used. The corrugated core is then bonded with the skins by using poly-epoxy resin and has been cut into different number of cells. The specimens then tested under tensile and compression at different constant speeds until the specimens fully crushed. Tensile tests data showed the structure can be considered brittle when it breaking point strain, ε less than 0.025. In compression test, the specimens fail due to dominated by stress concentration that initiated by prior cracks. Also, the specimens with more number of cells and thicker core web have higher strength and the ability to absorb higher energy.

  1. Sandwich Composite, Syntactic Foam Core Based, Application for Space Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, Andrew J.; Kaul, Raj K.; McMahon, William M.; Reinarts, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    The current Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) launch vehicle has several metal based components that require a Thermal Protective System (TPS) be applied to the exterior surface to ensure its structural integrity and to protect the interior hardware from aerodynamic heating. TPS materials have distinct disadvantages associated with their use. One disadvantage to the application of TPS is that it can act as a debris source to the Space Shuttle Orbiter during flight and it also adds weight to the system without directly contributing any structural strength. One of the specific areas examined under this program was to replace a metal/TPS system with polymer based composites. A polymer matrix based sandwich composite was developed which had both structural and insulative properties to meet the high aerodynamic structural and heating load survival requirements. The SRB Nose Cap was selected as a candidate for this application. The sandwich system being qualified for this application is a carbon/epoxy outer and inner skin with a high strength-low thermal conductivity syntactic foam core.

  2. Compressive failure modes and parameter optimization of the trabecular structure of biomimetic fully integrated honeycomb plates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinxiang; Tuo, Wanyong; Zhang, Xiaoming; He, Chenglin; Xie, Juan; Liu, Chang

    2016-12-01

    To develop lightweight biomimetic composite structures, the compressive failure and mechanical properties of fully integrated honeycomb plates were investigated experimentally and through the finite element method. The results indicated that: fracturing of the fully integrated honeycomb plates primarily occurred in the core layer, including the sealing edge structure. The morphological failures can be classified into two types, namely dislocations and compactions, and were caused primarily by the stress concentrations at the interfaces between the core layer and the upper and lower laminations and secondarily by the disordered short-fiber distribution in the material; although the fully integrated honeycomb plates manufactured in this experiment were imperfect, their mass-specific compressive strength was superior to that of similar biomimetic samples. Therefore, the proposed bio-inspired structure possesses good overall mechanical properties, and a range of parameters, such as the diameter of the transition arc, was defined for enhancing the design of fully integrated honeycomb plates and improving their compressive mechanical properties. PMID:27612711

  3. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Inserts in Sandwich Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunyawanichakul, P.; Castanie, B.; Barrau, J.-J.

    2005-05-01

    In aeronautics, sandwich structures are widely used for secondary structures like flaps or landing gear doors. In the case of landing gear doors, the junction is made by a local reinforcement called an insert. This insert is made by a resin molded in the Nomex™ sandwich core. Such structures are still designed mainly using test results and the lack of an efficient numerical model remains a problem. The purpose of this study is on the one hand to perform experiments in order to be able to identify the failure modes and on the other hand to propose an efficient numerical model. Pull-out tests with cycling were conducted and 3D displacement measured by optical methods. The potential failure modes are numerous (delamination, local fiber breaking, skin/core debonding, core crushing, core shear buckling, potting failure, etc.). Experiments demonstrated that, for the lower loads, the non-linearity and the hysteresis are mainly due to core shear buckling. From this observation, the nonlinear behavior of the core is identified by a 3 point-bending test. The shear-modulus damage law is then implemented on a non-linear finite element model and an acceptable correlation of the tests is achieved. As a consequence, some improvements of the technology will be proposed, manufactured and tested.

  4. Quiet Honeycomb Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.; Klos, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Sandwich honeycomb composite panels are lightweight and strong, and, therefore, provide a reasonable alternative to the aluminum ring frame/stringer architecture currently used for most aircraft airframes. The drawback to honeycomb panels is that they radiate noise into the aircraft cabin veil- efficiently provoking the need for additional sound treatment which adds weight and reduces the material's cost advantage. A series of honeycomb panels was made -hick incorporated different design strategies aimed at reducing the honeycomb panels' radiation efficiency while at the same time maintaining their strength. The majority of the designs were centered around the concept of creating areas of reduced stiffness in the panel by adding voids and recesses to the core. The effort culminated with a reinforced/recessed panel which had 6 dB higher transmission loss than the baseline solid core panel while maintaining comparable strength.

  5. Honeycomb vs. Foam: Evaluating Potential Upgrades to ISS Module Shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Shannon J.; Christiansen, Eric L.

    2009-01-01

    The presence of honeycomb cells in a dual-wall structure is advantageous for mechanical performance and low weight in spacecraft primary structures but detrimental for shielding against impact of micrometeoroid and orbital debris particles (MMOD). The presence of honeycomb cell walls acts to restrict the expansion of projectile and bumper fragments, resulting in the impact of a more concentrated (and thus lethal) fragment cloud upon the shield rear wall. The Multipurpose Laboratory Module (MLM) is a Russian research module scheduled for launch and ISS assembly in 2011 (currently under review). Baseline shielding of the MLM is expected to be predominantly similar to that of the existing Functional Energy Block (FGB), utilizing a baseline triple wall configuration with honeycomb sandwich panels for the dual bumpers and a thick monolithic aluminum pressure wall. The MLM module is to be docked to the nadir port of the Zvezda service module and, as such, is subject to higher debris flux than the FGB module (which is aligned along the ISS flight vector). Without upgrades to inherited shielding, the MLM penetration risk is expected to be significantly higher than that of the FGB module. Open-cell foam represents a promising alternative to honeycomb as a sandwich panel core material in spacecraft primary structures as it provides comparable mechanical performance with a minimal increase in weight while avoiding structural features (i.e. channeling cells) detrimental to MMOD shielding performance. In this study, the effect of replacing honeycomb sandwich panel structures with metallic open-cell foam structures on MMOD shielding performance is assessed for an MLM-representative configuration. A number of hypervelocity impact tests have been performed on both the baseline honeycomb configuration and upgraded foam configuration, and differences in target damage, failure limits, and derived ballistic limit equations are discussed.

  6. Ordered patterns and structures via interfacial self-assembly: superlattices, honeycomb structures and coffee rings.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongmin; Hao, Jingcheng

    2011-11-01

    Self-assembly is now being intensively studied in chemistry, physics, biology, and materials engineering and has become an important "bottom-up" approach to create intriguing structures for different applications. Self-assembly is not only a practical approach for creating a variety of nanostructures, but also shows great superiority in building hierarchical structures with orders on different length scales. The early work in self-assembly focused on molecular self-assembly in bulk solution, including the resultant dye aggregates, liposomes, vesicles, liquid crystals, gels and so on. Interfacial self-assembly has been a great concern over the last two decades, largely because of the unique and ingenious roles of this method for constructing materials at interfaces, such as self-assembled monolayers, Langmuir-Blodgett films, and capsules. Nanocrystal superlattices, honeycomb films and coffee rings are intriguing structural materials with more complex features and can be prepared by interfacial self-assembly on different length scales. In this critical review, we outline the recent development in the preparation and application of colloidal nanocrystal superlattices, honeycomb-patterned macroporous structures by the breath figure method, and coffee-ring-like patterns (247 references). PMID:21792458

  7. Probabilistic Structural Evaluation of Uncertainties in Radiator Sandwich Panel Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuguoglu, Latife; Ludwiczak, Damian

    2006-01-01

    The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) Space System is part of the NASA's Prometheus Program. As part of the JIMO engineering team at NASA Glenn Research Center, the structural design of the JIMO Heat Rejection Subsystem (HRS) is evaluated. An initial goal of this study was to perform sensitivity analyses to determine the relative importance of the input variables on the structural responses of the radiator panel. The desire was to let the sensitivity analysis information identify the important parameters. The probabilistic analysis methods illustrated here support this objective. The probabilistic structural performance evaluation of a HRS radiator sandwich panel was performed. The radiator panel structural performance was assessed in the presence of uncertainties in the loading, fabrication process variables, and material properties. The stress and displacement contours of the deterministic structural analysis at mean probability was performed and results presented. It is followed by a probabilistic evaluation to determine the effect of the primitive variables on the radiator panel structural performance. Based on uncertainties in material properties, structural geometry and loading, the results of the displacement and stress analysis are used as an input file for the probabilistic analysis of the panel. The sensitivity of the structural responses, such as maximum displacement and maximum tensile and compressive stresses of the facesheet in x and y directions and maximum VonMises stresses of the tube, to the loading and design variables is determined under the boundary condition where all edges of the radiator panel are pinned. Based on this study, design critical material and geometric parameters of the considered sandwich panel are identified.

  8. Probabilistic nondestructive evaluation of bonded aluminum honeycomb structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Lloyd A.

    1995-07-01

    Aluminum honeycomb panels fabricated in accordance with spacecraft fracture control guidelines must be evaluated to a 90/95 POD/CL (probability of detection/confidence) level for detection of the critical initial flaw (CIF) size. Severe weight limitations can drive the CIF to a size of one cell diameter, or smaller. Additionally, producibility (low or no type II errors) must be maintained, and inspection costs minimized. To assure these goals, a reliability demonstration program was undertaken on thin skin panels for the Space Station Electric Power System ORU (orbital replacement unit) enclosures. This paper examines the probabilistic NDE process in detail, including: analysis of the manufacturing methodology, expected flaw types, construction of the disbond flaw data base, and the subsequent evaluations and results using laser shearography. The experimental data is then reduced utilizing the statistical methodology outlined in a proposed military standard for NDE reliability demonstrations, and contrasted against conventional through transmission ultrasonic inspection. The effort revealed that substantial gains in system reliability and flaw type discrimination are possible with laser shearography, along with a nearly order of magnitude reduction in inspection time.

  9. Choice of optimal properties of molding compounds for extrusion of block supports and catalysts with the honeycomb structure

    SciTech Connect

    Prokof`ev, V.Yu.; Il`in, A.P.; Shirokov, Yu.G.; Yurchenko, E.N.

    1995-09-20

    Properties of compounds for molding of block supports and catalysts with the honeycomb structure have been studied. The examples studied include ultraporcelain, alumina, titanium dioxide, clays, and graphite. The molding properties of these compounds are characterized by such parameters as the relationship between deformations, relaxation time, power for destruction of the coagulation structure, and flow index. For molding of blocks with the honeycomb structure compounds with enhanced plastic properties and a stable coagulation structure are suggested.

  10. Experimental Analysis and Modeling of the Crushing of Honeycomb Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminanda, Y.; Castanié, B.; Barrau, J.-J.; Thevenet, P.

    2005-05-01

    In the aeronautical field, sandwich structures are widely used for secondary structures like flaps or landing gear doors. The modeling of low velocity/low energy impact, which can lead to a decrease of the structure strength by 50%, remains a designer’s main problem. Since this type of impact has the same effect as quasi-static indentation, the study focuses on the behavior of honeycomb cores under compression. The crushing phenomenon has been well identified for years but its mechanism is not described explicitly and the model proposed may not satisfy industrial purposes. To understand the crushing mechanism, honeycomb test specimens made of Nomex™, aluminum alloy and paper were tested. During the crushing, a CCD camera showed that the cell walls buckled very quickly. The peak load recorded during tests corresponded to the buckling of the common edge of three honeycomb cells. Further tests on corner structures to simulate only one vertical edge of a honeycomb cell show a similar behavior. The different specimens exhibited similar load/displacement curves and the differences observed were only due to the behavior of the different materials. As a conclusion of this phenomenological study, the hypothesis that loads are mainly taken by the vertical edge can be made. So, a honeycomb core subjected to compression can be modeled by a grid of nonlinear springs. A simple analytical model was then developed and validated by tests on Nomex™ honeycomb core indented by different sized spherical indenters. A good correlation between theory and experiment was found. This result can be used to satisfactorily model using finite elements the indentation on a sandwich structure with a metallic or composite skin and honeycomb core.

  11. A Lightweight Radial Line Slot Antenna with Honeycomb Structure for Space Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Hideki; Hirokawa, Jiro; Ando, Makoto; Amano, Osamu; Kamata, Yukio

    A lightweight and high gain planar antenna for space use is realized with radial waveguide slotted array and honeycomb structure with the weight of 1.16kg and the diameter of 920.5mm. The slot coupling is analyzed by method of moments considering the hybrid mode in the multi-layer waveguide structure. The propagation constant of the honeycomb structure is measured and the low-loss property is obtained at the frequency range of 8GHz. The fabricated RLSA is measured and the reflection is around -10dB in 8GHz band. The measured aperture fields agree with the calculation in the radial direction. In the azimuthal direction, on the other hand, the fields show ripples of 6dB and 60 degree. The gain of 35.9dBi with the efficiency of 58.7% is obtained at 8.6GHz.

  12. Damping Properties of Sandwich Truss Core Structures by Strain Energy Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesolowski, M.; Rucevskis, S.; Janeliukstis, R.; Polanski, M.

    2015-11-01

    Sandwich panel structures with stiff face sheets and cellular cores are widely used to support dynamic loads. Combining face sheets made of carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRPs) with an aluminium pyramidal truss improves the damping performance of the structure due to viscoelastic character of CRFP composites. To predict the damping characteristics of the pyramidal truss core sandwich panel the strain energy method is adopted. The procedure for evaluating the damping of the sandwich panel was performed using commercial finite element software NASTRAN and MATLAB. Non-contact vibration tests were performed on the real sandwich panels in order to extract the modal characteristics and compare them with the numerical predictions.

  13. Minimum-Weight Sandwich Structure Optimum Design Subjected to Torsional Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Li, Gangyan; Wang, Chun H.; You, Min

    2012-04-01

    As one of the most valued structural engineering innovations developed by the composites industry, sandwich structures are now used extensively in automotive, aerospace and civil infrastructure due to the main advantage of lightweight. This paper develops a minimum weight optimization method for sandwich structure subjected to torsion load. The design process are identified for a sandwich structure required to meet the design constraint of torsion stiffness. The optimum solutions show that at optimum design the core weight accounts for 66.7% of the whole sandwich structure. To illustrate the newly developed optimum design solutions, numerical examples are presented for sandwich structures made of either isotropic face skins or orthotropic composite face skins. Agreement between the theoretical analysis and the examples results is good.

  14. Viscoelastic lithography for fabricating self-organizing soft micro-honeycomb structures with ultra-high aspect ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Gi Seok; No, Da Yoon; Lee, Jaeseo; Yoon, Junghyo; Chung, Seok; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2016-05-01

    High-aspect ratio micro- and nano-structures have been used for the production of a variety of applications. In this paper, we describe a simple and cost-effective approach to fabricate an arrayed microarchitecture with an ultra-high aspect ratio using soft materials. The shapes and sizes of the honeycomb structure can be easily modulated by changing the dimensions and position of the base mould pattern and the pressure. The honeycomb structure is used to prepare a drug delivery patch and a microwell array to form cell spheroids without cell loss. The honeycomb structures prepared using natural ECM (collagen-Matrigel) materials are successfully fabricated. The hepatocytes and endothelial cells are seeded and co-cultured in the ECM-based micro-honeycomb to prepare a 3D liver model successfully mimicking an ultrastructure of liver and providing enhanced liver function.

  15. Viscoelastic lithography for fabricating self-organizing soft micro-honeycomb structures with ultra-high aspect ratios

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Gi Seok; No, Da Yoon; Lee, JaeSeo; Yoon, Junghyo; Chung, Seok; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    High-aspect ratio micro- and nano-structures have been used for the production of a variety of applications. In this paper, we describe a simple and cost-effective approach to fabricate an arrayed microarchitecture with an ultra-high aspect ratio using soft materials. The shapes and sizes of the honeycomb structure can be easily modulated by changing the dimensions and position of the base mould pattern and the pressure. The honeycomb structure is used to prepare a drug delivery patch and a microwell array to form cell spheroids without cell loss. The honeycomb structures prepared using natural ECM (collagen–Matrigel) materials are successfully fabricated. The hepatocytes and endothelial cells are seeded and co-cultured in the ECM-based micro-honeycomb to prepare a 3D liver model successfully mimicking an ultrastructure of liver and providing enhanced liver function. PMID:27157977

  16. Optimum Design of Composite Sandwich Structures Subjected to Combined Torsion and Bending Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Li, Gangyan; Wang, Chun H.; You, Min

    2012-06-01

    This research is motivated by the increase use of composite sandwich structures in a wide range of industries such as automotive, aerospace and civil infrastructure. To maximise stiffness at minimum weight, the paper develops a minimum weight optimization method for sandwich structure under combined torsion and bending loads. We first extend the minimum-weight design of sandwich structures under bending load to the case of torsional deformation and then present optimum solutions for the combined requirements of both bending and torsional stiffness. Three design cases are identified for a sandwich structure required to meet multiple design constraints of torsion and bending stiffness. The optimum solutions for all three cases are derived. To illustrate the newly developed optimum design solutions, numerical examples are presented for sandwich structures made of either isotropic face skins or orthotropic composite face skins.

  17. High renewable content sandwich structures based on flax-basalt hybrids and biobased epoxy polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomina, S.; Boronat, T.; Fenollar, O.; Sánchez-Nacher, L.; Balart, R.

    2014-05-01

    In the last years, a growing interest in the development of high environmental efficiency materials has been detected and this situation is more accentuated in the field of polymers and polymer composites. In this work, green composite sandwich structures with high renewable content have been developed with core cork materials. The base resin for composites was a biobased epoxy resin derived from epoxidized vegetable oils. Hybrid basalt-flax fabrics have been used as reinforcements for composites and the influence of the stacking sequence has been evaluated in order to optimize the appropriate laminate structure for the sandwich bases. Core cork materials with different thickness have been used to evaluate performance of sandwich structures thus leading to high renewable content composite sandwich structures. Results show that position of basalt fabrics plays a key role in flexural fracture of sandwich structures due to differences in stiffness between flax and basalt fibers.

  18. An `H'-shape three-dimensional meta-material used in honeycomb structure absorbing material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Daqing; Kang, Feiyu; Zhou, Zhuohui; Cheng, Hongfei; Ding, Heyan

    2015-03-01

    An `H'-shape three-dimensional meta-material structure which loaded on the sidewall of honeycomb structure absorbing material was designed and fabricated in this project. The simulation results demonstrated a super-wide absorption band below -10 dB between 2.3 and 18 GHz, which expanded 7 GHz compared with the absorber without meta-material. The relative impedance curve was analyzed, which showed that the meta-material has little impact on the impedance-matching characteristics of the honeycomb structure absorbing material. We further studied the distribution of both electronic field energy and magnetic field energy. The former one indicated that the low-frequency absorption peaks could easily be moved by adjusting the parameters of the parallel-plate capacitors which generate electric resonance, and the latter one illustrated that the three-dimensional meta-material could generate magnetic resonance between units which would not exist in two-dimensional meta-material. Then we verified the simulation results through experiment which display a similar absorbing curve. The differences between simulation results and experiment results were caused by the addition substrate of the meta-material, which could not be eliminated in this experiment. However, it still implied that we can obtain a meta-material absorber that has a super-wide absorbing band if we can put the meta-material on the sidewall of the honeycomb without attachments.

  19. Detecting water in aviation honeycomb structures by using transient infrared thermographic NDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavilov, Vladimir P.; Klimov, Alexey G.; Nesteruk, Dmitry; Shiryaev, Vladimir V.

    2003-04-01

    A lot of structural key elements of many modern civilian and military airplanes, such as flaps, keel, etc., are made of honeycomb structures. Honeycombs involve a combination of some materials including aluminum, Nomex, glass and graphite epoxy composites. During exploitation, atmosphere water could penetrate these structures due to possible imperfections in various junctions, and, thus, deteriorate airplane durability. In Russia, water in honeycombs is typically detected by using the X ray and ultrasonic technique. However, the X ray equipment is hardly accepted by commercial airlines because of the safety reason, and the point-by-point ultrasonic inspection is low-productive. Since 2002, we develop the IR thermographic method of detecting water by thermally stimulating aviation panels under test. Unlike the technique accepted by Airbus Industry, Inc., that uses 'a warm blanket', we use a powerful optical heater assembled with an IR camera into a single set. The first stage of research included modeling the detection process and optimizing the experimental procedure. As a result, we have demonstrated that, due to the high heat capacity of water, a temperature signal over moist areas evolves in time during a relatively long period that relaxes the requirements to the test protocol. Thus, even aluminum panels can be thermally stimulated during few seconds with a delay time being also in a few second range. A similar protocol can be applied to the inspection of composite honeycombs where the image quality resembles that obtained by X rays. The paper will describe all stages of the research starting from modeling and finishing with the preliminary experimental results obtained in situ on civilian airplanes.

  20. Evaluation of the Flexural Rigidity of Sandwich Structures Using Experimentally Obtained Mechanical Properties of the Constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azarmi, F.; Coyle, T. W.; Mostaghimi, J.

    2010-01-01

    Prediction of mechanical performance of sandwich constructions is a difficult task due to the complex nonlinear and inelastic behavior of the constituent materials. This study tries to utilize an analytical model to estimate the mechanical performance of sandwich structure based on the mechanical properties of the constituents. To this end, the mechanical properties of the core and skin materials were examined separately. The mechanical behavior and deformation mechanism of Ni alloy foam structures have been studied using uniaxial compression testing. The mechanical properties of alloy 625 coating were determined using tensile testing. The flexural rigidity of sandwich structures were calculated using experimentally obtained elastic moduli of the alloy 625 coating and Ni alloy foam. The model was also used to calculate the flexural rigidity of sandwich samples with different skin thicknesses. This study also investigates the effect of post fabrication heat treatment on the mechanical performance of the sandwich structures.

  1. Classification of defects in honeycomb composite structure of helicopter rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaskó, M.; Sváb, E.; Molnár, Gy.; Veres, I.

    2005-04-01

    The use of non-destructive testing methods to qualify the state of rotor blades with respect to their expected flight hours, with the aim to extend their lifetime without any risk of breakdown, is an important financial demand. In order to detect the possible defects in the composite structure of Mi-8 and Mi-24 type helicopter rotor blades used by the Hungarian Army, we have performed combined neutron- and X-ray radiography measurements at the Budapest Research Reactor. Several types of defects were detected, analysed and typified. Among the most frequent and important defects observed were cavities, holes and/or cracks in the sealing elements on the interface of the honeycomb structure and the section boarders. Inhomogeneities of the resin materials (resin-rich or starved areas) at the core-honeycomb surfaces proved to be an other important point. Defects were detected at the adhesive filling, and water percolation was visualized at the sealing interfaces of the honeycomb sections. Corrosion effects, and metal inclusions have also been detected.

  2. Finite Element Development of Honeycomb Panel Configurations with Improved Transmission Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Palumbo, Daniel L.; Klos, Jacob; Castle, William D.

    2006-01-01

    The higher stiffness-to-mass ratio of a honeycomb panel compared to a homogeneous panel results in a lower acoustic critical frequency. Above the critical frequency the panel flexural wave speed is acoustically fast and the structure becomes a more efficient radiator with associated lower sound transmission loss. Finite element models of honeycomb sandwich structures are presented featuring areas where the core is removed from the radiating face sheet disrupting the supersonic flexural and shear wave speeds that exist in the baseline honeycomb panel. These modified honeycomb panel structures exhibit improved transmission loss for a pre-defined diffuse field sound excitation. The models were validated by the sound transmission loss of honeycomb panels measured in the Structural Acoustic Loads and Transmission (SALT) facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. A honeycomb core panel configuration is presented exhibiting a transmission loss improvement of 3-11 dB compared to a honeycomb baseline panel over a frequency range from 170 Hz to 1000 Hz. The improved transmission loss panel configuration had a 5.1% increase in mass over the baseline honeycomb panel, and approximately twice the deflection when excited by a static force.

  3. Development and fabrication of an autoclave molded PES/Quartz sandwich radome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, Leonard E.; Levin, Stephen D.

    1993-04-01

    A cohesively bonded, thermoplastic composite sandwich radome for a leading edge supersonic aircraft has been built using autoclave processing with PES/Quartz prepreg and a PES coated honeycomb core. Processes were developed for solvent removal, thermoplastic laminate consolidation, surface etching to improve adhesion, honeycomb coating and forming, and ultrasound testing of bond integrity. Environmental testing was also conducted to verify the structural integrity of the radome for its intended application.

  4. Buckling Testing and Analysis of Honeycomb Sandwich Panel Arc Segments of a Full-Scale Fairing Barrel Part 1: 8-Ply In-Autoclave Facesheets. Part 1; 8-Ply In-Autoclave Facesheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, David E.; Pineda, Evan J.; Zalewski, Bart F.; Kosareo, Daniel N.; Kellas, Sotiris

    2013-01-01

    Four honeycomb sandwich panels, representing 1/16th arc segments of a 10-m diameter barrel section of the heavy lift launch vehicle, were manufactured under the NASA Composites for Exploration program and the NASA Space Launch Systems program. Two configurations were chosen for the panels: 6-ply facesheets with 1.125 in. honeycomb core and 8-ply facesheets with 1.000 in. honeycomb core. Additionally, two separate carbon fiber/epoxy material systems were chosen for the facesheets: inautoclave IM7/977-3 and out-of-autoclave T40-800b/5320-1. Smaller 3.00- by 5.00-ft panels were cut from the 1/16th barrel sections. These panels were tested under compressive loading at the NASA Langley Research Center. Furthermore, linear eigenvalue and geometrically nonlinear finite element analysis was performed to predict the compressive response of the 3.00- by 5.00-ft panels. This manuscript summarizes the experimental and analytical modeling efforts pertaining to the panel composed of 8-ply, IM7/977-3 facesheets (referred to Panel A). To improve the robustness of the geometrically nonlinear finite element model, measured surface imperfections were included in the geometry of the model. Both the linear and nonlinear models yield good qualitative and quantitative predictions. Additionally, it was predicted correctly that the panel would fail in buckling prior to failing in strength. Furthermore, several imperfection studies were performed to investigate the influence of geometric imperfections, fiber misalignments, and three-dimensional (3 D) effects on the compressive response of the panel.

  5. Survey Of The State Of The Art Composites And Sandwich Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornel, Bucur; Ana Maria, Bucur

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the work is to present some researches regarding composits. The aim is motivated by the new materials such as composites and structural concepts, sandwich construction that have resulted in lighter structural designs with superior performance. There are presented and discussed the types of matrix materials, sandwich construction, failure modes in sandwich structures and design considerations. It is not possible to cover every aspect of this vast subject. The purpose here is to impart the basic knowledge so that the people involved in the structural repairs will have better understanding of the processes.

  6. Compressive and shear buckling analysis of metal matrix composite sandwich panels under different thermal environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Jackson, Raymond H.

    1993-01-01

    Combined inplane compressive and shear buckling analysis was conducted on flat rectangular sandwich panels using the Raleigh-Ritz minimum energy method with a consideration of transverse shear effect of the sandwich core. The sandwich panels were fabricated with titanium honeycomb core and laminated metal matrix composite face sheets. The results show that slightly slender (along unidirectional compressive loading axis) rectangular sandwich panels have the most desirable stiffness-to-weight ratios for aerospace structural applications; the degradation of buckling strength of sandwich panels with rising temperature is faster in shear than in compression; and the fiber orientation of the face sheets for optimum combined-load buckling strength of sandwich panels is a strong function of both loading condition and panel aspect ratio. Under the same specific weight and panel aspect ratio, a sandwich panel with metal matrix composite face sheets has much higher buckling strength than one having monolithic face sheets.

  7. Measuring Moisture Levels in Graphite Epoxy Composite Sandwich Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nurge, Mark; Youngquist, Robert; Starr, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    Graphite epoxy composite (GEC) materials are used in the construction of rocket fairings, nose cones, interstage adapters, and heat shields due to their high strength and light weight. However, they absorb moisture depending on the environmental conditions they are exposed to prior to launch. Too much moisture absorption can become a problem when temperature and pressure changes experienced during launch cause the water to vaporize. The rapid state change of the water can result in structural failure of the material. In addition, heat and moisture combine to weaken GEC structures. Diffusion models that predict the total accumulated moisture content based on the environmental conditions are one accepted method of determining if the material strength has been reduced to an unacceptable level. However, there currently doesn t exist any field measurement technique to estimate the actual moisture content of a composite structure. A multi-layer diffusion model was constructed with Mathematica to predict moisture absorption and desorption from the GEC sandwich structure. This model is used in conjunction with relative humidity/temperature sensors both on the inside and outside of the material to determine the moisture levels in the structure. Because the core materials have much higher diffusivity than the face sheets, a single relative humidity measurement will accurately reflect the moisture levels in the core. When combined with an external relative humidity measurement, the model can be used to determine the moisture levels in the face sheets. Since diffusion is temperaturedependent, the temperature measurements are used to determine the diffusivity of the face sheets for the model computations.

  8. Ultra-Lightweight Nanocomposite Foams and Sandwich Structures for Space Structure Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, Seng

    2012-01-01

    Microcellular nanocomposite foams and sandwich structures have been created to have excellent electrical conductivity and radiation-resistant properties using a new method that does not involve or release any toxicity. The nanocomposite structures have been scaled up in size to 12 X 12 in. (30 X 30 cm) for components fabrication. These sandwich materials were fabricated mainly from PE, CNF, and carbon fibers. Test results indicate that they have very good compression and compression-after-impact properties, excellent electrical conductivity, and superior space environment durability. Compression tests show that 1000 ESH (equivalent Sun hours) of UV exposure has no effect on the structural properties of the sandwich structures. The structures are considerably lighter than aluminum alloy (= 36 percent lighter), which translates to 36 percent weight savings of the electronic enclosure and its housing. The good mechanical properties of the materials may enable the electronic housing to be fabricated with a thinner structure that further reduces the weight. There was no difficulty in machining the sandwich specimens into electronic enclosure housing.

  9. Static and dynamic response of a sandwich structure under axial compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Wooseok

    This thesis is concerned with a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the static and dynamic response of an axially compressed sandwich structure. For the static response problem of sandwich structures, a two-dimensional mechanical model is developed to predict the global and local buckling of a sandwich beam, using classical elasticity. The face sheet and the core are assumed as linear elastic orthotropic continua in a state of planar deformation. General buckling deformation modes (periodic and non-periodic) of the sandwich beam are considered. On the basis of the model developed here, validation and accuracy of several previous theories are discussed for different geometric and material properties of a sandwich beam. The appropriate incremental stress and conjugate incremental finite strain measure for the instability problem of the sandwich beam, and the corresponding constitutive model are addressed. The formulation used in the commercial finite element package is discussed in relation to the formulation adopted in the theoretical derivation. The Dynamic response problem of a sandwich structure subjected to axial impact by a falling mass is also investigated. The dynamic counterpart of the celebrated Euler buckling problem is formulated first and solved by considering the case of a slender column that is impacted by a falling mass. A new notion, that of the time to buckle, "t*" is introduced, which is the corresponding critical quantity analogous to the critical load in static Euler buckling. The dynamic bifurcation buckling analysis is extended to thick sandwich structures using an elastic foundation model. A comprehensive set of impact test results of sandwich columns with various configurations are presented. Failure mechanisms and the temporal history of how a sandwich column responds to axial impact are discussed through the experimental results. The experimental results are compared against analytical dynamic buckling studies and finite

  10. Full-scale testing and progressive damage modeling of sandwich composite aircraft fuselage structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, Frank A., Jr.

    A comprehensive experimental and computational investigation was conducted to characterize the fracture behavior and structural response of large sandwich composite aircraft fuselage panels containing artificial damage in the form of holes and notches. Full-scale tests were conducted where panels were subjected to quasi-static combined pressure, hoop, and axial loading up to failure. The panels were constructed using plain-weave carbon/epoxy prepreg face sheets and a Nomex honeycomb core. Panel deformation and notch tip damage development were monitored during the tests using several techniques, including optical observations, strain gages, digital image correlation (DIC), acoustic emission (AE), and frequency response (FR). Additional pretest and posttest inspections were performed via thermography, computer-aided tap tests, ultrasound, x-radiography, and scanning electron microscopy. The framework to simulate damage progression and to predict residual strength through use of the finite element (FE) method was developed. The DIC provided local and full-field strain fields corresponding to changes in the state-of-damage and identified the strain components driving damage progression. AE was monitored during loading of all panels and data analysis methodologies were developed to enable real-time determination of damage initiation, progression, and severity in large composite structures. The FR technique has been developed, evaluating its potential as a real-time nondestructive inspection technique applicable to large composite structures. Due to the large disparity in scale between the fuselage panels and the artificial damage, a global/local analysis was performed. The global FE models fully represented the specific geometries, composite lay-ups, and loading mechanisms of the full-scale tests. A progressive damage model was implemented in the local FE models, allowing the gradual failure of elements in the vicinity of the artificial damage. A set of modifications

  11. Design Considerations for Thermally Insulating Structural Sandwich Panels for Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosser, Max L.

    2016-01-01

    Simplified thermal/structural sizing equations were derived for the in-plane loading of a thermally insulating structural sandwich panel. Equations were developed for the strain in the inner and outer face sheets of a sandwich subjected to uniaxial mechanical loads and differences in face sheet temperatures. Simple equations describing situations with no viable solution were developed. Key design parameters, material properties, and design principles are identified. A numerical example illustrates using the equations for a preliminary feasibility assessment of various material combinations and an initial sizing for minimum mass of a sandwich panel.

  12. Optimized Non-Obstructive Particle Damping (NOPD) Treatment for Composite Honeycomb Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panossian, H.

    2008-01-01

    Non-Obstructive Particle Damping (NOPD) technology is a passive vibration damping approach whereby metallic or non-metallic particles in spherical or irregular shapes, of heavy or light consistency, and even liquid particles are placed inside cavities or attached to structures by an appropriate means at strategic locations, to absorb vibration energy. The objective of the work described herein is the development of a design optimization procedure and discussion of test results for such a NOPD treatment on honeycomb (HC) composite structures, based on finite element modeling (FEM) analyses, optimization and tests. Modeling and predictions were performed and tests were carried out to correlate the test data with the FEM. The optimization procedure consisted of defining a global objective function, using finite difference methods, to determine the optimal values of the design variables through quadratic linear programming. The optimization process was carried out by targeting the highest dynamic displacements of several vibration modes of the structure and finding an optimal treatment configuration that will minimize them. An optimal design was thus derived and laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate its performance under different vibration environments. Three honeycomb composite beams, with Nomex core and aluminum face sheets, empty (untreated), uniformly treated with NOPD, and optimally treated with NOPD, according to the analytically predicted optimal design configuration, were tested in the laboratory. It is shown that the beam with optimal treatment has the lowest response amplitude. Described below are results of modal vibration tests and FEM analyses from predictions of the modal characteristics of honeycomb beams under zero, 50% uniform treatment and an optimal NOPD treatment design configuration and verification with test data.

  13. Topological Properties of Atomic Lead Film with Honeycomb Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Y. H.; Zhou, D.; Wang, T.; Yang, Shengyuan A.; Jiang, J. Z.

    2016-02-01

    Large bandgap is desired for the fundamental research as well as applications of topological insulators. Based on first-principles calculations, here we predict a new family of two-dimensional (2D) topological insulators in functionalized atomic lead films Pb-X (X = H, F, Cl, Br, I and SiH3). All of them have large bandgaps with the largest one above 1 eV, far beyond the recorded gap values and large enough for practical applications even at room temperature. Besides chemical functionalization, external strain can also effectively tune the bandgap while keeping the topological phase. Thus, the topological properties of these materials are quite robust, and as a result there exist 1D topological edge channels against backscattering. We further show that the 2D Pb structure can be encapsulated by SiO2 with very small lattice mismatch and still maintains its topological character. All these features make the 2D atomic Pb films a promising platform for fabricating novel topological electronic devices.

  14. Topological Properties of Atomic Lead Film with Honeycomb Structure

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Y. H.; Zhou, D.; Wang, T.; Yang, Shengyuan A.; Jiang, J. Z.

    2016-01-01

    Large bandgap is desired for the fundamental research as well as applications of topological insulators. Based on first-principles calculations, here we predict a new family of two-dimensional (2D) topological insulators in functionalized atomic lead films Pb-X (X = H, F, Cl, Br, I and SiH3). All of them have large bandgaps with the largest one above 1 eV, far beyond the recorded gap values and large enough for practical applications even at room temperature. Besides chemical functionalization, external strain can also effectively tune the bandgap while keeping the topological phase. Thus, the topological properties of these materials are quite robust, and as a result there exist 1D topological edge channels against backscattering. We further show that the 2D Pb structure can be encapsulated by SiO2 with very small lattice mismatch and still maintains its topological character. All these features make the 2D atomic Pb films a promising platform for fabricating novel topological electronic devices. PMID:26912024

  15. Topological Properties of Atomic Lead Film with Honeycomb Structure.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y H; Zhou, D; Wang, T; Yang, Shengyuan A; Jiang, J Z

    2016-01-01

    Large bandgap is desired for the fundamental research as well as applications of topological insulators. Based on first-principles calculations, here we predict a new family of two-dimensional (2D) topological insulators in functionalized atomic lead films Pb-X (X = H, F, Cl, Br, I and SiH3). All of them have large bandgaps with the largest one above 1 eV, far beyond the recorded gap values and large enough for practical applications even at room temperature. Besides chemical functionalization, external strain can also effectively tune the bandgap while keeping the topological phase. Thus, the topological properties of these materials are quite robust, and as a result there exist 1D topological edge channels against backscattering. We further show that the 2D Pb structure can be encapsulated by SiO2 with very small lattice mismatch and still maintains its topological character. All these features make the 2D atomic Pb films a promising platform for fabricating novel topological electronic devices. PMID:26912024

  16. First-principles study of monolayer and bilayer honeycomb structures of group-IV elements and their binary compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, L.; Liu, H. J.; Wen, Y. W.; Tan, X. J.; Lv, H. Y.; Shi, J.; Tang, X. F.

    2011-01-01

    By using first-principles pseudopotential method, we investigate the structural, vibrational, and electronic properties of monolayer and bilayer honeycomb structures of group-IV elements and their binary compounds. It is found that the honeycomb structures of Si, Ge, and SiGe are buckled for stabilization, while those of binary compounds SiC and GeC containing the first row elements C are planar similar to a graphene sheet. The phonon dispersion relations and electronic band structures are very sensitive to the number of layers, the stacking order, and whether the layers are planar or buckled.

  17. Experimental investigation on sandwich structure ring-type ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Peng, Taijiang; Shi, Hongyan; Liang, Xiong; Luo, Feng; Wu, Xiaoyu

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a manufacture method for a sandwich structure Ultrasonic Motor (USM) and experiment. Two pieces of rotor clamped on a stator, and a stainless steel disk-spring is bonded on the hollow rotor disk to provide the press by a nut assembled on the shaft. The stator is made of a double-side Printed-Circuit Board (PCB) which is sawed out the ring in the center and connected on the board with three legs. On each side of the ring surface, there are electrodes connected at the same position via through hole. The three layer drive circuit for sine, cosine, and ground signal is connected on the board through each leg. There are many piezoelectric components (PZT) bonded between two electrodes and fill soldering tin on each electrode. Then PZT is welded on PCB by reflow soldering. Finally, rub the gibbous soldering tin down to the position of PZT surface makes sure the surface contacts with rotor evenly. The welding process can also be completed by Surface Mounted Technology (SMT). A prototype motor is manufactured by this method. Two B03 model shapes of the stator are obtained by the finite element analysis and the optimal frequency of the motor is 56.375 kHz measured by impedance instrument. The theoretical analysis is conducted for the relationship between the revolving speed of the USM and thickness of stator ring, number of the travelling waves, PZT amplitude, frequency and the other parameters. The experiment result shows that the maximum revolving speed is 116 RPM and the maximum torque is 25 N mm, when the actuate voltage is 200 VAC. PMID:25213313

  18. PREFACE: Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geber, Thomas; Oshima, Chuhei

    2012-08-01

    nanometer scale. This special section contains interesting papers on graphene, h-BN and related 'honeycomb' compounds on solid surfaces, which are currently in development. Interfacial interaction strongly modifies the electronic and atomic structures of these overlayer systems and substrate surfaces. In addition, one can recognize a variety of growth phenomena by changing the surface and growth conditions, which are promising as regards fabricating those noble nanosystems. We have great pleasure in acknowledging the enthusiastic response and participation of our invited authors and their diligent preparation of the manuscripts. Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures contents Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structuresThomas Geber and Chuhei Oshima Templating of arrays of Ru nanoclusters by monolayer graphene/Ru Moirés with different periodicitiesEli Sutter, Bin Wang, Peter Albrecht, Jayeeta Lahiri, Marie-Laure Bocquet and Peter Sutter Controllable p-doping of graphene on Ir(111) by chlorination with FeCl3N A Vinogradov, K A Simonov, A V Generalov, A S Vinogradov, D V Vyalikh, C Laubschat, N Mårtensson and A B Preobrajenski Optimizing long-range order, band gap, and group velocities for graphene on close-packed metal surfacesF D Natterer, S Rusponi, M Papagno, C Carbone and H Brune Epitaxial growth of graphene on transition metal surfaces: chemical vapor deposition versus liquid phase depositionSamuel Grandthyll, Stefan Gsell, Michael Weinl, Matthias Schreck, Stefan Hüfner and Frank Müller High-yield boron nitride nanosheets from 'chemical blowing': towards practical applications in polymer compositesXuebin Wang, Amir Pakdel, Chunyi Zhi, Kentaro Watanabe, Takashi Sekiguchi, Dmitri Golberg and Yoshio Bando BCx layers with honeycomb lattices on an NbB2(0001) surfaceChuhei Oshima Epitaxial growth of boron-doped graphene by thermal decomposition of B4CWataru Norimatsu, Koichiro Hirata, Yuta Yamamoto, Shigeo Arai and Michiko

  19. Controlled Bulk Properties of Composite Polymeric Solutions for Extensive Structural Order of Honeycomb Polysulfone Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Gugliuzza, Annarosa; Perrotta, Maria Luisa; Drioli, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    This work provides additional insights into the identification of operating conditions necessary to overcome a current limitation to the scale-up of the breath figure method, which is regarded as an outstanding manufacturing approach for structurally ordered porous films. The major restriction concerns, indeed, uncontrolled touching droplets at the boundary. Herein, the bulk of polymeric solutions are properly managed to generate honeycomb membranes with a long-range structurally ordered texture. Water uptake and dynamics are explored as chemical environments are changed with the intent to modify the hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance and local water floatation. In this context, a model surfactant such as the polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate is used in combination with alcohols at different chain length extents and a traditional polymer such as the polyethersufone. Changes in the interfacial tension and kinematic viscosity taking place in the bulk of composite solutions are explored and examined in relation to competitive droplet nucleation and growth rate. As a result, extensive structurally ordered honeycomb textures are obtained with the rising content of the surfactant while a broad range of well-sized pores is targeted as a function of the hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance and viscosity of the composite polymeric mixture. The experimental findings confirm the consistency of the approach and are expected to give propulsion to the commercially production of breath figures films shortly. PMID:27196938

  20. Controlled Bulk Properties of Composite Polymeric Solutions for Extensive Structural Order of Honeycomb Polysulfone Membranes.

    PubMed

    Gugliuzza, Annarosa; Perrotta, Maria Luisa; Drioli, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    This work provides additional insights into the identification of operating conditions necessary to overcome a current limitation to the scale-up of the breath figure method, which is regarded as an outstanding manufacturing approach for structurally ordered porous films. The major restriction concerns, indeed, uncontrolled touching droplets at the boundary. Herein, the bulk of polymeric solutions are properly managed to generate honeycomb membranes with a long-range structurally ordered texture. Water uptake and dynamics are explored as chemical environments are changed with the intent to modify the hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance and local water floatation. In this context, a model surfactant such as the polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate is used in combination with alcohols at different chain length extents and a traditional polymer such as the polyethersufone. Changes in the interfacial tension and kinematic viscosity taking place in the bulk of composite solutions are explored and examined in relation to competitive droplet nucleation and growth rate. As a result, extensive structurally ordered honeycomb textures are obtained with the rising content of the surfactant while a broad range of well-sized pores is targeted as a function of the hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance and viscosity of the composite polymeric mixture. The experimental findings confirm the consistency of the approach and are expected to give propulsion to the commercially production of breath figures films shortly. PMID:27196938

  1. PREFACE: Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geber, Thomas; Oshima, Chuhei

    2012-08-01

    nanometer scale. This special section contains interesting papers on graphene, h-BN and related 'honeycomb' compounds on solid surfaces, which are currently in development. Interfacial interaction strongly modifies the electronic and atomic structures of these overlayer systems and substrate surfaces. In addition, one can recognize a variety of growth phenomena by changing the surface and growth conditions, which are promising as regards fabricating those noble nanosystems. We have great pleasure in acknowledging the enthusiastic response and participation of our invited authors and their diligent preparation of the manuscripts. Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures contents Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structuresThomas Geber and Chuhei Oshima Templating of arrays of Ru nanoclusters by monolayer graphene/Ru Moirés with different periodicitiesEli Sutter, Bin Wang, Peter Albrecht, Jayeeta Lahiri, Marie-Laure Bocquet and Peter Sutter Controllable p-doping of graphene on Ir(111) by chlorination with FeCl3N A Vinogradov, K A Simonov, A V Generalov, A S Vinogradov, D V Vyalikh, C Laubschat, N Mårtensson and A B Preobrajenski Optimizing long-range order, band gap, and group velocities for graphene on close-packed metal surfacesF D Natterer, S Rusponi, M Papagno, C Carbone and H Brune Epitaxial growth of graphene on transition metal surfaces: chemical vapor deposition versus liquid phase depositionSamuel Grandthyll, Stefan Gsell, Michael Weinl, Matthias Schreck, Stefan Hüfner and Frank Müller High-yield boron nitride nanosheets from 'chemical blowing': towards practical applications in polymer compositesXuebin Wang, Amir Pakdel, Chunyi Zhi, Kentaro Watanabe, Takashi Sekiguchi, Dmitri Golberg and Yoshio Bando BCx layers with honeycomb lattices on an NbB2(0001) surfaceChuhei Oshima Epitaxial growth of boron-doped graphene by thermal decomposition of B4CWataru Norimatsu, Koichiro Hirata, Yuta Yamamoto, Shigeo Arai and Michiko

  2. Sandwich structures for high temperature applications: Microstructural development and mechanical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azarmi, Fardad

    There has been a great deal of interest in the development of sandwich structures as viable engineering constructions. It is due to their unique structural, physical, and mechanical characteristics such as light weight, high strength to weight ratio, high bending stiffness, excellent thermal and acoustical insulation. Although the service temperature for most applications of sandwich structures is low, the outstanding properties make sandwich constructions attractive for use in high temperature service conditions as well. The overall performance of sandwich constructions depends on the material properties of skin and core, and their geometrical characteristics. An investigation of the characteristics of sandwich structures suitable for high temperature application is presented. The objective of the investigation was to develop a process for producing sandwich structures by depositing alloy 625 skins on Ni foam cores using air plasma spraying (APS), and to characterize the structure and mechanical behavior of the constituents and the sandwich structure. The experimental investigation consisted of optimization of deposition process parameters, microstructural and mechanical characterization of sandwich constituents and testing of mechanical performance of sandwich structures under flexural loading conditions. The responses of the as-received foam, as-sprayed coating, and as-fabricated sandwich structure to heat treatment were investigated. Available analytical models and numerical simulations linking the mechanical properties of the Ni alloy foam, the alloy 625 coating, and the sandwich structure to their physical properties and microstructures were compared with the results of mechanical testing to understand the behavior of the sandwich structure in terms of the properties of the constituents. An empirical model was developed to predict deposition parameters which simultaneously minimize the oxide content and the porosity in the alloy 625 coating. The optimum

  3. Coexisting Honeycomb and Kagome Characteristics in the Electronic Band Structure of Molecular Graphene.

    PubMed

    Paavilainen, Sami; Ropo, Matti; Nieminen, Jouko; Akola, Jaakko; Räsänen, Esa

    2016-06-01

    We uncover the electronic structure of molecular graphene produced by adsorbed CO molecules on a copper (111) surface by means of first-principles calculations. Our results show that the band structure is fundamentally different from that of conventional graphene, and the unique features of the electronic states arise from coexisting honeycomb and Kagome symmetries. Furthermore, the Dirac cone does not appear at the K-point but at the Γ-point in the reciprocal space and is accompanied by a third, almost flat band. Calculations of the surface structure with Kekulé distortion show a gap opening at the Dirac point in agreement with experiments. Simple tight-binding models are used to support the first-principles results and to explain the physical characteristics behind the electronic band structures. PMID:27176628

  4. Discovery of a honeycomb structure in the twisted plywood patterns of fibrous biological nanocomposite tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raabe, D.; Romano, P.; Sachs, C.; Al-Sawalmih, A.; Brokmeier, H.-G.; Yi, S.-B.; Servos, G.; Hartwig, H. G.

