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Sample records for hong in-ju song

  1. Numerical Simulation of Petroleum Generation and Migration in the Song Hong Basin, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Byeong-Kook; Thi Nguyen, Hong; Park, Mee-Sook

    2014-05-01

    The numerical modeling of petroleum systems is an effective tool to understand generation, migration and accumulation of hydrocarbons in a sedimentary basin and hence to determine future targets for the hydrocarbon exploration. The numerical modeling identifies two petroleum systems in the Song Hong Basin, which is a petroliferous Cenozoic basin, offshore eastern Vietnam. These petroleum systems were named DinhCao-PhuCu(.) Petroleum System and SongHuong-BienDong(.) Petroleum System. DinhCao-PhuCu(.) Petroleum System covers northern and central parts of the Song Hong basin with Oligocene shale and coaly shale source rocks of Dinh Cao formation, which are dominated by type II-III kerogens. The hydrocarbon generation starts at 13 Ma within deeply buried Oligocene strata located in the centre of the basin. The hydrocarbon expels from the Oligocene source rock and migrates laterally and then up dip toward marginal areas where Middle Miocene sandstones of Phu Cu formation are present as major reservoirs. The numerical model shows that the critical moment occurs at about 3.5 Ma. The DinhCao-PhuCu(.) petroleum system is confirmed by sparse occurrence of oil and gas along the coast of eastern Vietnam. SongHuong-BienDong(.) Petroleum System is identified in limited areas of the central and southern Song Hong basin. The major source rock of this petroleum system is Lower Miocene dark claystones of Song Huong formation which contain gas prone, type III kerogen. The migration model shows that hydrocarbons are generated from the Miocene source rocks in the center of the basin at about 12 Ma, and migrates updip through sand bodies of Quang Ngai formation to the major boundaries faults, and further moves into highly permeable up-dipping units, the Bien Dong formation. The best depiction of the generation-migration-accumulation of hydrocarbons occurs at about 2 Ma. The presence of the SongHuong-BienDong(.) Petroleum System is indicated by the large gas fields in the central and

  2. Structure and sediment budget of Yinggehai-Song Hong basin, South China Sea: Implications for Cenozoic tectonics and river basin reorganization in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Chao; Ren, Jianye; Sternai, Pietro; Fox, Matthew; Willett, Sean; Xie, Xinong; Clift, Peter D.; Liao, Jihua; Wang, Zhengfeng

    2015-08-01

    The temporal link between offshore stratigraphy and onshore topography is of key importance for understanding the long-term surface evolution of continental margins. Here we present a grid of regional, high-quality reflection seismic and well data to characterize the basin structure. We identify fast subsidence of the basin basement and a lack of brittle faulting of the offshore Red River fault in the Yinggehai-Song Hong basin since 5.5 Ma, despite dextral strike-slip movement on the onshore Red River fault. We calculate the upper-crustal, whole-crustal, and whole-lithospheric stretching factors for the Yinggehai-Song Hong basin, which show that the overall extension observed in the upper crust is substantially less than that observed for the whole crust or whole lithosphere. We suggest that fast basement subsidence after 5.5 Ma may arise from crustal to lithospheric stretching by the regional dynamic lower crustal/mantle flow originated by collision between India-Eurasia and Indian oceanic subduction below the Eurasian margin. In addition, we present a basin wide sediment budget in the Yinggehai-Song Hong basin to reconstruct the sedimentary flux from the Red River drainage constrained by high-resolution age and seismic stratigraphic data. The sediment accumulation rates show a sharp increase at 5.5 Ma, which suggests enhanced onshore erosion rates despite a slowing of tectonic processes. This high sediment supply filled the accommodation space produced by the fast subsidence since 5.5 Ma. Our data further highlight two prominent sharp decreases of the sediment accumulation at 23.3 Ma and 12.5 Ma, which could reflect a loss of drainage area following headwater capture from the Paleo-Red River. However, the low accumulation rate at 12.5 Ma also correlates with drier and therefore less erosive climatic conditions.

  3. Data mining of external and internal forcing of fluvial systems for catchment management: A case study on the Red River (Song Hong), Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Rafael; Bizzi, Simone; Castelletti, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    The understanding of river hydromorphological processes has been recognized in the last decades as a priority of modern catchment management, since interactions of natural and anthropogenic forces within the catchment drives fluvial geomorphic processes, which shape physical habitat, affect river infrastructures and influence freshwater ecological processes. The characterization of river hydromorphological features is commonly location and time specific and highly resource demanding. Therefore, its routine application at regional or national scales and the assessment of spatio-temporal changes as reaction to internal and external disturbances is rarely feasible at present. Information ranging from recently available high-resolution remote-sensing data (such as DEM), historic data such as land use maps or aerial photographs and monitoring networks of flow and rainfall, open up novel and promising capacity for basin-wide understanding of dominant hydromorphological drivers. Analysing the resulting multiparametric data sets in their temporal and spatial dimensions requires sophisticated data mining tools to exploit the potential of this information. We propose a novel framework that allows for the quantitative assessment of multiparametric data sets to identify classes of channel reaches characterized by similar geomorphic drivers using remote-sensing data and monitoring networks available in the catchment. This generic framework was applied to the Red River (Song Hong) basin, the second largest basin (87,800 sq.km) in Vietnam. Besides its economic importance, the river is experiencing severe river bed incisions due to recent construction of new dams in the upstream part of the catchment and sand mining in the surrounding of the capital city Hanoi. In this context, characterized by an high development rate, current efforts to increase water productivity and minimize impacts on the fluvial systems by means of focused infrastructure and management measures require a

  4. Japanese; Japanese Songs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This supplementary textbook for students of Japanese presents a collection of 43 songs--folk songs, nursery songs, lullabies, love songs, wedding songs, graduation songs, the national anthem, drinking songs, school songs, and Christmas carols. With the exception of the carols, the musical scores are presented with their Japanese lyrics. The…

  5. Arabic Songs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This collection of 10 songs was prepared as supplementary material for the Defense Language Institute's basic course in Modern Standard Arabic. The songs appear in Arabic script with special vocabulary items glossed in English. The lyrics also appear in transliteration at the end of the text. Musical scores accompany some of the selections. [Not…

  6. Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    1986-02-01

    This discussion of Hong Kong focuses on the following: geography; the people; history; government; political conditions; and the economy. In 1984 the population of Hong Kong totaled 5.4 million with an annual growth rate of 1.3%. The infant mortality rate is 9.9/1000; life expectancy is 76 years. Hong Kong adjoins Guangdong province on the southeastern coast of the Chinese mainland. It consists of Hong Kong and Lan Tao islands, the Kowloon Peninsula, and more than 200 smaller islands. Hong Kong's population consists of about 98% ethnic Chinese and 2% other ethnic groups, mostly European. Only 57.2% of the population were born in Hong Kong. Cantonese is the Chinese dialect spoken by most of the territory's population, but English is widely understood. Not until after 1949 did Hong Kong develop into a leading manufacturing, commercial, and tourist center. Hong Kong's foreign relations are the responsibility of the British government, but considerable autonomy has been permitted in the area of commercial relations. Following the June 30, 1997, expiration date of the lease on the New Territories, which comprise 92% of Hong Kong's total area, Hong Kong will become a Special Administrative Region of China in 1997. Hong Kong has little arable land and virtually no natural resources. The colony always has depended on foreign trade. Hong Kong has developed into a center of light manufacturing and international finance. In 1984, Hong Kong's foreign trade was valued at $57 billion. Hong Kongs economy has recovered strongly from the 1981-82 recession. PMID:12178122

  7. Strawberry Square. Song Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Tom

    Designed to accompany a series of 33 television programs in music education for kindergarten and first grade children, this song book (containing sheet music) correlates with activities in the teacher's guide. Titles of songs included in the book are: Let a Song Tell a Story (short and long versions); If I Had a Hammer; A Happy Street; Let the…

  8. Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    1988-11-01

    The 5.7 million residents of Hong Kong are primarily Chinese (98%), and while Cantonese is prevalently spoken, the official language is English. The larger part of the work force is concentrated in the area of industry and commerce (71%) with most of the remaining work force concentrated in the area of services (28%). The literacy rate is 90%. Hong Kong is ruled by a governor appointed by the British monarch. Hong Kong is a free market open to trade and commerce; the GDP (1987) is 45 billion dollars. In 1997, Hong Kong will return to Chinese rule, but it will remain a Special Administrative Region of China and will keep its political, economic and judicial systems. The infant mortality rate is 9.9/1000 and life expectancy is 76 years. The median age has increased from 20.7 in 1970 to 26 today. PMID:12178013

  9. Koyukon Athabaskan Dance Songs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulu, Tupou L.

    Nineteen songs sung at potlach activities to honor the dead have been transcribed and compiled to foster greater understanding and appreciation among Alaskan school children of the place of songs in the life of the Central Koyukon Athabaskans who believe that singing and dancing allow emotional release from the sadness of losing a loved one. The…

  10. French Basic Course: Supplementary Material. Song Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This song book is presented as supplementary material for the French Basic Course. It provides the words to 36 French songs. The songs are divided into five categories: (1) military songs, (2) sea songs, (3) drinking songs, (4) folklore songs, and (5) Christmas carols. (AMH)

  11. Update Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Martin F.

    This book is a guide intended for persons planning on relocating to Hong Kong. Following an overview of the history and culture of Hong Kong, 12 additional chapters lead the reader step-by-step through the relocation process. These chapter topics include: before leaving, on arrival, language, doing business in Hong Kong, customs and courtesies,…

  12. Ultrasonic Songs of Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Previously it was shown that male mice, when they encounter female mice or their pheromones, emit ultrasonic vocalizations with frequencies ranging over 30–110 kHz. Here, we show that these vocalizations have the characteristics of song, consisting of several different syllable types, whose temporal sequencing includes the utterance of repeated phrases. Individual males produce songs with characteristic syllabic and temporal structure. This study provides a quantitative initial description of male mouse songs, and opens the possibility of studying song production and perception in an established genetic model organism. PMID:16248680

  13. Cognitive processes in bird song

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cynx, Jeffrey

    2001-05-01

    Anthropomorphic hypotheses can alter previous ethological concepts. Songbirds have been traditionally categorized as open- or close-ended learners. Open-ended learners such as canaries and starlings continue to learn new songs throughout life. Close-ended learners such as song sparrows and zebra finches appear to learn song once and then repeat this song in a stereotyped or crystallized manner for the rest of their lives. Research over the last dozen years or so has produced evidence that whatever is close-ended in songbirds may be more than a little ajar. It is clear that adult song is a highly dynamic and closely monitored act. In these regards, it has a number of cognitive processes similar to human speech. Birds appear to continually monitor their own song, being able to stop in midsong if necessary. They also regulate the song amplitude given environmental and social conditions, and show song perturbations when experiencing delayed auditory feedback. However, so far as is known, close-ended learners cannot learn new song elements from a model, although there are hints to the contrary, including both behavioral and physiological results.

  14. Song Recognition in Zebra Finches: Are There Sensitive Periods for Song Memorization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braaten, Richard F.

    2010-01-01

    Male zebra finches learn to sing songs that they hear between 25 and 65 days of age, the sensitive period for song learning. In this experiment, male and female zebra finches were exposed to zebra finch songs either before (n = 9) or during (n = 4) the sensitive period. Following song exposure, recognition memory for the songs was assessed with an…

  15. Primary song by a juvenile willow flycatcher

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sogge, M.K.

    1997-01-01

    The timing of song development in suboscines, in which song appears not to be learned from other adults is poorly known. The Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii) is a suboscine with a primary song typically referred to as fitz-bew. I report here an instance of very early singing by a 6-8-wk-old Willow Flycatcher, which sang in an aggressive context in response to a recording of adult flycatcher song. This is exceptionally early development of primary song, even among suboscines. Early song development may assist in the defense of winter territories.

  16. Drinking Songs: Alcohol Effects on Learned Song of Zebra Finches

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Christopher R.; Owen, Devin C.; Ryabinin, Andrey E.; Mello, Claudio V.

    2014-01-01

    Speech impairment is one of the most intriguing and least understood effects of alcohol on cognitive function, largely due to the lack of data on alcohol effects on vocalizations in the context of an appropriate experimental model organism. Zebra finches, a representative songbird and a premier model for understanding the neurobiology of vocal production and learning, learn song in a manner analogous to how humans learn speech. Here we show that when allowed access, finches readily drink alcohol, increase their blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) significantly, and sing a song with altered acoustic structure. The most pronounced effects were decreased amplitude and increased entropy, the latter likely reflecting a disruption in the birds’ ability to maintain the spectral structure of song under alcohol. Furthermore, specific syllables, which have distinct acoustic structures, were differentially influenced by alcohol, likely reflecting a diversity in the neural mechanisms required for their production. Remarkably, these effects on vocalizations occurred without overt effects on general behavioral measures, and importantly, they occurred within a range of BEC that can be considered risky for humans. Our results suggest that the variable effects of alcohol on finch song reflect differential alcohol sensitivity of the brain circuitry elements that control different aspects of song production. They also point to finches as an informative model for understanding how alcohol affects the neuronal circuits that control the production of learned motor behaviors. PMID:25536524

  17. Hong Kong: country profile.

    PubMed

    Fozzard, A

    1988-09-01

    In the 1840s, the small fishing community that is now Hong Kong became a British colony and an important naval base for the Opium Wars. Now it is a leading capitalist center operating on mainland communist China. Hong Kong is scheduled to go back to China in 1997. In the agreement signed between the British government and China, Hong Kong's present lifestyle is guaranteed for at least 50 years. Textbook colonialism rules here. Foreigners hold the key jobs and earn much more than do the indigenous people. They even receive subsidized housing in this very high rent colony. As for the Hong Kong Chinese, overcrowding into 2 room apartments is the norm even though the government tries to provide more housing units. The large skyscrapers in the New Territories breed their unique social and mental health problems, such as poverty, drug abuse and frustration. Essentially all food is imported from communist China, yet agriculture in Hong Kong does exist--pig farms, duck lakes, and fields of the popular vegetable choi sum. Major industry comprise textiles and sweat shops which pay their workers (mostly illegal immigrants and children with no legal protection) wages that are 1/4 of those paid in Great Britain. Financial services, trade, and tourism may soon dominate Hong Kong's economy. Almost 4 million tourists visit Hong Kong yearly, often looking for bargains. Despite Hong Kong's active Western-like business climate, Chinese culture still abounds. Traditional incense burns in Buddhist temples. Snake soup is served in restaurants. Plus traditional medicine practiced alongside Western medicine contributes to Hong Kong having 1 of the lowest infant mortality rates in the world (9/1000) and to its high life expectancy of 76 years. PMID:12282043

  18. Predicting bird song from space

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Thomas B; Harrigan, Ryan J; Kirschel, Alexander N G; Buermann, Wolfgang; Saatchi, Sassan; Blumstein, Daniel T; de Kort, Selvino R; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Environmentally imposed selection pressures are well known to shape animal signals. Changes in these signals can result in recognition mismatches between individuals living in different habitats, leading to reproductive divergence and speciation. For example, numerous studies have shown that differences in avian song may be a potent prezygotic isolating mechanism. Typically, however, detailed studies of environmental pressures on variation in animal behavior have been conducted only at small spatial scales. Here, we use remote-sensing data to predict animal behavior, in this case, bird song, across vast spatial scales. We use remotely sensed data to predict the song characteristics of the little greenbul (Andropadus virens), a widely distributed African passerine, found across secondary and mature rainforest habitats and the rainforest-savanna ecotone. Satellite data that captured ecosystem structure and function explained up to 66% of the variation in song characteristics. Song differences observed across habitats, including those between human-altered and mature rainforest, have the potential to lead to reproductive divergence, and highlight the impacts that both natural and anthropogenic change may have on natural populations. Our approach offers a novel means to examine the ecological correlates of animal behavior across large geographic areas with potential applications to both evolutionary and conservation biology. PMID:24062797

  19. "Bird Song Metronomics": Isochronous Organization of Zebra Finch Song Rhythm.

    PubMed

    Norton, Philipp; Scharff, Constance

    2016-01-01

    The human capacity for speech and vocal music depends on vocal imitation. Songbirds, in contrast to non-human primates, share this vocal production learning with humans. The process through which birds and humans learn many of their vocalizations as well as the underlying neural system exhibit a number of striking parallels and have been widely researched. In contrast, rhythm, a key feature of language, and music, has received surprisingly little attention in songbirds. Investigating temporal periodicity in bird song has the potential to inform the relationship between neural mechanisms and behavioral output and can also provide insight into the biology and evolution of musicality. Here we present a method to analyze birdsong for an underlying rhythmic regularity. Using the intervals from one note onset to the next as input, we found for each bird an isochronous sequence of time stamps, a "signal-derived pulse," or pulse(S), of which a subset aligned with all note onsets of the bird's song. Fourier analysis corroborated these results. To determine whether this finding was just a byproduct of the duration of notes and intervals typical for zebra finches but not dependent on the individual duration of elements and the sequence in which they are sung, we compared natural songs to models of artificial songs. Note onsets of natural song deviated from the pulse(S) significantly less than those of artificial songs with randomized note and gap durations. Thus, male zebra finch song has the regularity required for a listener to extract a perceived pulse (pulse(P)), as yet untested. Strikingly, in our study, pulses(S) that best fit note onsets often also coincided with the transitions between sub-note elements within complex notes, corresponding to neuromuscular gestures. Gesture durations often equaled one or more pulse(S) periods. This suggests that gesture duration constitutes the basic element of the temporal hierarchy of zebra finch song rhythm, an interesting parallel

  20. "Singin' the Blues": Women in Song.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Donald V. S.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity to demonstrate how popular music can perpetuate the stereotyping of women. Identifies materials needed, suggested songs, and questions to ask students. Suggests homework assignment dealing with contemporary songs. (DK)

  1. Songs for Residential Outdoor Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Diane, Comp.

    A collection of songs for residential outdoor education programs gives the lyrics to 42 recent and traditonal songs. Recent songs include "Leaving on a Jet Plane,""Blowin' in the Wind,""Country Roads,""Last Thing on My Mind,""City of New Orleans,""Me and Bobby McGee,""Moon River," and "I Shall be Released." Modern folk songs included are "Jamaica…

  2. Courtship Love Songs: doublesex Makes the Connection.

    PubMed

    Arbeitman, Michelle N; Newell, Nicole R

    2016-06-20

    During courtship, Drosophila melanogaster males sing to females a song composed of rhythmic pulses and sine song. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Shirangi et al. (2016) show that a cluster of doublesex-expressing neurons directs the production of the sine song component through functional linkages to wing motoneurons. PMID:27326925

  3. Some Contemporary Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Songs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Richard E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents several new rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) songs. Claims that the songs may be used in both academic and therapeutic settings as a humorous way to address cognitive distortions or irrational beliefs. Reports that students and clients have responded favorably to these songs. (RJM)

  4. The Referent of Children's Early Songs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mang, Esther

    2005-01-01

    Musical creativity during early childhood is readily exemplified in vocal behaviours. This paper is a discussion of observations on children's performance of learned songs and self-generated songs. Longitudinal observations suggest that self-generated songs may be seen as referent-guided improvisation using source materials derived from learned…

  5. Looking Back: Teaching "Landeskunde" with "Liedermacher" Songs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rundell, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Popular music is a "lingua franca" for young people. The songs of German "Liedermacher" lend themselves to classroom uses. "Liedermacher" are cultural commentators who entertain and edify with their songs. Focusing on social and political aspects of postwar Germany, "Liedermacher" songs have been a "gesungene Landeskunde" resource since the early…

  6. Songs that Teach: Using Song-Poems to Teach Critically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Guiding students through a unit of study in any discipline can be a challenging endeavor. Answers to possible questions that may be raised about historical events and literary texts cannot be confined to just one text, one author's point of view, or even one genre. The song-poem, in combination with poetry, novels, nonfiction, and other genres, is…

  7. Lingering with Dicey: Robin's Song.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Laura S.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a case study which shows how a middle school student was transformed through her interactions with her teacher, the novels she read, and her journal. Discusses how a single text, "Dicey's Song" by Cynthia Voigt, became the touchstone that the student returned to throughout the school year, generating the potential for intertextuality…

  8. Humpback whale song: A new review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, Adam S.

    2003-04-01

    The humpback whale song has been described and investigated since the early 1970s. Much has been learned about the humpback whale social structure, but the understanding of the song and its function remains elusive. The hierarchical nature of the song structure was described early on: Songs can be sung for a long period, apparently by males, and primarily during the mating season. However, singers also become physically competitive, suggesting alternative mating strategies. There are a number of unique structural features of song. Its structure evolves over time and combination. The nature of song evolution strongly implies cultural transmission. Song structure appears to be shared within an entire population, even though there appears to be little interchange of individuals between sub populations. Despite over thirty years of inquiry there are still numerous unanswered questions: Why is the song structure so complex? Is song a sexual advertisement, an acoustic space mediation mechanism, or both? How do females choose mates, or do they? What drives song evolution, and why is there so much variation in the rate of change? Are there nonreproductive functions of song? What prompts a male to begin or end singing? Our current understanding and the outstanding questions yet to be answered will be reviewed.

