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Sample records for hong in-ju song

  1. Numerical Simulation of Petroleum Generation and Migration in the Song Hong Basin, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Byeong-Kook; Thi Nguyen, Hong; Park, Mee-Sook

    2014-05-01

    The numerical modeling of petroleum systems is an effective tool to understand generation, migration and accumulation of hydrocarbons in a sedimentary basin and hence to determine future targets for the hydrocarbon exploration. The numerical modeling identifies two petroleum systems in the Song Hong Basin, which is a petroliferous Cenozoic basin, offshore eastern Vietnam. These petroleum systems were named DinhCao-PhuCu(.) Petroleum System and SongHuong-BienDong(.) Petroleum System. DinhCao-PhuCu(.) Petroleum System covers northern and central parts of the Song Hong basin with Oligocene shale and coaly shale source rocks of Dinh Cao formation, which are dominated by type II-III kerogens. The hydrocarbon generation starts at 13 Ma within deeply buried Oligocene strata located in the centre of the basin. The hydrocarbon expels from the Oligocene source rock and migrates laterally and then up dip toward marginal areas where Middle Miocene sandstones of Phu Cu formation are present as major reservoirs. The numerical model shows that the critical moment occurs at about 3.5 Ma. The DinhCao-PhuCu(.) petroleum system is confirmed by sparse occurrence of oil and gas along the coast of eastern Vietnam. SongHuong-BienDong(.) Petroleum System is identified in limited areas of the central and southern Song Hong basin. The major source rock of this petroleum system is Lower Miocene dark claystones of Song Huong formation which contain gas prone, type III kerogen. The migration model shows that hydrocarbons are generated from the Miocene source rocks in the center of the basin at about 12 Ma, and migrates updip through sand bodies of Quang Ngai formation to the major boundaries faults, and further moves into highly permeable up-dipping units, the Bien Dong formation. The best depiction of the generation-migration-accumulation of hydrocarbons occurs at about 2 Ma. The presence of the SongHuong-BienDong(.) Petroleum System is indicated by the large gas fields in the central and

  2. Structure and sediment budget of Yinggehai-Song Hong basin, South China Sea: Implications for Cenozoic tectonics and river basin reorganization in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Chao; Ren, Jianye; Sternai, Pietro; Fox, Matthew; Willett, Sean; Xie, Xinong; Clift, Peter D.; Liao, Jihua; Wang, Zhengfeng

    2015-08-01

    The temporal link between offshore stratigraphy and onshore topography is of key importance for understanding the long-term surface evolution of continental margins. Here we present a grid of regional, high-quality reflection seismic and well data to characterize the basin structure. We identify fast subsidence of the basin basement and a lack of brittle faulting of the offshore Red River fault in the Yinggehai-Song Hong basin since 5.5 Ma, despite dextral strike-slip movement on the onshore Red River fault. We calculate the upper-crustal, whole-crustal, and whole-lithospheric stretching factors for the Yinggehai-Song Hong basin, which show that the overall extension observed in the upper crust is substantially less than that observed for the whole crust or whole lithosphere. We suggest that fast basement subsidence after 5.5 Ma may arise from crustal to lithospheric stretching by the regional dynamic lower crustal/mantle flow originated by collision between India-Eurasia and Indian oceanic subduction below the Eurasian margin. In addition, we present a basin wide sediment budget in the Yinggehai-Song Hong basin to reconstruct the sedimentary flux from the Red River drainage constrained by high-resolution age and seismic stratigraphic data. The sediment accumulation rates show a sharp increase at 5.5 Ma, which suggests enhanced onshore erosion rates despite a slowing of tectonic processes. This high sediment supply filled the accommodation space produced by the fast subsidence since 5.5 Ma. Our data further highlight two prominent sharp decreases of the sediment accumulation at 23.3 Ma and 12.5 Ma, which could reflect a loss of drainage area following headwater capture from the Paleo-Red River. However, the low accumulation rate at 12.5 Ma also correlates with drier and therefore less erosive climatic conditions.

  3. Data mining of external and internal forcing of fluvial systems for catchment management: A case study on the Red River (Song Hong), Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Rafael; Bizzi, Simone; Castelletti, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    The understanding of river hydromorphological processes has been recognized in the last decades as a priority of modern catchment management, since interactions of natural and anthropogenic forces within the catchment drives fluvial geomorphic processes, which shape physical habitat, affect river infrastructures and influence freshwater ecological processes. The characterization of river hydromorphological features is commonly location and time specific and highly resource demanding. Therefore, its routine application at regional or national scales and the assessment of spatio-temporal changes as reaction to internal and external disturbances is rarely feasible at present. Information ranging from recently available high-resolution remote-sensing data (such as DEM), historic data such as land use maps or aerial photographs and monitoring networks of flow and rainfall, open up novel and promising capacity for basin-wide understanding of dominant hydromorphological drivers. Analysing the resulting multiparametric data sets in their temporal and spatial dimensions requires sophisticated data mining tools to exploit the potential of this information. We propose a novel framework that allows for the quantitative assessment of multiparametric data sets to identify classes of channel reaches characterized by similar geomorphic drivers using remote-sensing data and monitoring networks available in the catchment. This generic framework was applied to the Red River (Song Hong) basin, the second largest basin (87,800 sq.km) in Vietnam. Besides its economic importance, the river is experiencing severe river bed incisions due to recent construction of new dams in the upstream part of the catchment and sand mining in the surrounding of the capital city Hanoi. In this context, characterized by an high development rate, current efforts to increase water productivity and minimize impacts on the fluvial systems by means of focused infrastructure and management measures require a

  4. Japanese; Japanese Songs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This supplementary textbook for students of Japanese presents a collection of 43 songs--folk songs, nursery songs, lullabies, love songs, wedding songs, graduation songs, the national anthem, drinking songs, school songs, and Christmas carols. With the exception of the carols, the musical scores are presented with their Japanese lyrics. The…

  5. Arabic Songs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This collection of 10 songs was prepared as supplementary material for the Defense Language Institute's basic course in Modern Standard Arabic. The songs appear in Arabic script with special vocabulary items glossed in English. The lyrics also appear in transliteration at the end of the text. Musical scores accompany some of the selections. [Not…

  6. Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    1986-02-01

    This discussion of Hong Kong focuses on the following: geography; the people; history; government; political conditions; and the economy. In 1984 the population of Hong Kong totaled 5.4 million with an annual growth rate of 1.3%. The infant mortality rate is 9.9/1000; life expectancy is 76 years. Hong Kong adjoins Guangdong province on the southeastern coast of the Chinese mainland. It consists of Hong Kong and Lan Tao islands, the Kowloon Peninsula, and more than 200 smaller islands. Hong Kong's population consists of about 98% ethnic Chinese and 2% other ethnic groups, mostly European. Only 57.2% of the population were born in Hong Kong. Cantonese is the Chinese dialect spoken by most of the territory's population, but English is widely understood. Not until after 1949 did Hong Kong develop into a leading manufacturing, commercial, and tourist center. Hong Kong's foreign relations are the responsibility of the British government, but considerable autonomy has been permitted in the area of commercial relations. Following the June 30, 1997, expiration date of the lease on the New Territories, which comprise 92% of Hong Kong's total area, Hong Kong will become a Special Administrative Region of China in 1997. Hong Kong has little arable land and virtually no natural resources. The colony always has depended on foreign trade. Hong Kong has developed into a center of light manufacturing and international finance. In 1984, Hong Kong's foreign trade was valued at $57 billion. Hong Kongs economy has recovered strongly from the 1981-82 recession. PMID:12178122

  7. Strawberry Square. Song Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Tom

    Designed to accompany a series of 33 television programs in music education for kindergarten and first grade children, this song book (containing sheet music) correlates with activities in the teacher's guide. Titles of songs included in the book are: Let a Song Tell a Story (short and long versions); If I Had a Hammer; A Happy Street; Let the…

  8. Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    1988-11-01

    The 5.7 million residents of Hong Kong are primarily Chinese (98%), and while Cantonese is prevalently spoken, the official language is English. The larger part of the work force is concentrated in the area of industry and commerce (71%) with most of the remaining work force concentrated in the area of services (28%). The literacy rate is 90%. Hong Kong is ruled by a governor appointed by the British monarch. Hong Kong is a free market open to trade and commerce; the GDP (1987) is 45 billion dollars. In 1997, Hong Kong will return to Chinese rule, but it will remain a Special Administrative Region of China and will keep its political, economic and judicial systems. The infant mortality rate is 9.9/1000 and life expectancy is 76 years. The median age has increased from 20.7 in 1970 to 26 today. PMID:12178013

  9. Koyukon Athabaskan Dance Songs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulu, Tupou L.

    Nineteen songs sung at potlach activities to honor the dead have been transcribed and compiled to foster greater understanding and appreciation among Alaskan school children of the place of songs in the life of the Central Koyukon Athabaskans who believe that singing and dancing allow emotional release from the sadness of losing a loved one. The…

  10. French Basic Course: Supplementary Material. Song Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This song book is presented as supplementary material for the French Basic Course. It provides the words to 36 French songs. The songs are divided into five categories: (1) military songs, (2) sea songs, (3) drinking songs, (4) folklore songs, and (5) Christmas carols. (AMH)

  11. Update Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Martin F.

    This book is a guide intended for persons planning on relocating to Hong Kong. Following an overview of the history and culture of Hong Kong, 12 additional chapters lead the reader step-by-step through the relocation process. These chapter topics include: before leaving, on arrival, language, doing business in Hong Kong, customs and courtesies,…

  12. Cognitive processes in bird song

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cynx, Jeffrey

    2001-05-01

    Anthropomorphic hypotheses can alter previous ethological concepts. Songbirds have been traditionally categorized as open- or close-ended learners. Open-ended learners such as canaries and starlings continue to learn new songs throughout life. Close-ended learners such as song sparrows and zebra finches appear to learn song once and then repeat this song in a stereotyped or crystallized manner for the rest of their lives. Research over the last dozen years or so has produced evidence that whatever is close-ended in songbirds may be more than a little ajar. It is clear that adult song is a highly dynamic and closely monitored act. In these regards, it has a number of cognitive processes similar to human speech. Birds appear to continually monitor their own song, being able to stop in midsong if necessary. They also regulate the song amplitude given environmental and social conditions, and show song perturbations when experiencing delayed auditory feedback. However, so far as is known, close-ended learners cannot learn new song elements from a model, although there are hints to the contrary, including both behavioral and physiological results.

  13. Ultrasonic Songs of Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Previously it was shown that male mice, when they encounter female mice or their pheromones, emit ultrasonic vocalizations with frequencies ranging over 30–110 kHz. Here, we show that these vocalizations have the characteristics of song, consisting of several different syllable types, whose temporal sequencing includes the utterance of repeated phrases. Individual males produce songs with characteristic syllabic and temporal structure. This study provides a quantitative initial description of male mouse songs, and opens the possibility of studying song production and perception in an established genetic model organism. PMID:16248680

  14. Song Recognition in Zebra Finches: Are There Sensitive Periods for Song Memorization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braaten, Richard F.

    2010-01-01

    Male zebra finches learn to sing songs that they hear between 25 and 65 days of age, the sensitive period for song learning. In this experiment, male and female zebra finches were exposed to zebra finch songs either before (n = 9) or during (n = 4) the sensitive period. Following song exposure, recognition memory for the songs was assessed with an…

  15. Primary song by a juvenile willow flycatcher

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sogge, M.K.

    1997-01-01

    The timing of song development in suboscines, in which song appears not to be learned from other adults is poorly known. The Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii) is a suboscine with a primary song typically referred to as fitz-bew. I report here an instance of very early singing by a 6-8-wk-old Willow Flycatcher, which sang in an aggressive context in response to a recording of adult flycatcher song. This is exceptionally early development of primary song, even among suboscines. Early song development may assist in the defense of winter territories.

  16. Drinking Songs: Alcohol Effects on Learned Song of Zebra Finches

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Christopher R.; Owen, Devin C.; Ryabinin, Andrey E.; Mello, Claudio V.

    2014-01-01

    Speech impairment is one of the most intriguing and least understood effects of alcohol on cognitive function, largely due to the lack of data on alcohol effects on vocalizations in the context of an appropriate experimental model organism. Zebra finches, a representative songbird and a premier model for understanding the neurobiology of vocal production and learning, learn song in a manner analogous to how humans learn speech. Here we show that when allowed access, finches readily drink alcohol, increase their blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) significantly, and sing a song with altered acoustic structure. The most pronounced effects were decreased amplitude and increased entropy, the latter likely reflecting a disruption in the birds’ ability to maintain the spectral structure of song under alcohol. Furthermore, specific syllables, which have distinct acoustic structures, were differentially influenced by alcohol, likely reflecting a diversity in the neural mechanisms required for their production. Remarkably, these effects on vocalizations occurred without overt effects on general behavioral measures, and importantly, they occurred within a range of BEC that can be considered risky for humans. Our results suggest that the variable effects of alcohol on finch song reflect differential alcohol sensitivity of the brain circuitry elements that control different aspects of song production. They also point to finches as an informative model for understanding how alcohol affects the neuronal circuits that control the production of learned motor behaviors. PMID:25536524

  17. Hong Kong: country profile.

    PubMed

    Fozzard, A

    1988-09-01

    In the 1840s, the small fishing community that is now Hong Kong became a British colony and an important naval base for the Opium Wars. Now it is a leading capitalist center operating on mainland communist China. Hong Kong is scheduled to go back to China in 1997. In the agreement signed between the British government and China, Hong Kong's present lifestyle is guaranteed for at least 50 years. Textbook colonialism rules here. Foreigners hold the key jobs and earn much more than do the indigenous people. They even receive subsidized housing in this very high rent colony. As for the Hong Kong Chinese, overcrowding into 2 room apartments is the norm even though the government tries to provide more housing units. The large skyscrapers in the New Territories breed their unique social and mental health problems, such as poverty, drug abuse and frustration. Essentially all food is imported from communist China, yet agriculture in Hong Kong does exist--pig farms, duck lakes, and fields of the popular vegetable choi sum. Major industry comprise textiles and sweat shops which pay their workers (mostly illegal immigrants and children with no legal protection) wages that are 1/4 of those paid in Great Britain. Financial services, trade, and tourism may soon dominate Hong Kong's economy. Almost 4 million tourists visit Hong Kong yearly, often looking for bargains. Despite Hong Kong's active Western-like business climate, Chinese culture still abounds. Traditional incense burns in Buddhist temples. Snake soup is served in restaurants. Plus traditional medicine practiced alongside Western medicine contributes to Hong Kong having 1 of the lowest infant mortality rates in the world (9/1000) and to its high life expectancy of 76 years. PMID:12282043

  18. Predicting bird song from space

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Thomas B; Harrigan, Ryan J; Kirschel, Alexander N G; Buermann, Wolfgang; Saatchi, Sassan; Blumstein, Daniel T; de Kort, Selvino R; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Environmentally imposed selection pressures are well known to shape animal signals. Changes in these signals can result in recognition mismatches between individuals living in different habitats, leading to reproductive divergence and speciation. For example, numerous studies have shown that differences in avian song may be a potent prezygotic isolating mechanism. Typically, however, detailed studies of environmental pressures on variation in animal behavior have been conducted only at small spatial scales. Here, we use remote-sensing data to predict animal behavior, in this case, bird song, across vast spatial scales. We use remotely sensed data to predict the song characteristics of the little greenbul (Andropadus virens), a widely distributed African passerine, found across secondary and mature rainforest habitats and the rainforest-savanna ecotone. Satellite data that captured ecosystem structure and function explained up to 66% of the variation in song characteristics. Song differences observed across habitats, including those between human-altered and mature rainforest, have the potential to lead to reproductive divergence, and highlight the impacts that both natural and anthropogenic change may have on natural populations. Our approach offers a novel means to examine the ecological correlates of animal behavior across large geographic areas with potential applications to both evolutionary and conservation biology. PMID:24062797

  19. "Bird Song Metronomics": Isochronous Organization of Zebra Finch Song Rhythm.

    PubMed

    Norton, Philipp; Scharff, Constance

    2016-01-01

    The human capacity for speech and vocal music depends on vocal imitation. Songbirds, in contrast to non-human primates, share this vocal production learning with humans. The process through which birds and humans learn many of their vocalizations as well as the underlying neural system exhibit a number of striking parallels and have been widely researched. In contrast, rhythm, a key feature of language, and music, has received surprisingly little attention in songbirds. Investigating temporal periodicity in bird song has the potential to inform the relationship between neural mechanisms and behavioral output and can also provide insight into the biology and evolution of musicality. Here we present a method to analyze birdsong for an underlying rhythmic regularity. Using the intervals from one note onset to the next as input, we found for each bird an isochronous sequence of time stamps, a "signal-derived pulse," or pulse(S), of which a subset aligned with all note onsets of the bird's song. Fourier analysis corroborated these results. To determine whether this finding was just a byproduct of the duration of notes and intervals typical for zebra finches but not dependent on the individual duration of elements and the sequence in which they are sung, we compared natural songs to models of artificial songs. Note onsets of natural song deviated from the pulse(S) significantly less than those of artificial songs with randomized note and gap durations. Thus, male zebra finch song has the regularity required for a listener to extract a perceived pulse (pulse(P)), as yet untested. Strikingly, in our study, pulses(S) that best fit note onsets often also coincided with the transitions between sub-note elements within complex notes, corresponding to neuromuscular gestures. Gesture durations often equaled one or more pulse(S) periods. This suggests that gesture duration constitutes the basic element of the temporal hierarchy of zebra finch song rhythm, an interesting parallel

  20. "Singin' the Blues": Women in Song.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Donald V. S.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity to demonstrate how popular music can perpetuate the stereotyping of women. Identifies materials needed, suggested songs, and questions to ask students. Suggests homework assignment dealing with contemporary songs. (DK)

  1. Songs for Residential Outdoor Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Diane, Comp.

    A collection of songs for residential outdoor education programs gives the lyrics to 42 recent and traditonal songs. Recent songs include "Leaving on a Jet Plane,""Blowin' in the Wind,""Country Roads,""Last Thing on My Mind,""City of New Orleans,""Me and Bobby McGee,""Moon River," and "I Shall be Released." Modern folk songs included are "Jamaica…

  2. Courtship Love Songs: doublesex Makes the Connection.

    PubMed

    Arbeitman, Michelle N; Newell, Nicole R

    2016-06-20

    During courtship, Drosophila melanogaster males sing to females a song composed of rhythmic pulses and sine song. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Shirangi et al. (2016) show that a cluster of doublesex-expressing neurons directs the production of the sine song component through functional linkages to wing motoneurons. PMID:27326925

  3. Looking Back: Teaching "Landeskunde" with "Liedermacher" Songs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rundell, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Popular music is a "lingua franca" for young people. The songs of German "Liedermacher" lend themselves to classroom uses. "Liedermacher" are cultural commentators who entertain and edify with their songs. Focusing on social and political aspects of postwar Germany, "Liedermacher" songs have been a "gesungene Landeskunde" resource since the early…

  4. Some Contemporary Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Songs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Richard E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents several new rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) songs. Claims that the songs may be used in both academic and therapeutic settings as a humorous way to address cognitive distortions or irrational beliefs. Reports that students and clients have responded favorably to these songs. (RJM)

  5. The Referent of Children's Early Songs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mang, Esther

    2005-01-01

    Musical creativity during early childhood is readily exemplified in vocal behaviours. This paper is a discussion of observations on children's performance of learned songs and self-generated songs. Longitudinal observations suggest that self-generated songs may be seen as referent-guided improvisation using source materials derived from learned…

  6. Songs that Teach: Using Song-Poems to Teach Critically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Guiding students through a unit of study in any discipline can be a challenging endeavor. Answers to possible questions that may be raised about historical events and literary texts cannot be confined to just one text, one author's point of view, or even one genre. The song-poem, in combination with poetry, novels, nonfiction, and other genres, is…

  7. Lingering with Dicey: Robin's Song.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Laura S.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a case study which shows how a middle school student was transformed through her interactions with her teacher, the novels she read, and her journal. Discusses how a single text, "Dicey's Song" by Cynthia Voigt, became the touchstone that the student returned to throughout the school year, generating the potential for intertextuality…

  8. Humpback whale song: A new review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, Adam S.

    2003-04-01

    The humpback whale song has been described and investigated since the early 1970s. Much has been learned about the humpback whale social structure, but the understanding of the song and its function remains elusive. The hierarchical nature of the song structure was described early on: Songs can be sung for a long period, apparently by males, and primarily during the mating season. However, singers also become physically competitive, suggesting alternative mating strategies. There are a number of unique structural features of song. Its structure evolves over time and combination. The nature of song evolution strongly implies cultural transmission. Song structure appears to be shared within an entire population, even though there appears to be little interchange of individuals between sub populations. Despite over thirty years of inquiry there are still numerous unanswered questions: Why is the song structure so complex? Is song a sexual advertisement, an acoustic space mediation mechanism, or both? How do females choose mates, or do they? What drives song evolution, and why is there so much variation in the rate of change? Are there nonreproductive functions of song? What prompts a male to begin or end singing? Our current understanding and the outstanding questions yet to be answered will be reviewed.

  9. [Songs in music therapy with children].

    PubMed

    Stegemann, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    For most of us, songs and nursery rhymes have a special emotional quality and, thus, are part of the basic repertoire of a music therapist. This paper outlines the meaning and applicability of songs in music therapy with children. The first part discusses the significance of songs within the context of developmental psychology, referring to the development of basic psychological functions such as motorical skills, language, cognition, emotion, mental representations, motivation and intention. The second part deals with indications and objectives as well as different applications of songs in music therapy. Traditional and new nursery rhymes, free renderings, playing songs, spontaneous tunes, welcome and farewell songs and semi-structured tunes are introduced. Finally, the article reviews the diverse therapeutical functions of songs within the process of music therapy as well as essential qualifications for a music therapist. PMID:17323817

  10. Cover song identification by sequence alignment algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chih-Li; Zhong, Qian; Wang, Szu-Ying; Roychowdhury, Vwani

    2011-10-01

    Content-based music analysis has drawn much attention due to the rapidly growing digital music market. This paper describes a method that can be used to effectively identify cover songs. A cover song is a song that preserves only the crucial melody of its reference song but different in some other acoustic properties. Hence, the beat/chroma-synchronous chromagram, which is insensitive to the variation of the timber or rhythm of songs but sensitive to the melody, is chosen. The key transposition is achieved by cyclically shifting the chromatic domain of the chromagram. By using the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) to obtain the time sequences of songs, the system is made even more robust. Similar structure or length between the cover songs and its reference are not necessary by the Smith-Waterman Alignment Algorithm.