    2005-09-01

    Electron microscopy and synchrotron Bragg diffraction were used for the investigation of the structure of the exoskeleton of the lobster Homarus americanus. The study reveals a pronounced microstructure hierarchy and a strong crystallographic and topological texture of the α-chitin-protein network underlying the twisted plywood (Bouligand) structure. The results suggest that the classical picture of such structures must be refined. Instead of a smoothly misoriented stacking sequence of its constitutive nanofibrous chitin-protein planes, two major and two minor orientation branches of the fibers perpendicular to a common <0 2 0> crystallographic axis pointing towards the surface of the cuticle were found. This crystallographic texture confirms the microscopical observation that the chitin-protein arrays which form the structural subunits of plywood patterns assume the form of planar honeycombs.

  5. Evaluation of the thermal efficiency of a high-temperature heat-insulation structure based on honeycomb plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhenkov, A. V.; Lapin, E. E.; Loginova, N. A.; Sitdikov, D. R.; Grigor'ev, S. V.

    2016-06-01

    Highly efficient heat-insulation materials are needed in order to reduce the heat losses in operation of heat-power equipment at temperatures up to 700°C. A review of the available solutions showed that the development of a high-temperature heat-insulation structure of a new type is needed. The basic features of application of honeycomb plastics in heat insulation of heat-power equipment are discussed, the known techniques for evaluating the heat conductance of such materials are reviewed, and the results of calculation-parametric studies on determining the optimum honeycomb design for heat-insulation structures are reported.

  6. Development of Quiet Honeycomb Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.; Klos, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Sandwich honeycomb composite panels are lightweight and strong, and, therefore, provide a reasonable alternative to the aluminum ring framelstringer architecture currently used for most aircraft airframes. The drawback to honeycomb panels is that they radiate noise into the aircraft cabin very efficiently provoking the need for additional sound treatment which adds weight and reduces the material's cost advantage. A series of honeycomb panels were made which incorporated different design strategies aimed at reducing the honeycomb panels' radiation efficiency while at the same time maintaining its strength. The majority of the desi gns were centered around the concept of creatin g areas of reduced stiffness in the panel by adding voids and recesses to the core. The effort culminated with a reinforced./recessed panel which had 6 dB higher transmission loss than the baseline solid core panel while maintaining comparable strength.

  7. A comparative study of the impact properties of sandwich materials with different cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishnan, K. R.; Shankar, K.; Viot, P.; Guerard, S.

    2012-08-01

    Sandwich panels are made of two high strength skins bonded to either side of a light weight core and are used in applications where high stiffness combined with low structural weight is required. The purpose of this paper is to compare the mechanical response of several sandwich panels whose core materials are different. Sandwich panels with glass fibre-reinforced polymer face sheets were used, combined with five different cores; polystyrene foam, polypropylene honeycomb, two different density Balsa wood and Cork. All specimens were subjected to low velocity impact and their structural response (Force-displacement curves) were compared to quasistatic response of the panel tested using an hemispherical indenter.

  8. Sonic Stop-Bands for Periodic Arrays of Metallic Rods: Honeycomb Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushwaha, M. S.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.

    1998-12-01

    Extensive band structures have been computed for periodic arrays (in the honeycomb structure) of rigid metallic rods in air. Multiple complete acoustic stop bands have been obtained within which sound and vibrations are forbidden. These gaps start opening up for a filling fractionf≥8% and tend to increase with the filling fraction, exhibiting a maximum at the close-packing. A tandem structure has also been proposed that allows an ultrawideband filter for environmental or industrial noise to be achieved in the desired frequency range. This work is motivated by the recent experimental observation of sound attenuation on the sculpture by Eusebio Sempere, exhibited at the Juian March Foundation in Madrid [21] and complements the corresponding theoretical work [22, 23].

  9. Nano-honeycomb structured transparent electrode for enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Xiao-Bo; Qian, Min; Wang, Zhao-Kui E-mail: lsliao@suda.edu.cn; Liao, Liang-Sheng E-mail: lsliao@suda.edu.cn

    2015-06-01

    A universal nano-sphere lithography method has been developed to fabricate nano-structured transparent electrode, such as indium tin oxide (ITO), for light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Perforated SiO{sub 2} film made from a monolayer colloidal crystal of polystyrene spheres and tetraethyl orthosilicate sol-gel is used as a template. Ordered nano-honeycomb pits on the ITO electrode surface are obtained by chemical etching. The proposed method can be utilized to form large-area nano-structured ITO electrode. More than two folds' enhancement in both current efficiency and power efficiency has been achieved in a red phosphorescent OLED which was fabricated on the nano-structured ITO substrate.

  10. Ultrasonic, microwave, and millimeter wave inspection techniques for adhesively bonded stacked open honeycomb core composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Clint D.; Cox, Ian; Ghasr, Mohammad Tayeb Ahmed; Ying, Kuang P.; Zoughi, Reza

    2015-03-01

    Honeycomb sandwich composites are used extensively in the aerospace industry to provide stiffness and thickness to lightweight structures. A common fabrication method for thick, curved sandwich structures is to stack and bond multiple honeycomb layers prior to machining core curvatures. Once bonded, each adhesive layer must be inspected for delaminations and the presence of unwanted foreign materials. From a manufacturing and cost standpoint, it can be advantageous to inspect the open core prior to face sheet closeout in order to reduce end-article scrap rates. However, by nature, these honeycomb sandwich composite structures are primarily manufactured from low permittivity and low loss materials making detection of delamination and some of the foreign materials (which also are low permittivity and low loss) quite challenging in the microwave and millimeter wave regime. Likewise, foreign materials such as release film in adhesive layers can be sufficiently thin as to not cause significant attenuation in through-transmission ultrasonic signals, making them difficult to detect. This paper presents a collaborative effort intended to explore the efficacy of different non-contact NDI techniques for detecting flaws in a stacked open fiberglass honeycomb core panel. These techniques primarily included air-coupled through-transmission ultrasonics, single-sided wideband synthetic aperture microwave and millimeter-wave imaging, and lens-focused technique. The goal of this investigation has been to not only evaluate the efficacy of these techniques, but also to determine their unique advantages and limitations for evaluating parameters such as flaw type, flaw size, and flaw depth.

  11. Elevated Temperature, Residual Compressive Strength of Impact-Damaged Sandwich Structure Manufactured Out-of-Autoclave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Sutter, James K.; Burke, Eric R.; Dixon, Genevieve D.; Gyekenyesi, Thomas G.; Smeltzer, Stanley S.

    2012-01-01

    Several 1/16th-scale curved sandwich composite panel sections of a 10 m diameter barrel were fabricated to demonstrate the manufacturability of large-scale curved sections using minimum gauge, [+60/-60/0]s, toughened epoxy composite facesheets co-cured with low density (50 kilograms per cubic meters) aluminum honeycomb core. One of these panels was fabricated out of autoclave (OoA) by the vacuum bag oven (VBO) process using Cycom(Registered Trademark) T40-800b/5320-1 prepreg system while another panel with the same lay-up and dimensions was fabricated using the autoclave-cure, toughened epoxy prepreg system Cycom(Registered Trademark) IM7/977-3. The resulting 2.44 m x 2 m curved panels were investigated by non-destructive evaluation (NDE) at NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) to determine initial fabrication quality and then cut into smaller coupons for elevated temperature wet (ETW) mechanical property characterization. Mechanical property characterization of the sandwich coupons was conducted including edge-wise compression (EWC), and compression-after-impact (CAI) at conditions ranging from 25 C/dry to 150 C/wet. The details and results of this characterization effort are presented in this paper.

  12. Nine new phosphorene polymorphs with non-honeycomb structures: a much extended family.

    PubMed

    Wu, Menghao; Fu, Huahua; Zhou, Ling; Yao, Kailun; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2015-05-13

    We predict a new class of monolayer phosphorus allotropes, namely, ε-P, ζ-P, η-P, and θ-P. Distinctly different from the monolayer α-P (black) and previously predicted β-P (Phys. Rev. Lett. 2014, 112, 176802), γ-P, and δ-P (Phys. Rev. Lett. 2014, 113, 046804) with buckled honeycomb lattice, the new allotropes are composed of P4 square or P5 pentagon units that favor tricoordination for P atoms. The new four polymorphs, together with five additional hybrid polymorphs, greatly enrich the phosphorene structures, and their stabilities are confirmed by first-principles calculations. In particular, the θ-P is shown to be equally stable as the α-P (black) and more stable than all previously reported phosphorene polymorphs. Prediction of nonvolatile ferroelastic switching and structural transformation among different polymorphs under strains points out their potential applications via strain engineering. PMID:25844524

  13. Strain induced topological phase transitions in monolayer honeycomb structures of group-V binary compounds

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Yaozhuang; Rahman, Mavlanjan; Wang, Daowei; Wang, Can; Guo, Guanghua

    2015-01-01

    We present first-principles calculations of electronic structures of a class of two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb structures of group-V binary compounds. Our results show these new 2D materials are stable semiconductors with direct or indirect band gaps. The band gap can be tuned by applying lattice strain. During their stretchable regime, they all exhibit metal-indirect gap semiconductor-direct gap semiconductor-topological insulator (TI) transitions with increasing strain from negative (compressive) to positive (tensile) values. The topological phase transition results from the band inversion at the Γ point which is due to the evolution of bonding and anti-bonding states under lattice strain. PMID:26656257

  14. Systems, Apparatuses, and Methods for Using Durable Adhesively Bonded Joints for Sandwich Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smeltzer, III, Stanley S. (Inventor); Lundgren, Eric C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems, methods, and apparatus for increasing durability of adhesively bonded joints in a sandwich structure. Such systems, methods, and apparatus includes an first face sheet and an second face sheet as well as an insert structure, the insert structure having a first insert face sheet, a second insert face sheet, and an insert core material. In addition, sandwich core material is arranged between the first face sheet and the second face sheet. A primary bondline may be coupled to the face sheet(s) and the splice. Further, systems, methods, and apparatus of the present disclosure advantageously reduce the load, provide a redundant path, reduce structural fatigue, and/or increase fatigue life.

  15. Insert Design and Manufacturing for Foam-Core Composite Sandwich Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lares, Alan

    Sandwich structures have been used in the aerospace industry for many years. The high strength to weight ratios that are possible with sandwich constructions makes them desirable for airframe applications. While sandwich structures are effective at handling distributed loads such as aerodynamic forces, they are prone to damage from concentrated loads at joints or due to impact. This is due to the relatively thin face-sheets and soft core materials typically found in sandwich structures. Carleton University's Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Project Team has designed and manufactured a UAV (GeoSury II Prototype) which features an all composite sandwich structure fuselage structure. The purpose of the aircraft is to conduct geomagnetic surveys. The GeoSury II Prototype serves as the test bed for many areas of research in advancing UAV technologies. Those areas of research include: low cost composite materials manufacturing, geomagnetic data acquisition, obstacle detection, autonomous operations and magnetic signature control. In this thesis work a methodology for designing and manufacturing inserts for foam-core sandwich structures was developed. The results of this research work enables a designer wishing to design a foam-core sandwich airframe structure, a means of quickly manufacturing optimized inserts for the safe introduction of discrete loads into the airframe. The previous GeoSury II Prototype insert designs (v.1 & v.2) were performance tested to establish a benchmark with which to compare future insert designs. Several designs and materials were considered for the new v.3 inserts. A plug and sleeve design was selected, due to its ability to effectively transfer the required loads to the sandwich structure. The insert material was chosen to be epoxy, reinforced with chopped carbon fibre. This material was chosen for its combination of strength, low mass and also compatibility with the face-sheet material. The v.3 insert assembly is 60% lighter than the

  16. Preparation of porous poly(L-lactic acid) honeycomb monolith structure by phase separation and unidirectional freezing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Woong; Taki, Kentaro; Nagamine, Shinsuke; Ohshima, Masahiro

    2009-05-01

    A honeycomb monolith structure with micro/nanoscale porous walls was successfully fabricated in poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) by integrating polymer-solvent and polymer-polymer phase separations induced during a pseudosteady-state unidirectional freezing process. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and PLLA were dissolved in 1,4-dioxane to prepare a single phase polymer solution. The direction of freezing created a honeycomb monolith structure of PLLA/PEG polymers. Crystallization of the solvent reduced the solvent concentration and induced liquid-liquid phase separation during the unidirectional freezing. A sea-and-island morphology, where PEG domains were dispersed in the PLLA matrix, was developed, and pores were created in the channel walls of the honeycomb monolith structure by leaching out the PEG domain. The effects of the PEG molecular weight and the PLLA/PEG weight ratio on the aligned honeycomb structure and the pores in the channel walls were investigated. A ternary phase diagram for PLLA, PEG, and 1,4-dioxane was created from cloud point temperature measurements. Based on this phase diagram, hypotheses for the mechanism of the cellular-dendritic transition and the formation mechanism of the pores in the channel walls are proposed. PMID:19290649

  17. Modelling the vibration of sandwich beams using frequency-dependent parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backström, D.; Nilsson, A. C.

    2007-03-01

    Various types of sandwich beams with foam or honeycomb cores are currently used in the industry, indicating the need for simple methods describing the dynamics of these complex structures. By implementing frequency-dependent parameters, the vibration of sandwich composite beams can be approximated using simple fourth-order beam theory. A higher-order sandwich beam model is utilized in order to obtain estimates of the frequency-dependent bending stiffness and shear modulus of the equivalent Bernoulli-Euler and Timoshenko models. The resulting predicted eigenfrequencies and transfer accellerance functions are compared to the data obtained from the higher-order model and from measurements.

  18. Strain-tunable band parameters of ZnO monolayer in graphene-like honeycomb structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, Harihar; Mukhopadhyay, Gautam

    2012-10-01

    We present ab initio calculations which show that the direct-band-gap, effective masses and Fermi velocities of charge carriers in ZnO monolayer (ML-ZnO) in graphene-like honeycomb structure are all tunable by application of in-plane homogeneous biaxial strain. Within our simulated strain limit of ±10%, the band gap remains direct and shows a strong non-linear variation with strain. Moreover, the average Fermi velocity of electrons in unstrained ML-ZnO is of the same order of magnitude as that in graphene. The results promise potential applications of ML-ZnO in mechatronics/straintronics and other nano-devices such as the nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) and nano-optomechanical systems (NOMS).

  19. Optimisation of Composite Sandwich Structures Subjected to Combined Torsion and Bending Stiffness Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Li, Gangyan; Wang, Chun H.

    2012-06-01

    This research is motivated by the rapidly increasing use of composite sandwich structures to reduce weight and improve energy efficiency in a wide range of industries such as automotive, aerospace and civil infrastructure. The paper presents a minimum-weight optimization method for sandwich structures to meet both torsion and bending rigidity requirements. This multiple inequality-constrained optimisation problem is formulated using the Lagrange multiplier method. Solving the resulting equations reveals the optimum solution that can satisfy both flexural and torsion stiffness requirements depend on the stiffness ratio relative to elastic modulus ratio. To illustrate the newly developed optimum design solutions, numerical examples are presented for sandwich structures made of either isotropic face skins or orthotropic composite face skins.

  20. Compression After Impact Testing of Sandwich Structures Using the Four Point Bend Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, Alan T.; Gregory, Elizabeth; Jackson, Justin; Kenworthy, Devon

    2008-01-01

    For many composite laminated structures, the design is driven by data obtained from Compression after Impact (CAI) testing. There currently is no standard for CAI testing of sandwich structures although there is one for solid laminates of a certain thickness and lay-up configuration. Most sandwich CAI testing has followed the basic technique of this standard where the loaded ends are precision machined and placed between two platens and compressed until failure. If little or no damage is present during the compression tests, the loaded ends may need to be potted to prevent end brooming. By putting a sandwich beam in a four point bend configuration, the region between the inner supports is put under a compressive load and a sandwich laminate with damage can be tested in this manner without the need for precision machining. Also, specimens with no damage can be taken to failure so direct comparisons between damaged and undamaged strength can be made. Data is presented that demonstrates the four point bend CAI test and is compared with end loaded compression tests of the same sandwich structure.

  1. Numerical analysis of impact-damaged sandwich composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Youngkeun

    Sandwich structures are used in a wide variety of structural applications due to their relative advantages over other conventional structural materials in terms of improved stability, weight savings, and ease of manufacture and repair. Foreign object impact damage in sandwich composites can result in localized damage to the facings, core, and core-facing interface. Such damage may result in drastic reductions in composite strength, elastic moduli, and durability and damage tolerance characteristics. In this study, physically-motivated numerical models have been developed for predicting the residual strength of impact-damaged sandwich composites comprised of woven-fabric graphite-epoxy facesheets and Nomex honeycomb cores subjected to compression-after-impact loading. Results from non-destructive inspection and destructive sectioning of damaged sandwich panels were used to establish initial conditions for damage (residual facesheet indentation, core crush dimension, etc.) in the numerical analysis. Honeycomb core crush test results were used to establish the nonlinear constitutive behavior for the Nomex core. The influence of initial facesheet property degradation and progressive loss of facesheet structural integrity on the residual strength of impact-damaged sandwich panels was examined. The influence of damage of various types and sizes, specimen geometry, support boundary conditions, and variable material properties on the estimated residual strength is discussed. Facesheet strains from material and geometric nonlinear finite element analyses correlated relatively well with experimentally determined values. Moreover, numerical predictions of residual strength are consistent with experimental observations. Using a methodology similar to that presented in this work, it may be possible to develop robust residual strength estimates for complex sandwich composite structural components with varying levels of in-service damage. Such studies may facilitate sandwich

  2. Bifurcations of edge states—topologically protected and non-protected—in continuous 2D honeycomb structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fefferman, C. L.; Lee-Thorp, J. P.; Weinstein, M. I.

    2016-03-01

    Edge states are time-harmonic solutions to energy-conserving wave equations, which are propagating parallel to a line-defect or ‘edge’ and are localized transverse to it. This paper summarizes and extends the authors’ work on the bifurcation of topologically protected edge states in continuous two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb structures. We consider a family of Schrödinger Hamiltonians consisting of a bulk honeycomb potential and a perturbing edge potential. The edge potential interpolates between two different periodic structures via a domain wall. We begin by reviewing our recent bifurcation theory of edge states for continuous 2D honeycomb structures (http://arxiv.org/abs/1506.06111). The topologically protected edge state bifurcation is seeded by the zero-energy eigenstate of a one-dimensional Dirac operator. We contrast these protected bifurcations with (more common) non-protected bifurcations from spectral band edges, which are induced by bound states of an effective Schrödinger operator. Numerical simulations for honeycomb structures of varying contrasts and ‘rational edges’ (zigzag, armchair and others), support the following scenario: (a) for low contrast, under a sign condition on a distinguished Fourier coefficient of the bulk honeycomb potential, there exist topologically protected edge states localized transverse to zigzag edges. Otherwise, and for general edges, we expect long lived edge quasi-modes which slowly leak energy into the bulk. (b) For an arbitrary rational edge, there is a threshold in the medium-contrast (depending on the choice of edge) above which there exist topologically protected edge states. In the special case of the armchair edge, there are two families of protected edge states; for each parallel quasimomentum (the quantum number associated with translation invariance) there are edge states which propagate in opposite directions along the armchair edge.

  3. Development of lightweight graphite/polyimide sandwich panels.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poesch, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    Lightweight graphite/polyimide composite honeycomb core and sandwich panels were fabricated and tested. Honeycomb cores of 1/4-in. and 3/8-in. cell sizes of hexagonal configuration were produced from thin plus or minus 45 deg cross plied sheets of prepreg producing core weights between 1.8 and 3.6 lb/cu ft. Thin gauge prepreg using Hercules graphite tow and Monsanto Skybond 710 polyimide resin were manufactured to produce cured ply thicknesses of 0.001 to 0.002 in. Graphite core properties measured at temperatures from -150 to 600 F are reported. Core properties which are superior to available materials were obtained. Sandwich panels weighing less than 0.5 lb/sq ft were designed and fabricated which meet the support structure loads for the shuttle orbiter thermal protection system.

  4. Radiant heating tests of several liquid metal heat-pipe sandwich panels

    SciTech Connect

    Camarda, C.J.; Basiulis, A.

    1983-08-01

    Integral heat pipe sandwich panels, which synergistically combine the thermal efficiency of heat pipes and the structural efficiency of honeycomb sandwich construction, were conceived as a means of alleviating thermal stress problems in the Langley Scramjet Engine. Test panels which utilized two different wickable honeycomb cores, facesheets with screen mesh sintered to the internal surfaces, and a liquid metal working fluid (either sodium or potassium) were tested by radiant heating at various heat load levels. The heat pipe panels reduced maximum temperature differences by 31 percent with sodium working fluid and 45 percent with potassium working fluid. Results indicate that a heat pipe sandwich panel is a potential, simple solution to the engine thermal stress problem. Other interesting applications of the concept include: cold plates for electronic component and circuit card cooling, radiators for large space platforms, low distortion large area structures (e.g., space antennas) and laser mirrors.

  5. Design, fabrication, and test of lightweight shell structure. [for application to the space tug design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A cylindrical shell skirt structure was subjected to a design and analysis study using a wide variety of structural materials and concepts. The design loading, axial compression, and torsion is representative of that expected on a typical space tug skirt section. Structural concepts evaluated included honeycomb sandwich, truss, isogrid, and skin/stringer/frame. The materials considered included a wide variety of structural metals as well as glass, graphite, and boron-reinforced composites. Honeycomb sandwich with aluminum faceskins, honeycomb sandwich with graphite/epoxy faceskins, and aluminum truss with fiberglass meteoroid protection layers were the designs selected for further evaluation. Procurement of materials required for fabrication is reported and the structural test plan and fabrication drawings are included. Construction of the graphite/epoxy faceskins, chem mill of the aluminum faceskins, chem mill of aluminum truss components, and fabrication of the graphite/epoxy honeycomb sandwich development panel is also reported.

  6. A Study on Flexural Properties of Sandwich Structures with Fiber/Metal Laminate Face Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dariushi, S.; Sadighi, M.

    2013-10-01

    In this work, a new family of sandwich structures with fiber metal laminate (FML) faces is investigated. FMLs have benefits over both metal and fiber reinforced composites. To investigate the bending properties of sandwich beams with FML faces and compare with similar sandwich beams with fibrous composite faces, 6 groups of specimen with different layer arrangements were made and tested. Results show that FML faces have good resistance against transverse local loads and minimize stress concentration and local deformations of skin and core under the loading tip. In addition, FML faces have a good integrity even after plateau region of foam cores and prevent from catastrophic failures, which cannot be seen in fibrous composite faces. Also, FML faces are lighter than metal faces and have better connection with foam cores. Sandwich beams with FML faces have a larger elastic region because of simultaneous deformation of top and bottom faces and larger failure strain thanks to good durability of FMLs. A geometrical nonlinear classical theory is used to predict force-deflection behavior. In this model an explicit formula between symmetrical sandwich beams deflections and applied force which can be useful for designers, is derived. Good agreement is obtained between the analytical predictions and experimental results. Also, analytical results are compared with small deformation solution in a parametric study, and the effects of geometric parameters on difference between linear and nonlinear results are discussed.

  7. The importance of dynamics studies on the design of sandwich structures: a CrB24 case.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Osorio, Edison; Heine, Thomas

    2016-07-21

    Computational prediction and design of sandwich structures have drawn a lot of attention because of their interesting bond characteristics and broad applications. Most studies focus on the thermodynamic stability. In this study, we performed a series of Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BO-MD) simulations to investigate the dynamic stability of the well-known sandwich structure CrB24. The aim was to find at which temperature the sandwich structure is stable. The MD results showed that the sandwich structure has an extremely poor dynamic stability. Additionally, one highly symmetric endohedral structure with a chromium atom at the center of a B24 cage was found. As a demonstration, we attempted to point out the importance of dynamics studies on the future design of sandwich structures. PMID:27334404

  8. The Effect of Heat Treatment on Mechanical Properties of Thermally Sprayed Sandwich Structure Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salavati, Saeid; Coyle, Thomas W.; Mostaghimi, Javad

    2016-01-01

    The application of metallic foam core sandwich structures in engineering components has been of particular interest in recent years because of their unique mechanical and thermal properties. Thermal spraying of the skin on the foam structure has recently been employed as a novel cost-efficient method for fabrication of these structures from refractory materials with complex shapes that could not otherwise be easily fabricated. The mechanical behavior of these structures under flexural loading is important in most applications. Previous studies have suggested that heat treatment of the thermally sprayed sandwich structures could improve the ductility of the skins and so affect the failure mode. In the present study, the mechanical behavior of sandwich beams prepared from arc sprayed alloy 625 skin on 40 ppi nickel foam was characterized under four point bending. The ductility of the arc sprayed alloy 625 coatings was improved after heat treatment at 1100 and 900 °C while the yield point was reduced. Heat treatment of the sandwich beams reduced the danger of catastrophic failure.

  9. Parameter Estimation in Hybrid Active-Passive Laminated Sandwich Composite Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo, A. L.; Mota Soares, C. M.; Mota Soares, C. A.

    2010-05-21

    In this article we present recent developments regarding parameter estimation in sandwich structures with viscoelastic frequency dependent core and elastic laminated skin layers, with piezoelectric patch sensors and actuators bonded to the exterior surfaces of the sandwich. The frequency dependent viscoelastic properties of the core material are modelled using fractional derivative models, with unknown parameters that are to be estimated by an inverse technique, using experimentally measured natural frequencies and associated modal loss factors. The inverse problem is formulated as a constrained minimization problem, and gradient based optimization techniques are employed. An application case is presented and discussed, focused on identification of viscoelastic frequency dependent core material properties.

  10. Design and analysis of a plate-fin sandwich actively cooled structural panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, L. M.

    1978-01-01

    The skin structure of hydrogen fueled hypersonic transport vehicles traveling at Mach 6 and above must be designed to withstand, for relatively long periods of time, the aerodynamic heating effects which are far more severe than those encountered by the supersonic aircraft of today. The use of conventional aircraft materials such as aluminum in combination with forced convection active cooling to accommodate aerodynamic heating is addressed. The basic active cooling concept consists of a stringer stiffened plate-fin sandwich. The sandwich surface is subjected to the aerodynamic heat flux which is transferred, via convection, to a coolant that is forced through the sandwich under pressure. The coolant, in turn, circulates in a closed loop through a hydrogen heat exchanger and back through the skin panel.

  11. Piezoelectric performance of fluor polymer sandwiches with different void structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Kexing; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Xia, Zhongfu

    2012-06-01

    Film sandwiches, consisting of two outer layers of fluoroethylenepropylene and one middle layer of patterned porous polytetrafluoroethylene, were prepared by patterning and fusion bonding. Contact charging was conducted to render the films piezoelectric. The critical voltage to trigger air breakdown in the inner voids in the fabricated films was investigated. The piezoelectric d 33 coefficients were measured employing the quasistatic method and dielectric resonance spectrum. The results show that the critical voltage for air breakdown in the inner voids is associated with the void microstructure of the films. For the films with patterning factors of 0%, 25% and 44%, the critical values are 300, 230 and 230 kV/cm, respectively. With an increase in the patterning factor, both the piezoelectric d 33 coefficients determined from the dielectric resonance spectra and those determined from quasistatic measurements increase, which might be due to a decrease in Young's modulus for the films. The nonlinearity of d 33 becomes increasingly obvious as the patterning factor increases.

  12. Mechanical-Acoustic Multi-Objective Optimization of Honeycomb Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wang-Ying; Yang, Xiong-Wei; Li, Yue-Ming

    At present, optimal design against noise caused by vibrating structures is often formulated with the objective of minimizing sound power or sound pressure. In this paper, a mechanical and acoustic multi-objective optimization method is proposed aimed at minimizing static, dynamic and acoustic response of a honeycomb sandwich panel under given mass constraint. The multi-objective is defined as a weighted sum of static deflection, vibration response and sound power from the norm method. The static and dynamic responses are calculated using FEM and sound power radiated by structures is calculated using discrete Rayleigh integral. The sensitivities of static, dynamic and acoustic response are formulated to improve efficiency by the adjoint method. Numerical examples on the honeycomb plate are considered, which indicate that the proposed method can improve acoustical property without weakening mechanical property.

  13. Distinctive electrical properties in sandwich-structured Al2O3/low density polyethylene nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Si-Jiao; Zha, Jun-Wei; Li, Wei-Kang; Dang, Zhi-Min

    2016-02-01

    The sandwich-structured Al2O3/low density polyethylene (Al2O3/LDPE) nanocomposite dielectrics consisting of layer-by-layer with different concentration Al2O3 loading were prepared by melt-blending and following hot pressing method. The space charge distribution from pulsed electro-acoustic method and breakdown strength of the nanocomposites were investigated. Compared with the single-layer Al2O3/LDPE nanocomposites, the sandwich-structured nanocomposites remarkably suppressed the space charge accumulation and presented higher breakdown strength. The charges in the sandwich-structured nanocomposites decayed much faster than that in the single-layer nanocomposites, which was attributed to an effective electric field caused by the formation of the interfacial space charges. The energy depth of shallow and deep traps was estimated as 0.73 eV and 1.17 eV in the sandwich-structured nanocomposites, respectively, according to the thermal excitation theoretical model we proposed. This work provides an attractive strategy of design and fabrication of polymer nanocomposites with excellent space charge suppression.

  14. Honeycomb lattice with multiorbital structure: Topological and quantum anomalous Hall insulators with large gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Gu-Feng; Li, Yi; Wu, Congjun

    2014-08-01

    We construct a minimal four-band model for the two-dimensional (2D) topological insulators and quantum anomalous Hall insulators based on the px- and py-orbital bands in the honeycomb lattice. The multiorbital structure allows the atomic spin-orbit coupling which lifts the degeneracy between two sets of on-site Kramers doublets jz=±3/2 and jz=±1/2. Because of the orbital angular momentum structure of Bloch-wave states at Γ and K(K') points, topological gaps are equal to the atomic spin-orbit coupling strengths, which are much larger than those based on the mechanism of the s-p band inversion. In the weak and intermediate regime of spin-orbit coupling strength, topological gaps are the global gap. The energy spectra and eigen wave functions are solved analytically based on Clifford algebra. The competition among spin-orbit coupling λ, sublattice asymmetry m, and the Néel exchange field n results in band crossings at Γ and K(K ') points, which leads to various topological band structure transitions. The quantum anomalous Hall state is reached under the condition that three gap parameters λ, m, and n satisfy the triangle inequality. Flat bands also naturally arise which allow a local construction of eigenstates. The above mechanism is related to several classes of solid state semiconducting materials.

  15. Design of BAs-AlN monolayered honeycomb heterojunction structures: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho-Mojica, Dulce C.; López-Urías, Florentino

    2016-04-01

    BAs and AlN are semiconductor materials with an indirect and direct gap respectively in the bulk phase. Recently, electronic calculations have demonstrated that a single-layer or few layers of BAs and AlN exhibit a graphite-like structure with interesting electronic properties. In this work, infinite sheets single-layer heterojunction structures based on alternated strips with honeycomb BAs and AlN layers are investigated using first-principles density functional theory calculations. Optimized geometries, density of states, band-gaps, formation energies, and wave functions are studied for different strip widths joined along zigzag and armchair edges. Results in optimized heterojunction geometries revealed that BAs narrow strips exhibit a corrugation effect due to a lattice mismatch. It was found that zigzag heterojunctions are more energetically favored than armchair heterojunctions. Furthermore, the formation energy presents a maximum at the point where the heterojunction becomes a planar structure. Electronic charge density results yielded a more ionic behavior in Alsbnd N bonds than the Bsbnd As bonds in accordance with monolayer results. It was observed that the conduction band minimum for both heterojunctions exhibit confined states located mainly at the entire AlN strips whereas the valence band maximum exhibits confined states located mainly at BAs strips. We expect that the present investigation will motivate more experimental and theoretical studies on new layered materials made of III-V semiconductors.

  16. (Porphyrinato)bis(phthalocyaninato)dilanthanide(III) complexes presenting a sandwich triple-decker-like structure

    SciTech Connect

    Moussavi, M.; De Cian, A.; Fischer, J.; Weiss, R.

    1986-06-18

    Bis(phthalocyaninato)lanthanide(III) derivatives presenting a sandwich-type structure have been known for many years. These complexes are still intensively studied due to their semi-conductor and electrochromic properties. The synthesis and properties of bis(porphyrinato) and tris(porphyrinato)lanthanide(III) derivatives have also been reported. X-ray structural studies have shown that bis(porphyrinato) complexes have geometries that are similar to those displayed by the LnPc/sub 2/ complexes (Ln = lanthanide; Pc = phthalocyanine) whereas the tris(porphyrinato) derivatives present structures in which two lanthanide(III) metal cations are sandwiched between three macrocyclic rings in triple-decker-like geometry. Structural, magnetic, and spectroscopic properties of the green form of lutetium(III) bis(phthalocyanate) have shown that this complex is in a nonprotonated, one-electron-oxidized ligand form, Ln (Pc/sup 2 -/) (Pc..pi..). In such a molecule, the unpaired spin could be either located on one phthalocyanine ring or delocalized over both rings. In order to force the localization of the unpaired spin on one ring, the authors have tried to synthesize a dissymmetric mixed-ligand, porphyrin (Por) phthalocyanine (Pc), lanthanide sandwich Ln(Por)(Pc). However, under the conditions used, the authors obtained dilanthanide sandwich-triple-decker-like complexes. (Por(Ln)Pc(Ln)Pc) in which the two metal cations are sandwiched between three macrocyclic rings. They report the synthesis and spectral properties of such derivatives obtained with Ln = Nd(III), Eu(III), and Gd(III) and with meso-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl) porphyrin (H/sub 2/T(4-OCH/sub 3/)PP) and phthalocyanine (H/sub 2/Pc). The X-ray structure of the neodymim complex is also reported.

  17. In Vivo evaluation of adipogenic induction in fibrous and honeycomb-structured atelocollagen scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Andrea P; Felice, Betiana; Sánchez, María A; Tsujigiwa, Hidetsugu; Felice, Carmelo J; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, soft tissue restoration techniques are mainly focused on volume regeneration instead of function recovering. So far, autologous fat transplant has been the most popular method although its multiple reported problems like volume and function loss. Adipose tissue engineering therefore emerges as a solution for development of biological substitutes for soft tissue which promotes not only volume regeneration but also function restoration with minimal consequences. Here we tested fibrous-structured atelocollagen (FSA) scaffolds and honeycomb atelocollagen (HCA) scaffolds for their ability to induce adipogenesis in vivo. Implants were subjected to histological and immunohistochemical assessment after 1, 2, and 4weeks of implantation. Our studies showed that FSA scaffolds induced in vivo a markedly adipogenic response, whereas an acute inflammatory process was observed at HCA scaffolds without tissue regeneration detected within them. Our histological findings concerning FSA scaffolds clearly showed the presence of adipose-like tissue surprisingly composed by a mixture of brown-like and white-like adipocytes at week 2 whereas only white-like adipocytes at week 4. Subsequent positive Pax7 immunostaining at weeks 1 and 2 suggested the existence of a common myogenic progenitor shared by brown-like and white-like adipocytes observed. Then, in this work we present FSA scaffolds as a promising structure for brown and white adipose tissue engineering. PMID:27040203

  18. Crystal Structure of the Spin 1/2 Honeycomb-Lattice Antiferromagnet Cu2(pymca)3(ClO4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Zentaro; Kodama, Takafumi; Kikukawa, Reo; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Kida, Takanori; Sakai, Masamichi; Fukuda, Takeshi; Fujihara, Takashi; Kamata, Norihiko

    2015-03-01

    Using X-ray diffraction techniques, we have studied the crystal structure of a copper polynuclear coordination polymer Cu2(pymca)3(ClO4) (pymca = pyrimidine-2-carboxylate), which is found to crystallize as a trigonal crystal system, space group P31m, with the lattice constants a = 9.5904(18) Å and c = 5.9000(11) Å, at temperature T = 150 K. Each pymca ligand connects to two Cu2+ ions, forming a honeycomb network in the ab plane. The T dependence of the magnetic susceptibility of Cu2(pymca)3(ClO4) shows a broad maximum near T = 26 K, indicating low-dimensional antiferromagnetic interactions. From the crystal structure and magnetic properties, we conclude that Cu2(pymca)3(ClO4) is a good realization of a spin-1/2 honeycomb lattice antiferromagnet.

  19. The flame structure of AP/HTPB sandwiches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorpening, Benjamin Todd

    2000-10-01

    Ultraviolet emission imaging experiments have been used to study the combustion of sandwiches of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) in nitrogen at pressures up to 32 atm, with binder layers from 50 to 450 mum in thickness. An ICCD camera system has been used to image the flame emission near 310 nm, and a backlighting technique has been developed that allows determination of the corresponding surface shape during combustion. The results indicate the AP/HTPB interface regression rate of IPDI cured samples undergoing low power (100W) laser-assisted deflagration is nearly independent of the binder thickness for binders thicker than 100 mum. The pressure exponent of the regression rate is 0.31 up to 15 atm, increasing with pressure from 15 to 32 atm. Two primary regimes of flame behavior have been identified: a split flame base regime which occurs with high Peclet and Damkohler numbers, and a merged flame base regime which occurs with low Peclet and Damkohler numbers. A secondary regime, exhibiting a "lifted" flame, occurs with low Damkohler numbers and high Peclet numbers. The ultraviolet flame emissions observed in the experiments show a correspondence with the fuel-rich region of the flame, as determined with a Schvab-Zeldovich model. This is reasonable since the primary sources of ultraviolet emission in the 305--315 nm region, electronically excited OH and the CO + O reaction, are dependent on fuel related species. The growth of the fuel-rich region with increasing Peclet number, predicted by the model, is qualitatively matched by the experimental results. The predicted shrinkage of the fuel-rich region when the binder layer is diluted with fine AP is also qualitatively matched by the experiments. Comparison of the experimental results with a single-reaction model with finite rate kinetics shows a weak qualitative agreement on the influence of Damkohler number. A large increase in Damkohler number (factor of 20) leads to a strong

  20. The degree of π electron delocalization and the formation of 3D-extensible sandwich structures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Wang, Qiang; Yuan, Caixia; Zhao, Xue-Feng; Li, Jia-Jia; Li, Debao; Wu, Yan-Bo; Wang, Xiaotai

    2016-04-28

    DFT B3LYP/6-31G(d) calculations were performed to examine the feasibility of graphene-like C42H18 and starbenzene C6(BeH)6 (SBz) polymers as ligands of 3D-extensible sandwich compounds (3D-ESCs) with uninterrupted sandwich arrays. The results revealed that sandwich compounds with three or more C42H18 ligands were not feasible. The possible reason may be the localization of π electrons on certain C6 hexagons due to π-metal interactions, which makes the whole ligand lose its electronic structure basis (higher degree of π electron delocalization) to maintain the planar structure. For comparison, with the aid of benzene (Bz) molecules, the SBz polymers can be feasible ligands for designing 3D-ESCs because the C-Be interactions in individual SBz are largely ionic, which will deter the π electrons on one C6 ring from connecting to those on neighbouring C6 rings. This means that high degree of π electron delocalization is not necessary for maintaining the planarity of SBz polymers. Such a locally delocalized π electron structure is desirable for the ligands of 3D-ESCs. Remarkably, the formation of a sandwich compound with SBz is thermodynamically more favourable than that found for bis(Bz)chromium. The assembly of 3D-ESCs is largely exothermic, which will facilitate future experimental synthesis. The different variation trends on the HOMO-LUMO gaps in different directions (relative to the sandwich axes) suggest that they can be developed to form directional conductors or semiconductors, which may be useful in the production of electronic devices. PMID:27004750

  1. Buckling and structural efficiency of sandwich-blade stiffened composite compression panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, M.; Williams, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    The minimum mass structural efficiency curve was determined for sandwich blade stiffened composite compression panels subjected to buckling and strength constraints. High structural efficiencies are attainable for this type of construction. A method of analysis is presented for the buckling of panels of this configuration which shows that buckling of such panels is strongly dependent on the through-the-thickness transverse shearing of the stiffener. Experimental results are presented and compared with theory.

  2. Honeycomb lattice with multiorbital structure: Topological and quantum anomalous Hall insulators with large gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Gu-Feng; Li, Yi; Wu, Congjun

    2015-03-01

    We construct a minimal four-band model for the two-dimensional topological insulators and quantum anomalous Hall insulators based on the px- and py-orbital bands in the honeycomb lattice. The multiorbital structure allows the atomic spin-orbit coupling which lifts the degeneracy between two sets of on-site Kramers doublets jz = +/-3/2 and jz = +/-1/2 . Because of the orbital angular momentum structure of Bloch-wave states at Γ and K (K') points, topological gaps are equal to the atomic spin-orbit coupling strengths, which are much larger than those based on the mechanism of the s - p band inversion.The energy spectra and eigen wave functions are solved analytically based on Clifford algebra. The competition among spin-orbit coupling λ, sublattice asymmetry m, and the Néel exchange field n results in band crossings at Γ and K (K') points, which leads to various topological band structure transitions. The quantum anomalous Hall state is reached under the condition that three gap parameters λ, m, and n satisfy the triangle inequality. Flat bands also naturally arise which allow a local construction of eigenstates. The above mechanism is related to several classes of solid state semiconductor. G.F.Z. and C.W. are supported by the NSF DMR-1410375 and AFOSR FA9550-11-1-0067(YIP). Y.L. thanks the Inamori Fellowship and the support at the Princeton Center for Theoretical Science. C.W. acknowledges financial support from the National Natural Science.

  3. Analysis of a ceramic filled bio-plastic composite sandwich structure

    SciTech Connect

    Habib Ullah, M.; Islam, M. T.

    2013-11-25

    Design and analysis of a ceramic-filled bio-plastic composite sandwich structure is presented. This proposed high-dielectric structure is used as a substrate for patch antennas. A meandered-strip line-fed fractal-shape patch antenna is designed and fabricated on a copper-laminated sandwich-structured substrate. Measurement results of this antenna show 44% and 20% of bandwidths with maximum gains of 3.45 dBi and 5.87 dBi for the lower and upper bands, respectively. The half-power beam widths of 104° and 78° have been observed from the measured radiation pattern at the two resonance frequencies 0.9 GHz and 2.5 GHz.

  4. Application of line scanning thermography for the detection of interlaminar disbonds in sandwich composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ley, Obdulia; Chung, Simon; Schutte, Jaco; Caiazzo, Anthony; Godinez, Valery; Bandos, Bruce

    2010-04-01

    An innovative Line Scanning Thermography (LST) inspection method is being developed as part of a Structural Damage Assessment System to access the health of in-service composite structures. The system utilizes a line heat source to thermally excite the surface inspected and an infrared detector to record the transient surface temperature variation and to detect regions of increased heat resistance associated to interlaminar disbonds, cracks and other imperfections found in composites structures. In this study our efforts towards the applications of LST for the analysis of carbon fiber sandwich composites will be discussed. The LST technique provides a quick and efficient methodology to scan wide areas rapidly. The scanning protocols developed for the detection of sub-surface disbonds (delamination) in composite sandwich parts will be presented. The results presented correspond to scans of test coupons with manufactured defects.

  5. A novel sandwich differential capacitive accelerometer with symmetrical double-sided serpentine beam-mass structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, D. B.; Li, Q. S.; Hou, Z. Q.; Wang, X. H.; Chen, Z. H.; Xia, D. W.; Wu, X. Z.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a novel differential capacitive silicon micro-accelerometer with symmetrical double-sided serpentine beam-mass sensing structure and glass-silicon-glass sandwich structure. The symmetrical double-sided serpentine beam-mass sensing structure is fabricated with a novel pre-buried mask fabrication technology, which is convenient for manufacturing multi-layer sensors. The glass-silicon-glass sandwich structure is realized by a double anodic bonding process. To solve the problem of the difficulty of leading out signals from the top and bottom layer simultaneously in the sandwich sensors, a silicon pillar structure is designed that is inherently simple and low-cost. The prototype is fabricated and tested. It has low noise performance (the peak to peak value is 40 μg) and μg-level Allan deviation of bias (2.2 μg in 1 h), experimentally demonstrating the effectiveness of the design and the novel fabrication technology.