  9. Cover song identification by sequence alignment algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chih-Li; Zhong, Qian; Wang, Szu-Ying; Roychowdhury, Vwani

    2011-10-01

    Content-based music analysis has drawn much attention due to the rapidly growing digital music market. This paper describes a method that can be used to effectively identify cover songs. A cover song is a song that preserves only the crucial melody of its reference song but different in some other acoustic properties. Hence, the beat/chroma-synchronous chromagram, which is insensitive to the variation of the timber or rhythm of songs but sensitive to the melody, is chosen. The key transposition is achieved by cyclically shifting the chromatic domain of the chromagram. By using the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) to obtain the time sequences of songs, the system is made even more robust. Similar structure or length between the cover songs and its reference are not necessary by the Smith-Waterman Alignment Algorithm.

  10. [Songs in music therapy with children].

    PubMed

    Stegemann, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    For most of us, songs and nursery rhymes have a special emotional quality and, thus, are part of the basic repertoire of a music therapist. This paper outlines the meaning and applicability of songs in music therapy with children. The first part discusses the significance of songs within the context of developmental psychology, referring to the development of basic psychological functions such as motorical skills, language, cognition, emotion, mental representations, motivation and intention. The second part deals with indications and objectives as well as different applications of songs in music therapy. Traditional and new nursery rhymes, free renderings, playing songs, spontaneous tunes, welcome and farewell songs and semi-structured tunes are introduced. Finally, the article reviews the diverse therapeutical functions of songs within the process of music therapy as well as essential qualifications for a music therapist. PMID:17323817

  11. English Usage in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunton, David, Ed.; Green, Christopher F., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Articles contained in this special issue on language usage in Hong Kong, particularly in the context of elementary and secondary education, include: "A Comparison of English Errors Made by Hong Kong Students and Those Made by Non-Native Learners of English Internationally" (David Bunton); "Errors in Guides to English Usage for Hong Kong Students"…

  12. Holography in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Kang M.

    1995-02-01

    Before 1984, to a westerner Hong Kong was hardly a recognizable dot on a world atlas. It is a Chinese city and a British colony. At midnight on 30 June 1997, Britain will end its century and a half of colonial rule in Hong Kong, leaving China to resume sovereignty over its six million people. Since 1990, in the stress of this crisis Hong Kong prospers at a time of global recession. This also creates many opportunities in higher education among the youngsters. The success of the city attracts, at least 12% of persons who emigrated in the 10 years before 1992 have returned to Hong Kong. This dramatic change brings in unexpected new information and high technologies to the city. Holography is one of these new technologies. It was rarely understood by the general population before the 1980s. But with the scattered efforts of some research workers from the academic and commercial groups along with the prosperity of the city, the subject of holography has become increasingly popular. This report gives a quick survey on the major activities of holography in Hong Kong.

  13. Factors limiting song acquisition in adult zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Funabiki, Yasuko; Funabiki, Kazuo

    2009-09-15

    Song learning takes place in two separate or partially overlapping periods, a sensory phase in which a tutor song is memorized and a sensorimotor phase in which a copy of the model is produced. The stage of song development where song becomes stable and stereotyped is called crystallization. Adult birds usually do not learn new song in many species including the zebra finch. However, it is not known whether song crystallization as such or aging impedes adult learning. Exposure to loud noises prevents birds from developing and crystallizing their song, because they cannot control their voice by auditory feedback. Zebra finches even without previous experience of hearing or singing a song failed to learn a song model provided in adulthood. Thus, neither the absence of a tutor song nor the lack of song crystallization enables new song learning in adulthood, but age per se limits the ability or motivation to learn song. PMID:19623623

  14. Songs of a Medicine Woman. Native Language and Culture Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Alice; Bennett, Ruth, Ed.

    Traditional and contemporary Hupa songs as sung by a Hupa medicine woman in her 70's are collected in this booklet. Songs are presented in Hupa and English on facing pages that are illustrated with pen and ink drawings. The four songs are "Flower Dance Song" and "Kick Dance Song" (both for traditional religious ceremonial dances) and "The Bear…

  15. Bowhead whale springtime song off West Greenland.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Kathleen M; Moore, Sue E; Laidre, Kristin L; Heide-Jørgensen, M P

    2008-11-01

    Three songs were recorded from bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) in Disko Bay, West Greenland, during 59 h of recordings via sonobuoys deployed on seven days between 5 and 14 April 2007. Song elements were defined by units following the protocol of previous description of bowhead whale song. The two most prominent songs were loud, complex, and repeated in long bouts on multiple recording days while the third song was much simpler and recorded on only one day. Bowhead whale simple calls and faint song elements were also recorded using digital audio tape recorders and a dipping hydrophone deployed from the sea ice approximately 100-150 km southwest of Disko Bay on three separate days suggesting that song is also produced in the central portion of Baffin Bay in winter. Songs recorded in Disko Bay are from an area where approximately 85% of the whales have been determined to be adult females. Although it is not known which sex was singing, we speculate that, as in humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), male bowhead whales may sing to mediate sexual competition or mate selection behaviors. This is the first detailed description of springtime songs for bowhead whales in the eastern Arctic. PMID:19045814

  16. The importance of calling song and courtship song in female mate choice in the variable field cricket.

    PubMed

    Wagner; Reiser

    2000-06-01

    Male field crickets produce calling songs, courtship songs, tactile signals and chemical signals. Although calling songs are known to play an important role in female mate choice, the importance of the other signals in mate choice is poorly understood. In the variable field cricket, Gryllus lineaticeps, females select mates, in part, based on variation in male calling song. Females prefer higher chirp rates, a trait which is partially dependent on male nutrient intake, and females prefer longer chirp durations, a trait which appears to be independent of male nutrient intake. We tested whether females also have preferences based on variation in male courtship song, and whether the structure of male courtship song varies with nutrient intake. First, we reexamined female preference for calling song chirp rate. Then, we examined: (1) female preference based on courtship song chirp rate; (2) the relative importance of calling song and courtship song chirp rate; (3) the nutrition dependence of courtship song chirp rate; and (4) the correlation between calling song and courtship song chirp rate. As reported previously, females preferred higher calling song chirp rates, and in addition, preferred higher courtship song chirp rates. Females were more likely to switch from a speaker broadcasting more attractive calling song to a speaker broadcasting less attractive calling song when the attractive calling song was associated with an unattractive courtship song than when it was associated with an attractive courtship song. Preferences based on courtship song may thus cause females to alter the choices that they made based on calling song. Males that received greater nutrients did not produce higher courtship song chirp rates. There was no correlation between calling song and courtship song chirp rate. As a result, the two traits may provide information to females about different aspects of male quality. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID

  17. Country Profiles, Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    A profile of Hong Kong is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  18. Integration over song classification replicates: song variant analysis in the hihi.

    PubMed

    Ranjard, Louis; Withers, Sarah J; Brunton, Dianne H; Ross, Howard A; Parsons, Stuart

    2015-05-01

    Human expert analyses are commonly used in bioacoustic studies and can potentially limit the reproducibility of these results. In this paper, a machine learning method is presented to statistically classify avian vocalizations. Automated approaches were applied to isolate bird songs from long field recordings, assess song similarities, and classify songs into distinct variants. Because no positive controls were available to assess the true classification of variants, multiple replicates of automatic classification of song variants were analyzed to investigate clustering uncertainty. The automatic classifications were more similar to the expert classifications than expected by chance. Application of these methods demonstrated the presence of discrete song variants in an island population of the New Zealand hihi (Notiomystis cincta). The geographic patterns of song variation were then revealed by integrating over classification replicates. Because this automated approach considers variation in song variant classification, it reduces potential human bias and facilitates the reproducibility of the results. PMID:25994687

  19. Broadside Ballads: Social Consciousness in Song

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junda, Mary Ellen

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights a group ballad project which is a part of student experiences in Sing and Shout!, a course that integrates academic study with singing and song writing to develop a deeper understanding of problems in society. Students explore the intricacies of song composition and social consciousness drawn from past events that reflect…

  20. Turkish-Folk Song Activities for Kindergartners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapusuzoglu, Kelly Mem

    2003-01-01

    Describes how to teach kindergarten students using Turkish folk songs that incorporate the National Standards for Music Education and guidelines from the Ministry of Education in Turkey. Includes activities that accompany songs such as "Fly, Little Bug" and "Little Green Frog." Offers additional resources. (CMK)

  1. Song Prompts: I Had a Cat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Susan Hobson

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses song prompts as a way to encourage children to sing during exploratory play. A song prompt for "I Had a Cat" is included for educators to try in their own classrooms or preschools. Educators are invited to share ideas they have used that encourage children to sing during free play.

  2. KinderApache Song and Dance Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanklin, M. Trevor; Paciotto, Carla; Prater, Greg

    This paper describes activities and evaluation of the KinderApache Song and Dance Project, piloted in a kindergarten class in Cedar Creek (Arizona) on the White Mountain Apache Reservation. Introducing Native-language song and dance in kindergarten could help foster a sense of community and cultural pride and greater awareness of traditional…

  3. Pete Seeger: If I Had a Song

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Songwriter, political activist, ethnomusicologist, gardener, singer, environmentalist, storyteller, woodcutter, history buff, cookieholic...Pete Seeger is all these and more. One has probably heard his name before, and maybe one can attach it to certain songs or political movements. Seeger is 91 years old and keeps active singing, writing songs,…

  4. Neural and Behavioral Correlates of Song Prosody

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Reyna Leigh

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation studies the neural basis of song, a universal human behavior. The relationship of words and melodies in the perception of song at phonological, semantic, melodic, and rhythmic levels of processing was investigated using the fine temporal resolution of Electroencephalography (EEG). The observations reported here may shed light on…

  5. Endeavour's Crew Wakes to Song Contest Winner

    NASA Video Gallery

    The STS-134 crew members were awakened on the final day of their mission with the song “Sunrise Number 1,” performed by the band Stormy Mondays. This song was chosen in an online vote of the ge...

  6. Regional Classification of Traditional Japanese Folk Songs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawase, Akihiro; Tokosumi, Akifumi

    In this study, we focus on the melodies of Japanese folk songs, and examine the basic structures of Japanese folk songs that represent the characteristics of different regions. We sample the five largest song genres within the music corpora of the Nihon Min-yo Taikan (Anthology of Japanese Folk Songs), consisting of 202,246 tones from 1,794 song pieces from 45 prefectures in Japan. Then, we calculate the probabilities of 24 transition patterns that fill the interval of the perfect fourth pitch, which is the interval that maintains most of the frequency for one-step and two-step pitch transitions within 11 regions, in order to determine the parameters for cluster analysis. As a result, we successively classify the regions into two basic groups, eastern Japan and western Japan, which corresponds to geographical factors and cultural backgrounds, and also match accent distributions in the Japanese language.

  7. The Role of Songs in the Foreign Language Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claerr, Thomas A.; Gargan, Richard

    1984-01-01

    With some imagination, songs can be used to teach all aspects of foreign language. The language teacher can take advantage of the cultural content of songs by playing holiday music during the appropriate season; explaining the traditions and history of songs; discussing songs with cultural flavor; presenting a variety of music types; and…

  8. The temporal characteristics of humpback whale songs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Whitlow W. L.; Lammers, Marc O.; Stimpert, Alison; Schotten, Michiel

    2005-09-01

    Songs sung by male humpback whales consist of distinct, pulsed sounds that are designated as units. Units are produced in some sequence to form a phrase, a repeated set of phrases forms a theme, and repeated themes form a song. A song can last from minutes to hours. The songs of eight humpback whales were recorded with a vertical array of five hydrophones spaced 7 m apart with the array located within 100 m of the whales. At least seven distinct units were identified aurally from this data set obtained during the 2002 winter humpback whale session in Hawaii. Four distinct recurring themes were found in the songs, and for each whale at least two themes were recorded. The average duration of each unit sampled and the silent interval following the unit were determined in order to describe the temporal characteristics of the songs. From the data the temporal consistency and cadence control of unit production by each humpback whale and between whales were determined. Understanding the temporal and spectral characteristics of units within songs and how these units vary between whales could ultimately help in the design of computer algorithms to automatically identify individual whales.

  9. On the maintenance of bird song dialects.

    PubMed

    Planqué, Robert; Britton, Nicholas F; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Many bird species, especially song birds but also for instance some hummingbirds and parrots, have noted dialects. By this we mean that locally a particular song is sung by the majority of the birds, but that neighbouring patches may feature different song types. Behavioural ecologists have been interested in how such dialects come about and how they are maintained for over 45 years. As a result, a great deal is known about different mechanisms at play, such as dispersal, assortative mating and learning of songs, and there are several competing hypotheses to explain the dialect patterns known in nature. There is, however, surprisingly little theoretical work testing these different hypotheses at present. We analyse the simplest kind of model that takes into account the most important biological mechanisms, and in which one may speak of dialects: a model in which there are but two patches, and two song types. It teaches us that a combination of little dispersal and strong assortative mating ensures dialects are maintained. Assuming a simple, linear frequency-dependent learning rule has little effect on the maintenance of dialects. A nonlinear learning rule, however, has dramatic consequences and greatly facilitates dialect maintenance. Adding fitness benefits for singing particular songs in a given patch also has a great impact. Now rare song types may invade and remain in the population. PMID:23334321

  10. Functional identification of sensory mechanisms required for developmental song learning

    PubMed Central

    London, Sarah E; Clayton, David F

    2008-01-01

    A young male zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) learns to sing by copying the vocalizations of an older tutor in a process that parallels human speech acquisition. Brain pathways that control song production are well defined, but little is known about the sites and mechanisms of tutor song memorization. Here we test the hypothesis that molecular signaling in a sensory brain area outside of the song system is required for developmental song learning. Using controlled tutoring and a pharmacological inhibitor, we transiently suppressed the extracellular signal–regulated kinase signaling pathway in a portion of the auditory forebrain specifically during tutor song exposure. On maturation, treated birds produced poor copies of tutor song, whereas controls copied the tutor song effectively. Thus the foundation of normal song learning, the formation of a sensory memory of tutor song, requires a conserved molecular pathway in a brain area that is distinct from the circuit for song motor control. PMID:18391944

  11. Academic Freedom in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Jan; Petersen, Carole J.; Mok, Ka Ho

    2006-01-01

    In this book, the authors explore the unique situation in Hong Kong, a tiny jurisdiction in which there is active protection for the freedom of expression despite the close proximity and relationship with mainland China. Hong Kong scholars and intellectuals assume the responsibility of public critics, but this is not without an element of crisis.…

  12. Dentistry's development in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Davies, W I; Corbet, E F; Chiu, G K

    1997-06-01

    The history of dentistry in Hong Kong is described from the time prior to the colonisation by the British to the present day. With the imminent, and historic, hand over of the present territory from British to Chinese rule on 30 June 1997, the authors also touch on the future of oral care in Hong Kong. PMID:9448799

  13. ICT in Hong Kong Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Alex C. W.; Pun, S. W.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an overview of the use of information and communications technology (ICT) in Hong Kong's education, focusing on the school sector. Discusses the recent history of using computers in Hong Kong, explaining the government's current ICT policy and reviewing the status of ICT implementation in terms of access and connectivity, teacher…

  14. Crew Looking Forward to Top Wakeup Songs

    NASA Video Gallery

    Discovery Commander Steve Lindsey thanks everyone for voting for their favorite space shuttle wakeup songs. The crew is looking forward to hearing your selections on the last two days of Discovery'...

  15. NASA Beams Beatles Song to Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    The transmission over NASA's Deep Space Network will commemorate the 40th anniversary of the day The Beatles recorded the song, as well as the 50th anniversary of NASA's founding and the group's be...

  16. Czech Basic Course: Songs of Czechoslovakia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This songbook contains some 77 songs, with words and music, reflecting the daily life and culture of the people of Czechoslovakia. The text is designed for use, as supplementary material, in the Defense Language Institute's "Czech: Basic Course." (RL)

  17. East-West Crossroads: Academic Libraries in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Douglas

    1983-01-01

    This overview of academic libraries in Hong Kong highlights Chinese University, Hong Kong University, and Hong Kong Polytechnic. A history of Chinese University and its branch college libraries, library cooperation, and higher education in Hong Kong are noted. (EJS)

  18. [Role of lyrics and melody in song recognition: why is song recognition faster?].

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoko; Sakuma, Naoko; Ishii, Kenji; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

    2009-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to identify the role of lyrics and melody in song recognition. Experiment 1 (N = 30) investigated the ratings of familiarity, age of acquisition, retrievability of lyrics or melody, and happiness for 100 Japanese children's songs. In Experiment 2 (N = 31), a familiarity-judgment task was conducted involving three stimulus types-sung lyrics (SONG), spoken lyrics (LYRICS), and sung melody using the syllable/la/ (MELODY)--for two excerpts (beginning and middle locations). The participants were instructed to judge whether an excerpt sounded familiar as quickly as possible. The more familiar the songs, the easier could they be identified from the three stimulus types. SONG-response time (RT) was shorter than MELODY-RT for both beginning and middle, and than LYRICS-RT for the middle. The location effect emerged most prominently for LYRICS-RT. Our results suggest that interactively connected information of lyrics and melody may facilitate song recognition. Lyrics in the beginning might be an index only for certain, very familiar songs, whereas melody may play a facilitative role for song recognition regardless of location. PMID:20095443

  19. AstroCappella: Songs of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Patricia T.; Smale, A. P.; Smale, K. M.

    2008-05-01

    The AstroCappella Project is a classroom-ready collection of upbeat pop songs, lesson plans, and background information, all rich in science content. It was developed as a collaboration between working research astronomers, educators, and an established contemporary vocal band, The Chromatics. A multimedia music CD, "AstroCappella 2.0", has been produced containing 13 astronomically correct songs with original lyrics and music. Song topics range from the Sun, Moon, planets and small bodies of the Solar System, through the Doppler shift, the nearest stars, and extra-solar planets, to radio and X-ray astronomy. The CD also contains extensive CD-ROM materials including science background information, curriculum notes, lesson plans and activities for each song, images, movies, and slide shows. The songs and accompanying information have been extensively field-tested, and align to the K-12 National Science Education Standards. The AstroCappella materials are in widespread use in classrooms and homes across the US, and are supplemented with frequent live performances and teacher workshops. Full information can be found at http://www.astrocappella.com. Since the release of AstroCappella 2.0, additional songs have been written for missions as diverse as Messenger ("Messenger to Mercury") and AIM ("Noctilucent Cloud"; with music video available on YouTube). Now, to commemorate IYA, and in collaboration with the Johannes Kepler Project, the Chromatics are continuing their mission to spread science through a cappella and a cappella through science by creating a new original song celebrating the discoveries of the telescope, from Galileo's first glimpse of mountains and craters on the moon to the detection of planets around nearby stars and the expansion of the Universe."