  11. English Usage in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunton, David, Ed.; Green, Christopher F., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Articles contained in this special issue on language usage in Hong Kong, particularly in the context of elementary and secondary education, include: "A Comparison of English Errors Made by Hong Kong Students and Those Made by Non-Native Learners of English Internationally" (David Bunton); "Errors in Guides to English Usage for Hong Kong Students"…

  12. Holography in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Kang M.

    1995-02-01

    Before 1984, to a westerner Hong Kong was hardly a recognizable dot on a world atlas. It is a Chinese city and a British colony. At midnight on 30 June 1997, Britain will end its century and a half of colonial rule in Hong Kong, leaving China to resume sovereignty over its six million people. Since 1990, in the stress of this crisis Hong Kong prospers at a time of global recession. This also creates many opportunities in higher education among the youngsters. The success of the city attracts, at least 12% of persons who emigrated in the 10 years before 1992 have returned to Hong Kong. This dramatic change brings in unexpected new information and high technologies to the city. Holography is one of these new technologies. It was rarely understood by the general population before the 1980s. But with the scattered efforts of some research workers from the academic and commercial groups along with the prosperity of the city, the subject of holography has become increasingly popular. This report gives a quick survey on the major activities of holography in Hong Kong.

  13. Factors limiting song acquisition in adult zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Funabiki, Yasuko; Funabiki, Kazuo

    2009-09-15

    Song learning takes place in two separate or partially overlapping periods, a sensory phase in which a tutor song is memorized and a sensorimotor phase in which a copy of the model is produced. The stage of song development where song becomes stable and stereotyped is called crystallization. Adult birds usually do not learn new song in many species including the zebra finch. However, it is not known whether song crystallization as such or aging impedes adult learning. Exposure to loud noises prevents birds from developing and crystallizing their song, because they cannot control their voice by auditory feedback. Zebra finches even without previous experience of hearing or singing a song failed to learn a song model provided in adulthood. Thus, neither the absence of a tutor song nor the lack of song crystallization enables new song learning in adulthood, but age per se limits the ability or motivation to learn song. PMID:19623623

  14. Songs of a Medicine Woman. Native Language and Culture Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Alice; Bennett, Ruth, Ed.

    Traditional and contemporary Hupa songs as sung by a Hupa medicine woman in her 70's are collected in this booklet. Songs are presented in Hupa and English on facing pages that are illustrated with pen and ink drawings. The four songs are "Flower Dance Song" and "Kick Dance Song" (both for traditional religious ceremonial dances) and "The Bear…

  15. Bowhead whale springtime song off West Greenland.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Kathleen M; Moore, Sue E; Laidre, Kristin L; Heide-Jørgensen, M P

    2008-11-01

    Three songs were recorded from bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) in Disko Bay, West Greenland, during 59 h of recordings via sonobuoys deployed on seven days between 5 and 14 April 2007. Song elements were defined by units following the protocol of previous description of bowhead whale song. The two most prominent songs were loud, complex, and repeated in long bouts on multiple recording days while the third song was much simpler and recorded on only one day. Bowhead whale simple calls and faint song elements were also recorded using digital audio tape recorders and a dipping hydrophone deployed from the sea ice approximately 100-150 km southwest of Disko Bay on three separate days suggesting that song is also produced in the central portion of Baffin Bay in winter. Songs recorded in Disko Bay are from an area where approximately 85% of the whales have been determined to be adult females. Although it is not known which sex was singing, we speculate that, as in humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), male bowhead whales may sing to mediate sexual competition or mate selection behaviors. This is the first detailed description of springtime songs for bowhead whales in the eastern Arctic. PMID:19045814

  16. The importance of calling song and courtship song in female mate choice in the variable field cricket.

    PubMed

    Wagner; Reiser

    2000-06-01

    Male field crickets produce calling songs, courtship songs, tactile signals and chemical signals. Although calling songs are known to play an important role in female mate choice, the importance of the other signals in mate choice is poorly understood. In the variable field cricket, Gryllus lineaticeps, females select mates, in part, based on variation in male calling song. Females prefer higher chirp rates, a trait which is partially dependent on male nutrient intake, and females prefer longer chirp durations, a trait which appears to be independent of male nutrient intake. We tested whether females also have preferences based on variation in male courtship song, and whether the structure of male courtship song varies with nutrient intake. First, we reexamined female preference for calling song chirp rate. Then, we examined: (1) female preference based on courtship song chirp rate; (2) the relative importance of calling song and courtship song chirp rate; (3) the nutrition dependence of courtship song chirp rate; and (4) the correlation between calling song and courtship song chirp rate. As reported previously, females preferred higher calling song chirp rates, and in addition, preferred higher courtship song chirp rates. Females were more likely to switch from a speaker broadcasting more attractive calling song to a speaker broadcasting less attractive calling song when the attractive calling song was associated with an unattractive courtship song than when it was associated with an attractive courtship song. Preferences based on courtship song may thus cause females to alter the choices that they made based on calling song. Males that received greater nutrients did not produce higher courtship song chirp rates. There was no correlation between calling song and courtship song chirp rate. As a result, the two traits may provide information to females about different aspects of male quality. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID

  17. Country Profiles, Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    A profile of Hong Kong is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  18. Integration over song classification replicates: song variant analysis in the hihi.

    PubMed

    Ranjard, Louis; Withers, Sarah J; Brunton, Dianne H; Ross, Howard A; Parsons, Stuart

    2015-05-01

    Human expert analyses are commonly used in bioacoustic studies and can potentially limit the reproducibility of these results. In this paper, a machine learning method is presented to statistically classify avian vocalizations. Automated approaches were applied to isolate bird songs from long field recordings, assess song similarities, and classify songs into distinct variants. Because no positive controls were available to assess the true classification of variants, multiple replicates of automatic classification of song variants were analyzed to investigate clustering uncertainty. The automatic classifications were more similar to the expert classifications than expected by chance. Application of these methods demonstrated the presence of discrete song variants in an island population of the New Zealand hihi (Notiomystis cincta). The geographic patterns of song variation were then revealed by integrating over classification replicates. Because this automated approach considers variation in song variant classification, it reduces potential human bias and facilitates the reproducibility of the results. PMID:25994687

  19. Pete Seeger: If I Had a Song

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Songwriter, political activist, ethnomusicologist, gardener, singer, environmentalist, storyteller, woodcutter, history buff, cookieholic...Pete Seeger is all these and more. One has probably heard his name before, and maybe one can attach it to certain songs or political movements. Seeger is 91 years old and keeps active singing, writing songs,…

  20. Turkish-Folk Song Activities for Kindergartners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapusuzoglu, Kelly Mem

    2003-01-01

    Describes how to teach kindergarten students using Turkish folk songs that incorporate the National Standards for Music Education and guidelines from the Ministry of Education in Turkey. Includes activities that accompany songs such as "Fly, Little Bug" and "Little Green Frog." Offers additional resources. (CMK)

  1. Song Prompts: I Had a Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Susan Hobson

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses song prompts as a way to encourage children to sing during exploratory play. A song prompt for "I Had a Cat" is included for educators to try in their own classrooms or preschools. Educators are invited to share ideas they have used that encourage children to sing during free play.

  2. Broadside Ballads: Social Consciousness in Song

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junda, Mary Ellen

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights a group ballad project which is a part of student experiences in Sing and Shout!, a course that integrates academic study with singing and song writing to develop a deeper understanding of problems in society. Students explore the intricacies of song composition and social consciousness drawn from past events that reflect…

  3. KinderApache Song and Dance Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanklin, M. Trevor; Paciotto, Carla; Prater, Greg

    This paper describes activities and evaluation of the KinderApache Song and Dance Project, piloted in a kindergarten class in Cedar Creek (Arizona) on the White Mountain Apache Reservation. Introducing Native-language song and dance in kindergarten could help foster a sense of community and cultural pride and greater awareness of traditional…

  4. Neural and Behavioral Correlates of Song Prosody

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Reyna Leigh

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation studies the neural basis of song, a universal human behavior. The relationship of words and melodies in the perception of song at phonological, semantic, melodic, and rhythmic levels of processing was investigated using the fine temporal resolution of Electroencephalography (EEG). The observations reported here may shed light on…

  5. Endeavour's Crew Wakes to Song Contest Winner

    NASA Video Gallery

    The STS-134 crew members were awakened on the final day of their mission with the song “Sunrise Number 1,” performed by the band Stormy Mondays. This song was chosen in an online vote of the ge...

  6. Regional Classification of Traditional Japanese Folk Songs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawase, Akihiro; Tokosumi, Akifumi

    In this study, we focus on the melodies of Japanese folk songs, and examine the basic structures of Japanese folk songs that represent the characteristics of different regions. We sample the five largest song genres within the music corpora of the Nihon Min-yo Taikan (Anthology of Japanese Folk Songs), consisting of 202,246 tones from 1,794 song pieces from 45 prefectures in Japan. Then, we calculate the probabilities of 24 transition patterns that fill the interval of the perfect fourth pitch, which is the interval that maintains most of the frequency for one-step and two-step pitch transitions within 11 regions, in order to determine the parameters for cluster analysis. As a result, we successively classify the regions into two basic groups, eastern Japan and western Japan, which corresponds to geographical factors and cultural backgrounds, and also match accent distributions in the Japanese language.

  7. The Role of Songs in the Foreign Language Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claerr, Thomas A.; Gargan, Richard

    1984-01-01

    With some imagination, songs can be used to teach all aspects of foreign language. The language teacher can take advantage of the cultural content of songs by playing holiday music during the appropriate season; explaining the traditions and history of songs; discussing songs with cultural flavor; presenting a variety of music types; and…

  8. The temporal characteristics of humpback whale songs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Whitlow W. L.; Lammers, Marc O.; Stimpert, Alison; Schotten, Michiel

    2005-09-01

    Songs sung by male humpback whales consist of distinct, pulsed sounds that are designated as units. Units are produced in some sequence to form a phrase, a repeated set of phrases forms a theme, and repeated themes form a song. A song can last from minutes to hours. The songs of eight humpback whales were recorded with a vertical array of five hydrophones spaced 7 m apart with the array located within 100 m of the whales. At least seven distinct units were identified aurally from this data set obtained during the 2002 winter humpback whale session in Hawaii. Four distinct recurring themes were found in the songs, and for each whale at least two themes were recorded. The average duration of each unit sampled and the silent interval following the unit were determined in order to describe the temporal characteristics of the songs. From the data the temporal consistency and cadence control of unit production by each humpback whale and between whales were determined. Understanding the temporal and spectral characteristics of units within songs and how these units vary between whales could ultimately help in the design of computer algorithms to automatically identify individual whales.

  9. On the maintenance of bird song dialects.

    PubMed

    Planqué, Robert; Britton, Nicholas F; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Many bird species, especially song birds but also for instance some hummingbirds and parrots, have noted dialects. By this we mean that locally a particular song is sung by the majority of the birds, but that neighbouring patches may feature different song types. Behavioural ecologists have been interested in how such dialects come about and how they are maintained for over 45 years. As a result, a great deal is known about different mechanisms at play, such as dispersal, assortative mating and learning of songs, and there are several competing hypotheses to explain the dialect patterns known in nature. There is, however, surprisingly little theoretical work testing these different hypotheses at present. We analyse the simplest kind of model that takes into account the most important biological mechanisms, and in which one may speak of dialects: a model in which there are but two patches, and two song types. It teaches us that a combination of little dispersal and strong assortative mating ensures dialects are maintained. Assuming a simple, linear frequency-dependent learning rule has little effect on the maintenance of dialects. A nonlinear learning rule, however, has dramatic consequences and greatly facilitates dialect maintenance. Adding fitness benefits for singing particular songs in a given patch also has a great impact. Now rare song types may invade and remain in the population. PMID:23334321

  10. Functional identification of sensory mechanisms required for developmental song learning

    PubMed Central

    London, Sarah E; Clayton, David F

    2008-01-01

    A young male zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) learns to sing by copying the vocalizations of an older tutor in a process that parallels human speech acquisition. Brain pathways that control song production are well defined, but little is known about the sites and mechanisms of tutor song memorization. Here we test the hypothesis that molecular signaling in a sensory brain area outside of the song system is required for developmental song learning. Using controlled tutoring and a pharmacological inhibitor, we transiently suppressed the extracellular signal–regulated kinase signaling pathway in a portion of the auditory forebrain specifically during tutor song exposure. On maturation, treated birds produced poor copies of tutor song, whereas controls copied the tutor song effectively. Thus the foundation of normal song learning, the formation of a sensory memory of tutor song, requires a conserved molecular pathway in a brain area that is distinct from the circuit for song motor control. PMID:18391944

  11. Academic Freedom in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Jan; Petersen, Carole J.; Mok, Ka Ho

    2006-01-01

    In this book, the authors explore the unique situation in Hong Kong, a tiny jurisdiction in which there is active protection for the freedom of expression despite the close proximity and relationship with mainland China. Hong Kong scholars and intellectuals assume the responsibility of public critics, but this is not without an element of crisis.…

  12. Dentistry's development in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Davies, W I; Corbet, E F; Chiu, G K

    1997-06-01

    The history of dentistry in Hong Kong is described from the time prior to the colonisation by the British to the present day. With the imminent, and historic, hand over of the present territory from British to Chinese rule on 30 June 1997, the authors also touch on the future of oral care in Hong Kong. PMID:9448799

  13. ICT in Hong Kong Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Alex C. W.; Pun, S. W.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an overview of the use of information and communications technology (ICT) in Hong Kong's education, focusing on the school sector. Discusses the recent history of using computers in Hong Kong, explaining the government's current ICT policy and reviewing the status of ICT implementation in terms of access and connectivity, teacher…

  14. Crew Looking Forward to Top Wakeup Songs

    NASA Video Gallery

    Discovery Commander Steve Lindsey thanks everyone for voting for their favorite space shuttle wakeup songs. The crew is looking forward to hearing your selections on the last two days of Discovery'...

  15. Czech Basic Course: Songs of Czechoslovakia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This songbook contains some 77 songs, with words and music, reflecting the daily life and culture of the people of Czechoslovakia. The text is designed for use, as supplementary material, in the Defense Language Institute's "Czech: Basic Course." (RL)

  16. NASA Beams Beatles Song to Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    The transmission over NASA's Deep Space Network will commemorate the 40th anniversary of the day The Beatles recorded the song, as well as the 50th anniversary of NASA's founding and the group's be...

  17. East-West Crossroads: Academic Libraries in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Douglas

    1983-01-01

    This overview of academic libraries in Hong Kong highlights Chinese University, Hong Kong University, and Hong Kong Polytechnic. A history of Chinese University and its branch college libraries, library cooperation, and higher education in Hong Kong are noted. (EJS)

  18. [Role of lyrics and melody in song recognition: why is song recognition faster?].

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoko; Sakuma, Naoko; Ishii, Kenji; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

    2009-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to identify the role of lyrics and melody in song recognition. Experiment 1 (N = 30) investigated the ratings of familiarity, age of acquisition, retrievability of lyrics or melody, and happiness for 100 Japanese children's songs. In Experiment 2 (N = 31), a familiarity-judgment task was conducted involving three stimulus types-sung lyrics (SONG), spoken lyrics (LYRICS), and sung melody using the syllable/la/ (MELODY)--for two excerpts (beginning and middle locations). The participants were instructed to judge whether an excerpt sounded familiar as quickly as possible. The more familiar the songs, the easier could they be identified from the three stimulus types. SONG-response time (RT) was shorter than MELODY-RT for both beginning and middle, and than LYRICS-RT for the middle. The location effect emerged most prominently for LYRICS-RT. Our results suggest that interactively connected information of lyrics and melody may facilitate song recognition. Lyrics in the beginning might be an index only for certain, very familiar songs, whereas melody may play a facilitative role for song recognition regardless of location. PMID:20095443

  19. AstroCappella: Songs of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Patricia T.; Smale, A. P.; Smale, K. M.

    2008-05-01

    The AstroCappella Project is a classroom-ready collection of upbeat pop songs, lesson plans, and background information, all rich in science content. It was developed as a collaboration between working research astronomers, educators, and an established contemporary vocal band, The Chromatics. A multimedia music CD, "AstroCappella 2.0", has been produced containing 13 astronomically correct songs with original lyrics and music. Song topics range from the Sun, Moon, planets and small bodies of the Solar System, through the Doppler shift, the nearest stars, and extra-solar planets, to radio and X-ray astronomy. The CD also contains extensive CD-ROM materials including science background information, curriculum notes, lesson plans and activities for each song, images, movies, and slide shows. The songs and accompanying information have been extensively field-tested, and align to the K-12 National Science Education Standards. The AstroCappella materials are in widespread use in classrooms and homes across the US, and are supplemented with frequent live performances and teacher workshops. Full information can be found at http://www.astrocappella.com. Since the release of AstroCappella 2.0, additional songs have been written for missions as diverse as Messenger ("Messenger to Mercury") and AIM ("Noctilucent Cloud"; with music video available on YouTube). Now, to commemorate IYA, and in collaboration with the Johannes Kepler Project, the Chromatics are continuing their mission to spread science through a cappella and a cappella through science by creating a new original song celebrating the discoveries of the telescope, from Galileo's first glimpse of mountains and craters on the moon to the detection of planets around nearby stars and the expansion of the Universe."

  20. Composing Songs for Teaching Science to College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee Pinn Tsin, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that songs may enhance learning as they function as mnemonic devices to increase memorability. In this research, songs based on the more difficult subtopics in Chemistry were composed, encompassing many formulas, equations and facts to be remembered. This technique of song composition can be used in any subject, any point…

  1. Factlore, Fakelore, or Folklore: Sorting through Folk Song Origins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, E. Martin

    1997-01-01

    Explicates the fascinating origins (and conflicting versions thereof) for a number of well-known folk songs including, "Casey Jones,""John Henry,""Frankie and Johnny," and "Tom Dooley." Notes that source material on these and other songs is widely available through liner notes, folk song periodicals, and folklore journals. (MJP)

  2. Brain-Compatible Music Teaching Part 2: Teaching "Nongame" Songs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Susan

    2010-01-01

    In the previous issue of "General Music Today," the Early Childhood column explored brain-compatible ways of teaching action songs and singing games. This article illustrates the application of brain-compatible ways to teach songs that do not lend themselves to actions or games. There are two ways of teaching songs. One is based on the assumption…

  3. A Multimodal Discourse Analysis of a Yoruba Song-Drama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olateju, Moji. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multimodal discourse analysis of a story that has been turned into a Yoruba song-drama, highlighting the ideational, interpersonal and textual aspects of the song-drama. The data is a short song-drama meant to teach children importunity, determination and hard work through persistence. The multimodal and narrative conventions…

  4. Neoliberalism in Two Hong Kong School Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, David

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the link between the governance of Hong Kong's international school and Direct Subsidy Scheme school categories and changes in the broader Hong Kong society through a neoliberal framework. As Hong Kong's economy has grown since the 1997 handover to the People's Republic of China, an increasing number of people…

  5. A Song of Vice and Mire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The author has been reading George R.R. Martin's marvelous fantasy epic, "A Song of Ice and Fire," about a medieval-ish kingdom and its wars and intrigues. What fascinates him most about the narrative is the extent to which it parallels his experiences as a community-college professor and administrator. The author argues that for all the good they…

  6. Northern Song Reflections on the Tang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    In the mid-eleventh century Chinese intellectuals argued about history, and left their competing narratives to us in print. They contested how history should be written, and what relevant lessons ought to be adapted to the changing society of Song (960-1279) dynasty China. They were particularly concerned with the history of the long-lasting Tang…

  7. Children's Judgements of Emotion in Song

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, J. Bruce; Trehub, Sandra E.

    2007-01-01

    Songs convey emotion by means of expressive performance cues (e.g. pitch level, tempo, vocal tone) and lyrics. Although children can interpret both types of cues, it is unclear whether they would focus on performance cues or salient verbal cues when judging the feelings of a singer. To investigate this question, we had 5- to 10-year-old children…

  8. Music Activities for "Little Wolf's Song"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2015-01-01

    Drawn from Britta Techentrup's children's book "Little Wolf's Song", the author shares music activities appropriate for preschool and children in primary grades. Children will enjoy Technentrup's tender family story, while exploring vocal and instrumental timbres, as well as reading, writing, and creating with melodic contour.