  6. Experimental study of the mechanical behaviour of pin reinforced foam core sandwich materials under shear load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimassi, M. A.; Brauner, C.; Herrmann, A. S.

    2016-03-01

    Sandwich structures with a lightweight closed cell hard foam core have the potential to be used in primary structures of commercial aircrafts. Compared to honeycomb core sandwich, the closed cell foam core sandwich overcomes the issue of moisture take up and makes the manufacturing of low priced and highly integrated structures possible. However, lightweight foam core sandwich materials are prone to failure by localised external loads like low velocity impacts. Invisible cracks could grow in the foam core and threaten the integrity of the structure. In order to enhance the out-of-plane properties of foam core sandwich structures and to improve the damage tolerance (DT) dry fibre bundles are inserted in the foam core. The pins are infused with resin and co-cured with the dry fabric face sheets in an out-of-autoclave process. This study presents the results obtained from shear tests following DIN 53294-standard, on flat sandwich panels. All panels were manufactured with pin-reinforcement manufactured with the Tied Foam Core Technology (TFC) developed by Airbus. The effects of pin material (CFRP and GFRP) and pin volume fraction on the shear properties of the sandwich structure and the crack propagation were investigated and compared to a not pinned reference. It has been concluded that the pin volume fraction has a remarkable effect on the shear properties and damage tolerance of the observed structure. Increasing the pin volume fraction makes the effect of crack redirection more obvious and conserves the integrity of the structure after crack occurrence.

  7. ALL NATURAL COMPOSITE SANDWICH BEAMS FOR STRUCTURAL APPLICATIONS. (R829576)

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of developing an all natural composite roof for housing application,
    structural panels and unit beams were manufactured out of soybean oil based resin
    and natural fibers (flax, cellulose, pulp, recycled paper, chicken feathers)
    using vacuum assisted resin tran...

  8. Facile Fabrication of Sandwich Structured WO3 Nanoplate Arrays for Efficient Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaoyang; Chen, Yubin; Qin, Zhixiao; Wang, Menglong; Guo, Liejin

    2016-07-20

    Herein, sandwich structured tungsten trioxide (WO3) nanoplate arrays were first synthesized for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting via a facile hydrothermal method followed by an annealing treatment. It was demonstrated that the annealing temperature played an important role in determining the morphology and crystal phase of the WO3 film. Only when the hydrothermally prepared precursor was annealed at 500 °C could the sandwich structured WO3 nanoplates be achieved, probably due to the crystalline phase transition and increased thermal stress during the annealing process. The sandwich structured WO3 photoanode exhibited a photocurrent density of 1.88 mA cm(-2) and an incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) as high as 65% at 400 nm in neutral Na2SO4 solution under AM 1.5G illumination. To our knowledge, this value is one of the best PEC performances for WO3 photoanodes. Meanwhile, simultaneous hydrogen and oxygen evolution was demonstrated for the PEC water splitting. It was concluded that the high PEC performance should be attributed to the large electrochemically active surface area and active monoclinic phase. The present study can provide guidance to develop highly efficient nanostructured photoelectrodes with the favorable morphology. PMID:27347739

  9. Design of Fiber Reinforced Foam Sandwich Panels for Large Ares V Structural Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    2010-01-01

    The preliminary design of three major structural components within NASA's Ares V heavy lift vehicle using a novel fiber reinforced foam composite sandwich panel concept is presented. The Ares V payload shroud, interstage, and core intertank are designed for minimum mass using this panel concept, which consists of integral composite webs separated by structural foam between two composite facesheets. The HyperSizer structural sizing software, in conjunction with NASTRAN finite element analyses, is used. However, since HyperSizer does not currently include a panel concept for fiber reinforced foam, the sizing was performed using two separate approaches. In the first, the panel core is treated as an effective (homogenized) material, whose properties are provided by the vendor. In the second approach, the panel is treated as a blade stiffened sandwich panel, with the mass of the foam added after completion of the panel sizing. Details of the sizing for each of the three Ares V components are given, and it is demonstrated that the two panel sizing approaches are in reasonable agreement for thinner panel designs, but as the panel thickness increases, the blade stiffened sandwich panel approach yields heavier panel designs. This is due to the effects of local buckling, which are not considered in the effective core property approach.

  10. Development of a Computer simulation approach for honeycomb constructions for aerospace application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatarnikov, O. V.; Karpenkov, K. S.

    2015-02-01

    An approach to definition of a homogeneous simulation model for honeycomb structures has been developed and verified for specimens containing a finite number of cells. The elastic characteristics of the model were evaluated basing on the results of tensile and shear numerical tests of honeycomb specimen. This is an extension of earlier work related with spatially reinforced composites. The simulation model was validated for specimens comprised of different numbers of cells in the specimen to expose the scale effect influence. As the number of cells was increased, the calculated values of the moduli Ex and Ey converged, confirming the theoretical result that the appropriate model is transversely isotropic rather than orthotropic for the honeycomb specimen investigated. Elastic properties obtained from the numerical test of the honeycomb structure were then applied in the characterization of continuous medium. The examination was carried out using criteria expressing basic features of homogeneous body. The case of a honeycomb integrated with composite plates as a sandwich structure was analysed for a complex loading case as well as buckling and eigen- frequency analysis.

  11. Clay Nanocomposite/Aerogel Sandwich Structures for Cryotanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sandi; Leventis, Nicholas; Johnston, J. Chris; Meador, Michael

    2006-01-01

    GRC research has led to the development of epoxy-clay nanocomposites with 60-70% lower gas permeability than the base epoxy resin. Filament wound carbon fiber reinforced tanks made with this nanocomposite had a five-fold lower helium leak rate than the corresponding tanks made without clay. More recent work has produced new composites with more than a 100-fold reduction in helium permeability. Use of these advanced, high barrier composites would eliminate the need for a liner in composite cryotanks, thereby simplifying construction and reducing propellant leakage. Aerogels are attractive materials for use as cryotank insulation because of their low density and low thermal conductivity. However, aerogels are fragile and have poor environmental stability, which have limited their use to certain applications in specialized environments (e.g., in certain types of nuclear reactors as Cerenkov radiation detectors, and as thermal insulators aboard space rovers on Mars). New GRC developed polymer crosslinked aerogels (X-Aerogels) retain the low density of conventional aerogels, but they demonstrate a 300-fold increase in their mechanical strength. Currently, our strongest materials combine a density of approx. 0.45 g/cc, a thermal conductivity of approx. 0.04 W/mK and a compressive strength of 185 MPa. Use of these novel aerogels as insulation materials/structural components in combination with the low permeability of epoxy-clay nanocomposites could significantly reduce cryotank weight and improve durability.

  12. A vapor phase hydrothermal modification method converting a honeycomb structured hybrid film into photoactive TiO2 film.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huijun; Shen, Yanming; Zhang, Shanqing; Zhang, Haimin

    2009-09-15

    Transforming an organic/inorganic hybrid material into a pure inorganic material without losing its original structure is of interest for a range of applications. In this work, a simple and effective vapor phase hydrothermal method was developed to transform a 3D honeycomb structured PS/TTIP hybrid film into a photoactive TiO2 film without dismantling the originally templated 3D structure. The method utilizes the vapor phase hydrothermal process to create titania network/clusters with sufficient mechanical strength via the formation of Ti-oxo bridges. The organic components of the sample can be removed by means of pyrolysis while perfectly maintaining the original 3D honeycomb structure. The resultant film can be directly used for photocatalysis applications and could be further modified for other applications. In principle, this method can be used to preserve 3D structures of other organic/inorganic hybrid films during their conversion to pure inorganic films via a pyrolysis process, if mechanically strong networks can be formed as a result of hydrolysis reactions. The ability to preserve the preferred 3D structure during the subsequent conversion processes enables realization of the full benefit of unique architectures created by a templating method. PMID:19496571

  13. Structural and Acoustic Numerical Modeling of a Curved Composite Honeycomb Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Buehrle, Ralph D.; Robinson, Jay H.

    2001-01-01

    The finite and boundary element modeling of the curved section of a composite honeycomb aircraft fuselage sidewall was validated for both structural response and acoustic radiation. The curved panel was modeled in the pre-processor MSC/PATRAN. Geometry models of the curved panel were constructed based on the physical dimensions of the test article. Material properties were obtained from the panel manufacturer. Finite element models were developed to predict the modal parameters for free and supported panel boundary conditions up to a frequency of 600 Hz. Free boundary conditions were simulated by providing soft foam support under the four comers of the panel or by suspending the panel from elastic bands. Supported boundary conditions were obtained by clamping the panel between plastic tubing seated in grooves along the perimeter of a stiff and heavy frame. The frame was installed in the transmission loss window of the Structural Acoustic Loads and Transmission (SALT) facility at NASA Langley Research Center. The structural response of the curved panel due to point force excitation was predicted using MSC/NASTRAN and the radiated sound was computed with COMET/Acoustics. The predictions were compared with the results from experimental modal surveys and forced response tests on the fuselage panel. The finite element models were refined and updated to provide optimum comparison with the measured modal data. Excellent agreement was obtained between the numerical and experimental modal data for the free as well as for the supported boundary conditions. Frequency response functions (FRF) were computed relating the input force excitation at one panel location to the surface acceleration response at five panel locations. Frequency response functions were measured at the same locations on the test specimen and were compared with the calculated FRF values. Good agreement was obtained for the real and imaginary parts of the transfer functions when modal participation was

  14. Advanced radiator concepts utilizing honeycomb panel heat pipes (stainless steel)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischman, G. L.; Tanzer, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating and processing moderate temperature range heat pipes in a low mass honeycomb sandwich panel configuration for highly efficient radiator fins for the NASA space station was investigated. A variety of honeycomb panel facesheet and core-ribbon wick concepts were evaluated within constraints dictated by existing manufacturing technology and equipment. Concepts evaluated include: type of material, material and panel thicknesses, wick type and manufacturability, liquid and vapor communication among honeycomb cells, and liquid flow return from condenser to evaporator facesheet areas. In addition, the overall performance of the honeycomb panel heat pipe was evaluated analytically.

  15. Mechanical properties of additively manufactured octagonal honeycombs.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, R; Sadighi, M; Mohammadi-Aghdam, M; Zadpoor, A A

    2016-12-01

    Honeycomb structures have found numerous applications as structural and biomedical materials due to their favourable properties such as low weight, high stiffness, and porosity. Application of additive manufacturing and 3D printing techniques allows for manufacturing of honeycombs with arbitrary shape and wall thickness, opening the way for optimizing the mechanical and physical properties for specific applications. In this study, the mechanical properties of honeycomb structures with a new geometry, called octagonal honeycomb, were investigated using analytical, numerical, and experimental approaches. An additive manufacturing technique, namely fused deposition modelling, was used to fabricate the honeycomb from polylactic acid (PLA). The honeycombs structures were then mechanically tested under compression and the mechanical properties of the structures were determined. In addition, the Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories were used for deriving analytical relationships for elastic modulus, yield stress, Poisson's ratio, and buckling stress of this new design of honeycomb structures. Finite element models were also created to analyse the mechanical behaviour of the honeycombs computationally. The analytical solutions obtained using Timoshenko beam theory were close to computational results in terms of elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and yield stress, especially for relative densities smaller than 25%. The analytical solutions based on the Timoshenko analytical solution and the computational results were in good agreement with experimental observations. Finally, the elastic properties of the proposed honeycomb structure were compared to those of other honeycomb structures such as square, triangular, hexagonal, mixed, diamond, and Kagome. The octagonal honeycomb showed yield stress and elastic modulus values very close to those of regular hexagonal honeycombs and lower than the other considered honeycombs. PMID:27612831

  16. Versatile honeycomb matrix heat shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zell, Peter T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A thermal protection system for atmospheric entry of a vehicle, the system including a honeycomb structure with selected cross sectional shapes that receives and holds thermally cured thermal protection (TP) blocks that have corresponding cross sectional shapes. Material composition for TP blocks in different locations can be varied to account for different atmospheric heating characteristics at the different locations. TP block side walls may be attached to all, or to less than all, the corresponding honeycomb structure side walls.

  17. Sizing Single Cantilever Beam Specimens for Characterizing Facesheet/Core Peel Debonding in Sandwich Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratcliffe, James G.

    2010-01-01

    This technical publication details part of an effort focused on the development of a standardized facesheet/core peel debonding test procedure. The purpose of the test is to characterize facesheet/core peel in sandwich structure, accomplished through the measurement of the critical strain energy release rate associated with the debonding process. Following an examination of previously developed tests and a recent evaluation of a selection of these methods, a single cantilever beam (SCB) specimen was identified as being a promising candidate for establishing such a standardized test procedure. The objective of the work described here was to begin development of a protocol for conducting a SCB test that will render the procedure suitable for standardization. To this end, a sizing methodology was developed to ensure appropriate SCB specimen dimensions are selected for a given sandwich system. Application of this method to actual sandwich systems yielded SCB specimen dimensions that would be practical for use. This study resulted in the development of a practical SCB specimen sizing method, which should be well-suited for incorporation into a standardized testing protocol.

  18. BMI Sandwich Wing Box Analysis and Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palm, Tod; Mahler, Mary; Shah, Chandu; Rouse, Marshall; Bush, Harold; Wu, Chauncey; Small, William J.

    2000-01-01

    A composite sandwich single bay wing box test article was developed by Northrop Grumman and tested recently at NASA Langley Research Center. The objectives for the wing box development effort were to provide a demonstration article for manufacturing scale up of structural concepts related to a high speed transport wing, and to validate the structural performance of the design. The box concept consisted of highly loaded composite sandwich wing skins, with moderately loaded composite sandwich spars. The dimensions of the box were chosen to represent a single bay of the main wing box, with a spar spacing of 30 inches, height of 20 inches constant depth, and length of 64 inches. The bismaleimide facesheet laminates and titanium honeycomb core chosen for this task are high temperature materials able to sustain a 300F service temperature. The completed test article is shown in Figure 1. The tests at NASA Langley demonstrated the structures ability to sustain axial tension and compression loads in excess of 20,000 lb/in, and to maintain integrity in the thermal environment. Test procedures, analysis failure predictions, and test results are presented.

  19. Enhanced performance of dye-sensitized solar cells via plasmonic sandwiched structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Su-Jien; Lee, Kuang-Che; Wu, Jyun-Lin; Wu, Jun-Yi

    2011-07-01

    The plasmonic structure of sandwiched TiO2/NPs-Ag/TiO2 electrodes was fabricated by sputter technology and sol-gel and spin coating procedure to enhance the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells. The improvement of the incident photon to photocurrent efficiency spectrum corresponding to the strong absorption and damping reflection indicated light trapping of plasmonic structure to elongate the optical pathways of photons. More light trapped close to photocurrent collecting electrode provides better charge-collection and light harvesting efficiencies. As a result of improved dye absorption, about 23% enhancement in photocurrent density has been achieved.

  20. Impact damage detection in composite chiral sandwich panels using nonlinear vibro-acoustic modulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepka, Andrzej; Staszewski, Wieslaw J.; di Maio, Dario; Scarpa, Fabrizio

    2013-08-01

    This paper reports an application of nonlinear acoustics to impact damage detection in a composite chiral sandwich panel. The panel is built from a chiral honeycomb and two composite skins. High-frequency ultrasonic excitation and low-frequency modal excitation were used to observe nonlinear modulations in ultrasonic waves due to structural damage. Low-profile, surface-bonded piezoceramic transducers were used for ultrasonic excitation. Non-contact laser vibrometry was applied for ultrasonic sensing. The work presented focuses on the analysis of the modulation intensities and damage-related nonlinearities. The paper demonstrates that the method can be used for impact damage detection in composite chiral sandwich panels.

  1. Thermostructural Behavior of a Hypersonic Aircraft Sandwich Panel Subjected to Heating on One Side

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.

    1997-01-01

    Thermostructural analysis was performed on a heated titanium honeycomb-core sandwich panel. The sandwich panel was supported at its four edges with spar-like substructures that acted as heat sinks, which are generally not considered in the classical analysis. One side of the panel was heated to high temperature to simulate aerodynamic heating during hypersonic flight. Two types of surface heating were considered: (1) flat-temperature profile, which ignores the effect of edge heat sinks, and (2) dome-shaped-temperature profile, which approximates the actual surface temperature distribution associated with the existence of edge heat sinks. The finite-element method was used to calculate the deformation field and thermal stress distributions in the face sheets and core of the sandwich panel. The detailed thermal stress distributions in the sandwich panel are presented, and critical stress regions are identified. The study shows how the magnitudes of those critical stresses and their locations change with different heating and edge conditions. This technical report presents comprehensive, three-dimensional graphical displays of thermal stress distributions in every part of a titanium honeycomb-core sandwich panel subjected to hypersonic heating on one side. The plots offer quick visualization of the structural response of the panel and are very useful for hot structures designers to identify the critical stress regions.

  2. Characterization of dermal plates from armored catfish Pterygoplichthys pardalis reveals sandwich-like nanocomposite structure.

    PubMed

    Ebenstein, Donna; Calderon, Carlos; Troncoso, Omar P; Torres, Fernando G

    2015-05-01

    Dermal plates from armored catfish are bony structures that cover their body. In this paper we characterized structural, chemical, and nanomechanical properties of the dermal plates from the Amazonian fish Pterygoplichthys pardalis. Analysis of the morphology of the plates using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the dermal plates have a sandwich-like structure composed of an inner porous matrix surrounded by two external dense layers. This is different from the plywood-like laminated structure of elasmoid fish scales but similar to the structure of osteoderms found in the dermal armour of some reptiles and mammals. Chemical analysis performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed similarities between the composition of P. pardalis plates and the elasmoid fish scales of Arapaima gigas. Reduced moduli of P. pardalis plates measured using nanoindentation were also consistent with reported values for A. gigas scales, but further revealed that the dermal plate is an anisotropic and heterogeneous material, similar to many other fish scales and osteoderms. It is postulated that the sandwich-like structure of the dermal plates provides a lightweight and tough protective layer. PMID:25732181

  3. Shape and Stress Sensing of Multilayered Composite and Sandwich Structures Using an Inverse Finite Element Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerracchio, Priscilla; Gherlone, Marco; Di Sciuva, Marco; Tessler, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The marked increase in the use of composite and sandwich material systems in aerospace, civil, and marine structures leads to the need for integrated Structural Health Management systems. A key capability to enable such systems is the real-time reconstruction of structural deformations, stresses, and failure criteria that are inferred from in-situ, discrete-location strain measurements. This technology is commonly referred to as shape- and stress-sensing. Presented herein is a computationally efficient shape- and stress-sensing methodology that is ideally suited for applications to laminated composite and sandwich structures. The new approach employs the inverse Finite Element Method (iFEM) as a general framework and the Refined Zigzag Theory (RZT) as the underlying plate theory. A three-node inverse plate finite element is formulated. The element formulation enables robust and efficient modeling of plate structures instrumented with strain sensors that have arbitrary positions. The methodology leads to a set of linear algebraic equations that are solved efficiently for the unknown nodal displacements. These displacements are then used at the finite element level to compute full-field strains, stresses, and failure criteria that are in turn used to assess structural integrity. Numerical results for multilayered, highly heterogeneous laminates demonstrate the unique capability of this new formulation for shape- and stress-sensing.

  4. Archetypal sandwich-structured CuO for high performance non-enzymatic sensing of glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meher, Sumanta Kumar; Rao, G. Ranga

    2013-02-01

    In the quest to enhance the selectivity and sensitivity of novel structured metal oxides for electrochemical non-enzymatic sensing of glucose, we report here a green synthesis of unique sandwich-structured CuO on a large scale under microwave mediated homogeneous precipitation conditions. The physicochemical studies carried out by XRD and BET methods show that the monoclinic CuO formed via thermal decomposition of Cu2(OH)2CO3 possesses monomodal channel-type pores with largely improved surface area (~43 m2 g-1) and pore volume (0.163 cm3 g-1). The fascinating surface morphology and pore structure of CuO is formulated due to homogeneous crystallization and microwave induced self assembly during synthesis. The cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry studies show diffusion controlled glucose oxidation at ~0.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) with extremely high sensitivity of 5342.8 μA mM-1 cm-2 and respective detection limit and response time of ~1 μM and ~0.7 s, under a wide dynamic concentration range of glucose. The chronoamperometry measurements demonstrate that the sensitivity of CuO to glucose is unaffected by the absence of dissolved oxygen and presence of poisoning chloride ions in the reaction medium, which essentially implies high poison resistance activity of the sandwich-structured CuO. The sandwich-structured CuO also shows insignificant interference/significant selectivity to glucose, even in the presence of high concentrations of other sugars as well as reducing species. In addition, the sandwich-structured CuO shows excellent reproducibility (relative standard deviation of ~2.4% over ten identically fabricated electrodes) and outstanding long term stability (only ~1.3% loss in sensitivity over a period of one month) during non-enzymatic electrochemical sensing of glucose. The unique microstructure and suitable channel-type pore architecture provide structural stability and maximum accessible electroactive surface for unimpeded mobility of glucose as well as the

  5. Guided waves propagating in sandwich structures made of anisotropic, viscoelastic, composite materials.

    PubMed

    Castaings, Michel; Hosten, Bernard

    2003-05-01

    The propagation of Lamb-like waves in sandwich plates made of anisotropic and viscoelastic material layers is studied. A semi-analytical model is described and used for predicting the dispersion curves (phase velocity, energy velocity, and complex wave-number) and the through-thickness distribution fields (displacement, stress, and energy flow). Guided modes propagating along a test-sandwich plate are shown to be quite different than classical Lamb modes, because this structure does not have the mirror symmetry, contrary to most of composite material plates. Moreover, the viscoelastic material properties imply complex roots of the dispersion equation to be found that lead to connections between some of the dispersion curves, meaning that some of the modes get coupled together. Gradual variation from zero to nominal values of the imaginary parts of the viscoelastic moduli shows that the mode coupling depends on the level of material viscoelasticity, except for one particular case where this phenomenon exists whether the medium is viscoelastic or not. The model is used to quantify the sensitivity of both the dispersion curves and the through-thickness mode shapes to the level of material viscoelasticity, and to physically explain the mode-coupling phenomenon. Finite element software is also used to confirm results obtained for the purely elastic structure. Finally, experiments are made using ultrasonic, air-coupled transducers for generating and detecting guided modes in the test-sandwich structure. The mode-coupling phenomenon is then confirmed, and the potential of the air-coupled system for developing single-sided, contactless, NDT applications of such structures is discussed. PMID:12765380

  6. Development of lightweight graphite/polyimide sandwich panels, phases 3, 4 and 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merlette, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    Work performed in the last three phases of the program included: (1) face sheet processing; (2) honeycomb core manufacture; (3) face sheet-to-core bonding development; and (4) sandwich panel fabrication and testing. Resin cure studies were a major portion of this effort since processing problems traced to the polyimide matrix resin had to be resolved before quality core and face sheets could be fabricated. Honeycomb core fabrication and testing were conducted by Hexcel Corporation. A total of four graphite/polyimide resin composite cores were fabricated, tested, and reported. Two sandwich panels weighing .48 and .58 lb/sq ft, respectively were designed and fabricated which meet the support structure loads for the shuttle orbiter thermal protection system.

  7. Bending Response of Sandwiched Double Tube Structures with Aluminum Foam Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, L. W.; Yu, J. L.

    2010-05-01

    Three point bending response of sandwiched double cylindrical tube structures with aluminum foam core was studied numerically using the explicit finite element method. The numerical results are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental results and display the advantage of this new structure in load carrying capacity and energy absorption efficiency over the traditional foam-filled single tube structure. The deformation and failure mechanism is revealed by comparisons of the strain and stress distributions and the history of the maximum strain. The influence of the inner tube diameter for the structure was explored. It is found that increasing the inner tube diameter enhances the maximum deflection at failure of the foam-filled double tube within the diameter range considered. With a proper inner tube diameter, a steady load carrying capacity of the foam-filled double tube structure can be achieved, which shows an excellent crashworthiness with high energy absorption efficiency.

  8. Dispersion of guided waves in composite laminates and sandwich panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaal, Christoph; Mal, Ajit

    2015-03-01

    In composite structures, damages are often invisible from the surface and can grow to reach a critical size, potentially causing catastrophic failure of the entire structure. Thus safe operation of these structures requires careful monitoring of the initiation and growth of such defects. Ultrasonic methods using guided waves offer a reliable and cost-effective method for structural health monitoring in advanced structures. Guided waves allow for long monitoring ranges and are very sensitive to defects within their propagation path. In this work, the relevant properties of guided Lamb waves for damage detection in composite structures are investigated. An efficient numerical approach is used to determine their dispersion characteristics, and these results are compared to those from laboratory experiments. The experiments are based on a pitch-catch method, in which a pair of movable transducers is placed on one surface of the structure to induce and detect guided Lamb waves. The specific cases considered include an aluminum plate and an aluminum honeycomb sandwich panel with woven composite face sheets. In addition, a disbond of the interface between one of the face sheets and the honeycomb core of the sandwich panel is also considered, and the dispersion characteristics of the two resultant waveguides are determined. Good agreement between numerical and experimental dispersion results is found, and suggestions on the applicability of the pitch-catch system for structural health monitoring are made.

  9. Material Based Structure Design: Numerical Analysis Thermodynamic Response of Thermal Pyrolytic Graphite /Al Sandwich Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junxia; Yan, Shilin; Yu, Dingshan

    2016-06-01

    Amine-grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) based thermally conductive adhesive (TCA) was studied in the previous paper and applied here in thermal pyrolytic graphite (TPG)/Al radiator due to its high thermal conductivity, toughness and cohesiveness. In this paper, in an attempt to confirm the application of TCA to TPG/Al sandwich radiator, the thermodynamic response in TPG/Al sandwich composites associated with key material properties and structural design was investigated using finite element simulation with commercial available ANSYS software. The induced thermal stress in TCA layer is substantial due to the thermal expansion mismatch between Al plate and TPG. The maximum thermal stress is located near the edge of TCA layer with the von Mises stress value of 4.02 MPa and the shear stress value of 1.66 MPa. The reasonable adjustment of physical-mechanical properties including thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, Young,s modulus and the thickness of TCA layer, Al plate and TPG are beneficial for reducing the temperature of the top surface of the upper skin and their effects on the reduction of thermal structural response in some ways. These findings will highlight the structural optimization of TPG/Al radiator for future application.

  10. Effect of Bonder at Skin/Core Interface on the Mechanical Performances of Sandwich Structures Used in Marine Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsellino, C.; Calabrese, L.; di Bella, G.

    2007-11-01

    The present work is aimed to extend the knowledge of mechanical properties of sandwich structures used for marine applications focusing on the possibility to increase the performances of such structures by adding a bonder at the skin/core interface. Therefore, three sandwich structures that are utilised in different structural components of a yacht were realised by manual lay-up. The mechanical characterisation was performed by flatwise compressive, edgewise compressive and three point flexural tests. The tests execution has allowed both to determine the mechanical performances and to understand the fracture mechanisms that take place when the bonder is added in the stacking sequence of the samples.

  11. Amorphous GeOx-Coated Reduced Graphene Oxide Balls with Sandwich Structure for Long-Life Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Ho; Jung, Kyeong Youl; Kang, Yun Chan

    2015-07-01

    Amorphous GeOx-coated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) balls with sandwich structure are prepared via a spray-pyrolysis process using polystyrene (PS) nanobeads as sacrificial templates. This sandwich structure is formed by uniformly coating the exterior and interior of few-layer rGO with amorphous GeOx layers. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis reveals a Ge:O stoichiometry ratio of 1:1.7. The amorphous GeOx-coated rGO balls with sandwich structure have low charge-transfer resistance and fast Li(+)-ion diffusion rate. For example, at a current density of 2 A g(-1), the GeOx-coated rGO balls with sandwich and filled structures and the commercial GeO2 powders exhibit initial charge capacities of 795, 651, and 634 mA h g(-1), respectively; the corresponding 700th-cycle charge capacities are 758, 579, and 361 mA h g(-1). In addition, at a current density of 5 A g(-1), the rGO balls with sandwich structure have a 1600th-cycle reversible charge capacity of 629 mA h g(-1) and a corresponding capacity retention of 90.7%, as measured from the maximum reversible capacity at the 100th cycle. PMID:26047208

  12. Processing and characterization of honeycomb composite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafizadeh, Jahan Emir

    Honeycomb composite structures are widely used in the aerospace and sporting goods industries because of the superior performance and weight saving advantages they offer over traditional metal structures. However, in order to maximize the mechanical and chemical properties of honeycomb composites, the structures must be specially designed to take advantage of their inherent anisotropic, viscoelastic and heterogeneous qualities. In the open literature little work has been done to understand these relationships. Most research efforts have been focused towards studying and modeling the effects of environmental exposure, impact damage and energy absorption. The objectives of this work was to use a systemic engineering approach to explore the fundamental material relationships of honeycomb composites with an emphasis towards the industrial manufacturing, design and performance characteristics of these materials. To reach this goal, a methodology was created to develop model honeycomb systems that were characteristically similar to their commercial counterparts. From the model systems, some of the important chemical and mechanical properties that controlled the behavior of honeycomb core were identified. With the knowledge gained from the model system, studies were carried out to correlate the compressive properties of honeycomb rings to honeycomb core. This type of correlation gives paper, resin, and adhesive manufactures the ability to develop new honeycomb materials without requiring specific honeycomb manufacturers to divulge their trade secrets. After characterizing the honeycomb core, efforts were made to understand the manufacturing and in-service responses of honeycomb materials. Using three Design of Experiments, investigations were performed to measure the mechanisms of composite structures to propagate damage and water over a fourteen month service period. Collectively, this research represents a fundamental starting point for understanding the processing-structure

  13. Some electrical and structural properties of Cd/CdS/n-Si/Au-Sb sandwich structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güzeldir, Betül; Sağlam, Mustafa; Ateş, Aytunc

    2012-09-01

    In view of CdS growth is very impotent for technological importance especially solar applications; synthesis of this material remains a topic of great interest for researchers by means of an economically and technically viable method. In the present paper, Cd/CdS/n-Si/Au-Sb sandwich structure has been grown by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) technique. For investigating the structural properties, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) measurements have been performed and it has been seen that films exhibit polycrystalline behavior. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) and conductance/w-voltage (G/w-V) characteristics of Cd/CdS/n-Si/Au-Sb structure have been investigated by considering series resistance and interface states effects. These measurements have been done in the -4 V, 4 V voltage range and in the frequency range of 10 kHz-3 MHz at room temperature. It is seen that, the series resistance (Rs) and interface state density have been strongly depend on frequency. The barrier height, donor concentration, diffusion potential parameters have been determined from the linear C-2-V plot. The barrier height values are obtained between 0.495 and 0.796 eV and doping density values have been ranged from 1.455 × 1014 to 1.999 × 1014 cm-3respectively. The capacitance-frequency (C-f) and conductance/w-frequency (G/w-f) characteristics of Cd/CdS/n-Si/Au-Sb structures have been measured at the various biases 0.00-0.14 V at room temperature. The energy distribution of the interface states (Nss) and their relaxation time (τ) have been determined from the forward bias capacitance-frequency characteristics. The Nss and τ values have ranged from 2.01 × 1012 cm-2 eV-1and 9.68 × 10-4 s in (Ec-0.45) eV-2.86 × 1013 cm-2 eV-1 and 3.81 × 10-4 s in (Ec-0.75) eV, respectively.

  14. Interfacial Microstructure Evolution and Shear Strength of Titanium Sandwich Structures Fabricated by Brazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wentao; Fan, Minyu; Li, Jinlong; Tao, Jie

    2016-03-01

    The corrugated sandwich structure, consisting of a CP Ti (commercially pure titanium) core between two Ti-6Al-4V face sheets, was brazed using pasty Ti-37.5Zr-15Cu-10Ni as filler alloy, at the temperature of 870°C for 5, 10, 20, and 30 min. The effect of brazing time on the microstructure and elemental distribution of the brazed joints was examined by means of SEM, EDS, and XRD analyses. It was found that various intermetallic phases were formed in the brazed joints, following a brazing time of 5 min, and their contents were decreased by the increment of brazing time, while prolonged brazing time resulted in a fine, acicular Widmanstätten microstructure throughout the entire joint. In addition, shear testing was performed in the brazed corrugated specimens in order to indirectly assess the quality of the joints. The debonding between CP Ti and Ti-6Al-4V was observed in the specimen brazed for 5 min and the fracture of the CP Ti corrugated core occurred after 30 min of brazing time. Additionally, when brazed for 10 min or 20 min, brittle intermetallic compounds in the joints and the grain growth of the base metal were controllable. Therefore, the sandwich structures failed without debonding in the joints or fracture within the base metal, demonstrating a good combination of strength and ductility.

  15. A Honeycomb-Structured Ti-6Al-4V Oil-Gas Separation Rotor Additively Manufactured by Selective Electron Beam Melting for Aero-engine Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, H. P.; Wang, Q. B.; Yang, G. Y.; Gu, J.; Liu, N.; Jia, L.; Qian, M.

    2016-03-01

    Oil -gas separation is a key process in an aero-engine lubrication system. This study reports an innovative development in oil -gas separation. A honeycomb-structured rotor with hexagonal cone-shaped pore channels has been designed, additively manufactured from Ti-6Al-4V using selective electron beam melting (SEBM) and assessed for oil -gas separation for aero-engine application. The Ti-6Al-4V honeycomb structure showed a high compressive strength of 110 MPa compared to less than 20 MPa for metal foam structures. The oil -gas separation efficiency of the honeycomb-structured separation rotor achieved 99.8% at the rotation speed of 6000 rpm with much lower ventilation resistance (17.3 kPa) than that of the separator rotor constructed using a Ni-Cr alloy foam structure (23.5 kPa). The honeycomb-structured Ti-6Al-4V separator rotor produced by SEBM provides a promising solution to more efficient oil -gas separation in the aero-engine lubrication system.

  16. Titanium honeycomb panel testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, W. L.; Thompson, Randolph C.

    The paper describes the procedures of thermal mechanical tests carried out at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility on two tianium honeycomb wing panels bonded using liquid interface diffusion (LID) technique, and presents the results of these tests. The 58.4 cm square panels consisted of two 0.152-cm-thick Ti 6-2-4-2 face sheets LID-bonded to a 1.9-cm-thick honeycomb core, with bearing plates fastened to the perimeter of the upper and the lower panel surfaces. The panels were instrumented with sensors for measuring surface temperature, strain, and deflections to 315 C and 482 C. Thermal stress levels representative of those encountered during aerodynamic heating were produced by heating the upper panel surface and restraining all four edges. After more than 100 thermal cycles from room temperature to 315 C and 50 cycles from room temperature to 482 C, no significant structural degradation was detected in the panels.

  17. Titanium honeycomb panel testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, W. L.; Thompson, Randolph C.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the procedures of thermal mechanical tests carried out at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility on two tianium honeycomb wing panels bonded using liquid interface diffusion (LID) technique, and presents the results of these tests. The 58.4 cm square panels consisted of two 0.152-cm-thick Ti 6-2-4-2 face sheets LID-bonded to a 1.9-cm-thick honeycomb core, with bearing plates fastened to the perimeter of the upper and the lower panel surfaces. The panels were instrumented with sensors for measuring surface temperature, strain, and deflections to 315 C and 482 C. Thermal stress levels representative of those encountered during aerodynamic heating were produced by heating the upper panel surface and restraining all four edges. After more than 100 thermal cycles from room temperature to 315 C and 50 cycles from room temperature to 482 C, no significant structural degradation was detected in the panels.

  18. Nonreciprocal Magneto-Plasmonic Waveguide with Compact Metal-Sandwiched Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yi-Chang; Xu, Chao; Qiu, Hui-Ye; Xiang, Le-Qiang; Yang, Jian-Yi; Jiang, Xiao-Qing

    2013-09-01

    A magneto-optical (MO) metal-sandwiched multilayered structure composed of metal, MO medium and dielectric buffer layers is presented and investigated by finite-element-method-based-mode solver and perturbation theory. The results show that this structure exhibits large nonreciprocal phase shift, strong mode confinement in the narrow buffer layers as well as very low propagation loss. The propagation length with 1 dB loss is much longer than the required length of π/2 nonreciprocal phase shifts in this structure. The modal area is smaller than half of the conventional MO waveguides. This phenomenon can be used to achieve a compact plasmonic isolator based on the Mach—Zehnder interferometer.

  19. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Composite Folded Sandwich Core Structures Under Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimbs, S.; Middendorf, P.; Kilchert, S.; Johnson, A. F.; Maier, M.

    2007-11-01

    The characterisation of the mechanical behaviour of folded core structures for advanced sandwich composites under flatwise compression load using a virtual testing approach is presented. In this context dynamic compression test simulations with the explicit solvers PAM-CRASH and LS-DYNA are compared to experimental data of two different folded core structures made of aramid paper and carbon fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP). The focus of the investigations is the constitutive modelling of the cell wall material, the consideration of imperfections and the representation of cell wall buckling, folding or crushing phenomena. The consistency of the numerical results shows that this can be a promising and efficient approach for the determination of the effective mechanical properties and a cell geometry optimisation of folded core structures.

  20. Debonding Stress Concentrations in a Pressurized Lobed Sandwich-Walled Generic Cryogenic Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.

    2004-01-01

    A finite-element stress analysis has been conducted on a lobed composite sandwich tank subjected to internal pressure and cryogenic cooling. The lobed geometry consists of two obtuse circular walls joined together with a common flat wall. Under internal pressure and cryogenic cooling, this type of lobed tank wall will experience open-mode (a process in which the honeycomb is stretched in the depth direction) and shear stress concentrations at the junctures where curved wall changes into flat wall (known as a curve-flat juncture). Open-mode and shear stress concentrations occur in the honeycomb core at the curve-flat junctures and could cause debonding failure. The levels of contributions from internal pressure and temperature loading to the open-mode and shear debonding failure are compared. The lobed fuel tank with honeycomb sandwich walls has been found to be a structurally unsound geometry because of very low debonding failure strengths. The debonding failure problem could be eliminated if the honeycomb core at the curve-flat juncture is replaced with a solid core.

  1. Development of a finite element model for the simulation of parabolic impact of sandwich panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram Ramakrishnan, Karthik; Guérard, Sandra; Mahéo, Laurent; Shankar, Krishna; Viot, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Sandwich panels are lightweight structures of two thin high strength facesheets bonded to either side of a thick low density core such as foams and honeycombs. It is necessary to study the impact response of sandwich structures in order to ensure the reliability and safety of these structures. The response of sandwich panels to impact loading is usually studied for impact at normal angle of incidence. In real engineering situations, the structures are more frequently loaded at some oblique angle or with a complex trajectory. It is easy to carry out normal impact tests using devices like the drop tower, but impacts at oblique angles are difficult to characterise experimentally. A tri-dimensional impact device called Hexapod has been developed to experimentally study the impact loading of sandwich plates with a parabolic trajectory. The Hexapod is a modified Gough-Stewart platform that can be moved independently in the six degrees of freedom, corresponding to three translation axes and three rotation axes. In this paper, an approach for modelling the parabolic impact of sandwich structures with thin metallic facesheets and polymer foam core using commercial finite element code LS-DYNA software is presented. The results of the FE model of sandwich panels are compared with experimental data in terms of the time history of vertical and horizontal components of force. A comparison of the strain history obtained from Digital Image Correlation and LS-Dyna model are also presented.

  2. Sandwich structure of Pd doped nanostructure TiO2 film as O2 sensor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hairong; Sun, Quantao; Chen, Lei; Zhao, Yulong

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we investigated the sensing properties of sandwich structure of TiO2/Pd/TiO2 thin films at various operating temperatures and oxygen partial pressures. The nanostructure TiO2 thin films were prepared by the sol-gel method. Various thickness of Pd buried layer was deposited by magnetron sputtering of a pure Pd target. The films were characterized using X-ray diffraction analysis and SEM. It was found that TiO2/Pd/TiO2 thin films have the p-type behavior while the pure TiO2 thin film is n-type semiconductor materials. We found that the structure of TiO2/Pd/TiO2 thin films with 10 s sputtering Pd layer has a better stability at 240 °C. PMID:24089853

  3. An Investigation of The Reticulated Foam - Perforated Steel Sheet Sandwich Structure As A Blast Mitigation Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thuy-Tien Ngoc; Proud, William; Institute of Shock Physics, Imperial College London Collaboration; Royal British Legion CentreBlast Injury Studies at Imperial College London Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    Explosions have always been the main cause of injuries during battles and conflicts, with improvised explosive devices (IEDs) becoming more and more common nowadays. In this paper, the interaction between blast waves and sandwich structures of reticulated foam and perforated sheets, with varying thickness and configuration, is studied using an air-driven shock tube apparatus. The mitigation effects for primary blast injuries of these structures are discussed in terms of pulse shape, pressure magnitude as well as shock impulse. Schlieren photography together with other high-speed imaging was also used to visually investigate the matter. The results show that lower open area of perforated sheet and increased thickness of foam offer best protection. However, below a threshold thickness, no mitigation is seen. The Institute of Shock Physics acknowledges the support of AWE, Aldermaston, UK and Imperial College London. The Centre for Blast Injury Studies acknowledges the support of the Royal British Legion and Imperial College London.

  4. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Au-based monolayer derivatives in honeycomb structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapoor, Pooja; Sharma, Munish; Kumar, Ashok; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2016-05-01

    We present electronic properties of atomic layer of Au, Au2-N, Au2-O and Au2-F in graphene-like structure within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). The lattice constant of derived monolayers are found to be higher than the pristine Au monolayer. Au monolayer is metallic in nature with quantum ballistic conductance calculated as 4G0. Similarly, Au2-N and Au2-F monolayers show 4G0 and 2G0 quantum conductance respectively while semiconducting nature with calculated band gap of 0.28 eV has been observed for Au2-O monolayer. Most interestingly, half metalicity has been predicted for Au2-N and Au2-F monolayers. Our findings may have importance for the application of these monolayers in nanoelectronic and spintronics.

  5. Mechanical properties characterization of composite sandwich materials intended for space antenna applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; Vannucci, Raymond D.

    1989-01-01

    The composite materials proposed for use in the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) program contains a new, high modulus graphite fiber as the reinforcement. A study was conducted to measure certain mechanical properties of the new fiber-reinforced material as well as of a composite-faced aluminum honeycomb sandwich structure. Properties were measured at -157, 22, and 121 C. Complete characterization of this material was not intended. Longitudinal tensile, picture-frame shear, short-beam shear, and flexural tests were performed on specimens of the composite face-sheet materials. Unidirectional, cross-plied, and quasi-isotropic fiber composite ply layup designs were fabricated and tested. These designs had been studied by using NASA's Integrated Composite Analyzer (ICAN) computer program. Flexural tests were conducted on (+/- 60/0 deg) sub s composite-faced sandwich structure material. Resistance strain gages were used to measure strains in the tensile, picture-frame, and sandwich flexural tests. The sandwich flexural strength was limited by the core strength at 157 and 22 c. The adhesive bond strength was the limiting factor at 121 C. Adhesive mechanical properties are reflected in sandwich structure flexural properties when the span-to-depth ratio is great enough to allow a significant shear effect on the load-deflection behavior of the sandwich beam. Most measured properties agreed satisfactorily with the properties predicted by ICAN.

  6. Mechanical properties characterization of composite sandwich materials intended for space antenna applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; Vannucci, Raymond D.

    1986-01-01

    The composite materials proposed for use in the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Program contains a new, high modulus graphite fiber as the reinforcement. A study was conducted to measure certain mechanical properties of the new fiber-reinforced material as well as of a composite-faced aluminum honeycomb sandwich structure. Properties were measured at -157, 22, and 121 C. Complete characterization of this material was not intended. Longitudinal tensile, picture-frame shear, short-beam shear, and flexural tests were performed on specimens of the composite face-sheet materials. Unidirectional, cross-plied, and quasi-isotropic fiber composite ply layup designs were fabricated and tested. These designs had been studied by using NASA's Integrated Composite Analyzer (ICAN) computer program. Flexural tests were conducted on (+/- 60/0 deg) sub s composite-faced sandwich structure material. Resistance strain gages were used to measure strains in the tensile, picture-frame, and sandwich flexural tests. The sandwich flexural strength was limited by the core strength at -157 and 22 C. The adhesive bond strength was the limiting factor at 121 C. Adhesive mechanical properties are reflected in sandwich structure flexural properties when the span-to-depth ratio is great enough to allow a significant shear effect on the load-deflection behavior of the sandwich beam. Most measured properties agreed satisfactorily with the properties predicted by ICAN.

  7. Sizing Single Cantilever Beam Specimens for Characterizing Facesheet/Core Peel Debonding in Sandwich Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratcliffe, James G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper details part of an effort focused on the development of a standardized facesheet/core peel debonding test procedure. The purpose of the test is to characterize facesheet/core peel in sandwich structure, accomplished through the measurement of the critical strain energy release rate associated with the debonding process. The specific test method selected for the standardized test procedure utilizes a single cantilever beam (SCB) specimen configuration. The objective of the current work is to develop a method for establishing SCB specimen dimensions. This is achieved by imposing specific limitations on specimen dimensions, with the objectives of promoting a linear elastic specimen response, and simplifying the data reduction method required for computing the critical strain energy release rate associated with debonding. The sizing method is also designed to be suitable for incorporation into a standardized test protocol. Preliminary application of the resulting sizing method yields practical specimen dimensions.

  8. Fabrication method for cores of structural sandwich materials including star shaped core cells

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, Richard M.

    1997-01-01

    A method for fabricating structural sandwich materials having a core pattern which utilizes star and non-star shaped cells. The sheets of material are bonded together or a single folded sheet is used, and bonded or welded at specific locations, into a flat configuration, and are then mechanically pulled or expanded normal to the plane of the sheets which expand to form the cells. This method can be utilized to fabricate other geometric cell arrangements than the star/non-star shaped cells. Four sheets of material (either a pair of bonded sheets or a single folded sheet) are bonded so as to define an area therebetween, which forms the star shaped cell when expanded.