  20. Composing Songs for Teaching Science to College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee Pinn Tsin, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that songs may enhance learning as they function as mnemonic devices to increase memorability. In this research, songs based on the more difficult subtopics in Chemistry were composed, encompassing many formulas, equations and facts to be remembered. This technique of song composition can be used in any subject, any point…

  1. Factlore, Fakelore, or Folklore: Sorting through Folk Song Origins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, E. Martin

    1997-01-01

    Explicates the fascinating origins (and conflicting versions thereof) for a number of well-known folk songs including, "Casey Jones,""John Henry,""Frankie and Johnny," and "Tom Dooley." Notes that source material on these and other songs is widely available through liner notes, folk song periodicals, and folklore journals. (MJP)

  2. Brain-Compatible Music Teaching Part 2: Teaching "Nongame" Songs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Susan

    2010-01-01

    In the previous issue of "General Music Today," the Early Childhood column explored brain-compatible ways of teaching action songs and singing games. This article illustrates the application of brain-compatible ways to teach songs that do not lend themselves to actions or games. There are two ways of teaching songs. One is based on the assumption…

  3. A Multimodal Discourse Analysis of a Yoruba Song-Drama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olateju, Moji. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multimodal discourse analysis of a story that has been turned into a Yoruba song-drama, highlighting the ideational, interpersonal and textual aspects of the song-drama. The data is a short song-drama meant to teach children importunity, determination and hard work through persistence. The multimodal and narrative conventions…

  4. Neoliberalism in Two Hong Kong School Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, David

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the link between the governance of Hong Kong's international school and Direct Subsidy Scheme school categories and changes in the broader Hong Kong society through a neoliberal framework. As Hong Kong's economy has grown since the 1997 handover to the People's Republic of China, an increasing number of people…

  5. Children's Judgements of Emotion in Song

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, J. Bruce; Trehub, Sandra E.

    2007-01-01

    Songs convey emotion by means of expressive performance cues (e.g. pitch level, tempo, vocal tone) and lyrics. Although children can interpret both types of cues, it is unclear whether they would focus on performance cues or salient verbal cues when judging the feelings of a singer. To investigate this question, we had 5- to 10-year-old children…

  6. Music Activities for "Little Wolf's Song"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2015-01-01

    Drawn from Britta Techentrup's children's book "Little Wolf's Song", the author shares music activities appropriate for preschool and children in primary grades. Children will enjoy Technentrup's tender family story, while exploring vocal and instrumental timbres, as well as reading, writing, and creating with melodic contour.

  7. Work Songs, Hegemony, and Illusions of Self.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Charles

    1988-01-01

    Suggests a complex dialectical relationship among (1) the meanings that acculturation encourages workers to attribute to their everyday experiences; (2) the meanings enacted in country music work songs; and (3) the support of hierarchical social and organizational power relationships in workers' identities. (MS)

  8. A Song of Vice and Mire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The author has been reading George R.R. Martin's marvelous fantasy epic, "A Song of Ice and Fire," about a medieval-ish kingdom and its wars and intrigues. What fascinates him most about the narrative is the extent to which it parallels his experiences as a community-college professor and administrator. The author argues that for all the good they…

  9. Northern Song Reflections on the Tang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    In the mid-eleventh century Chinese intellectuals argued about history, and left their competing narratives to us in print. They contested how history should be written, and what relevant lessons ought to be adapted to the changing society of Song (960-1279) dynasty China. They were particularly concerned with the history of the long-lasting Tang…

  10. Hand-Clap Songs across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, Katherine E.; Bintz, William P.

    2012-01-01

    This teaching tip focuses on using hand-clapping to teach content area material across the curriculum. We begin with a brief history of hand-clap songs, followed by a rationale for using them in content area literacy. Then, we describe the instructional lesson, share samples that resulted, and discuss lesson extensions. Our goal is to have…

  11. Using Songs to Strengthen Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Pooja; Laud, Leslie E.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of songs with lyrics to increase the reading fluency rates of three middle school students. In the first condition, students heard fluent reading modeled, read regular passages repeatedly and then received feedback on accuracy, phrasing and expression. After that, students received the same intervention, except that…

  12. Local song elements indicate local genotypes and predict physiological condition in song sparrows Melospiza melodia.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Kathryn A; MacDougall-Shackleton, Elizabeth A

    2008-06-23

    Geographical variation in birdsong is taxonomically widespread and behaviourally salient, with females often preferring local over non-local song. However, the benefits associated with this preference remain poorly understood. One potential explanation is that song may reflect a male's place of origin and thus allow females to obtain genes well adapted to the local environment. We studied naturally occurring variation in the degree to which the elements of a male's song repertoire matched those of the local population ('syllable sharing') in migratory song sparrows (Melospiza melodia melodia). Syllable sharing was correlated with genetic similarity to the local population, suggesting that song reflects population of origin. Males sharing more syllables also had larger testosterone-dependent traits, fewer blood-borne parasites and reduced indicators of stress. Our findings are consistent with locally good genes models. Alternatively, immigrants' condition may suffer due to unfamiliarity with the breeding site or inability to match song elements during territorial interactions. Females preferring 'local-sounding' males may thus obtain genetic and/or direct benefits for their offspring. PMID:18331976

  13. Vocal exploration is locally regulated during song learning

    PubMed Central

    Ravbar, Primoz; Parra, Lucas C.; Lipkind, Dina; Tchernichovski, Ofer

    2012-01-01

    Exploratory variability is essential for sensory-motor learning, but it is not known how and at what time scales it is regulated. We manipulated song learning in zebra finches to experimentally control the requirements for vocal exploration in different parts of their song. We first trained birds to perform a one-syllable song, and once they mastered it we added a new syllable to the song model. Remarkably, when practicing the modified song, birds rapidly alternated between high and low acoustic variability to confine vocal exploration to the newly added syllable. Further, even within syllables, acoustic variability changed independently across song elements that were only milliseconds apart. Analysis of the entire vocal output during learning revealed that the variability of each song element decreased as it approached the target, correlating with momentary local distance from the target and less so with the overall distance. We conclude that vocal error is computed locally in sub-syllabic time scales and that song elements can be learned and crystalized independently. Songbirds have dedicated brain circuitry for vocal babbling in the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), which generates exploratory song patterns that drive premotor neurons at the song nucleus RA (robust nucleus of the arcopallium). We hypothesize that either AFP adjusts the gain of vocal exploration in fine time scales, or that the sensitivity of RA premotor neurons to AFP/HVC inputs varies across song elements. PMID:22399765

  14. 'Out of tune': consequences of inbreeding on bird song.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Raïssa A; Eens, Marcel; Müller, Wendt

    2016-07-27

    The expression of bird song is expected to signal male quality to females. 'Quality' is determined by genetic and environmental factors, but, surprisingly, there is very limited evidence if and how genetic aspects of male quality are reflected in song. Here, we manipulated the genetic make-up of canaries (Serinus canaria) via inbreeding, and studied its effects upon song output, complexity, phonetics and, for the first time, song learning. To this end, we created weight-matched inbred and outbred pairs of male fledglings, which were subsequently exposed to the same tutor male during song learning. Inbreeding strongly affected syllable phonetics, but there were little or no effects on other song features. Nonetheless, females discriminated among inbred and outbred males, as they produced heavier clutches when mated with an outbred male. Our study highlights the importance of song phonetics, which has hitherto often been overlooked. PMID:27466453

  15. Nursing problem-based learning activity: song writing and singing.

    PubMed

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2014-08-01

    The function of song is not only to deliver individual's messages, but also to serve as a learning approach to facilitate students' learning. To observe the effectiveness of songs in facilitating students' learning, a Problem-based Learning (PBL) class with twenty students was divided into four groups with five students per group. Each group was asked to write a song based on two given scenarios, to sing the song out loud, and to participate in a follow-up focus group interview afterwards. The four songs reflected the students' understanding of academic knowledge and their perspectives toward the protagonists in the presented scenarios. Two songs are presented in this paper to demonstrate how the approach was carried out in the nursing PBL class. This paper aims to show the implication of song writing and singing in PBL and shed some light on teaching and learning. PMID:24560491

  16. Syllable chunking in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) song.

    PubMed

    Williams, H; Staples, K

    1992-09-01

    We examined how 61 young zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) males copied song from 5 adult tutors. Zebra finch song consists of a string of 5-15 distinct syllables, and these syllables were copied as chunks, or strings of consecutive syllables (modal length = 3). The silent interval between 2 syllables was copied as part of the syllable after the silence. Copied chunks had boundaries that fell at consistent locations within the tutor's song, marked by a relatively long intersyllable silent period, a transition between call-like and noncall-like syllables, and a tendency for the tutor male to stop his song short. Young males also tended to break their songs off at the boundaries of the chunks they had copied. Chunks appear to be an intermediate level of hierarchy in song organization and to have both perceptual (syllables were learned as part of a chunk) and motor (song delivery was broken almost exclusively at chunk boundaries) aspects. PMID:1395497

  17. Roaming yuppies: Hong Kong migration to Australia.

    PubMed

    Wong, S

    1994-01-01

    "Hong Kong has been the top source for Asian migration to Australia in recent years. The majority of the Hong Kong migrants are young, educated professionals. Using survey data conducted in Hong Kong on emigration tendencies, this article analyzes why they are leaving Hong Kong, what attracts them to Australia, and what impact this influx has on Australian society. It is speculated that this movement may create an enduring change in the identity of emigrant Hong Kongers and have a wider significance in the contradictory currents of geopolitics and geoeconomics which are simultaneously encouraging and resisting migration." PMID:12289778

  18. Information System on Russian Folklore Songs of Karelia as a Tool of Formalization and Classification of Songs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varfolomeyev, Aleksey G.; Moskin, Nikolay D.; Kravtsov, Ignat V.

    The authors elaborate the project of information system dedicated to folklore songs of North Russia. For increase of research potential of information system it is necessary to decide a task of formalization of the song content. In our opinion the most adequate mathematical structure describing a folklore song is the set of oriented graphs connected among themselves. In each graph the vertexes are the objects of the text, the edges are relations between objects. Our information system will contain both complete texts of songs and their formal representations by graphs that will allow to carry out comparisons of songs, to find invariants, to decide tasks of classification.

  19. Are bird song complexity and song sharing shaped by habitat structure? An information theory and statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Briefer, Elodie; Osiejuk, Tomasz S; Rybak, Fanny; Aubin, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    In songbirds, song complexity and song sharing are features of prime importance for territorial defence and mate attraction. These aspects of song may be strongly influenced by changes in social environment caused by habitat fragmentation. We tested the hypothesis that habitat fragmentation induced by human activities influences song complexity and song sharing in the skylark, a songbird with a very large repertoire and whose population recently underwent a large decline. We applied powerful mathematical and statistical tools to assess and compare song complexity and song sharing patterns of syllables and sequences of syllables in two populations: a declining population in a fragmented habitat, in which breeding areas are separated from each other by unsuitable surroundings, and a stable population in a continuous habitat. Our results show that the structure of the habitat influences song sharing, but not song complexity. Neighbouring birds shared more syllables and sequences of syllables in the fragmented habitat than in the continuous one. Habitat fragmentation seems thus to have an effect on the composition of elements in songs, but not on the number and complexity of these elements, which may be a fixed feature of song peculiar to skylarks. PMID:19782691

  20. English Teaching Profile: Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    A review of the status of English language instruction in Hong Kong begins with an overview of the role of English in the society in general, and outlines the status of English use and instruction in the educational system at all levels (elementary, secondary, higher, vocational, adult, and teacher), the characteristics and training of English…

  1. Lifelong Learning in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Grace O. M.

    Despite recent attempts at implementation, the government must play a more active role in promoting lifelong learning in Hong Kong. They did little until 1989, when the Open Learning Institute (OLI) was established. The OLI was innovative because it provided degree level courses for adults, without concern for prerequisite academic qualifications.…

  2. Recurring patterns in the songs of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae).

    PubMed

    Green, Sean R; Mercado, Eduardo; Pack, Adam A; Herman, Louis M

    2011-02-01

    Humpback whales, unlike most mammalian species, learn new songs as adults. Populations of singers progressively and collectively change the sounds and patterns within their songs throughout their lives and across generations. In this study, humpback whale songs recorded in Hawaii from 1985 to 1995 were analyzed using self-organizing maps (SOMs) to classify the sounds within songs, and to identify sound patterns that were present across multiple years. These analyses supported the hypothesis that recurring, persistent patterns exist within whale songs, and that these patterns are defined at least in part by acoustic relationships between adjacent sounds within songs. Sound classification based on acoustic differences between adjacent sounds yielded patterns within songs that were more consistent from year to year than classifications based on the properties of single sounds. Maintenance of fixed ratios of acoustic modulation across sounds, despite large variations in individual sounds, suggests intrinsic constraints on how sounds change within songs. Such acoustically invariant cues may enable whales to recognize and assess variations in songs despite propagation-related distortion of individual sounds and yearly changes in songs. PMID:21215306

  3. Pulmonary effects of active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure among adolescent students in Juárez, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Yelena; Staines-Orozco, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Background Youth smoking trends among Latin American countries, including Mexico, are on the rise. Notably, although the high prevalence of smoking in teens has been well documented in the literature, few studies have evaluated the impact of smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure on their respiratory system. Objective To investigate the effects of smoking and SHS exposure on the respiratory health and lung function among eighth-grade students in Juárez, Mexico. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken on a sample of convenience. The study outcomes centered on evaluating 300 students’ lung function by spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio [FEV1/FVC], and forced mid-expiratory flow rate [FEF25%–75%]) and their respiratory health (smoking behavior and SHS exposure) by their self-reported responses to a standardized respiratory questionnaire. The study outcomes were compared among three distinct groups: 1) nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS; 2) nonsmokers/exposed to SHS; and 3) smokers. Results The majority of the study participants were 14 years old (85%), females (54%), who attended eighth grade in a public school setting (56%). Approximately, half reported being of low socioeconomic status (49%) and nonsmokers/exposed to SHS (49%). The lung function parameters of smokers were found to be lower (FEV1 =62.88±10.25; FEV1/FVC =83.50±14.15; and FEF25%–75% =66.35±12.55) than those recorded for the nonsmokers/exposed to SHS (FEV1 =69.41±11.35; FEV1/FVC =88.75±15.75; and FEF25%–75% =78.90±14.65) and significantly reduced when compared to the nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS (FEV1 =79.14±13.61; FEV1/FVC =94.88±21.88; and FEF25%–75% =87.36±17.02) (P<0.001). Similarly, respiratory complaints were more prevalent among smokers and those exposed to SHS when compared to nonsmokers/nonexposed to SHS. Conclusion Our findings suggest that initiation of cigarette smoking and, to a

  4. Parapraxes in song recall: a neglected variable.

    PubMed

    Díaz de Chumaceiro, C L

    1993-09-01

    In addition to expressing themselves with verbal and nonverbal communications, and by the countertransference reactions perceived by analysts, patients also reveal their inner world of images and feelings specifically with music evocations. This paper presents an initial attempt to identify and classify some of the parapraxes produced in the evocation of lyrics and music by polyglot members of treatment dyads in two empirical studies and in private practice. There may be many others, particularly related to the music per se. This paper has focused mainly on the lyrics, the equivalent of the manifest content of dreams, which nonmusician therapists can learn to handle well. Instead, in the case of the musical latent content, some knowledge of music is necessary. Supervisors' songs were considered beyond the scope of this paper and will be addressed separately. Parapraxes in song recall signal unconscious transference-countertransference states in process at the moment of evocation. PMID:8214208

  5. Female in-nest chatter song increases predation.

    PubMed

    Kleindorfer, Sonia; Evans, Christine; Mahr, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Female song is an ancestral trait in songbirds, yet extant females generally sing less than males. Here, we examine sex differences in the predation cost of singing behaviour. The superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus) is a Southern Hemisphere songbird; males and females provision the brood and produce solo song year-round. Both sexes had higher song rate during the fertile period and lower song rate during incubation and chick feeding. Females were more likely than males to sing close to or inside the nest. For this reason, female but not male song rate predicted egg and nestling predation. This study identifies a high fitness cost of song when a parent bird attends offspring inside a nest and explains gender differences in singing when there are gender differences in parental care. PMID:26763214

  6. Female song is widespread and ancestral in songbirds.

    PubMed

    Odom, Karan J; Hall, Michelle L; Riebel, Katharina; Omland, Kevin E; Langmore, Naomi E

    2014-01-01

    Bird song has historically been considered an almost exclusively male trait, an observation fundamental to the formulation of Darwin's theory of sexual selection. Like other male ornaments, song is used by male songbirds to attract females and compete with rivals. Thus, bird song has become a textbook example of the power of sexual selection to lead to extreme neurological and behavioural sex differences. Here we present an extensive survey and ancestral state reconstruction of female song across songbirds showing that female song is present in 71% of surveyed species including 32 families, and that females sang in the common ancestor of modern songbirds. Our results reverse classical assumptions about the evolution of song and sex differences in birds. The challenge now is to identify whether sexual selection alone or broader processes, such as social or natural selection, best explain the evolution of elaborate traits in both sexes. PMID:24594930

  7. Song Trait Similarity in Great Tits Varies with Social Structure

    PubMed Central

    Snijders, Lysanne; van der Eijk, Jerine; van Rooij, Erica P.; de Goede, Piet; van Oers, Kees; Naguib, Marc

    2015-01-01

    For many animals, long-range signalling is essential to maintain contact with conspecifics. In territorial species, individuals often have to balance signalling towards unfamiliar potential competitors (to solely broadcast territory ownership) with signalling towards familiar immediate neighbours (to also maintain so-called “dear enemy” relations). Hence, to understand how signals evolve due to these multilevel relationships, it is important to understand how general signal traits vary in relation to the overall social environment. For many territorial songbirds dawn is a key signalling period, with several neighbouring individuals singing simultaneously without immediate conflict. In this study we tested whether sharing a territory boundary, rather than spatial proximity, is related to similarity in dawn song traits between territorial great tits (Parus major) in a wild personality-typed population. We collected a large dataset of automatized dawn song recordings from 72 unique male great tits, during the fertile period of their mate, and compared specific song traits between neighbours and non-neighbours. We show here that both song rate and start time of dawn song were repeatable song traits. Moreover, neighbours were significantly more dissimilar in song rate compared to non-neighbours, while there was no effect of proximity on song rate similarity. Additionally, similarity in start time of dawn song was unrelated to sharing a territory boundary, but birds were significantly more similar in start time of dawn song when they were breeding in close proximity of each other. We suggest that the dissimilarity in dawn song rate between neighbours is either the result of neighbouring great tits actively avoiding similar song rates to possibly prevent interference, or a passive consequence of territory settlement preferences relative to the types of neighbours. Neighbourhood structuring is therefore likely to be a relevant selection pressure shaping variation in

  8. Quality of Life in Hong Kong: The CUHK Hong Kong Quality of Life Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ying Keung; Kwan, Cheuk Chiu Andy; Shek, Tan Lei Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The CUHK Hong Kong Quality of Life Index, which aims to assess and monitor the quality of life in Hong Kong, is a composite index incorporating both objective and subjective measures. This index, developed by the Faculty of Social Science of The Chinese University of Hong Kong, employs data collected in representative sample surveys and official…

  9. A Study on New Song of the Sky Pacers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sang-Hyeon

    2009-12-01

    We investigated `Song of the Sky Pacers, Adopted to the New Methods' (新法步天歌), the latest version of Joseon's `Song of the Sky Pacers' (步天歌). Due to the influence of new knowledge on Chinese asterisms imported from the Ching dynasty, `Song of the Sky Pacers with New Star-Charts' was written in the eighteenth century. However, the disagreement between song and star-charts was causing confusion in practical applications such as Joseon's national examination for selecting astronomers. In order to improve this situation, Royal Observatory of the Joseon dynasty (觀象監) published `Song of the Sky Pacers, Adopted to the New Methods' based upon star-charts and song in the Sequel of I-Hsiang-K'ao-ch'eng (欽定儀象考成續編). The New Song was edited by a middle-class professional astronomer Yi Jun-yang (李俊養), and corrected by a nobleman Nam Byeong-gil (南秉吉). We establish a brief biography of Yi Jun-yang. The New Song preserves the genuine characteristics of previous Joseon's Song including the format of title of each lunar mansion and description on the location of the Milky Way in the asterisms. The description of the Milky Way was newly written based on the data in volume 31 and 32 of the Sequel of I-Hsiang-K'ao-ch'eng.

  10. Common Songs of the Cultural Heritage of the United States: A Compilation of Songs that Most People "Know" and "Should Know."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Kenneth M.