  9. Work Songs, Hegemony, and Illusions of Self.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Charles

    1988-01-01

    Suggests a complex dialectical relationship among (1) the meanings that acculturation encourages workers to attribute to their everyday experiences; (2) the meanings enacted in country music work songs; and (3) the support of hierarchical social and organizational power relationships in workers' identities. (MS)

  10. Hand-Clap Songs across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, Katherine E.; Bintz, William P.

    2012-01-01

    This teaching tip focuses on using hand-clapping to teach content area material across the curriculum. We begin with a brief history of hand-clap songs, followed by a rationale for using them in content area literacy. Then, we describe the instructional lesson, share samples that resulted, and discuss lesson extensions. Our goal is to have…

  11. Using Songs to Strengthen Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Pooja; Laud, Leslie E.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of songs with lyrics to increase the reading fluency rates of three middle school students. In the first condition, students heard fluent reading modeled, read regular passages repeatedly and then received feedback on accuracy, phrasing and expression. After that, students received the same intervention, except that…

  12. Local song elements indicate local genotypes and predict physiological condition in song sparrows Melospiza melodia.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Kathryn A; MacDougall-Shackleton, Elizabeth A

    2008-06-23

    Geographical variation in birdsong is taxonomically widespread and behaviourally salient, with females often preferring local over non-local song. However, the benefits associated with this preference remain poorly understood. One potential explanation is that song may reflect a male's place of origin and thus allow females to obtain genes well adapted to the local environment. We studied naturally occurring variation in the degree to which the elements of a male's song repertoire matched those of the local population ('syllable sharing') in migratory song sparrows (Melospiza melodia melodia). Syllable sharing was correlated with genetic similarity to the local population, suggesting that song reflects population of origin. Males sharing more syllables also had larger testosterone-dependent traits, fewer blood-borne parasites and reduced indicators of stress. Our findings are consistent with locally good genes models. Alternatively, immigrants' condition may suffer due to unfamiliarity with the breeding site or inability to match song elements during territorial interactions. Females preferring 'local-sounding' males may thus obtain genetic and/or direct benefits for their offspring. PMID:18331976

  13. Vocal exploration is locally regulated during song learning

    PubMed Central

    Ravbar, Primoz; Parra, Lucas C.; Lipkind, Dina; Tchernichovski, Ofer

    2012-01-01

    Exploratory variability is essential for sensory-motor learning, but it is not known how and at what time scales it is regulated. We manipulated song learning in zebra finches to experimentally control the requirements for vocal exploration in different parts of their song. We first trained birds to perform a one-syllable song, and once they mastered it we added a new syllable to the song model. Remarkably, when practicing the modified song, birds rapidly alternated between high and low acoustic variability to confine vocal exploration to the newly added syllable. Further, even within syllables, acoustic variability changed independently across song elements that were only milliseconds apart. Analysis of the entire vocal output during learning revealed that the variability of each song element decreased as it approached the target, correlating with momentary local distance from the target and less so with the overall distance. We conclude that vocal error is computed locally in sub-syllabic time scales and that song elements can be learned and crystalized independently. Songbirds have dedicated brain circuitry for vocal babbling in the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), which generates exploratory song patterns that drive premotor neurons at the song nucleus RA (robust nucleus of the arcopallium). We hypothesize that either AFP adjusts the gain of vocal exploration in fine time scales, or that the sensitivity of RA premotor neurons to AFP/HVC inputs varies across song elements. PMID:22399765

  14. Nursing problem-based learning activity: song writing and singing.

    PubMed

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2014-08-01

    The function of song is not only to deliver individual's messages, but also to serve as a learning approach to facilitate students' learning. To observe the effectiveness of songs in facilitating students' learning, a Problem-based Learning (PBL) class with twenty students was divided into four groups with five students per group. Each group was asked to write a song based on two given scenarios, to sing the song out loud, and to participate in a follow-up focus group interview afterwards. The four songs reflected the students' understanding of academic knowledge and their perspectives toward the protagonists in the presented scenarios. Two songs are presented in this paper to demonstrate how the approach was carried out in the nursing PBL class. This paper aims to show the implication of song writing and singing in PBL and shed some light on teaching and learning. PMID:24560491

  15. 'Out of tune': consequences of inbreeding on bird song.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Raïssa A; Eens, Marcel; Müller, Wendt

    2016-07-27

    The expression of bird song is expected to signal male quality to females. 'Quality' is determined by genetic and environmental factors, but, surprisingly, there is very limited evidence if and how genetic aspects of male quality are reflected in song. Here, we manipulated the genetic make-up of canaries (Serinus canaria) via inbreeding, and studied its effects upon song output, complexity, phonetics and, for the first time, song learning. To this end, we created weight-matched inbred and outbred pairs of male fledglings, which were subsequently exposed to the same tutor male during song learning. Inbreeding strongly affected syllable phonetics, but there were little or no effects on other song features. Nonetheless, females discriminated among inbred and outbred males, as they produced heavier clutches when mated with an outbred male. Our study highlights the importance of song phonetics, which has hitherto often been overlooked. PMID:27466453

  16. Syllable chunking in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) song.

    PubMed

    Williams, H; Staples, K

    1992-09-01

    We examined how 61 young zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) males copied song from 5 adult tutors. Zebra finch song consists of a string of 5-15 distinct syllables, and these syllables were copied as chunks, or strings of consecutive syllables (modal length = 3). The silent interval between 2 syllables was copied as part of the syllable after the silence. Copied chunks had boundaries that fell at consistent locations within the tutor's song, marked by a relatively long intersyllable silent period, a transition between call-like and noncall-like syllables, and a tendency for the tutor male to stop his song short. Young males also tended to break their songs off at the boundaries of the chunks they had copied. Chunks appear to be an intermediate level of hierarchy in song organization and to have both perceptual (syllables were learned as part of a chunk) and motor (song delivery was broken almost exclusively at chunk boundaries) aspects. PMID:1395497

  17. Roaming yuppies: Hong Kong migration to Australia.

    PubMed

    Wong, S

    1994-01-01

    "Hong Kong has been the top source for Asian migration to Australia in recent years. The majority of the Hong Kong migrants are young, educated professionals. Using survey data conducted in Hong Kong on emigration tendencies, this article analyzes why they are leaving Hong Kong, what attracts them to Australia, and what impact this influx has on Australian society. It is speculated that this movement may create an enduring change in the identity of emigrant Hong Kongers and have a wider significance in the contradictory currents of geopolitics and geoeconomics which are simultaneously encouraging and resisting migration." PMID:12289778

  18. Information System on Russian Folklore Songs of Karelia as a Tool of Formalization and Classification of Songs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varfolomeyev, Aleksey G.; Moskin, Nikolay D.; Kravtsov, Ignat V.

    The authors elaborate the project of information system dedicated to folklore songs of North Russia. For increase of research potential of information system it is necessary to decide a task of formalization of the song content. In our opinion the most adequate mathematical structure describing a folklore song is the set of oriented graphs connected among themselves. In each graph the vertexes are the objects of the text, the edges are relations between objects. Our information system will contain both complete texts of songs and their formal representations by graphs that will allow to carry out comparisons of songs, to find invariants, to decide tasks of classification.

  19. Are bird song complexity and song sharing shaped by habitat structure? An information theory and statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Briefer, Elodie; Osiejuk, Tomasz S; Rybak, Fanny; Aubin, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    In songbirds, song complexity and song sharing are features of prime importance for territorial defence and mate attraction. These aspects of song may be strongly influenced by changes in social environment caused by habitat fragmentation. We tested the hypothesis that habitat fragmentation induced by human activities influences song complexity and song sharing in the skylark, a songbird with a very large repertoire and whose population recently underwent a large decline. We applied powerful mathematical and statistical tools to assess and compare song complexity and song sharing patterns of syllables and sequences of syllables in two populations: a declining population in a fragmented habitat, in which breeding areas are separated from each other by unsuitable surroundings, and a stable population in a continuous habitat. Our results show that the structure of the habitat influences song sharing, but not song complexity. Neighbouring birds shared more syllables and sequences of syllables in the fragmented habitat than in the continuous one. Habitat fragmentation seems thus to have an effect on the composition of elements in songs, but not on the number and complexity of these elements, which may be a fixed feature of song peculiar to skylarks. PMID:19782691

  20. Lifelong Learning in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Grace O. M.

    Despite recent attempts at implementation, the government must play a more active role in promoting lifelong learning in Hong Kong. They did little until 1989, when the Open Learning Institute (OLI) was established. The OLI was innovative because it provided degree level courses for adults, without concern for prerequisite academic qualifications.…

  1. English Teaching Profile: Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A review of the status of English language instruction in Hong Kong begins with an overview of the role of English in the society in general, and outlines the status of English use and instruction in the educational system at all levels (elementary, secondary, higher, vocational, adult, and teacher), the characteristics and training of English…

  2. Recurring patterns in the songs of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae).

    PubMed

    Green, Sean R; Mercado, Eduardo; Pack, Adam A; Herman, Louis M

    2011-02-01

    Humpback whales, unlike most mammalian species, learn new songs as adults. Populations of singers progressively and collectively change the sounds and patterns within their songs throughout their lives and across generations. In this study, humpback whale songs recorded in Hawaii from 1985 to 1995 were analyzed using self-organizing maps (SOMs) to classify the sounds within songs, and to identify sound patterns that were present across multiple years. These analyses supported the hypothesis that recurring, persistent patterns exist within whale songs, and that these patterns are defined at least in part by acoustic relationships between adjacent sounds within songs. Sound classification based on acoustic differences between adjacent sounds yielded patterns within songs that were more consistent from year to year than classifications based on the properties of single sounds. Maintenance of fixed ratios of acoustic modulation across sounds, despite large variations in individual sounds, suggests intrinsic constraints on how sounds change within songs. Such acoustically invariant cues may enable whales to recognize and assess variations in songs despite propagation-related distortion of individual sounds and yearly changes in songs. PMID:21215306

  3. Pulmonary effects of active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure among adolescent students in Juárez, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Yelena; Staines-Orozco, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Background Youth smoking trends among Latin American countries, including Mexico, are on the rise. Notably, although the high prevalence of smoking in teens has been well documented in the literature, few studies have evaluated the impact of smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure on their respiratory system. Objective To investigate the effects of smoking and SHS exposure on the respiratory health and lung function among eighth-grade students in Juárez, Mexico. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken on a sample of convenience. The study outcomes centered on evaluating 300 students’ lung function by spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio [FEV1/FVC], and forced mid-expiratory flow rate [FEF25%–75%]) and their respiratory health (smoking behavior and SHS exposure) by their self-reported responses to a standardized respiratory questionnaire. The study outcomes were compared among three distinct groups: 1) nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS; 2) nonsmokers/exposed to SHS; and 3) smokers. Results The majority of the study participants were 14 years old (85%), females (54%), who attended eighth grade in a public school setting (56%). Approximately, half reported being of low socioeconomic status (49%) and nonsmokers/exposed to SHS (49%). The lung function parameters of smokers were found to be lower (FEV1 =62.88±10.25; FEV1/FVC =83.50±14.15; and FEF25%–75% =66.35±12.55) than those recorded for the nonsmokers/exposed to SHS (FEV1 =69.41±11.35; FEV1/FVC =88.75±15.75; and FEF25%–75% =78.90±14.65) and significantly reduced when compared to the nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS (FEV1 =79.14±13.61; FEV1/FVC =94.88±21.88; and FEF25%–75% =87.36±17.02) (P<0.001). Similarly, respiratory complaints were more prevalent among smokers and those exposed to SHS when compared to nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS. Conclusion Our findings suggest that initiation of cigarette smoking and, to a

  4. Parapraxes in song recall: a neglected variable.

    PubMed

    Díaz de Chumaceiro, C L

    1993-09-01

    In addition to expressing themselves with verbal and nonverbal communications, and by the countertransference reactions perceived by analysts, patients also reveal their inner world of images and feelings specifically with music evocations. This paper presents an initial attempt to identify and classify some of the parapraxes produced in the evocation of lyrics and music by polyglot members of treatment dyads in two empirical studies and in private practice. There may be many others, particularly related to the music per se. This paper has focused mainly on the lyrics, the equivalent of the manifest content of dreams, which nonmusician therapists can learn to handle well. Instead, in the case of the musical latent content, some knowledge of music is necessary. Supervisors' songs were considered beyond the scope of this paper and will be addressed separately. Parapraxes in song recall signal unconscious transference-countertransference states in process at the moment of evocation. PMID:8214208

  5. Female in-nest chatter song increases predation.

    PubMed

    Kleindorfer, Sonia; Evans, Christine; Mahr, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Female song is an ancestral trait in songbirds, yet extant females generally sing less than males. Here, we examine sex differences in the predation cost of singing behaviour. The superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus) is a Southern Hemisphere songbird; males and females provision the brood and produce solo song year-round. Both sexes had higher song rate during the fertile period and lower song rate during incubation and chick feeding. Females were more likely than males to sing close to or inside the nest. For this reason, female but not male song rate predicted egg and nestling predation. This study identifies a high fitness cost of song when a parent bird attends offspring inside a nest and explains gender differences in singing when there are gender differences in parental care. PMID:26763214

  6. Female song is widespread and ancestral in songbirds.

    PubMed

    Odom, Karan J; Hall, Michelle L; Riebel, Katharina; Omland, Kevin E; Langmore, Naomi E

    2014-01-01

    Bird song has historically been considered an almost exclusively male trait, an observation fundamental to the formulation of Darwin's theory of sexual selection. Like other male ornaments, song is used by male songbirds to attract females and compete with rivals. Thus, bird song has become a textbook example of the power of sexual selection to lead to extreme neurological and behavioural sex differences. Here we present an extensive survey and ancestral state reconstruction of female song across songbirds showing that female song is present in 71% of surveyed species including 32 families, and that females sang in the common ancestor of modern songbirds. Our results reverse classical assumptions about the evolution of song and sex differences in birds. The challenge now is to identify whether sexual selection alone or broader processes, such as social or natural selection, best explain the evolution of elaborate traits in both sexes. PMID:24594930

  7. Song Trait Similarity in Great Tits Varies with Social Structure

    PubMed Central

    Snijders, Lysanne; van der Eijk, Jerine; van Rooij, Erica P.; de Goede, Piet; van Oers, Kees; Naguib, Marc

    2015-01-01

    For many animals, long-range signalling is essential to maintain contact with conspecifics. In territorial species, individuals often have to balance signalling towards unfamiliar potential competitors (to solely broadcast territory ownership) with signalling towards familiar immediate neighbours (to also maintain so-called “dear enemy” relations). Hence, to understand how signals evolve due to these multilevel relationships, it is important to understand how general signal traits vary in relation to the overall social environment. For many territorial songbirds dawn is a key signalling period, with several neighbouring individuals singing simultaneously without immediate conflict. In this study we tested whether sharing a territory boundary, rather than spatial proximity, is related to similarity in dawn song traits between territorial great tits (Parus major) in a wild personality-typed population. We collected a large dataset of automatized dawn song recordings from 72 unique male great tits, during the fertile period of their mate, and compared specific song traits between neighbours and non-neighbours. We show here that both song rate and start time of dawn song were repeatable song traits. Moreover, neighbours were significantly more dissimilar in song rate compared to non-neighbours, while there was no effect of proximity on song rate similarity. Additionally, similarity in start time of dawn song was unrelated to sharing a territory boundary, but birds were significantly more similar in start time of dawn song when they were breeding in close proximity of each other. We suggest that the dissimilarity in dawn song rate between neighbours is either the result of neighbouring great tits actively avoiding similar song rates to possibly prevent interference, or a passive consequence of territory settlement preferences relative to the types of neighbours. Neighbourhood structuring is therefore likely to be a relevant selection pressure shaping variation in

  8. Quality of Life in Hong Kong: The CUHK Hong Kong Quality of Life Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ying Keung; Kwan, Cheuk Chiu Andy; Shek, Tan Lei Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The CUHK Hong Kong Quality of Life Index, which aims to assess and monitor the quality of life in Hong Kong, is a composite index incorporating both objective and subjective measures. This index, developed by the Faculty of Social Science of The Chinese University of Hong Kong, employs data collected in representative sample surveys and official…

  9. A Study on New Song of the Sky Pacers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sang-Hyeon

    2009-12-01

    We investigated `Song of the Sky Pacers, Adopted to the New Methods' (新法步天歌), the latest version of Joseon's `Song of the Sky Pacers' (步天歌). Due to the influence of new knowledge on Chinese asterisms imported from the Ching dynasty, `Song of the Sky Pacers with New Star-Charts' was written in the eighteenth century. However, the disagreement between song and star-charts was causing confusion in practical applications such as Joseon's national examination for selecting astronomers. In order to improve this situation, Royal Observatory of the Joseon dynasty (觀象監) published `Song of the Sky Pacers, Adopted to the New Methods' based upon star-charts and song in the Sequel of I-Hsiang-K'ao-ch'eng (欽定儀象考成續編). The New Song was edited by a middle-class professional astronomer Yi Jun-yang (李俊養), and corrected by a nobleman Nam Byeong-gil (南秉吉). We establish a brief biography of Yi Jun-yang. The New Song preserves the genuine characteristics of previous Joseon's Song including the format of title of each lunar mansion and description on the location of the Milky Way in the asterisms. The description of the Milky Way was newly written based on the data in volume 31 and 32 of the Sequel of I-Hsiang-K'ao-ch'eng.

  10. Common Songs of the Cultural Heritage of the United States: A Compilation of Songs that Most People "Know" and "Should Know."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Kenneth M.

    2000-01-01

    Examines what songs are familiar to most people. Uncovers various epistemological definitions of what it means to "know" a song. Discovers how many of the 42 songs listed in Music Educators National Conference (MENC) publication, "Get America Singing Again!", appeared in previous investigations and in community song movement books. (CMK)

  11. “Bird Song Metronomics”: Isochronous Organization of Zebra Finch Song Rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Philipp; Scharff, Constance

    2016-01-01

    The human capacity for speech and vocal music depends on vocal imitation. Songbirds, in contrast to non-human primates, share this vocal production learning with humans. The process through which birds and humans learn many of their vocalizations as well as the underlying neural system exhibit a number of striking parallels and have been widely researched. In contrast, rhythm, a key feature of language, and music, has received surprisingly little attention in songbirds. Investigating temporal periodicity in bird song has the potential to inform the relationship between neural mechanisms and behavioral output and can also provide insight into the biology and evolution of musicality. Here we present a method to analyze birdsong for an underlying rhythmic regularity. Using the intervals from one note onset to the next as input, we found for each bird an isochronous sequence of time stamps, a “signal-derived pulse,” or pulseS, of which a subset aligned with all note onsets of the bird's song. Fourier analysis corroborated these results. To determine whether this finding was just a byproduct of the duration of notes and intervals typical for zebra finches but not dependent on the individual duration of elements and the sequence in which they are sung, we compared natural songs to models of artificial songs. Note onsets of natural song deviated from the pulseS significantly less than those of artificial songs with randomized note and gap durations. Thus, male zebra finch song has the regularity required for a listener to extract a perceived pulse (pulseP), as yet untested. Strikingly, in our study, pulsesS that best fit note onsets often also coincided with the transitions between sub-note elements within complex notes, corresponding to neuromuscular gestures. Gesture durations often equaled one or more pulseS periods. This suggests that gesture duration constitutes the basic element of the temporal hierarchy of zebra finch song rhythm, an interesting parallel to the

  12. Neural Systems for Speech and Song in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Grace; Pantazatos, Spiro P.; Schneider, Harry; Hirsch, Joy

    2012-01-01

    Despite language disabilities in autism, music abilities are frequently preserved. Paradoxically, brain regions associated with these functions typically overlap, enabling investigation of neural organization supporting speech and song in autism. Neural systems sensitive to speech and song were compared in low-functioning autistic and age-matched…

  13. Oh Say, Can You Sing Our National Songs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elward, Thomas J.

    1982-01-01

    Presents background information on and suggestions to help K-12 students better sing and understand four national songs: "The Star-Spangled Banner,""America the Beautiful,""America," and "Lift Every Voice and Sing." To make songs easier to sing, alternative keys are suggested to bring them within range of student singers. (AM)

  14. Teaching with Toys: A Handbook of Songs and Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Sally

    Songs, rhymes, and sayings entered in this handbook are particularly useful as basic teaching techniques for babies and small children. Popular and easy to learn, many are simple Mother Goose nursery rhymes. Others are traditional songs and sayings that have been passed on from generation to generation in our culture. Some are appropriate for use…

  15. Development of temporal structure in zebra finch song

    PubMed Central

    Troyer, Todd W.

    2013-01-01

    Zebra finch song has provided an excellent case study in the neural basis of sequence learning, with a high degree of temporal precision and tight links with precisely timed bursting in forebrain neurons. To examine the development of song timing, we measured the following four aspects of song temporal structure at four age ranges between 65 and 375 days posthatch: the mean durations of song syllables and the silent gaps between them, timing variability linked to song tempo, timing variability expressed independently across syllables and gaps, and transition probabilities between consecutive syllable pairs. We found substantial increases in song tempo between 65 and 85 days posthatch, due almost entirely to a shortening of gaps. We also found a decrease in tempo variability, also specific to gaps. Both the magnitude of the increase in tempo and the decrease in tempo variability were correlated on gap-by-gap basis with increases in the reliability of corresponding syllable transitions. Syllables had no systematic increase in tempo or decrease in tempo variability. In contrast to tempo parameters, both syllables and gaps showed an early sharp reduction in independent variability followed by continued reductions over the first year. The data suggest that links between syllable-based representations are strengthened during the later parts of the traditional period of song learning and that song rhythm continues to become more regular throughout the first year of life. Similar learning patterns have been identified in human sequence learning, suggesting a potentially rich area of comparative research. PMID:23175805

  16. How the songbird brain listens to its own songs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahnloser, Richard

    2010-03-01

    Songbirds are capable of vocal learning and communication and are ideally suited to the study of neural mechanisms of auditory feedback processing. When a songbird is deafened in the early sensorimotor phase after tutoring, it fails to imitate the song of its tutor and develops a highly aberrant song. It is also known that birds are capable of storing a long-term memory of tutor song and that they need intact auditory feedback to match their own vocalizations to the tutor's song. Based on these behavioral observations, we investigate feedback processing in single auditory forebrain neurons of juvenile zebra finches that are in a late developmental stage of song learning. We implant birds with miniature motorized microdrives that allow us to record the electrical activity of single neurons while birds are freely moving and singing in their cages. Occasionally, we deliver a brief sound through a loudspeaker to perturb the auditory feedback the bird experiences during singing. These acoustic perturbations of auditory feedback reveal complex sensitivity that cannot be predicted from passive playback responses. Some neurons are highly feedback sensitive in that they respond vigorously to song perturbations, but not to unperturbed songs or perturbed playback. These findings suggest that a computational function of forebrain auditory areas may be to detect errors between actual feedback and mirrored feedback deriving from an internal model of the bird's own song or that of its tutor.

  17. Male response to historical and geographical variation in bird song.

    PubMed

    Derryberry, Elizabeth P

    2011-02-23

    In many species, individuals discriminate among sexual signals of conspecific populations in the contexts of mate choice and male-male competition. Differences in signals among populations (geographical variation) are in part the result of signal evolution within populations (temporal variation). Understanding the relative effect of temporal and geographical signal variation on signal salience may therefore provide insight into the evolution of behavioural discrimination. However, no study, to my knowledge, has compared behavioural response to historical signals with response to current signal variation among populations. Here, I measured the response of male white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys) to historical songs compared with current songs from their local population, a nearby non-local population and a distant population. Males responded most strongly to current local songs, less, but equally, to historical local and current non-local songs, and least to songs of the distant population. Moreover, response to both temporal and geographical variation in song was proportional to how much songs differed acoustically from current local songs. Signal evolution on an ecological time scale appears to have an effect on signal salience comparable to differences found between current neighbouring populations, supporting the idea that behavioural discrimination among learned signals of conspecific populations can evolve relatively rapidly. PMID:20685696

  18. A Brief Look at the Community Song Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Patricia S.

    1990-01-01

    Describes how a 1913 Music Supervisors National Conference (MENC) committee identified 18 songs to be included in the curriculum and taught to all U.S. students. Reviews the expansion of the song list and its contribution to a common repertoire for U.S. community sings. (GG)

  19. Dynamic sensory cues shape song structure in Drosophila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coen, Philip; Clemens, Jan; Weinstein, Andrew J.; Pacheco, Diego A.; Deng, Yi; Murthy, Mala

    2014-03-01

    The generation of acoustic communication signals is widespread across the animal kingdom, and males of many species, including Drosophilidae, produce patterned courtship songs to increase their chance of success with a female. For some animals, song structure can vary considerably from one rendition to the next; neural noise within pattern generating circuits is widely assumed to be the primary source of such variability, and statistical models that incorporate neural noise are successful at reproducing the full variation present in natural songs. In direct contrast, here we demonstrate that much of the pattern variability in Drosophila courtship song can be explained by taking into account the dynamic sensory experience of the male. In particular, using a quantitative behavioural assay combined with computational modelling, we find that males use fast modulations in visual and self-motion signals to pattern their songs, a relationship that we show is evolutionarily conserved. Using neural circuit manipulations, we also identify the pathways involved in song patterning choices and show that females are sensitive to song features. Our data not only demonstrate that Drosophila song production is not a fixed action pattern, but establish Drosophila as a valuable new model for studies of rapid decision-making under both social and naturalistic conditions.