  9. Fabrication method for cores of structural sandwich materials including star shaped core cells

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, R.M.

    1997-07-15

    A method for fabricating structural sandwich materials having a core pattern which utilizes star and non-star shaped cells is disclosed. The sheets of material are bonded together or a single folded sheet is used, and bonded or welded at specific locations, into a flat configuration, and are then mechanically pulled or expanded normal to the plane of the sheets which expand to form the cells. This method can be utilized to fabricate other geometric cell arrangements than the star/non-star shaped cells. Four sheets of material (either a pair of bonded sheets or a single folded sheet) are bonded so as to define an area therebetween, which forms the star shaped cell when expanded. 3 figs.

  10. Experimental study of the fracture toughness of a ceramic/ceramic-matrix composite sandwich structure

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.; Taya, M.; Dunn, M.L.; Watanabe, Ryuzo

    1995-06-01

    A hybrid experimental-numerical approach has been used to measure the fracture resistance of a sandwich structure consisting of a 304 stainless steel/partially stabilized zirconia ceramic-matrix composite crack-arresting layer embedded in a partially stabilized zirconia ceramic specimen. The mode 1 fracture toughness increases significantly when the crack propagates from the ceramic into the ceramic-matrix composite region. The increased toughening due to the stainless steel particles is explained reasonably well by a toughening model based on processing-induced thermal residual stresses. In addition, several experimental modifications were made to the chevron-notch wedge-loaded double cantilever beam specimen to overcome numerous problems encountered in generating a precrack in the small, brittle specimens used in this study.

  11. Honeycomb vs. Foam: Evaluating a Potential Upgrade to ISS Module Shielding for Micrometeoroids and Orbital Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Shannon; Hedman, Troy; Christiansen, Eric L.

    2009-01-01

    The presence of a honeycomb core in a multi-wall shielding configuration for protection against micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) particle impacts at hypervelocity is generally considered to be detrimental as the cell walls act to restrict fragment cloud expansion, creating a more concentrated load on the shield rear wall. However, mission requirements often prevent the inclusion of a dedicated MMOD shield, and as such, structural honeycomb sandwich panels are amongst the most prevalent shield types. Open cell metallic foams are a relatively new material with novel mechanical and thermal properties that have shown promising results in preliminary hypervelocity impact shielding evaluations. In this study, an ISS-representative MMOD shielding configuration has been modified to evaluate the potential performance enhancement gained through the substitution of honeycomb for open cell foam. The baseline shielding configuration consists of a double mesh outer layer, two honeycomb sandwich panels, and an aluminum rear wall. In the modified configuration the two honeycomb cores are replaced by open-cell foam. To compensate for the heavier core material, facesheets have been removed from the second sandwich panel in the modified configuration. A total of 19 tests on the double layer honeycomb and double layer foam configurations are reported. For comparable mechanical and thermal performance, the foam modifications were shown to provide a 15% improvement in critical projectile diameter at low velocities (i.e. 3 km/s) and a 3% increase at high velocities (i.e. 7 km/s) for normal impact. With increasing obliquity, the performance enhancement was predicted to increase, up to a 29% improvement at 60 (low velocity). Ballistic limit equations have been developed for the new configuration, and consider the mass of each individual shield component in order to maintain validity in the event of minor configuration modifications. Previously identified weaknesses of open cell

  12. Damage Evolution in Composite Materials and Sandwich Structures Under Impulse Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Michael Lee

    Damage evolution in composite materials is a rather complex phenomenon. There are numerous failure modes in composite materials stemming from the interaction of the various constituent materials and the particular loading conditions. This thesis is concerned with investigating damage evolution in sandwich structures under repeated transient loading conditions associated with impulse loading due to hull slamming of high-speed marine craft. To fully understand the complex stress interactions, a full field technique to reveal stress or strain is required. Several full field techniques exist but are limited to materials with particular optical properties. A full field technique applicable to most materials is known as thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) and reveals the variation in sum of principal stresses of a cyclically loaded sample by correlating the stresses to a small temperature change occurring at the loading frequency. Digital image correlation (DIC) is another noncontact full field technique that reveals the deformation field by tracking the motion of subsets of a random speckle pattern during the loading cycles. A novel experimental technique to aid in the study of damage progression that combines TSA and DIC simultaneously utilizing a single infrared camera is presented in this thesis. A technique to reliably perform DIC with an infrared (IR) camera is developed utilizing variable emissivity paint. The thermal data can then be corrected for rigid-body motion and deformation such that each pixel represents the same material point in all frames. TSA is then performed on this corrected data, reducing motion blur and increasing accuracy. This combined method with a single infrared camera has several advantages, including a straightforward experimental setup without the need to correct for geometric effects of two spatially separate cameras. Additionally, there is no need for external lighting in TSA as the measured electromagnetic radiation is emitted by the

  13. Toward automatic evaluation of defect detectability in infrared images of composites and honeycomb structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florez-Ospina, Juan F.; Benitez-Restrepo, H. D.

    2015-07-01

    Non-destructive testing (NDT) refers to inspection methods employed to assess a material specimen without impairing its future usefulness. An important type of these methods is infrared (IR) for NDT (IRNDT), which employs the heat emitted by bodies/objects to rapidly and noninvasively inspect wide surfaces and to find specific defects such as delaminations, cracks, voids, and discontinuities in materials. Current advancements in sensor technology for IRNDT generate great amounts of image sequences. These data require further processing to determine the integrity of objects. Processing techniques for IRNDT data implicitly looks for defect visibility enhancement. Commonly, IRNDT community employs signal to noise ratio (SNR) to measure defect visibility. Nonetheless, current applications of SNR are local, thereby overseeing spatial information, and depend on a-priori knowledge of defect's location. In this paper, we present a general framework to assess defect detectability based on SNR maps derived from processed IR images. The joint use of image segmentation procedures along with algorithms for filling regions of interest (ROI) estimates a reference background to compute SNR maps. Our main contributions are: (i) a method to compute SNR maps that takes into account spatial variation and are independent of a-priori knowledge of defect location in the sample, (ii) spatial background analysis in processed images, and (iii) semi-automatic calculation of segmentation algorithm parameters. We test our approach in carbon fiber and honeycomb samples with complex geometries and defects with different sizes and depths.

  14. Silicene on Ag(1 1 1): Geometric and electronic structures of a new honeycomb material of Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Noriaki; Lin, Chun-Liang; Kawahara, Kazuaki; Minamitani, Emi; Tsukahara, Noriyuki; Kawai, Maki; Arafune, Ryuichi

    2015-02-01

    Silicene, a two-dimensional honeycomb sheet consisting of Si atoms, has attracted much attention as a new low-dimensional material because it gains various fascinating characteristics originating from the combination of Dirac fermion features with spin-orbit coupling. The novel properties such as the quantum spin Hall effect and the compatibility with the current Si device technologies have fueled competition to realize the silicene. This review article focuses on the geometric and electronic structures of silicene grown on Ag(1 1 1) investigated by scanning tunneling microcopy (STM), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The silicene on Ag(1 1 1) takes locally-buckled structure in which the Si atoms are displaced perpendicularly to the basal plane. As a result, several superstructures such as 4 × 4,√{ 13 } ×√{ 13 } R 13.9 °, 4 /√{ 3 } × 4 /√{ 3 } , and etc. emerge. The atomic arrangement of the 4 × 4 silicene has been determined by STM, DFT calculations and LEED dynamical analysis, while the other superstructures remain to be fully-resolved. In the 4 × 4 silicene, Si atoms are arranged to form a buckled honeycomb structure where six Si atoms of 18 Si atoms in the unit cell are displaced vertically. The displacements lead to the vertical shift of the substrate Ag atoms, indicating the non-negligible coupling at the interface between the silicene layer and the substrate. The interface coupling significantly modifies the electronic structure of the 4 × 4 silicene. No Landau level sequences were observed by scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) with magnetic fields applied perpendicularly to the sample surface. The DFT calculations showed that the π and π∗ bands derived from the Si 3pz are hybridized with the Ag electronic states, leading to the drastic modification in the band structure and then the absence of Dirac fermion features together with the two-dimensionality in the electronic states

  15. Optimal Design of Litz Wire Coils With Sandwich Structure Wirelessly Powering an Artificial Anal Sphincter System.

    PubMed

    Ke, Lei; Yan, Guozheng; Yan, Sheng; Wang, Zhiwu; Li, Xiaoyang

    2015-07-01

    Transcutaneous energy transfer system (TETS) is widely used to energize implantable biomedical devices. As a key part of the TETS, a pair of applicable coils with low losses, high unloaded Q factor, and strong coupling is required to realize an efficient TETS. This article presents an optimal design methodology of planar litz wire coils sandwiched between two ferrite substrates wirelessly powering a novel mechanical artificial anal sphincter system for treating severe fecal incontinence, with focus on the main parameters of the coils such as the wire diameter, number of turns, geometry, and the properties of the ferrite substrate. The theoretical basis of optimal power transfer efficiency in an inductive link was analyzed. A set of analytical expressions are outlined to calculate the winding resistance of a litz wire coil on ferrite substrate, taking into account eddy-current losses, including conduction losses and induction losses. Expressions that describe the geometrical dimension dependence of self- and mutual inductance are derived. The influence of ferrite substrate relative permeability and dimensions is also considered. We have used this foundation to devise an applicable coil design method that starts with a set of realistic constraints and ends with the optimal coil pair geometries. All theoretical predictions are verified with measurements using different types of fabricated coils. The results indicate that the analysis is useful for optimizing the geometry design of windings and the ferrite substrate in a sandwich structure as part of which, in addition to providing design insight, allows speeding up the system efficiency-optimizing design process. PMID:25808086

  16. Mechanical and thermal buckling analysis of rectangular sandwich panels under different edge conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.

    1994-01-01

    The combined load (mechanical or thermal load) buckling equations were established for orthotropic rectangular sandwich panels under four different edge conditions by using the Rayleigh-Ritz method of minimizing the total potential energy of a structural system. Two-dimensional buckling interaction curves and three-dimensional buckling interaction surfaces were constructed for high-temperature honeycomb-core sandwich panels supported under four different edge conditions. The interaction surfaces provide overall comparison of the panel buckling strengths and the domains of symmetrical and antisymmetrical buckling associated with the different edge conditions. In addition, thermal buckling curves of these sandwich panels are presented. The thermal buckling conditions for the cases with and without thermal moments were found to be identical for the small deformation theory.

  17. Development of an Equivalent Composite Honeycomb Model: A Finite Element Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenackers, G.; Peeters, J.; Ribbens, B.; Vuye, C.

    2016-07-01

    Finite element analysis of complex geometries such as honeycomb composites, brings forth several difficulties. These problems are expressed primarily as high calculation times but also memory issues when solving these models. In order to bypass these issues, the main goal of this research paper is to define an appropriate equivalent model in order to minimize the complexity of the finite element model and thus minimize computation times. A finite element study is conducted on the design and analysis of equivalent layered models, substituting the honeycomb core in sandwich structures. A comparison is made between available equivalent models. An equivalent model with the right set of material property values is defined and benchmarked, consisting of one continuous layer with orthotropic elastic properties based on different available approximate formulas. This way the complex geometry does not need to be created while the model yields sufficiently accurate results.

  18. Breath Figure Method for Construction of Honeycomb Films

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Yingying; Jin, Mingliang; Zhou, Guofu; Shui, Lingling

    2015-01-01

    Honeycomb films with various building units, showing potential applications in biological, medical, physicochemical, photoelectric, and many other areas, could be prepared by the breath figure method. The ordered hexagonal structures formed by the breath figure process are related to the building units, solvents, substrates, temperature, humidity, air flow, and other factors. Therefore, by adjusting these factors, the honeycomb structures could be tuned properly. In this review, we summarized the development of the breath figure method of fabricating honeycomb films and the factors of adjusting honeycomb structures. The organic-inorganic hybrid was taken as the example building unit to discuss the preparation, mechanism, properties, and applications of the honeycomb films. PMID:26343734

  19. Two-Dimensional Pnictogen Honeycomb Lattice: Structure, On-Site Spin-Orbit Coupling and Spin Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jason; Tian, Wen-Chuan; Wang, Wei-Liang; Yao, Dao-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Because of its novel physical properties, two-dimensional materials have attracted great attention. From first-principle calculations and vibration frequencies analysis, we predict a new family of two-dimensional materials based on the idea of octet stability: honeycomb lattices of pnictogens (N, P, As, Sb, Bi). The buckled structures of materials come from the sp3 hybridization. These materials have indirect band gap ranging from 0.43 eV to 3.7 eV. From the analysis of projected density of states, we argue that the s and p orbitals together are sufficient to describe the electronic structure under tight-binding model, and the tight-binding parameters are obtained by fitting the band structures to first-principle results. Surprisingly large on-site spin-orbit coupling is found for all the pnictogen lattices except nitrogen. Investigation on the electronic structures of both zigzag and armchair nanoribbons reveals the possible existence of spin-polarized ferromagnetic edge states in some cases, which are rare in one-dimensional systems. These edge states and magnetism may exist under the condition of high vacuum and low temperature. This new family of materials would have promising applications in electronics, optics, sensors, and solar cells. PMID:26122870

  20. Two-Dimensional Pnictogen Honeycomb Lattice: Structure, On-Site Spin-Orbit Coupling and Spin Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jason; Tian, Wen-Chuan; Wang, Wei-Liang; Yao, Dao-Xin

    2015-06-01

    Because of its novel physical properties, two-dimensional materials have attracted great attention. From first-principle calculations and vibration frequencies analysis, we predict a new family of two-dimensional materials based on the idea of octet stability: honeycomb lattices of pnictogens (N, P, As, Sb, Bi). The buckled structures of materials come from the sp3 hybridization. These materials have indirect band gap ranging from 0.43 eV to 3.7 eV. From the analysis of projected density of states, we argue that the s and p orbitals together are sufficient to describe the electronic structure under tight-binding model, and the tight-binding parameters are obtained by fitting the band structures to first-principle results. Surprisingly large on-site spin-orbit coupling is found for all the pnictogen lattices except nitrogen. Investigation on the electronic structures of both zigzag and armchair nanoribbons reveals the possible existence of spin-polarized ferromagnetic edge states in some cases, which are rare in one-dimensional systems. These edge states and magnetism may exist under the condition of high vacuum and low temperature. This new family of materials would have promising applications in electronics, optics, sensors, and solar cells.

  1. Two-Dimensional Pnictogen Honeycomb Lattice: Structure, On-Site Spin-Orbit Coupling and Spin Polarization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jason; Tian, Wen-Chuan; Wang, Wei-Liang; Yao, Dao-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Because of its novel physical properties, two-dimensional materials have attracted great attention. From first-principle calculations and vibration frequencies analysis, we predict a new family of two-dimensional materials based on the idea of octet stability: honeycomb lattices of pnictogens (N, P, As, Sb, Bi). The buckled structures of materials come from the sp(3) hybridization. These materials have indirect band gap ranging from 0.43 eV to 3.7 eV. From the analysis of projected density of states, we argue that the s and p orbitals together are sufficient to describe the electronic structure under tight-binding model, and the tight-binding parameters are obtained by fitting the band structures to first-principle results. Surprisingly large on-site spin-orbit coupling is found for all the pnictogen lattices except nitrogen. Investigation on the electronic structures of both zigzag and armchair nanoribbons reveals the possible existence of spin-polarized ferromagnetic edge states in some cases, which are rare in one-dimensional systems. These edge states and magnetism may exist under the condition of high vacuum and low temperature. This new family of materials would have promising applications in electronics, optics, sensors, and solar cells. PMID:26122870

  2. Enhancing the absorption capabilities of thin-film solar cells using sandwiched light trapping structures.

    PubMed

    Abdellatif, S; Kirah, K; Ghannam, R; Khalil, A S G; Anis, W

    2015-06-10

    A novel structure for thin-film solar cells is simulated with the purpose of maximizing the absorption of light in the active layer and of reducing the parasitic absorption in other layers. In the proposed structure, the active layer is formed from an amorphous silicon thin film sandwiched between silicon nanowires from above and photonic crystal structures from below. The upper electrical contact consists of an indium tin oxide layer, which serves also as an antireflection coating. A metal backreflector works additionally as the other contact. The simulation was done using a new reliable, efficient and generic optoelectronic approach. The suggested multiscale simulation model integrates the finite-difference time-domain algorithm used in solving Maxwell's equation in three dimensions with a commercial simulation platform based on the finite element method for carrier transport modeling. The absorption profile, the external quantum efficient, and the power conversion efficiency of the suggested solar cell are calculated. A noticeable enhancement is found in all the characteristics of the novel structure with an estimated 32% increase in the total conversion efficiency over a cell without any light trapping mechanisms. PMID:26192857

  3. Damage Tolerance of Sandwich Plates with Debonded Face Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avery, John L., III; Sankar, Bhavani V.

    1998-01-01

    Axial compression tests were performed on debonded sandwich composites made of graphite/epoxy face-sheets and aramid fiber honeycomb core. The sandwich beams were manufactured using a vacuum baccrin2 process. The face-sheet and the sandwich beam were co-cured. Delamination between one of the face sheets and the core was introduced by using a Teflon layer during the curing process. Axial compression tests were performed to determine the ultimate load carrying capacity of the debonded beams. Flatwise tension tests and Double Cantilever Beam tests were performed to determine. respectively, the strength and fracture toughness of the face-sheet/core interface. From the test results semi-empirical formulas were derived for the fracture toughness and ultimate compressive load carrying capacity in terms of the core density. core thickness. face-sheet thickness and debond length. Four different failure modes and their relation to the structural properties were identified. Linear buckling analysis was found to be inadequate in predicting the compressive load carrying capacity of the debonded sandwich composites.

  4. Characterization of the effects of water and disbond on ultrasonic signals in honeycomb composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, A. K.

    The flight control surfaces of the CF188 Hornet are composed of carbon/epoxy skin and aluminum honeycomb core composite material, which has a known susceptibility to water ingress. The rudder is most commonly affected and it is suspected that past in-flight failures have occurred due to the amount of bond degradation between the skin and core. Current inspection techniques involve the use of through-transmission ultrasonic testing. The presence of water within the core, however, provides coupling for the transmission of sound, which can result in the masking of certain disbonded areas. In this study, neutron radiography was used to detect the precise location of water within a test rudder. Through-transmission C-Scan ultrasonic testing was also carried out. Examination of the individual A-Scans revealed that two time-separated signals occurred where water was present. The signal from the sound that travelled down the aluminum core cell walls occurred earlier in time due to the higher velocity of sound in aluminum. The signal from the sound that travelled through the water occurred later as the velocity in water is approximately one quarter of the velocity in aluminum. Analysis of time-gated aluminum signals in the form of C-Scan amplitude or energy plots strongly suggested that the identification of areas of disbond, when water was present, is possible. This identification was achievable since the ultrasound transmission intensity for aluminum bonded to epoxy is three times that in the case of disbond, when water is present between the epoxy and aluminum.

  5. Identification of impact damage in sandwich structures by application of high speed MEMS-OSA to FBG sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabe, Y.; Minakuchi, S.; Takeda, N.

    2005-05-01

    In this research, the authors developed various detection techniques for particular damages, such as debonding and impact damage, in sandwich panels consisting of composite face-sheets and aluminum honeycomb core with small-diameter optical fiber sensors. First, two methods for debonding detection were established taking advantage of the behavior of fillets formed on the adhesive layer between the core and the skin. One method uses the fracture of optical fibers, and the other one uses the shape recovery of the reflection spectrum from a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor because of the release of thermal residual stress in the fillets. Secondly, as for impact damages, chirped FBG sensors were applied to monitor the change in strain distribution of the face-sheet due to the dent caused by the impact loadings. Furthermore, a newly developed MEMS-optical spectrum analyzer (MEMS-OSA) was introduced to identification of impact points and damages. This system could measure the reflection spectrum at very high speed. The change in the form of the reflection spectrum during the impact loading was found to be different depending on the impact energy and the impact location, and this tendency was confirmed by theoretical simulations using the change in the strain distribution obtained by foil strain gauges. These results show that the high speed measurement of the reflection spectrum by MEMS-OSA has a potential to identify the impact location and damage magnitude through the comparison with theoretical simulations.

  6. A novel manifold-manifold distance index applied to looseness state assessment of viscoelastic sandwich structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chuang; Zhang, Zhousuo; Guo, Ting; Luo, Xue; Qu, Jinxiu; Zhang, Chenxuan; Cheng, Wei; Li, Bing

    2014-06-01

    Viscoelastic sandwich structures (VSS) are widely used in mechanical equipment; their state assessment is necessary to detect structural states and to keep equipment running with high reliability. This paper proposes a novel manifold-manifold distance-based assessment (M2DBA) method for assessing the looseness state in VSSs. In the M2DBA method, a manifold-manifold distance is viewed as a health index. To design the index, response signals from the structure are firstly acquired by condition monitoring technology and a Hankel matrix is constructed by using the response signals to describe state patterns of the VSS. Thereafter, a subspace analysis method, that is, principal component analysis (PCA), is performed to extract the condition subspace hidden in the Hankel matrix. From the subspace, pattern changes in dynamic structural properties are characterized. Further, a Grassmann manifold (GM) is formed by organizing a set of subspaces. The manifold is mapped to a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS), where support vector data description (SVDD) is used to model the manifold as a hypersphere. Finally, a health index is defined as the cosine of the angle between the hypersphere centers corresponding to the structural baseline state and the looseness state. The defined health index contains similarity information existing in the two structural states, so structural looseness states can be effectively identified. Moreover, the health index is derived by analysis of the global properties of subspace sets, which is different from traditional subspace analysis methods. The effectiveness of the health index for state assessment is validated by test data collected from a VSS subjected to different degrees of looseness. The results show that the health index is a very effective metric for detecting the occurrence and extension of structural looseness. Comparison results indicate that the defined index outperforms some existing state-of-the-art ones.

  7. Vibroacoustic Model Validation for a Curved Honeycomb Composite Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehrle, Ralph D.; Robinson, Jay H.; Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

    2001-01-01

    Finite element and boundary element models are developed to investigate the vibroacoustic response of a curved honeycomb composite sidewall panel. Results from vibroacoustic tests conducted in the NASA Langley Structural Acoustic Loads and Transmission facility are used to validate the numerical predictions. The sidewall panel is constructed from a flexible honeycomb core sandwiched between carbon fiber reinforced composite laminate face sheets. This type of construction is being used in the development of an all-composite aircraft fuselage. In contrast to conventional rib-stiffened aircraft fuselage structures, the composite panel has nominally uniform thickness resulting in a uniform distribution of mass and stiffness. Due to differences in the mass and stiffness distribution, the noise transmission mechanisms for the composite panel are expected to be substantially different from those of a conventional rib-stiffened structure. The development of accurate vibroacoustic models will aide in the understanding of the dominant noise transmission mechanisms and enable optimization studies to be performed that will determine the most beneficial noise control treatments. Finite element and boundary element models of the sidewall panel are described. Vibroacoustic response predictions are presented for forced vibration input and the results are compared with experimental data.

  8. The sandwich InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot structure for IR photoelectric detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Moldavskaya, L. D. Vostokov, N. V.; Gaponova, D. M.; Danil'tsev, V. M.; Drozdov, M. N.; Drozdov, Yu. N.; Shashkin, V. I.

    2008-01-15

    A new possibility for growing InAs/GaAs quantum dot heterostructures for infrared photoelectric detectors by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy is discussed. The specific features of the technological process are the prolonged time of growth of quantum dots and the alternation of the low-and high-temperature modes of overgrowing the quantum dots with GaAs barrier layers. During overgrowth, large-sized quantum dots are partially dissolved, and the secondary InGaAs quantum well is formed of the material of the dissolved large islands. In this case, a sandwich structure is formed. In this structure, quantum dots are arranged between two thin layers with an increased content of indium, namely, between the wetting InAs layer and the secondary InGaAs layer. The height of the quantum dots depends on the thickness of the GaAs layer grown at a comparatively low temperature. The structures exhibit intraband photoconductivity at a wavelength around 4.5 {mu}m at temperatures up to 200 K. At 90 K, the photosensitivity is 0.5 A/W, and the detectivity is 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} cm Hz{sup 1/2}W{sup -1}.

  9. The sandwich InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot structure for IR photoelectric detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Moldavskaya, L. D. Vostokov, N. V.; Gaponova, D. M.; Danil'tsev, V. M.; Drozdov, M. N.; Drozdov, Yu. N.; Shashkin, V. I.

    2008-01-15

    A new possibility for growing InAs/GaAs quantum dot heterostructures for infrared photoelectric detectors by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy is discussed. The specific features of the technological process are the prolonged time of growth of quantum dots and the alternation of the low-and high-temperature modes of overgrowing the quantum dots with GaAs barrier layers. During overgrowth, large-sized quantum dots are partially dissolved, and the secondary InGaAs quantum well is formed of the material of the dissolved large islands. In this case, a sandwich structure is formed. In this structure, quantum dots are arranged between two thin layers with an increased content of indium, namely, between the wetting InAs layer and the secondary InGaAs layer. The height of the quantum dots depends on the thickness of the GaAs layer grown at a comparatively low temperature. The structures exhibit intraband photoconductivity at a wavelength around 4.5 {mu}m at temperatures up to 200 K. At 90 K, the photosensitivity is 0.5 A/W, and the detectivity is 3 x 10{sup 9} cm Hz{sup 1/2}W{sup -1}.

  10. Suppression of UV photoluminescence in sandwich-structured Si/C composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Y.; Yuan, C. L.; Liu, R.; Ong, P. P.

    2002-10-01

    Thin films of composite silicon/carbon (Si/C) were prepared by pulsed-laser ablation alternately on C and Si materials on a rotary target, followed by vacuum deposition of the ablated materials on an ultra-clean glass substrate. The film structure consisted of alternate nanolayers of Si nanocrystals and amorphous C, with a fairly sharp demarcation boundary between adjacent layers forming well-defined sandwich structures. At room temperature, this composite nanolayered structure was found to yield much lower photoluminescent (PL) emission in the ultra violet region (300 390 nm) in comparison with that obtained for pure Si or for Si/Al2O3 thin films (see Zhu Y., Wang H. and Ong P. P. J. Phys. D, 33 (2000) 1965, and Zhu Y. and Ong P. P. J. Phys. Condens. Matter, 13 (2001) L1). The suppression mechanism of the UV PL emission appeared to occur in the interfacial surfaces between adjacent crystalline Si and amorphous C layers. It provides a possible way to selectively filter out the usually undesirable UV component of the PL emission from the silicon nanoparticles.

  11. Pure, single crystal Ge nanodots formed using a sandwich structure via pulsed UV excimer laser annealing.

    PubMed

    Liao, Ting-Wei; Chen, Hung-Ming; Shen, Kuan-Yuan; Kuan, Chieh-Hsiung

    2015-04-24

    In this paper, a sandwich structure comprising a SiO2 capping layer, amorphous Germanium (a-Ge) nanodots (NDs), and a pit-patterned Silicon (Si) substrate is developed, which is then annealed by utilizing a pulsed ultraviolet excimer laser in order to fabricate an array of pure, single crystal Ge NDs at room temperature. A wide bandgap SiO2 capping layer is used as a transparent thermally isolated layer to prevent thermal loss and Si-Ge intermixing. The two-dimensional pit-patterned Si substrate is designed to confine the absorbed laser energy, reduce the melting point, and block the surface migration of the Ge. After optimizing the laser radiation parameters such that the laser energy density is 200 mJ cm(-2), the laser annealing period is 10 s, and the number of laser shots is 10, pure, single crystal Ge NDs that have both a regular arrangement and a uniform size distribution are obtained in the pits of the Si substrates. The Raman spectrum shows a highly symmetric Ge transversal optical peak with a full width at half maximum of 4.2 cm(-1) at 300.7 cm(-1), which is close to that of the original Ge wafer. In addition, the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy image for the Ge NDs and the corresponding selected area electron diffraction pattern shows a clear single crystalline structure without any impurities. PMID:25815515

  12. Pure, single crystal Ge nanodots formed using a sandwich structure via pulsed UV excimer laser annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Ting-Wei; Chen, Hung-Ming; Shen, Kuan-Yuan; Kuan, Chieh-Hsiung

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a sandwich structure comprising a SiO2 capping layer, amorphous Germanium (a-Ge) nanodots (NDs), and a pit-patterned Silicon (Si) substrate is developed, which is then annealed by utilizing a pulsed ultraviolet excimer laser in order to fabricate an array of pure, single crystal Ge NDs at room temperature. A wide bandgap SiO2 capping layer is used as a transparent thermally isolated layer to prevent thermal loss and Si-Ge intermixing. The two-dimensional pit-patterned Si substrate is designed to confine the absorbed laser energy, reduce the melting point, and block the surface migration of the Ge. After optimizing the laser radiation parameters such that the laser energy density is 200 mJ cm-2, the laser annealing period is 10 s, and the number of laser shots is 10, pure, single crystal Ge NDs that have both a regular arrangement and a uniform size distribution are obtained in the pits of the Si substrates. The Raman spectrum shows a highly symmetric Ge transversal optical peak with a full width at half maximum of 4.2 cm-1 at 300.7 cm-1, which is close to that of the original Ge wafer. In addition, the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy image for the Ge NDs and the corresponding selected area electron diffraction pattern shows a clear single crystalline structure without any impurities.

  13. Half sandwich structures of MCF6- (M = Ag and Au): An experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhang; Tang, Zichao; Gao, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    The metal-hexafluorobenzene anionic complexes of [MC6F6]- (M = Ag and Au) were produced from the reactions between metal cluster generated by laser ablation and the hexafluorobenzene seeded in argon carrier gas, and were studied by photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and density functional theory (DFT). The adiabatic electron affinities (EAs) of these corresponding complexes are measured from the experimental PE spectra at 193 nm photon energy. Also, the calculated EAs and the calculated density of states (DOS) spectra of these complexes in the ground state are conducted, which are in good agreement with their experimental PE spectra. The most possible structures of the anions [AgC6F6]- and [AuC6F6]- are the half-sandwich structures with C6v symmetry, in which the metal atom is above the center of the C6F6 plane. Furthermore, the molecular orbital (MO) analysis of these species indicates that the additional electron of the anions binds on the metal.

  14. Fabrication and Testing of Durable Redundant and Fluted-Core Joints for Composite Sandwich Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shih-Yung; Splinter, Scott C.; Tarkenton, Chris; Paddock, David A.; Smeltzer, Stanley S.; Ghose, Sayata; Guzman, Juan C.; Stukus, Donald J.; McCarville, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    The development of durable bonded joint technology for assembling composite structures is an essential component of future space technologies. While NASA is working toward providing an entirely new capability for human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit, the objective of this project is to design, fabricate, analyze, and test a NASA patented durable redundant joint (DRJ) and a NASA/Boeing co-designed fluted-core joint (FCJ). The potential applications include a wide range of sandwich structures for NASA's future launch vehicles. Three types of joints were studied -- splice joint (SJ, as baseline), DRJ, and FCJ. Tests included tension, after-impact tension, and compression. Teflon strips were used at the joint area to increase failure strength by shifting stress concentration to a less sensitive area. Test results were compared to those of pristine coupons fabricated utilizing the same methods. Tensile test results indicated that the DRJ design was stiffer, stronger, and more impact resistant than other designs. The drawbacks of the DRJ design were extra mass and complex fabrication processes. The FCJ was lighter than the DRJ but less impact resistant. With barely visible but detectable impact damages, all three joints showed no sign of tensile strength reduction. No compression test was conducted on any impact-damaged sample due to limited scope and resource. Failure modes and damage propagation were also studied to support progressive damage modeling of the SJ and the DRJ.

  15. Simulation of Delamination-Migration and Core Crushing in a CFRP Sandwich Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McElroy, M.; Leone, F.; Ratcliffe, J.; Czabaj, M.; Yuan, F. G.

    2015-01-01

    Following the onset of damage caused by an impact load on a composite laminate structure, delaminations often form propagating outwards from the point of impact and in some cases can migrate via matrix cracks between plies as they grow. The goal of the present study is to develop an accurate finite element modeling technique for simulation of the delamination-migration phenomena in laminate impact damage processes. An experiment was devised where, under a quasi-static indentation load, an embedded delamination in the facesheet of a laminate sandwich specimen migrates via a transverse matrix crack and then continues to grow on a new ply interface. The quasistatic nature of the indentation results in structural behavior equivalent to that seen in low-velocity impact and also allows for highly detailed real time damage characterization. Several finite element damage simulation methods were investigated. Comparing the experimental results with those of the different models reveals certain modeling features that are important to include in a numerical simulation of delamination-migration and some that may be neglected.

  16. Effect of temperature on composite sandwich structures subjected to low velocity impact. [aircraft construction materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, A. V.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of low velocity projectile impact on sandwich-type structural components was investigated. The materials used in the fabrication of the impact surface were graphite-, Kevlar-, and boron-fibers with appropriate epoxy matrices. The testing of the specimens was performed at moderately low- and high-temperatures as well as at room temperature to assess the impact-initiated strength degradation of the laminates. Eleven laminates with different stacking sequences, orientations, and thicknesses were tested. The low energy projectile impact is considered to simulate the damage caused by runway debris, the dropping of the hand tools during servicing, etc., on the secondary aircraft structures fabricated with the composite materials. The results show the preload and the impact energy combinations necessary to cause catastrophic failure in the laminates tested. A set of faired curves indicating the failure thresholds is shown separately for the tension-and compression-loaded laminates. The specific-strengths and -modulii for the various laminates tested are also given.

  17. An Investigation on Low Velocity Impact Response of Multilayer Sandwich Composite Structures

    PubMed Central

    Jedari Salami, S.; Sadighi, M.; Shakeri, M.; Moeinfar, M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of adding an extra layer within a sandwich panel and two different core types in top and bottom cores on low velocity impact loadings are studied experimentally in this paper. The panel includes polymer composite laminated sheets for faces and the internal laminated sheet called extra layer sheet, and two types of crushable foams are selected as the core material. Low velocity impact tests were carried out by drop hammer testing machine to the clamped multilayer sandwich panels with expanded polypropylene (EPP) and polyurethane rigid (PUR) in the top and bottom cores. Local displacement of the top core, contact force and deflection of the sandwich panel were obtained for different locations of the internal sheet; meanwhile the EPP and PUR were used in the top and bottom cores alternatively. It was found that the core material type has made significant role in improving the sandwich panel's behavior compared with the effect of extra layer location. PMID:24453804

  18. An investigation on low velocity impact response of multilayer sandwich composite structures.

    PubMed

    Jedari Salami, S; Sadighi, M; Shakeri, M; Moeinfar, M

    2013-01-01

    The effects of adding an extra layer within a sandwich panel and two different core types in top and bottom cores on low velocity impact loadings are studied experimentally in this paper. The panel includes polymer composite laminated sheets for faces and the internal laminated sheet called extra layer sheet, and two types of crushable foams are selected as the core material. Low velocity impact tests were carried out by drop hammer testing machine to the clamped multilayer sandwich panels with expanded polypropylene (EPP) and polyurethane rigid (PUR) in the top and bottom cores. Local displacement of the top core, contact force and deflection of the sandwich panel were obtained for different locations of the internal sheet; meanwhile the EPP and PUR were used in the top and bottom cores alternatively. It was found that the core material type has made significant role in improving the sandwich panel's behavior compared with the effect of extra layer location. PMID:24453804

  19. Direct evidence of a zigzag spin-chain structure in the honeycomb lattice: A neutron and x-ray diffraction investigation of single-crystal Na2IrO3

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Feng; Chi, Songxue; Cao, Huibo; Chakoumakos, Bryan C; Fernandez-Baca, Jaime A; Custelcean, Radu; Qi, Tongfei; Korneta, O. B.; Cao, Gang

    2012-01-01

    We have combined single crystal neutron and x-ray diffractions to investigate the magnetic and crystal structures of the honeycomb lattice $\\rm Na_2IrO_3$. The system orders magnetically below $18.1(2)$~K with Ir$^{4+}$ ions forming zigzag spin chains within the layered honeycomb network with ordered moment of $\\rm 0.22(1)~\\mu_B$/Ir site. Such a configuration sharply contrasts the N{\\'{e}}el or stripe states proposed in the Kitaev-Heisenberg model. The structure refinement reveals that the Ir atoms form nearly ideal 2D honeycomb lattice while the $\\rm IrO_6$ octahedra experience a trigonal distortion that is critical to the ground state. The results of this study provide much-needed experimental insights into the magnetic and crystal structure crucial to the understanding of the exotic magnetic order and possible topological characteristics in the 5$d$-electron based honeycomb lattice.

  20. CFRP sandwiched facesheets inspected by pulsed thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huijuan; Huo, Yan; Cai, Liangxu; Huang, Zhenhua

    2010-10-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) has been always used in aerospace, Sandwiched structures composed by a honeycomb core between two multi-layer CFRP facesheets are very common on aerospace parts. As to the application of the CFRP sandwiched facesheets is extended, The demand for quality control of CFRP sandwiched composites is increasing, Infrared thermography is one of several non-destructive testing techniques which can be used for defect detection in aircraft materials such as carbon-fibre-reinforced composites. Infrared thermography can be potentially useful, as it is quick, real time, non-contact and can examine over a relatively large area in one inspection procedure. The technique is based on heating the sample surface with different heat sources and monitoring the surface temperature of the sample with an IR camera, any abnormal behavior of the surface temperature distribution indicates the subsurface defect. This kind of structure is normally affected by anomalies such as delaminations, disbonding, water ingressing to the core. in this paper, several different kinds of defects which are of various size and depth below the test surface are planted in the CFRP composites, the Teflon inserts between the plies in the facesheet represents the delaminations, the Teflon inserts between the inner facesheet and adhensive or between adhensive and core are simulated disbonding in the composites, they are all tested by pulsed thermography, meanwhile, these samples are also inspected by ultrasonic testing, compare with each characteristic and the results got by these two different methods, it shows that pulsed thermography is an effective nondestructive technique for inspecting CFRP composites.

  1. Hierarchically porous Co3O4 architectures with honeycomb-like structures for efficient oxygen generation from electrochemical water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lili; Tian, Tian; Jiang, Jing; Ai, Lunhong

    2015-10-01

    The development of efficient and cheap anode materials for the utilization in the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is essential for energy-conversion technologies. In this study, hierarchically porous Co3O4 architectures with honeycomb-like structures are synthesized by employing cobalt-based zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-67-Co) as metal source and sacrificial template. After a simple one-step calcination process, the ZIF-67-Co precursor can be chemically transformed into the Co3O4 architectures with abundant porosity and oxygen vacancy. These easily obtained and earth-abundant Co3O4 architectures present high performance toward the electrochemical water splitting for evolving molecular oxygen, affording a small OER onset potential, large anodic current and long-term durability in 0.1 M KOH solution, which are comparable to the electroactive noble- and transition-metal oxygen evolution catalysts previously reported. These merits suggest that the ZIF-derived Co3O4 architectures are promising electrocatalysts for OER from water splitting.

  2. In-situ sensing of the expansion of low density core (LDC) Ti-6Al-4V sandwich structures

    SciTech Connect

    Queheillalt, D.T.; Choi, B.W.; Wadley, H.N.G.; Schwartz, D.S.

    1998-12-31

    A combination multifrequency eddy current and laser ultrasonic sensors have been used to measure the pore expansion kinetics and elastic moduli evolution during the annealing of low density core (LDC) Ti-6Al-4V sandwich structures. The LDC samples were heated to 920 C and held there for up to 12 hr. The eddy current sensor measured the sample thickness (i.e., relative density) and revealed that the samples began to expand early during heating and was nearly complete after 4 hr at 920 C. The laser ultrasonic sensor measurements indicated a concomitant decrease in the elastic moduli with the reduction in relative density. The combination of an eddy current and laser ultrasonic sensor is therefore able to measure both the density and the elastic moduli independently during the annealing stage of LDC Ti-6Al-4V sandwich structure processing providing a simple method for directly controlling the parameters most critical to aerospace applications of these new materials.

  3. Crystal structures and magnetic properties of the honeycomb-lattice antiferromagnet M2(pymca)3(ClO4), (M = Fe, Co, Ni)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Zentaro; Kodama, Takafumi; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Kida, Takanori; Okutani, Akira; Sakai, Masamichi; Fukuda, Takeshi; Kamata, Norihiko

    2016-09-01

    We report on the syntheses, crystal structures, and magnetic properties of a series of transition metal coordination polymers M2(pymca)3(ClO4), (pymca = pyrimidine-2-carboxylic acid, M = Fe (1), Co (2), and Ni (3)). These compounds are found to crystallize in a trigonal crystal system, space group P31m, with the lattice constants a = 9.727 Å and c = 5.996 Å for 1, a = 9.608 Å and c = 5.996 Å for 2, and a = 9.477 Å and c = 5.958 Å for 3 at room temperature. In these compounds, each pymca ligand connects to two M2+ ions, forming a honeycomb network in the ab plane. The temperature dependences of magnetic susceptibilities in these compounds show broad maxima, indicating antiferromagnetic interactions within two-dimensional honeycomb layers. We also observed an antiferromagnetic phase transition at low temperatures by magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity measurements. From the crystal structures and magnetic properties, we conclude that the compounds 1, 2, and 3 are good realizations of honeycomb-lattice antiferromagnets.

  4. On the Fabrication, Characterization and Mechanical Properties of Melt-Stretched Stochastic Honeycombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hostetter, Megan

    This thesis presents a new type of polypropylene (PP) cellular material fabricated through a simple melt-stretching process. Stochastic honeycombs have an open cell, random honeycomb structure, with webs oriented perpendicular to built-in skins. This process has the advantage that, for example, PP pellets can be turned into a sandwich panel in one step. It was demonstrated that despite the randomness in the web structure, the out-of-plane compressive strength of stochastic honeycombs was repeatable, and exceeded that of commercial PP foams and was comparable to commercial PP honeycombs. The key material properties required to produce an this architecture were shown to be a high melt strength and a high viscosity, branched polymer. The viscosity was shown to affect the total length of the webs in cross-section and the relative partitioning of material through the skin, transition region and webs. Web thickness was affected by the areal density of the polymer during fabrication. Mechanical testing methods were adapted from ASTM standards for honeycombs, and the fabrication method was advanced from a manual to a machine controlled process. Stochastic honeycombs were shown to buckle elastically, plastically, and fracture after the peak strength. Elastic and plastic buckling were dominant at lower densities, and plastic buckling and fracture at higher densities. A thin-plate buckling model for the strength of stochastic honeycombs was developed and verified experimentally. The crystallinity of the polymer affected the tensile strength and stiffness, having a linear effect on the buckling strength. The architecture was composed of webs bound on both sides and webs bound on one side and free on the other. A greater fraction of bound webs increased the strength of the structure in the buckling model. A fabrication study showed that melt-stretching the polymer at higher strain rates increased the connectivity and fraction of bound webs. Additionally, higher density led to a

  5. Application of transfer matrix method in heat transfer performance analysis of multi-re-entrant honeycomb structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Xiuhui; Deng, Zichen; Yin, Guansheng

    2014-12-01

    The thermal properties for the multi-re-entrant honeycomb are investigated, where the hexagon and re-entrant topologies are applied for comparison. A compact model was adopted for the local heat transfer rate and pressure drop estimations while the total heat transfer rate was analyzed using the transfer matrix method. A thermal performance index was specified to characterize a good heat exchange medium that can transfer more heat at the expense of lower pressure loss. Numerical results reveal better thermal performances of multi-re-entrant honeycombs over hexagon and re-entrant topologies, attributed to the presence of added base walls. Auxetic effect introduced in multi-re-entrant honeycomb generally provides enhanced out-of-plane thermal conductivity and increased total heat transfer efficiency due to higher surface area density.

  6. Novel sandwich structure adsorptive membranes for removal of 4-nitrotoluene from water.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuexin; Jia, Zhiqian

    2016-11-01

    Novel sandwich PES-SPES/PS-PDVB/PTFE adsorptive membranes were prepared by a filtration/immersion precipitation method and employed for the removal of 4-nitrotoluene from water. The static adsorption thermodynamics, kinetics, dynamic adsorption/desorption and membrane reusability were investigated. The results showed that the Freundlich model describes the adsorption isotherm satisfactorily. With increased PS-PDVB content, the maximum static adsorption capacity, partition coefficient, apparent adsorption rate constant, and dynamic adsorption capacity all significantly increased. The sandwich membranes showed much higher removal efficiency and adsorption capacity than those of mixed matrix membranes. With respect to dynamics adsorption/desorption, the sandwich membranes exhibited excellent reusability, with a removal efficiency greater than 95% even after five recycles. PMID:27322899

  7. Analyses for Debonding of Stitched Composite Sandwich Structures Using Improved Constitutive Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, E. H.; Sleight, D. W.; Krishnamurthy, T.; Raju, I. S.

    2001-01-01

    A fracture mechanics analysis based on strain energy release rates is used to study the effect of stitching in bonded sandwich beam configurations. Finite elements are used to model the configurations. The stitches were modeled as discrete nonlinear spring elements with a compliance determined by experiment. The constitutive models were developed using the results of flatwise tension tests from sandwich material rather than monolithic material. The analyses show that increasing stitch stiffness, stitch density and debond length decrease strain energy release rates for a fixed applied load.

  8. The submarine South Sandwich arc: structure, instability and sediment wave formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leat, P. T.; Tate, A. J.; Deen, T. J.; Day, S. J.; Owen, M.