    2000-01-01

    Examines what songs are familiar to most people. Uncovers various epistemological definitions of what it means to "know" a song. Discovers how many of the 42 songs listed in Music Educators National Conference (MENC) publication, "Get America Singing Again!", appeared in previous investigations and in community song movement books. (CMK)

  11. “Bird Song Metronomics”: Isochronous Organization of Zebra Finch Song Rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Philipp; Scharff, Constance

    2016-01-01

    The human capacity for speech and vocal music depends on vocal imitation. Songbirds, in contrast to non-human primates, share this vocal production learning with humans. The process through which birds and humans learn many of their vocalizations as well as the underlying neural system exhibit a number of striking parallels and have been widely researched. In contrast, rhythm, a key feature of language, and music, has received surprisingly little attention in songbirds. Investigating temporal periodicity in bird song has the potential to inform the relationship between neural mechanisms and behavioral output and can also provide insight into the biology and evolution of musicality. Here we present a method to analyze birdsong for an underlying rhythmic regularity. Using the intervals from one note onset to the next as input, we found for each bird an isochronous sequence of time stamps, a “signal-derived pulse,” or pulseS, of which a subset aligned with all note onsets of the bird's song. Fourier analysis corroborated these results. To determine whether this finding was just a byproduct of the duration of notes and intervals typical for zebra finches but not dependent on the individual duration of elements and the sequence in which they are sung, we compared natural songs to models of artificial songs. Note onsets of natural song deviated from the pulseS significantly less than those of artificial songs with randomized note and gap durations. Thus, male zebra finch song has the regularity required for a listener to extract a perceived pulse (pulseP), as yet untested. Strikingly, in our study, pulsesS that best fit note onsets often also coincided with the transitions between sub-note elements within complex notes, corresponding to neuromuscular gestures. Gesture durations often equaled one or more pulseS periods. This suggests that gesture duration constitutes the basic element of the temporal hierarchy of zebra finch song rhythm, an interesting parallel to the

  12. Development of temporal structure in zebra finch song

    PubMed Central

    Troyer, Todd W.

    2013-01-01

    Zebra finch song has provided an excellent case study in the neural basis of sequence learning, with a high degree of temporal precision and tight links with precisely timed bursting in forebrain neurons. To examine the development of song timing, we measured the following four aspects of song temporal structure at four age ranges between 65 and 375 days posthatch: the mean durations of song syllables and the silent gaps between them, timing variability linked to song tempo, timing variability expressed independently across syllables and gaps, and transition probabilities between consecutive syllable pairs. We found substantial increases in song tempo between 65 and 85 days posthatch, due almost entirely to a shortening of gaps. We also found a decrease in tempo variability, also specific to gaps. Both the magnitude of the increase in tempo and the decrease in tempo variability were correlated on gap-by-gap basis with increases in the reliability of corresponding syllable transitions. Syllables had no systematic increase in tempo or decrease in tempo variability. In contrast to tempo parameters, both syllables and gaps showed an early sharp reduction in independent variability followed by continued reductions over the first year. The data suggest that links between syllable-based representations are strengthened during the later parts of the traditional period of song learning and that song rhythm continues to become more regular throughout the first year of life. Similar learning patterns have been identified in human sequence learning, suggesting a potentially rich area of comparative research. PMID:23175805

  13. How the songbird brain listens to its own songs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahnloser, Richard

    2010-03-01

    Songbirds are capable of vocal learning and communication and are ideally suited to the study of neural mechanisms of auditory feedback processing. When a songbird is deafened in the early sensorimotor phase after tutoring, it fails to imitate the song of its tutor and develops a highly aberrant song. It is also known that birds are capable of storing a long-term memory of tutor song and that they need intact auditory feedback to match their own vocalizations to the tutor's song. Based on these behavioral observations, we investigate feedback processing in single auditory forebrain neurons of juvenile zebra finches that are in a late developmental stage of song learning. We implant birds with miniature motorized microdrives that allow us to record the electrical activity of single neurons while birds are freely moving and singing in their cages. Occasionally, we deliver a brief sound through a loudspeaker to perturb the auditory feedback the bird experiences during singing. These acoustic perturbations of auditory feedback reveal complex sensitivity that cannot be predicted from passive playback responses. Some neurons are highly feedback sensitive in that they respond vigorously to song perturbations, but not to unperturbed songs or perturbed playback. These findings suggest that a computational function of forebrain auditory areas may be to detect errors between actual feedback and mirrored feedback deriving from an internal model of the bird's own song or that of its tutor.

  14. Male response to historical and geographical variation in bird song.

    PubMed

    Derryberry, Elizabeth P

    2011-02-23

    In many species, individuals discriminate among sexual signals of conspecific populations in the contexts of mate choice and male-male competition. Differences in signals among populations (geographical variation) are in part the result of signal evolution within populations (temporal variation). Understanding the relative effect of temporal and geographical signal variation on signal salience may therefore provide insight into the evolution of behavioural discrimination. However, no study, to my knowledge, has compared behavioural response to historical signals with response to current signal variation among populations. Here, I measured the response of male white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys) to historical songs compared with current songs from their local population, a nearby non-local population and a distant population. Males responded most strongly to current local songs, less, but equally, to historical local and current non-local songs, and least to songs of the distant population. Moreover, response to both temporal and geographical variation in song was proportional to how much songs differed acoustically from current local songs. Signal evolution on an ecological time scale appears to have an effect on signal salience comparable to differences found between current neighbouring populations, supporting the idea that behavioural discrimination among learned signals of conspecific populations can evolve relatively rapidly. PMID:20685696

  15. A Brief Look at the Community Song Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Patricia S.

    1990-01-01

    Describes how a 1913 Music Supervisors National Conference (MENC) committee identified 18 songs to be included in the curriculum and taught to all U.S. students. Reviews the expansion of the song list and its contribution to a common repertoire for U.S. community sings. (GG)

  16. Dynamic sensory cues shape song structure in Drosophila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coen, Philip; Clemens, Jan; Weinstein, Andrew J.; Pacheco, Diego A.; Deng, Yi; Murthy, Mala

    2014-03-01

    The generation of acoustic communication signals is widespread across the animal kingdom, and males of many species, including Drosophilidae, produce patterned courtship songs to increase their chance of success with a female. For some animals, song structure can vary considerably from one rendition to the next; neural noise within pattern generating circuits is widely assumed to be the primary source of such variability, and statistical models that incorporate neural noise are successful at reproducing the full variation present in natural songs. In direct contrast, here we demonstrate that much of the pattern variability in Drosophila courtship song can be explained by taking into account the dynamic sensory experience of the male. In particular, using a quantitative behavioural assay combined with computational modelling, we find that males use fast modulations in visual and self-motion signals to pattern their songs, a relationship that we show is evolutionarily conserved. Using neural circuit manipulations, we also identify the pathways involved in song patterning choices and show that females are sensitive to song features. Our data not only demonstrate that Drosophila song production is not a fixed action pattern, but establish Drosophila as a valuable new model for studies of rapid decision-making under both social and naturalistic conditions.

  17. Building Schema: Exploring Content with Song Lyrics and Strategic Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stygles, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Teaching with song lyrics has many popular variations. The Common Core State Standards discourage pre-teaching, leaving students somewhat adrift. Song lyrics possess the potential to scaffold students' schema in select social studies topics. Using reciprocal teaching (Palinscar & Brown 1984) within the reading workshop students ponder…

  18. Neural Systems for Speech and Song in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Grace; Pantazatos, Spiro P.; Schneider, Harry; Hirsch, Joy

    2012-01-01

    Despite language disabilities in autism, music abilities are frequently preserved. Paradoxically, brain regions associated with these functions typically overlap, enabling investigation of neural organization supporting speech and song in autism. Neural systems sensitive to speech and song were compared in low-functioning autistic and age-matched…

  19. Oh Say, Can You Sing Our National Songs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elward, Thomas J.

    1982-01-01

    Presents background information on and suggestions to help K-12 students better sing and understand four national songs: "The Star-Spangled Banner,""America the Beautiful,""America," and "Lift Every Voice and Sing." To make songs easier to sing, alternative keys are suggested to bring them within range of student singers. (AM)

  20. Teaching with Toys: A Handbook of Songs and Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Sally

    Songs, rhymes, and sayings entered in this handbook are particularly useful as basic teaching techniques for babies and small children. Popular and easy to learn, many are simple Mother Goose nursery rhymes. Others are traditional songs and sayings that have been passed on from generation to generation in our culture. Some are appropriate for use…

  1. They Came Singing: Songs from California's History. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arlen, Karen; Batt, Margaret; Benson, Mary Ann; Kester, Nancy N.

    This resource presents a collection of over 60 traditional songs set in the context of California's history. Throughout its history, music has played an important part in the lives of California's diverse peoples. The book opens with songs of Native California tribes and continues through European exploration, Spanish and Mexican rule, U.S.…

  2. Walker Calhoun: Cherokee Song and Dance Man. Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Ted

    1995-01-01

    Born in 1918, the youngest of 12 children, Walker Calhoun describes growing up on the Cherokee Reservation in North Carolina. The schools turned the Cherokee against their old ways, but Walker learned many old songs and dances from his uncle, Will West. Since retirement, Walker has taught the dances and songs to children. His material has been…

  3. The Syntax and Meaning of Wild Gibbon Songs

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Esther; Reichard, Ulrich H.; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Spoken language is a result of the human capacity to assemble simple vocal units into more complex utterances, the basic carriers of semantic information. Not much is known about the evolutionary origins of this behaviour. The vocal abilities of non-human primates are relatively unimpressive in comparison, with gibbon songs being a rare exception. These apes assemble a repertoire of call notes into elaborate songs, which function to repel conspecific intruders, advertise pair bonds, and attract mates. We conducted a series of field experiments with white-handed gibbons at Khao Yai National Park, Thailand, which showed that this ape species uses songs also to protect themselves against predation. We compared the acoustic structure of predatory-induced songs with regular songs that were given as part of their daily routine. Predator-induced songs were identical to normal songs in the call note repertoire, but we found consistent differences in how the notes were assembled into songs. The responses of out-of-sight receivers demonstrated that these syntactic differences were meaningful to conspecifics. Our study provides the first evidence of referential signalling in a free-ranging ape species, based on a communication system that utilises combinatorial rules. PMID:17183705

  4. Using Songs To Help Teach the Civil War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Lynn; Edgington, William D.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on using music as a tool for teaching about the U.S. Civil War. States that music was integral to life in the United States and for the soldiers during this time period. Discusses why teachers should use music and how to integrate songs into instruction. Includes song lyrics. (CMK)

  5. Purpose Statements and Song Categories of Selected Community Songbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hair, Harriet I.

    1999-01-01

    Examines (1) the purpose statements and the contents of six selected songbooks for community singing published from 1913 to 1996 and (2) songs listed by E. D. Hirsch in "Cultural Literacy" and "The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy." Indicates that the idea of a common core of song repertoire that represents our heritage should be reexamined. (CMK)

  6. Continuous Time Representations of Song in Zebra Finches.

    PubMed

    Troyer, Todd W

    2016-05-18

    Neurons in the songbird nucleus HVC produce premotor bursts time locked to song with millisecond precision. In this issue of Neuron, Lynch et al. (2016) and Picardo et al. (2016) provide convincing evidence that the population of these bursts contain a continuous representation of time throughout song. PMID:27196971

  7. Alcohol themes within country-western songs.

    PubMed

    Connors, G J; Alpher, V S

    1989-05-01

    Cultural norms regarding alcohol use and drinking behavior can be communicated through the lyrics of songs. An analysis of alcohol themes in country-western lyrics was undertaken. Seven categories emerged from a rational clustering procedure used with 58 alcohol-related lyrics. Almost two-thirds of the lyrics were placed in three of the categories, labeled Existential Dilemmas and Lessons Learned, Loneliness and Lost Love, and Negative Consequences. There were few references to drinking for positive, celebratory reasons. Implications for prevention efforts and for further research on drinkers' perceptions and the relationship between popular culture and drinking behavior are discussed. PMID:2793292

  8. The Political Vocabulary of Hong Kong English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Phil

    1994-01-01

    A study analyzed patterns of usage of political vocabulary in Hong Kong English as found in newspaper reports of a leading Hong Kong English-medium newspaper and two other English-medium newspapers. Data were drawn from a computerized corpus and a clippings file. The report begins with an overview of the theoretical basis of the study of ideology…

  9. Validating Onscreen Marking in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coniam, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper details an investigation into onscreen marking (OSM) in Hong Kong--where paper-based marking is being phased out, being completely superseded by OSM. The study described involved 30 raters who had previously rated English language essay scripts on screen in the 2007 Hong Kong Certificate of Education examination. In the current study,…

  10. Mapping Music Education Research in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Jane

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews research on Hong Kong's music education. The review shows that music education in Hong Kong after the change of sovereignty in 1997 differs from that in the People's Republic of China; there is an emphasis on western classical music rather than the traditional Chinese music in the classroom, with a disconnection between what…

  11. Enhancing Preschool Education in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Nirmala; Koong, Maggie

    2000-01-01

    Presents overview of Hong Kong preschool education. Considers the history of preschool education, early childhood curriculum, training of early childhood professionals, and monitoring of standard services. Discusses trends in Hong Kong preschool education and problems in early childhood education, including exclusion from the main education…

  12. Historical Development of Hong Kong Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sze, Felix; Lo, Connie; Lo, Lisa; Chu, Kenny

    2013-01-01

    This article traces the origins of Hong Kong Sign Language (hereafter HKSL) and its subsequent development in relation to the establishment of Deaf education in Hong Kong after World War II. We begin with a detailed description of the history of Deaf education with a particular focus on the role of sign language in such development. We then…

  13. Songs as a medium for embedded reproductive messages.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Dawn R; Gallup, Gordon G

    2011-01-01

    Research shows that sensational news stories as well as popular romance novels often feature themes related to important topics in evolutionary psychology. In the first of four studies described in this paper we examined the song lyrics from three Billboard charts: Country, Pop, and R&B. A content analysis of the lyrics revealed 18 reproductive themes that read like an outline for a course in evolutionary psychology. Approximately 92% of the 174 songs that made it into the Top Ten in 2009 contained one or more reproductive messages, with an average of 10.49 reproductive phrases per song. Although differences in the frequency of different themes between charts were found, further analyses showed that the most popular/bestselling songs contained significantly more reproductive messages. An analysis of the lyrics of opera arias and art songs also revealed evidence for many of the same embedded reproductive messages extending back more than 400 years. PMID:22947982

  14. Song discrimination by nestling collared flycatchers during early development.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, S Eryn; Söderberg, Axel; Wheatcroft, David; Qvarnström, Anna

    2016-07-01

    Pre-zygotic isolation is often maintained by species-specific signals and preferences. However, in species where signals are learnt, as in songbirds, learning errors can lead to costly hybridization. Song discrimination expressed during early developmental stages may ensure selective learning later in life but can be difficult to demonstrate before behavioural responses are obvious. Here, we use a novel method, measuring changes in metabolic rate, to detect song perception and discrimination in collared flycatcher embryos and nestlings. We found that nestlings as early as 7 days old respond to song with increased metabolic rate, and, by 9 days old, have increased metabolic rate when listening to conspecific when compared with heterospecific song. This early discrimination between songs probably leads to fewer heterospecific matings, and thus higher fitness of collared flycatchers living in sympatry with closely related species. PMID:27405379

  15. Song discrimination by nestling collared flycatchers during early development

    PubMed Central

    Söderberg, Axel; Wheatcroft, David; Qvarnström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Pre-zygotic isolation is often maintained by species-specific signals and preferences. However, in species where signals are learnt, as in songbirds, learning errors can lead to costly hybridization. Song discrimination expressed during early developmental stages may ensure selective learning later in life but can be difficult to demonstrate before behavioural responses are obvious. Here, we use a novel method, measuring changes in metabolic rate, to detect song perception and discrimination in collared flycatcher embryos and nestlings. We found that nestlings as early as 7 days old respond to song with increased metabolic rate, and, by 9 days old, have increased metabolic rate when listening to conspecific when compared with heterospecific song. This early discrimination between songs probably leads to fewer heterospecific matings, and thus higher fitness of collared flycatchers living in sympatry with closely related species. PMID:27405379

  16. The Preparation of Educational Psychologists in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Shui-fong

    2014-01-01

    Modeled after the British system, school psychologists in Hong Kong are called educational psychologists. Hong Kong is the first location in Asia to have a recognized specialty vocation in educational psychology and a program for their professional preparation. The first program in Hong Kong, established by the University of Hong Kong in 1981…

  17. Language Use, and Language Policy and Planning in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Anita Y. K.

    2010-01-01

    This monograph provides an overview of the language situation in Hong Kong from a historical perspective. Hong Kong has evolved in the past 167 years from a small fishing port to an international financial centre which forms part of a financial network hailed by "Time Magazine" as Ny.Lon.Kong (i.e. New York-London-Hong Kong). Hong Kong has gone…

  18. Anatomical plasticity in the adult Zebra Finch song system

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Kathryn S.; Kirn, John R.

    2012-01-01

    In many songbirds, vocal learning-related cellular plasticity was thought to end following a developmental critical period. However, mounting evidence in one such species, the zebra finch, suggests that forms of plasticity common during song learning continue well into adulthood, including a reliance on auditory feedback for song maintenance. This reliance wanes with increasing age, in tandem with age-related increases in fine motor control. We investigated age-related morphological changes in the adult zebra finch song system by focusing on two cortical projection neuron types that a) share a common efferent target, b) are known to exhibit morphological and functional change during song learning, and c) exert opposing influences on song acoustic structure. Neurons in HVC (proper name) and the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (LMAN) both project to the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA). During juvenile song learning and adult song maintenance, HVC promotes song syllable stereotypy while LMAN promotes learning and acoustic variability. Following retrograde labeling of these two cell types in adults, there were age-related increases in dendritic arbor in HVC-RA but not LMAN-RA neurons, resulting in an increase in the ratio of HVC-RA:LMAN-RA dendritic arbor. Differential growth of HVC relative to LMAN dendrites may relate to increases in song motor refinement, decreases in the reliance of song on auditory feedback, or both. Despite this differential growth with age, we also show that both cell types retain the capacity for experience-dependent growth. These results may provide insights on mechanisms that promote and constrain adult vocal plasticity. PMID:22473463

  19. Cross Fostering Experiments Suggest That Mice Songs Are Innate

    PubMed Central

    Kikusui, Takefumi; Nakanishi, Kaori; Nakagawa, Ryoko; Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Background Vocal learning is a central functional constituent of human speech, and recent studies showing that adult male mice emit ultrasonic sound sequences characterized as “songs” have suggested that the ultrasonic courtship sounds of mice provide a mammalian model of vocal learning. Objectives We tested whether mouse songs are learned, by examining the relative role of rearing environment in a cross-fostering experiment. Methods and Findings We found that C57BL/6 and BALB/c males emit a clearly different pattern of songs with different frequency and syllable compositions; C57BL/6 males showed a higher peak frequency of syllables, shorter intervals between syllables, and more upward frequency modulations with jumps, whereas BALB/c males produced more “chevron” and “harmonics” syllables. To establish the degree of environmental influences in mouse song development, sons of these two strains were cross-fostered to another strain of parents. Songs were recorded when these cross-fostered pups were fully developed and their songs were compared with those of male mice reared by the genetic parents. The cross-fostered animals sang songs with acoustic characteristics - including syllable interval, peak frequency, and modulation patterns - similar to those of their genetic parents. In addition their song elements retained sequential characteristics similar to those of their genetic parents' songs. Conclusion These results do not support the hypothesis that mouse “song” is learned; we found no evidence for vocal learning of any sort under the conditions of this experiment. Our observation that the strain-specific character of the song profile persisted even after changing the developmental auditory environment suggests that the structure of these courtship sound sequences is under strong genetic control. Thus, the usefulness of mouse “song” as a model of mammalian vocal learning is limited, but mouse song has the potential to be an indispensable model

  20. "You Need a Song to Bring You through": The Use of Religious Songs to Manage Stressful Life Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Jill B.; Sandelowski, Margarete; Moore, Angelo D.; Agarwal, Mansi; Koenig, Harold G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To explore in a sample of older African Americans how religious songs were used to cope with stressful life events and to explore the religious beliefs associated with these songs. Design and Methods: Sixty-five African American older adults residing in the Southeastern US participated in a qualitative descriptive study involving…

  1. Towards an Analysis of the Discourse of Arabic Song: A Case Study--Umm Kulthoum's Song "AlAtlal"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussein, Gameel Abdelmageed

    2015-01-01

    Arabic song has always played an important role in the life of Arabs. It reflects cultural attitudes and influences them. However, this major expressive discourse has been almost completely neglected in Arabic literary and critical studies. For this reason, this paper focuses on Arabic song, in the hope that my study will encourage other scholars…

  2. Song I-Yeong's Armillary Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Hyuk; Lee, Yong Sam

    In 1669 (the 10th year of the reign of King Hyeonjong), Song I-Yeong (宋以穎, 1619-1692), who was a professor of astronomy at Gwansanggam (Bureau of Astronomy), developed the armillary clock which uses the weight power system of an alarm clock. The armillary clock is a unique astronomical clock that combines the traditional armillary sphere of Joseon and the principle of a Western alarm clock. Song I-Yeong's armillary clock was repaired in 1687-1688 according to the records, and since then not much is known about the history of the armillary clock. After many years, in the early 1930s which was the Japanese colonial era, Inchon (仁村) Kim Seong-Su (金性洙, 1891-1955) purchased the armillary clock at the Insa-dong antique street and donated to the Korea University Museum of the present time (designated as National Treasure No. 230 in 1985). Currently, the armillary clock is not in operation because some of the parts are damaged or lost.