  20. Building Schema: Exploring Content with Song Lyrics and Strategic Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stygles, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Teaching with song lyrics has many popular variations. The Common Core State Standards discourage pre-teaching, leaving students somewhat adrift. Song lyrics possess the potential to scaffold students' schema in select social studies topics. Using reciprocal teaching (Palinscar & Brown 1984) within the reading workshop students ponder…

  1. Using Songs To Help Teach the Civil War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Lynn; Edgington, William D.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on using music as a tool for teaching about the U.S. Civil War. States that music was integral to life in the United States and for the soldiers during this time period. Discusses why teachers should use music and how to integrate songs into instruction. Includes song lyrics. (CMK)

  2. Purpose Statements and Song Categories of Selected Community Songbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hair, Harriet I.

    1999-01-01

    Examines (1) the purpose statements and the contents of six selected songbooks for community singing published from 1913 to 1996 and (2) songs listed by E. D. Hirsch in "Cultural Literacy" and "The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy." Indicates that the idea of a common core of song repertoire that represents our heritage should be reexamined. (CMK)

  3. Continuous Time Representations of Song in Zebra Finches.

    PubMed

    Troyer, Todd W

    2016-05-18

    Neurons in the songbird nucleus HVC produce premotor bursts time locked to song with millisecond precision. In this issue of Neuron, Lynch et al. (2016) and Picardo et al. (2016) provide convincing evidence that the population of these bursts contain a continuous representation of time throughout song. PMID:27196971

  4. Walker Calhoun: Cherokee Song and Dance Man. Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Ted

    1995-01-01

    Born in 1918, the youngest of 12 children, Walker Calhoun describes growing up on the Cherokee Reservation in North Carolina. The schools turned the Cherokee against their old ways, but Walker learned many old songs and dances from his uncle, Will West. Since retirement, Walker has taught the dances and songs to children. His material has been…

  5. The Syntax and Meaning of Wild Gibbon Songs

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Esther; Reichard, Ulrich H.; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Spoken language is a result of the human capacity to assemble simple vocal units into more complex utterances, the basic carriers of semantic information. Not much is known about the evolutionary origins of this behaviour. The vocal abilities of non-human primates are relatively unimpressive in comparison, with gibbon songs being a rare exception. These apes assemble a repertoire of call notes into elaborate songs, which function to repel conspecific intruders, advertise pair bonds, and attract mates. We conducted a series of field experiments with white-handed gibbons at Khao Yai National Park, Thailand, which showed that this ape species uses songs also to protect themselves against predation. We compared the acoustic structure of predatory-induced songs with regular songs that were given as part of their daily routine. Predator-induced songs were identical to normal songs in the call note repertoire, but we found consistent differences in how the notes were assembled into songs. The responses of out-of-sight receivers demonstrated that these syntactic differences were meaningful to conspecifics. Our study provides the first evidence of referential signalling in a free-ranging ape species, based on a communication system that utilises combinatorial rules. PMID:17183705

  6. They Came Singing: Songs from California's History. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arlen, Karen; Batt, Margaret; Benson, Mary Ann; Kester, Nancy N.

    This resource presents a collection of over 60 traditional songs set in the context of California's history. Throughout its history, music has played an important part in the lives of California's diverse peoples. The book opens with songs of Native California tribes and continues through European exploration, Spanish and Mexican rule, U.S.…

  7. Alcohol themes within country-western songs.

    PubMed

    Connors, G J; Alpher, V S

    1989-05-01

    Cultural norms regarding alcohol use and drinking behavior can be communicated through the lyrics of songs. An analysis of alcohol themes in country-western lyrics was undertaken. Seven categories emerged from a rational clustering procedure used with 58 alcohol-related lyrics. Almost two-thirds of the lyrics were placed in three of the categories, labeled Existential Dilemmas and Lessons Learned, Loneliness and Lost Love, and Negative Consequences. There were few references to drinking for positive, celebratory reasons. Implications for prevention efforts and for further research on drinkers' perceptions and the relationship between popular culture and drinking behavior are discussed. PMID:2793292

  8. Mapping Music Education Research in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Jane

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews research on Hong Kong's music education. The review shows that music education in Hong Kong after the change of sovereignty in 1997 differs from that in the People's Republic of China; there is an emphasis on western classical music rather than the traditional Chinese music in the classroom, with a disconnection between what…

  9. The Political Vocabulary of Hong Kong English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Phil

    1994-01-01

    A study analyzed patterns of usage of political vocabulary in Hong Kong English as found in newspaper reports of a leading Hong Kong English-medium newspaper and two other English-medium newspapers. Data were drawn from a computerized corpus and a clippings file. The report begins with an overview of the theoretical basis of the study of ideology…

  10. Validating Onscreen Marking in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coniam, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper details an investigation into onscreen marking (OSM) in Hong Kong--where paper-based marking is being phased out, being completely superseded by OSM. The study described involved 30 raters who had previously rated English language essay scripts on screen in the 2007 Hong Kong Certificate of Education examination. In the current study,…

  11. Enhancing Preschool Education in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Nirmala; Koong, Maggie

    2000-01-01

    Presents overview of Hong Kong preschool education. Considers the history of preschool education, early childhood curriculum, training of early childhood professionals, and monitoring of standard services. Discusses trends in Hong Kong preschool education and problems in early childhood education, including exclusion from the main education…

  12. Historical Development of Hong Kong Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sze, Felix; Lo, Connie; Lo, Lisa; Chu, Kenny

    2013-01-01

    This article traces the origins of Hong Kong Sign Language (hereafter HKSL) and its subsequent development in relation to the establishment of Deaf education in Hong Kong after World War II. We begin with a detailed description of the history of Deaf education with a particular focus on the role of sign language in such development. We then…

  13. Songs as a medium for embedded reproductive messages.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Dawn R; Gallup, Gordon G

    2011-01-01

    Research shows that sensational news stories as well as popular romance novels often feature themes related to important topics in evolutionary psychology. In the first of four studies described in this paper we examined the song lyrics from three Billboard charts: Country, Pop, and R&B. A content analysis of the lyrics revealed 18 reproductive themes that read like an outline for a course in evolutionary psychology. Approximately 92% of the 174 songs that made it into the Top Ten in 2009 contained one or more reproductive messages, with an average of 10.49 reproductive phrases per song. Although differences in the frequency of different themes between charts were found, further analyses showed that the most popular/bestselling songs contained significantly more reproductive messages. An analysis of the lyrics of opera arias and art songs also revealed evidence for many of the same embedded reproductive messages extending back more than 400 years. PMID:22947982

  14. Song discrimination by nestling collared flycatchers during early development.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, S Eryn; Söderberg, Axel; Wheatcroft, David; Qvarnström, Anna

    2016-07-01

    Pre-zygotic isolation is often maintained by species-specific signals and preferences. However, in species where signals are learnt, as in songbirds, learning errors can lead to costly hybridization. Song discrimination expressed during early developmental stages may ensure selective learning later in life but can be difficult to demonstrate before behavioural responses are obvious. Here, we use a novel method, measuring changes in metabolic rate, to detect song perception and discrimination in collared flycatcher embryos and nestlings. We found that nestlings as early as 7 days old respond to song with increased metabolic rate, and, by 9 days old, have increased metabolic rate when listening to conspecific when compared with heterospecific song. This early discrimination between songs probably leads to fewer heterospecific matings, and thus higher fitness of collared flycatchers living in sympatry with closely related species. PMID:27405379

  15. Song discrimination by nestling collared flycatchers during early development

    PubMed Central

    Söderberg, Axel; Wheatcroft, David; Qvarnström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Pre-zygotic isolation is often maintained by species-specific signals and preferences. However, in species where signals are learnt, as in songbirds, learning errors can lead to costly hybridization. Song discrimination expressed during early developmental stages may ensure selective learning later in life but can be difficult to demonstrate before behavioural responses are obvious. Here, we use a novel method, measuring changes in metabolic rate, to detect song perception and discrimination in collared flycatcher embryos and nestlings. We found that nestlings as early as 7 days old respond to song with increased metabolic rate, and, by 9 days old, have increased metabolic rate when listening to conspecific when compared with heterospecific song. This early discrimination between songs probably leads to fewer heterospecific matings, and thus higher fitness of collared flycatchers living in sympatry with closely related species. PMID:27405379

  16. The Preparation of Educational Psychologists in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Shui-fong

    2014-01-01

    Modeled after the British system, school psychologists in Hong Kong are called educational psychologists. Hong Kong is the first location in Asia to have a recognized specialty vocation in educational psychology and a program for their professional preparation. The first program in Hong Kong, established by the University of Hong Kong in 1981…

  17. Language Use, and Language Policy and Planning in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Anita Y. K.

    2010-01-01

    This monograph provides an overview of the language situation in Hong Kong from a historical perspective. Hong Kong has evolved in the past 167 years from a small fishing port to an international financial centre which forms part of a financial network hailed by "Time Magazine" as Ny.Lon.Kong (i.e. New York-London-Hong Kong). Hong Kong has gone…

  18. Anatomical plasticity in the adult Zebra Finch song system

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Kathryn S.; Kirn, John R.

    2012-01-01

    In many songbirds, vocal learning-related cellular plasticity was thought to end following a developmental critical period. However, mounting evidence in one such species, the zebra finch, suggests that forms of plasticity common during song learning continue well into adulthood, including a reliance on auditory feedback for song maintenance. This reliance wanes with increasing age, in tandem with age-related increases in fine motor control. We investigated age-related morphological changes in the adult zebra finch song system by focusing on two cortical projection neuron types that a) share a common efferent target, b) are known to exhibit morphological and functional change during song learning, and c) exert opposing influences on song acoustic structure. Neurons in HVC (proper name) and the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (LMAN) both project to the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA). During juvenile song learning and adult song maintenance, HVC promotes song syllable stereotypy while LMAN promotes learning and acoustic variability. Following retrograde labeling of these two cell types in adults, there were age-related increases in dendritic arbor in HVC-RA but not LMAN-RA neurons, resulting in an increase in the ratio of HVC-RA:LMAN-RA dendritic arbor. Differential growth of HVC relative to LMAN dendrites may relate to increases in song motor refinement, decreases in the reliance of song on auditory feedback, or both. Despite this differential growth with age, we also show that both cell types retain the capacity for experience-dependent growth. These results may provide insights on mechanisms that promote and constrain adult vocal plasticity. PMID:22473463

  19. Cross Fostering Experiments Suggest That Mice Songs Are Innate

    PubMed Central

    Kikusui, Takefumi; Nakanishi, Kaori; Nakagawa, Ryoko; Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Background Vocal learning is a central functional constituent of human speech, and recent studies showing that adult male mice emit ultrasonic sound sequences characterized as “songs” have suggested that the ultrasonic courtship sounds of mice provide a mammalian model of vocal learning. Objectives We tested whether mouse songs are learned, by examining the relative role of rearing environment in a cross-fostering experiment. Methods and Findings We found that C57BL/6 and BALB/c males emit a clearly different pattern of songs with different frequency and syllable compositions; C57BL/6 males showed a higher peak frequency of syllables, shorter intervals between syllables, and more upward frequency modulations with jumps, whereas BALB/c males produced more “chevron” and “harmonics” syllables. To establish the degree of environmental influences in mouse song development, sons of these two strains were cross-fostered to another strain of parents. Songs were recorded when these cross-fostered pups were fully developed and their songs were compared with those of male mice reared by the genetic parents. The cross-fostered animals sang songs with acoustic characteristics - including syllable interval, peak frequency, and modulation patterns - similar to those of their genetic parents. In addition their song elements retained sequential characteristics similar to those of their genetic parents' songs. Conclusion These results do not support the hypothesis that mouse “song” is learned; we found no evidence for vocal learning of any sort under the conditions of this experiment. Our observation that the strain-specific character of the song profile persisted even after changing the developmental auditory environment suggests that the structure of these courtship sound sequences is under strong genetic control. Thus, the usefulness of mouse “song” as a model of mammalian vocal learning is limited, but mouse song has the potential to be an indispensable model

  20. Towards an Analysis of the Discourse of Arabic Song: A Case Study--Umm Kulthoum's Song "AlAtlal"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussein, Gameel Abdelmageed

    2015-01-01

    Arabic song has always played an important role in the life of Arabs. It reflects cultural attitudes and influences them. However, this major expressive discourse has been almost completely neglected in Arabic literary and critical studies. For this reason, this paper focuses on Arabic song, in the hope that my study will encourage other scholars…

  1. "You Need a Song to Bring You through": The Use of Religious Songs to Manage Stressful Life Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Jill B.; Sandelowski, Margarete; Moore, Angelo D.; Agarwal, Mansi; Koenig, Harold G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To explore in a sample of older African Americans how religious songs were used to cope with stressful life events and to explore the religious beliefs associated with these songs. Design and Methods: Sixty-five African American older adults residing in the Southeastern US participated in a qualitative descriptive study involving…

  2. Fractal Dimensions and Entropies of Meragi Songs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydemir, Adnan; Gündüz, Güngör

    Melodies can be treated as time series systems with the pitches (or frequencies of the notes) representing the values in subsequent intervals. The pattern of a melody can be revealed in a scattering diagram where pitches represent vertices, and the directed pathways which connect the former pitches to the next ones signify the relations established during the performance. The pathways form a pattern which is called animal diagram (or lattice animal) in the vocabulary of graph theory. The slopes of pathways can be used to characterize an animal diagram and thus to characterize a melody; and the scattering diagram can be used to find out the fractal dimension . In addition, the entropy , the maximum entropy , and the negentropy (or the order) of melodies can be determined. The analysis of Meragi songs in terms of fractal dimension and entropy was carried out in this work. It was found out that there is not a correlation between the fractal dimension and the entropy ; therefore, the fractal dimension and the entropy each characterizes different aspects of Meragi songs.

  3. Song I-Yeong's Armillary Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Hyuk; Lee, Yong Sam

    In 1669 (the 10th year of the reign of King Hyeonjong), Song I-Yeong (宋以穎, 1619-1692), who was a professor of astronomy at Gwansanggam (Bureau of Astronomy), developed the armillary clock which uses the weight power system of an alarm clock. The armillary clock is a unique astronomical clock that combines the traditional armillary sphere of Joseon and the principle of a Western alarm clock. Song I-Yeong's armillary clock was repaired in 1687-1688 according to the records, and since then not much is known about the history of the armillary clock. After many years, in the early 1930s which was the Japanese colonial era, Inchon (仁村) Kim Seong-Su (金性洙, 1891-1955) purchased the armillary clock at the Insa-dong antique street and donated to the Korea University Museum of the present time (designated as National Treasure No. 230 in 1985). Currently, the armillary clock is not in operation because some of the parts are damaged or lost.

  4. Food for Song: Expression of C-Fos and ZENK in the Zebra Finch Song Nuclei during Food Aversion Learning

    PubMed Central

    Tokarev, Kirill; Tiunova, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Background Specialized neural pathways, the song system, are required for acquiring, producing, and perceiving learned avian vocalizations. Birds that do not learn to produce their vocalizations lack telencephalic song system components. It is not known whether the song system forebrain regions are exclusively evolved for song or whether they also process information not related to song that might reflect their ‘evolutionary history’. Methodology/Principal Findings To address this question we monitored the induction of two immediate-early genes (IEGs) c-Fos and ZENK in various regions of the song system in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) in response to an aversive food learning paradigm; this involves the association of a food item with a noxious stimulus that affects the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity and tongue, causing subsequent avoidance of that food item. The motor response results in beak and head movements but not vocalizations. IEGs have been extensively used to map neuro-molecular correlates of song motor production and auditory processing. As previously reported, neurons in two pallial vocal motor regions, HVC and RA, expressed IEGs after singing. Surprisingly, c-Fos was induced equivalently also after food aversion learning in the absence of singing. The density of c-Fos positive neurons was significantly higher than that of birds in control conditions. This was not the case in two other pallial song nuclei important for vocal plasticity, LMAN and Area X, although singing did induce IEGs in these structures, as reported previously. Conclusions/Significance Our results are consistent with the possibility that some of the song nuclei may participate in non-vocal learning and the populations of neurons involved in the two tasks show partial overlap. These findings underscore the previously advanced notion that the specialized forebrain pre-motor nuclei controlling song evolved from circuits involved in behaviors related to feeding. PMID:21695176

  5. Beyond the Gap Fill: Dynamic Activities for Song in the EFL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzutti, Nico

    2014-01-01

    This author presents variable and stimulating activities using songs to encourage students to connect with language. Seven dynamic activities include Song Pictures, Re-order It, Matching Meanings, Changing the Text, Song Strip Connections, Song Cards, and Pair Watching. All are outlined to facilitate their use, and many have added extensions and…

  6. Core and Shell Song Systems Unique to the Parrot Brain

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Mukta; Walløe, Solveig; Nedergaard, Signe; Fridel, Emma E.; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pakkenberg, Bente; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Brauth, Steven E.; Durand, Sarah E.; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to imitate complex sounds is rare, and among birds has been found only in parrots, songbirds, and hummingbirds. Parrots exhibit the most advanced vocal mimicry among non-human animals. A few studies have noted differences in connectivity, brain position and shape in the vocal learning systems of parrots relative to songbirds and hummingbirds. However, only one parrot species, the budgerigar, has been examined and no differences in the presence of song system structures were found with other avian vocal learners. Motivated by questions of whether there are important differences in the vocal systems of parrots relative to other vocal learners, we used specialized constitutive gene expression, singing-driven gene expression, and neural connectivity tracing experiments to further characterize the song system of budgerigars and/or other parrots. We found that the parrot brain uniquely contains a song system within a song system. The parrot “core” song system is similar to the song systems of songbirds and hummingbirds, whereas the “shell” song system is unique to parrots. The core with only rudimentary shell regions were found in the New Zealand kea, representing one of the only living species at a basal divergence with all other parrots, implying that parrots evolved vocal learning systems at least 29 million years ago. Relative size differences in the core and shell regions occur among species, which we suggest could be related to species differences in vocal and cognitive abilities. PMID:26107173

  7. Whale song analyses using bioinformatics sequence analysis approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yian A.; Almeida, Jonas S.; Chou, Lien-Siang

    2005-04-01

    Animal songs are frequently analyzed using discrete hierarchical units, such as units, themes and songs. Because animal songs and bio-sequences may be understood as analogous, bioinformatics analysis tools DNA/protein sequence alignment and alignment-free methods are proposed to quantify the theme similarities of the songs of false killer whales recorded off northeast Taiwan. The eighteen themes with discrete units that were identified in an earlier study [Y. A. Chen, masters thesis, University of Charleston, 2001] were compared quantitatively using several distance metrics. These metrics included the scores calculated using the Smith-Waterman algorithm with the repeated procedure; the standardized Euclidian distance and the angle metrics based on word frequencies. The theme classifications based on different metrics were summarized and compared in dendrograms using cluster analyses. The results agree with earlier classifications derived by human observation qualitatively. These methods further quantify the similarities among themes. These methods could be applied to the analyses of other animal songs on a larger scale. For instance, these techniques could be used to investigate song evolution and cultural transmission quantifying the dissimilarities of humpback whale songs across different seasons, years, populations, and geographic regions. [Work supported by SC Sea Grant, and Ilan County Government, Taiwan.