    2010-12-01

    The South Sandwich volcanic arc, in the South Atlantic, is one of the world’s prime examples of an intra-oceanic arc in an entirely oceanic setting, and is unaffected by collision or arc rifting. During the 2010 (cruise JR206) we succeeded in completing, for the first time, bathymetric mapping of the entire 650 km x 100 km submarine arc using multibeam sonar. The new survey shows that there are nine main volcanic centers and ca. twenty main seamounts in the 540 km long volcanic arc. The central seven volcanic centers are 3-3.5 km high and emerge as the main South Sandwich Islands. The northernmost center, around Protector Shoal, is an at least partly silicic cluster of seven stratovolcano seamounts and a 15 km diameter volcanic plateau. The southern Adventure center, which is 45 km across and 1.7 km high, is newly-discovered, and consists of a chain of seamounts and two submarine calderas. Seven distinct calderas are identified in both large centers and seamounts within the arc. There are also three 60 km long tectonically controlled, northwest-southeast-trending seamount chains that extend from the volcanic front to the rear of the arc. The volcanoes have been affected by a range of mass wasting phenomena, including debris avalanches, slumps, erosion at sea level and sediment dispersal by mass flows. There is abundant evidence of slope instability and landsliding of volcanoes during their initial stages of growth, when they form seamounts yet to rise above sea level. On the other hand, the forms of the emergent volcanoes indicate that they have only rarely collapsed to form large tsunamigenic landslides. There are abundant large, striking, wave-like structures that have wavelengths of 2-4 km and amplitudes of 50-150 m on the ca. 2°-3° submarine slopes of these volcanoes. TOPAS sub-bottom imagery shows stratified units in the wave-like structures that prograde downslope from wave crests and that can locally be traced from crest to crest, indicating that they

  9. Titanium honeycomb acoustic lining structural and thermal test report. [for acoustic tailpipe for JT8D engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joynes, D.; Balut, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of static, fatigue and thermal testing of titanium honeycomb acoustic panels representing the acoustic tailpipe for the Pratt and Whitney Aircraft JT8D Refan engine which is being studied for use on the Boeing 727-200 airplane. Test specimens represented the engine and tailpipe flange joints, the rail to which the thrust reverser is attached and shear specimens of the tailpipe honeycomb. Specimens were made in four different batches with variations in configuration, materials and processes in each. Static strength of all test specimens exceeded the design ultimate load requirements. Fatigue test results confirmed that aluminum brazed titanium, as used in the Refan tailpipe design, meets the fatigue durability objectives. Quality of welding was found to be critical to life, with substandard welding failing prematurely, whereas welding within the process specification exceeded the panel skin life. Initial fatigue testing used short grip length bolts which failed prematurely. These were replaced with longer bolts and subsequent testing demonstrated the required life. Thermal tests indicate that perforated skin acoustic honeycomb has approximately twice the heat transfer of solid skin honeycomb.

  10. Phonons transmission by thin films sandwiched between two similar fcc structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkacemi, Ghania; Bourahla, Boualem

    2015-09-01

    An analytical and numerical formalism are developed to study the influence of the sandwiched atomic films on the vibration properties and phonon transmission modes in fcc waveguides. The model system consists of two identical semi-infinite fcc leads joined by ultrathin atomic films in between. The matching technique is applied to calculate the local Green's functions for the irreducible set of sites that constitute the inhomogeneous domain. Numerical results are presented for the reflection/transmission, total phonon transmittance and localized vibration states in considered fcc lattices. The results show that vibrational properties of the sandwich materials are strongly dependent on the scattering frequency, the thickness of the insured films, incidence angles and elastic boundary conditions. We note that some of the fluctuations, observed in the vibration spectra, are related to Fano resonances, they are due to the coherent coupling between travelling phonons and the localized vibration modes in the neighborhood of the nanojunction domains. The number of localized modes which interact with the propagating modes of the continuum is proportional to the number of the sandwiched Slabs in the interfacial zone. The results give also the effect of the sandwiched ultrathin films on elastic waves propagation by atomic interfaces in fcc lattices.

  11. The Effects of Various Design Parameters on the Free Vibration of Doubly Curved Composite Sandwich Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CUNNINGHAM, P. R.; WHITE, R. G.; AGLIETTI, G. S.

    2000-02-01

    Sandwich panels have a very high stiffness to weight ratio, which makes them particularly useful in the aerospace industry where carbon fibre reinforced plastics and lightweight honeycomb cores are being used in the construction of floor panels, fairings and intake barrel panels. In the latter case, the geometry of the panels can be considered doubly curved. This paper presents an introduction to an ongoing study investigating the dynamic response prediction of acoustically excited composite sandwich panels which have double curvature. The final objective is to assess and hopefully produce an up to date set of acoustic fatigue design guidelines for this type of structure. The free vibration of doubly curved composite honeycomb sandwich panels is investigated here, both experimentally and theoretically, the latter using a commerically available finite element package. The design and manufacture of three test panels is covered before presenting experimental results for the natural frequencies of vibration with freely supported boundary conditions. Once validated against the experimental results, the theoretical investigation is extended to study the effects of changing radii of curvature, orthotropic properties of the core, and ply orientation on the natural frequencies of vibration of rectangular panels with various boundary conditions. The results from the parameter studies show curve veering, particularly when studying the effect of changing radii and ply orientation, however, it is not clear whether this phenomenon is due to the approximation method used or occurs in the physical system.

  12. Metal Foam Analysis: Improving Sandwich Structure Technology for Engine Fan and Propeller Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, Jessica L.

    2004-01-01

    The Life Prediction Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center is searching for ways to construct aircraft and rotorcraft engine fan and propeller blades that are lighter and less costly. One possible design is to create a sandwich structure composed of two metal faces sheets and a metal foam core. The face sheets would carry the bending loads and the foam core would have to resist the transverse shear loads. Metal foam is ideal because of its low density and energy absorption capabilities, making the structure lighter, yet still stiff. The material chosen for the face sheets and core was 17-4PH stainless steel, which is easy to make and has appealing mechanical properties. This material can be made inexpensively compared to titanium and polymer matrix composites, the two current fan blade alternatives. Initial tests were performed on design models, including vibration and stress analysis. These tests revealed that the design is competitive with existing designs; however, some problems were apparent that must be addressed before it can be implemented in new technology. The foam did not hold up as well as expected under stress. This could be due to a number of issues, but was most likely a result of a large number of pores within the steel that weakened the structure. The brazing between the face sheets and the foam was also identified as a concern. The braze did not hold up well under shear stress causing the foam to break away from the face sheets. My role in this project was to analyze different options for improving the design. I primarily spent my time examining various foam samples, created with different sintering conditions, to see which exhibited the most favorable characteristics for our purpose. Methods of analysis that I employed included examining strut integrity under a microscope, counting the number of cells per inch, measuring the density, testing the microhardness, and testing the strength under compression. Shear testing will also be done to examine

  13. Electronic bands, Fermi surface, and elastic properties of new 4.2 K superconductor SrPtAs with a honeycomb structure from first principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shein, I. R.; Ivanovskii, A. L.

    2011-10-01

    The hexagonal phase SrPtAs (s.g. P6/ mmm; #194) with a honeycomb lattice structure was recently declared as a new low-temperature ( T C ∼ 4.2 K) superconductor. Here, by means of first-principles calculations the optimized structural parameters, electronic bands, Fermi surface, total and partial densities of states, inter-atomic bonding picture, independent elastic constants, bulk and shear moduli for SrPtAs were obtained for the first time and analyzed in comparison with the related layered superconductor SrPt 2As 2.

  14. Open-Mode Debonding Analysis of Curved Sandwich Panels Subjected to Heating and Cryogenic Cooling on Opposite Faces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.

    1999-01-01

    Increasing use of curved sandwich panels as aerospace structure components makes it vital to fully understand their thermostructural behavior and identify key factors affecting the open-mode debonding failure. Open-mode debonding analysis is performed on a family of curved honeycomb-core sandwich panels with different radii of curvature. The curved sandwich panels are either simply supported or clamped, and are subjected to uniform heating on the convex side and uniform cryogenic cooling on the concave side. The finite-element method was used to study the effects of panel curvature and boundary condition on the open-mode stress (radial tensile stress) and displacement fields in the curved sandwich panels. The critical stress point, where potential debonding failure could initiate, was found to be at the midspan (or outer span) of the inner bonding interface between the sandwich core and face sheet on the concave side, depending on the boundary condition and panel curvature. Open-mode stress increases with increasing panel curvature, reaching a maximum value at certain high curvature, and then decreases slightly as the panel curvature continues to increase and approach that of quarter circle. Changing the boundary condition from simply supported to clamped reduces the magnitudes of open-mode stresses and the associated sandwich core depth stretching.

  15. Properties of honeycomb polyester knitted fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, A. F.

    2016-07-01

    The properties of honeycomb polyester weft-knitted fabrics were studied to understand their advantages. Seven honeycomb polyester weft-knitted fabrics and one common polyester weft-knitted fabric were selected for testing. Their bursting strengths, fuzzing and pilling, air permeability, abrasion resistance and moisture absorption and perspiration were studied. The results show that the honeycomb polyester weft-knitted fabrics have excellent moisture absorption and liberation. The smaller their thicknesses and area densities are, the better their moisture absorption and liberation will be. Their anti-fuzzing and anti-pilling is good, whereas their bursting strengths and abrasion resistance are poorer compared with common polyester fabric's. In order to improve the hygroscopic properties of the fabrics, the proportion of the honeycomb microporous structure modified polyester in the fabrics should not be less than 40%.

  16. Biomimetic heterogeneous multiple ion channels: a honeycomb structure composite film generated by breath figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Keyu; Heng, Liping; Wen, Liping; Jiang, Lei

    2016-06-01

    We design a novel type of artificial multiple nanochannel system with remarkable ion rectification behavior via a facile breath figure (BF) method. Notably, even though the charge polarity in the channel wall reverses under different pH values, this nanofluidic device displays the same ionic rectification direction. Compared with traditional nanochannels, this composite multiple ion channel device can be more easily obtained and has directional ionic rectification advantages, which can be applied in many fields.We design a novel type of artificial multiple nanochannel system with remarkable ion rectification behavior via a facile breath figure (BF) method. Notably, even though the charge polarity in the channel wall reverses under different pH values, this nanofluidic device displays the same ionic rectification direction. Compared with traditional nanochannels, this composite multiple ion channel device can be more easily obtained and has directional ionic rectification advantages, which can be applied in many fields. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Pore size distribution histograms of the AAO substrates; SEM images of the side view of pure AAO membranes and top view of the flat PI/AAO composite film; the current-time curves of the flat composite film; the current-voltage characteristics curves of pure AAO nanochannels with different mean pore diameters; CA of the two surfaces of the composite PI/AAO film, the structural formula of the polymer polyimide resin (PI), and solid surface zeta potential. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02506d

  17. Support vector machine-based Grassmann manifold distance for health monitoring of viscoelastic sandwich structure with material ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chuang; Zhang, Zhousuo; Luo, Xue; Guo, Ting; Qu, Jinxiu; Li, Bing

    2016-04-01

    Subspace analysis is an effective way for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). In current research, linear algorithms for single-subspace analysis are commonly utilized. Nonlinearity of the structure and characteristics of subspace distribution are ignored. To overcome these shortcomings, characteristics of subspace set are analyzed and a nonlinear subspace distance is defined for SHM in this paper. To calculate this distance index, vibration response signals are firstly monitored and system subspaces are extracted by subspace analysis method. Then, subspace set is viewed as a Grassmann manifold, and the manifold is modeled by Grassmann kernel-based SVM classifier to describe its nonlinear characteristics. Finally, margin in SVM classifier modeled from Grassmann manifolds corresponding to structural normal state and abnormal state, respectively, is defined as a SHM index. This index indicates the degree of the abnormal state deviating from the normal state, and it is an effective index to reflect structural states. Effectiveness of the SHM index is validated by testing data of a Viscoelastic Sandwich Structure (VSS) with viscoelastic sandwich subjected to accelerated ageing in a thermal-oxygen ambient. Analysis result shows that the designed index is very effective to indicate health state in the VSS.

  18. Sandwich-structured polymer nanocomposites with high energy density and great charge-discharge efficiency at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Liu, Feihua; Yang, Tiannan; Gadinski, Matthew R; Zhang, Guangzu; Chen, Long-Qing; Wang, Qing

    2016-09-01

    The demand for a new generation of high-temperature dielectric materials toward capacitive energy storage has been driven by the rise of high-power applications such as electric vehicles, aircraft, and pulsed power systems where the power electronics are exposed to elevated temperatures. Polymer dielectrics are characterized by being lightweight, and their scalability, mechanical flexibility, high dielectric strength, and great reliability, but they are limited to relatively low operating temperatures. The existing polymer nanocomposite-based dielectrics with a limited energy density at high temperatures also present a major barrier to achieving significant reductions in size and weight of energy devices. Here we report the sandwich structures as an efficient route to high-temperature dielectric polymer nanocomposites that simultaneously possess high dielectric constant and low dielectric loss. In contrast to the conventional single-layer configuration, the rationally designed sandwich-structured polymer nanocomposites are capable of integrating the complementary properties of spatially organized multicomponents in a synergistic fashion to raise dielectric constant, and subsequently greatly improve discharged energy densities while retaining low loss and high charge-discharge efficiency at elevated temperatures. At 150 °C and 200 MV m(-1), an operating condition toward electric vehicle applications, the sandwich-structured polymer nanocomposites outperform the state-of-the-art polymer-based dielectrics in terms of energy density, power density, charge-discharge efficiency, and cyclability. The excellent dielectric and capacitive properties of the polymer nanocomposites may pave a way for widespread applications in modern electronics and power modules where harsh operating conditions are present. PMID:27551101

  19. Entangled Cross-Linked Fibres for an Application as Core Material for Sandwich Structures - Part II: Analytical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezeix, L.; Poquillon, D.; Bouvet, C.

    2016-02-01

    Entangled cross-linked carbon, aramid and glass fibres were recently produced by epoxy spraying for an application as core material for sandwich panel. The Young's moduli in compression and tension have been previously measured and briefly summarized in this paper. To optimize the core structure, modelling of these properties has been achieved in the present paper. The cross-link fibres have a random orientation and the stiffness of the epoxy joint is modelled by a torsion spring. A parallel model is chosen for homogenisation. It was found that the experimentally estimated stiffness of these materials fits fairly well with the modelled ones.

  20. A novel method of measuring leaf epidermis and mesophyll stiffness shows the ubiquitous nature of the sandwich structure of leaf laminas in broad-leaved angiosperm species.

    PubMed

    Onoda, Yusuke; Schieving, Feike; Anten, Niels P R

    2015-05-01

    Plant leaves commonly exhibit a thin, flat structure that facilitates a high light interception per unit mass, but may increase risks of mechanical failure when subjected to gravity, wind and herbivory as well as other stresses. Leaf laminas are composed of thin epidermis layers and thicker intervening mesophyll layers, which resemble a composite material, i.e. sandwich structure, used in engineering constructions (e.g. airplane wings) where high bending stiffness with minimum weight is important. Yet, to what extent leaf laminas are mechanically designed and behave as a sandwich structure remains unclear. To resolve this issue, we developed and applied a novel method to estimate stiffness of epidermis- and mesophyll layers without separating the layers. Across a phylogenetically diverse range of 36 angiosperm species, the estimated Young's moduli (a measure of stiffness) of mesophyll layers were much lower than those of the epidermis layers, indicating that leaf laminas behaved similarly to efficient sandwich structures. The stiffness of epidermis layers was higher in evergreen species than in deciduous species, and strongly associated with cuticle thickness. The ubiquitous nature of sandwich structures in leaves across studied species suggests that the sandwich structure has evolutionary advantages as it enables leaves to be simultaneously thin and flat, efficiently capturing light and maintaining mechanical stability under various stresses. PMID:25675956

  1. A novel method of measuring leaf epidermis and mesophyll stiffness shows the ubiquitous nature of the sandwich structure of leaf laminas in broad-leaved angiosperm species

    PubMed Central

    Onoda, Yusuke; Schieving, Feike; Anten, Niels P. R.

    2015-01-01

    Plant leaves commonly exhibit a thin, flat structure that facilitates a high light interception per unit mass, but may increase risks of mechanical failure when subjected to gravity, wind and herbivory as well as other stresses. Leaf laminas are composed of thin epidermis layers and thicker intervening mesophyll layers, which resemble a composite material, i.e. sandwich structure, used in engineering constructions (e.g. airplane wings) where high bending stiffness with minimum weight is important. Yet, to what extent leaf laminas are mechanically designed and behave as a sandwich structure remains unclear. To resolve this issue, we developed and applied a novel method to estimate stiffness of epidermis- and mesophyll layers without separating the layers. Across a phylogenetically diverse range of 36 angiosperm species, the estimated Young’s moduli (a measure of stiffness) of mesophyll layers were much lower than those of the epidermis layers, indicating that leaf laminas behaved similarly to efficient sandwich structures. The stiffness of epidermis layers was higher in evergreen species than in deciduous species, and strongly associated with cuticle thickness. The ubiquitous nature of sandwich structures in leaves across studied species suggests that the sandwich structure has evolutionary advantages as it enables leaves to be simultaneously thin and flat, efficiently capturing light and maintaining mechanical stability under various stresses. PMID:25675956

  2. Barely visible impact damage detection for composite sandwich structures by optical-fiber-based distributed strain measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakuchi, S.; Okabe, Y.; Mizutani, T.; Takeda, N.

    2009-08-01

    The authors developed an impact damage-detection system for large-scale composite sandwich structures using an optical fiber network running throughout the structure. A Brillouin-based sensing system with high spatial resolution (pre-pump pulse Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (PPP-BOTDA)) was utilized for distributed strain measurement. The PPP-BOTDA sensing system can measure axial strain along the optical fiber by employing stimulated Brillouin scattering. The system realizes a spatial resolution of 10 cm, a sampling interval of 5 cm, and a sensing range of more than 1 km. Our previous study revealed that a non-uniform axial strain within centimeter spatial resolution broadens the width of the Brillouin gain spectrum, which is the output of the PPP-BOTDA. The specific response of the PPP-BOTDA was employed to detect non-uniform strain distribution along a residual facesheet dent in a damaged area. First, the response of the optical fiber sensor network, formed in the adhesive layer, was simulated to clarify the effectiveness and limitations of the proposed damage-detection technique. The system was then validated by an experiment. As the damage became larger, the width of the Brillouin gain spectra became broader. Consequently, the location and size of barely visible damage could be estimated. The system developed is quite useful for a first inspection of large-scale sandwich structures in aerospace and marine applications.

  3. Efficient Cherenkov emission of broadband terahertz radiation from an ultrashort laser pulse in a sandwich structure with nonlinear core

    SciTech Connect

    Bodrov, S. B.; Bakunov, M. I.; Hangyo, M.

    2008-11-01

    A scheme for efficient generation of broadband terahertz radiation by a femtosecond laser pulse propagating in a planar sandwichlike structure is proposed. The structure consists of a thin nonlinear core cladded with prisms made of a material with low terahertz absorption. The focused into a line laser pulse propagates in the core as a leaky or waveguide mode and emits Cherenkov wedge of terahertz waves in the cladding. We developed a theory that describes terahertz generation in such a structure and calculated spatial distribution of the generated terahertz field, its energy spectrum and optical-to-terahertz conversion efficiency. The developed theory predicts the conversion efficiency of up to several percent in a 1 cm long and 1 cm wide Si-LiNbO{sub 3}-Si sandwich structure with a 20 {mu}m thick nonlinear layer pumped by 8.5 {mu}J Ti:sapphire laser with pulse duration of 100 fs.

  4. Discussion: "On interactive buckling in a sandwich structure" by C. D. Coman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadee, M. Ahmer; Yiatros, Stylianos

    2011-02-01

    A recent article by Coman (Z Angew Math Phys 2009) on the response of compression sandwich struts made some claims on the quality of the simplified version of the interactive buckling model presented in Hunt and Wadee (Proc R Soc A 454(1972):1197-1216, 1998). Some of these claims are examined in detail herein; it is concluded that great care must be exercised when performing parametric studies with equations that have been derived from simplifying a mechanical model. This is because the resulting system of equations does not necessarily describe the original mechanical system in full, since the key assumptions necessarily change.

  5. Structural Design of Ares V Interstage Composite Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sleigh, David W.; Sreekantamurthy, Thammaiah; Kosareo, Daniel N.; Martin, Robert A.; Johnson, Theodore F.

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary and detailed design studies were performed to mature composite structural design concepts for the Ares V Interstage structure as a part of NASA s Advanced Composite Technologies Project. Aluminum honeycomb sandwich and hat-stiffened composite panel structural concepts were considered. The structural design and analysis studies were performed using HyperSizer design sizing software and MSC Nastran finite element analysis software. System-level design trade studies were carried out to predict weight and margins of safety for composite honeycomb-core sandwich and composite hat-stiffened skin design concepts. Details of both preliminary and detailed design studies are presented in the paper. For the range of loads and geometry considered in this work, the hat-stiffened designs were found to be approximately 11-16 percent lighter than the sandwich designs. A down-select process was used to choose the most favorable structural concept based on a set of figures of merit, and the honeycomb sandwich design was selected as the best concept based on advantages in manufacturing cost.

  6. Fabrication of honeycomb-structured poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactic acid) porous films and biomedical applications for cell growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Bingjian; Zhu, Qingzeng; Yao, Linli; Hao, Jingcheng

    2015-03-01

    A series of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactic acid) (PEG-PLA) copolymers with a hydrophobic PLA block of different molecular weights and a fixed length hydrophilic PEG were synthesized successfully and characterized. These amphiphilic block copolymers were used to fabricate honeycomb-structured porous films using the breath figure (BF) templating technique. The surface topology and composition of the highly ordered pattern film were further characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and fluorescence microscopy. The results indicated that the PEG-to-PLA block molecular weight ratio influenced the BF film surface topology. The film with the best ordered pores was obtained with a PEG-to-PLA ratio of 2.0 × 103:3.0 × 104. The self-organization of the hydrophilic PEG chains within the pores was confirmed by XPS and fluorescence labeled PEG. A model is proposed to elucidate the stabilization process of the amphiphilic PEG-PLA aggregated architecture on the water droplet-based templates. In addition, GFP-U87 cell viability has been investigated by MTS test and the cell morphology on the honeycomb-structured PEG-PLA porous film has been evaluated using phase-contrast microscope. This porous film is shown to be suitable as a matrix for cell growth.

  7. Scalable Synthesis of Freestanding Sandwich-structured Graphene/Polyaniline/Graphene Nanocomposite Paper for Flexible All-Solid-State Supercapacitor

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Fei; Yang, Shengxiong; Zhang, Zheye; Liu, Hongfang; Xiao, Junwu; Wan, Lian; Luo, Jun; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Yunqi

    2015-01-01

    We reported a scalable and modular method to prepare a new type of sandwich-structured graphene-based nanohybrid paper and explore its practical application as high-performance electrode in flexible supercapacitor. The freestanding and flexible graphene paper was firstly fabricated by highly reproducible printing technique and bubbling delamination method, by which the area and thickness of the graphene paper can be freely adjusted in a wide range. The as-prepared graphene paper possesses a collection of unique properties of highly electrical conductivity (340 S cm−1), light weight (1 mg cm−2) and excellent mechanical properties. In order to improve its supercapacitive properties, we have prepared a unique sandwich-structured graphene/polyaniline/graphene paper by in situ electropolymerization of porous polyaniline nanomaterials on graphene paper, followed by wrapping an ultrathin graphene layer on its surface. This unique design strategy not only circumvents the low energy storage capacity resulting from the double-layer capacitor of graphene paper, but also enhances the rate performance and cycling stability of porous polyaniline. The as-obtained all-solid-state symmetric supercapacitor exhibits high energy density, high power density, excellent cycling stability and exceptional mechanical flexibility, demonstrative of its extensive potential applications for flexible energy-related devices and wearable electronics. PMID:25797022

  8. Formation of sandwich structure through ion adsorption at the mineral and humic interfaces: A combined experimental computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiaodan; Yang, Gang; Tian, Rui; Ding, Wuquan; Hu, Feinan; Liu, Xinmin; Li, Hang

    2015-08-01

    Although ion adsorption at interfaces governs a variety of chemical processes, the underlying mechanisms remain controversial. We present a combination of dynamic light scattering, FT-IR spectroscopy and DFT calculations to probe the ion adsorption behaviors on montmorillonite and its mixture with humic acid (HA) as well as to unravel the composite structure and formation mechanism. Interaction structures of Ca2+ with HA, montmorillonite and their mixture are calculated, and computational frequencies show fine agreement with FT-IR results. The low ion affinities for HA explain that the aggregation kinetics of montmorillonite is significantly inhibited by forming composite with HA. Adsorption of Ca2+ on the mixture of HA and montmorillonite facilely obtains sandwich-structured composite, where Ca2+ is situated at the midst and exhibits an essential stabilization effect. Furthermore, conformational transitions occur frequently for HA carboxylic groups during composite formation.

  9. Impact resistance of composite laminated sandwich plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chun-Gon; Jun, Eui-Jin

    1992-01-01

    Investigated are the effects of face layup sequence and core density of a sandwich plate on the impact delamination area of the laminated facesheet. The sandwich plate is made of graphite/epoxy faces and Nomex honeycomb core. The size and shape of delamination due to impact at each interply location have been measured by the room temperature deply technique. The shape of the interply delamination under impact is, in general, found to be two-lobed. The shape exhibits very peculiar regularity under various experimental conditions. The quantitative measurement of delamination size has shown that the face layup with small relative orientation between adjacent plies and high density core are desirable in sandwich plates to reduce the impact delamination.

  10. Fermions on the low-buckled honey-comb structured lattice plane and classical Casimir-Polder force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Partha

    2016-05-01

    We start with the well-known expression for the vacuum polarization and suitably modify it for 2+1-dimensional spin-orbit coupled (SOC) fermions on the low-buckled honey-comb structured lattice plane described by the low-energy Liu-Yao-Feng-Ezawa (LYFE) model Hamiltonian involving the Dirac matrices in the chiral representation obeying the Clifford algebra. The silicene and germanene fit this description suitably. They have the Dirac cones similar to those of graphene and SOC is much stronger. The system could be normal or ferromagnetic in nature. The silicene turns into the latter type if there is exchange field arising due to the proximity coupling to a ferromagnet (FM) such as depositing Fe atoms to the silicene surface. For the silicene, we find that the many-body effects considerably change the bare Coulomb potential by way of the dependence of the Coulomb propagator on the real-spin, iso-spin and the potential due to an electric field applied perpendicular to the silicene plane. The computation aspect of the Casimir-Polder force (CPF) needs to be investigated in this paper. An important quantity in this process is the dielectric response function (DRF) of the material. The plasmon branch was obtained by finding the zeros of DRF in the long-wavelength limit. This leads to the plasmon frequencies. We find that the collective charge excitations at zero doping, i.e., intrinsic plasmons, in this system, are absent in the Dirac limit. The valley-spin-split intrinsic plasmons, however, come into being in the case of the massive Dirac particles with characteristic frequency close to 10 THz. Our scheme to calculate the Casimir-Polder interaction (CPI) of a micro-particle with a sheet involves replacing the dielectric constant of the sample in the CPI expression obtained on the basis of the Lifshitz theory by the static DRF obtained using the expressions for the polarization function we started with. Though the approach replaces a macroscopic constant by a microscopic

  11. Honeycomb-Fin Heat Sink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E.

    1989-01-01

    Improved finned heat sink for electronic components more lightweight, inexpensive, and efficient. Designed for use with forced air, easily scaled up to dissipate power up to few hundred watts. Fins are internal walls of aluminum honeycomb structure. Cell structure gives strength to thin aluminum foil. Length of channels chosen for thermodynamic efficency; columns of cells combined in any reasonable number because flowing air distributed to all. Heat sink cools nearly as effectively at ends as near its center, no matter how many columns of cells combined.

  12. Frequency analysis of curved nano-sandwich structure based on a nonlocal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, O.; Hosseini, S. A. H.; Hayati, H.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we study the vibration of curved nano-sandwich (CNS) with considering the influence of core shear based on the Eringen nonlocal theory. The equation of motion is derived and exact solution for the natural frequencies of CNS is presented. The proposed nonlocal model includes a material length scale parameter that can capture the size effect in CNS beam. The effects of important parameters, such as the thickness to length ratio, nonlocal parameter and mode number on the frequencies of CNS are investigated. The result of our research shows that as the opening angle increases, the amount of natural frequencies decrease. We have additionally validate, our results against previous research works which showed good agreement.

  13. Sandwich-structured Cu2O photodetectors enhanced by localized surface plasmon resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Ran; Lin, Guanjun; Zhao, Dongfang; Zhang, Qian; Lin, Xiaoyu; Gao, Naikun; Liu, Duo

    2015-03-01

    We report here a facile wet-chemical route to fabricate high performance Cu2O-based plasmonic photodetectors. The Cu2O active layer is sandwiched between Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) and a corrugated Au thin film electrode. We find that the presence of Au NPs will affect the nucleation process of Cu2O thin film on ITO, resulting in different surface morphology, and the localized surface plasmons (LSPs) of Au NPs can greatly increase resonant absorption of the incident light. We show, using I-V and photoresponse measurements, that the sample decorated with Au NPs exhibit greatly improved photo-to-dark current ratio and photoelectric conversion efficiency, with enhancement ratios of 199.7% and 54.3% compared with the sample without Au NPs, respectively. We attribute the observations mainly to optical effects of LSPs, and the effects of the corrugated Au electrode on light reflection are also discussed.

  14. Self-healing of sandwich structures with a grid stiffened shape memory polymer syntactic foam core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Manu; Li, Guoqiang

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, a new sandwich with an orthogrid stiffened shape memory polymer (SMP) based syntactic foam core was proposed, fabricated, programmed, impacted, healed (sealed), and compression tested, for the purposes of healing impact damage repeatedly and almost autonomously. Two prestrain levels (3% and 20%), two impact energy levels (30.0 and 53.3 J), and two recovery (healing) conditions (2D confined and 3D confined) were employed in this paper. Up to seven impact-healing cycles were conducted. Macroscopic and microscopic damage-healing observation and analysis were implemented. Residual strength was evaluated using an anti-buckling compression test fixture. It was found that the healing efficiency was over 100% for almost all the impact-healing cycles; programming using 20% prestrain led to higher residual strength than that with 3% prestrain; 3D confined recovery resulted in higher residual strength than 2D confined recovery; and as the impact energy increased, the healing efficiency slightly decreased.

  15. Experimental investigation of graphite/polyimide sandwich panels in edgewise compression. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, C. J.

    1980-01-01

    The local and general buckling of graphite/polyimide sandwich panels simply supported along all four edges and loaded in uniaxial edgewise compression is investigated. Material properties of sandwich panel constituents (adhesive and facings) were determined from flatwise tension and sandwich beam flexure tests. An adhesive bond study resulted in the selection of a suitable cure cycle for FM 34 polyimide film adhesive and, a bonding technique using a liquid cell edge version of that adhesive resulted in considerable mass savings. Tensile and compressive material properties of the facings, quasiisotropic, symmetric, laminates (0, +45,90,-45)s of Celion/PMR-15, were determined at 116, R.T., and 589 K (-250, R.T., and 600 F) usng the sandwich beam flexure test method. Results indicate the Gr/PI is a usable structural material for short term use at temperatures as high as 589 K (600 F). Buckling specimens were 1006.5 sq cm. 156 sq in., had quasiisotropic symmetric facings (0, + or - 45,90)s and a glass/polyimide honeycomb core (HRH-327-3/8-4).

  16. Morphing nacelle inlet lip with pneumatic actuators and a flexible nano composite sandwich panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulsine Ozdemir, Nazli; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Craciun, Monica; Remillat, Chrystel; Lira, Cristian; Jagessur, Yogesh; Da Rocha-Schmidt, Luiz

    2015-12-01

    We present a hybrid pneumatic/flexible sandwich structure with thermoplastic (TP) nanocomposite skins to enable the morphing of a nacelle inlet lip. The design consists of pneumatic inflatables as actuators and a flexible sandwich panel that morphs under variable pressure combinations to adapt different flight conditions and save fuel. The sandwich panel forms the outer layer of the nacelle inlet lip. It is lightweight, compliant and impact resistant with no discontinuities, and consists of graphene-doped thermoplastic polyurethane (G/TPU) skins that are supported by an aluminium Flex-core honeycomb in the middle, with near zero in-plane Poisson’s ratio behaviour. A test rig for a reduced-scale demonstrator was designed and built to test the prototype of morphing nacelle with custom-made pneumatic actuators. The output force and the deflections of the experimental demonstrator are verified with the internal pressures of the actuators varying from 0 to 0.41 MPa. The results show the feasibility and promise of the hybrid inflatable/nanocomposite sandwich panel for morphing nacelle airframes.

  17. Mechanical and thermal buckling analysis of sandwich panels under different edge conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.

    1993-01-01

    By using the Rayleigh-Ritz method of minimizing the total potential energy of a structural system, combined load (mechanical or thermal load) buckling equations are established for orthotropic rectangular sandwich panels supported under four different edge conditions. Two-dimensional buckling interaction curves and three dimensional buckling interaction surfaces are constructed for high-temperature honeycomb-core sandwich panels supported under four different edge conditions. The interaction surfaces provide easy comparison of the panel buckling strengths and the domains of symmetrical and antisymmetrical buckling associated with the different edge conditions. Thermal buckling curves of the sandwich panels also are presented. The thermal buckling conditions for the cases with and without thermal moments were found to be identical for the small deformation theory. In sandwich panels, the effect of transverse shear is quite large, and by neglecting the transverse shear effect, the buckling loads could be overpredicted considerably. Clamping of the edges could greatly increase buckling strength more in compression than in shear.

  18. An analytical and experimental investigation of sandwich composites subjected to low-velocity impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Todd Alan

    1999-12-01

    This study involves an experimental and analytical investigation of low-velocity impact phenomenon in sandwich composite structures. The analytical solution of a three-dimensional finite-geometry multi-layer specially orthotropic panel subjected to static and transient transverse loading cases is presented. The governing equations of the static and dynamic formulations are derived from Reissner's functional and solved by enforcing the continuity of traction and displacement components between adjacent layers. For the dynamic loading case, the governing equations are solved by applying Fourier or Laplace transformation in time. Additionally, the static solution is extended to solve the contact problem between the sandwich laminate and a rigid sphere. An iterative method is employed to determine the sphere's unknown contact area and pressure distribution. A failure criterion is then applied to the sandwich laminate's stress and strain field to predict impact damage. The analytical accuracy of the present study is verified through comparisons with finite element models, other analyses, and through experimentation. Low-velocity impact tests were conducted to characterize the type and extent of the damage observed in a variety of sandwich configurations with graphite/epoxy face sheets and foam or honeycomb cores. Correlation of the residual indentation and cross-sectional views of the impacted specimens provides a criterion for the extent of damage. Quasi-static indentation tests are also performed and show excellent agreement when compared with the analytical predictions. Finally, piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVF2) film sensors are found to be effective in detecting low-velocity impact.

  19. Spacecraft Shielding: An Experimental Comparison Between Open Cell Aluminium Foam Core Sandwich Panel Structures and Whipple Shielding.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasini, D. L. S.; Price, M. C.; Burchell, M. J.; Cole, M. J.

    2013-09-01

    Spacecraft shielding is generally provided by metallic plates in a Whipple shield type configuration [1] where possible. However, mission restrictions such as spacecraft payload mass, can prevent the inclusion of a dedicated protective structure for prevention against impact damage from micrometeoroids. Due to this, often the spacecraft's primary structure will act as the de facto shield. This is commonly an aluminium honeycomb backed with either glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP) or aluminium faceplates [2]. Such materials are strong, lightweight and relatively cheap due to their abundance used within the aerospace industry. However, these materials do not offer the best protection (per unit weight) against hypervelocity impact damage. A new material for shielding (porous aluminium foam [3]) is suggested for low risk space missions. Previous studies by NASA [4] have been performed to test this new material against hypervelocity impacts using spherical aluminium projectiles. This showed its potential for protection for satellites in Earth orbit, against metallic space debris. Here we demonstrate the material's protective capabilities against micrometeoroids, using soda-lime glass spheres as projectiles to accurately gauge its potential with relation to silicatious materials, such as micrometeoroids and natural solar system debris. This is useful for spacecraft missions beyond Earth orbit where solar system materials are the dominant threat (via hypervelocity impacts) to the spacecraft, rather than manmade debris.

  20. Mechanically and chemically robust sandwich-structured C@Si@C nanotube array Li-ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinyun; Li, Nan; Goodman, Matthew D; Zhang, Hui Gang; Epstein, Eric S; Huang, Bo; Pan, Zeng; Kim, Jinwoo; Choi, Jun Hee; Huang, Xingjiu; Liu, Jinhuai; Hsia, K Jimmy; Dillon, Shen J; Braun, Paul V

    2015-02-24

    Stability and high energy densities are essential qualities for emerging battery electrodes. Because of its high specific capacity, silicon has been considered a promising anode candidate. However, the several-fold volume changes during lithiation and delithiation leads to fractures and continuous formation of an unstable solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer, resulting in rapid capacity decay. Here, we present a carbon-silicon-carbon (C@Si@C) nanotube sandwich structure that addresses the mechanical and chemical stability issues commonly associated with Si anodes. The C@Si@C nanotube array exhibits a capacity of ∼2200 mAh g(-1) (∼750 mAh cm(-3)), which significantly exceeds that of a commercial graphite anode, and a nearly constant Coulombic efficiency of ∼98% over 60 cycles. In addition, the C@Si@C nanotube array gives much better capacity and structure stability compared to the Si nanotubes without carbon coatings, the ZnO@C@Si@C nanorods, a Si thin film on Ni foam, and C@Si and Si@C nanotubes. In situ SEM during cycling shows that the tubes expand both inward and outward upon lithiation, as well as elongate, and then revert back to their initial size and shape after delithiation, suggesting stability during volume changes. The mechanical modeling indicates the overall plastic strain in a nanotube is much less than in a nanorod, which may significantly reduce low-cycle fatigue. The sandwich-structured nanotube design is quite general, and may serve as a guide for many emerging anode and cathode systems. PMID:25639798

  1. Wax Reinforces Honeycomb During Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towell, Timothy W.; Fahringer, David T.; Vasquez, Peter; Scheidegger, Alan P.

    1995-01-01

    Method of machining on conventional metal lathe devised for precise cutting of axisymmetric contours on honeycomb cores made of composite (matrix/fiber) materials. Wax filling reinforces honeycomb walls against bending and tearing while honeycomb being contoured on lathe. Innovative method of machining on lathe involves preparation in which honeycomb is placed in appropriate fixture and the fixture is then filled with molten water-soluble wax. Number of different commercial waxes have been tried.

  2. Extruded ceramic honeycomb and method

    DOEpatents

    Day, J. Paul

    1995-04-04

    Extruded low-expansion ceramic honeycombs comprising beta-spodumene solid solution as the principal crystal phase and with less than 7 weight percent of included mullite are produced by compounding an extrusion batch comprising a lithium aluminosilicate glass powder and a clay additive, extruding a green honeycomb body from the batch, and drying and firing the green extruded cellular honeycomb to crystallize the glass and clay into a low-expansion spodumene ceramic honeycomb body.

  3. Compressive Strength of Stainless-Steel Sandwiches at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathauser, Eldon E.; Pride, Richard A.

    1959-01-01

    Experimental results are presented from crippling tests of stainless-steel sandwich specimens in the temperature range from 80 F to 1,200 F. The specimens included resistance-welded 17-7 PH stainless-steel sandwiches with single-corrugated cores, type 301 stainless-steel sandwiches with double-corrugated cores, and brazed 17-7 PH stainless-steel sandwiches with honeycomb cores. The experimental strengths are compared with predicted buckling and crippling strengths. The crippling strengths were predicted from the calculated maximum strength of the individual plate elements of the sandwiches and from a correlation procedure which gives the elevated-temperature crippling strength when the experimental room-temperature crippling strengths are known. Photographs of some of the tested specimens are included to show the modes of failure.

  4. Phononic band gap design in honeycomb lattice with combinations of auxetic and conventional core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sushovan; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Gopalakrishnan, S.

    2016-05-01

    We present a novel design of a honeycomb lattice geometry that uses a seamless combination of conventional and auxetic cores, i.e. elements showing positive and negative Poisson’s ratio. The design is aimed at tuning and improving the band structure of periodic cellular structures. The proposed cellular configurations show a significantly wide band gap at much lower frequencies compared to their pure counterparts, while still retaining their major dynamic features. Different topologies involving both auxetic inclusions in a conventional lattice and conversely hexagonal cellular inclusions in auxetic butterfly lattices are presented. For all these cases the impact of the varying degree of auxeticity on the band structure is evaluated. The proposed cellular designs may offer significant advantages in tuning high-frequency bandgap behaviour, which is relevant to phononics applications. The configurations shown in this paper may be made iso-volumetric and iso-weight to a given regular hexagonal topology, making possible to adapt the hybrid lattices to existing sandwich structures with fixed dimensions and weights. This work also features a comparative study of the wave speeds corresponding to different configurations vis-a vis those of a regular honeycomb to highlight the superior behaviour of the combined hybrid lattice.

  5. An ultra-high sensitivity surface plasmon resonance sensor based on graphene-aluminum-graphene sandwich-like structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hailin; Wu, Leiming; Dai, Xiaoyu; Gao, Yanxia; Xiang, Yuanjiang

    2016-08-01

    An ultra-high sensitivity graphene optical sensor based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is proposed using the graphene-aluminum (Al)-graphene sandwich-like structure. Here, the graphene sheets are introduced for enhancing the SPR and preventing the oxidation. It is found that our proposed graphene optical sensor is 3.4 times more sensitive than the Al-based sensor without the graphene layers. We demonstrate that a higher sensitivity can be obtained at the short wavelength due to the increases of the sensitivity with the decreases of wavelength. Especially, the sensitivity can be enhanced marked by increasing the number of graphene layers, which is totally different from the previous graphene-based optical sensor where the sensitivity is often decreased with the increases of the number of graphene layers.

  6. Entangled Cross-Linked Fibres for an Application as Core Material for Sandwich Structures - Part I: Experimental Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezeix, L.; Poquillon, D.; Bouvet, C.

    2016-02-01

    Entangled cross-linked fibres were studied for an application as core material for sandwich structures. Specimens were produced from carbon, aramid and glass fibres, and cross-links were achieved using epoxy spraying. It was observed that this type of entangled cross-linked fibres could be fabricated without any major technical difficulties. The scope of this paper is to study the effect of some different parameters on the mechanical properties of these materials. Different effects were investigated: effect of fibres length, of fibres nature, of mixing fibres, of carbon skins and of the resin. The first part of this paper deals with the production of these entangled cross-linked fibres. The compression, tension and three point bending tests are detailed in the second part and the results are compared with usual core material currently used in industries.

  7. Impact damage in aircraft composite sandwich panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordasky, Matthew D.

    An experimental study was conducted to develop an improved understanding of the damage caused by runway debris and environmental threats on aircraft structures. The velocities of impacts for stationary aircraft and aircraft under landing and takeoff speeds was investigated. The impact damage by concrete, asphalt, aluminum, hail and rubber sphere projectiles was explored in detail. Additionally, a kinetic energy and momentum experimental study was performed to look at the nature of the impacts in more detail. A method for recording the contact force history of the impact by an instrumented projectile was developed and tested. The sandwich composite investigated was an IM7-8552 unidirectional prepreg adhered to a NOMEXRTM core with an FM300K film adhesive. Impact experiments were conducted with a gas gun built in-house specifically for delivering projectiles to a sandwich composite target in this specic velocity regime (10--140 m/s). The effect on the impact damage by the projectile was investigated by ultrasonic C-scan, high speed camera and scanning electron and optical microscopy. Ultrasonic C-scans revealed the full extent of damage caused by each projectile, while the high speed camera enabled precise projectile velocity measurements that were used for striking velocity, kinetic energy and momentum analyses. Scanning electron and optical images revealed specific features of the panel failure and manufacturing artifacts within the lamina and honeycomb core. The damage of the panels by different projectiles was found to have a similar damage area for equivalent energy levels, except for rubber which had a damage area that increased greatly with striking velocity. Further investigation was taken by kinetic energy and momentum based comparisons of 19 mm diameter stainless steel sphere projectiles in order to examine the dominating damage mechanisms. The sandwich targets were struck by acrylic, aluminum, alumina, stainless steel and tungsten carbide spheres of the

  8. A Disulfide Stabilized β-Sandwich Defines the Structure of a New Cysteine Framework M-Superfamily Conotoxin.

    PubMed

    Kancherla, Aswani K; Meesala, Srinu; Jorwal, Pooja; Palanisamy, Ramasamy; Sikdar, Sujit K; Sarma, Siddhartha P

    2015-08-21

    The structure of a new cysteine framework (-C-CC-C-C-C-) "M"-superfamily conotoxin, Mo3964, shows it to have a β-sandwich structure that is stabilized by inter-sheet cross disulfide bonds. Mo3964 decreases outward K(+) currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons and increases the reversal potential of the NaV1.2 channels. The structure of Mo3964 (PDB ID: 2MW7 ) is constructed from the disulfide connectivity pattern, i.e., 1-3, 2-5, and 4-6, that is hitherto undescribed for the "M"-superfamily conotoxins. The tertiary structural fold has not been described for any of the known conus peptides. NOE (549), dihedral angle (84), and hydrogen bond (28) restraints, obtained by measurement of (h3)JNC' scalar couplings, were used as input for structure calculation. The ensemble of structures showed a backbone root mean square deviation of 0.68 ± 0.18 Å, with 87% and 13% of the backbone dihedral (ϕ, ψ) angles lying in the most favored and additional allowed regions of the Ramachandran map. The conotoxin Mo3964 represents a new bioactive peptide fold that is stabilized by disulfide bonds and adds to the existing repertoire of scaffolds that can be used to design stable bioactive peptide molecules. PMID:25961405

  9. Effect of Porosity Content of Arc-Sprayed Alloy 625 Skins on the Flexural Behavior of Nickel Foam Core Sandwich Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salavati, S.; Pershin, L.; Coyle, T. W.; Mostaghimi, J.

    2015-01-01

    Metallic foam core sandwich structures have been of particular interest for engineering applications in recent decades because of their unique mechanical and physical properties. Thermal spraying techniques have been recently introduced as a novel low-cost method for production of these structures with complex shapes. One of the potential applications of the metallic foam core sandwich structures prepared by thermal spray techniques is as heat shield devices. Open porosity in the microstructure of the coating may allow the cooling efficiency of the heat shield to be improved through the film cooling phenomenon. A modified twin wire-arc spraying process was employed to deposit high temperature resistant alloy 625 coatings with a high percentage of the open porosity. The effect of skin porosity on the mechanical properties (flexural rigidity) of the sandwich structures was studied using a four-point bending test. It was concluded from the four-point bending test results that increase in the porosity content of the coatings leads to decrease in the flexural rigidity of the sandwich panels. The ductility of the porous and conventional arc-sprayed alloy 625 coatings was improved after heat treatment at 1100 °C for 3 h.