  3. Fractal Dimensions and Entropies of Meragi Songs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydemir, Adnan; Gündüz, Güngör

    Melodies can be treated as time series systems with the pitches (or frequencies of the notes) representing the values in subsequent intervals. The pattern of a melody can be revealed in a scattering diagram where pitches represent vertices, and the directed pathways which connect the former pitches to the next ones signify the relations established during the performance. The pathways form a pattern which is called animal diagram (or lattice animal) in the vocabulary of graph theory. The slopes of pathways can be used to characterize an animal diagram and thus to characterize a melody; and the scattering diagram can be used to find out the fractal dimension . In addition, the entropy , the maximum entropy , and the negentropy (or the order) of melodies can be determined. The analysis of Meragi songs in terms of fractal dimension and entropy was carried out in this work. It was found out that there is not a correlation between the fractal dimension and the entropy ; therefore, the fractal dimension and the entropy each characterizes different aspects of Meragi songs.

  4. Food for Song: Expression of C-Fos and ZENK in the Zebra Finch Song Nuclei during Food Aversion Learning

    PubMed Central

    Tokarev, Kirill; Tiunova, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Background Specialized neural pathways, the song system, are required for acquiring, producing, and perceiving learned avian vocalizations. Birds that do not learn to produce their vocalizations lack telencephalic song system components. It is not known whether the song system forebrain regions are exclusively evolved for song or whether they also process information not related to song that might reflect their ‘evolutionary history’. Methodology/Principal Findings To address this question we monitored the induction of two immediate-early genes (IEGs) c-Fos and ZENK in various regions of the song system in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) in response to an aversive food learning paradigm; this involves the association of a food item with a noxious stimulus that affects the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity and tongue, causing subsequent avoidance of that food item. The motor response results in beak and head movements but not vocalizations. IEGs have been extensively used to map neuro-molecular correlates of song motor production and auditory processing. As previously reported, neurons in two pallial vocal motor regions, HVC and RA, expressed IEGs after singing. Surprisingly, c-Fos was induced equivalently also after food aversion learning in the absence of singing. The density of c-Fos positive neurons was significantly higher than that of birds in control conditions. This was not the case in two other pallial song nuclei important for vocal plasticity, LMAN and Area X, although singing did induce IEGs in these structures, as reported previously. Conclusions/Significance Our results are consistent with the possibility that some of the song nuclei may participate in non-vocal learning and the populations of neurons involved in the two tasks show partial overlap. These findings underscore the previously advanced notion that the specialized forebrain pre-motor nuclei controlling song evolved from circuits involved in behaviors related to feeding. PMID:21695176

  5. Beyond the Gap Fill: Dynamic Activities for Song in the EFL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzutti, Nico

    2014-01-01

    This author presents variable and stimulating activities using songs to encourage students to connect with language. Seven dynamic activities include Song Pictures, Re-order It, Matching Meanings, Changing the Text, Song Strip Connections, Song Cards, and Pair Watching. All are outlined to facilitate their use, and many have added extensions and…

  6. Core and Shell Song Systems Unique to the Parrot Brain

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Mukta; Walløe, Solveig; Nedergaard, Signe; Fridel, Emma E.; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pakkenberg, Bente; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Brauth, Steven E.; Durand, Sarah E.; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to imitate complex sounds is rare, and among birds has been found only in parrots, songbirds, and hummingbirds. Parrots exhibit the most advanced vocal mimicry among non-human animals. A few studies have noted differences in connectivity, brain position and shape in the vocal learning systems of parrots relative to songbirds and hummingbirds. However, only one parrot species, the budgerigar, has been examined and no differences in the presence of song system structures were found with other avian vocal learners. Motivated by questions of whether there are important differences in the vocal systems of parrots relative to other vocal learners, we used specialized constitutive gene expression, singing-driven gene expression, and neural connectivity tracing experiments to further characterize the song system of budgerigars and/or other parrots. We found that the parrot brain uniquely contains a song system within a song system. The parrot “core” song system is similar to the song systems of songbirds and hummingbirds, whereas the “shell” song system is unique to parrots. The core with only rudimentary shell regions were found in the New Zealand kea, representing one of the only living species at a basal divergence with all other parrots, implying that parrots evolved vocal learning systems at least 29 million years ago. Relative size differences in the core and shell regions occur among species, which we suggest could be related to species differences in vocal and cognitive abilities. PMID:26107173

  7. Whale song analyses using bioinformatics sequence analysis approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yian A.; Almeida, Jonas S.; Chou, Lien-Siang

    2005-04-01

    Animal songs are frequently analyzed using discrete hierarchical units, such as units, themes and songs. Because animal songs and bio-sequences may be understood as analogous, bioinformatics analysis tools DNA/protein sequence alignment and alignment-free methods are proposed to quantify the theme similarities of the songs of false killer whales recorded off northeast Taiwan. The eighteen themes with discrete units that were identified in an earlier study [Y. A. Chen, masters thesis, University of Charleston, 2001] were compared quantitatively using several distance metrics. These metrics included the scores calculated using the Smith-Waterman algorithm with the repeated procedure; the standardized Euclidian distance and the angle metrics based on word frequencies. The theme classifications based on different metrics were summarized and compared in dendrograms using cluster analyses. The results agree with earlier classifications derived by human observation qualitatively. These methods further quantify the similarities among themes. These methods could be applied to the analyses of other animal songs on a larger scale. For instance, these techniques could be used to investigate song evolution and cultural transmission quantifying the dissimilarities of humpback whale songs across different seasons, years, populations, and geographic regions. [Work supported by SC Sea Grant, and Ilan County Government, Taiwan.

  8. Neural systems for speech and song in autism.

    PubMed

    Lai, Grace; Pantazatos, Spiro P; Schneider, Harry; Hirsch, Joy

    2012-03-01

    Despite language disabilities in autism, music abilities are frequently preserved. Paradoxically, brain regions associated with these functions typically overlap, enabling investigation of neural organization supporting speech and song in autism. Neural systems sensitive to speech and song were compared in low-functioning autistic and age-matched control children using passive auditory stimulation during functional magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging. Activation in left inferior frontal gyrus was reduced in autistic children relative to controls during speech stimulation, but was greater than controls during song stimulation. Functional connectivity for song relative to speech was also increased between left inferior frontal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus in autism, and large-scale connectivity showed increased frontal-posterior connections. Although fractional anisotropy of the left arcuate fasciculus was decreased in autistic children relative to controls, structural terminations of the arcuate fasciculus in inferior frontal gyrus were indistinguishable between autistic and control groups. Fractional anisotropy correlated with activity in left inferior frontal gyrus for both speech and song conditions. Together, these findings indicate that in autism, functional systems that process speech and song were more effectively engaged for song than for speech and projections of structural pathways associated with these functions were not distinguishable from controls. PMID:22298195

  9. The motor origins of human and avian song structure.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Adam T; Russo, Frank A; Patel, Aniruddh D

    2011-09-13

    Human song exhibits great structural diversity, yet certain aspects of melodic shape (how pitch is patterned over time) are widespread. These include a predominance of arch-shaped and descending melodic contours in musical phrases, a tendency for phrase-final notes to be relatively long, and a bias toward small pitch movements between adjacent notes in a melody [Huron D (2006) Sweet Anticipation: Music and the Psychology of Expectation (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA)]. What is the origin of these features? We hypothesize that they stem from motor constraints on song production (i.e., the energetic efficiency of their underlying motor actions) rather than being innately specified. One prediction of this hypothesis is that any animals subject to similar motor constraints on song will exhibit similar melodic shapes, no matter how distantly related those animals are to humans. Conversely, animals who do not share similar motor constraints on song will not exhibit convergent melodic shapes. Birds provide an ideal case for testing these predictions, because their peripheral mechanisms of song production have both notable similarities and differences from human vocal mechanisms [Riede T, Goller F (2010) Brain Lang 115:69-80]. We use these similarities and differences to make specific predictions about shared and distinct features of human and avian song structure and find that these predictions are confirmed by empirical analysis of diverse human and avian song samples. PMID:21876156

  10. Prehospital care in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lo, C B; Lai, K K; Mak, K P

    2000-09-01

    A quick and efficient prehospital emergency response depends on immediate ambulance dispatch, patient assessment, triage, and transport to hospital. During 1999, the Ambulance Command of the Hong Kong Fire Services Department responded to 484,923 calls, which corresponds to 1329 calls each day. Cooperation between the Fire Services Department and the Hospital Authority exists at the levels of professional training of emergency medical personnel, quality assurance, and a coordinated disaster response. In response to the incident at the Hong Kong International Airport in the summer of 1999, when an aircraft overturned during landing, the pre-set quota system was implemented to send patients to designated accident and emergency departments. Furthermore, the 'first crew at the scene' model has been adopted, whereby the command is established and triage process started by the first ambulance crew members to reach the scene. The development of emergency protocols should be accompanied by good field-to-hospital and interhospital communication, the upgrading of decision-making skills, a good monitoring and auditing structure, and commitment to training and skills maintenance. PMID:11025847

  11. The learning advantage: bird species that learn their song show a tighter adjustment of song to noisy environments than those that do not learn.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Chelén, Alejandro Ariel; Salaberria, C; Barbosa, I; Macías Garcia, C; Gil, D

    2012-11-01

    Song learning has evolved within several avian groups. Although its evolutionary advantage is not clear, it has been proposed that song learning may be advantageous in allowing birds to adapt their songs to the local acoustic environment. To test this hypothesis, we analysed patterns of song adjustment to noisy environments and explored their possible link to song learning. Bird vocalizations can be masked by low-frequency noise, and birds respond to this by singing higher-pitched songs. Most reports of this strategy involve oscines, a group of birds with learning-based song variability, and it is doubtful whether species that lack song learning (e.g. suboscines) can adjust their songs to noisy environments. We address this question by comparing the degree of song adjustment to noise in a large sample of oscines (17 populations, 14 species) and suboscines (11 populations, 7 species), recorded in Brazil (Manaus, Brasilia and Curitiba) and Mexico City. We found a significantly stronger association between minimum song frequency and noise levels (effect size) in oscines than in suboscines, suggesting a tighter match in oscines between song transmission capacity and ambient acoustics. Suboscines may be more vulnerable to acoustic pollution than oscines and thus less capable of colonizing cities or acoustically novel habitats. Additionally, we found that species whose song frequency was more divergent between populations showed tighter noise-song frequency associations. Our results suggest that song learning and/or song plasticity allows adaptation to new habitats and that this selective advantage may be linked to the evolution of song learning and plasticity. PMID:22905893

  12. Universal patterns in sound amplitudes of songs and music genres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, R. S.; Ribeiro, H. V.; Freire, F. C. M.; Tateishi, A. A.; Lenzi, E. K.

    2011-01-01

    We report a statistical analysis of more than eight thousand songs. Specifically, we investigated the probability distribution of the normalized sound amplitudes. Our findings suggest a universal form of distribution that agrees well with a one-parameter stretched Gaussian. We also argue that this parameter can give information on music complexity, and consequently it helps classify songs as well as music genres. Additionally, we present statistical evidence that correlation aspects of the songs are directly related to the non-Gaussian nature of their sound amplitude distributions.

  13. Siren song: physicians, congress, and medicare fees.

    PubMed

    Laugesen, Miriam J

    2009-04-01

    Physicians' fees under Medicare are updated by regulation annually based on a formula called the Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR). Since 2003 Congress has reversed impending cuts to fees in response to physician calls for reform of the SGR, yet physician groups supported the SGR when fee increases outstripped medical inflation. Physician groups are partly culpable for the failure of cost containment because physician groups have resisted efforts to regulate their practice or link effectiveness research to coverage and reimbursement decisions. In the story of Ulysses and the Sirens, Ulysses has himself bound to the mast so that he cannot be seduced by the calls of the Sirens. Physician groups are like sirens because legislators cannot resist their songs. Future policy changes should consider physician needs alongside broader cost-containment goals, including linking reimbursement to comparative effectiveness research. PMID:19276315

  14. Vocal imitation of song and speech.

    PubMed

    Mantell, James T; Pfordresher, Peter Q

    2013-05-01

    We report four experiments that explored the cognitive bases of vocal imitation. Specifically, we investigated the accuracy with which normal individuals vocally imitated the pitch-time trajectories of spoken sentences and sung melodies, presented in their original form and with phonetic information removed. Overall, participants imitated melodies more accurately than sentences with respect to absolute pitch but not with respect to relative pitch or timing (overall duration). Notably, the presence of phonetic information facilitated imitation of both melodies and speech. Analyses of individual differences across studies suggested that the accuracy of imitating song predicts accuracy of imitating speech. Overall, these results do not accord with accounts of modular pitch processing that emphasize information encapsulation. PMID:23454792

  15. Father of neurosurgery in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tze-Ching

    2004-04-01

    Neurosurgery in Hong Kong had its origins as a division of General Surgery and became a subspecialty only 46 years ago with the arrival of Hsiang-Lai Wen. For well over a decade, Wen would be the only neurosurgeon in the colony. His contributions to neurosurgery included the ventriculosuperior sagittal sinus shunt and the application of acupuncture in anesthesia, pain ablation, and drug detoxification. A pilot with the China National Aviation Corporation during World War II, he played an active part in the Allied war effort. As a diplomate of the American Board of Neurological Surgery, Wen sought to improve the standard of neurosurgery in Hong Kong and southern China with the establishment of the Hong Kong Neurosurgical Society in 1981 and the Research Institute of Neurosciences in Guangzhou in 1988. Wen was acknowledged as Hong Kong's "father of neurosurgery," and his work paved the way for the development of modern neurosurgery in the region. PMID:15046667

  16. Flight Day 12 Wake Up Song and Greeting

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Flight Day 12 wakeup music was "Don't Panic" by Coldplay, which was played for Pilot Doug Hurley. This was the last wakeup song played for a shuttle crew while docked to the International Space...

  17. Teaching "Torch Song": Gay Literature in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Marvin

    1993-01-01

    Presents methods and strategies for using gay literature in the English classroom, focusing on the experience of using Harvey Fierstein's play, "Torch Song Trilogy." Provides details about how the text was introduced and used in the classroom. (HB)

  18. Hardware and software for a robotic network of telescopes - SONG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, M. F.; Grundahl, F.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Frandsen, S.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Kjeldsen, H.; Pallé, P.; Skottfelt, J.; Sørensen, A. N.; Weiss, E.

    2014-12-01

    SONG aims at setting up a network of small 1m telescopes around the globe to observe stars uninterrupted throughout days, weeks and even months. This paper describes the fundamental aspects for putting up such a network and how we will operate each site as part of the full network. The SONG observatories will be working autonomously and automatic and can be fully controlled remotely.

  19. Bird song: in vivo, in vitro, in silico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Aryesh; Mandre, Shreyas; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayan

    2010-11-01

    Bird song, long since an inspiration for artists, writers and poets also poses challenges for scientists interested in dissecting the mechanisms underlying the neural, motor, learning and behavioral systems behind the beak and brain, as a way to recreate and synthesize it. We use a combination of quantitative visualization experiments with physical models and computational theories to understand the simplest aspects of these complex musical boxes, focusing on using the controllable elastohydrodynamic interactions to mimic aural gestures and simple songs.

  20. Perception of Words and Pitch Patterns in Song and Speech

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Julia; Sammler, Daniela; Bangert, Marc; Goldhahn, Dirk; Lohmann, Gabriele; Turner, Robert; Friederici, Angela D.

    2012-01-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging study examines shared and distinct cortical areas involved in the auditory perception of song and speech at the level of their underlying constituents: words and pitch patterns. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to isolate the neural correlates of the word- and pitch-based discrimination between song and speech, corrected for rhythmic differences in both. Therefore, six conditions, arranged in a subtractive hierarchy were created: sung sentences including words, pitch and rhythm; hummed speech prosody and song melody containing only pitch patterns and rhythm; and as a control the pure musical or speech rhythm. Systematic contrasts between these balanced conditions following their hierarchical organization showed a great overlap between song and speech at all levels in the bilateral temporal lobe, but suggested a differential role of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and intraparietal sulcus (IPS) in processing song and speech. While the left IFG coded for spoken words and showed predominance over the right IFG in prosodic pitch processing, an opposite lateralization was found for pitch in song. The IPS showed sensitivity to discrete pitch relations in song as opposed to the gliding pitch in speech. Finally, the superior temporal gyrus and premotor cortex coded for general differences between words and pitch patterns, irrespective of whether they were sung or spoken. Thus, song and speech share many features which are reflected in a fundamental similarity of brain areas involved in their perception. However, fine-grained acoustic differences on word and pitch level are reflected in the IPS and the lateralized activity of the IFG. PMID:22457659

  1. GCN and SONG and Interactions with Other Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelmy, Scott

    2011-01-01

    I will give a brief description of Gamma-ray burst Coordinates Network (GCN) (distribution methods, filtering criteria, etc) plus the types of notices currently being distributed (GRBs, transients, & monitoring). Then cover how Stellar Observations Network Group (SONG) telescopes could make use of these notice types to fill in some of their observing time. I will then make a pitch to get SONG telescopes to contribute those data products that are consistant with the real-time transient aspects of GCN.