  8. The motor origins of human and avian song structure.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Adam T; Russo, Frank A; Patel, Aniruddh D

    2011-09-13

    Human song exhibits great structural diversity, yet certain aspects of melodic shape (how pitch is patterned over time) are widespread. These include a predominance of arch-shaped and descending melodic contours in musical phrases, a tendency for phrase-final notes to be relatively long, and a bias toward small pitch movements between adjacent notes in a melody [Huron D (2006) Sweet Anticipation: Music and the Psychology of Expectation (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA)]. What is the origin of these features? We hypothesize that they stem from motor constraints on song production (i.e., the energetic efficiency of their underlying motor actions) rather than being innately specified. One prediction of this hypothesis is that any animals subject to similar motor constraints on song will exhibit similar melodic shapes, no matter how distantly related those animals are to humans. Conversely, animals who do not share similar motor constraints on song will not exhibit convergent melodic shapes. Birds provide an ideal case for testing these predictions, because their peripheral mechanisms of song production have both notable similarities and differences from human vocal mechanisms [Riede T, Goller F (2010) Brain Lang 115:69-80]. We use these similarities and differences to make specific predictions about shared and distinct features of human and avian song structure and find that these predictions are confirmed by empirical analysis of diverse human and avian song samples. PMID:21876156

  9. Neural systems for speech and song in autism.

    PubMed

    Lai, Grace; Pantazatos, Spiro P; Schneider, Harry; Hirsch, Joy

    2012-03-01

    Despite language disabilities in autism, music abilities are frequently preserved. Paradoxically, brain regions associated with these functions typically overlap, enabling investigation of neural organization supporting speech and song in autism. Neural systems sensitive to speech and song were compared in low-functioning autistic and age-matched control children using passive auditory stimulation during functional magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging. Activation in left inferior frontal gyrus was reduced in autistic children relative to controls during speech stimulation, but was greater than controls during song stimulation. Functional connectivity for song relative to speech was also increased between left inferior frontal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus in autism, and large-scale connectivity showed increased frontal-posterior connections. Although fractional anisotropy of the left arcuate fasciculus was decreased in autistic children relative to controls, structural terminations of the arcuate fasciculus in inferior frontal gyrus were indistinguishable between autistic and control groups. Fractional anisotropy correlated with activity in left inferior frontal gyrus for both speech and song conditions. Together, these findings indicate that in autism, functional systems that process speech and song were more effectively engaged for song than for speech and projections of structural pathways associated with these functions were not distinguishable from controls. PMID:22298195

  10. Prehospital care in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lo, C B; Lai, K K; Mak, K P

    2000-09-01

    A quick and efficient prehospital emergency response depends on immediate ambulance dispatch, patient assessment, triage, and transport to hospital. During 1999, the Ambulance Command of the Hong Kong Fire Services Department responded to 484,923 calls, which corresponds to 1329 calls each day. Cooperation between the Fire Services Department and the Hospital Authority exists at the levels of professional training of emergency medical personnel, quality assurance, and a coordinated disaster response. In response to the incident at the Hong Kong International Airport in the summer of 1999, when an aircraft overturned during landing, the pre-set quota system was implemented to send patients to designated accident and emergency departments. Furthermore, the 'first crew at the scene' model has been adopted, whereby the command is established and triage process started by the first ambulance crew members to reach the scene. The development of emergency protocols should be accompanied by good field-to-hospital and interhospital communication, the upgrading of decision-making skills, a good monitoring and auditing structure, and commitment to training and skills maintenance. PMID:11025847

  11. The learning advantage: bird species that learn their song show a tighter adjustment of song to noisy environments than those that do not learn.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Chelén, Alejandro Ariel; Salaberria, C; Barbosa, I; Macías Garcia, C; Gil, D

    2012-11-01

    Song learning has evolved within several avian groups. Although its evolutionary advantage is not clear, it has been proposed that song learning may be advantageous in allowing birds to adapt their songs to the local acoustic environment. To test this hypothesis, we analysed patterns of song adjustment to noisy environments and explored their possible link to song learning. Bird vocalizations can be masked by low-frequency noise, and birds respond to this by singing higher-pitched songs. Most reports of this strategy involve oscines, a group of birds with learning-based song variability, and it is doubtful whether species that lack song learning (e.g. suboscines) can adjust their songs to noisy environments. We address this question by comparing the degree of song adjustment to noise in a large sample of oscines (17 populations, 14 species) and suboscines (11 populations, 7 species), recorded in Brazil (Manaus, Brasilia and Curitiba) and Mexico City. We found a significantly stronger association between minimum song frequency and noise levels (effect size) in oscines than in suboscines, suggesting a tighter match in oscines between song transmission capacity and ambient acoustics. Suboscines may be more vulnerable to acoustic pollution than oscines and thus less capable of colonizing cities or acoustically novel habitats. Additionally, we found that species whose song frequency was more divergent between populations showed tighter noise-song frequency associations. Our results suggest that song learning and/or song plasticity allows adaptation to new habitats and that this selective advantage may be linked to the evolution of song learning and plasticity. PMID:22905893

  12. Universal patterns in sound amplitudes of songs and music genres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, R. S.; Ribeiro, H. V.; Freire, F. C. M.; Tateishi, A. A.; Lenzi, E. K.

    2011-01-01

    We report a statistical analysis of more than eight thousand songs. Specifically, we investigated the probability distribution of the normalized sound amplitudes. Our findings suggest a universal form of distribution that agrees well with a one-parameter stretched Gaussian. We also argue that this parameter can give information on music complexity, and consequently it helps classify songs as well as music genres. Additionally, we present statistical evidence that correlation aspects of the songs are directly related to the non-Gaussian nature of their sound amplitude distributions.

  13. Vocal imitation of song and speech.

    PubMed

    Mantell, James T; Pfordresher, Peter Q

    2013-05-01

    We report four experiments that explored the cognitive bases of vocal imitation. Specifically, we investigated the accuracy with which normal individuals vocally imitated the pitch-time trajectories of spoken sentences and sung melodies, presented in their original form and with phonetic information removed. Overall, participants imitated melodies more accurately than sentences with respect to absolute pitch but not with respect to relative pitch or timing (overall duration). Notably, the presence of phonetic information facilitated imitation of both melodies and speech. Analyses of individual differences across studies suggested that the accuracy of imitating song predicts accuracy of imitating speech. Overall, these results do not accord with accounts of modular pitch processing that emphasize information encapsulation. PMID:23454792

  14. Siren song: physicians, congress, and medicare fees.

    PubMed

    Laugesen, Miriam J

    2009-04-01

    Physicians' fees under Medicare are updated by regulation annually based on a formula called the Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR). Since 2003 Congress has reversed impending cuts to fees in response to physician calls for reform of the SGR, yet physician groups supported the SGR when fee increases outstripped medical inflation. Physician groups are partly culpable for the failure of cost containment because physician groups have resisted efforts to regulate their practice or link effectiveness research to coverage and reimbursement decisions. In the story of Ulysses and the Sirens, Ulysses has himself bound to the mast so that he cannot be seduced by the calls of the Sirens. Physician groups are like sirens because legislators cannot resist their songs. Future policy changes should consider physician needs alongside broader cost-containment goals, including linking reimbursement to comparative effectiveness research. PMID:19276315

  15. Father of neurosurgery in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tze-Ching

    2004-04-01

    Neurosurgery in Hong Kong had its origins as a division of General Surgery and became a subspecialty only 46 years ago with the arrival of Hsiang-Lai Wen. For well over a decade, Wen would be the only neurosurgeon in the colony. His contributions to neurosurgery included the ventriculosuperior sagittal sinus shunt and the application of acupuncture in anesthesia, pain ablation, and drug detoxification. A pilot with the China National Aviation Corporation during World War II, he played an active part in the Allied war effort. As a diplomate of the American Board of Neurological Surgery, Wen sought to improve the standard of neurosurgery in Hong Kong and southern China with the establishment of the Hong Kong Neurosurgical Society in 1981 and the Research Institute of Neurosciences in Guangzhou in 1988. Wen was acknowledged as Hong Kong's "father of neurosurgery," and his work paved the way for the development of modern neurosurgery in the region. PMID:15046667

  16. Flight Day 12 Wake Up Song and Greeting

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Flight Day 12 wakeup music was "Don't Panic" by Coldplay, which was played for Pilot Doug Hurley. This was the last wakeup song played for a shuttle crew while docked to the International Space...

  17. Teaching "Torch Song": Gay Literature in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Marvin

    1993-01-01

    Presents methods and strategies for using gay literature in the English classroom, focusing on the experience of using Harvey Fierstein's play, "Torch Song Trilogy." Provides details about how the text was introduced and used in the classroom. (HB)

  18. Perception of Words and Pitch Patterns in Song and Speech

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Julia; Sammler, Daniela; Bangert, Marc; Goldhahn, Dirk; Lohmann, Gabriele; Turner, Robert; Friederici, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging study examines shared and distinct cortical areas involved in the auditory perception of song and speech at the level of their underlying constituents: words and pitch patterns. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to isolate the neural correlates of the word- and pitch-based discrimination between song and speech, corrected for rhythmic differences in both. Therefore, six conditions, arranged in a subtractive hierarchy were created: sung sentences including words, pitch and rhythm; hummed speech prosody and song melody containing only pitch patterns and rhythm; and as a control the pure musical or speech rhythm. Systematic contrasts between these balanced conditions following their hierarchical organization showed a great overlap between song and speech at all levels in the bilateral temporal lobe, but suggested a differential role of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and intraparietal sulcus (IPS) in processing song and speech. While the left IFG coded for spoken words and showed predominance over the right IFG in prosodic pitch processing, an opposite lateralization was found for pitch in song. The IPS showed sensitivity to discrete pitch relations in song as opposed to the gliding pitch in speech. Finally, the superior temporal gyrus and premotor cortex coded for general differences between words and pitch patterns, irrespective of whether they were sung or spoken. Thus, song and speech share many features which are reflected in a fundamental similarity of brain areas involved in their perception. However, fine-grained acoustic differences on word and pitch level are reflected in the IPS and the lateralized activity of the IFG. PMID:22457659

  19. Hardware and software for a robotic network of telescopes - SONG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, M. F.; Grundahl, F.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Frandsen, S.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Kjeldsen, H.; Pallé, P.; Skottfelt, J.; Sørensen, A. N.; Weiss, E.

    2014-12-01

    SONG aims at setting up a network of small 1m telescopes around the globe to observe stars uninterrupted throughout days, weeks and even months. This paper describes the fundamental aspects for putting up such a network and how we will operate each site as part of the full network. The SONG observatories will be working autonomously and automatic and can be fully controlled remotely.

  20. Bird song: in vivo, in vitro, in silico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Aryesh; Mandre, Shreyas; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayan

    2010-11-01

    Bird song, long since an inspiration for artists, writers and poets also poses challenges for scientists interested in dissecting the mechanisms underlying the neural, motor, learning and behavioral systems behind the beak and brain, as a way to recreate and synthesize it. We use a combination of quantitative visualization experiments with physical models and computational theories to understand the simplest aspects of these complex musical boxes, focusing on using the controllable elastohydrodynamic interactions to mimic aural gestures and simple songs.

  1. GCN and SONG and Interactions with Other Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelmy, Scott

    2011-01-01

    I will give a brief description of Gamma-ray burst Coordinates Network (GCN) (distribution methods, filtering criteria, etc) plus the types of notices currently being distributed (GRBs, transients, & monitoring). Then cover how Stellar Observations Network Group (SONG) telescopes could make use of these notice types to fill in some of their observing time. I will then make a pitch to get SONG telescopes to contribute those data products that are consistant with the real-time transient aspects of GCN.

  2. Neural representations of courtship song in the Drosophila brain

    PubMed Central

    Tootoonian, Sina; Coen, Philip; Kawai, Risa; Murthy, Mala

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic communication in Drosophilid flies is based on the production and perception of courtship songs, which facilitate mating. Despite decades of research on courtship songs and behavior in Drosophila, central auditory responses have remained uncharacterized. In this study, we report on intracellular recordings from central neurons that innervate the Drosophila AMMC (antennal mechanosensory and motor center), the first relay for auditory information in the fly brain. These neurons produce graded-potential (non-spiking) responses to sound; we compare recordings from AMMC neurons to extracellular recordings of the receptor neuron population (Johnston’s Organ neurons or JONs). We discover that while steady-state response profiles for tonal and broadband stimuli are significantly transformed between the JON population in the antenna and AMMC neurons in the brain, transient responses to pulses present in natural stimuli (courtship song) are not. For pulse stimuli in particular, AMMC neurons simply low-pass filter the receptor population response, thus preserving low-frequency temporal features (such as the spacing of song pulses) for analysis by postsynaptic neurons. We also compare responses in two closely related Drosophila species, D. melanogaster and D. simulans, and find that pulse song responses are largely similar, despite differences in the spectral content of their songs. Our recordings inform how downstream circuits may read out behaviorally-relevant information from central neurons in the AMMC. PMID:22262877

  3. Teaching ethics using popular songs: feeling and thinking.

    PubMed

    O'Mathúna, Dónal P

    2008-01-01

    A connection has long been made between music and moral education. Recent discussions have focused on concerns that certain lyrics can lead to acceptance of violence, suicide, inappropriate views of women, and other unethical behaviour. Debate over whether such connections exist at least illustrates that popular songs engage listeners with ethical issues; this arises from the unique blend of emotional and cognitive reactions to music. And while the emotional side of ethics has received less attention than other aspects of ethics, it is important and music can be a powerful and unique tool to introduce the emotional aspects of ethics. Music appeals to almost everyone. Throughout history songs have rallied people to action and drawn people into deeper reflection. Music engages our emotions, our imagination and our intellect. Students already spend many hours listening to songs, some of which address ethical issues; it is thus an ideal pedagogic aid in teaching subjects like ethics. This article will discuss how carefully selected songs can encourage thoughtful reflection and critical thinking about ethical issues: a number of specific examples will be described, along with a discussion of the general practicalities of using popular songs in teaching ethics and a demonstration of how students learn to listen critically and actively reflect on the ethical messages they receive. The enjoyment of music helps to engage students with ethics and its relevance for their lives and careers. This article aims to share some of the excitement and enthusiasm that popular songs have brought to my teaching of ethics. PMID:19205315

  4. Central neural circuitry mediating courtship song perception in male Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chuan; Franconville, Romain; Vaughan, Alexander G; Robinett, Carmen C; Jayaraman, Vivek; Baker, Bruce S

    2015-01-01

    Animals use acoustic signals across a variety of social behaviors, particularly courtship. In Drosophila, song is detected by antennal mechanosensory neurons and further processed by second-order aPN1/aLN(al) neurons. However, little is known about the central pathways mediating courtship hearing. In this study, we identified a male-specific pathway for courtship hearing via third-order ventrolateral protocerebrum Projection Neuron 1 (vPN1) neurons and fourth-order pC1 neurons. Genetic inactivation of vPN1 or pC1 disrupts song-induced male-chaining behavior. Calcium imaging reveals that vPN1 responds preferentially to pulse song with long inter-pulse intervals (IPIs), while pC1 responses to pulse song closely match the behavioral chaining responses at different IPIs. Moreover, genetic activation of either vPN1 or pC1 induced courtship chaining, mimicking the behavioral response to song. These results outline the aPN1-vPN1-pC1 pathway as a labeled line for the processing and transformation of courtship song in males. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08477.001 PMID:26390382

  5. Urban noise and the cultural evolution of bird songs

    PubMed Central

    Luther, David; Baptista, Luis

    2010-01-01

    In urban environments, anthropogenic noise can interfere with animal communication. Here we study the influence of urban noise on the cultural evolution of bird songs. We studied three adjacent dialects of white-crowned sparrow songs over a 30-year time span. Urban noise, which is louder at low frequencies, increased during our study period and therefore should have created a selection pressure for songs with higher frequencies. We found that the minimum frequency of songs increased both within and between dialects during the 30-year time span. For example, the dialect with the highest minimum frequency is in the process of replacing another dialect that has lower frequency songs. Songs with the highest minimum frequency were favoured in this environment and should have the most effective transmission properties. We suggest that one mechanism that influences how dialects, and cultural traits in general, are selected and transmitted from one generation to the next is the dialect's ability to be effectively communicated in the local environment. PMID:19846451

  6. Communication Value of Mistakes in Dark-Eyed Junco Song.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, André C; Atwell, Jonathan W; Whittaker, Danielle J; Ketterson, Ellen D; Cardoso, Gonçalo C

    2016-09-01

    Sexual signals contain information on individual quality or motivation, and most explanations for their reliability are based on signal costs. A recent suggestion is that signaling mistakes, defined as deviations from typical signal design, provide cues on individual quality, contributing to reliable communication even when signal design is not costly. We describe several atypical song traits in dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) that may be mistakes during song production or development and occur in up to 6% of songs. These putative mistakes were more frequent in an urban versus a wildland population, and individuals differed in their frequency of mistakes. Some atypical signals were more frequent in younger males or were negatively related to paternity success, supporting the hypothesis that fewer mistakes indicate individual quality. We also discuss unexpected results, such as some atypical signals being more frequent in more ornamented males and in songs with lower performance demands. Song consistency (similarity across syllable renditions) was positively related to male age and paternity success; nonetheless, relations with paternity were stronger when looking at the most deviant syllable renditions, suggesting that the perceptual salience of large mistakes may mediate receiver responses to song consistency. Results indicate that signaling mistakes reveal relevant information to play a role in communication. PMID:27501087

  7. Central neural circuitry mediating courtship song perception in male Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuan; Franconville, Romain; Vaughan, Alexander G; Robinett, Carmen C; Jayaraman, Vivek; Baker, Bruce S

    2015-01-01

    Animals use acoustic signals across a variety of social behaviors, particularly courtship. In Drosophila, song is detected by antennal mechanosensory neurons and further processed by second-order aPN1/aLN(al) neurons. However, little is known about the central pathways mediating courtship hearing. In this study, we identified a male-specific pathway for courtship hearing via third-order ventrolateral protocerebrum Projection Neuron 1 (vPN1) neurons and fourth-order pC1 neurons. Genetic inactivation of vPN1 or pC1 disrupts song-induced male-chaining behavior. Calcium imaging reveals that vPN1 responds preferentially to pulse song with long inter-pulse intervals (IPIs), while pC1 responses to pulse song closely match the behavioral chaining responses at different IPIs. Moreover, genetic activation of either vPN1 or pC1 induced courtship chaining, mimicking the behavioral response to song. These results outline the aPN1-vPN1-pC1 pathway as a labeled line for the processing and transformation of courtship song in males. PMID:26390382

  8. College Psychotherapy at a Hong Kong Counseling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Eugenie Y.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an online interview about college psychotherapy at a Hong Kong counseling center. The interview discusses how students generally feel about going for counseling or therapy and how common it is in Hong Kong.

  9. Teaching English to Chinese Immigrants in Hong Kong Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Christina; Liu, Cora

    1999-01-01

    Interviewed ten Hong Kong secondary school teachers to highlight the difficulties caused by the recent influx of children from China into Hong Kong. These include difficulties for the immigrants themselves, for the teachers, and for the schools. (Author/VWL)

  10. Amplitude modulation of sexy phrases is salient for song attractiveness in female canaries (Serinus canaria).

    PubMed

    Pasteau, Magali; Ung, Davy; Kreutzer, Michel; Aubin, Thierry

    2012-07-01

    Song discrimination and recognition in songbird species have usually been studied by measuring responses to song playbacks. In female canaries, Serinus canaria, copulation solicitation displays (CSDs) are used as an index of female preferences, which are related to song recognition. Despite the fact that many studies underline the role of song syntax in this species, we observed that short segments of songs (a few seconds long) are enough for females to discriminate between conspecific and heterospecific songs, whereas such a short duration is not sufficient to identify the syntax rules. This suggests that other cues are salient for song recognition. In this experiment, we investigated the influence of amplitude modulation (AM) on the responses (CSDs) of female canaries to song playbacks. We used two groups of females: (1) raised in acoustic isolation and (2) raised in normal conditions. When adult, we tested their preferences for sexy phrases with different AMs. We broadcast three types of stimuli: (1) songs with natural canary AM, (2) songs with AM removed, or (3) song with wren Troglodytes troglodytes AM. Results indicate that female canaries prefer and have predispositions for a song type with the natural canary AM. Thus, this acoustic parameter is a salient cue for song attractiveness. PMID:22476242

  11. Degradation of Rural and Urban Great Tit Song: Testing Transmission Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mockford, Emily J.; Marshall, Rupert C.; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic signals play a fundamental role in avian territory defence and mate attraction. Several studies have now shown that spectral properties of bird song differ between urban and rural environments. Previously this has been attributed to competition for acoustic space as a result of low-frequency noise present in cities. However, the physical structure of urban areas may have a contributory effect. Here we investigate the sound degradation properties of woodland and city environments using both urban and rural great tit song. We show that although urban surroundings caused significantly less degradation to both songs, the transmission efficiency of rural song compared to urban song was significantly lower in the city. While differences between the two songs in woodland were generally minimal, some measures of the transmission efficiency of rural song were significantly lower than those of urban song, suggesting additional benefits to singing rural songs in this setting. In an attempt to create artificial urban song, we mimicked the increase in minimum frequency found several times previously in urban song. However, this did not replicate the same transmission properties as true urban song, suggesting changes in other song characteristics, such as temporal adjustments, are needed to further increase transmission of an avian signal in the city. We suggest that the structure of the acoustic environment, in addition to the background noise, plays an important role in signal adaptation. PMID:22174781

  12. The relationship of neurogenesis and growth of brain regions to song learning

    PubMed Central

    Kirn, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Song learning, maintenance and production require coordinated activity across multiple auditory, sensory-motor, and neuromuscular structures. Telencephalic components of the sensory-motor circuitry are unique to avian species that engage in song learning. The song system shows protracted development that begins prior to hatching but continues well into adulthood. The staggered developmental timetable for construction of the song system provides clues of subsystems involved in specific stages of song learning and maintenance. Progressive events, including neurogenesis and song system growth, as well as regressive events such as apoptosis and synapse elimination, occur during periods of song learning and the transitions between stereotyped and variable song during both development and adulthood. There is clear evidence that gonadal steroids influence the development of song attributes and shape the underlying neural circuitry. Some aspects of song system development are influenced by sensory, motor and social experience, while other aspects of neural development appear to be experience-independent. Although there are species differences in the extent to which song learning continues into adulthood, growing evidence suggests that despite differences in learning trajectories, adult refinement of song motor control and song maintenance can require remarkable behavioral and neural flexibility reminiscent of sensory-motor learning. PMID:19853905

  13. Hatching late in the season requires flexibility in the timing of song learning.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Stefan; Teichel, Johanna; Ter Maat, Andries; Voigt, Cornelia

    2015-08-01

    Most songbirds learn their songs from adult tutors, who can be their father or other male conspecifics. However, the variables that control song learning in a natural social context are largely unknown. We investigated whether the time of hatching of male domesticated canaries has an impact on their song development and on the neuroendocrine parameters of the song control system. Average age difference between early- and late-hatched males was 50 days with a maximum of 90 days. Song activity of adult tutor males decreased significantly during the breeding season. While early-hatched males were exposed to tutor songs for on average the first 99 days, late-hatched peers heard adult song only during the first 48 days of life. Remarkably, although hatching late in the season negatively affected body condition, no differences between both groups of males were found in song characteristics either in autumn or in the following spring. Similarly, hatching date had no effect on song nucleus size and circulating testosterone levels. Our data suggest that late-hatched males must have undergone accelerated song development. Furthermore, the limited tutor song exposure did not affect adult song organization and song performance. PMID:26311160

  14. Trilingual Education in Hong Kong Primary Schools: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lixun; Kirkpatrick, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Since 1997, the "biliterate and trilingual" policy has been adopted by the Hong Kong government, and is now guiding the curriculum design in Hong Kong primary schools. This language policy aims to ensure that Hong Kong students become biliterate (written English and Chinese) and trilingual (spoken English, Cantonese and Putonghua). However, Hong…

  15. Schooling in Hong Kong. Organization, Teaching, and Social Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postiglione, Gerard A., Ed.; Lee, Wing On, Ed.