  10. Self-assembly of 2D sandwich-structured MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/graphene composites for high-performance lithium storage

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Songmei Wang, Bo; Li, Bin; Liu, Jianhua; Yu, Mei; Wu, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • MFO/GN composites were synthesized by a facile in situ solvothermal approach. • The MFO microspheres are sandwiched between the graphene layers. • Each MFO microsphere is an interstitial cluster of nanoparticles. • The MFO/GN electrode exhibits an enhanced cyclability for Li-ion batteries anodes. - Abstract: In this study, two-dimensional (2D) sandwich-structured MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/graphene (MFO/GN) composites are synthesized by a facile in situ solvothermal approach, using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as cationic surfactant. As a consequence, the nanocomposites of MFO/GN self-assembled into a 2D sandwich structure, in which the interstitial cluster structure of microsphere-type MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is sandwiched between the graphene layers. This special structure of the MFO/GN composites used as anodes for lithium-ion batteries will be favorable for the maximum accessible surface of electroactive materials, fast diffusion of lithium ions and migration of electron, and elastomeric space to accommodate volume changes during the discharge–charge processes. The as-synthesized MFO/GN composites deliver a high specific reversible capacity of 987.95 mA h g{sup −1} at a current density of 200 mA g{sup −1}, a good capacity retention of 69.27% after 80 cycles and excellent rate performance for lithium storage.

  11. Synthetic magnetic fluxes on the honeycomb lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Gorecka, Agnieszka; Gremaud, Benoit; Miniatura, Christian

    2011-08-15

    We devise experimental schemes that are able to mimic uniform and staggered magnetic fluxes acting on ultracold two-electron atoms, such as ytterbium atoms, propagating in a honeycomb lattice. The atoms are first trapped into two independent state-selective triangular lattices and then further exposed to a suitable configuration of resonant Raman laser beams. These beams induce hops between the two triangular lattices and make atoms move in a honeycomb lattice. Atoms traveling around each unit cell of this honeycomb lattice pick up a nonzero phase. In the uniform case, the artificial magnetic flux sustained by each cell can reach about two flux quanta, thereby realizing a cold-atom analog of the Harper model with its notorious Hofstadter's butterfly structure. Different condensed-matter phenomena such as the relativistic integer and fractional quantum Hall effects, as observed in graphene samples, could be targeted with this scheme.

  12. Method and apparatus for extruding large honeycombs

    SciTech Connect

    Kragle, Harry A.; Lambert, David W.; Lipp, G. Daniel

    1996-09-03

    Extrusion die apparatus and an extrusion method for extruding large-cross-section honeycomb structures from plasticized ceramic batch materials are described, the apparatus comprising a die having a support rod connected to its central portion, the support rod being anchored to support means upstream of the die. The support rod and support means act to limit die distortion during extrusion, reducing die strain and stress to levels permitting large honeycomb extrusion without die failure. Dies of optimal thickness are disclosed which reduce the maximum stresses exerted on the die during extrusion.

  13. Bismaleimide resins for flame resistant honeycomb sandwich panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A 60 kg batch of Resin M751 was produced in pilot plant scale. The resin was delivered to the prepreg company as an NMP solution. 100 kg of glass-fabric prepregs were fabricated. Prepreg characteristics and curing cycles for laminate fabrication were provided. A new batch of Resin M756 (Code M756 - 2) was synthesized.

  14. Metastable honeycomb SrTiO3/SrIrO3 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, T. J.; Ryu, S.; Zhou, H.; Xie, L.; Podkaminer, J. P.; Ma, Y.; Irwin, J.; Pan, X. Q.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Eom, C. B.

    2016-04-01

    Recent theory predictions of exotic band topologies in (111) honeycomb perovskite SrIrO3 layers sandwiched between SrTiO3 have garnered much attention in the condensed matter physics and materials communities. However, perovskite SrIrO3 film growth in the (111) direction remains unreported, as efforts to synthesize pure SrIrO3 on (111) perovskite substrates have yielded films with monoclinic symmetry rather than the perovskite structure required by theory predictions. In this study, we report the synthesis of ultra-thin metastable perovskite SrIrO3 films capped with SrTiO3 grown on (111) SrTiO3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The atomic structure of the ultra-thin films was examined with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), which suggests a perovskite layering distinct from the bulk SrIrO3 monoclinic phase. In-plane 3-fold symmetry for the entire heterostructure was confirmed using synchrotron surface X-ray diffraction to measure symmetry equivalent crystal truncation rods. Our findings demonstrate the ability to stabilize (111) honeycomb perovskite SrIrO3, which provides an experimental avenue to probe the phenomena predicted for this material system.

  15. Low Velocity Blunt Impact on Lightweight Composite Sandwich Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Monica Kar

    There is an increased desire to incorporate more composite sandwich structures into modern aircrafts. Because in-service aircrafts routinely experience impact damage during maintenance due to ground vehicle collision, dropped equipment, or foreign object damage (FOD) impact, it is necessary to understand their impact characteristics, particularly when blunt impact sources create internal damage with little or no external visibility. The objective of this investigation is to explore damage formation in lightweight composite sandwich panels due to low-velocity impacts of variable tip radius and energy level. The correlation between barely visible external dent formation and internal core damage was explored as a function of impact tip radius. A pendulum impactor was used to impact composite sandwich panels having honeycomb core while held in a 165 mm square window fixture. The panels were impacted by hardened steel tips with radii of 12.7, 25.4, 50.8, and 76.2 mm at energy levels ranging from 2 to 14 J. Experimental data showed little dependence of external dent depth on tip radius at very low energies of 2 to 6 J, and thus, there was also little variation in visibility due to tip radius. Four modes of internal core damage were identified. Internal damage span and depth were dependent on impact tip radius. Damage depth was also radius-dependent, but stabilized at constant depth independent of kinetic energy. Internal damage span increased with increasing impact energy, but not with increasing tip radius, suggesting a relationship between maximum damage tip radius with core density/size.

  16. Combined-load buckling behavior of metal-matrix composite sandwich panels under different thermal environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Jackson, Raymond H.

    1991-01-01

    Combined compressive and shear buckling analysis was conducted on flat rectangular sandwich panels with the consideration of transverse shear effects of the core. The sandwich panel is fabricated with titanium honeycomb core and laminated metal matrix composite face sheets. The results show that the square panel has the highest combined load buckling strength, and that the buckling strength decreases sharply with the increases of both temperature and panel aspect ratio. The effect of layup (fiber orientation) on the buckling strength of the panels was studied in detail. The metal matrix composite sandwich panel was much more efficient than the sandwich panel with nonreinforced face sheets and had the same specific weight.

  17. Carbon fiber reinforced composites: their structural and thermal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jingquan; Yang, Dehua

    2010-07-01

    More and more astronomical telescopes use carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFRP). CFRP has high stiffness, high strength, and low thermal expansion. However, they are not isotropic in performance. Their properties are direction dependent. This paper discusses, in detail, the structural and thermal properties of carbon fiber structure members, such as tubes, plates, and honeycomb sandwich structures. Comparisons are provided both from the structural point of view and from the thermal point of view.

  18. Elimination of photon quenching by a transition layer to fabricate a quenching-shield sandwich structure for 800 nm excited upconversion luminescence of Nd3+-sensitized nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yeteng; Tian, Gan; Gu, Zhanjun; Yang, Yijun; Gu, Lin; Zhao, Yuliang; Ma, Ying; Yao, Jiannian

    2014-05-01

    Nd3+-sensitized quenching-shield sandwich-structured upconversion nanoparticles are reported, which exhibit highly efficient upconversion photoluminescence under excitation by an 800 nm continuous-wave laser. The transition-layer structure is essential to bridge energy transfer from the sensitizer to the activator and simultaneously block energy back-transfer from the activator to the sensitizer. These 800 nm-excited upconversion nanoparticles are a key step toward the development of upconversion nanophosphors for biological applications. PMID:24338994

  19. Crystal Structure of Full-length Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv Glycogen Branching Enzyme; Insights of N-Terminal [beta]-Sandwich in Sustrate Specifity and Enzymatic Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Kuntal; Kumar, Shiva; Sharma, Shikha; Garg, Saurabh Kumar; Alam, Mohammad Suhail; Xu, H. Eric; Agrawal, Pushpa; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam

    2010-07-13

    The open reading frame Rv1326c of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) H37Rv encodes for an {alpha}-1,4-glucan branching enzyme (MtbGlgB, EC 2.4.1.18, Uniprot entry Q10625). This enzyme belongs to glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 13 and catalyzes the branching of a linear glucose chain during glycogenesis by cleaving a 1 {yields} 4 bond and making a new 1 {yields} 6 bond. Here, we show the crystal structure of full-length MtbGlgB (MtbGlgBWT) at 2.33-{angstrom} resolution. MtbGlgBWT contains four domains: N1 {beta}-sandwich, N2 {beta}-sandwich, a central ({beta}/{alpha}){sub 8} domain that houses the catalytic site, and a C-terminal {beta}-sandwich. We have assayed the amylase activity with amylose and starch as substrates and the glycogen branching activity using amylose as a substrate for MtbGlgBWT and the N1 domain-deleted (the first 108 residues deleted) Mtb{Delta}108GlgB protein. The N1 {beta}-sandwich, which is formed by the first 105 amino acids and superimposes well with the N2 {beta}-sandwich, is shown to have an influence in substrate binding in the amylase assay. Also, we have checked and shown that several GH13 family inhibitors are ineffective against MtbGlgBWT and Mtb{Delta}108GlgB. We propose a two-step reaction mechanism, for the amylase activity (1 {yields} 4 bond breakage) and isomerization (1 {yields} 6 bond formation), which occurs in the same catalytic pocket. The structural and functional properties of MtbGlgB and Mtb{Delta}108GlgB are compared with those of the N-terminal 112-amino acid-deleted Escherichia coli GlgB (EC{Delta}112GlgB).

  20. Time-frequency distribution decomposition with applications to recognize the looseness state of the viscoelastic sandwich structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wang; Zhang, Zhousou; Qu, Jinxiu; Sun, Chuang

    2016-07-01

    In general, a vibration signal consists of several frequency modulation (FM) components. Every component contains different information, and can be characterized by its instantaneous amplitude (IA) and instantaneous phase (IP). In engineering applications, conventional time-frequency analysis methods and signal decomposition methods have shown their power in investigating features of the vibration signal. However, they are limited in resolution and it is hard to analyze these FM components individually. To overcome these deficiencies, a novel signal decomposition algorithm, named time-frequency distribution decomposition (TFDD), is proposed in this paper, which reconstructs one FM component of the signal at a time by estimating its IP and IA. The IA and IP are approximated by two polynomial functions respectively. One important advantage of TFDD is that it can directly extract the component we are interested in. Therefore, we can analyze the key component of the signal with little influence from other components. This will help us to characterize the vibration signal more deeply. Furthermore, it is very stable to noise. This is conductive to protecting the information of the vibration signal. The effectiveness of the TFDD is validated by a numerical simulation and the study of the vibration response signal collected from a viscoelastic sandwich structure (VSS). From the value of permutation entropy of the component extracted by TFDD, the looseness state of the VSS is recognized.

  1. Flexible transparent PES/silver nanowires/PET sandwich-structured film for high-efficiency electromagnetic interference shielding.

    PubMed

    Hu, Mingjun; Gao, Jiefeng; Dong, Yucheng; Li, Kai; Shan, Guangcun; Yang, Shiliu; Li, Robert Kwok-Yiu

    2012-05-01

    We have developed a kind of high-yield synthesis strategy for silver nanowires by a two-step injection polyol method. Silver nanowires and polyethylene oxide (PEO) (M(w) = 900,000) were prepared in a homogeneous-coating ink. Wet composite films with different thicknesses were fabricated on a PET substrate by drawn-down rod-coating technology. Silver nanowires on PET substrates present a homogeneous distribution under the assistance of PEO. Then PEO was thermally removed in situ at a relatively low temperature attributed to its special thermal behavior under atmospheric conditions. As-prepared metallic nanowire films on PET substrates show excellent stability and a good combination of conductivity and light transmission. A layer of transparent poly(ethersulfones) (PESs) was further coated on silver nanowire networks by the same coating method to prevent the shedding and corrosion of silver nanowires. Sandwich-structured flexible transparent films were obtained and displayed excellent electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness. PMID:22533864

  2. Honeycomb artificial spin ice at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeissler, Katharina; Chadha, Megha; Cohen, Lesley; Branford, Will

    2015-03-01

    Artificial spin ice is a macroscopic playground for magnetically frustrated systems. It consists of a geometrically ordered but magnetically frustrated arrangement of ferromagnetic macros spins, e.g. an arrangement of single domain ferromagnetic nanowires on a honeycomb lattice. Permalloy and cobalt which have critical temperature scales far above 290 K, are commonly used in the construction of such systems. Previous measurements have shown unusual features in the magnetotransport signature of cobalt honeycomb artificial spin ice at temperatures below 50 K which are due to changes in the artificial spin ice's magnetic reversal. In that case, the artificial spin ice bars were 1 micron long, 100 nm wide and 20 nm thick. Here we explore the low temperature magnetic behavior of honeycomb artificial spin ice structures with a variety of bar dimensions, indirectly via electrical transport, as well as, directly using low temperature magnetic imaging techniques. We discuss the extent to which this change in the magnetic reversal at low temperatures is generic to the honeycomb artificial spin ice geometry and whether the bar dimensions have an influence on its onset temperature. The EPSRC (Grant No. EP/G004765/1; Grant No. EP/L504786/1) and the Leverhulme Trust (Grant No. RPG 2012-692) funded this scientific work.

  3. Develop, demonstrate, and verify large area composite structural bonding with polyimide adhesives. [adhesively bonding graphite-polyimide structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhombal, B. D.; Wykes, D. H.; Hong, K. C.; Stenersen, A. A.

    1982-01-01

    The technology required to produce graphite-polyimide structural components with operational capability at 598 K (600 F) is considered. A series of polyimide adhesives was screened for mechanical and physical properties and processibility in fabricating large midplane bonded panels and honeycomb sandwich panels in an effort to fabricate a structural test component of the space shuttle aft body flap. From 41 formulations, LaRC-13, FM34B-18, and a modified LaRC-13 adhesive were selected for further evaluation. The LaRC-13 adhesive was rated as the best of the three adhesives in terms of availability, cost, processibility, properties, and ability to produce void fee large area (12" x 12") midplane bonds. Surface treatments and primers for the adhesives were evaluated and processes were developed for the fabrication of honeycomb sandwich panels of very good quality which was evidenced by rupture in the honeycomb core rather than in the facesheet bands on flatwise tensile strength testing. The fabrication of the adhesively bonded honeycomb sandwich cover panels, ribs, and leading edge covers of Celion graphite/LARC-160 polyimide laminates is described.

  4. Experimental investigation of graphite/polyimide sandwich panels in edgewise compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, C. J.

    1980-01-01

    The local and general buckling behavior of graphite/polyimide sandwich panels simply supported along all four edges and loaded in uniaxial edgewise compression was investigated. Material properties of adhesive and facings were determined from flatwise tension and sandwich beam flexure tests. Tensile and compressive material properties of the facings were determined at 116, R.T., and 589 K (-250, R.T., and 600 F) using the sandwich beam flexure test method. Results indicate that Gr/PI is a usable structural material for short term use at temperatures as high as 589 K (600 F). Buckling specimens were 30.5 X 33.0 cm (12 x 13 in.), had quasi-isotropic symmetric facings and a glass/polyimide honeycomb core. Core thicknesses varied and three panels of each thickness were tested in edgewise compression at room temperature to investigate failure modes and corresponding buckling formulas. Specimens 0.635 cm (0.25 in.) thick failed by overall buckling at loads close to the analytically predicted buckling load; all other panels failed by face wrinkling. Results of the winkling tests indicate that several buckling formulas were unconservative and therefore not suitable for design purposes; recommended wrinkling equations are presented.

  5. Metallic behavior in low-dimensional honeycomb SiB crystals: A first-principles prediction of atomic structure and electronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansson, Anders; de Brito Mota, F.; Rivelino, Roberto

    2012-11-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the atomic and electronic structure of a two-dimensional monolayer of boron and silicon elements within periodic density functional theory. The proposed h-SiB sheet is a structural analog of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and exhibits a good structural stability, compared to the structure of silicene. The calculated cohesive energy of an infinite sheet of h-SiB is of 4.71 eV/atom, whereas the corresponding value for silicene is 4.09 eV/atom. However, h-SiB sheets are not able to be stacked into a three-dimensional graphitelike structure, leading to a new hexagonal phase. On the other hand, h-SiB is predicted to roll up into single-walled silicon boron nanotubes (SWSiBNTs) of which we examine the electronic properties of some zigzag and armchair tubes. The strain energy of the SWSiBNTs are four to five times lower than the strain energy of the corresponding carbon nanotubes. In contrast to more polar honeycomb monolayers, the h-SiB sheet is not semiconducting or semimetallic. It has a delocalized charge density like graphene, but the π band and the two highest occupied σ bands are only partly filled. This results in a high density of states around the Fermi level and a metallic behavior of the h-SiB sheet. Interestingly, all the low-dimensional h-SiB-based structures, including the smallest to the largest stable tubes studied here, are predicted to form metallic systems.

  6. Damage tolerance of composite sandwich structures subjected to projectile impact. [of low velocity foreign object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, A. V.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of low velocity projectile impact on the strength carrying ability of secondary aerospace structural components fabricated with graphite/epoxy composite materials. The preload and the impact energy combinations necessary to cause catastrophic failure were determined. Those specimens that survived the projectile impact were evaluated for the residual strength.

  7. Circuit models for Salisbury screens made from unidirectional carbon fiber composite sandwich structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Elliot J.; Lenzing, Erik H.; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2016-05-01

    Carbon fiber composite materials have many useful structural material properties. The electromagnetic perfor- mance of these materials is of great interest for future applications. The work presented in this paper deals with the construction of Salisbury screen microwave absorbers made from unidirectional carbon fiber composite sand- wich structures. Specifically, absorbers centered at 7.25 GHz and 12.56 GHz are investigated. Circuit models are created to match the measured performance of the carbon fiber Salisbury screens using a genetic algorithm to extract lumped element circuit values. The screens presented in this paper utilize unidirectional carbon fiber sheets in place of the resistive sheet utilized in the classic Salisbury screen. The theory, models, prototypes, and measurements of these absorbers are discussed.

  8. Impact energy absorption of sandwich plates with crushable core

    SciTech Connect

    Wierzbicki, T.; Fatt, M.H.; Alvarez, A.L.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to derive a closed-form solution for deformations, resisting forces, and energy absorption of a metal honeycomb with face plating subjected to localize static and dynamic loads. Two load cases are considered: a quasi-static indentation by a circular punch and dynamic impact by a cylindrical projectile with a velocity in the range of 20 {divided_by} 40 m/sec. The present analysis is building-up on the earlier solution obtained by one of the authors in which the crash resistance of a bare honeycomb was predicted from a known geometry of the cell and material properties. The face plating increases crush resistance of the honeycomb by spreading deformation outside the loading area and invoking considerable membrane action in the plate. Each of the above contributions is quantified and is shown that the resisting force and the radial extent of deformation are increasing functions of punch displacement. The present analytical predictions are compared with measurements taken on seven impact tests on sandwich plates, reported by Goldsmith and Sackman. A correlation of final plate deflections under the projectile was very good for lower impact velocities (less that 6.3% error) and good for higher impact velocities (between 2.08% and 8.9% error). This exceeds the accuracy of a purely numerical solution presented. Three mechanisms limiting the energy absorbed by a sandwich plate are identified: densification of the honeycomb, punch-through shear of the facing plates, and reaching deformation of the outer boundary of the sandwich plate. The present theory provides the necessary background information for optimum designing of sandwich plates against impact loads.

  9. Three-dimensional honeycomb-like structured zero-valent iron/chitosan composite foams for effective removal of inorganic arsenic in water.

    PubMed

    Su, Fengchao; Zhou, Hongjian; Zhang, Yunxia; Wang, Guozhong

    2016-09-15

    A facile freeze-drying method was presented to fabricate three dimensional (3D) honeycomb-like structured nanoscale zero-valent iron/chitosan composite foams (ICCFs) for effective removal of inorganic arsenic in water. It was found that freezing temperature has important influence on the formation of 3D network structure of ICCFs. The ICCFs obtained at freeze temperature of -80°C exhibits oriented porous structure with good mechanical property than that at -20°C, thus improved excellent removal capability of As(III) and As(V) up to 114.9mgg(-1) and 86.87mgg(-1), respectively. Further, the adsorption kinetics of ICCFs on As(III) and As(V) can be described by pseudo-second order model and their adsorption isotherms follow Langmuir adsorption model. The superior removal performance of ICCFs on As(III) and As(V) can be ascribed to its oriented porous structure with abundant adsorption active sites resulted from nZVI and O, N-containing functional groups in ICCFs. Importantly, it was found that the O, N-containing functional groups of chitosan in ICCFs can adequately bind with the dissolved Fe(3+) ions from oxidation of nZVI to form Fe(3+)-Chitosan complex during removal of As(III) and As(V), thus effectively avoiding the dissolved Fe(3+) ions into solution to produce secondary pollution. A possible adsorption-coupled reduction mechanism of ICCFs on As(III) and As(V) was also proposed based on the experimental results. We believe that this work would be helpful to develop low-cost and abundant chitosan-based materials as high performance adsorbents for environmental remediation applications. PMID:27362398

  10. Study of compression-loaded and impact-damaged structurally efficient graphite-thermoplastic trapezoidal-corrugation sandwich and semisandwich panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jegley, Dawn C.

    1992-01-01

    The structural efficiency of compression-loaded trapezoidal-corrugation sandwich and semisandwich composite panels is studied to determine their weight savings potential. Sandwich panels with two identical face sheets and a trapezoidal corrugated core between them and semisandwich panels with a corrugation attached to a single skin are considered. An optimization code is used to find the minimum weight designs for critical compressive load levels ranging from 3000 to 24,000 lb/in. Graphite-thermoplastic panels based on the optimal minimum weight designs were fabricated and tested. A finite element analysis of several test specimens was also conducted. The results of the optimization study, the finite element analysis, and the experiments are presented. The results of testing impact damage panels are also discussed.

  11. Holographic nondestructive tests performed on composite samples of ceramic-epoxy-fiberglass sandwich structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, R. L.; Liu, H. K.

    1974-01-01

    When a hologram storing more than one wave is illuminated with coherent light, the reconstructed wave fronts interfere with each other or with any other phase-related wave front derived from the illuminating source. This multiple wave front comparison is called holographic interferometry, and its application is called holographic nondestructive testing (HNDT). The theoretical aspects of HNDT techniques and the sensitivity of the holographic system to the geometrical placement of the optical components are briefly discussed. A unique HNDT system which is mobile and possesses variable sensitivity to stress amplitude is discribed, the experimental evidence of the application of this system to the testing of the hidden debonds in a ceramic-epoxy-fiberglass structure used for sample testing of the radome of the Pershing missile system is presented.

  12. Evaluation of Ceramic Honeycomb Core Compression Behavior at Room Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, Richard K.; Lapointe, Thomas S.

    2013-01-01

    Room temperature flatwise compression tests were conducted on two varieties of ceramic honeycomb core specimens that have potential for high-temperature structural applications. One set of specimens was fabricated using strips of a commercially-available thin-gage "ceramic paper" sheet molded into a hexagonal core configuration. The other set was fabricated by machining honeycomb core directly from a commercially available rigid insulation tile material. This paper summarizes the results from these tests.

  13. Vibrational analysis of rectangular sandwich plates resting on some elastic point supports

    SciTech Connect

    Ichinomiya, Osamu; Maruyama, Koichi; Sekine, Kouji

    1995-11-01

    An approximate solution of forced-vibration for rectangular sandwich plate resting on some elastic point supports is presented. The sandwich plate has thin, anisotropic composite laminated faces and a thick orthotropic core. The simplified sandwich plate model is used in the analysis. The governing equation of elastically point supported rectangular sandwich plate is obtained by using the Lagrange equation. The steady state response solution to a sinusoidally varying point force is also derived. The response curves of rectangular sandwich plates having CFRP laminated faces and aluminum honeycomb core is calculated. Application examples illustrate the effects of laminate lay-up of face sheets, core material properties and core thickness ratio on the vibration characteristics of rectangular sandwich plate.

  14. Development and Evaluation of Stitched Sandwich Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Larry E.; Adams, Daniel O.; Reeder, James R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This study explored the feasibility and potential benefits provided by the addition of through-the-thickness reinforcement to sandwich structures. Through-the-thickness stitching is proposed to increase the interlaminar strength and damage tolerance of composite sandwich structures. A low-cost, out-of-autoclave processing method was developed to produce composite sandwich panels with carbon fiber face sheets, a closed-cell foam core, and through-the-thickness Kevlar stitching. The sandwich panels were stitched in a dry preform state, vacuum bagged, and infiltrated using Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) processing. For comparison purposes, unstitched sandwich panels were produced using the same materials and manufacturing methodology. Test panels were produced initially at the University of Utah and later at NASA Langley Research Center. Four types of mechanical tests were performed: flexural testing, flatwise tensile testing, core shear testing, and edgewise compression testing. Drop-weight impact testing followed by specimen sectioning was performed to characterize the damage resistance of stitched sandwich panels. Compression after impact (CAI) testing was performed to evaluate the damage tolerance of the sandwich panels. Results show significant increases in the flexural stiffness and strength, out-of-plane tensile strength, core shear strength, edgewise compression strength, and compression-after-impact strength of stitched sandwich structures.

  15. Hierarchical Sandwich-Like Structure of Ultrafine N-Rich Porous Carbon Nanospheres Grown on Graphene Sheets as Superior Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhiqiang; He, Ziyang; Feng, Xuhui; Xu, Wangwang; Cui, Xiaodan; Zhang, Jiuhong; Yan, Cheng; Carreon, Moises A; Liu, Zheng; Wang, Ying

    2016-04-27

    A sandwich-like, graphene-based porous nitrogen-doped carbon (PNCs@Gr) has been prepared through facile pyrolysis of zeolitic imidazolate framework nanoparticles in situ grown on graphene oxide (GO) (ZIF-8@GO). Such sandwich-like nanostructure can be used as anode material in lithium ion batteries, exhibiting remarkable capacities, outstanding rate capability, and cycling performances that are some of the best results among carbonaceous electrode materials and exceed most metal oxide-based anode materials derived from metal orgainc frameworks (MOFs). Apart from a high initial capacity of 1378 mAh g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1), this PNCs@Gr electrode can be cycled at high specific currents of 500 and 1000 mA g(-1) with very stable reversible capacities of 1070 and 948 mAh g(-1) to 100 and 200 cycles, respectively. At a higher specific current of 5000 mA g(-1), the electrode still delivers a reversible capacity of over 530 mAh g(-1) after 400 cycles, showing a capacity retention of as high as 84.4%. Such an impressive electrochemical performance is ascribed to the ideal combination of hierarchically porous structure, a highly conductive graphene platform, and high-level nitrogen doping in the sandwich-like PNCs@Gr electrode obtained via in situ synthesis. PMID:27071473

  16. Efficient excitation of photoluminescence in a two-dimensional waveguide consisting of a quantum dot-polymer sandwich-type structure.

    PubMed

    Suárez, I; Larrue, A; Rodríguez-Cantó, P J; Almuneau, G; Abargues, R; Chirvony, V S; Martínez-Pastor, J P

    2014-08-15

    In this Letter, we study a new kind of organic polymer waveguide numerically and experimentally by combining an ultrathin (10-50 nm) layer of compactly packed CdSe/ZnS core/shell colloidal quantum dots (QDs) sandwiched between two cladding poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) layers. When a pumping laser beam is coupled into the waveguide edge, light is mostly confined around the QD layer, improving the efficiency of excitation. Moreover, the absence of losses in the claddings allows the propagation of the pumping laser beam along the entire waveguide length; hence, a high-intensity photoluminescence (PL) is produced. Furthermore, a novel fabrication technology is developed to pattern the PMMA into ridge structures by UV lithography in order to provide additional light confinement. The sandwich-type waveguide is analyzed in comparison to a similar one formed by a PMMA film homogeneously doped by the same QDs. A 100-fold enhancement in the waveguided PL is found for the sandwich-type case due to the higher concentration of QDs inside the waveguide. PMID:25121919

  17. Honeycomb lattices with defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Meryl A.; Ziff, Robert M.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we introduce a variant of the honeycomb lattice in which we create defects by randomly exchanging adjacent bonds, producing a random tiling with a distribution of polygon edges. We study the percolation properties on these lattices as a function of the number of exchanged bonds using an alternative computational method. We find the site and bond percolation thresholds are consistent with other three-coordinated lattices with the same standard deviation in the degree distribution of the dual; here we can produce a continuum of lattices with a range of standard deviations in the distribution. These lattices should be useful for modeling other properties of random systems as well as percolation.

  18. Hidden symmetry and protection of Dirac points on the honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Jing-Min; Chen, Wei

    2015-12-01

    The honeycomb lattice possesses a novel energy band structure, which is characterized by two distinct Dirac points in the Brillouin zone, dominating most of the physical properties of the honeycomb structure materials. However, up till now, the origin of the Dirac points is unclear yet. Here, we discover a hidden symmetry on the honeycomb lattice and prove that the existence of Dirac points is exactly protected by such hidden symmetry. Furthermore, the moving and merging of the Dirac points and a quantum phase transition, which have been theoretically predicted and experimentally observed on the honeycomb lattice, can also be perfectly explained by the parameter dependent evolution of the hidden symmetry.

  19. Hidden symmetry and protection of Dirac points on the honeycomb lattice

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jing-Min; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The honeycomb lattice possesses a novel energy band structure, which is characterized by two distinct Dirac points in the Brillouin zone, dominating most of the physical properties of the honeycomb structure materials. However, up till now, the origin of the Dirac points is unclear yet. Here, we discover a hidden symmetry on the honeycomb lattice and prove that the existence of Dirac points is exactly protected by such hidden symmetry. Furthermore, the moving and merging of the Dirac points and a quantum phase transition, which have been theoretically predicted and experimentally observed on the honeycomb lattice, can also be perfectly explained by the parameter dependent evolution of the hidden symmetry. PMID:26639178

  20. Finite Element Analysis of Honeycomb Impact Attenuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Seung-Yong; Choi, Seung-Kyu; Kim, Nohyu

    To participate in Student Formula Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) competitions, it is necessary to build an impact attenuator that would give an average deceleration not to exceed 20g when it runs into a rigid wall. Students can use numerical simulations or experimental test data to show that their car satisfies this safety requirement. A student group to study formula cars at the Korea University of Technology and Education has designed a vehicle to take part in a SAE competition, and a honeycomb structure was adopted as the impact attenuator. In this paper, finite element calculations were carried out to investigate the dynamic behavior of the honeycomb attenuator. Deceleration and deformation behaviors were studied. Effect of the yield strength was checked by comparing the numerical results. ABAQUS/Explicit finite element code was used.

  1. Deflections of anisotropic sandwich beams with variable face sheets and core thicknesses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Chu-Ho

    1994-01-01

    A sandwich construction consists of a low-density core material with high strength face sheets bounded to the top and bottom surfaces. The construction has been widely used in the aerospace and marine industries due to its outstanding characteristics such as noise absorption, weight minimization, heat insulation, and better bending stiffness. In sandwich structures used in high-performance aircraft, the face sheets are often made of fiber-reinforced composite materials and the core is made of honeycomb. The structures may also have variable thickness so as to satisfy aerodynamic requirements. In the stress analysis, the constant-thickness face sheets are usually considered as membrane and the core is assumed to be inextensible but deformable in the thickness direction. The static behavior of variable-thickness, isotropic and homogeneous sandwich beams was successfully studied by employing a constant-thickness theory but allowing stiffnesses to vary in accordance with local thickness variations. It has been recently found in a refined theory that the analyses based on the constant thickness theory locally can lead to significant errors in structural responses if the sandwich beam is thickness-tapered and the cores are deformable in transverse shear. The errors arise mainly from two factors: (1) the transverse shear components of the membrane forces in the face sheets alter the transverse shears carried by the core; and (2) the face-sheet membrane strains arise from transverse shear deformation of the core. In practice the variable thickness may not only exist in core but also in face sheets. The thickness-variations may even be a type of step function. In this case the transverse shear stress in the face sheets and bending stress in the core should be taken into account in the refined theory mentioned. In the present study, energy principles are employed in deriving governing equations for general bending of anisotropic sandwich beams with variable thickness in both

  2. Structure and properties of NaxM2SbO6·yH2O, M=Co(III), Ni(III) honeycomb oxyhydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roudebush, J. H.; Cava, R. J.

    2013-08-01

    The oxyhydrates Na0.85Co2SbO6·1.7H2O and Na0.95Ni2SbO6·1.5H2O were prepared by Br2 oxidation of Na3Co2SbO6 and Na3Ni2SbO6 and exposure to ambient air. Their composition and structure are characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, elemental analysis and powder X-ray diffraction. Both form monolayer hydrates with metal cations (Co or Ni) near the 3+ oxidation state. In the parent materials, MO6 octahedra surround SbO6 units, forming a honeycomb geometry; Rietveld refinement of the hydrate phases indicate that this motif is retained. Magnetic susceptibility plots display paramagnetic behavior and Curie-Weiss fits support the 3+ oxidation state (low spin d6s=0 for Co and low spin d7s=1/2 for Ni). Close inspection of the Ni hydrate’s susceptibility reveals a feature at 6.2 K and a non-linear magnetization at 2 K with no saturation up to 9 T. Heat capacity measurements show a large amount of excess entropy in the Ni hydrate in the 2-20 K temperature range, while the heat capacity of the Co hydrate can be described by a simple lattice contribution. The Ni hydrate sample is easily dehydrated by heating above 100 °C and forms a new Na-deficient phase, Na0.95Ni2SbO6, which is stable at room temperature. Magnetic susceptibility of this phase is consistent with the Ni atom remaining in the 3+ oxidation state after dehydration.

  3. Fastening hardware to honeycomb panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenger, A.

    1979-01-01

    Adhesive bonding reduces likelihood of skin failure due to excessive forces or torques by utilizing an adhesive to honeycomb skin. Concept is useful in other applications of composites such as aircraft, automobiles, and home appliances.

  4. Enhanced Antibacterial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles/Halloysite Nanotubes/Graphene Nanocomposites with Sandwich-Like Structure

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Liang; Zhang, Yatao; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Jindun

    2014-01-01

    A sandwich-like antibacterial reagent (Ag/HNTs/rGO) was constructed through the direct growth of silver nanoparticles on the surface graphene-based HNTs nanosheets. Herein, various nanomaterials were combined by adhesion effect of DOPA after self-polymerization. Ag/HNTs/rGO posses enhanced antibacterial ability against E. coli and S. aureus compared with individual silver nanoparticles, rGO nanosheets or their nanocomposites. PMID:24722502

  5. Enhanced Antibacterial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles/Halloysite Nanotubes/Graphene Nanocomposites with Sandwich-Like Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Liang; Zhang, Yatao; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Jindun

    2014-04-01

    A sandwich-like antibacterial reagent (Ag/HNTs/rGO) was constructed through the direct growth of silver nanoparticles on the surface graphene-based HNTs nanosheets. Herein, various nanomaterials were combined by adhesion effect of DOPA after self-polymerization. Ag/HNTs/rGO posses enhanced antibacterial ability against E. coli and S. aureus compared with individual silver nanoparticles, rGO nanosheets or their nanocomposites.

  6. Structure-acoustic finite element analyses for noise reduction investigations of launcher payload compartment structures made of CFRP sandwich material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faust, M.; Schweickert, G.; Strobel, F.

    1991-10-01

    An investigation of the noise reduction properties of the Ariane 5 Speltra payload compartment structure is reported. The low frequency noise reduction was calculated by the Finite Element Method (FEM) with a formulation for fluid structure interaction (FE code PERMAS-FS). The results of the different analysis steps including uncoupled and coupled analysis are presented. The uncoupled structure and cavity dynamics results were compared to closed form solutions with good agreement. The introduction of external field effects, i.e. radiation damping and scattering, was performed by using closed form solutions for cylinder type structures. The analyses were performed for 2 different test cylinders and the Speltra cylindrical part. The test cylinder results were compared with the measured noise reductions and good agreement was obtained.

  7. A novel method of testing the shear strength of thick honeycomb composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, A. J.; Nettles, A. T.

    1991-01-01

    Sandwich composites of aluminum and glass/phenolic honeycomb core were tested for shear strength before and after impact damage. The assessment of shear strength was performed in two ways; by four point bend testing of sandwich beams and by a novel double lap shear (DLS) test. This testing technique was developed so smaller specimens could be used, thus making the use of common lab scale fabrication and testing possible. The two techniques yielded similar data. The DLS test gave slightly lower shear strength values of the two methods but were closer to the supplier's values for shear strength.

  8. Design, fabrication and test of lightweight shell structure. [axial compression loads and torsion stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lager, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    A cylindrical shell structure 3.66 m (144 in.) high by 4.57 m (180 in.) diameter was designed using a wide variety of materials and structural concepts to withstand design ultimate combined loading 1225.8 N/cm (700 lb/in.) axial compression and 245.2 N/cm (140 lb/in.) torsion. The overall cylinder geometry and design loading are representative of that expected on a high performance space tug vehicle. The relatively low design load level results in designs that use thin gage metals and fibrous-composite laminates. Fabrication and structural tests of small panels and components representative of many of the candidate designs served to demonstrate proposed fabrication techniques and to verify design and analysis methods. Three of the designs evaluated, honeycomb sandwich with aluminum faceskins, honeycomb sandwich with graphite/epoxy faceskins, and aluminum truss with fiber-glass meteoroid protection layers, were selected for further evaluation.

  9. An examination of impact damage in glass-phenolic and aluminum honeycomb core composite panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, A. T.; Lance, D. G.; Hodge, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    An examination of low velocity impact damage to glass-phenolic and aluminum core honeycomb sandwich panels with carbon-epoxy facesheets is presented. An instrumented drop weight impact test apparatus was utilized to inflict damage at energy ranges between 0.7 and 4.2 joules. Specimens were checked for extent of damage by cross sectional examination. The effect of core damage was assessed by subjecting impact-damaged beams to four-point bend tests. Skin-only specimens (facings not bonded to honeycomb) were also tested for comparison purposes. Results show that core buckling is the first damage mode, followed by delaminations in the facings, matrix cracking, and finally fiber breakage. The aluminum honeycomb panels exhibited a larger core damage zone and more facing delaminations than the glass-phenolic core, but could withstand more shear stress when damaged than the glass-phenolic core specimens.

  10. Lightweight Space Tug body structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lager, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Lightweight honeycomb sandwich construction using a wide variety of metal and fibrous composite faceskins was used in the design of a typical Space Tug skirt structure. Relatively low magnitude combined loading of axial compression and torsion resulted in designs using ultrathin faceskins, lightweight honeycomb cores, and thin faceskin/core adhesive bond layers. Two of the designs with metal faceskins (aluminum and titanium) and four with fibrous composite faceskins (using combinations of fiberglass, boron, and graphite) were evaluated through the fabrication and structural test of a series of small development panels. The two most promising concepts with aluminum and graphite/epoxy faceskins, were further evaluated through the fabrication and structural test of larger compression and shear panels. All panels tested exceeded design ultimate load levels, thereby, verifying the structural integrity of the selected designs. Projected skirt structural weights for the graphite/epoxy and aluminum concepts fall within original weight guidelines established for the Space Tug vehicle.

  11. Carbon Honeycomb High Capacity Storage for Gaseous and Liquid Species.

    PubMed

    Krainyukova, Nina V; Zubarev, Evgeniy N

    2016-02-01

    We report an exceptionally stable honeycomb carbon allotrope obtained by deposition of vacuum-sublimated graphite. The allotrope structures are derived from our low temperature electron diffraction and electron microscopy data. These structures can be both periodic and random and are built exclusively from sp^{2}-bonded carbon atoms, and may be considered as three-dimensional graphene. They demonstrate high levels of physical absorption of various gases unattainable in other carbon forms such as fullerites or nanotubes. These honeycomb structures can be used not only for storage of various gases and liquids but also as a matrix for new composites. PMID:26894716

  12. Carbon Honeycomb High Capacity Storage for Gaseous and Liquid Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainyukova, Nina V.; Zubarev, Evgeniy N.

    2016-02-01

    We report an exceptionally stable honeycomb carbon allotrope obtained by deposition of vacuum-sublimated graphite. The allotrope structures are derived from our low temperature electron diffraction and electron microscopy data. These structures can be both periodic and random and are built exclusively from s p2 -bonded carbon atoms, and may be considered as three-dimensional graphene. They demonstrate high levels of physical absorption of various gases unattainable in other carbon forms such as fullerites or nanotubes. These honeycomb structures can be used not only for storage of various gases and liquids but also as a matrix for new composites.

  13. Optimal Design of Honeycomb Material Used to Mitigate Head Impact

    PubMed Central

    Caccese, Vincent; Ferguson, James R.; Edgecomb, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the impact resistance of honeycomb structure with the purpose to mitigate impact forces. The objective is to aid in the choice of optimal parameters to minimize the thickness of the honeycomb structure while providing adequate protection to prevent injury due to head impact. Studies are presented using explicit finite element analysis representing the case of an unprotected drop of a rigid impactor onto a simulated floor consisting of vinyl composition tile and concrete. Analysis of honeycomb material to reduce resulting accelerations is also presented where parameters such as honeycomb material modulus, wall thickness, cell geometry and structure depth are compared to the unprotected case. A simplified analysis technique using a genetic algorithm is presented to demonstrate the use of this method to select a minimum honeycomb depth to achieve a desired acceleration level at a given level of input energy. It is important to select a minimum material depth in that smaller dimensions lead toward more aesthetic design that increase the likelihood of that the device is used. PMID:23976812

  14. Topology optimization of pressure adaptive honeycomb for a morphing flap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vos, Roelof; Scheepstra, Jan; Barrett, Ron

    2011-03-01

    The paper begins with a brief historical overview of pressure adaptive materials and structures. By examining avian anatomy, it is seen that pressure-adaptive structures have been used successfully in the Natural world to hold structural positions for extended periods of time and yet allow for dynamic shape changes from one flight state to the next. More modern pneumatic actuators, including FAA certified autopilot servoactuators are frequently used by aircraft around the world. Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAM) show good promise as aircraft actuators, but follow the traditional model of load concentration and distribution commonly found in aircraft. A new system is proposed which leaves distributed loads distributed and manipulates structures through a distributed actuator. By using Pressure Adaptive Honeycomb (PAH), it is shown that large structural deformations in excess of 50% strains can be achieved while maintaining full structural integrity and enabling secondary flight control mechanisms like flaps. The successful implementation of pressure-adaptive honeycomb in the trailing edge of a wing section sparked the motivation for subsequent research into the optimal topology of the pressure adaptive honeycomb within the trailing edge of a morphing flap. As an input for the optimization two known shapes are required: a desired shape in cruise configuration and a desired shape in landing configuration. In addition, the boundary conditions and load cases (including aerodynamic loads and internal pressure loads) should be specified for each condition. Finally, a set of six design variables is specified relating to the honeycomb and upper skin topology of the morphing flap. A finite-element model of the pressure-adaptive honeycomb structure is developed specifically tailored to generate fast but reliable results for a given combination of external loading, input variables, and boundary conditions. Based on two bench tests it is shown that this model correlates well

  15. Reentry Thermal Analysis of a Generic Crew Exploration Vehicle Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Gong, Leslie; Quinn, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    Comparative studies were performed on the heat-shielding characteristics of honeycomb-core sandwich panels fabricated with different materials for possible use as wall panels for the proposed crew exploration vehicle. Graphite/epoxy sandwich panel was found to outperform aluminum sandwich panel under the same geometry due to superior heat-shielding qualities and lower material density. Also, representative reentry heat-transfer analysis was performed on the windward wall structures of a generic crew exploration vehicle. The Apollo low Earth orbit reentry trajectory was used to calculate the reentry heating rates. The generic crew exploration vehicle has a graphite/epoxy composite honeycomb sandwich exterior wall and an aluminum honeycomb sandwich interior wall, and is protected with the Apollo thermal protection system ablative material. In the thermal analysis computer program used, the TPS ablation effect was not yet included; however, the results from the nonablation heat-transfer analyses were used to develop a "virtual ablation" method to estimate the ablation heat loads and the thermal protection system recession thicknesses. Depending on the severity of the heating-rate time history, the virtual ablation period was found to last for 87 to 107 seconds and the ablation heat load was estimated to be in the range of 86 to 88 percent of the total heat load for the ablation time period. The thermal protection system recession thickness was estimated to be in the range of 0.08 to 0.11 inches. For the crew exploration vehicle zero-tilt and 18-degree-tilt stagnation points, thermal protection system thicknesses of h = {0.717, 0.733} inches were found to be adequate to keep the substructural composite sandwich temperature below the limit of 300 F.

  16. Detecting moisture in composite honeycomb panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culp, J. D.; Sapp, J. W., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Radiographic inspection technique detects liquids trapped in cells of honeycomb composite panels constructed with porous fiber-reinforced plastic skins. Procedure is of use in industries such as aerospace or automotive engineering where honeycomb composites are being used or studied.

  17. Size Effects in Impact Damage of Composite Sandwich Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobyns, Alan; Jackson, Wade

    2003-01-01

    Panel size has a large effect on the impact response and resultant damage level of honeycomb sandwich panels. It has been observed during impact testing that panels of the same design but different panel sizes will show large differences in damage when impacted with the same impact energy. To study this effect, a test program was conducted with instrumented impact testing of three different sizes of sandwich panels to obtain data on panel response and residual damage. In concert with the test program. a closed form analysis method was developed that incorporates the effects of damage on the impact response. This analysis method will predict both the impact response and the residual damage of a simply-supported sandwich panel impacted at any position on the panel. The damage is incorporated by the use of an experimental load-indentation curve obtained for the face-sheet/honeycomb and indentor combination under study. This curve inherently includes the damage response and can be obtained quasi-statically from a rigidly-backed specimen or a specimen with any support conditions. Good correlation has been obtained between the test data and the analysis results for the maximum force and residual indentation. The predictions can be improved by using a dynamic indentation curve. Analyses have also been done using the MSC/DYTRAN finite element code.