  2. Urban noise and the cultural evolution of bird songs

    PubMed Central

    Luther, David; Baptista, Luis

    2010-01-01

    In urban environments, anthropogenic noise can interfere with animal communication. Here we study the influence of urban noise on the cultural evolution of bird songs. We studied three adjacent dialects of white-crowned sparrow songs over a 30-year time span. Urban noise, which is louder at low frequencies, increased during our study period and therefore should have created a selection pressure for songs with higher frequencies. We found that the minimum frequency of songs increased both within and between dialects during the 30-year time span. For example, the dialect with the highest minimum frequency is in the process of replacing another dialect that has lower frequency songs. Songs with the highest minimum frequency were favoured in this environment and should have the most effective transmission properties. We suggest that one mechanism that influences how dialects, and cultural traits in general, are selected and transmitted from one generation to the next is the dialect's ability to be effectively communicated in the local environment. PMID:19846451

  3. Communication Value of Mistakes in Dark-Eyed Junco Song.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, André C; Atwell, Jonathan W; Whittaker, Danielle J; Ketterson, Ellen D; Cardoso, Gonçalo C

    2016-09-01

    Sexual signals contain information on individual quality or motivation, and most explanations for their reliability are based on signal costs. A recent suggestion is that signaling mistakes, defined as deviations from typical signal design, provide cues on individual quality, contributing to reliable communication even when signal design is not costly. We describe several atypical song traits in dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) that may be mistakes during song production or development and occur in up to 6% of songs. These putative mistakes were more frequent in an urban versus a wildland population, and individuals differed in their frequency of mistakes. Some atypical signals were more frequent in younger males or were negatively related to paternity success, supporting the hypothesis that fewer mistakes indicate individual quality. We also discuss unexpected results, such as some atypical signals being more frequent in more ornamented males and in songs with lower performance demands. Song consistency (similarity across syllable renditions) was positively related to male age and paternity success; nonetheless, relations with paternity were stronger when looking at the most deviant syllable renditions, suggesting that the perceptual salience of large mistakes may mediate receiver responses to song consistency. Results indicate that signaling mistakes reveal relevant information to play a role in communication. PMID:27501087

  4. Central neural circuitry mediating courtship song perception in male Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuan; Franconville, Romain; Vaughan, Alexander G; Robinett, Carmen C; Jayaraman, Vivek; Baker, Bruce S

    2015-01-01

    Animals use acoustic signals across a variety of social behaviors, particularly courtship. In Drosophila, song is detected by antennal mechanosensory neurons and further processed by second-order aPN1/aLN(al) neurons. However, little is known about the central pathways mediating courtship hearing. In this study, we identified a male-specific pathway for courtship hearing via third-order ventrolateral protocerebrum Projection Neuron 1 (vPN1) neurons and fourth-order pC1 neurons. Genetic inactivation of vPN1 or pC1 disrupts song-induced male-chaining behavior. Calcium imaging reveals that vPN1 responds preferentially to pulse song with long inter-pulse intervals (IPIs), while pC1 responses to pulse song closely match the behavioral chaining responses at different IPIs. Moreover, genetic activation of either vPN1 or pC1 induced courtship chaining, mimicking the behavioral response to song. These results outline the aPN1-vPN1-pC1 pathway as a labeled line for the processing and transformation of courtship song in males. PMID:26390382

  5. Teaching ethics using popular songs: feeling and thinking.

    PubMed

    O'Mathúna, Dónal P

    2008-01-01

    A connection has long been made between music and moral education. Recent discussions have focused on concerns that certain lyrics can lead to acceptance of violence, suicide, inappropriate views of women, and other unethical behaviour. Debate over whether such connections exist at least illustrates that popular songs engage listeners with ethical issues; this arises from the unique blend of emotional and cognitive reactions to music. And while the emotional side of ethics has received less attention than other aspects of ethics, it is important and music can be a powerful and unique tool to introduce the emotional aspects of ethics. Music appeals to almost everyone. Throughout history songs have rallied people to action and drawn people into deeper reflection. Music engages our emotions, our imagination and our intellect. Students already spend many hours listening to songs, some of which address ethical issues; it is thus an ideal pedagogic aid in teaching subjects like ethics. This article will discuss how carefully selected songs can encourage thoughtful reflection and critical thinking about ethical issues: a number of specific examples will be described, along with a discussion of the general practicalities of using popular songs in teaching ethics and a demonstration of how students learn to listen critically and actively reflect on the ethical messages they receive. The enjoyment of music helps to engage students with ethics and its relevance for their lives and careers. This article aims to share some of the excitement and enthusiasm that popular songs have brought to my teaching of ethics. PMID:19205315

  6. Central neural circuitry mediating courtship song perception in male Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chuan; Franconville, Romain; Vaughan, Alexander G; Robinett, Carmen C; Jayaraman, Vivek; Baker, Bruce S

    2015-01-01

    Animals use acoustic signals across a variety of social behaviors, particularly courtship. In Drosophila, song is detected by antennal mechanosensory neurons and further processed by second-order aPN1/aLN(al) neurons. However, little is known about the central pathways mediating courtship hearing. In this study, we identified a male-specific pathway for courtship hearing via third-order ventrolateral protocerebrum Projection Neuron 1 (vPN1) neurons and fourth-order pC1 neurons. Genetic inactivation of vPN1 or pC1 disrupts song-induced male-chaining behavior. Calcium imaging reveals that vPN1 responds preferentially to pulse song with long inter-pulse intervals (IPIs), while pC1 responses to pulse song closely match the behavioral chaining responses at different IPIs. Moreover, genetic activation of either vPN1 or pC1 induced courtship chaining, mimicking the behavioral response to song. These results outline the aPN1-vPN1-pC1 pathway as a labeled line for the processing and transformation of courtship song in males. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08477.001 PMID:26390382

  7. Neural representations of courtship song in the Drosophila brain

    PubMed Central

    Tootoonian, Sina; Coen, Philip; Kawai, Risa; Murthy, Mala

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic communication in Drosophilid flies is based on the production and perception of courtship songs, which facilitate mating. Despite decades of research on courtship songs and behavior in Drosophila, central auditory responses have remained uncharacterized. In this study, we report on intracellular recordings from central neurons that innervate the Drosophila AMMC (antennal mechanosensory and motor center), the first relay for auditory information in the fly brain. These neurons produce graded-potential (non-spiking) responses to sound; we compare recordings from AMMC neurons to extracellular recordings of the receptor neuron population (Johnston’s Organ neurons or JONs). We discover that while steady-state response profiles for tonal and broadband stimuli are significantly transformed between the JON population in the antenna and AMMC neurons in the brain, transient responses to pulses present in natural stimuli (courtship song) are not. For pulse stimuli in particular, AMMC neurons simply low-pass filter the receptor population response, thus preserving low-frequency temporal features (such as the spacing of song pulses) for analysis by postsynaptic neurons. We also compare responses in two closely related Drosophila species, D. melanogaster and D. simulans, and find that pulse song responses are largely similar, despite differences in the spectral content of their songs. Our recordings inform how downstream circuits may read out behaviorally-relevant information from central neurons in the AMMC. PMID:22262877

  8. College Psychotherapy at a Hong Kong Counseling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Eugenie Y.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an online interview about college psychotherapy at a Hong Kong counseling center. The interview discusses how students generally feel about going for counseling or therapy and how common it is in Hong Kong.

  9. Teaching English to Chinese Immigrants in Hong Kong Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Christina; Liu, Cora

    1999-01-01

    Interviewed ten Hong Kong secondary school teachers to highlight the difficulties caused by the recent influx of children from China into Hong Kong. These include difficulties for the immigrants themselves, for the teachers, and for the schools. (Author/VWL)

  10. Amplitude modulation of sexy phrases is salient for song attractiveness in female canaries (Serinus canaria).

    PubMed

    Pasteau, Magali; Ung, Davy; Kreutzer, Michel; Aubin, Thierry

    2012-07-01

    Song discrimination and recognition in songbird species have usually been studied by measuring responses to song playbacks. In female canaries, Serinus canaria, copulation solicitation displays (CSDs) are used as an index of female preferences, which are related to song recognition. Despite the fact that many studies underline the role of song syntax in this species, we observed that short segments of songs (a few seconds long) are enough for females to discriminate between conspecific and heterospecific songs, whereas such a short duration is not sufficient to identify the syntax rules. This suggests that other cues are salient for song recognition. In this experiment, we investigated the influence of amplitude modulation (AM) on the responses (CSDs) of female canaries to song playbacks. We used two groups of females: (1) raised in acoustic isolation and (2) raised in normal conditions. When adult, we tested their preferences for sexy phrases with different AMs. We broadcast three types of stimuli: (1) songs with natural canary AM, (2) songs with AM removed, or (3) song with wren Troglodytes troglodytes AM. Results indicate that female canaries prefer and have predispositions for a song type with the natural canary AM. Thus, this acoustic parameter is a salient cue for song attractiveness. PMID:22476242

  11. Degradation of Rural and Urban Great Tit Song: Testing Transmission Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mockford, Emily J.; Marshall, Rupert C.; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic signals play a fundamental role in avian territory defence and mate attraction. Several studies have now shown that spectral properties of bird song differ between urban and rural environments. Previously this has been attributed to competition for acoustic space as a result of low-frequency noise present in cities. However, the physical structure of urban areas may have a contributory effect. Here we investigate the sound degradation properties of woodland and city environments using both urban and rural great tit song. We show that although urban surroundings caused significantly less degradation to both songs, the transmission efficiency of rural song compared to urban song was significantly lower in the city. While differences between the two songs in woodland were generally minimal, some measures of the transmission efficiency of rural song were significantly lower than those of urban song, suggesting additional benefits to singing rural songs in this setting. In an attempt to create artificial urban song, we mimicked the increase in minimum frequency found several times previously in urban song. However, this did not replicate the same transmission properties as true urban song, suggesting changes in other song characteristics, such as temporal adjustments, are needed to further increase transmission of an avian signal in the city. We suggest that the structure of the acoustic environment, in addition to the background noise, plays an important role in signal adaptation. PMID:22174781

  12. The relationship of neurogenesis and growth of brain regions to song learning

    PubMed Central

    Kirn, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Song learning, maintenance and production require coordinated activity across multiple auditory, sensory-motor, and neuromuscular structures. Telencephalic components of the sensory-motor circuitry are unique to avian species that engage in song learning. The song system shows protracted development that begins prior to hatching but continues well into adulthood. The staggered developmental timetable for construction of the song system provides clues of subsystems involved in specific stages of song learning and maintenance. Progressive events, including neurogenesis and song system growth, as well as regressive events such as apoptosis and synapse elimination, occur during periods of song learning and the transitions between stereotyped and variable song during both development and adulthood. There is clear evidence that gonadal steroids influence the development of song attributes and shape the underlying neural circuitry. Some aspects of song system development are influenced by sensory, motor and social experience, while other aspects of neural development appear to be experience-independent. Although there are species differences in the extent to which song learning continues into adulthood, growing evidence suggests that despite differences in learning trajectories, adult refinement of song motor control and song maintenance can require remarkable behavioral and neural flexibility reminiscent of sensory-motor learning. PMID:19853905

  13. Hatching late in the season requires flexibility in the timing of song learning.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Stefan; Teichel, Johanna; Ter Maat, Andries; Voigt, Cornelia

    2015-08-01

    Most songbirds learn their songs from adult tutors, who can be their father or other male conspecifics. However, the variables that control song learning in a natural social context are largely unknown. We investigated whether the time of hatching of male domesticated canaries has an impact on their song development and on the neuroendocrine parameters of the song control system. Average age difference between early- and late-hatched males was 50 days with a maximum of 90 days. Song activity of adult tutor males decreased significantly during the breeding season. While early-hatched males were exposed to tutor songs for on average the first 99 days, late-hatched peers heard adult song only during the first 48 days of life. Remarkably, although hatching late in the season negatively affected body condition, no differences between both groups of males were found in song characteristics either in autumn or in the following spring. Similarly, hatching date had no effect on song nucleus size and circulating testosterone levels. Our data suggest that late-hatched males must have undergone accelerated song development. Furthermore, the limited tutor song exposure did not affect adult song organization and song performance. PMID:26311160

  14. European Languages and Culture in Hong Kong: Trade or Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cribbin, John

    2009-01-01

    Hong Kong Government policy is to promote Hong Kong as an international education hub for the region. This may be more rhetoric than reality. The article surveys the historical background of Hong Kong in terms of its role as a trading centre, a gateway to China and a meeting place for East and West for which interchange with European languages and…

  15. Social Harmony in Hong Kong: Level, Determinants and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Simon S. M.; Chan, Raymond S. Y.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims at ascertaining how Hong Kong people perceive Hong Kong as a harmonious society. It also identifies the elements that are most conducive to social harmony in Hong Kong, so that the government could take reference when formulating new policies. 1,062 adults residents were asked to rate their perceived level of social harmony and…

  16. Quality Assurance and School Monitoring in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching

    2007-01-01

    This study reports on the Hong Kong education quality assurance and school monitoring system. Three research questions were addressed: (1) Who controls the quality of school education in Hong Kong? (2) What strategies are used in the Hong Kong school education quality assurance process? (3) Agenda for Future Research on quality assurance and…

  17. Schooling in Hong Kong. Organization, Teaching, and Social Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postiglione, Gerard A., Ed.; Lee, Wing On, Ed.

    Contributions to this volume present background material about the characteristics of education in Hong Kong as well as social and organizational perspectives that explore key educational issues facing Hong Kong educators. The first part of the book introduces the Hong Kong education system, while the second part deals with the organizational and…

  18. Rehabilitation for Young Offenders in Hong Kong Correctional Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Kai Yung; Heng, Mary Anne

    2008-01-01

    The motto of the Hong Kong Correctional Services Department (CSD) is to "Support Rehabilitative Offenders for a More Inclusive Society." The Hong Kong CSD has developed a correctional system which has placed increasing emphasis on correction and rehabilitation of offenders over the years. This paper describes the efforts of the Hong Kong CSD in…

  19. Intra-Nationalization of Higher Education: The Hong Kong Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Roger Y.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the internationalization of higher education initiatives of Hong Kong, being one of the Special Administrative Regions (SAR) of China, within the context of the Chinese Mainland-Hong Kong (CM-HK) relations. Historical, social, economic, and political ties between Hong Kong and the Mainland of China, their economic and political…

  20. Lifelong Learning in Action: Hong Kong Practitioners' Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cribbin, John, Ed.; Kennedy, Peter, Ed.

    This document consists of 32 papers presenting Hong Kong practitioners' perspectives on lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "Lifelong Learning" (Albert Tuijnman); "Growth and Development of Lifelong Learning in Hong Kong " (John Cribbin); "Competition and Collaboration" (John Cribbin); "A Profile of Hong Kong Adult Learners"…

  1. Trilingual Education in Hong Kong Primary Schools: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lixun; Kirkpatrick, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Since 1997, the "biliterate and trilingual" policy has been adopted by the Hong Kong government, and is now guiding the curriculum design in Hong Kong primary schools. This language policy aims to ensure that Hong Kong students become biliterate (written English and Chinese) and trilingual (spoken English, Cantonese and Putonghua). However, Hong…

  2. Measuring bulky waste arisings in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Chung Shanshan; Lau, Ka-yan Winifred; Zhang Chan

    2010-05-15

    All too often, waste authorities either assume that they know enough about their bulky waste stream or that it is too insignificant to deserve attention. In this paper, we use Hong Kong as an example to illustrate that official bulky waste figures can actually be very different from the reality and therefore important waste management decisions made based on such statistics may be wrong too. This study is also the first attempt in Hong Kong to outline the composition of bulky waste. It was found that about 342 tonnes/day of wood waste were omitted by official statistics owing to incomplete records on actual bulky waste flow. This is more than enough to provide all the feedstock needed for one regular-sized wood waste recycling facility in Hong Kong. In addition, the proportion of bulky waste in the municipal solid waste (MSW) streams in Hong Kong should be about 6.1% instead of the officially stated 1.43%. Admittedly, there are limitations with this study. Yet, present findings are suggestive of significant MSW data distortion in Hong Kong.

  3. Songs of the Universe - The AstroCappella Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, P. T.; Smale, K. M.; Smale, A. P.

    2004-12-01

    The AstroCappella Project is a classroom-ready collection of upbeat pop songs, lesson plans, and background information, all rich in science content. It was developed as a collaboration between working research astronomers, educators, and a contemporary vocal band. A multimedia music CD ("AstroCappella 2.0") has been produced containing 13 astronomically correct songs with original lyrics and music. Song topics range from the Sun, Moon, planets and small bodies of the Solar System, through the Doppler shift, the nearest stars, and extra-solar planets, to radio astronomy, X-ray astronomy, and the Hubble Space Telescope and Swift astronomy satellites. The CD also contains extensive CD-ROM materials including science background information, curriculum notes, lesson plans and activities for each song, images, movies, and slide shows. The songs and accompanying information have been extensively field-tested, and align to the K-12 National Science Education Standards. The AstroCappella materials are in widespread use in classrooms and homes across the US, and are supplemented with frequent live performances and teacher workshops. We describe here the history, content, and educational strategy behind the AstroCappella Project, and the plans for its future development.

  4. Dynamic variation in forebrain estradiol levels during song learning

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Andrew; Paon, Ashley; Remage-Healey, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Estrogens shape brain circuits during development, and the capacity to synthesize estrogens locally has consequences for both sexual differentiation and the acute modulation of circuits during early learning. A recently-optimized method to detect and quantify fluctuations in brain estrogens in vivo provides a direct means to explore how brain estrogen production contributes to both differentiation and neuromodulation during development. Here, we use this method to test the hypothesis that neuroestrogens are sexually-differentiated as well as dynamically responsive to song tutoring (via passive video/audio playback) during the period of song learning in juvenile zebra finches. Our results show that baseline neuroestradiol levels in the caudal forebrain do not differ between males and females during an early critical masculinization window. Instead, we observe a prominent difference between males and females in baseline neuroestradiol that emerges during the subadult stage as animals approach sexual maturity. Second, we observe that fluctuating neuroestradiol levels during periods of passive song tutoring exhibit a markedly different profile in juveniles as compared to adults. Specifically, neuroestrogens in the caudal forebrain are elevated following (rather than during) tutor song exposure in both juvenile males and females, suggesting an important role for the early consolidation of tutor song memories. These results further reveal a circadian influence on the fluctuations in local neuroestrogens during sensory/cognitive tasks. Taken together, these findings uncover several unexpected features of brain estrogen synthesis in juvenile animals that may have implications for secondary masculinization as well as the consolidation of recent sensory experiences. PMID:25205304

  5. Principles of structure building in music, language and animal song

    PubMed Central

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Zuidema, Willem; Wiggins, Geraint A.; Scharff, Constance

    2015-01-01

    Human language, music and a variety of animal vocalizations constitute ways of sonic communication that exhibit remarkable structural complexity. While the complexities of language and possible parallels in animal communication have been discussed intensively, reflections on the complexity of music and animal song, and their comparisons, are underrepresented. In some ways, music and animal songs are more comparable to each other than to language as propositional semantics cannot be used as indicator of communicative success or wellformedness, and notions of grammaticality are less easily defined. This review brings together accounts of the principles of structure building in music and animal song. It relates them to corresponding models in formal language theory, the extended Chomsky hierarchy (CH), and their probabilistic counterparts. We further discuss common misunderstandings and shortcomings concerning the CH and suggest ways to move beyond. We discuss language, music and animal song in the context of their function and motivation and further integrate problems and issues that are less commonly addressed in the context of language, including continuous event spaces, features of sound and timbre, representation of temporality and interactions of multiple parallel feature streams. We discuss these aspects in the light of recent theoretical, cognitive, neuroscientific and modelling research in the domains of music, language and animal song. PMID:25646520

  6. Cues to Androgens and Quality in Male Gibbon Songs

    PubMed Central

    Barelli, Claudia; Mundry, Roger; Heistermann, Michael; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Animal vocal signals may provide information about senders and mediate important social interactions like sexual competition, territory maintenance and mate selection. Hence, it is important to understand whether vocal signals provide accurate information about animal attributes or status. Gibbons are non-human primates that produce loud, distinctive and melodious vocalizations resembling more those of birds than of other non-human primates. Wild gibbons are characterized by flexibility in social organization (i.e., pairs and multimale units) as well as in mating system (i.e., monogamy and polyandry). Such features make them a suitable model to investigate whether the physiology (hormonal status) and socio-demographic features find their correspondence in the structure of their songs. By combining male solo song recordings, endocrine outputs using non-invasive fecal androgen measures and behavioral observations, we studied 14 groups (10 pair-living, 4 multimale) of wild white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar) residing at Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. We collected a total of 322 fecal samples and recorded 48 songs from 18 adult animals. Our results confirmed inter-individuality in male gibbon songs, and showed a clear correlation between androgen levels and song structures. Gibbons with higher androgen levels produced calls having higher pitch, and similarly adult individuals produced longer calls than senior males. Thus, it is plausible that gibbon vocalizations provide receivers with information about singers' attributes. PMID:24367551

  7. Dynamic variation in forebrain estradiol levels during song learning.

    PubMed

    Chao, Andrew; Paon, Ashley; Remage-Healey, Luke

    2015-03-01

    Estrogens shape brain circuits during development, and the capacity to synthesize estrogens locally has consequences for both sexual differentiation and the acute modulation of circuits during early learning. A recently optimized method to detect and quantify fluctuations in brain estrogens in vivo provides a direct means to explore how brain estrogen production contributes to both differentiation and neuromodulation during development. Here, we use this method to test the hypothesis that neuroestrogens are sexually differentiated as well as dynamically responsive to song tutoring (via passive video/audio playback) during the period of song learning in juvenile zebra finches. Our results show that baseline neuroestradiol levels in the caudal forebrain do not differ between males and females during an early critical masculinization window. Instead, we observe a prominent difference between males and females in baseline neuroestradiol that emerges during the subadult stage as animals approach sexual maturity. Second, we observe that fluctuating neuroestradiol levels during periods of passive song tutoring exhibit a markedly different profile in juveniles as compared to adults. Specifically, neuroestrogens in the caudal forebrain are elevated following (rather than during) tutor song exposure in both juvenile males and females, suggesting an important role for the early consolidation of tutor song memories. These results further reveal a circadian influence on the fluctuations in local neuroestrogens during sensory/cognitive tasks. Taken together, these findings uncover several unexpected features of brain estrogen synthesis in juvenile animals that may have implications for secondary masculinization as well as the consolidation of recent sensory experiences. PMID:25205304