    Contributions to this volume present background material about the characteristics of education in Hong Kong as well as social and organizational perspectives that explore key educational issues facing Hong Kong educators. The first part of the book introduces the Hong Kong education system, while the second part deals with the organizational and…

  16. Rehabilitation for Young Offenders in Hong Kong Correctional Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Kai Yung; Heng, Mary Anne

    2008-01-01

    The motto of the Hong Kong Correctional Services Department (CSD) is to "Support Rehabilitative Offenders for a More Inclusive Society." The Hong Kong CSD has developed a correctional system which has placed increasing emphasis on correction and rehabilitation of offenders over the years. This paper describes the efforts of the Hong Kong CSD in…

  17. European Languages and Culture in Hong Kong: Trade or Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cribbin, John

    2009-01-01

    Hong Kong Government policy is to promote Hong Kong as an international education hub for the region. This may be more rhetoric than reality. The article surveys the historical background of Hong Kong in terms of its role as a trading centre, a gateway to China and a meeting place for East and West for which interchange with European languages and…

  18. Social Harmony in Hong Kong: Level, Determinants and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Simon S. M.; Chan, Raymond S. Y.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims at ascertaining how Hong Kong people perceive Hong Kong as a harmonious society. It also identifies the elements that are most conducive to social harmony in Hong Kong, so that the government could take reference when formulating new policies. 1,062 adults residents were asked to rate their perceived level of social harmony and…

  19. Quality Assurance and School Monitoring in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching

    2007-01-01

    This study reports on the Hong Kong education quality assurance and school monitoring system. Three research questions were addressed: (1) Who controls the quality of school education in Hong Kong? (2) What strategies are used in the Hong Kong school education quality assurance process? (3) Agenda for Future Research on quality assurance and…

  20. Lifelong Learning in Action: Hong Kong Practitioners' Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cribbin, John, Ed.; Kennedy, Peter, Ed.

    This document consists of 32 papers presenting Hong Kong practitioners' perspectives on lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "Lifelong Learning" (Albert Tuijnman); "Growth and Development of Lifelong Learning in Hong Kong " (John Cribbin); "Competition and Collaboration" (John Cribbin); "A Profile of Hong Kong Adult Learners"…

  1. Intra-Nationalization of Higher Education: The Hong Kong Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Roger Y.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the internationalization of higher education initiatives of Hong Kong, being one of the Special Administrative Regions (SAR) of China, within the context of the Chinese Mainland-Hong Kong (CM-HK) relations. Historical, social, economic, and political ties between Hong Kong and the Mainland of China, their economic and political…

  2. Measuring bulky waste arisings in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Chung Shanshan; Lau, Ka-yan Winifred; Zhang Chan

    2010-05-15

    All too often, waste authorities either assume that they know enough about their bulky waste stream or that it is too insignificant to deserve attention. In this paper, we use Hong Kong as an example to illustrate that official bulky waste figures can actually be very different from the reality and therefore important waste management decisions made based on such statistics may be wrong too. This study is also the first attempt in Hong Kong to outline the composition of bulky waste. It was found that about 342 tonnes/day of wood waste were omitted by official statistics owing to incomplete records on actual bulky waste flow. This is more than enough to provide all the feedstock needed for one regular-sized wood waste recycling facility in Hong Kong. In addition, the proportion of bulky waste in the municipal solid waste (MSW) streams in Hong Kong should be about 6.1% instead of the officially stated 1.43%. Admittedly, there are limitations with this study. Yet, present findings are suggestive of significant MSW data distortion in Hong Kong.

  3. Cues to Androgens and Quality in Male Gibbon Songs

    PubMed Central

    Barelli, Claudia; Mundry, Roger; Heistermann, Michael; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Animal vocal signals may provide information about senders and mediate important social interactions like sexual competition, territory maintenance and mate selection. Hence, it is important to understand whether vocal signals provide accurate information about animal attributes or status. Gibbons are non-human primates that produce loud, distinctive and melodious vocalizations resembling more those of birds than of other non-human primates. Wild gibbons are characterized by flexibility in social organization (i.e., pairs and multimale units) as well as in mating system (i.e., monogamy and polyandry). Such features make them a suitable model to investigate whether the physiology (hormonal status) and socio-demographic features find their correspondence in the structure of their songs. By combining male solo song recordings, endocrine outputs using non-invasive fecal androgen measures and behavioral observations, we studied 14 groups (10 pair-living, 4 multimale) of wild white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar) residing at Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. We collected a total of 322 fecal samples and recorded 48 songs from 18 adult animals. Our results confirmed inter-individuality in male gibbon songs, and showed a clear correlation between androgen levels and song structures. Gibbons with higher androgen levels produced calls having higher pitch, and similarly adult individuals produced longer calls than senior males. Thus, it is plausible that gibbon vocalizations provide receivers with information about singers' attributes. PMID:24367551

  4. Principles of structure building in music, language and animal song.

    PubMed

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Zuidema, Willem; Wiggins, Geraint A; Scharff, Constance

    2015-03-19

    Human language, music and a variety of animal vocalizations constitute ways of sonic communication that exhibit remarkable structural complexity. While the complexities of language and possible parallels in animal communication have been discussed intensively, reflections on the complexity of music and animal song, and their comparisons, are underrepresented. In some ways, music and animal songs are more comparable to each other than to language as propositional semantics cannot be used as indicator of communicative success or wellformedness, and notions of grammaticality are less easily defined. This review brings together accounts of the principles of structure building in music and animal song. It relates them to corresponding models in formal language theory, the extended Chomsky hierarchy (CH), and their probabilistic counterparts. We further discuss common misunderstandings and shortcomings concerning the CH and suggest ways to move beyond. We discuss language, music and animal song in the context of their function and motivation and further integrate problems and issues that are less commonly addressed in the context of language, including continuous event spaces, features of sound and timbre, representation of temporality and interactions of multiple parallel feature streams. We discuss these aspects in the light of recent theoretical, cognitive, neuroscientific and modelling research in the domains of music, language and animal song. PMID:25646520

  5. Songs of the Universe - The AstroCappella Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, P. T.; Smale, K. M.; Smale, A. P.

    2004-12-01

    The AstroCappella Project is a classroom-ready collection of upbeat pop songs, lesson plans, and background information, all rich in science content. It was developed as a collaboration between working research astronomers, educators, and a contemporary vocal band. A multimedia music CD ("AstroCappella 2.0") has been produced containing 13 astronomically correct songs with original lyrics and music. Song topics range from the Sun, Moon, planets and small bodies of the Solar System, through the Doppler shift, the nearest stars, and extra-solar planets, to radio astronomy, X-ray astronomy, and the Hubble Space Telescope and Swift astronomy satellites. The CD also contains extensive CD-ROM materials including science background information, curriculum notes, lesson plans and activities for each song, images, movies, and slide shows. The songs and accompanying information have been extensively field-tested, and align to the K-12 National Science Education Standards. The AstroCappella materials are in widespread use in classrooms and homes across the US, and are supplemented with frequent live performances and teacher workshops. We describe here the history, content, and educational strategy behind the AstroCappella Project, and the plans for its future development.

  6. Dynamic variation in forebrain estradiol levels during song learning

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Andrew; Paon, Ashley; Remage-Healey, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Estrogens shape brain circuits during development, and the capacity to synthesize estrogens locally has consequences for both sexual differentiation and the acute modulation of circuits during early learning. A recently-optimized method to detect and quantify fluctuations in brain estrogens in vivo provides a direct means to explore how brain estrogen production contributes to both differentiation and neuromodulation during development. Here, we use this method to test the hypothesis that neuroestrogens are sexually-differentiated as well as dynamically responsive to song tutoring (via passive video/audio playback) during the period of song learning in juvenile zebra finches. Our results show that baseline neuroestradiol levels in the caudal forebrain do not differ between males and females during an early critical masculinization window. Instead, we observe a prominent difference between males and females in baseline neuroestradiol that emerges during the subadult stage as animals approach sexual maturity. Second, we observe that fluctuating neuroestradiol levels during periods of passive song tutoring exhibit a markedly different profile in juveniles as compared to adults. Specifically, neuroestrogens in the caudal forebrain are elevated following (rather than during) tutor song exposure in both juvenile males and females, suggesting an important role for the early consolidation of tutor song memories. These results further reveal a circadian influence on the fluctuations in local neuroestrogens during sensory/cognitive tasks. Taken together, these findings uncover several unexpected features of brain estrogen synthesis in juvenile animals that may have implications for secondary masculinization as well as the consolidation of recent sensory experiences. PMID:25205304

  7. Principles of structure building in music, language and animal song

    PubMed Central

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Zuidema, Willem; Wiggins, Geraint A.; Scharff, Constance

    2015-01-01

    Human language, music and a variety of animal vocalizations constitute ways of sonic communication that exhibit remarkable structural complexity. While the complexities of language and possible parallels in animal communication have been discussed intensively, reflections on the complexity of music and animal song, and their comparisons, are underrepresented. In some ways, music and animal songs are more comparable to each other than to language as propositional semantics cannot be used as indicator of communicative success or wellformedness, and notions of grammaticality are less easily defined. This review brings together accounts of the principles of structure building in music and animal song. It relates them to corresponding models in formal language theory, the extended Chomsky hierarchy (CH), and their probabilistic counterparts. We further discuss common misunderstandings and shortcomings concerning the CH and suggest ways to move beyond. We discuss language, music and animal song in the context of their function and motivation and further integrate problems and issues that are less commonly addressed in the context of language, including continuous event spaces, features of sound and timbre, representation of temporality and interactions of multiple parallel feature streams. We discuss these aspects in the light of recent theoretical, cognitive, neuroscientific and modelling research in the domains of music, language and animal song. PMID:25646520

  8. Dynamic variation in forebrain estradiol levels during song learning.

    PubMed

    Chao, Andrew; Paon, Ashley; Remage-Healey, Luke

    2015-03-01

    Estrogens shape brain circuits during development, and the capacity to synthesize estrogens locally has consequences for both sexual differentiation and the acute modulation of circuits during early learning. A recently optimized method to detect and quantify fluctuations in brain estrogens in vivo provides a direct means to explore how brain estrogen production contributes to both differentiation and neuromodulation during development. Here, we use this method to test the hypothesis that neuroestrogens are sexually differentiated as well as dynamically responsive to song tutoring (via passive video/audio playback) during the period of song learning in juvenile zebra finches. Our results show that baseline neuroestradiol levels in the caudal forebrain do not differ between males and females during an early critical masculinization window. Instead, we observe a prominent difference between males and females in baseline neuroestradiol that emerges during the subadult stage as animals approach sexual maturity. Second, we observe that fluctuating neuroestradiol levels during periods of passive song tutoring exhibit a markedly different profile in juveniles as compared to adults. Specifically, neuroestrogens in the caudal forebrain are elevated following (rather than during) tutor song exposure in both juvenile males and females, suggesting an important role for the early consolidation of tutor song memories. These results further reveal a circadian influence on the fluctuations in local neuroestrogens during sensory/cognitive tasks. Taken together, these findings uncover several unexpected features of brain estrogen synthesis in juvenile animals that may have implications for secondary masculinization as well as the consolidation of recent sensory experiences. PMID:25205304

  9. Sensorimotor Transformations Underlying Variability in Song Intensity during Drosophila Courtship.

    PubMed

    Coen, Philip; Xie, Marjorie; Clemens, Jan; Murthy, Mala

    2016-02-01

    Diverse animal species, from insects to humans, utilize acoustic signals for communication. Studies of the neural basis for song or speech production have focused almost exclusively on the generation of spectral and temporal patterns, but animals can also adjust acoustic signal intensity when communicating. For example, humans naturally regulate the loudness of speech in accord with a visual estimate of receiver distance. The underlying mechanisms for this ability remain uncharacterized in any system. Here, we show that Drosophila males modulate courtship song amplitude with female distance, and we investigate each stage of the sensorimotor transformation underlying this behavior, from the detection of particular visual stimulus features and the timescales of sensory processing to the modulation of neural and muscle activity that generates song. Our results demonstrate an unanticipated level of control in insect acoustic communication and uncover novel computations and mechanisms underlying the regulation of acoustic signal intensity. PMID:26844835

  10. Immature male gibbons produce female-specific songs.

    PubMed

    Koda, Hiroki; Oyakawa, Chisako; Kato, Akemi; Shimizu, Daisuke; Rizaldi; Koyama, Yasuhiro; Hasegawa, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Gibbons are apes that are well known to produce characteristic species-specific loud calls, referred to as "songs." Of particular interest is the sex specificity of the "great calls" heard in gibbon songs. However, little is known about the development of such calls. While great calls are given by female gibbons of various ages, they have never been recorded from males. Here, we report two observations of immature male gibbons from two different species, wild Hylobates agilis and captive H. lar, which spontaneously sang female-specific great calls. Based on the video clips, we conclude that immature males also have the potential to produce great calls. Our observations led us to propose a new hypothesis for the development of sexual differentiation in the songs of gibbons, and its implications for the general issue of sex-specific behavior in primates. PMID:24158401

  11. The development of stimulus-specific auditory responses requires song exposure in male but not female zebra finches

    PubMed Central

    Maul, Kristen K.; Voss, Henning U.; Parra, Lucas C.; Salgado-Commissariat, Delanthi; Ballon, Douglas; Tchernichovski, Ofer; Helekar, Santosh A.

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile male zebra finches develop their song by imitation. Females do not sing but are attracted to males' songs. With functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and Event Related Potentials (ERPs) we tested how early auditory experience shapes responses in the auditory forebrain of the adult bird. Adult male birds kept in isolation over the sensitive period for song learning showed no consistency in auditory responses to conspecific songs, calls, and syllables. Thirty seconds of song playback each day over development, which is sufficient to induce song imitation, was also sufficient to shape stimulus-specific responses. Strikingly, adult females kept in isolation over development showed responses similar to those of males that were exposed to songs. We suggest that early auditory experience with songs may be required to tune perception towards conspecific songs in males, whereas in females song selectivity develops even without prior exposure to song. PMID:19937773

  12. Hematological Practice in Hong Kong and China.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Yok-Lam; Ha, Shau-Yin; Chan, Vivian

    2016-04-01

    Thalassemias and hemophilias are the most important inherited hematological diseases in Hong Kong and China. Prenatal diagnosis has significantly decreased the burden of these diseases. For thalassemia major, adequate transfusion and iron chelation therapy have dramatically improved patient outlook. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is curative for thalassemia major and is increasingly adopted. The efficacy of arsenic trioxide in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) was discovered in China. An oral formulation of arsenic trioxide was developed in Hong Kong for newly diagnosed and relapsed APL patients. With combination chemotherapy containing non-P-glycoprotein-dependent drugs and L-asparaginase, durable remission can be achieved in the most patients. PMID:27040964

  13. L'Italiano tra le Note: The Value and Power of a Song.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Mariagrazia

    A series of class exercises for Italian language instruction based on a song, "La Vita Mia" by Amedeo Minghi, is presented. The song was selected because of its rich literary content and appealing melody. Objectives, in-class activities, and homework assignments are outlined. In them, students listen to the song, discuss the relationship of poetry…

  14. Vocal Communications and the Maintenance of Population Specific Songs in a Contact Zone

    PubMed Central

    Rowell, Jonathan T.; Servedio, Maria R.

    2012-01-01

    Bird song has been hypothesized to play a role in several important aspects of the biology of songbirds, including the generation of taxonomic diversity by speciation; however, the role that song plays in speciation within this group may be dependent upon the ability of populations to maintain population specific songs or calls in the face of gene flow and external cultural influences. Here, in an exploratory study, we construct a spatially explicit model of population movement to examine the consequences of secondary contact of populations singing distinct songs. We concentrate on two broad questions: 1) will population specific songs be maintained in a contact zone or will they be replaced by shared song, and 2) what spatial patterns in the distribution of songs may result from contact? We examine the effects of multiple factors including song-based mating preferences and movement probabilities, oblique versus paternal learning of song, and both cultural and genetic mutations. We find a variety of conditions under which population specific songs can be maintained, particularly when females have preferences for their population specific songs, and we document many distinct patterns of song distribution within the contact zone, including clines, banding, and mosaics. PMID:22574116

  15. Sharing Songs: A Powerful Tool for Teaching Tolerance and Honoring Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascale, Louise Mary

    2011-01-01

    Teaching songs from a wide variety of cultures is commonplace in music classrooms around the United States. Students gain understanding of and insight into a wide range of cultures by singing their songs and listening to their music. The Afghan Children's Songbook Project is a project focused on preserving and returning traditional songs,…

  16. The Relationship of Neurogenesis and Growth of Brain Regions to Song Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirn, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Song learning, maintenance and production require coordinated activity across multiple auditory, sensory-motor, and neuromuscular structures. Telencephalic components of the sensory-motor circuitry are unique to avian species that engage in song learning. The song system shows protracted development that begins prior to hatching but continues well…

  17. Song Recognition among Preschool-Age Children: An Investigation of Words and Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feierabend, John M.; Saunders, T. Clark; Getnick, Pamela E.; Holahan, John M.

    1998-01-01

    Seeks to discover whether listening to songs over an extended period of time contributes to a greater integration of words and music in memory among preschool children. Finds more accurate recognition of songs performed without text when they had heard them previously with texts and that melodic content influenced song-recognition ability. (DSK)

  18. Teaching Listening Skills to Young Learners through "Listen and Do" Songs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevik, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the use of songs to improve the listening skills of young learners. He first provides a theoretical discussion about listening skills and YLs, and about songs and YLs in general; second, he provides a sample lesson for what can be called "Listen and Do" songs for YLs at the beginning level. These are the songs…

  19. Female Lincoln's sparrows modulate their behavior in response to variation in male song quality

    PubMed Central

    Sewall, Kendra B.; Salvante, Katrina G.

    2010-01-01

    Sexually reproducing organisms should mate with the highest quality individuals that they can. When female songbirds choose a mate, they are thought to use several aspects of male song that reflect his quality. Under resource-limited environmental conditions, male Lincoln's sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii) vary among one another in several aspects of song quality, including song length, song complexity, and trill performance. In a 2-pronged approach, we tested whether variation in song quality of male Lincoln's sparrows influences the behavior of females that are in a reproductive-like state. Over two trials, we exposed females to songs from the high and low ends of the distribution of naturally occurring song quality variation and found a higher level of behavioral activity in females exposed to high-quality songs, especially when they had first been exposed to low-quality songs. We also examined female phonotaxis toward antiphonally played songs with experimentally elevated and reduced trill performance and found that females moved preferentially toward the songs with elevated trill performance. Contrary to most studies investigating the behavioral responses of wild, female songbirds to variation in male song, we obtained our results without administering exogenous estradiol, which can artificially perturb the female's physiology. Our results demonstrate that the behavior of female Lincoln's sparrows is modulated by the quality of male songs to which they are exposed and that trill performance plays a significant role in this behavioral modulation. Furthermore, as the order of song quality presentation matters, it appears that recent song experience also influences female behavior. PMID:22476505

  20. Internationalisation of Higher Education in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretor Fok, Wai-kei

    2007-01-01

    With a view that internationalisation is an interactive response to globalisation, this paper examines the internationalising activities in the higher education sector, and in particular, the Hong Kong higher education sector. Four main areas are covered: (a) internationalising staff and students, (b) building an international network, (c)…

  1. Sibling Incest: A Hong Kong Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsun, O. K. Angela

    1999-01-01

    Presents a case study of a Hong Kong Chinese adult survivor of brother-sister incest. Discusses her symptoms, feelings toward incest, parental response at disclosures, and implications for practice. Also discusses Chinese cultural influences that affect the family and lead to secrecy and shame. (CR)

  2. Challenges Beginning Teachers Face in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Bick-Har

    2014-01-01

    By conducting in-depth interviews with new teachers who are about to become full-time teachers and then reinterviewing them two years later, the author of this article presents how beginning teachers think and feel about teaching and describes the challenges they face as beginning teachers in the context of Hong Kong. The stories of the teachers,…

  3. The Quality of Life in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sing, Ming

    2009-01-01

    The AsiaBarometer of 1,000 respondents shows that Hong Kong people have a great desire for materialistic attainment, and such an emphasis on materialism bodes ill for their quality of life. Negative assessments of the public life sphere, which encompasses the natural environment, the social welfare system, and the democratic system, also detract…

  4. Hong Kong Words: Variation and Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Phil

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a number of issues involved in a description of a variety of English in relation to the distinctive vocabulary of Hong Kong English. Attention to semantic and pragmatic relationships internal to the variety and the sociocultural context in which it operates is urged. (Author/VWL)

  5. Phonological Changes in Hong Kong and Cantonese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zee, Eric

    1996-01-01

    Examines phonological changes illustrating the changing nature of Hong Kong Cantonese (HKC). The article describes the historical development of syllable-initial consonants, such as nasals, affricates and coronal fricatives, and also the syllable-final stops and nasals in HKC. (24 references) (Author/CK)

  6. Languages and Business: The Hong Kong Mix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundelius, Jay Osborn

    1997-01-01

    Investigates how English compared with Cantonese, Putonghua, and written Chinese in importance for recent Hong Kong university graduates. Finds that managers said English is used predominantly in written communications, and Cantonese is used overwhelmingly for oral communications. Reports results on perceived importance of languages, languages…

  7. Adolescent Abuse in Hong Kong Chinese Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum

    1996-01-01

    A survey of approximately 375 Chinese college students in Hong Kong examined parental abuse toward adolescents. Of the sample, 62.2% had been verbally abused by the parents, 13.2% experienced minor physical violence, and 8.5% reported severe physical violence during the past year. (CR)

  8. They're Hiring in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hvistendahl, Mara

    2009-01-01

    Over the past several years, Hong Kong has made a determined effort to raise its profile by positioning its universities to compete globally for students, scholars, and research projects. In the process, it is refashioning its higher-education system from the British three-year model into a four-year system aligned with those of the United States…

  9. Hong Kong English and the Professional World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    One of the dominant themes of the literature on language in Hong Kong is the belief that English, particularly its spoken form, plays a limited role in the lives of the territory's mainly Cantonese-speaking Chinese community. For this reason, it is argued, there is no societal basis for the development of a nativised variety of English. One of the…

  10. The Immediate Effects of Homicidal, Suicidal, and Nonviolent Heavy Metal and Rap Songs on the Moods of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Mary E.; Coates, Steven

    1995-01-01

    Examined the impact of homicidal, suicidal, and nonviolent heavy metal and rap songs on the moods of male college undergraduates. Students (n=164) completed mood inventories after listening to 1 of 6 songs. Results show no effects of these songs on suicidal ideation, anxiety, or self-esteem. Rap songs elicited greater angry responses than heavy…

  11. Using Science Songs to Enhance Learning: An Interdisciplinary Approach

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Music is recognized as an effective mode of teaching young children but is rarely used in university-level science courses. This article reviews the somewhat limited evidence on whether and how content-rich music might affect college students' understanding of science and offers practical suggestions for incorporating music into courses. Aside from aiding memorization, songs may potentially improve learning by helping students feel relaxed and welcome in stressful settings, engaging students through multiple modes (verbal vs. nonverbal) and modalities (auditory vs. visual vs. kinesthetic) simultaneously, challenging students to integrate and “own” the material through the medium of song lyrics, and increasing students' time on task outside of class through enjoyable listening or songwriting assignments. Students may produce content-rich songs of good quality if given sufficient assistance and encouragement by instructors and peers. The challenges ahead include 1) defining the circumstances in which music is most likely to promote learning and 2) developing rubrics for evaluating the quality of songs. PMID:22383614

  12. Elemental gesture dynamics are encoded by song premotor cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Amador, Ana; Perl, Yonatan Sanz; Mindlin, Gabriel B; Margoliash, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Quantitative biomechanical models can identify control parameters that are used during movements, and movement parameters that are encoded by premotor neurons. We fit a mathematical dynamical systems model including subsyringeal pressure, syringeal biomechanics and upper-vocal-tract filtering to the songs of zebra finches. This reduces the dimensionality of singing dynamics, described as trajectories (motor 'gestures') in a space of syringeal pressure and tension. Here we assess model performance by characterizing the auditory response 'replay' of song premotor HVC neurons to the presentation of song variants in sleeping birds, and by examining HVC activity in singing birds. HVC projection neurons were excited and interneurons were suppressed within a few milliseconds of the extreme time points of the gesture trajectories. Thus, the HVC precisely encodes vocal motor output through activity at the times of extreme points of movement trajectories. We propose that the sequential activity of HVC neurons is used as a 'forward' model, representing the sequence of gestures in song to make predictions on expected behaviour and evaluate feedback. PMID:23446354

  13. Song convergence in multiple urban populations of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis)

    PubMed Central

    Potvin, Dominique A; Parris, Kirsten M

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed differences between urban and rural vocalizations of numerous bird species. These differences include frequency shifts, amplitude shifts, altered song speed, and selective meme use. If particular memes sung by urban populations are adapted to the urban soundscape, “urban-typical” calls, memes, or repertoires should be consistently used in multiple urban populations of the same species, regardless of geographic location. We tested whether songs or contact calls of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) might be subject to such convergent cultural evolution by comparing syllable repertoires of geographically dispersed urban and rural population pairs throughout southeastern Australia. Despite frequency and tempo differences between urban and rural calls, call repertoires were similar between habitat types. However, certain song syllables were used more frequently by birds from urban than rural populations. Partial redundancy analysis revealed that both geographic location and habitat characteristics were important predictors of syllable repertoire composition. These findings suggest convergent cultural evolution: urban populations modify both song and call syllables from their local repertoire in response to noise. PMID:22957198

  14. Critical Song Features for Auditory Pattern Recognition in Crickets

    PubMed Central

    Meckenhäuser, Gundula; Hennig, R. Matthias; Nawrot, Martin P.