  18. Mechanics and applications of pressure adaptive honeycomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vos, Roelof

    A novel adaptive aerostructure is presented that relies on certified aerospace materials and can therefore be applied in conventional passenger aircraft. This structure consists of a honeycomb material which' cells extend over a significant length perpendicular to the plane of the cells. Each of the cells contains an inelastic pouch (or bladder) that forms a circular tube when the cell forms a perfect hexagon. By changing the cell differential pressure (CDP) the stiffness of the honeycomb can be altered. Using an external force or the elastic force within the honeycomb material, the honeycomb can be deformed such that the cells deviate from their perfect-hexagonal shape. It can be shown that by increasing the CDP, the structure eventually returns to a perfect hexagon. By doing so, a fully embedded pneumatic actuator is created that can perform work and substitute conventional low-bandwidth flight control actuators. It is shown that two approaches can be taken to regulate the stiffness of this embedded actuator: (1) The first approach relies on the pouches having a fixed amount of air in them and stiffness is altered by a change in ambient pressure. Coupled to the ambient pressure-altitude cycle that aircraft encounter during each flight, this approach yields a true adaptive aerostructure that operates independently of pilot input and is controlled solely by the altitude the aircraft is flying at. (2) The second approach relies on a controlled constant CDP. This CDP could be supplied from one of the compressor stages of the engine as a form of bleed air. Because of the air-tight pouches there would essentially be no mass flow, meaning engine efficiency would not be significantly affected due to this application. By means of a valve system the pilot could have direct control over the pressure and, consequently, the stiffness of the structure. This allows for much higher CDPs (on the order of 1MPa) than could physically be achieved by relying on the ambient pressure

  19. Structure and electronic properties of bilayer graphene functionalized with half-sandwiched transition metal-cyclopentadienyl complexes.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiaojing; Zhang, Xiuyun; Ye, Xiaoshan; Wang, Jinlan

    2016-08-10

    Tuning the electronic and magnetic properties of graphene is a crucial problem in the design of practical on-off electronic devices. Using density functional theory calculations, we explore the electronic and magnetic properties of bilayer graphene functionalized by cyclopentadienyl (Cp = cyclopentadienyl, C5H5) based half-sandwich ligands, CpTM (TM = Sc-Ni). It is found that the adsorption of CpTM ligands can introduce high magnetic moments and open the band gap of bilayer graphene, due to the electron doping as well as the asymmetric charge distribution between two graphene layers. Furthermore, the p-n doping of bilayer graphene by co-binding F/NO2 and CpTM on two external sides of BLG can further widen the band gap up to 366.1 meV. This study proposes an effective way to the modulation of the electronic and magnetic properties of graphene. PMID:27464257

  20. Compound surface-plasmon-polariton waves guided by a thin metal layer sandwiched between a homogeneous isotropic dielectric material and a structurally chiral material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiadini, Francesco; Fiumara, Vincenzo; Scaglione, Antonio; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2016-03-01

    Multiple compound surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) waves can be guided by a structure consisting of a sufficiently thick layer of metal sandwiched between a homogeneous isotropic dielectric (HID) material and a dielectric structurally chiral material (SCM). The compound SPP waves are strongly bound to both metal/dielectric interfaces when the thickness of the metal layer is comparable to the skin depth but just to one of the two interfaces when the thickness is much larger. The compound SPP waves differ in phase speed, attenuation rate, and field profile, even though all are excitable at the same frequency. Some compound SPP waves are not greatly affected by the choice of the direction of propagation in the transverse plane but others are, depending on metal thickness. For fixed metal thickness, the number of compound SPP waves depends on the relative permittivity of the HID material, which can be useful for sensing applications.

  1. Fabrication of thickness controllable free-standing sandwich-structured hybrid carbon film for high-rate and high-power supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Wei, Helin; Wei, Sihang; Tian, Weifeng; Zhu, Daming; Liu, Yuhao; Yuan, Lili; Li, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid carbon films composed of graphene film and porous carbon film may give full play to the advantages of both carbon materials, and have great potential for application in energy storage and conversion devices. Unfortunately, there are very few reports on fabrication of hybrid carbon films. Here we demonstrate a simple approach to fabricate free-standing sandwich-structured hybrid carbon film composed of porous amorphous carbon film and multilayer graphene film by chemical vapor deposition in a controllable and scalable way. Hybrid carbon films reveal good electrical conductivity, excellent flexibility, and good compatibility with substrate. Supercapacitors assembled by hybrid carbon films exhibit ultrahigh rate capability, wide frequency range, good capacitance performance, and high-power density. Moreover, this approach may provide a general path for fabrication of hybrid carbon materials with different structures by using different metals with high carbon solubility, and greatly expands the application scope of carbon materials. PMID:25394410

  2. Fabrication of thickness controllable free-standing sandwich-structured hybrid carbon film for high-rate and high-power supercapacitor

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Helin; Wei, Sihang; Tian, Weifeng; Zhu, Daming; Liu, Yuhao; Yuan, Lili; Li, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid carbon films composed of graphene film and porous carbon film may give full play to the advantages of both carbon materials, and have great potential for application in energy storage and conversion devices. Unfortunately, there are very few reports on fabrication of hybrid carbon films. Here we demonstrate a simple approach to fabricate free-standing sandwich-structured hybrid carbon film composed of porous amorphous carbon film and multilayer graphene film by chemical vapor deposition in a controllable and scalable way. Hybrid carbon films reveal good electrical conductivity, excellent flexibility, and good compatibility with substrate. Supercapacitors assembled by hybrid carbon films exhibit ultrahigh rate capability, wide frequency range, good capacitance performance, and high-power density. Moreover, this approach may provide a general path for fabrication of hybrid carbon materials with different structures by using different metals with high carbon solubility, and greatly expands the application scope of carbon materials. PMID:25394410

  3. Porous honeycomb structures formed from interconnected MnO2 sheets on CNT-coated substrates for flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Wen-Yin; Chen, You-Feng; Lu, Ke-Ming; Lin, Kuan-Jiuh

    2016-01-01

    The use of lightweight and easily-fabricated MnO2/carbon nanotube (CNT)-based flexible networks as binder-free electrodes and a polyvinyl alcohol/H2SO4 electrolyte for the formation of stretchable solid-state supercapacitors was examined. The active electrodes were fabricated from 3D honeycomb porous MnO2 assembled from cross-walled and interconnected sheet-architectural MnO2 on CNT-based plastic substrates (denoted as honeycomb MnO2/CNT textiles).These substrates were fabricated through a simple two-step procedure involving the coating of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) onto commercial textiles by a dipping-drying process and subsequent electrodeposition of the interconnected MnO2 sheets onto the MWCNT-coated textile. With such unique MnO2 architectures integrated onto CNT flexible films, good performance was achieved with a specific capacitance of 324 F/g at 0.5 A/g. A maximum energy density of 7.2 Wh/kg and a power density as high as 3.3 kW/kg were exhibited by the honeycomb MnO2/CNT network device, which is comparable to the performance of other carbon-based and metal oxide/carbon-based solid-state supercapacitor devices. Specifically, the long-term cycling stability of this material is excellent, with almost no loss of its initial capacitance and good Coulombic efficiency of 82% after 5000 cycles. These impressive results identify these materials as a promising candidate for use in environmentally friendly, low-cost, and high-performance flexible energy-storage devices. PMID:26726724

  4. Porous honeycomb structures formed from interconnected MnO2 sheets on CNT-coated substrates for flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Ko, Wen-Yin; Chen, You-Feng; Lu, Ke-Ming; Lin, Kuan-Jiuh

    2016-01-01

    The use of lightweight and easily-fabricated MnO2/carbon nanotube (CNT)-based flexible networks as binder-free electrodes and a polyvinyl alcohol/H2SO4 electrolyte for the formation of stretchable solid-state supercapacitors was examined. The active electrodes were fabricated from 3D honeycomb porous MnO2 assembled from cross-walled and interconnected sheet-architectural MnO2 on CNT-based plastic substrates (denoted as honeycomb MnO2/CNT textiles).These substrates were fabricated through a simple two-step procedure involving the coating of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) onto commercial textiles by a dipping-drying process and subsequent electrodeposition of the interconnected MnO2 sheets onto the MWCNT-coated textile. With such unique MnO2 architectures integrated onto CNT flexible films, good performance was achieved with a specific capacitance of 324 F/g at 0.5 A/g. A maximum energy density of 7.2 Wh/kg and a power density as high as 3.3 kW/kg were exhibited by the honeycomb MnO2/CNT network device, which is comparable to the performance of other carbon-based and metal oxide/carbon-based solid-state supercapacitor devices. Specifically, the long-term cycling stability of this material is excellent, with almost no loss of its initial capacitance and good Coulombic efficiency of 82% after 5000 cycles. These impressive results identify these materials as a promising candidate for use in environmentally friendly, low-cost, and high-performance flexible energy-storage devices. PMID:26726724

  5. Porous honeycomb structures formed from interconnected MnO2 sheets on CNT-coated substrates for flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Wen-Yin; Chen, You-Feng; Lu, Ke-Ming; Lin, Kuan-Jiuh

    2016-01-01

    The use of lightweight and easily-fabricated MnO2/carbon nanotube (CNT)-based flexible networks as binder-free electrodes and a polyvinyl alcohol/H2SO4 electrolyte for the formation of stretchable solid-state supercapacitors was examined. The active electrodes were fabricated from 3D honeycomb porous MnO2 assembled from cross-walled and interconnected sheet-architectural MnO2 on CNT-based plastic substrates (denoted as honeycomb MnO2/CNT textiles).These substrates were fabricated through a simple two-step procedure involving the coating of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) onto commercial textiles by a dipping-drying process and subsequent electrodeposition of the interconnected MnO2 sheets onto the MWCNT-coated textile. With such unique MnO2 architectures integrated onto CNT flexible films, good performance was achieved with a specific capacitance of 324 F/g at 0.5 A/g. A maximum energy density of 7.2 Wh/kg and a power density as high as 3.3 kW/kg were exhibited by the honeycomb MnO2/CNT network device, which is comparable to the performance of other carbon-based and metal oxide/carbon-based solid-state supercapacitor devices. Specifically, the long-term cycling stability of this material is excellent, with almost no loss of its initial capacitance and good Coulombic efficiency of 82% after 5000 cycles. These impressive results identify these materials as a promising candidate for use in environmentally friendly, low-cost, and high-performance flexible energy-storage devices.

  6. Electroless plating of honeycomb and pincushion polymer films prepared by self-organization.

    PubMed

    Yabu, Hiroshi; Hirai, Yuji; Shimomura, Masatsugu

    2006-11-01

    This report describes the fabrication and electroless plating of regular porous and pincushion-like polymer structures prepared by self-organization. Honeycomb-patterned films were prepared by simple casting of polymer solution under applied humid air and pincushion structures by peeling off the top layer of the former films. Silver-deposited honeycomb-patterned films and pincushion films were obtained by simple electroless plating of the respective original structures. XPS revealed Ag deposition on the honeycomb-patterned film. After thermal decomposition or solvent elution of the template polymer, unique metal mesoscopic structures were obtained. PMID:17073508

  7. Manufacture of large glass honeycomb mirrors. [for astronomical telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, J. R. P.; Hill, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of making very large glass mirrors for astronomical telescopes is examined, and the advantages of honeycomb mirrors made of borosilicate glass are discussed. Thermal gradients in the glass that degrade the figure of thick borosilicate mirrors during use can be largely eliminated in a honeycomb structure by internal ventilation (in air) or careful control of the radiation environment (in space). It is expected that ground-based telescopes with honeycomb mirrors will give better images than those with solid mirrors. Materials, techniques, and the experience that has been gained making trial mirrors and test castings as part of a program to develop 8-10-m-diameter lightweight mirrors are discussed.

  8. Chaos in the honeycomb optical-lattice unit cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Max D.; Reichl, L. E.

    2016-01-01

    Natural and artificial honeycomb lattices are of great interest because the band structure of these lattices, if properly constructed, contains a Dirac point. Such lattices occur naturally in the form of graphene and carbon nanotubes. They have been created in the laboratory in the form of semiconductor 2DEGs, optical lattices, and photonic crystals. We show that, over a wide energy range, gases (of electrons, atoms, or photons) that propagate through these lattices are Lorentz gases and the corresponding classical dynamics is chaotic. Thus honeycomb lattices are also of interest for understanding eigenstate thermalization and the conductor-insulator transition due to dynamic Anderson localization.

  9. Dirac lines in the superconducting hyper-honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouhon, Adrien; Black-Schaffer, Annica

    Motivated by the recent discovery of the hyper-honeycomb β-Li2IrO3 studied in the context of Kitaev spin liquids, we investigate the possibility to realize superconductivity in the hyper-honeycomb lattice. Based on a t-J model we discuss the effect of the band structure and spin-orbit coupling on the most stable superconducting state. Using group theory we construct all symmetry allowed superconducting states and show that we naturally get Dirac line nodes protected by the non-symmorphic symmetries.

  10. Glass polyimide honeycomb cores for advanced space transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentjes, J.

    1979-01-01

    The use of a glass fiber reinforced polyimide honeycomb was considered for various applications requiring lightweight stiff structures which may experience temperatures up to 600K. The experiences and results of fabricating these core types are reported. The process parameters and most desirable characteristics are noted. The differences in considering resins for making laminates versus their use in surface coatings are stressed. This comparison is made to explain the problems encountered in using the three new resin types for dipping honeycomb to the desired density. Some properties and the effect of post cure, forming and ventilating techniques for the condensation polyimide core types are presented.

  11. Millimeter Wave Holographical Inspection of Honeycomb Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, J. T.; Kharkovsky, S.; Zoughi, R.; Stefes, G.; Hepburn, Frank L.; Hepburn, Frank L.

    2007-01-01

    Multi-layered composite structures manufactured with honeycomb, foam or balsa wood cores are finding increasing utility in a variety of aerospace, transportation, and infrastructure applications. Due to the low conductivity and inhomogeneity associated with these composites standard nondestructive testing (NDT) methods are not always capable of inspecting their interior for various defects caused during the manufacturing process or as a result of in-service loading. On the contrary, microwave and millimeter wave NDT methods are well-suited for inspecting these structures since signals at these frequencies readily penetrate through these structures and reflect from different interior boundaries revealing the presence of a wide range of defects such as disbond, delamination, moisture and oil intrusion, impact damage, etc. Millimeter wave frequency spectrum spans 30 GHz - 300 GHz with corresponding wavelengths of 10 - 1 mm. Due to the inherent short wavelengths at these frequencies, one can produce high spatial resolution images of these composites either using real-antenna focused or synthetic-aperture focused methods. In addition, incorporation of swept-frequency in the latter method (i.e., holography) results in high-resolution three-dimensional images. This paper presents the basic steps behind producing such images at millimeter wave frequencies and the results of two honeycomb composite panels are demonstrated at Q-band (33-50 GHz). In addition, these results are compared to previous results using X-ray computed tomography.

  12. Structural Analysis and Optimization of a Composite Fan Blade for Future Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coroneos, Rula M.

    2012-01-01

    This report addresses the structural analysis and optimization of a composite fan blade sized for a large aircraft engine. An existing baseline solid metallic fan blade was used as a starting point to develop a hybrid honeycomb sandwich construction with a polymer matrix composite face sheet and honeycomb aluminum core replacing the original baseline solid metallic fan model made of titanium. The focus of this work is to design the sandwich composite blade with the optimum number of plies for the face sheet that will withstand the combined pressure and centrifugal loads while the constraints are satisfied and the baseline aerodynamic and geometric parameters are maintained. To satisfy the requirements, a sandwich construction for the blade is proposed with composite face sheets and a weak core made of honeycomb aluminum material. For aerodynamic considerations, the thickness of the core is optimized whereas the overall blade thickness is held fixed so as to not alter the original airfoil geometry. Weight is taken as the objective function to be minimized by varying the core thickness of the blade within specified upper and lower bounds. Constraints are imposed on radial displacement limitations and ply failure strength. From the optimum design, the minimum number of plies, which will not fail, is back-calculated. The ply lay-up of the blade is adjusted from the calculated number of plies and final structural analysis is performed. Analyses were carried out by utilizing the OpenMDAO Framework, developed at NASA Glenn Research Center combining optimization with structural assessment.

  13. Cationic half-sandwich Ru(II) complexes containing (N,N)-bound Schiff-base ligands: Synthesis, crystal structure analysis and spectroscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Li; Miao, Qian; Tehrani, Alireza Azhdari; Hajiashrafi, Taraneh; Hu, Mao-Lin; Morsali, Ali

    2016-08-01

    Three Ru(II) half-sandwich complexes containing (N,N)-bound Schiff-base ligands, [(η6-C6H6) RuCl(L1)]PF6 (1) L1 = (E)-1-(6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-N-(p-tolyl)methanimine, [(η6-p-cymene)RuCl(L1)]PF6 (2) and [(η6-p-cymene)RuCl(L2)]PF6(3) L2 = (E)-1-(6-bromopyridin-2-yl)-N-(p-tolyl)methanimine, were synthesized, characterized and their supramolecular structures were analyzed. The crystal packing of these compounds was studied using geometrical analysis and Hirshfeld surface analysis. The fluorescence behavior of these compounds was also studied. TD-DFT calculations were carried out to better understand the fluorescence properties of complexes 1-3. These compounds could be promising for the design of organometallic dye systems.

  14. Bending Stiffness of Multiwall Sandwich

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosser, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical and experimental study was carried out to understand the extensional and flexural behavior of multiwall sandwich, a metallic insulation composed of alternate layers of flat and dimpled foil. The multiwall sandwich was structurally analyzed by using several simplifying assumptions combined with a finite element analysis. The simplifying assumptions made in this analysis were evaluated by bending and tensile tests. Test results validate the assumption that flat sheets in compression do not significantly contribute to the flexural stiffness of multiwall sandwich for the multiwall geometry tested. However, calculations show that thicker flat sheets may contribute significantly to bending stiffness and cannot be ignored. Results of this analytical approach compare well with test data; both show that the extensional stiffness of the dimpled sheet in he 0 deg direction is about 30 percent of that for a flat sheet, and that in the 45 deg direction, it is about 10 percent. The analytical and experimental multiwall bending stiffness showed good agreement for the particular geometry tested.

  15. A sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor based on the biotin- streptavidin-biotin structure for detection of human immunoglobulin G

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yueyun; Zhang, Yihe; Jiang, Liping; Chu, Paul K.; Dong, Yunhui; Wei, Qin

    2016-01-01

    A sandwich-type immunosensor is designed and fabricated to detect the human immunoglobulin G (HIgG) using polyaniline and tin dioxide functionalized graphene (GS-SnO2-PAN) as the platform and biotin-functionalized amination magnetic nanoparticles composite (B-Fe3O4@APTES) as the label. GS-SnO2-PAN is used as the sensing agent to capture the primary anti-HIgG (Ab1) and SnO2 reduces the stack of GS. The B-Fe3O4@APTES with a large surface area and excellent biocompatibility captures second antibody (Ab2) efficiently based on the highly selective recognition of streptavidin to biotinylated antibody. The B-Fe3O4@APTES has better electro-catalytic activity in the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the “biotin-streptavidin-biotin” (B-SA-B) strategy leads to signal amplification. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor has a wide sensitivity range from 1 pg/L to 10 ng/L and low detection limit of 0.33 pg/L (S/N = 3) for HIgG. The immunosensor has high sensitivity, fast assay rate, as well as good reproducibility, specificity, and stability especially in the quantitative detection of biomolecules in serum samples. PMID:26948273

  16. A novel carboxyethyltin functionalized sandwich-type germanotungstate: synthesis, crystal structure, photosensitivity, and application in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Sang, Xiaojing; Li, Jiansheng; Zhang, Lancui; Wang, Zanjiao; Chen, Weilin; Zhu, Zaiming; Su, Zhongmin; Wang, Enbo

    2014-05-28

    A novel sandwich-type germanotungstate [C(NH2)3]10[Mn2{Sn(CH2)2COOH}2(B-α-GeW9O34)2]·8H2O (1) represents the first single crystalline polyoxometalate (POM) functionalized by open chain carboxyethyltin, which was designed and synthesized in aqueous solution and applied to a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) for the first time. Its photosensitivity was explored through a fluorescence spectrum (FL), surface photovoltage spectrum (SPV), electrochemical method, and solid diffuse spectrum. 1 displays the primary features of sensitizers in DSSCs, and the efficiency of the solar cell is 0.22%. Delightedly, when 1 was employed to assemble a cosensitized solar cell configuration by preparing a 1-doped TiO2 electrode and additionally adsorbing N719 dyes, a considerably improved efficiency was achieved through increasing spectral absorption and accelerating electron transport, which is 19.4% higher than that of single N719 sensitization. This result opens up a new way to position different dyes on a single TiO2 film for cosensitization. PMID:24758570

  17. Sandwich Panels Evaluated With Ultrasonic Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgriff, Laura M.

    2004-01-01

    Enhanced, lightweight material systems, such as 17-4PH stainless steel sandwich panels are being developed for use as fan blades and fan containment systems for next-generation engines. The bond strength between the core and face sheets is critical in maintaining the structural integrity of the sandwich structure. To improve the inspection and production of these systems, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center are using nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, such as ultrasonic spectroscopy, to evaluate the brazing quality between the face plates and the metallic foam core. The capabilities and limitations of a swept-frequency approach to ultrasonic spectroscopy were evaluated with respect to these sandwich structures. This report discusses results from three regions of a sandwich panel representing different levels of brazing quality between the outer face plates and a metallic foam core. Each region was investigated with ultrasonic spectroscopy. Then, on the basis of the NDE results, three shear specimens sectioned from the sandwich panel to contain each of these regions were mechanically tested.

  18. Local feedback control of light honeycomb panels.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chinsuk; Elliott, Stephen J

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes theoretical and experimental work on the feedback control of sound radiation from honeycomb panels using piezoceramic actuators. It is motivated by the problem of sound transmission in aircraft, specifically the active control of trim panels. Trim panels are generally honeycomb structures designed to meet the design requirement of low weight and high stiffness. They are resiliently mounted to the fuselage for the passive reduction of noise transmission. Local coupling of the closely spaced sensor and actuator was observed experimentally and modeled using a single degree of freedom system. The effect of the local coupling was to roll off the response between the actuator and sensor at high frequencies, so that a feedback control system can have high gain margins. Unfortunately, only relatively poor global performance is then achieved because of localization of reduction around the actuator. This localization prompts the investigation of a multichannel active control system. Globalized reduction was predicted using a model of 12-channel direct velocity feedback control. The multichannel system, however, does not appear to yield a significant improvement in the performance because of decreased gain margin. PMID:17297778

  19. A numerical model for a soluble lead-acid flow battery comprising a three-dimensional honeycomb-shaped positive electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oury, Alexandre; Kirchev, Angel; Bultel, Yann

    2014-01-01

    A novel reactor design is proposed for the soluble lead-acid flow battery (SLFB), in which a three-dimensional honeycomb-shaped positive PbO2-electrode is sandwiched between two planar negative electrodes. A two-dimensional stationary model is developed to predict the electrochemical behaviour of the cell, especially the current distribution over the positive structure and the cell voltage, as a function of the honeycomb dimensions and the electrolyte composition. The model includes several experimentally-based parameters measured over a wide range of electrolyte compositions. The results show that the positive current distribution is almost entirely determined by geometrical effects, with little influence from the hydrodynamic. It is also suggested that an increase in the electrolyte acidity diminishes the overvoltage during discharge but leads at the same time to a more heterogeneous reaction rate distribution on account of the faster kinetics of PbO2 dissolution. Finally, the cycling of experimental mono-cells is performed and the voltage response is in fairly good accordance with the model predictions.

  20. Solution structure of the hypothetical protein TA0095 from Thermoplasma acidophilum: A novel superfamily with a two-layer sandwich architecture

    PubMed Central

    León, Esther; Yee, Adelinda; Ortíz, Angel R.; Santoro, Jorge; Rico, Manuel; Jiménez, M. Angeles

    2007-01-01

    TA0095 is a 96-residue hypothetical protein from Thermoplasma acidophilum that exhibits no sequence similarity to any protein of known structure. Also, TA0095 is a member of the COG4004 orthologous group of unknown function found in Archaea bacteria. We determined its three-dimensional structure by NMR methods. The structure displays an α/β two-layer sandwich architecture formed by three α-helices and five β-strands following the order β1-α1-β2-β3-β4-β5-α2-α3. Searches for structural homologs indicate that the TA0095 structure belongs to the TBP-like fold, constituting a novel superfamily characterized by an additional C-terminal helix. The TA0095 structure provides a fold common to the COG4004 proteins that will obviously belong to this new superfamily. Most hydrophobic residues conserved in the COG4004 proteins are buried in the structure determined herein, thus underlying their importance for structure stability. Considering that the TA0095 surface shows a large positively charged patch with a high degree of residue conservation within the COG4004 domain, the biological function of TA0095 and the rest of COG4004 proteins might occur through binding a negatively charged molecule. Like other TBP-like fold proteins, the COG4004 proteins might be DNA-binding proteins. The fact that TA0095 is shown to interact with large DNA fragments is in favor of this hypothesis, although nonspecific DNA binding cannot be ruled out. PMID:17766377

  1. Salads, Sandwiches and Desserts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on salads, sandwiches, and desserts is designed to provide Marine food service personnel with a general background in the proper techniques for the preparation of these items. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI students and a…

  2. Bosonic edge states in gapped honeycomb lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Huaiming; Niu, Yuekun; Chen, Shu; Feng, Shiping

    2016-03-01

    By quantum Monte Carlo simulations of bosons in gapped honeycomb lattices, we show the existence of bosonic edge states. For a single layer honeycomb lattice, bosonic edge states can be controlled to appear, cross the gap, and merge into bulk states by an on-site potential applied on the outermost sites of the boundary. On a bilayer honeycomb lattice, A bosonic edge state traversing the gap at half filling is demonstrated. The topological origin of the bosonic edge states is discussed with pseudo Berry curvature. The results will simulate experimental studies of these exotic bosonic edge states with ultracold bosons trapped in honeycomb optical lattices.

  3. Vibration Characteristics Determined for Stainless Steel Sandwich Panels With a Metal Foam Core for Lightweight Fan Blade Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosn, Louis J.; Min, James B.; Raj, Sai V.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Holland, Frederic A., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this project at the NASA Glenn Research Center is to provide fan materials that are safer, weigh less, and cost less than the currently used titanium alloy or polymer matrix composite fans. The proposed material system is a sandwich fan construction made up of thin solid face sheets and a lightweight metal foam core. The stiffness of the sandwich structure is increased by separating the two face sheets by the foam layer. The resulting structure has a high stiffness and lighter weight in comparison to the solid facesheet material alone. The face sheets carry the applied in-plane and bending loads (ref. 1). The metal foam core must resist the transverse shear and transverse normal loads, as well as keep the facings supported and working as a single unit. Metal foams have ranges of mechanical properties, such as light weight, impact resistance, and vibration suppression (ref. 2), which makes them more suitable for use in lightweight fan structures. Metal foams have been available for decades (refs. 3 and 4), but the difficulties in the original processes and high costs have prevented their widespread use. However, advances in production techniques and cost reduction have created a new interest in this class of materials (ref. 5). The material chosen for the face sheet and the metal foam for this study was the aerospace-grade stainless steel 17-4PH. This steel was chosen because of its attractive mechanical properties and the ease with which it can be made through the powder metallurgy process (ref. 6). The advantages of a metal foam core, in comparison to a typical honeycomb core, are material isotropy and the ease of forming complex geometries, such as fan blades. A section of a 17-4PH sandwich structure is shown in the following photograph. Part of process of designing any blade is to determine the natural frequencies of the particular blade shape. A designer needs to predict the resonance frequencies of a new blade design to properly identify a useful

  4. Simulation of the honeycomb construction process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuanzhang, Zhang

    2010-06-01

    The construction process of the honeycomb by bees is an astonishing process. The original structure which the bees built is nothing more than a lot of rough cylinders. But keeping the beeswax semi-flow for a certain time, those rough structures become perfect hexahedral columns. A modified, simplified particle method was used here to simulate the semi-flow state of the material. Although the parameters used here were still rather subjective, the simulation still could demonstrate some behavior of that sort of material like beeswax. And the method that the bees used to build their honey comb, could be an efficient method to imitate when we are trying to manufacture cellular materials.

  5. Titanium-silicon carbide composite lattice structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moongkhamklang, Pimsiree

    Sandwich panel structures with stiff, strong face sheets and lightweight cellular cores are widely used for weight sensitive, bending dominated loading applications. The flexural stiffness and strength of a sandwich panel is determined by the stiffness, strength, thickness, and separation of the face sheets, and by the compressive and shear stiffness and strength of the cellular core. Panel performance can be therefore optimized using cores with high specific stiffness and strength. The specific stiffness and strength of all cellular materials depends upon the specific elastic modulus and strength of the material used to make the structure. The stiffest and strongest cores for ambient temperature applications utilize carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) honeycombs and lattice structures. Few options exist for lightweight sandwich panels intended for high temperature uses. High temperature alloys such as Ti-6A1-4V can be applied to SiC monofilaments to create very high specific modulus and strength fibers. These are interesting candidates for the cores of elevated temperature sandwich structures such as the skins of hypersonic vehicles. This dissertation explores the potential of sandwich panel concepts that utilize millimeter scale titanium matrix composite (TMC) lattice structures. A method has been developed for fabricating millimeter cell size cellular lattice structures with the square or diamond collinear truss topologies from 240 mum diameter Ti-6A1-4V coated SiC monofilaments (TMC monofilaments). Lattices with relative densities in the range 10% to 20% were manufactured and tested in compression and shear. Given the very high compressive strength of the TMC monofilaments, the compressive strengths of both the square and diamond lattices were dominated by elastic buckling of the constituent struts. However, under shear loading, some of the constituent struts of the lattices are subjected to tensile stresses and failure is then set by tensile failure of the

  6. Structural Analysis and Optimization of a Composite Fan Blade for Future Aircraft Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coroneos, Rula M.; Gorla, Rama Subba Reddy

    2012-09-01

    This paper addresses the structural analysis and optimization of a composite sandwich ply lay-up of a NASA baseline solid metallic fan blade comparable to a future Boeing 737 MAX aircraft engine. Sandwich construction with a polymer matrix composite face sheet and honeycomb aluminum core replaces the original baseline solid metallic fan model made of Titanium. The focus of this work is to design the sandwich composite blade with the optimum number of plies for the face sheet that will withstand the combined pressure and centrifugal loads while the constraints are satisfied and the baseline aerodynamic and geometric parameters are maintained. To satisfy the requirements a sandwich construction for the blade is proposed with composite face sheets and a weak core made of honeycomb aluminum material. For aerodynamic considerations, the thickness of the core is optimized where as the overall blade thickness is held fixed in order not to alter the original airfoil geometry. Weight reduction is taken as the objective function by varying the core thickness of the blade within specified upper and lower bounds. Constraints are imposed on radial displacement limitations and ply failure strength. From the optimum design, the minimum number of plies, which will not fail, is back-calculated. The ply lay-up of the blade is adjusted from the calculated number of plies and final structural analysis is performed. Analyses were carried out by utilizing the OpenMDAO Framework, developed at NASA Glenn Research Center combining optimization with structural assessment.

  7. Formation Mechanism of CuAlO2 Prepared by Rapid Thermal Annealing of Al2O3/Cu2O/Sapphire Sandwich Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, C. H.; Tseng, B. H.

    Single-phase CuAlO2 films were successfully prepared by thin-film reaction of an Al2O3/Cu2O/sapphire sandwich structure. We found that the processing parameters, such as heating rate, holding temperature and annealing ambient, were all crucial to form CuAlO2 without second phases. Thermal annealing in pure oxygen ambient with a lower temperature ramp rate might result in the formation of CuAl2O4 in addition to CuAlO2, since part of Cu2O was oxidized to form CuO and caused the change in reaction path, i.e. CuO + Al2O3 → CuAl2O4. Typical annealing conditions successful to prepare single-phase CuAlO2 would be to heat the sample with a temperature rampt rate higher than 7.3 °C/sec and hold the temperature at 1100 °C in air ambient. The formation mechanism of CuAlO2 has also been studied by interrupting the reaction after a short period of annealing. TEM observations showed that the top Al2O3 layer with amorphous structure reacted immediately with Cu2O to form CuAlO2 in the early stage and then the remaining Cu2O reacted with the sapphire substrate.

  8. Dual-color STED microscopy reveals a sandwich structure of Bassoon and Piccolo in active zones of adult and aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Nishimune, Hiroshi; Badawi, Yomna; Mori, Shuuichi; Shigemoto, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Presynaptic active zones play a pivotal role as synaptic vesicle release sites for synaptic transmission, but the molecular architecture of active zones in mammalian neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) at sub-diffraction limited resolution remains unknown. Bassoon and Piccolo are active zone specific cytosolic proteins essential for active zone assembly in NMJs, ribbon synapses, and brain synapses. These proteins are thought to colocalize and share some functions at active zones. Here, we report an unexpected finding of non-overlapping localization of these two proteins in mouse NMJs revealed using dual-color stimulated emission depletion (STED) super resolution microscopy. Piccolo puncta sandwiched Bassoon puncta and aligned in a Piccolo-Bassoon-Piccolo structure in adult NMJs. P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) puncta colocalized with Bassoon puncta. The P/Q-type VGCC and Bassoon protein levels decreased significantly in NMJs from aged mouse. In contrast, the Piccolo levels in NMJs from aged mice were comparable to levels in adult mice. This study revealed the molecular architecture of active zones in mouse NMJs at sub-diffraction limited resolution, and described the selective degeneration mechanism of active zone proteins in NMJs from aged mice. Interestingly, the localization pattern of active zone proteins described herein is similar to active zone structures described using electron microscope tomography. PMID:27321892

  9. Effective optimization and analysis of white LED properties by using nano-honeycomb patterned phosphor film.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huang-Yu; Wang, Sheng-Wen; Lin, Chien-Chung; Tu, Zong-Yi; Lee, Po-Tsung; Chen, Huang-Ming; Kuo, Hao-Chung

    2016-08-22

    This study presents an approach for patterning a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) phosphor film with a photonic crystal nano-honeycomb structure on a blue chip package. A phosphor film with a nano-honeycomb structure was patterned and transferred using a nanosphere and used for fabricating remote white light-emitting diodes (w-LEDs). The angular correlated color temperature deviation of the remote phosphor LED could be improved by varying nano-honeycomb structure pitches (450, 750, and 1150 nm). In particular, w-LED samples with excellent color uniformity (ΔCCT ranging from 940 to 440 K) were fabricated from 750-nm w-LED samples with nano-honeycomb-patterned tops. PMID:27557183

  10. Hierarchical honeycomb auxetic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousanezhad, Davood; Babaee, Sahab; Ebrahimi, Hamid; Ghosh, Ranajay; Hamouda, Abdelmagid Salem; Bertoldi, Katia; Vaziri, Ashkan

    2015-12-01

    Most conventional materials expand in transverse directions when they are compressed uniaxially resulting in the familiar positive Poisson’s ratio. Here we develop a new class of two dimensional (2D) metamaterials with negative Poisson’s ratio that contract in transverse directions under uniaxial compressive loads leading to auxeticity. This is achieved through mechanical instabilities (i.e., buckling) introduced by structural hierarchy and retained over a wide range of applied compression. This unusual behavior is demonstrated experimentally and analyzed computationally. The work provides new insights into the role of structural organization and hierarchy in designing 2D auxetic metamaterials, and new opportunities for developing energy absorbing materials, tunable membrane filters, and acoustic dampeners.

  11. Hierarchical honeycomb auxetic metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Mousanezhad, Davood; Babaee, Sahab; Ebrahimi, Hamid; Ghosh, Ranajay; Hamouda, Abdelmagid Salem; Bertoldi, Katia; Vaziri, Ashkan

    2015-01-01

    Most conventional materials expand in transverse directions when they are compressed uniaxially resulting in the familiar positive Poisson’s ratio. Here we develop a new class of two dimensional (2D) metamaterials with negative Poisson’s ratio that contract in transverse directions under uniaxial compressive loads leading to auxeticity. This is achieved through mechanical instabilities (i.e., buckling) introduced by structural hierarchy and retained over a wide range of applied compression. This unusual behavior is demonstrated experimentally and analyzed computationally. The work provides new insights into the role of structural organization and hierarchy in designing 2D auxetic metamaterials, and new opportunities for developing energy absorbing materials, tunable membrane filters, and acoustic dampeners. PMID:26670417

  12. Hierarchical honeycomb auxetic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Mousanezhad, Davood; Babaee, Sahab; Ebrahimi, Hamid; Ghosh, Ranajay; Hamouda, Abdelmagid Salem; Bertoldi, Katia; Vaziri, Ashkan

    2015-01-01

    Most conventional materials expand in transverse directions when they are compressed uniaxially resulting in the familiar positive Poisson's ratio. Here we develop a new class of two dimensional (2D) metamaterials with negative Poisson's ratio that contract in transverse directions under uniaxial compressive loads leading to auxeticity. This is achieved through mechanical instabilities (i.e., buckling) introduced by structural hierarchy and retained over a wide range of applied compression. This unusual behavior is demonstrated experimentally and analyzed computationally. The work provides new insights into the role of structural organization and hierarchy in designing 2D auxetic metamaterials, and new opportunities for developing energy absorbing materials, tunable membrane filters, and acoustic dampeners. PMID:26670417

  13. Fulvalene- and polyarene-transition metal-carborane complexes as building blocks for multilevel arrays. Stepwise synthesis and structural characterization of polymetallic linked sandwiches

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.H. Jr.; Sinn, E.; Grimes, R.N. )

    1989-06-21

    The designed synthesis and structural elucidation of a series of linked double-decker and triple-decker arene-metal carborane complexes, in which the sandwich moieties are linked either directly or via bridging phenylene or biphenylene groups, are reported. The reaction of fulvalenide dianion ((C{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 2}{sup 2{minus}}) with CoCl{sub 2} and the Et{sub 2}C{sub 2}B{sub 4}H{sub 5}{sup {minus}} ion generated ((Et{sub 2}C{sub 2}B{sub 4}H{sub 4})Co(C{sub 5}H{sub 4})){sub 2} (1), the first known fulvalene-metal-carborane sandwich species, as air-stable orange crystals. Double-decapitation (removal of the apex BH units) of 1 gave yellow air-stable ((Et{sub 2}C{sub 2}B{sub 3}H{sub 5})Co(C{sub 5}H{sub 4})){sub 2} (3). The interaction of the 1,4-bis(tetramethylcyclopentadienyl)phenylene dianion (Me{sub 4}C{sub 5}-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-C{sub 5}Me{sub 4}){sup 2{minus}} with CoCl{sub 2} and the carborane ion produced orange ((Et{sub 2}C{sub 2}B{sub 4}H{sub 4})Co(C{sub 5}Me{sub 4})){sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 4} (4), which on double-decapitation gave yellow ((Et{sub 2}C{sub 2}B{sub 3}H{sub 5})Co(C{sub 5}Me{sub 4})){sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 4} (6), both compounds isolated as air-stable crystals. Similar treatment of the (Me{sub 4}C{sub 5}-(C{sub 6}H{sub 4}){sub 2}-C{sub 5}Me{sub 4}){sup 2{minus}} dianion gave orange crystals of ((Et{sub 2}C{sub 2}B{sub 4}H{sub 4})Co(C{sub 5}Me{sub 4})){sub 2} (7), which was decapitated to generate yellow ((Et{sub 2}C{sub 2}B{sub 3}H{sub 5})Co(C{sub 5}Me{sub 4})){sub 2}(C{sub 6}H{sub 4}){sub 2} (9); again both species are air-stable.

  14. Honeycomb Betavoltaic Battery for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jin R.; Ulmen, Ben; Miley, George H.

    2008-01-01

    Radioisotopic batteries offer advantages relative to conventional chemical batteries for applications requiring a long lifetime with minimum maintenance. Thus, thermoelectric type cells fueled with Pu have been used extensively on NASA space missions. The design for a small beta battery using nickel-63 (Ni-63) and a vacuum direct collection method is described here. A honeycomb nickel wire structure is employed to achieve bi-directional direct collection by seeding Ni-63 onto honeycomb shaped wires that will provide structural support as well. The battery design is intended to power low power electronics and distribute power needs in space probes as well as space colonies. Ni-63 is chosen as the source emitter because it has a long half-life and ease of manufacturing. The use of vacuum is especially well mated to space use; hence, vacuum insulation is employed to gain a higher efficiency than prior beta batteries with a dielectric insulator. A unique voltage down-converter is incorporated to efficiently reduce the inherent output voltage from 17.4 kV to ~17.4 V. This converter operates like a ``reverse'' Marx circuit where capacitor charging occurs in series but the discharge is in parallel. The reference battery module described here is about 100 cm×100 cm×218 cm and has a power of ~10 W with a conversion efficiency of ~15.8%. These modules can be stacked for higher powers and are very attractive for various applications in space colonization due to their long life (half-life for Ni-63~100 yrs) and low maintenance.

  15. Investigation of the electrical properties of a new PPV derivative-based on a sandwich structure for opto-electronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzarti-Ghédira, Maha; Hrichi, Haikel; Jaballah, Nejmeddine; Ben Chaâbane, Rafik; Majdoub, Mustapha; Ben Ouada, Hafedh

    2012-04-01

    The opto-electronic properties of native poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) were tuned by the confinement of the π-conjugation and the incorporation of a sulphur group as a spacer in order to obtain a blue-green emitting polymer (PPVS). The energy band gap of the PPVS thin film has been measured by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and evaluated to 2.87 eV. Current-voltage characteristics and impedance spectroscopy measurements performed on sandwich structures [ITO/PPVS/Al] are used to elucidate the conduction mechanisms. The static electrical characterisations showed a space charge limited conduction (SCLC) and a conductivity with low power frequency behaviour characteristic of a hopping transport in disordered materials. The impedance spectra can be discussed in terms of an equivalent circuit model designed as a parallel resistor RP and capacitor CP network in series with a resistor RS. We extract numerical values of these parameters by fitting experimental data. Their evolution with bias voltages has shown that the SCLC mechanism is characterised by an exponential trap distribution.

  16. Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO sandwich-structured nanotube arrays with special surface and synergistic effects as high-performance positive electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Han; Zhang, Chi; Zhou, Wen; Li, Gao-Ren

    2015-10-28

    High power density, high energy density and excellent cycling stability are the main requirements for high-performance supercapacitors (SCs) that will be widely used for portable consumer electronics and hybrid electric vehicles. Here we investigate novel types of hybrid Co(OH)2/reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/NiO sandwich-structured nanotube arrays (SNTAs) as positive electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). The synthesized Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO SNTAs exhibit a significantly improved specific capacity (∼1470 F g(-1) at 5 mV s(-1)) and excellent cycling stability with ∼98% Csp retention after 10 000 cycles because of the fast transport and short diffusion paths for electroactive species, the high utilization rate of electrode materials, and special synergistic effects among Co(OH)2, RGO, and NiO. The high-performance ASCs are assembled using Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO SNTAs as positive electrodes and active carbon (AC) as negative electrodes, and they exhibit a high energy density (115 Wh kg(-1)), a high power density (27.5 kW kg(-1)) and an excellent cycling stability (less 5% Csp loss after 10 000 cycles). This study shows an important breakthrough in the design and fabrication of multi-walled hybrid nanotube arrays as positive electrodes for ASCs. PMID:26416358

  17. Investigation of the electronic structures of organolanthanide sandwich complex anions by photoelectron spectroscopy: 4f orbital contribution in the metal-ligand interaction.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Natsuki; Yada, Keizo; Masuda, Tomohide; Nakajo, Erika; Yabushita, Satoshi; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2014-05-01

    The electronic structures of lanthanide (Ln) ions sandwiched between 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene (COT), Ln(COT)2(-), have been investigated by anion photoelectron spectroscopy. Complexes of 12 Ln atoms were investigated (excluding promethium (Pm), europium (Eu), and ytterbium (Yb)). The 213 nm photoelectron (PE) spectra of Ln(COT)2(-) exhibit two peaks assignable to the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO; e2u) and the next HOMO (HOMO-1; e2g) approximately at 2.6 and 3.6 eV, respectively, and their energy gap increases as the central metal atom progresses from lanthanum (La) to lutetium (Lu). Since lanthanide contraction shortens the distance between the Ln atom and the COT ligands, the widening energy gap represents the destabilization of the e2u orbital as well as the stabilization of the e2g orbital. Evidence for 4f orbital contribution in the metal-ligand interaction has been revealed by the Ln atom dependence in which the same e2u orbital symmetry enables an interaction between the 4f orbital of Ln atoms and the π orbital of COT. PMID:24742246

  18. Three-dimensional tin dioxide/carbon composite constructed by hollow nanospheres with quasi-sandwich structures as improved anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Qinghua; Tian, Yang; Zhang, Zhengxi; Yang, Li; Hirano, Shin-ichi

    2016-02-01

    Tin dioxide (SnO2)-based materials have been considered to be promisingly alternative advanced anode materials for lithium-ion batteries and thus attracted wide attention. So far, the research focus of SnO2-based anode materials is to search and develop effective strategies for overcoming the obstacles, such as rapid capacity fading and poor rate capability, which seriously impede the practical application of SnO2-based electrodes. Herein, we have successfully combined nanoscale SnO2 with 3-dimensional carbon (C) conductivity framework to form a 3-dimensional unparalleled SnO2/C composite constructed by closely interconnected hollow nanospheres with quasi-sandwich structures. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the as-prepared SnO2/C composite exhibits improved cycling performance and high rate capability, delivering a high capacity of 576.6 mAh g-1 at 200 mA g-1 even after 500 cycles, and a capacity of 411.7 mAh g-1 even at 5 A g-1 during rate test. The unparalleled 3-dimensional architecture should be responsible for the good electrochemical performance.