  8. Principles of structure building in music, language and animal song.

    PubMed

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Zuidema, Willem; Wiggins, Geraint A; Scharff, Constance

    2015-03-19

    Human language, music and a variety of animal vocalizations constitute ways of sonic communication that exhibit remarkable structural complexity. While the complexities of language and possible parallels in animal communication have been discussed intensively, reflections on the complexity of music and animal song, and their comparisons, are underrepresented. In some ways, music and animal songs are more comparable to each other than to language as propositional semantics cannot be used as indicator of communicative success or wellformedness, and notions of grammaticality are less easily defined. This review brings together accounts of the principles of structure building in music and animal song. It relates them to corresponding models in formal language theory, the extended Chomsky hierarchy (CH), and their probabilistic counterparts. We further discuss common misunderstandings and shortcomings concerning the CH and suggest ways to move beyond. We discuss language, music and animal song in the context of their function and motivation and further integrate problems and issues that are less commonly addressed in the context of language, including continuous event spaces, features of sound and timbre, representation of temporality and interactions of multiple parallel feature streams. We discuss these aspects in the light of recent theoretical, cognitive, neuroscientific and modelling research in the domains of music, language and animal song. PMID:25646520

  9. Sensorimotor Transformations Underlying Variability in Song Intensity during Drosophila Courtship.

    PubMed

    Coen, Philip; Xie, Marjorie; Clemens, Jan; Murthy, Mala

    2016-02-01

    Diverse animal species, from insects to humans, utilize acoustic signals for communication. Studies of the neural basis for song or speech production have focused almost exclusively on the generation of spectral and temporal patterns, but animals can also adjust acoustic signal intensity when communicating. For example, humans naturally regulate the loudness of speech in accord with a visual estimate of receiver distance. The underlying mechanisms for this ability remain uncharacterized in any system. Here, we show that Drosophila males modulate courtship song amplitude with female distance, and we investigate each stage of the sensorimotor transformation underlying this behavior, from the detection of particular visual stimulus features and the timescales of sensory processing to the modulation of neural and muscle activity that generates song. Our results demonstrate an unanticipated level of control in insect acoustic communication and uncover novel computations and mechanisms underlying the regulation of acoustic signal intensity. PMID:26844835

  10. Immature male gibbons produce female-specific songs.

    PubMed

    Koda, Hiroki; Oyakawa, Chisako; Kato, Akemi; Shimizu, Daisuke; Rizaldi; Koyama, Yasuhiro; Hasegawa, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Gibbons are apes that are well known to produce characteristic species-specific loud calls, referred to as "songs." Of particular interest is the sex specificity of the "great calls" heard in gibbon songs. However, little is known about the development of such calls. While great calls are given by female gibbons of various ages, they have never been recorded from males. Here, we report two observations of immature male gibbons from two different species, wild Hylobates agilis and captive H. lar, which spontaneously sang female-specific great calls. Based on the video clips, we conclude that immature males also have the potential to produce great calls. Our observations led us to propose a new hypothesis for the development of sexual differentiation in the songs of gibbons, and its implications for the general issue of sex-specific behavior in primates. PMID:24158401

  11. The development of stimulus-specific auditory responses requires song exposure in male but not female zebra finches

    PubMed Central

    Maul, Kristen K.; Voss, Henning U.; Parra, Lucas C.; Salgado-Commissariat, Delanthi; Ballon, Douglas; Tchernichovski, Ofer; Helekar, Santosh A.

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile male zebra finches develop their song by imitation. Females do not sing but are attracted to males' songs. With functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and Event Related Potentials (ERPs) we tested how early auditory experience shapes responses in the auditory forebrain of the adult bird. Adult male birds kept in isolation over the sensitive period for song learning showed no consistency in auditory responses to conspecific songs, calls, and syllables. Thirty seconds of song playback each day over development, which is sufficient to induce song imitation, was also sufficient to shape stimulus-specific responses. Strikingly, adult females kept in isolation over development showed responses similar to those of males that were exposed to songs. We suggest that early auditory experience with songs may be required to tune perception towards conspecific songs in males, whereas in females song selectivity develops even without prior exposure to song. PMID:19937773

  12. Hematological Practice in Hong Kong and China.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Yok-Lam; Ha, Shau-Yin; Chan, Vivian

    2016-04-01

    Thalassemias and hemophilias are the most important inherited hematological diseases in Hong Kong and China. Prenatal diagnosis has significantly decreased the burden of these diseases. For thalassemia major, adequate transfusion and iron chelation therapy have dramatically improved patient outlook. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is curative for thalassemia major and is increasingly adopted. The efficacy of arsenic trioxide in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) was discovered in China. An oral formulation of arsenic trioxide was developed in Hong Kong for newly diagnosed and relapsed APL patients. With combination chemotherapy containing non-P-glycoprotein-dependent drugs and L-asparaginase, durable remission can be achieved in the most patients. PMID:27040964

  13. Sharing Songs: A Powerful Tool for Teaching Tolerance and Honoring Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascale, Louise Mary

    2011-01-01

    Teaching songs from a wide variety of cultures is commonplace in music classrooms around the United States. Students gain understanding of and insight into a wide range of cultures by singing their songs and listening to their music. The Afghan Children's Songbook Project is a project focused on preserving and returning traditional songs,…

  14. The Relationship of Neurogenesis and Growth of Brain Regions to Song Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirn, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Song learning, maintenance and production require coordinated activity across multiple auditory, sensory-motor, and neuromuscular structures. Telencephalic components of the sensory-motor circuitry are unique to avian species that engage in song learning. The song system shows protracted development that begins prior to hatching but continues well…

  15. L'Italiano tra le Note: The Value and Power of a Song.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Mariagrazia

    A series of class exercises for Italian language instruction based on a song, "La Vita Mia" by Amedeo Minghi, is presented. The song was selected because of its rich literary content and appealing melody. Objectives, in-class activities, and homework assignments are outlined. In them, students listen to the song, discuss the relationship of poetry…

  16. Vocal Communications and the Maintenance of Population Specific Songs in a Contact Zone

    PubMed Central

    Rowell, Jonathan T.; Servedio, Maria R.

    2012-01-01

    Bird song has been hypothesized to play a role in several important aspects of the biology of songbirds, including the generation of taxonomic diversity by speciation; however, the role that song plays in speciation within this group may be dependent upon the ability of populations to maintain population specific songs or calls in the face of gene flow and external cultural influences. Here, in an exploratory study, we construct a spatially explicit model of population movement to examine the consequences of secondary contact of populations singing distinct songs. We concentrate on two broad questions: 1) will population specific songs be maintained in a contact zone or will they be replaced by shared song, and 2) what spatial patterns in the distribution of songs may result from contact? We examine the effects of multiple factors including song-based mating preferences and movement probabilities, oblique versus paternal learning of song, and both cultural and genetic mutations. We find a variety of conditions under which population specific songs can be maintained, particularly when females have preferences for their population specific songs, and we document many distinct patterns of song distribution within the contact zone, including clines, banding, and mosaics. PMID:22574116

  17. Teaching Listening Skills to Young Learners through "Listen and Do" Songs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevik, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the use of songs to improve the listening skills of young learners. He first provides a theoretical discussion about listening skills and YLs, and about songs and YLs in general; second, he provides a sample lesson for what can be called "Listen and Do" songs for YLs at the beginning level. These are the songs…

  18. Song Recognition among Preschool-Age Children: An Investigation of Words and Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feierabend, John M.; Saunders, T. Clark; Getnick, Pamela E.; Holahan, John M.

    1998-01-01

    Seeks to discover whether listening to songs over an extended period of time contributes to a greater integration of words and music in memory among preschool children. Finds more accurate recognition of songs performed without text when they had heard them previously with texts and that melodic content influenced song-recognition ability. (DSK)

  19. Female Lincoln's sparrows modulate their behavior in response to variation in male song quality

    PubMed Central

    Sewall, Kendra B.; Salvante, Katrina G.

    2010-01-01

    Sexually reproducing organisms should mate with the highest quality individuals that they can. When female songbirds choose a mate, they are thought to use several aspects of male song that reflect his quality. Under resource-limited environmental conditions, male Lincoln's sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii) vary among one another in several aspects of song quality, including song length, song complexity, and trill performance. In a 2-pronged approach, we tested whether variation in song quality of male Lincoln's sparrows influences the behavior of females that are in a reproductive-like state. Over two trials, we exposed females to songs from the high and low ends of the distribution of naturally occurring song quality variation and found a higher level of behavioral activity in females exposed to high-quality songs, especially when they had first been exposed to low-quality songs. We also examined female phonotaxis toward antiphonally played songs with experimentally elevated and reduced trill performance and found that females moved preferentially toward the songs with elevated trill performance. Contrary to most studies investigating the behavioral responses of wild, female songbirds to variation in male song, we obtained our results without administering exogenous estradiol, which can artificially perturb the female's physiology. Our results demonstrate that the behavior of female Lincoln's sparrows is modulated by the quality of male songs to which they are exposed and that trill performance plays a significant role in this behavioral modulation. Furthermore, as the order of song quality presentation matters, it appears that recent song experience also influences female behavior. PMID:22476505

  20. Challenges Beginning Teachers Face in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Bick-Har

    2014-01-01

    By conducting in-depth interviews with new teachers who are about to become full-time teachers and then reinterviewing them two years later, the author of this article presents how beginning teachers think and feel about teaching and describes the challenges they face as beginning teachers in the context of Hong Kong. The stories of the teachers,…

  1. The Quality of Life in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sing, Ming

    2009-01-01

    The AsiaBarometer of 1,000 respondents shows that Hong Kong people have a great desire for materialistic attainment, and such an emphasis on materialism bodes ill for their quality of life. Negative assessments of the public life sphere, which encompasses the natural environment, the social welfare system, and the democratic system, also detract…

  2. Hong Kong Words: Variation and Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Phil

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a number of issues involved in a description of a variety of English in relation to the distinctive vocabulary of Hong Kong English. Attention to semantic and pragmatic relationships internal to the variety and the sociocultural context in which it operates is urged. (Author/VWL)

  3. Phonological Changes in Hong Kong and Cantonese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zee, Eric

    1996-01-01

    Examines phonological changes illustrating the changing nature of Hong Kong Cantonese (HKC). The article describes the historical development of syllable-initial consonants, such as nasals, affricates and coronal fricatives, and also the syllable-final stops and nasals in HKC. (24 references) (Author/CK)

  4. Languages and Business: The Hong Kong Mix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundelius, Jay Osborn

    1997-01-01

    Investigates how English compared with Cantonese, Putonghua, and written Chinese in importance for recent Hong Kong university graduates. Finds that managers said English is used predominantly in written communications, and Cantonese is used overwhelmingly for oral communications. Reports results on perceived importance of languages, languages…

  5. Sibling Incest: A Hong Kong Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsun, O. K. Angela

    1999-01-01

    Presents a case study of a Hong Kong Chinese adult survivor of brother-sister incest. Discusses her symptoms, feelings toward incest, parental response at disclosures, and implications for practice. Also discusses Chinese cultural influences that affect the family and lead to secrecy and shame. (CR)

  6. They're Hiring in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hvistendahl, Mara

    2009-01-01

    Over the past several years, Hong Kong has made a determined effort to raise its profile by positioning its universities to compete globally for students, scholars, and research projects. In the process, it is refashioning its higher-education system from the British three-year model into a four-year system aligned with those of the United States…

  7. Hong Kong English and the Professional World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    One of the dominant themes of the literature on language in Hong Kong is the belief that English, particularly its spoken form, plays a limited role in the lives of the territory's mainly Cantonese-speaking Chinese community. For this reason, it is argued, there is no societal basis for the development of a nativised variety of English. One of the…

  8. Adolescent Abuse in Hong Kong Chinese Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum

    1996-01-01

    A survey of approximately 375 Chinese college students in Hong Kong examined parental abuse toward adolescents. Of the sample, 62.2% had been verbally abused by the parents, 13.2% experienced minor physical violence, and 8.5% reported severe physical violence during the past year. (CR)

  9. Internationalisation of Higher Education in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretor Fok, Wai-kei

    2007-01-01

    With a view that internationalisation is an interactive response to globalisation, this paper examines the internationalising activities in the higher education sector, and in particular, the Hong Kong higher education sector. Four main areas are covered: (a) internationalising staff and students, (b) building an international network, (c)…

  10. The Immediate Effects of Homicidal, Suicidal, and Nonviolent Heavy Metal and Rap Songs on the Moods of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Mary E.; Coates, Steven

    1995-01-01

    Examined the impact of homicidal, suicidal, and nonviolent heavy metal and rap songs on the moods of male college undergraduates. Students (n=164) completed mood inventories after listening to 1 of 6 songs. Results show no effects of these songs on suicidal ideation, anxiety, or self-esteem. Rap songs elicited greater angry responses than heavy…

  11. Head movements encode emotions during speech and song.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Steven R; Palmer, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    When speaking or singing, vocalists often move their heads in an expressive fashion, yet the influence of emotion on vocalists' head motion is unknown. Using a comparative speech/song task, we examined whether vocalists' intended emotions influence head movements and whether those movements influence the perceived emotion. In Experiment 1, vocalists were recorded with motion capture while speaking and singing each statement with different emotional intentions (very happy, happy, neutral, sad, very sad). Functional data analyses showed that head movements differed in translational and rotational displacement across emotional intentions, yet were similar across speech and song, transcending differences in F0 (varied freely in speech, fixed in song) and lexical variability. Head motion specific to emotional state occurred before and after vocalizations, as well as during sound production, confirming that some aspects of movement were not simply a by-product of sound production. In Experiment 2, observers accurately identified vocalists' intended emotion on the basis of silent, face-occluded videos of head movements during speech and song. These results provide the first evidence that head movements encode a vocalist's emotional intent and that observers decode emotional information from these movements. We discuss implications for models of head motion during vocalizations and applied outcomes in social robotics and automated emotion recognition. PMID:26501928

  12. Alors, la chanson francaise? (And So, the French Song?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvet, Louis Jean

    1977-01-01

    The introductory article in an issue devoted to songs as a teaching device. The article deals with English and American rock, folk and pop music. It makes the point that learning a language is also learning the culture of the people who speak the language. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  13. A Comparison of Mexican Children's Music Compositions and Contextual Songs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to make observations and comparisons between original music composed by Mexican children, and traditional Mexican songs. Data were obtained through notated music compositions created by the children, and through videotaped interviews during which the children performed their compositions, talked about both their…

  14. Chinese Songs We Can Sing and Chinese Instrumental Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Ethnic Resource Center for the Pacific.

    This booklet includes a number of Chinese songs (with English translations) designed for use with a tape recording produced by the Ethnic Resource Center for the Pacific, Educational Foundations, University of Hawaii. A pronunciation key and a listing of cassette recordings of Chinese instrumental music are provided. (EB)

  15. Elevated aromatase activity in forebrain synaptic terminals during song

    PubMed Central

    Remage-Healey, Luke; Oyama, Randi K.; Schlinger, Barney A.

    2009-01-01

    The enzyme aromatase (which converts androgens into oestrogens) is expressed throughout the brain in zebra finches. Aromatase is enzymatically active in both cell bodies and synaptic terminals of neurones of the songbird brain, particularly within forebrain motor and auditory networks. Aromatisation within synaptic terminals could thus provide localised and acute modulatory oestrogens within the forebrain during singing and/or audition. In male zebra finches, we tested the hypothesis that forebrain aromatase activity is elevated during singing behaviour and/or hearing male song. This study reports that aromatase activity is elevated in males that were singing for 30 min as compared to non-singing males, and that this elevation occurs only within the cellular compartment that contains synaptic terminals. In a separate experiment, males that heard acoustic playback of song for 30 min exhibited no differences in aromatase activity or in aromatase mRNA levels as revealed by quantitative PCR analysis. Therefore, these results indicate that activation of the motor pathway for song production is linked to local elevations in synaptic aromatase activity within the forebrain of male zebra finches. Future experiments could assess whether elevated synaptic aromatase activity during song is dependent on acute regulation of the aromatase protein. PMID:19207827

  16. Move to the Music: Protest Songs in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettway, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Teachers don't typically encourage students to bring iPods to school, but when a girl in Ken Giles's class brought him "One Tribe," a song by the Black Eyed Peas, he was thrilled. Giles, a music teacher in Washington, D.C., uses protest music to illustrate the connections among culture, art, history and social movements and to help his students…

  17. Using science songs to enhance learning: an interdisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Crowther, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Music is recognized as an effective mode of teaching young children but is rarely used in university-level science courses. This article reviews the somewhat limited evidence on whether and how content-rich music might affect college students' understanding of science and offers practical suggestions for incorporating music into courses. Aside from aiding memorization, songs may potentially improve learning by helping students feel relaxed and welcome in stressful settings, engaging students through multiple modes (verbal vs. nonverbal) and modalities (auditory vs. visual vs. kinesthetic) simultaneously, challenging students to integrate and "own" the material through the medium of song lyrics, and increasing students' time on task outside of class through enjoyable listening or songwriting assignments. Students may produce content-rich songs of good quality if given sufficient assistance and encouragement by instructors and peers. The challenges ahead include 1) defining the circumstances in which music is most likely to promote learning and 2) developing rubrics for evaluating the quality of songs. PMID:22383614

  18. Preserving American Folk Heritage through Story and Song.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    Underscoring folklore's appropriateness to multicultural classroom settings are its connection with past and present cultures, its constancy and change, and its potential for oral transmission of human values. Most importantly, folktales and songs enable children to participate in the history of universal human emotions. To effectively include…

  19. Caretaking of Children's Souls. Teaching the Deep Song.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Sandra B.

    2000-01-01

    Describes ways early childhood caregivers can facilitate children's spiritual development by observing the "canto hondo," the deep song. Discusses characteristics of the canto hondo as a metaphor for caring for the souls of children and their uniqueness, including safety, celebration, respect, acceptance, dreaming, and laughter. (KB)

  20. "Global Voices in Song": New Methods of Multicultural Music Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Min; Goetze, Mary; Fern, Jay

    2006-01-01

    "Global Voices in Song" is a CD-ROM series that provides singers or listeners in classrooms and choirs with the materials needed for effective oral transmission of choral music from sources outside the European art music tradition. It was developed by Dr. Mary Goetze, Professor of Music at Indiana University (IU) and Dr. Jay Fern from IU Academic…

  1. Elemental gesture dynamics are encoded by song premotor cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Amador, Ana; Perl, Yonatan Sanz; Mindlin, Gabriel B; Margoliash, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Quantitative biomechanical models can identify control parameters that are used during movements, and movement parameters that are encoded by premotor neurons. We fit a mathematical dynamical systems model including subsyringeal pressure, syringeal biomechanics and upper-vocal-tract filtering to the songs of zebra finches. This reduces the dimensionality of singing dynamics, described as trajectories (motor 'gestures') in a space of syringeal pressure and tension. Here we assess model performance by characterizing the auditory response 'replay' of song premotor HVC neurons to the presentation of song variants in sleeping birds, and by examining HVC activity in singing birds. HVC projection neurons were excited and interneurons were suppressed within a few milliseconds of the extreme time points of the gesture trajectories. Thus, the HVC precisely encodes vocal motor output through activity at the times of extreme points of movement trajectories. We propose that the sequential activity of HVC neurons is used as a 'forward' model, representing the sequence of gestures in song to make predictions on expected behaviour and evaluate feedback. PMID:23446354

  2. Song convergence in multiple urban populations of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis)

    PubMed Central

    Potvin, Dominique A; Parris, Kirsten M

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed differences between urban and rural vocalizations of numerous bird species. These differences include frequency shifts, amplitude shifts, altered song speed, and selective meme use. If particular memes sung by urban populations are adapted to the urban soundscape, “urban-typical” calls, memes, or repertoires should be consistently used in multiple urban populations of the same species, regardless of geographic location. We tested whether songs or contact calls of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) might be subject to such convergent cultural evolution by comparing syllable repertoires of geographically dispersed urban and rural population pairs throughout southeastern Australia. Despite frequency and tempo differences between urban and rural calls, call repertoires were similar between habitat types. However, certain song syllables were used more frequently by birds from urban than rural populations. Partial redundancy analysis revealed that both geographic location and habitat characteristics were important predictors of syllable repertoire composition. These findings suggest convergent cultural evolution: urban populations modify both song and call syllables from their local repertoire in response to noise. PMID:22957198

  3. Critical Song Features for Auditory Pattern Recognition in Crickets

    PubMed Central

    Meckenhäuser, Gundula; Hennig, R. Matthias; Nawrot, Martin P.