    2013-01-01

    Many different invertebrate and vertebrate species use acoustic communication for pair formation. In the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, females recognize their species-specific calling song and localize singing males by positive phonotaxis. The song pattern of males has a clear structure consisting of brief and regular pulses that are grouped into repetitive chirps. Information is thus present on a short and a long time scale. Here, we ask which structural features of the song critically determine the phonotactic performance. To this end we employed artificial neural networks to analyze a large body of behavioral data that measured females’ phonotactic behavior under systematic variation of artificially generated song patterns. In a first step we used four non-redundant descriptive temporal features to predict the female response. The model prediction showed a high correlation with the experimental results. We used this behavioral model to explore the integration of the two different time scales. Our result suggested that only an attractive pulse structure in combination with an attractive chirp structure reliably induced phonotactic behavior to signals. In a further step we investigated all feature sets, each one consisting of a different combination of eight proposed temporal features. We identified feature sets of size two, three, and four that achieve highest prediction power by using the pulse period from the short time scale plus additional information from the long time scale. PMID:23437054

  15. Tune Up to Literacy: Original Songs and Activities for Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkin, Al

    2009-01-01

    Encourage literacy with twenty original songs by musician and educator Al Balkin! Children's and school librarians will welcome "Tune Up to Literacy", a handy package of music and activities that musically introduces and reinforces crucial literacy concepts such as the alphabet, vowels, consonants, nouns, verbs, adjectives, sentence construction,…

  16. Lighting up the Brain with Songs and Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Shelly

    2010-01-01

    Songs and stories have a strong relationship to each other and have the capacity to boost brain development, increase vocabulary, and promote future academic success. The sounds and foundational structures of reading and singing provide young children with successful pathways for advancing language skills, increasing memory, and promoting emerging…

  17. La voie de la chanson (The Way of the Song).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreiro, Carmen Mata

    1986-01-01

    Describes a French civilization course offered in Spain that compared French and Spanish cultures by looking at each from the perspective and stereotypes of the other. A module devoted to the influence of song in various contexts is described in some detail. (MSE)

  18. Song convergence in multiple urban populations of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis).

    PubMed

    Potvin, Dominique A; Parris, Kirsten M

    2012-08-01

    Recent studies have revealed differences between urban and rural vocalizations of numerous bird species. These differences include frequency shifts, amplitude shifts, altered song speed, and selective meme use. If particular memes sung by urban populations are adapted to the urban soundscape, "urban-typical" calls, memes, or repertoires should be consistently used in multiple urban populations of the same species, regardless of geographic location. We tested whether songs or contact calls of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) might be subject to such convergent cultural evolution by comparing syllable repertoires of geographically dispersed urban and rural population pairs throughout southeastern Australia. Despite frequency and tempo differences between urban and rural calls, call repertoires were similar between habitat types. However, certain song syllables were used more frequently by birds from urban than rural populations. Partial redundancy analysis revealed that both geographic location and habitat characteristics were important predictors of syllable repertoire composition. These findings suggest convergent cultural evolution: urban populations modify both song and call syllables from their local repertoire in response to noise. PMID:22957198

  19. The Video Song Clip in the ESL Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filice, Serafina Lina; Sturino, Domenico

    1999-01-01

    Presents a number of practical ideas in promoting the learning of English through the use of a video song clip based on successful use of the classic "We Are the World," over the years with students at the University of Calabria, Italy as well as with adults in the adult Education program at Mohawk College in Ontario, Canada. (Author/VWL)

  20. A circular model for song motor control in Serinus canaria.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Rodrigo G; Trevisan, Marcos A; Amador, Ana; Goller, Franz; Mindlin, Gabriel B

    2015-01-01

    Song production in songbirds is controlled by a network of nuclei distributed across several brain regions, which drives respiratory and vocal motor systems to generate sound. We built a model for birdsong production, whose variables are the average activities of different neural populations within these nuclei of the song system. We focus on the predictions of respiratory patterns of song, because these can be easily measured and therefore provide a validation for the model. We test the hypothesis that it is possible to construct a model in which (1) the activity of an expiratory related (ER) neural population fits the observed pressure patterns used by canaries during singing, and (2) a higher forebrain neural population, HVC, is sparsely active, simultaneously with significant motor instances of the pressure patterns. We show that in order to achieve these two requirements, the ER neural population needs to receive two inputs: a direct one, and its copy after being processed by other areas of the song system. The model is capable of reproducing the measured respiratory patterns and makes specific predictions on the timing of HVC activity during their production. These results suggest that vocal production is controlled by a circular network rather than by a simple top-down architecture. PMID:25904860

  1. Head movements encode emotions during speech and song.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Steven R; Palmer, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    When speaking or singing, vocalists often move their heads in an expressive fashion, yet the influence of emotion on vocalists' head motion is unknown. Using a comparative speech/song task, we examined whether vocalists' intended emotions influence head movements and whether those movements influence the perceived emotion. In Experiment 1, vocalists were recorded with motion capture while speaking and singing each statement with different emotional intentions (very happy, happy, neutral, sad, very sad). Functional data analyses showed that head movements differed in translational and rotational displacement across emotional intentions, yet were similar across speech and song, transcending differences in F0 (varied freely in speech, fixed in song) and lexical variability. Head motion specific to emotional state occurred before and after vocalizations, as well as during sound production, confirming that some aspects of movement were not simply a by-product of sound production. In Experiment 2, observers accurately identified vocalists' intended emotion on the basis of silent, face-occluded videos of head movements during speech and song. These results provide the first evidence that head movements encode a vocalist's emotional intent and that observers decode emotional information from these movements. We discuss implications for models of head motion during vocalizations and applied outcomes in social robotics and automated emotion recognition. PMID:26501928

  2. Alors, la chanson francaise? (And So, the French Song?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvet, Louis Jean

    1977-01-01

    The introductory article in an issue devoted to songs as a teaching device. The article deals with English and American rock, folk and pop music. It makes the point that learning a language is also learning the culture of the people who speak the language. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  3. A Comparison of Mexican Children's Music Compositions and Contextual Songs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to make observations and comparisons between original music composed by Mexican children, and traditional Mexican songs. Data were obtained through notated music compositions created by the children, and through videotaped interviews during which the children performed their compositions, talked about both their…

  4. Chinese Songs We Can Sing and Chinese Instrumental Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Ethnic Resource Center for the Pacific.

    This booklet includes a number of Chinese songs (with English translations) designed for use with a tape recording produced by the Ethnic Resource Center for the Pacific, Educational Foundations, University of Hawaii. A pronunciation key and a listing of cassette recordings of Chinese instrumental music are provided. (EB)

  5. Elevated aromatase activity in forebrain synaptic terminals during song

    PubMed Central

    Remage-Healey, Luke; Oyama, Randi K.; Schlinger, Barney A.

    2009-01-01

    The enzyme aromatase (which converts androgens into oestrogens) is expressed throughout the brain in zebra finches. Aromatase is enzymatically active in both cell bodies and synaptic terminals of neurones of the songbird brain, particularly within forebrain motor and auditory networks. Aromatisation within synaptic terminals could thus provide localised and acute modulatory oestrogens within the forebrain during singing and/or audition. In male zebra finches, we tested the hypothesis that forebrain aromatase activity is elevated during singing behaviour and/or hearing male song. This study reports that aromatase activity is elevated in males that were singing for 30 min as compared to non-singing males, and that this elevation occurs only within the cellular compartment that contains synaptic terminals. In a separate experiment, males that heard acoustic playback of song for 30 min exhibited no differences in aromatase activity or in aromatase mRNA levels as revealed by quantitative PCR analysis. Therefore, these results indicate that activation of the motor pathway for song production is linked to local elevations in synaptic aromatase activity within the forebrain of male zebra finches. Future experiments could assess whether elevated synaptic aromatase activity during song is dependent on acute regulation of the aromatase protein. PMID:19207827

  6. Move to the Music: Protest Songs in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettway, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Teachers don't typically encourage students to bring iPods to school, but when a girl in Ken Giles's class brought him "One Tribe," a song by the Black Eyed Peas, he was thrilled. Giles, a music teacher in Washington, D.C., uses protest music to illustrate the connections among culture, art, history and social movements and to help his students…

  7. Using science songs to enhance learning: an interdisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Crowther, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Music is recognized as an effective mode of teaching young children but is rarely used in university-level science courses. This article reviews the somewhat limited evidence on whether and how content-rich music might affect college students' understanding of science and offers practical suggestions for incorporating music into courses. Aside from aiding memorization, songs may potentially improve learning by helping students feel relaxed and welcome in stressful settings, engaging students through multiple modes (verbal vs. nonverbal) and modalities (auditory vs. visual vs. kinesthetic) simultaneously, challenging students to integrate and "own" the material through the medium of song lyrics, and increasing students' time on task outside of class through enjoyable listening or songwriting assignments. Students may produce content-rich songs of good quality if given sufficient assistance and encouragement by instructors and peers. The challenges ahead include 1) defining the circumstances in which music is most likely to promote learning and 2) developing rubrics for evaluating the quality of songs. PMID:22383614

  8. Preserving American Folk Heritage through Story and Song.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    Underscoring folklore's appropriateness to multicultural classroom settings are its connection with past and present cultures, its constancy and change, and its potential for oral transmission of human values. Most importantly, folktales and songs enable children to participate in the history of universal human emotions. To effectively include…

  9. Caretaking of Children's Souls. Teaching the Deep Song.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Sandra B.

    2000-01-01

    Describes ways early childhood caregivers can facilitate children's spiritual development by observing the "canto hondo," the deep song. Discusses characteristics of the canto hondo as a metaphor for caring for the souls of children and their uniqueness, including safety, celebration, respect, acceptance, dreaming, and laughter. (KB)

  10. "Global Voices in Song": New Methods of Multicultural Music Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Min; Goetze, Mary; Fern, Jay

    2006-01-01

    "Global Voices in Song" is a CD-ROM series that provides singers or listeners in classrooms and choirs with the materials needed for effective oral transmission of choral music from sources outside the European art music tradition. It was developed by Dr. Mary Goetze, Professor of Music at Indiana University (IU) and Dr. Jay Fern from IU Academic…

  11. The Song of the Earth: A Pragmatic Rejoinder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stables, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    In "The Song of the Earth," Jonathan Bate promotes "ecopoesis", contrasting it with "ecopolitical" poetry (and by implication, other forms of writing and expression). Like others recently, including Simon James and Michael Bonnett, he appropriates the notion of "dwelling" from Heidegger to add force to this distinction. Bate's argument is…

  12. CitySongs: Primary Prevention in the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivnick, Helen Q.; Lymburner, Allison M.

    2009-01-01

    This case study describes CitySongs, a primary prevention, out-of-school program in the inner city that promotes social justice through integrated activities aimed at healthy youth development, arts achievement, and community vitality through diversity. Key ideas from social science and human service disciplines that inform the design and…

  13. Distributed Recognition of Natural Songs by European Starlings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudsen, Daniel; Thompson, Jason V.; Gentner, Timothy Q.

    2010-01-01

    Individual vocal recognition behaviors in songbirds provide an excellent framework for the investigation of comparative psychological and neurobiological mechanisms that support the perception and cognition of complex acoustic communication signals. To this end, the complex songs of European starlings have been studied extensively. Yet, several…

  14. Juegos, Canciones, Poemas y Adivinanzas (Games, Songs, Poems and Riddles).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Printed in Spanish, this booklet contains games, songs, poems, riddles, and sayings for use with Puerto Rican migrant children. Eleven matching exercises present Spanish vocabulary related to clothing, food, and musical instruments. Eleven word search games teach Spanish names for body parts, masculine and feminine nouns, famous names, fruits and…

  15. Michael Stipe Wake-Up Song and Greeting

    NASA Video Gallery

    The four astronauts of the final space shuttle mission are greeted by R.E.M. front man Michael Stipe and the group’s hit, "Man on the Moon" to begin Flight Day 7. On recording this song for the A...

  16. Music as a Teaching Tool: Creating Story Songs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringgenberg, Shelly

    2003-01-01

    Describes music as a mnemonic that adds variety and interest to the curriculum and is an important component of multisensory learning. Offers suggestions for creating/using story songs with young children, including the use of one musical phrase in an existing story and creating a melody for an entire story. Gives practical advice for using and…

  17. Strike up Student Interest through Song: Technology and Westward Expansion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Meg

    2014-01-01

    Sheet music, song lyrics, and audio recordings may not be the first primary sources that come to mind when considering ways to teach about changes brought about by technology during westward expansion, but these sources engage students in thought provoking ways. In this article the author presents a 1917 photograph of Mountain Chief, of the Piegan…

  18. Children's identification of familiar songs from pitch and timing cues

    PubMed Central

    Volkova, Anna; Trehub, Sandra E.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Papsin, Blake C.; Gordon, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to ascertain whether children with normal hearing and prelingually deaf children with cochlear implants could use pitch or timing cues alone or in combination to identify familiar songs. Children 4–7 years of age were required to identify the theme songs of familiar TV shows in a simple task with excerpts that preserved (1) the relative pitch and timing cues of the melody but not the original instrumentation, (2) the timing cues only (rhythm, meter, and tempo), and (3) the relative pitch cues only (pitch contour and intervals). Children with normal hearing performed at high levels and comparably across the three conditions. The performance of child implant users was well above chance levels when both pitch and timing cues were available, marginally above chance with timing cues only, and at chance with pitch cues only. This is the first demonstration that children can identify familiar songs from monotonic versions—timing cues but no pitch cues—and from isochronous versions—pitch cues but no timing cues. The study also indicates that, in the context of a very simple task, young implant users readily identify songs from melodic versions that preserve pitch and timing cues. PMID:25147537

  19. "Lieder machen Leute": Teaching Postwar German Identity through Song

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickham, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The negotiation of a West German identity in the decades that followed World War II can be traced in the issues and movements that preoccupied the populace. These in turn are documented in the work of socially and politically motivated "Liedermacher". Songs thus serve as a point of entry for students into how Germans saw themselves in the Bonn…

  20. A Different Approach to Teaching Social Studies: Folk Songs History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tangülü, Zafer

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of teaching and learning the subjects of Social Studies with folk songs in secondary school students. This study is made in 2012-2013 Academic Year Spring Term with seventh grade students studying in secondary school bounded Mugla Provincial Directorate for National Education. 67 students have…

  1. Shared songs are of lower performance in the dark-eyed junco

    PubMed Central

    Atwell, Jonathan W.

    2016-01-01

    Social learning enables the adjustment of behaviour to complex social and ecological tasks, and underlies cultural traditions. Understanding when animals use social learning versus other forms of behavioural development can help explain the dynamics of animal culture. The dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis) is a songbird with weak cultural song traditions because, in addition to learning songs socially, male juncos also invent or improvise novel songs. We compared songs shared by multiple males (i.e. socially learned) with songs recorded from only one male in the population (many of which should be novel) to gain insight into the advantages of social learning versus invention or improvisation. Song types shared by multiple males were on average of lower performance, on aspects of vocal performance that have been implicated in agonistic communication in several species. This was not explained by cultural selection among socially learned songs (e.g. selective learning) because, for shared song types, song performance did not predict how many males shared them. We discuss why social learning does not maximize song performance in juncos, and suggest that some songbirds may add novel songs to culturally inherited repertoires as a means to acquire higher-quality signals. PMID:27493786

  2. Humpback Whale Song on the Southern Ocean Feeding Grounds: Implications for Cultural Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Ellen C.; Gedamke, Jason; Rekdahl, Melinda L.; Noad, Michael J.; Garrigue, Claire; Gales, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Male humpback whales produce a long, complex, and stereotyped song on low-latitude breeding grounds; they also sing while migrating to and from these locations, and occasionally in high-latitude summer feeding areas. All males in a population sing the current version of the constantly evolving display and, within an ocean basin, populations sing similar songs; however, this sharing can be complex. In the western and central South Pacific region there is repeated cultural transmission of song types from eastern Australia to other populations eastward. Song sharing is hypothesized to occur through several possible mechanisms. Here, we present the first example of feeding ground song from the Southern Ocean Antarctic Area V and compare it to song from the two closest breeding populations. The early 2010 song contained at least four distinct themes; these matched four themes from the eastern Australian 2009 song, and the same four themes from the New Caledonian 2010 song recorded later in the year. This provides evidence for at least one of the hypothesized mechanisms of song transmission between these two populations, singing while on shared summer feeding grounds. In addition, the feeding grounds may provide a point of acoustic contact to allow the rapid horizontal cultural transmission of song within the western and central South Pacific region and the wider Southern Ocean. PMID:24278134

  3. Acoustic mate copying: female cowbirds attend to other females' vocalizations to modify their song preferences.

    PubMed

    Freed-Brown, Grace; White, David J

    2009-09-22

    We conducted a tutoring experiment to determine whether female brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) would attend to vocalizations of other females and use those cues to influence their own preferences for male courtship songs. We collected recordings of male songs that were unfamiliar to the subject females and paired half of the songs with female chatter vocalizations-vocalizations that females give in response to songs sung by males that are courting the females effectively. Thus, chatter immediately following a song provided a cue indicating that the song was sung by a male who was of high-enough quality to court a female successfully. Using a cross-over design, we tutored two groups of females with song-chatter pairings prior to the breeding season. In the breeding season, we placed the tutored females into sound-attenuating chambers and played them the same songs without the chatter. Females produced significantly more copulation solicitation displays in response to the songs that they had heard paired with chatter than to songs that had not been paired with chatter. This experiment is the first demonstration that females can modify their song preferences by attending to the vocal behaviour of other females. PMID:19535371

  4. Shared songs are of lower performance in the dark-eyed junco.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Gonçalo C; Atwell, Jonathan W

    2016-07-01

    Social learning enables the adjustment of behaviour to complex social and ecological tasks, and underlies cultural traditions. Understanding when animals use social learning versus other forms of behavioural development can help explain the dynamics of animal culture. The dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis) is a songbird with weak cultural song traditions because, in addition to learning songs socially, male juncos also invent or improvise novel songs. We compared songs shared by multiple males (i.e. socially learned) with songs recorded from only one male in the population (many of which should be novel) to gain insight into the advantages of social learning versus invention or improvisation. Song types shared by multiple males were on average of lower performance, on aspects of vocal performance that have been implicated in agonistic communication in several species. This was not explained by cultural selection among socially learned songs (e.g. selective learning) because, for shared song types, song performance did not predict how many males shared them. We discuss why social learning does not maximize song performance in juncos, and suggest that some songbirds may add novel songs to culturally inherited repertoires as a means to acquire higher-quality signals. PMID:27493786

  5. Auditory experience-dependent cortical circuit shaping for memory formation in bird song learning

    PubMed Central

    Yanagihara, Shin; Yazaki-Sugiyama, Yoko

    2016-01-01

    As in human speech acquisition, songbird vocal learning depends on early auditory experience. During development, juvenile songbirds listen to and form auditory memories of adult tutor songs, which they use to shape their own vocalizations in later sensorimotor learning. The higher-level auditory cortex, called the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM), is a potential storage site for tutor song memory, but no direct electrophysiological evidence of tutor song memory has been found. Here, we identify the neuronal substrate for tutor song memory by recording single-neuron activity in the NCM of behaving juvenile zebra finches. After tutor song experience, a small subset of NCM neurons exhibit highly selective auditory responses to the tutor song. Moreover, blockade of GABAergic inhibition, and sleep decrease their selectivity. Taken together, these results suggest that experience-dependent recruitment of GABA-mediated inhibition shapes auditory cortical circuits, leading to sparse representation of tutor song memory in auditory cortical neurons. PMID:27327620

  6. Auditory experience-dependent cortical circuit shaping for memory formation in bird song learning.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Shin; Yazaki-Sugiyama, Yoko

    2016-01-01

    As in human speech acquisition, songbird vocal learning depends on early auditory experience. During development, juvenile songbirds listen to and form auditory memories of adult tutor songs, which they use to shape their own vocalizations in later sensorimotor learning. The higher-level auditory cortex, called the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM), is a potential storage site for tutor song memory, but no direct electrophysiological evidence of tutor song memory has been found. Here, we identify the neuronal substrate for tutor song memory by recording single-neuron activity in the NCM of behaving juvenile zebra finches. After tutor song experience, a small subset of NCM neurons exhibit highly selective auditory responses to the tutor song. Moreover, blockade of GABAergic inhibition, and sleep decrease their selectivity. Taken together, these results suggest that experience-dependent recruitment of GABA-mediated inhibition shapes auditory cortical circuits, leading to sparse representation of tutor song memory in auditory cortical neurons. PMID:27327620

  7. Exaggeration of Language-Specific Rhythms in English and French Children's Songs.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Erin E; Lévêque, Yohana; Nave, Karli M; Trehub, Sandra E

    2016-01-01

    The available evidence indicates that the music of a culture reflects the speech rhythm of the prevailing language. The normalized pairwise variability index (nPVI) is a measure of durational contrast between successive events that can be applied to vowels in speech and to notes in music. Music-language parallels may have implications for the acquisition of language and music, but it is unclear whether native-language rhythms are reflected in children's songs. In general, children's songs exhibit greater rhythmic regularity than adults' songs, in line with their caregiving goals and frequent coordination with rhythmic movement. Accordingly, one might expect lower nPVI values (i.e., lower variability) for such songs regardless of culture. In addition to their caregiving goals, children's songs may serve an intuitive didactic function by modeling culturally relevant content and structure for music and language. One might therefore expect pronounced rhythmic parallels between children's songs and language of origin. To evaluate these predictions, we analyzed a corpus of 269 English and French songs from folk and children's music anthologies. As in prior work, nPVI values were significantly higher for English than for French children's songs. For folk songs (i.e., songs not for children), the difference in nPVI for English and French songs was small and in the expected direction but non-significant. We subsequently collected ratings from American and French monolingual and bilingual adults, who rated their familiarity with each song, how much they liked it, and whether or not they thought it was a children's song. Listeners gave higher familiarity and liking ratings to songs from their own culture, and they gave higher familiarity and preference ratings to children's songs than to other songs. Although higher child-directedness ratings were given to children's than to folk songs, French listeners drove this effect, and their ratings were uniquely predicted by n

  8. Exaggeration of Language-Specific Rhythms in English and French Children's Songs

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Erin E.; Lévêque, Yohana; Nave, Karli M.; Trehub, Sandra E.