  19. The Effects of Foam Thermal Protection System on the Damage Tolerance Characteristics of Composite Sandwich Structures for Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, A. T.; Hodge, A. J.; Jackson, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    For any structure composed of laminated composite materials, impact damage is one of the greatest risks and therefore most widely tested responses. Typically, impact damage testing and analysis assumes that a solid object comes into contact with the bare surface of the laminate (the outer ply). However, most launch vehicle structures will have a thermal protection system (TPS) covering the structure for the majority of its life. Thus, the impact response of the material with the TPS covering is the impact scenario of interest. In this study, laminates representative of the composite interstage structure for the Ares I launch vehicle were impact tested with and without the planned TPS covering, which consists of polyurethane foam. Response variables examined include maximum load of impact, damage size as detected by nondestructive evaluation techniques, and damage morphology and compression after impact strength. Results show that there is little difference between TPS covered and bare specimens, except the residual strength data is higher for TPS covered specimens.

  20. Evaluation of superplastic forming and co-diffusion bonding of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy expanded sandwich structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvin, G. H.; Israeli, L.; Stolpestad, J. H.; Stacher, G. W.

    1981-01-01

    The application of the superplastic forming/diffusion bonding (SPF/DB) process to supersonic cruise research is investigated. The capability of an SPF/DB titanium structure to meet the structural requirements of the inner wing area of the NASA arrow-wing advanced supersonic transport design is evaluated. Selection of structural concepts and their optimization for minimum weight, SPF/DB process optimization, fabrication of representative specimens, and specimen testing and evaluation are described. The structural area used includes both upper and lower wing panels, where the upper wing panel is used for static compression strength evaluation and the lower panel, in tension, is used for fracture mechanics evaluations. The individual test specimens, cut from six large panels, consist of 39 static specimens, 10 fracture mechanics specimens, and one each full size panel for compression stability and fracture mechanics testing. Tests are performed at temperatures of -54 C (-65 F), room temperature, and 260 C (500 F).

  1. Electronics speckle interferometry applications for NDE of spacecraft structural components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, M. V.; Samuel, R.; Ananthan, A.; Dasgupta, S.; Nair, P. S.

    2008-09-01

    The spacecraft components viz., central cylinder, deck plates, solar panel substrates, antenna reflectors are made of aluminium/composite honeycomb sandwich construction. Detection of these defects spacecraft structural components is important to assess the integrity of the spacecraft structure. Electronic Speckle Interferometry (ESI) techniques identify the defects as anomalous regions in the interferometric fringe patterns of the specklegram while the component is suitably stressed to give rise to differential displacement/strain around the defective region. Calibration studies, different phase shifting methods associated with ESI and the development of a prototype Twin Head ESSI System (THESSIS) and its use for the NDE of a typical satellite structural component are presented.

  2. Structural performance of two aerobrake hexagonal heat shield panel concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsey, John T.; Dyess, James W.

    1992-01-01

    Structural sizing and performance are presented for two structural concepts for an aerobrake hexagonal heat shield panel. One concept features a sandwich construction with an aluminum honeycomb core and thin quasi-isotropic graphite-epoxy face sheets. The other concept features a skin-rib isogrid construction with thin quasi-isotropic graphite-epoxy skins and graphite-epoxy ribs oriented at 0, +60, and -60 degs along the panel. Linear static, linear bifurcation buckling, and nonlinear static analyses were performed to compare the structural performance of the two panel concepts and assess their feasibility for a lunar transfer vehicle aerobrake application.

  3. Optimization of Sandwich Composites Fuselages Under Flight Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chongxin; Bergsma, Otto; Koussios, Sotiris; Zu, Lei; Beukers, Adriaan

    2012-02-01

    The sandwich composites fuselages appear to be a promising choice for the future aircrafts because of their structural efficiency and functional integration advantages. However, the design of sandwich composites is more complex than other structures because of many involved variables. In this paper, the fuselage is designed as a sandwich composites cylinder, and its structural optimization using the finite element method (FEM) is outlined to obtain the minimum weight. The constraints include structural stability and the composites failure criteria. In order to get a verification baseline for the FEM analysis, the stability of sandwich structures is studied and the optimal design is performed based on the analytical formulae. Then, the predicted buckling loads and the optimization results obtained from a FEM model are compared with that from the analytical formulas, and a good agreement is achieved. A detailed parametric optimal design for the sandwich composites cylinder is conducted. The optimization method used here includes two steps: the minimization of the layer thickness followed by tailoring of the fiber orientation. The factors comprise layer number, fiber orientation, core thickness, frame dimension and spacing. Results show that the two-step optimization is an effective method for the sandwich composites and the foam sandwich cylinder with core thickness of 5 mm and frame pitch of 0.5 m exhibits the minimum weight.

  4. Demonstration of Minimally Machined Honeycomb Silicon Carbide Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, William

    2012-01-01

    Honeycomb silicon carbide composite mirrors are made from a carbon fiber preform that is molded into a honeycomb shape using a rigid mold. The carbon fiber honeycomb is densified by using polymer infiltration pyrolysis, or through a reaction with liquid silicon. A chemical vapor deposit, or chemical vapor composite (CVC), process is used to deposit a polishable silicon or silicon carbide cladding on the honeycomb structure. Alternatively, the cladding may be replaced by a freestanding, replicated CVC SiC facesheet that is bonded to the honeycomb. The resulting carbon fiber-reinforced silicon carbide honeycomb structure is a ceramic matrix composite material with high stiffness and mechanical strength, high thermal conductivity, and low CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion). This innovation enables rapid, inexpensive manufacturing. The web thickness of the new material is less than 1 millimeter, and core geometries tailored. These parameters are based on precursor carbon-carbon honeycomb material made and patented by Ultracor. It is estimated at the time of this reporting that the HoneySiC(Trademark) will have a net production cost on the order of $38,000 per square meter. This includes an Ultracor raw material cost of about $97,000 per square meter, and a Trex silicon carbide deposition cost of $27,000 per square meter. Even at double this price, HoneySiC would beat NASA's goal of $100,000 per square meter. Cost savings are estimated to be 40 to 100 times that of current mirror technologies. The organic, rich prepreg material has a density of 56 kilograms per cubic meter. A charred carbon-carbon panel (volatile organics burnt off) has a density of 270 kilograms per cubic meter. Therefore, it is estimated that a HoneySiC panel would have a density of no more than 900 kilograms per cubic meter, which is about half that of beryllium and about onethird the density of bulk silicon carbide. It is also estimated that larger mirrors could be produced in a matter of weeks

  5. Effect of the fabrication process on fatigue performance of U 3Si 2 fuel plate with sandwich structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xi-Shu; Li, Shuang-Shou; Wang, Qing-Yuan; Xu, Yong

    2005-06-01

    U 3Si 2-Al fuel plate is one of the dispersion fuel structure materials recently developed and widely used in research reactors. The mechanical properties of this structural material, especially the fatigue performance, are strongly dependent on its fabrication process. To investigate the effects of these processing technologies, the fatigue tests for the different specimens were carried out. The S- N curves indicate that the fabrication processing technologies of U 3Si 2 fuel plate, such as the addition of U 3Si 2 particles into aluminum powder to form the fuel meat, holding and rolling the processes of meat and cladding of 6061-Al alloy, plays an important role in improving the mechanical properties and fatigue performance of this fuel plate. In addition, some factors that influence the crack initiation and propagation are summarized based on the fatigue images that are in situ observations with SEM. The critical criterion for fatigue damage is proposed based on the fatigue data of the structural material, which were obtained at the different conditions.

  6. Sandwich-like heat-resistance composite separators with tunable pore structure for high power high safety lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Junli; Shen, Tao; Hu, Huasheng; Xia, Yonggao; Liu, Zhaoping

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate a new kind of composite separators. A unique feature of the separators is the three-tier structure, i.e. the crosslinked polyethylene glycol (PEG) skin layer being formed on both sides of the nonwoven separators by in-situ polymerization and the large pores in the interior of the nonwoven separators being remained. The surface pore structure and the thickness of the skin layer could be adjusted by controlling the concentration of the coating solution. The skin layer is proved to be able to provide internal short circuit protection, to contribute a more stable interfacial resistance and to alleviate liquid electrolyte leakage effectively, yielding an excellent cyclability. The remained large pores in the interior of the composite separators could provide an access for the fast transportation of lithium ions, giving rise to a very high ion conductivity. The polyimide (PI) nonwoven is employed to ensure enhanced thermal stability of the composite separators. More notably, the composite separators fabricated from the coating solution with a composition ratio of 20 wt% provide superior cell performances owing to the well-tailored microporous structure, comparing with the commercialized polypropylene (PP) separator, which show great promise for the application in the high power lithium ion batteries.

  7. Development, testing, and numerical modeling of a foam sandwich biocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chachra, Ricky

    This study develops a novel sandwich composite material using plant based materials for potential use in nonstructural building applications. The face sheets comprise woven hemp fabric and a sap based epoxy, while the core comprises castor oil based foam with waste rice hulls as reinforcement. Mechanical properties of the individual materials are tested in uniaxial compression and tension for the foam and hemp, respectively. The sandwich composite is tested in 3 point bending. Flexural results are compared to a finite element model developed in the commercial software Abaqus, and the validated model is then used to investigate alternate sandwich geometries. Sandwich model responses are compared to existing standards for nonstructural building panels, showing that the novel material is roughly half the strength of equally thick drywall. When space limitations are not an issue, a double thickness sandwich biocomposite is found to be a structurally acceptable replacement for standard gypsum drywall.

  8. Honeycombs in honeycombs: complex liquid crystal alumina composite mesostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruibin; Zeng, Xianbing; Prehm, Marko; Liu, Feng; Grimm, Silko; Geuss, Markus; Steinhart, Martin; Tschierske, Carsten; Ungar, Goran

    2014-05-27

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to study orientation patterns of two polyphilic liquid crystals (LC) confined to cylindrical pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO). The hierarchical hybrid systems had the LC honeycomb (lattice parameter 3.5-4 nm) inside the pores of the AAO honeycomb (diameters 60 and 400 nm). By conducting complete reciprocal space mapping using SAXS, we conclude that the columns of both compounds align in planes normal to the AAO pore axis, with a specific crystallographic direction of the LC lattice aligning strictly parallel to the pore axis. AFM of LC-containing AAO fracture surfaces further revealed that the columns of the planar anchoring LC (compound 1) formed concentric circles in the plane normal to the pore axis near the AAO wall. Toward the pore center, the circles become anisometric "racetrack" loops consisting of two straight segments and two semicircles. This mode compensates for slight ellipticity of the pore cross section. Indications are, however, that for perfectly circular pores, circular shape is maintained right to the center of the pore, the radius coming down to the size of a molecule. For the homeotropically anchoring compound 2, the columns are to the most part straight and parallel to each other, arranged in layers normal to the AAO pore axis, like logs in an ordered pile. Only near the pore wall the columns splay somewhat. In both cases, columns are confined to layers strictly perpendicular to the AAO pore axis, and there is no sign of escape to the third dimension or of axial orientation, the latter having been reported previously for some discotic LCs. The main cause of the two new LC configurations, the "racetrack" and the "logpile", and of their difference from those of confined nematic LC, is the very high splay energy and low bend energy of columnar phases. PMID:24758721

  9. Thermal conductivity of Rene 41 honeycomb panels. [space transportation vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deriugin, V.

    1980-01-01

    Effective thermal conductivities of Rene 41 panels suitable for advanced space transportation vehicle structures were determined analytically and experimentally for temperature ranges between 20.4K (423 F) and 1186K (1675 F). The cryogenic data were obtained using a cryostat whereas the high temperature data were measured using a heat flow meter and a comparative thermal conductivity instrument respectively. Comparisons were made between analysis and experimental data. Analytical methods appear to provide reasonable definition of the honeycomb panel effective thermal conductivities.

  10. Fabrication of prepackaged superalloy honeycomb Thermal Protection System (TPS) panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, W.; Meaney, J. E.; Rosenthal, H. A.

    1985-01-01

    High temperature materials were surveyed, and Inconel 617 and titanium were selected for application to a honeycomb TPS configuration designed to withstand 2000 F. The configuration was analyzed both thermally and structurally. Component and full-sized panels were fabricated and tested to obtain data for comparison with analysis. Results verified the panel design. Twenty five panels were delivered to NASA Langley Research Center for additional evaluation.

  11. Evaluation of high temperature structural adhesives for extended service, phase 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, C. L.; Hill, S. G.; Hale, J. N.; Dumars, W. G.

    1987-01-01

    The evaluation of 3 experimental polymers from NASA-Langley and a commercially produced polymer from Mitsui Toatsu Chemicals as high temperature structural adhesives is presented. A polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ), polyimide (STPI/LaRC-2), and a polyarylene ether (PAE-SO2) were evaluated as metal-to-metal adhesives. Lap shear, crack extension, and climbing drum peel specimens were fabricated from all three polymers and tested after thermal, combined thermal/humidity, and stressed hydraulic fluid (Skydrol) exposure. The fourth polymer, LARC-TPI was evaluated as an adhesive for titanium honeycomb sandwich structure. All three experimental polymers performed well as metal-to-metal adhesives from 219 K (-65 F) to 505 K (450 F), including humidity exposure. Structural adhesive strength was also maintained at 505 K for a minimum of 3000 hours. LaRC-TPI was evaluated as a high temperature (505 K) adhesive for titanium honeycomb sandwich structure. The LaRC-TPI bonding process development concentrated on improving the honeycomb core-to-skin bond. The most promising approach of those evaluated combined a LaRC-TPI polymer solution with a semi-crystalline LaRC-TPI powder for adhesive film fabrication and fillet formation.

  12. Tests of graphite/polyimide sandwich panels in uniaxial edgewise compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, C. J.

    1980-01-01

    The local and general buckling behavior of graphite/polyimide sandwich panels simply supported along all four edges and loaded in uniaxial edgewise compression were investigated. Material properties of sandwich panel constituents (adhesive and facings) were determined from flatwise tension and sandwich beam flexure tests. Buckling specimens were 30.5 by 33 cm, had quasi-isotropic, symmetric facings, and a glass/polyimide honeycomb core. Core thicknesses were varied and three panels of each thickness were tested at room temperature to investigate failure modes and corresponding buckling loads. Specimens 0.635 cm thick failed by overall buckling at loads close to the analytically predicted buckling load; all other panels failed by face wrinkling. Results of the wrinkling tests indicated that several buckling formulas were unconservative and therefore not suitable for design purposes; a recommended wrinkling equation is presented.

  13. Verification Of Residual Strength Properties From Compression After Impact Tests On Thin CFRP Skin, A1 Honeycomb Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalnins, Kaspars; Graham, Adrian J.; Sinnema, Gerben

    2012-07-01

    This article presents a study of CFRP/Al honeycomb panels subjected to a low velocity impact which, as a result, caused strength reduction. The main scope of the current study was to investigate experimental procedures, which are not well standardized and later verify them with numerical simulations. To ensure integrity of typical lightweight structural panels of modern spacecraft, knowledge about the impact energy required to produce clearly visible damage, and the resulting strength degradation is of high importance. For this initial investigation, Readily available ‘heritage’ (1980s) sandwich structure with relatively thin skin was used for this investigation. After initial attempts to produce impact damage, it was decided to create quasistatic indentation instead of low velocity impact, to cause barely visible damage. Forty two edgewise Compressions After Impact (CAI) test specimens have been produced and tested up to failure, while recording the strain distribution by optical means during the tests. Ultrasonic C-scan inspection was used to identify the damage evolution before and after each test. The optical strain measurements acquired during the tests showed sensitivity level capable to track the local buckling of damaged region.

  14. Mononuclear and binuclear sandwich copper(II) complexes with poly(pyrazolyl)borate ligands: Syntheses, structures and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Y. H.; Zhang, X. J.; Sun, Z.; Han, J.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, B. L.; Ge, M. F.; Niu, S. Y.

    2007-12-01

    A series of Cu(II) complexes Cu 2[μ-pz] 2[HB(pz) 3] 2 ( 1), Cu[H 2B(pz) 2] 2 ( 2), Cu[HB(pz) 3] 2 ( 3), Cu[HB(pz Me2) 3] 2 ( 4), Cu[B(pz) 4] 2 ( 5) (pz = pyrazole), have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-vis, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and theoretical analysis. The IR spectra give the Cu-N vibration modes at 322, 366, 344, 387, and 380 cm -1 in complexes 1- 5, respectively. The UV spectra show all the complexes have same UV absorption at 232 nm; there is another band at 332 nm for complexes 1, 2 and 4, while for complexes 3 and 5, the bands are at 272 and 308 nm, respectively. Complex 1 has a binuclear structure in which two pyrazole ligands bridge two Cu-Tp units. In 2- 5, the Cu(II) centers are coordinated with dihydrobis(pyrazolyl)borate (Bp), hydrotris(pyrazolyl)borate (Tp), hydrotris(3,5-Me2pyrazolyl)borate (Tp'), tetrakis(pyrazolyl)borate (Tkp) respectively to form a mononuclear structure. The results of thermal analysis for complexes 1- 5 are discussed too.

  15. Loop-Nodal and Point-Nodal Semimetals in Three-Dimensional Honeycomb Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezawa, Motohiko

    2016-03-01

    A honeycomb structure has a natural extension to three dimensions. Simple examples are hyperhoneycomb and stripy-honeycomb lattices, which are realized in β -Li2IrO3 and γ -Li2IrO3 , respectively. We propose a wide class of three-dimensional (3D) honeycomb lattices which are loop-nodal semimetals. Their edge states have intriguing properties similar to the two-dimensional honeycomb lattice in spite of a dimensional difference. Partial flat bands emerge at the zigzag or bearded edge of the 3D honeycomb lattice, whose boundary is given by the Fermi loop in the bulk spectrum. On the other hand, perfect flat bands emerge in the zigzag-bearded edge or when the anisotropy is large. The loop-nodal structure is destroyed once staggered potential or antiferromagnetic order is introduced. All these 3D honeycomb lattices become strong topological insulators with the inclusion of the spin-orbit interaction (SOI). Furthermore, point-nodal semimetals may be realized in the presence of both antiferromagnetic order and the SOI. We construct the effective four-band theory with the SOI to understand the physics near the Fermi level, based upon which the density of states and the dc conductivity are calculated.

  16. Loop-Nodal and Point-Nodal Semimetals in Three-Dimensional Honeycomb Lattices.

    PubMed

    Ezawa, Motohiko

    2016-03-25

    A honeycomb structure has a natural extension to three dimensions. Simple examples are hyperhoneycomb and stripy-honeycomb lattices, which are realized in β-Li_{2}IrO_{3} and γ-Li_{2}IrO_{3}, respectively. We propose a wide class of three-dimensional (3D) honeycomb lattices which are loop-nodal semimetals. Their edge states have intriguing properties similar to the two-dimensional honeycomb lattice in spite of a dimensional difference. Partial flat bands emerge at the zigzag or bearded edge of the 3D honeycomb lattice, whose boundary is given by the Fermi loop in the bulk spectrum. On the other hand, perfect flat bands emerge in the zigzag-bearded edge or when the anisotropy is large. The loop-nodal structure is destroyed once staggered potential or antiferromagnetic order is introduced. All these 3D honeycomb lattices become strong topological insulators with the inclusion of the spin-orbit interaction (SOI). Furthermore, point-nodal semimetals may be realized in the presence of both antiferromagnetic order and the SOI. We construct the effective four-band theory with the SOI to understand the physics near the Fermi level, based upon which the density of states and the dc conductivity are calculated. PMID:27058097

  17. Synthesis and structural characterization of two half-sandwich nickel(II) complexes with the scorpionate ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.-F. E-mail: s-shuwen@163.com; Zhang, X.; Sun, S.-W.; Sun, H.; Ma, H.-X.

    2015-12-15

    The synthesis and characterization of two new halfsandwich mononuclear nickel(II) complexes with the scorpionate ligands, [k{sup 3}-N, N',N''-Tp{sup t-Bu}, {sup Me}NiI] (1) and [k{sup 3}-N,N',N''-Tp{sup t-Bu}, {sup Me}NiNO{sub 3}] (2), are reported. These complexes have been fully characterized by elemental analyses and infrared spectra. Their molecular structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The nickel(II) ion of complex 1 is in a four-coordinate environment, in which the donor atoms are provided by three nitrogen atoms of a hydrotris(pyrazolyl) borate ligand and one iodide atom, while that of complex 2 is in a five-coordinate environment with three nitrogen atoms from a hydrotris(pyrazolyl)borate ligand and two oxygen atoms from a nitrate ion.

  18. Synthesis and structural characterization of two half-sandwich nickel(II) complexes with the scorpionate ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.-F.; Zhang, X.; Sun, S.-W.; Sun, H.; Ma, H.-X.

    2015-12-01

    The synthesis and characterization of two new halfsandwich mononuclear nickel(II) complexes with the scorpionate ligands, [ k 3- N, N', N''- Tp t-Bu, Me NiI] ( 1) and [ k 3- N, N', N''- Tp t-Bu, Me NiNO3] ( 2), are reported. These complexes have been fully characterized by elemental analyses and infrared spectra. Their molecular structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The nickel(II) ion of complex 1 is in a four-coordinate environment, in which the donor atoms are provided by three nitrogen atoms of a hydrotris(pyrazolyl) borate ligand and one iodide atom, while that of complex 2 is in a five-coordinate environment with three nitrogen atoms from a hydrotris(pyrazolyl)borate ligand and two oxygen atoms from a nitrate ion.

  19. Arsenene: Two-dimensional buckled and puckered honeycomb arsenic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, C.; Ezawa, Motohiko

    2015-02-01

    Recently, phosphorene, a monolayer honeycomb structure of black phosphorus, was experimentally manufactured and has attracted rapidly growing interest. Motivated by phosphorene, here we investigate the stability and electronic properties of the honeycomb structure of the arsenic system based on first-principles calculations. Two types of honeycomb structures, buckled and puckered, are found to be stable. We call them arsenenes, as in the case of phosphorene. We find that both buckled and puckered arsenenes possess indirect gaps. We show that the band gap of puckered and buckled arsenenes can be tuned by applying strain. The gap closing occurs at 6% strain for puckered arsenene, where the bond angles between the nearest neighbors become nearly equal. An indirect-to-direct gap transition occurs by applying strain. Specifically, 1% strain is enough to transform puckered arsenene into a direct-gap semiconductor. We note that a bulk form of arsenic called gray arsenic exists which can be used as a precursor for buckled arsenene. Our results will pave the way for applications to light-emitting diodes and solar cells.

  20. Impact resistance of lightweight hybrid structures for gas turbine engine fan containment applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebsur, Mohan G.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Revilock, Duane M.

    2003-08-01

    The ballistic impact resistance of hybrid composite sandwich structures was evaluated with the ultimate goal of developing new materials or structures for potential gas turbine engine, fan containment applications. The sandwich structures investigated consisted of GLARE-5 (Aviation Equipment, Inc., Costa Mesa, CA) laminates as face sheets with lightweight cellular metallic materials such as honeycomb, foam, and lattice block as a core material. The impact resistance of these hybrid sandwich structures was compared with GLARE-5 laminates and 2024-T3 Al sheets, which were tested as a function of areal weight (material thickness). The GLARE-5 laminates exhibited comparable impact properties to that of 2024-T3 Al at low areal weights, even though there were significant differences in the static tensile properties of these materials. The GLARE-5, however, did have a greater ballistic limit than straight aluminum sheet at higher areal weights. Furthermore, there is up to a 25% advantage in ballistic limit for the GLARE-5/foam sandwich structures compared with straight 2024-T3 Al. But no advantage in ballistic limit was observed between any of the hybrid sandwich structures and thicker versions of GLARE-5. Recommendations for future work are provided, based on these preliminary data.

  1. Impact Resistance of Lightweight Hybrid Structures for Gas Turbine Engine Fan Containment Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan G.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Revilock, Duane M.

    2003-01-01

    The ballistic impact resistance of hybrid composite sandwich structures was evaluated with the ultimate goal of developing new materials or structures for potential gas turbine engine fan containment applications. The sandwich structures investigated consisted of GLARE-5 laminates as face sheets with lightweight cellular metallic materials such as honeycomb, foam, and lattice block as a core material. The impact resistance of these hybrid sandwich structures was compared to GLARE-5 laminates and 2024-T3 Al sheet, which were tested as a function of areal weight (material thickness). The GLARE-5 laminates exhibited comparable impact properties to that of 2024-T3 Al at low areal weights, even though there were significant differences in the static tensile properties of these materials. The GLARE-5, however, did have a greater ballistic limit than straight aluminum sheet at higher areal weights. Furthermore, there is up to a 25% advantage in ballistic limit for the GLARE-5/foam sandwich structures compared to straight 2024-T3 Al. But no advantage in ballistic limit was observed between any of the hybrid sandwich structures and thicker versions of GLARE-5. Recommendations for future work are provided, based on these preliminary data.

  2. Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO sandwich-structured nanotube arrays with special surface and synergistic effects as high-performance positive electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Han; Zhang, Chi; Zhou, Wen; Li, Gao-Ren

    2015-10-01

    High power density, high energy density and excellent cycling stability are the main requirements for high-performance supercapacitors (SCs) that will be widely used for portable consumer electronics and hybrid electric vehicles. Here we investigate novel types of hybrid Co(OH)2/reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/NiO sandwich-structured nanotube arrays (SNTAs) as positive electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). The synthesized Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO SNTAs exhibit a significantly improved specific capacity (~1470 F g-1 at 5 mV s-1) and excellent cycling stability with ~98% Csp retention after 10 000 cycles because of the fast transport and short diffusion paths for electroactive species, the high utilization rate of electrode materials, and special synergistic effects among Co(OH)2, RGO, and NiO. The high-performance ASCs are assembled using Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO SNTAs as positive electrodes and active carbon (AC) as negative electrodes, and they exhibit a high energy density (115 Wh kg-1), a high power density (27.5 kW kg-1) and an excellent cycling stability (less 5% Csp loss after 10 000 cycles). This study shows an important breakthrough in the design and fabrication of multi-walled hybrid nanotube arrays as positive electrodes for ASCs.High power density, high energy density and excellent cycling stability are the main requirements for high-performance supercapacitors (SCs) that will be widely used for portable consumer electronics and hybrid electric vehicles. Here we investigate novel types of hybrid Co(OH)2/reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/NiO sandwich-structured nanotube arrays (SNTAs) as positive electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). The synthesized Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO SNTAs exhibit a significantly improved specific capacity (~1470 F g-1 at 5 mV s-1) and excellent cycling stability with ~98% Csp retention after 10 000 cycles because of the fast transport and short diffusion paths for electroactive species, the high utilization rate of electrode materials, and

  3. Graphene-antenna sandwich photodetector.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zheyu; Liu, Zheng; Wang, Yumin; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2012-07-11

    Nanoscale antennas sandwiched between two graphene monolayers yield a photodetector that efficiently converts visible and near-infrared photons into electrons with an 800% enhancement of the photocurrent relative to the antennaless graphene device. The antenna contributes to the photocurrent in two ways: by the transfer of hot electrons generated in the antenna structure upon plasmon decay, as well as by direct plasmon-enhanced excitation of intrinsic graphene electrons due to the antenna near field. This results in a graphene-based photodetector achieving up to 20% internal quantum efficiency in the visible and near-infrared regions of the spectrum. This device can serve as a model for merging the light-harvesting characteristics of optical frequency antennas with the highly attractive transport properties of graphene in new optoelectronic devices. PMID:22703522

  4. High-performance planar green light-emitting diodes based on a PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbBr3/ZnO sandwich structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhi-Feng; Sun, Xu-Guang; Wu, Di; Xu, Ting-Ting; Zhuang, Shi-Wei; Tian, Yong-Tao; Li, Xin-Jian; Du, Guo-Tong

    2016-05-01

    Recently, perovskite-based light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide emitters have attracted much attention because of their excellent properties of high color purity, tunable emission wavelength and a low-temperature processing technique. As is well-known, organic light-emitting diodes have shown powerful capabilities in this field; however, the fabrication of these devices typically relies on high-temperature and high-vacuum processes, which increases the final cost of the product and renders them uneconomical for use in large-area displays. Organic/inorganic hybrid halide perovskites match with these material requirements, as it is possible to prepare such materials with high crystallinity through solution processing at low temperature. Herein, we demonstrated a high-brightness green light-emitting diode based on PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbBr3/ZnO sandwich structures by a spin-coating method combined with a sputtering system. Under forward bias, a dominant emission peak at ~530 nm with a low full width of half-maximum (FWHM) of 30 nm can be achieved at room temperature. Owing to the high surface coverage of the CH3NH3PbBr3 layer and a device design based on carrier injection and a confinement configuration, the proposed diode exhibits good electroluminescence performance, with an external quantum efficiency of 0.0645%. More importantly, we investigated the working stability of the studied diode under continuous operation to verify the sensitivity of the electroluminescence performance to ambient atmosphere and to assess the suitability of the diode for practical applications. Moreover, the underlying reasons for the undesirable emission decay are tentatively discussed. This demonstration of an effective green electroluminescence based on CH3NH3PbBr3 provides valuable information for the design and development of perovskites as efficient emitters, thus facilitating their use in existing applications and suggesting new potential applications.

  5. Manufacturing processes for fabricating graphite/PMR 15 polyimide structural elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheppard, C. H.; Hoggatt, J. T.; Symonds, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    Investigations were conducted to obtain commercially available graphite/PMR-15 polyimide prepreg, develop an autoclave manufacturing process, and demonstrate the process by manufacturing structural elements. Controls were established on polymer, prepreg, composite fabrication, and quality assurance, Successful material quality control and processes were demonstrated by fabricating major structural elements including flat laminates, hat sections, I beam sections, honeycomb sandwich structures, and molded graphite reinforced fittings. Successful fabrication of structural elements and simulated section of the space shuttle aft body flap shows that the graphite/PMR-15 polyimide system and the developed processes are ready for further evaluation in flight test hardware.

  6. Nanoscale Superconducting Honeycomb Charge Order in IrTe2.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Sung; Kim, Sooran; Kim, Kyoo; Min, Byung Il; Cho, Yong-Heum; Wang, Lihai; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Yeom, Han Woong

    2016-07-13

    Entanglement of charge orderings and other electronic orders such as superconductivity is in the core of challenging physics issues of complex materials including high temperature superconductivity. Here, we report on the observation of a unique nanometer scale honeycomb charge ordering of the cleaved IrTe2 surface, which hosts a superconducting state. IrTe2 was recently established to exhibit an intriguing cascade of stripe charge orders. The stripe phases coexist with a hexagonal phase, which is formed locally and falls into a superconducting state below 3 K. The atomic and electronic structures of the honeycomb and hexagon pattern of this phase are consistent with the charge order nature, but the superconductivity does not survive on neighboring stripe charge order domains. The present work provides an intriguing physics issue and a new direction of functionalization for two-dimensional materials. PMID:27221583

  7. Nanoscale Superconducting Honeycomb Charge Order in IrTe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyo Sung; Kim, Sooran; Kim, Kyoo; Min, Byung Il; Cho, Yong-Heum; Wang, Lihai; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Yeom, Han Woong

    2016-07-01

    Entanglement of charge orderings and other electronic orders such as superconductivity is in the core of challenging physics issues of complex materials including high temperature superconductivity. Here, we report on the observation of a unique nanometer scale honeycomb charge ordering of the cleaved IrTe2 surface, which hosts a superconducting state. IrTe2 was recently established to exhibit an intriguing cascade of stripe charge orders. The stripe phases coexist with a hexagonal phase, which is formed locally and falls into a superconducting state below 3 K. The atomic and electronic structures of the honeycomb and hexagon pattern of this phase are consistent with the charge order nature but the superconductivity does not survive on neighboring stripe charge order domains. The present work provides an intriguing physics issue and a new direction of functionalization for two dimensional materials.

  8. Synthesis, structure, and spectroscopic and magnetic properties of mesomorphic octakis(hexylthio)-substituted phthalocyanine rare-earth metal sandwich complexes.

    PubMed

    Gürek, Ayse Gül; Basova, Tamara; Luneau, Dominique; Lebrun, Colette; Kol'tsov, Evgeny; Hassan, Aseel K; Ahsen, Vefa

    2006-02-20

    The syntheses of new bis[octakis(hexylthio)phthalocyaninato] rare-earth metal(III) double-decker complexes [(C6S)8-Pc]2M (M = Gd(III), Dy(III), and Sm(III)) (2-4, respectively) are described. These compounds are very soluble in most common organic solvents. They have been fully characterized using elemental analysis, infrared, UV-vis spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. The crystal structures of compounds 2-4 have been determined by X-ray diffraction on a single crystal. They are isostructural and crystallize in the monoclinic space group (space group C2/c). Their lattice constants have been determined in the following order: (2) a = 31.629(4) Angstroms, b = 32.861(4) Angstroms, c = 20.482(2) Angstroms, beta = 126.922(2) degrees, V = 17019(3) Angstroms(3); (3) a = 31.595(2) Angstroms, b = 32.816(2) Angstroms, c = 20.481(1) Angstroms, beta = 127.005(1) degrees, V = 16958(2) Angstroms(3); (4) a = 31.563(2) Angstroms, b = 32.796(2) Angstroms, c = 20.481(1) Angstroms, beta = 127.032 degrees, V = 16924(2) Angstroms(3). The magnetic properties of compounds 2-4 were studied, and it was revealed that the lanthanide ions and the radical delocalized on the two phthalocyanine rings are weakly interacting. The mesogenic properties of these new materials were studied by differential scanning calorimetry and optical microscopy. These phthalocyanine derivatives form columnar-hexagonal (Col(h)) mesophases. Thin films of bis[octakis(hexylthio)phthalocyaninato] rare-earth metal(III) double-decker complexes (2-4) were prepared by a spin-coating technique. Thermally induced molecular reorganization within films of bis[octakis(hexylthio)phthalocyaninato] rare-earth metal(III) double-decker complexes (2-4) was studied by the methods of ellipsometry, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Heat treatment produces molecular ordering, which is believed to be due to stacking interaction between neighboring phthalocyanine moieties. PMID:16471979

  9. Design Criteria for X-CRV Honeycomb Panels: A Preliminary Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caccese, Vincent; Verinder, Irene

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this project is to perform the first step in developing structural design criteria for composite sandwich panels that are to be used in the aeroshell of the crew return vehicle (X-CRV). The preliminary concept includes a simplified method for assessing the allowable strength in the laminate material. Ultimately, it is intended that the design criteria be extended to address the global response of the vehicle. This task will require execution of a test program as outlined in the recommendation section of this report. The aeroshell of the X-CRV is comprised of composite sandwich panels consisting of fiberite face sheets and a phenolic honeycomb core. The function of the crew return vehicle is to enable the safe return of injured or ill crewpersons from space station, the evacuation of crew in case of emergency or the return of crew if an orbiter is not available. A significant objective of the X-CRV project is to demonstrate that this vehicle can be designed, built and operated at lower cost and at a significantly faster development time. Development time can be reduced by driving out issues in both structural design and manufacturing concurrently. This means that structural design and analysis progresses in conjunction with manufacturing and testing. Preliminary tests results on laminate coupons are presented in the report. Based on these results a method for detection material failure in the material is presented. In the long term, extrapolation of coupon data to large scale structures may be inadequate. Test coupons used to develop failure criteria at the material scale are typically small when compared to the overall structure. Their inherent small size indicates that the material failure criteria can be used to predict localized failure of the structure, however, it can not be used to predict failure for all failure modes. Some failure modes occur only when the structure or one of its sub-components are studied as a whole. Conversely, localized

  10. A honeycomb composite of mollusca shell matrix and calcium alginate.

    PubMed

    You, Hua-jian; Li, Jin; Zhou, Chan; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Yao-guang

    2016-03-01

    A honeycomb composite is useful to carry cells for application in bone, cartilage, skin, and soft tissue regenerative therapies. To fabricate a composite, and expand the application of mollusca shells as well as improve preparing methods of calcium alginate in tissue engineering research, Anodonta woodiana shell powder was mixed with sodium alginate at varying mass ratios to obtain a gel mixture. The mixture was frozen and treated with dilute hydrochloric acid to generate a shell matrix/calcium alginate composite. Calcium carbonate served as the control. The composite was transplanted subcutaneously into rats. At 7, 14, 42, and 70 days after transplantation, frozen sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, followed by DAPI, β-actin, and collagen type-I immunofluorescence staining, and observed using laser confocal microscopy. The composite featured a honeycomb structure. The control and composite samples displayed significantly different mechanical properties. The water absorption rate of the composite and control group were respectively 205-496% and 417-586%. The composite (mass ratio of 5:5) showed good biological safety over a 70-day period; the subcutaneous structure of the samples was maintained and the degradation rate was lower than that of the control samples. Freezing the gel mixture afforded control over chemical reaction rates. Given these results, the composite is a promising honeycomb scaffold for tissue engineering. PMID:26700239

  11. One-to-One Embedding between Honeycomb Mesh and Petersen-Torus Networks

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jung-Hyun; Sim, Hyun; Park, Dae-Heon; Park, Jang-Woo; Lee, Yang-Sun

    2011-01-01

    As wireless mobile telecommunication bases organize their structure using a honeycomb-mesh algorithm, there are many studies about parallel processing algorithms like the honeycomb mesh in Wireless Sensor Networks. This paper aims to study the Peterson-Torus graph algorithm in regard to the continuity with honeycomb-mesh algorithm in order to apply the algorithm to sensor networks. Once a new interconnection network is designed, parallel algorithms are developed with huge research costs to use such networks. If the old network is embedded in a newly designed network, a developed algorithm in the old network is reusable in a newly designed network. Petersen-Torus has been designed recently, and the honeycomb mesh has already been designed as a well-known interconnection network. In this paper, we propose a one-to-one embedding algorithm for the honeycomb mesh (HMn) in the Petersen-Torus PT(n,n), and prove that dilation of the algorithm is 5, congestion is 2, and expansion is 5/3. The proposed one-to-one embedding is applied so that processor throughput can be minimized when the honeycomb mesh algorithm runs in the Petersen-Torus. PMID:22319392

  12. Oxidation of hydrogen isotopes over honeycomb catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munakata, Kenzo; Wajima, Takaaki; Hara, Keisuke; Wada, Kohei; Shinozaki, Yohei; Katekari, Kenichi; Mochizuki, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Masahiro; Uda, Tatsuhiko

    2011-10-01

    In the process of development of D-T fusion power reactors, recovery of tritium released into the last confinement system would be a key issue related to safety. If an accidental leakage of tritium takes place in a fusion power plant, a large volume of air should be detritiated with an air cleanup system (ACS). In ACS, tritium gas is converted to tritiated water vapor with a catalyst bed, and then which is recovered with an adsorption bed. In this study, the authors examined the applicability of honeycomb-type catalysts to ACS. A screening test of catalysts for oxidation of hydrogen and deuterium was performed using various honeycomb-type and pebble-type catalysts. Experimental results reveal that a honeycomb-type catalyst possesses a high oxidation performance for oxidation of hydrogen isotopes. Furthermore, the isotope effect on the oxidation of hydrogen isotopes over the honeycomb-type catalyst was thoroughly examined and quantified using tritium.

  13. Elastic stability of superplastically formed/diffusion-bonded orthogonally corrugated core sandwich plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    The paper concerns the elastic buckling behavior of a newly developed superplastically formed/diffusion-bonded (SPF/DB) orthogonally corrugated core sandwich plate. Uniaxial buckling loads were calculated for this type of sandwich plate with simply supported edges by using orthotropic sandwich plate theory. The buckling behavior of this sandwich plate was then compared with that of an SPF/DB unidirectionally corrugated core sandwich plate under conditions of equal structural density. It was found that the buckling load for the former was considerably higher than that of the latter.

  14. Development of pressure containment and damage tolerance technology for composite fuselage structures in large transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. J.; Thomson, L. W.; Wilson, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    NASA sponsored composites research and development programs were set in place to develop the critical engineering technologies in large transport aircraft structures. This NASA-Boeing program focused on the critical issues of damage tolerance and pressure containment generic to the fuselage structure of large pressurized aircraft. Skin-stringer and honeycomb sandwich composite fuselage shell designs were evaluated to resolve these issues. Analyses were developed to model the structural response of the fuselage shell designs, and a development test program evaluated the selected design configurations to appropriate load conditions.

  15. Order parameters from image analysis: a honeycomb example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaatz, Forrest H.; Bultheel, Adhemar; Egami, Takeshi

    2008-11-01

    Honeybee combs have aroused interest in the ability of honeybees to form regular hexagonal geometric constructs since ancient times. Here we use a real space technique based on the pair distribution function (PDF) and radial distribution function (RDF), and a reciprocal space method utilizing the Debye-Waller Factor (DWF) to quantify the order for a range of honeycombs made by Apis mellifera ligustica. The PDFs and RDFs are fit with a series of Gaussian curves. We characterize the order in the honeycomb using a real space order parameter, OP 3 , to describe the order in the combs and a two-dimensional Fourier transform from which a Debye-Waller order parameter, u, is derived. Both OP 3 and u take values from [0, 1] where the value one represents perfect order. The analyzed combs have values of OP 3 from 0.33 to 0.60 and values of u from 0.59 to 0.69. RDF fits of honeycomb histograms show that naturally made comb can be crystalline in a 2D ordered structural sense, yet is more ‘liquid-like’ than cells made on ‘foundation’ wax. We show that with the assistance of man-made foundation wax, honeybees can manufacture highly ordered arrays of hexagonal cells. This is the first description of honeycomb utilizing the Debye-Waller Factor, and provides a complete analysis of the order in comb from a real-space order parameter and a reciprocal space order parameter. It is noted that the techniques used are general in nature and could be applied to any digital photograph of an ordered array.

  16. Pressurized honeycombs as soft-actuators: a theoretical study

    PubMed Central

    Guiducci, Lorenzo; Fratzl, Peter; Bréchet, Yves J. M.; Dunlop, John W. C.

    2014-01-01

    The seed capsule of Delosperma nakurense is a remarkable example of a natural hygromorph, which unfolds its protecting valves upon wetting to expose its seeds. The beautiful mechanism responsible for this motion is generated by a specialized organ based on an anisotropic cellular tissue filled with a highly swelling material. Inspired by this system, we study the mechanics of a diamond honeycomb internally pressurized by a fluid phase. Numerical homogenization by means of iterative finite-element (FE) simulations is adapted to the case of cellular materials filled with a variable pressure fluid phase. Like its biological counterpart, it is shown that the material architecture controls and guides the otherwise unspecific isotropic expansion of the fluid. Deformations up to twice the original dimensions can be achieved by simply setting the value of input pressure. In turn, these deformations cause a marked change of the honeycomb geometry and hence promote a stiffening of the material along the weak direction. To understand the mechanism further, we also developed a micromechanical model based on the Born model for crystal elasticity to find an explicit relation between honeycomb geometry, swelling eigenstrains and elastic properties. The micromechanical model is in good qualitative agreement with the FE simulations. Moreover, we also provide the force-stroke characteristics of a soft actuator based on the pressurized anisotropic honeycomb and show how the internal pressure has a nonlinear effect which can result in negative values of the in-plane Poisson's ratio. As nature shows in the case of the D. nakurense seed capsule, cellular materials can be used not only as low-weight structural materials, but also as simple but convenient actuating materials. PMID:24966238

  17. Development and Mechanical Behavior of FML/Aluminium Foam Sandwiches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baştürk, S. B.; Tanoğlu, M.

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the Fiber-Metal Laminates (FMLs) containing glass fiber reinforced polypropylene (GFPP) and aluminum (Al) sheet were consolidated with Al foam cores for preparing the sandwich panels. The aim of this article is the comparison of the flexural properties of FML/Al foam sandwich panels bonded with various surface modification approaches (silane treatment and combination of silane treatment with polypropylene (PP) based film addition). The FML/foam sandwich systems were fabricated by laminating the components in a mould at 200 °C under 1.5 MPa pressure. The energy absorbtion capacities and flexural mechanical properties of the prepared sandwich systems were evaluated by mechanical tests. Experiments were performed on samples of varying foam thicknesses (8, 20 and 30 mm). The bonding among the sandwich components were achieved by various surface modification techniques. The Al sheet/Al foam sandwiches were also consolidated by bonding the components with an epoxy adhesive to reveal the effect of GFPP on the flexural performance of the sandwich structures.

  18. A consistent large deflection theory of composite sandwich shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jinfu

    1993-05-01

    Composite sandwich shells are important structures in aeronautical and astronautical industry. The theory, especially nonlinear theory, of them is still required to be advanced so as to meet the demand of engineering application. With Lagrangian description, the consistent Green strain tensor, the compatibility equations and the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor of the composite sandwich shells are obtained. Based on these results and several assumptions, the constitutive equations relating the stress resultants to the strains, the strain energy density and the potential energy functional are further developed. In terms of minimum potential energy principle, the equilibrium equations and associated boundary conditions are obtained, which are consistent with the first order approximation under the conditions of small strain accompanied with moderate/small rotation. In terms of the structural features of the shallow composite sandwich shells, the equations obtained are further processed approximately and Donnel-type equations for the shallow composite sandwich shells are obtained.

  19. Fiber-Reinforced-Foam (FRF) Core Composite Sandwich Panel Concept for Advanced Composites Technologi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Fiber-Reinforced-Foam (FRF) Core Composite Sandwich Panel Concept for Advanced Composites Technologies Project - Preliminary Manufacturing Demonstration Articles for Ares V Payload Shroud Barrel Acreage Structure

  20. Edge states in polariton honeycomb lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milićević, M.; Ozawa, T.; Andreakou, P.; Carusotto, I.; Jacqmin, T.; Galopin, E.; Lemaître, A.; Le Gratiet, L.; Sagnes, I.; Bloch, J.; Amo, A.

    2015-09-01

    The experimental study of edge states in atomically thin layered materials remains a challenge due to the difficult control of the geometry of the sample terminations, the stability of dangling bonds, and the need to measure local properties. In the case of graphene, localized edge modes have been predicted in zigzag and bearded edges, characterized by flat dispersions connecting the Dirac points. Polaritons in semiconductor microcavities have recently emerged as an extraordinary photonic platform to emulate 1D and 2D Hamiltonians, allowing the direct visualization of the wavefunctions in both real- and momentum-space as well as of the energy dispersion of eigenstates via photoluminescence experiments. Here we report on the observation of edge states in a honeycomb lattice of coupled micropillars. The lowest two bands of this structure arise from the coupling of the lowest energy modes of the micropillars, and emulate the π and π* bands of graphene. We show the momentum-space dispersion of the edge states associated with the zigzag and bearded edges, holding unidimensional quasi-flat bands. Additionally, we evaluate polarization effects characteristic of polaritons on the properties of these states.