    2016-01-01

    The available evidence indicates that the music of a culture reflects the speech rhythm of the prevailing language. The normalized pairwise variability index (nPVI) is a measure of durational contrast between successive events that can be applied to vowels in speech and to notes in music. Music–language parallels may have implications for the acquisition of language and music, but it is unclear whether native-language rhythms are reflected in children's songs. In general, children's songs exhibit greater rhythmic regularity than adults' songs, in line with their caregiving goals and frequent coordination with rhythmic movement. Accordingly, one might expect lower nPVI values (i.e., lower variability) for such songs regardless of culture. In addition to their caregiving goals, children's songs may serve an intuitive didactic function by modeling culturally relevant content and structure for music and language. One might therefore expect pronounced rhythmic parallels between children's songs and language of origin. To evaluate these predictions, we analyzed a corpus of 269 English and French songs from folk and children's music anthologies. As in prior work, nPVI values were significantly higher for English than for French children's songs. For folk songs (i.e., songs not for children), the difference in nPVI for English and French songs was small and in the expected direction but non-significant. We subsequently collected ratings from American and French monolingual and bilingual adults, who rated their familiarity with each song, how much they liked it, and whether or not they thought it was a children's song. Listeners gave higher familiarity and liking ratings to songs from their own culture, and they gave higher familiarity and preference ratings to children's songs than to other songs. Although higher child-directedness ratings were given to children's than to folk songs, French listeners drove this effect, and their ratings were uniquely predicted by n

  9. The Comparison of the Effect of Block Flute Accompanied Song Teaching with Multi-Sound Notation and Vocalization Program Accompanied Song Teaching on the Success of Students' Song Learning Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saktanli, S. Cem

    2011-01-01

    This experimental study was done to see if using computer supported notation and vocalization program for teaching songs instead of using block flute accompanied song teaching has any significant effect on students' singing behavior. The study group is composed of the 5th, 6th and 7th graders of 2008-2009 educational term in T.O.K.I. Yahya Kemal…

  10. Social Context–Induced Song Variation Affects Female Behavior and Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Woolley, Sarah C; Doupe, Allison J

    2008-01-01

    Social cues modulate the performance of communicative behaviors in a range of species, including humans, and such changes can make the communication signal more salient. In songbirds, males use song to attract females, and song organization can differ depending on the audience to which a male sings. For example, male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) change their songs in subtle ways when singing to a female (directed song) compared with when they sing in isolation (undirected song), and some of these changes depend on altered neural activity from a specialized forebrain-basal ganglia circuit, the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP). In particular, variable activity in the AFP during undirected song is thought to actively enable syllable variability, whereas the lower and less-variable AFP firing during directed singing is associated with more stereotyped song. Consequently, directed song has been suggested to reflect a “performance” state, and undirected song a form of vocal motor “exploration.” However, this hypothesis predicts that directed–undirected song differences, despite their subtlety, should matter to female zebra finches, which is a question that has not been investigated. We tested female preferences for this natural variation in song in a behavioral approach assay, and we found that both mated and socially naive females could discriminate between directed and undirected song—and strongly preferred directed song. These preferences, which appeared to reflect attention especially to aspects of song variability controlled by the AFP, were enhanced by experience, as they were strongest for mated females responding to their mate's directed songs. We then measured neural activity using expression of the immediate early gene product ZENK, and found that social context and song familiarity differentially modulated the number of ZENK-expressing cells in telencephalic auditory areas. Specifically, the number of ZENK-expressing cells in the caudomedial

  11. Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) song unit and phrase repertoire progression on a subarctic feeding ground.

    PubMed

    Magnúsdóttir, Edda E; Miller, Patrick J O; Lim, Rangyn; Rasmussen, Marianne H; Lammers, Marc O; Svavarsson, Jörundur

    2015-11-01

    The songs of the male humpback whales have traditionally been associated with breeding activities at low latitude breeding grounds during winter. This study provides the first detailed analysis of humpback whale songs recorded in the subarctic waters of Iceland using passive acoustic recorders. Recordings were collected during three winter seasons: 2008-2009, 2009-2010, and 2011 during which singing was detected in all seasons. Peak song occurrence was during January-February in all years; this coincides with the timing of the peak breeding season of humpback whales in the Northern hemisphere. A total of 2810 song units from all years were measured and statistically divided into 14 groups, which constructed 25 phrases. The song unit repertoires included stable song unit types that occurred frequently in songs during all years while the occurrence of other song unit types varied more between years. Around 60% of the phrases were conserved between the first two study seasons, while the majority of phrases found during the last study season had not been observed before. This study indicates the importance of a subarctic feeding ground for song progression and song exchange and possibly as an opportunistic mating ground for migrating or overwintering humpback whales. PMID:26627808

  12. Recent northward range expansion promotes song evolution in a passerine bird, the Light-vented Bulbul.

    PubMed

    Xing, X Y; Alström, P; Yang, X J; Lei, F M

    2013-04-01

    In common with human speech, song is culturally inherited in oscine passerine birds ('songbirds'). Intraspecific divergence in birdsong, such as development of local dialects, might be an important early step in the speciation process. It is therefore vital to understand how songs diverge, especially in founding populations. The northward expansion of the Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis (J. F. Gmelin, 1789) into north China in the last 30 years provides an excellent opportunity to study birdsong evolution. We compared ~4400 songs from newly established northern populations with ~2900 songs from southern populations to evaluate song divergence after recent expansion. The total pool of syllables and especially song types was considerably smaller in the north than in the south, indicating 'founder effects' in the new population. The ancestral pattern of mosaic song dialects changed into a pattern of wide geographical sharing of a few song types and syllables, likely the result of fewer geographical barriers to 'meme flow', and the recent spread across a large area in the north. Our results suggest that song evolution and vocal trait shifts can arise rapidly after range expansion, and that in the Light-vented Bulbul 'founder effects', geographical isolation, and recent rapid expansions played important roles in the evolution of song dialects. PMID:23438018

  13. Web-Based Music Study: The Effects of Listening Repetition, Song Likeability, and Song Understandability on EFL Learning Perceptions and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Robert E.; Chuang, Yuangshan

    2008-01-01

    This study adds to the body of empirical knowledge regarding the use of music in the EFL classroom. This original investigation centered around the following question: Does listening repetition, song likeability, and/or song understandability influence learning environment perceptions, learning perceptions, and/or learning outcomes in Taiwanese…

  14. Space Radar Image of Hong Kong

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows part of the British territory of Hong Kong, adjacent to mainland China. The South China Sea is shown in dark blue and red on the image. Land surfaces are seen in shades of lighter blue and gold, including Hong Kong Island in the lower center, the Kowloon Peninsula in the upper right and many other small islands. The brightest yellow areas are the densely developed areas of Hong Kong's business and residential districts. The small yellow dots in the water are the many ships that make Hong Kong one of the busiest seaports in the Far East. Images such as this can be used by land-use planners to monitor urban development and its effect on the tropical environment. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 10, 1994. The image is 23 kilometers by 31 kilometers (14 miles by 19 miles) and is centered at 22.3 degreesnorth latitude, 114.1 degrees east longitude. North is toward theupper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequenciesand polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, verticallytransmitted and received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and received; and blue is C-band minus L-band, both vertically transmitted and received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of theGerman, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  15. Families and family therapy in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Tse, Samson; Ng, Roger M K; Tonsing, Kareen N; Ran, Maosheng

    2012-04-01

    Family therapy views humans not as separate entities, but as embedded in a network of relationships, highlighting the reciprocal influences of one's behaviours on one another. This article gives an overview of family demographics and the implementation of family therapy in Hong Kong. We start with a review of the family demographics in Hong Kong and brief notes on families in mainland China. Demographics show that the landscape has changed markedly in the past decade, with more cross-border marriages, an increased divorce rate, and an ageing overall population - all of which could mean that there is increasing demand for professional family therapy interventions. However, only a limited number of professionals are practising the systems-based approach in Hong Kong. Some possible reasons as to why family therapy is not well disseminated and practised are discussed. These reasons include a lack of mental health policy to support family therapy, a lack of systematic family therapy training, and a shortage of skilled professionals. Furthermore, challenges in applying the western model in Chinese culture are also outlined. We conclude that more future research is warranted to investigate how family therapy can be adapted for Chinese families. PMID:22515459

  16. Aerosol monitoring program in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Heng-Chi; Tanner, P.A.

    1996-12-31

    The control of suspended particulate matter in the Hong Kong environment is currently an important issue, and in December 1995 a diesel-petrol switch plan was voted down by legislators. PM10 have been monitored at 5-minute intervals for the past year at rooftop level in central Kowloon, Hong Kong, together with selected measurements of TSP. Wind speed, wind direction, and the concentrations of SO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} have also been monitored. Measurements are currently in progress of relative contributions of the small particles (nominal aerodynamic diameter 0.3-2.5 gm), as well as of the PM{sub 10} fraction, to the total aerosol content, using two TEOMS. The chemical nature of selected different aerosol size fractions is also under investigation. Aerosol concentration exhibits a marked seasonal trend, being lower in the wet summer than in the dry winter. The diurnal variation shows two peaks which are linked to anthropogenic actions. Our measurements will be compared with the newly-established AQI of the Hong Kong EPD.

  17. Character displacement of song and morphology in African tinkerbirds

    PubMed Central

    Kirschel, Alexander N. G.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Smith, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    Divergence in acoustic signals between populations of animals can lead to species recognition failure, reproductive isolation, and speciation. Character displacement may facilitate coexistence of species in natural communities, yet evidence for character displacement in acoustic signals is scant. Here, we find evidence of character displacement in song as well as body size and bill size of 2 related African tinkerbirds. Playback experiments indicate that related species' songs are perceived differently in sympatry than in allopatry. We suggest character displacement occurs in phenotypic traits facilitating species recognition, which has important implications for understanding the processes that lead to speciation and diversification. Because many of the sites where the 2 species coexist are areas where pristine rainforest has been degraded, results also suggest that anthropogenic pressures resulting from deforestation may be a contributing cause of character displacement in these species. PMID:19420223

  18. Feeling-of-knowing for songs and instrumental music.

    PubMed

    Rabinovitz, Brian E; Peynircioğlu, Zehra F

    2011-09-01

    We explored the differences between metamemory judgments for titles as well as for melodies of instrumental music and those for songs with lyrics. Participants were given melody or title cues and asked to provide the corresponding titles or melodies or feeling of knowing (FOK) ratings. FOK ratings were higher but less accurate for titles with melody cues than vice versa, but only in instrumental music, replicating previous findings. In a series of seven experiments, we ruled out style, instrumentation, and strategy differences as explanations for this asymmetry. A mediating role of lyrics between the title and the melody in songs was also ruled out. What emerged as the main explanation was the degree of familiarity with the musical pieces, which was manipulated either episodically or semantically, and within this context, lyrics appeared to serve as an additional source of familiarity. Results are discussed using the Interactive Theory of how FOK judgments are made. PMID:21640958

  19. Seasonal and sex-related variation in song control nuclei in a species with near-monomorphic song, the northern cardinal.

    PubMed

    Jawor, Jodie M; Macdougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2008-10-10

    Studies concerning the song control system (SCS) in songbirds generally focus on males due to their prodigious song production. Both seasonal and age related differences have been found in the size of male SCS regions. Among those studies that have addressed females some level of sexual size dimorphism has been found, with females generally having smaller SCS area than males. Among those species where female song has been studied, typically females either sing much less than males, or they duet with their mates, but in general do not produce independent song. Here we present information on seasonal and sex differences in SCS in the northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) a species where both sexes sing, females sing independent of their mates, and song is produced by males over a prolonged period of time (7-8 months). We collected brains from free-living adult cardinals, both in the late non-breeding season and during the early breeding season, and measured three song control nuclei; HVC, Area X and RA. There were sex differences in all three areas assessed at the two time points considered. Additionally, there was a seasonal difference in both sexes for all areas assessed. In both time points male SCS nuclei were 1.5-2.0 times larger than female SCS nuclei. These data show that even in those species with independent female song there may still exist sex differences in the SCS nuclei. Similarity in song between the sexes could be related to differences in hormone receptors or hormone levels in the brain, while the small-observed changes in SCS area in males may allow for early breeding season song production and song production outside of the breeding season. PMID:18692546

  20. Appreciating the Power of a Song--and a Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patti

    2010-01-01

    For 8-year-old Josh Greiner, the old cliche that music is a universal language has new meaning. As he adapts to a world where being non-verbal sometimes makes it hard to fit in, Josh is coming to understand the power of a song to break everyday communication barriers and provide motivation to try things. Music has always been a part of his daily…

  1. Sex, death, and genetic variation: natural and sexual selection on cricket song

    PubMed Central

    Gray, D. A.; Cade, W. H.

    1999-01-01

    Male field crickets, Gryllus integer, in Texas, USA, produce a trilled calling song that attracts female crickets, resulting in enhanced mating success. Gravid female parasitoid flies, Ormia ochracea, are also attracted to male cricket calling song, resulting in the death of the male within about seven days. Using playbacks of field-cricket calling song in the natural habitat, we show that both female crickets and female parasitoid flies prefer male calling song with average numbers of pulses per trill. Thus female crickets exert stabilizing sexual selection, whereas flies exert disruptive natural selection on male song. Disruptive natural selection will promote genetic variation and population divergence. Stabilizing sexual selection will reduce genetic variation and maintain population cohesiveness. These forces may balance and together maintain the observed high levels of genetic variation (ca. 40%) in male calling song.

  2. Non-song vocalizations of pygmy blue whales in Geographe Bay, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Recalde-Salas, A; Salgado Kent, C P; Parsons, M J G; Marley, S A; McCauley, R D

    2014-05-01

    Non-song vocalizations of migrating pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) in Western Australia are described. Simultaneous land-based visual observations and underwater acoustic recordings detected 27 groups in Geographe Bay, WA over 2011 to 2012. Six different vocalizations were recorded that were not repeated in a pattern or in association with song, and thus were identified as non-song vocalizations. Five of these were not previously described for this population. Their acoustic characteristics and context are presented. Given that 56% of groups vocalized, 86% of which produced non-song vocalizations and 14% song units, the inclusion of non-song vocalizations in passive-acoustic monitoring is proposed. PMID:24815291

  3. Reported Drosophila courtship song rhythms are artifacts of data analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In a series of landmark papers, Kyriacou, Hall, and colleagues reported that the average inter-pulse interval of Drosophila melanogaster male courtship song varies rhythmically (KH cycles), that the period gene controls this rhythm, and that evolution of the period gene determines species differences in the rhythm’s frequency. Several groups failed to recover KH cycles, but this may have resulted from differences in recording chamber size. Results Here, using recording chambers of the same dimensions as used by Kyriacou and Hall, I found no compelling evidence for KH cycles at any frequency. By replicating the data analysis procedures employed by Kyriacou and Hall, I found that two factors - data binned into 10-second intervals and short recordings - imposed non-significant periodicity in the frequency range reported for KH cycles. Randomized data showed similar patterns. Conclusions All of the results related to KH cycles are likely to be artifacts of binning data from short songs. Reported genotypic differences in KH cycles cannot be explained by this artifact and may have resulted from the use of small sample sizes and/or from the exclusion of samples that did not exhibit song rhythms. PMID:24965095

  4. The tectonic structure of the Song Ma fault zone, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Strong; Yeh, Yu-Lien; Tang, Chi-Cha; Phong, Lai Hop; Toan, Dinh Van; Chang, Wen-Yen; Chen, Chau-Huei

    2015-08-01

    Indochina area is a tectonic active region where creates complex topographies and tectonic structures. In particular, the Song Ma fault zone plays an important role in understanding the mechanism and revolution of the collision between the Indian plate and Eurasian plate. In order to have better understanding the seismotectonic structures of the Song Ma fault zone, a three-year project is proposed to study the seismotectonic structures of crust in this region. The main goal of this project is to deploy temporary broad-band seismic stations around/near the shear zone to record high quality microearthquakes. By using the data recorded by the temporary array and the local seismic network, we are able to conduct seismological studies which include using waveform inversion to obtain precise fault plane solutions of microearthquakes, one-dimensional (1-D) velocity structure of the crust in the region as well as the characteristics of seismogeneric zone. From the results of earthquake relocation and focal mechanisms, we find that the spatial distribution of events occurred in Song Ma fault zone forms in several distinct groups which are well correlated local geological structures and further use to gain insights on tectonic evolution.

  5. De novo establishment of wild-type song culture in the zebra finch.

    PubMed

    Fehér, Olga; Wang, Haibin; Saar, Sigal; Mitra, Partha P; Tchernichovski, Ofer

    2009-05-28

    Culture is typically viewed as consisting of traits inherited epigenetically, through social learning. However, cultural diversity has species-typical constraints, presumably of genetic origin. A celebrated, if contentious, example is whether a universal grammar constrains syntactic diversity in human languages. Oscine songbirds exhibit song learning and provide biologically tractable models of culture: members of a species show individual variation in song and geographically separated groups have local song dialects. Different species exhibit distinct song cultures, suggestive of genetic constraints. Without such constraints, innovations and copying errors should cause unbounded variation over multiple generations or geographical distance, contrary to observations. Here we report an experiment designed to determine whether wild-type song culture might emerge over multiple generations in an isolated colony founded by isolates, and, if so, how this might happen and what type of social environment is required. Zebra finch isolates, unexposed to singing males during development, produce song with characteristics that differ from the wild-type song found in laboratory or natural colonies. In tutoring lineages starting from isolate founders, we quantified alterations in song across tutoring generations in two social environments: tutor-pupil pairs in sound-isolated chambers and an isolated semi-natural colony. In both settings, juveniles imitated the isolate tutors but changed certain characteristics of the songs. These alterations accumulated over learning generations. Consequently, songs evolved towards the wild-type in three to four generations. Thus, species-typical song culture can appear de novo. Our study has parallels with language change and evolution. In analogy to models in quantitative genetics, we model song culture as a multigenerational phenotype partly encoded genetically in an isolate founding population, influenced by environmental variables and taking

  6. Leading the Academy or Being Led? Hong Kong Women Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiston, Sarah Jane

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a new gender-based analysis of survey data collected on Hong Kong academics in 2008. First, it illustrates the gender differences that exist in the Hong Kong academy. Second, it discusses possible explanations for these differences as informed by the data. And third, it offers a novel argument, again informed by the data, for…

  7. Elder Learning in Hong Kong: Policies, Programmes, Provisions, and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the notions of active ageing and elder learning in Hong Kong where a strategic approach to elderly education is applied by the government to encourage lifelong learning. The paper outlines the policy development and support for elder learning in Hong Kong in two distinct periods: pre-1997 and post-1997. The post-1997 period is…

  8. Authentic School Partnerships for Enabling Inclusive Education in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forlin, Chris; Rose, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Education reform towards a whole school approach to catering for diversity within Hong Kong government schools has seen the initiation of several strategies to support mainstream schools in this transition. One of these approaches is the use of a resource school model. Special and mainstream schools in Hong Kong are being invited to establish…

  9. Difficulties in Reforming Education Policy: The Hong Kong Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin, C. D.

    1999-01-01

    Over the past decade, the education-policy machinery in Hong Kong has been faced with important quality issues emerging that concern the history and culture of the school system. Evaluates two change-management initiatives between 1990 and 1995 and examines their outcomes in light of the endemic features of Hong Kong civil-service culture and…

  10. Suicidality Among High School Students in Hong Kong, SAR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Paul S. F.; Liu, K. Y.; Lam, T. H.; Stewart, Sunita M.; Chen, Eric; Fan, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Suicide is the leading cause of death in Hong Kong SAR for the youth aged 15?24. This study examined the prevalence of suicidality among secondary school students in Hong Kong using a representative, territory-wide sample of 2,586 students. Suicidal behaviors can be conceptualized as a spectrum of self-destructive behaviors. Cumulative logit model…