    2013-01-01

    Many different invertebrate and vertebrate species use acoustic communication for pair formation. In the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, females recognize their species-specific calling song and localize singing males by positive phonotaxis. The song pattern of males has a clear structure consisting of brief and regular pulses that are grouped into repetitive chirps. Information is thus present on a short and a long time scale. Here, we ask which structural features of the song critically determine the phonotactic performance. To this end we employed artificial neural networks to analyze a large body of behavioral data that measured females’ phonotactic behavior under systematic variation of artificially generated song patterns. In a first step we used four non-redundant descriptive temporal features to predict the female response. The model prediction showed a high correlation with the experimental results. We used this behavioral model to explore the integration of the two different time scales. Our result suggested that only an attractive pulse structure in combination with an attractive chirp structure reliably induced phonotactic behavior to signals. In a further step we investigated all feature sets, each one consisting of a different combination of eight proposed temporal features. We identified feature sets of size two, three, and four that achieve highest prediction power by using the pulse period from the short time scale plus additional information from the long time scale. PMID:23437054

  4. Tune Up to Literacy: Original Songs and Activities for Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkin, Al

    2009-01-01

    Encourage literacy with twenty original songs by musician and educator Al Balkin! Children's and school librarians will welcome "Tune Up to Literacy", a handy package of music and activities that musically introduces and reinforces crucial literacy concepts such as the alphabet, vowels, consonants, nouns, verbs, adjectives, sentence construction,…

  5. Lighting up the Brain with Songs and Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Shelly

    2010-01-01

    Songs and stories have a strong relationship to each other and have the capacity to boost brain development, increase vocabulary, and promote future academic success. The sounds and foundational structures of reading and singing provide young children with successful pathways for advancing language skills, increasing memory, and promoting emerging…

  6. La voie de la chanson (The Way of the Song).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreiro, Carmen Mata

    1986-01-01

    Describes a French civilization course offered in Spain that compared French and Spanish cultures by looking at each from the perspective and stereotypes of the other. A module devoted to the influence of song in various contexts is described in some detail. (MSE)

  7. Song convergence in multiple urban populations of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis).

    PubMed

    Potvin, Dominique A; Parris, Kirsten M

    2012-08-01

    Recent studies have revealed differences between urban and rural vocalizations of numerous bird species. These differences include frequency shifts, amplitude shifts, altered song speed, and selective meme use. If particular memes sung by urban populations are adapted to the urban soundscape, "urban-typical" calls, memes, or repertoires should be consistently used in multiple urban populations of the same species, regardless of geographic location. We tested whether songs or contact calls of silvereyes (Zosterops lateralis) might be subject to such convergent cultural evolution by comparing syllable repertoires of geographically dispersed urban and rural population pairs throughout southeastern Australia. Despite frequency and tempo differences between urban and rural calls, call repertoires were similar between habitat types. However, certain song syllables were used more frequently by birds from urban than rural populations. Partial redundancy analysis revealed that both geographic location and habitat characteristics were important predictors of syllable repertoire composition. These findings suggest convergent cultural evolution: urban populations modify both song and call syllables from their local repertoire in response to noise. PMID:22957198

  8. The Video Song Clip in the ESL Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filice, Serafina Lina; Sturino, Domenico

    1999-01-01

    Presents a number of practical ideas in promoting the learning of English through the use of a video song clip based on successful use of the classic "We Are the World," over the years with students at the University of Calabria, Italy as well as with adults in the adult Education program at Mohawk College in Ontario, Canada. (Author/VWL)

  9. A Different Approach to Teaching Social Studies: Folk Songs History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tangülü, Zafer

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of teaching and learning the subjects of Social Studies with folk songs in secondary school students. This study is made in 2012-2013 Academic Year Spring Term with seventh grade students studying in secondary school bounded Mugla Provincial Directorate for National Education. 67 students have…

  10. Strike up Student Interest through Song: Technology and Westward Expansion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Meg

    2014-01-01

    Sheet music, song lyrics, and audio recordings may not be the first primary sources that come to mind when considering ways to teach about changes brought about by technology during westward expansion, but these sources engage students in thought provoking ways. In this article the author presents a 1917 photograph of Mountain Chief, of the Piegan…

  11. The Song of the Earth: A Pragmatic Rejoinder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stables, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    In "The Song of the Earth," Jonathan Bate promotes "ecopoesis", contrasting it with "ecopolitical" poetry (and by implication, other forms of writing and expression). Like others recently, including Simon James and Michael Bonnett, he appropriates the notion of "dwelling" from Heidegger to add force to this distinction. Bate's argument is…

  12. Juegos, Canciones, Poemas y Adivinanzas (Games, Songs, Poems and Riddles).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Printed in Spanish, this booklet contains games, songs, poems, riddles, and sayings for use with Puerto Rican migrant children. Eleven matching exercises present Spanish vocabulary related to clothing, food, and musical instruments. Eleven word search games teach Spanish names for body parts, masculine and feminine nouns, famous names, fruits and…

  13. Michael Stipe Wake-Up Song and Greeting

    NASA Video Gallery

    The four astronauts of the final space shuttle mission are greeted by R.E.M. front man Michael Stipe and the group’s hit, "Man on the Moon" to begin Flight Day 7. On recording this song for the A...

  14. Using Science Songs to Enhance Learning: An Interdisciplinary Approach

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Music is recognized as an effective mode of teaching young children but is rarely used in university-level science courses. This article reviews the somewhat limited evidence on whether and how content-rich music might affect college students' understanding of science and offers practical suggestions for incorporating music into courses. Aside from aiding memorization, songs may potentially improve learning by helping students feel relaxed and welcome in stressful settings, engaging students through multiple modes (verbal vs. nonverbal) and modalities (auditory vs. visual vs. kinesthetic) simultaneously, challenging students to integrate and “own” the material through the medium of song lyrics, and increasing students' time on task outside of class through enjoyable listening or songwriting assignments. Students may produce content-rich songs of good quality if given sufficient assistance and encouragement by instructors and peers. The challenges ahead include 1) defining the circumstances in which music is most likely to promote learning and 2) developing rubrics for evaluating the quality of songs. PMID:22383614

  15. A circular model for song motor control in Serinus canaria.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Rodrigo G; Trevisan, Marcos A; Amador, Ana; Goller, Franz; Mindlin, Gabriel B

    2015-01-01

    Song production in songbirds is controlled by a network of nuclei distributed across several brain regions, which drives respiratory and vocal motor systems to generate sound. We built a model for birdsong production, whose variables are the average activities of different neural populations within these nuclei of the song system. We focus on the predictions of respiratory patterns of song, because these can be easily measured and therefore provide a validation for the model. We test the hypothesis that it is possible to construct a model in which (1) the activity of an expiratory related (ER) neural population fits the observed pressure patterns used by canaries during singing, and (2) a higher forebrain neural population, HVC, is sparsely active, simultaneously with significant motor instances of the pressure patterns. We show that in order to achieve these two requirements, the ER neural population needs to receive two inputs: a direct one, and its copy after being processed by other areas of the song system. The model is capable of reproducing the measured respiratory patterns and makes specific predictions on the timing of HVC activity during their production. These results suggest that vocal production is controlled by a circular network rather than by a simple top-down architecture. PMID:25904860

  16. Children's identification of familiar songs from pitch and timing cues

    PubMed Central

    Volkova, Anna; Trehub, Sandra E.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Papsin, Blake C.; Gordon, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to ascertain whether children with normal hearing and prelingually deaf children with cochlear implants could use pitch or timing cues alone or in combination to identify familiar songs. Children 4–7 years of age were required to identify the theme songs of familiar TV shows in a simple task with excerpts that preserved (1) the relative pitch and timing cues of the melody but not the original instrumentation, (2) the timing cues only (rhythm, meter, and tempo), and (3) the relative pitch cues only (pitch contour and intervals). Children with normal hearing performed at high levels and comparably across the three conditions. The performance of child implant users was well above chance levels when both pitch and timing cues were available, marginally above chance with timing cues only, and at chance with pitch cues only. This is the first demonstration that children can identify familiar songs from monotonic versions—timing cues but no pitch cues—and from isochronous versions—pitch cues but no timing cues. The study also indicates that, in the context of a very simple task, young implant users readily identify songs from melodic versions that preserve pitch and timing cues. PMID:25147537

  17. "Lieder machen Leute": Teaching Postwar German Identity through Song

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickham, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The negotiation of a West German identity in the decades that followed World War II can be traced in the issues and movements that preoccupied the populace. These in turn are documented in the work of socially and politically motivated "Liedermacher". Songs thus serve as a point of entry for students into how Germans saw themselves in the Bonn…

  18. Music as a Teaching Tool: Creating Story Songs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringgenberg, Shelly

    2003-01-01

    Describes music as a mnemonic that adds variety and interest to the curriculum and is an important component of multisensory learning. Offers suggestions for creating/using story songs with young children, including the use of one musical phrase in an existing story and creating a melody for an entire story. Gives practical advice for using and…

  19. CitySongs: Primary Prevention in the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivnick, Helen Q.; Lymburner, Allison M.

    2009-01-01

    This case study describes CitySongs, a primary prevention, out-of-school program in the inner city that promotes social justice through integrated activities aimed at healthy youth development, arts achievement, and community vitality through diversity. Key ideas from social science and human service disciplines that inform the design and…

  20. Distributed Recognition of Natural Songs by European Starlings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudsen, Daniel; Thompson, Jason V.; Gentner, Timothy Q.

    2010-01-01

    Individual vocal recognition behaviors in songbirds provide an excellent framework for the investigation of comparative psychological and neurobiological mechanisms that support the perception and cognition of complex acoustic communication signals. To this end, the complex songs of European starlings have been studied extensively. Yet, several…

  1. Humpback Whale Song on the Southern Ocean Feeding Grounds: Implications for Cultural Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Ellen C.; Gedamke, Jason; Rekdahl, Melinda L.; Noad, Michael J.; Garrigue, Claire; Gales, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Male humpback whales produce a long, complex, and stereotyped song on low-latitude breeding grounds; they also sing while migrating to and from these locations, and occasionally in high-latitude summer feeding areas. All males in a population sing the current version of the constantly evolving display and, within an ocean basin, populations sing similar songs; however, this sharing can be complex. In the western and central South Pacific region there is repeated cultural transmission of song types from eastern Australia to other populations eastward. Song sharing is hypothesized to occur through several possible mechanisms. Here, we present the first example of feeding ground song from the Southern Ocean Antarctic Area V and compare it to song from the two closest breeding populations. The early 2010 song contained at least four distinct themes; these matched four themes from the eastern Australian 2009 song, and the same four themes from the New Caledonian 2010 song recorded later in the year. This provides evidence for at least one of the hypothesized mechanisms of song transmission between these two populations, singing while on shared summer feeding grounds. In addition, the feeding grounds may provide a point of acoustic contact to allow the rapid horizontal cultural transmission of song within the western and central South Pacific region and the wider Southern Ocean. PMID:24278134

  2. Shared songs are of lower performance in the dark-eyed junco

    PubMed Central

    Atwell, Jonathan W.

    2016-01-01

    Social learning enables the adjustment of behaviour to complex social and ecological tasks, and underlies cultural traditions. Understanding when animals use social learning versus other forms of behavioural development can help explain the dynamics of animal culture. The dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis) is a songbird with weak cultural song traditions because, in addition to learning songs socially, male juncos also invent or improvise novel songs. We compared songs shared by multiple males (i.e. socially learned) with songs recorded from only one male in the population (many of which should be novel) to gain insight into the advantages of social learning versus invention or improvisation. Song types shared by multiple males were on average of lower performance, on aspects of vocal performance that have been implicated in agonistic communication in several species. This was not explained by cultural selection among socially learned songs (e.g. selective learning) because, for shared song types, song performance did not predict how many males shared them. We discuss why social learning does not maximize song performance in juncos, and suggest that some songbirds may add novel songs to culturally inherited repertoires as a means to acquire higher-quality signals. PMID:27493786

  3. Shared songs are of lower performance in the dark-eyed junco.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Gonçalo C; Atwell, Jonathan W

    2016-07-01

    Social learning enables the adjustment of behaviour to complex social and ecological tasks, and underlies cultural traditions. Understanding when animals use social learning versus other forms of behavioural development can help explain the dynamics of animal culture. The dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis) is a songbird with weak cultural song traditions because, in addition to learning songs socially, male juncos also invent or improvise novel songs. We compared songs shared by multiple males (i.e. socially learned) with songs recorded from only one male in the population (many of which should be novel) to gain insight into the advantages of social learning versus invention or improvisation. Song types shared by multiple males were on average of lower performance, on aspects of vocal performance that have been implicated in agonistic communication in several species. This was not explained by cultural selection among socially learned songs (e.g. selective learning) because, for shared song types, song performance did not predict how many males shared them. We discuss why social learning does not maximize song performance in juncos, and suggest that some songbirds may add novel songs to culturally inherited repertoires as a means to acquire higher-quality signals. PMID:27493786

  4. Acoustic mate copying: female cowbirds attend to other females' vocalizations to modify their song preferences.

    PubMed

    Freed-Brown, Grace; White, David J

    2009-09-22

    We conducted a tutoring experiment to determine whether female brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) would attend to vocalizations of other females and use those cues to influence their own preferences for male courtship songs. We collected recordings of male songs that were unfamiliar to the subject females and paired half of the songs with female chatter vocalizations-vocalizations that females give in response to songs sung by males that are courting the females effectively. Thus, chatter immediately following a song provided a cue indicating that the song was sung by a male who was of high-enough quality to court a female successfully. Using a cross-over design, we tutored two groups of females with song-chatter pairings prior to the breeding season. In the breeding season, we placed the tutored females into sound-attenuating chambers and played them the same songs without the chatter. Females produced significantly more copulation solicitation displays in response to the songs that they had heard paired with chatter than to songs that had not been paired with chatter. This experiment is the first demonstration that females can modify their song preferences by attending to the vocal behaviour of other females. PMID:19535371

  5. Auditory experience-dependent cortical circuit shaping for memory formation in bird song learning

    PubMed Central

    Yanagihara, Shin; Yazaki-Sugiyama, Yoko

    2016-01-01

    As in human speech acquisition, songbird vocal learning depends on early auditory experience. During development, juvenile songbirds listen to and form auditory memories of adult tutor songs, which they use to shape their own vocalizations in later sensorimotor learning. The higher-level auditory cortex, called the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM), is a potential storage site for tutor song memory, but no direct electrophysiological evidence of tutor song memory has been found. Here, we identify the neuronal substrate for tutor song memory by recording single-neuron activity in the NCM of behaving juvenile zebra finches. After tutor song experience, a small subset of NCM neurons exhibit highly selective auditory responses to the tutor song. Moreover, blockade of GABAergic inhibition, and sleep decrease their selectivity. Taken together, these results suggest that experience-dependent recruitment of GABA-mediated inhibition shapes auditory cortical circuits, leading to sparse representation of tutor song memory in auditory cortical neurons. PMID:27327620

  6. Auditory experience-dependent cortical circuit shaping for memory formation in bird song learning.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Shin; Yazaki-Sugiyama, Yoko

    2016-01-01

    As in human speech acquisition, songbird vocal learning depends on early auditory experience. During development, juvenile songbirds listen to and form auditory memories of adult tutor songs, which they use to shape their own vocalizations in later sensorimotor learning. The higher-level auditory cortex, called the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM), is a potential storage site for tutor song memory, but no direct electrophysiological evidence of tutor song memory has been found. Here, we identify the neuronal substrate for tutor song memory by recording single-neuron activity in the NCM of behaving juvenile zebra finches. After tutor song experience, a small subset of NCM neurons exhibit highly selective auditory responses to the tutor song. Moreover, blockade of GABAergic inhibition, and sleep decrease their selectivity. Taken together, these results suggest that experience-dependent recruitment of GABA-mediated inhibition shapes auditory cortical circuits, leading to sparse representation of tutor song memory in auditory cortical neurons. PMID:27327620

  7. Exaggeration of Language-Specific Rhythms in English and French Children's Songs.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Erin E; Lévêque, Yohana; Nave, Karli M; Trehub, Sandra E

    2016-01-01

    The available evidence indicates that the music of a culture reflects the speech rhythm of the prevailing language. The normalized pairwise variability index (nPVI) is a measure of durational contrast between successive events that can be applied to vowels in speech and to notes in music. Music-language parallels may have implications for the acquisition of language and music, but it is unclear whether native-language rhythms are reflected in children's songs. In general, children's songs exhibit greater rhythmic regularity than adults' songs, in line with their caregiving goals and frequent coordination with rhythmic movement. Accordingly, one might expect lower nPVI values (i.e., lower variability) for such songs regardless of culture. In addition to their caregiving goals, children's songs may serve an intuitive didactic function by modeling culturally relevant content and structure for music and language. One might therefore expect pronounced rhythmic parallels between children's songs and language of origin. To evaluate these predictions, we analyzed a corpus of 269 English and French songs from folk and children's music anthologies. As in prior work, nPVI values were significantly higher for English than for French children's songs. For folk songs (i.e., songs not for children), the difference in nPVI for English and French songs was small and in the expected direction but non-significant. We subsequently collected ratings from American and French monolingual and bilingual adults, who rated their familiarity with each song, how much they liked it, and whether or not they thought it was a children's song. Listeners gave higher familiarity and liking ratings to songs from their own culture, and they gave higher familiarity and preference ratings to children's songs than to other songs. Although higher child-directedness ratings were given to children's than to folk songs, French listeners drove this effect, and their ratings were uniquely predicted by n

  8. Exaggeration of Language-Specific Rhythms in English and French Children's Songs

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Erin E.; Lévêque, Yohana; Nave, Karli M.; Trehub, Sandra E.

    2016-01-01

    The available evidence indicates that the music of a culture reflects the speech rhythm of the prevailing language. The normalized pairwise variability index (nPVI) is a measure of durational contrast between successive events that can be applied to vowels in speech and to notes in music. Music–language parallels may have implications for the acquisition of language and music, but it is unclear whether native-language rhythms are reflected in children's songs. In general, children's songs exhibit greater rhythmic regularity than adults' songs, in line with their caregiving goals and frequent coordination with rhythmic movement. Accordingly, one might expect lower nPVI values (i.e., lower variability) for such songs regardless of culture. In addition to their caregiving goals, children's songs may serve an intuitive didactic function by modeling culturally relevant content and structure for music and language. One might therefore expect pronounced rhythmic parallels between children's songs and language of origin. To evaluate these predictions, we analyzed a corpus of 269 English and French songs from folk and children's music anthologies. As in prior work, nPVI values were significantly higher for English than for French children's songs. For folk songs (i.e., songs not for children), the difference in nPVI for English and French songs was small and in the expected direction but non-significant. We subsequently collected ratings from American and French monolingual and bilingual adults, who rated their familiarity with each song, how much they liked it, and whether or not they thought it was a children's song. Listeners gave higher familiarity and liking ratings to songs from their own culture, and they gave higher familiarity and preference ratings to children's songs than to other songs. Although higher child-directedness ratings were given to children's than to folk songs, French listeners drove this effect, and their ratings were uniquely predicted by n

  9. The Comparison of the Effect of Block Flute Accompanied Song Teaching with Multi-Sound Notation and Vocalization Program Accompanied Song Teaching on the Success of Students' Song Learning Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saktanli, S. Cem

    2011-01-01

    This experimental study was done to see if using computer supported notation and vocalization program for teaching songs instead of using block flute accompanied song teaching has any significant effect on students' singing behavior. The study group is composed of the 5th, 6th and 7th graders of 2008-2009 educational term in T.O.K.I. Yahya Kemal…

  10. Social Context–Induced Song Variation Affects Female Behavior and Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Woolley, Sarah C; Doupe, Allison J

    2008-01-01

    Social cues modulate the performance of communicative behaviors in a range of species, including humans, and such changes can make the communication signal more salient. In songbirds, males use song to attract females, and song organization can differ depending on the audience to which a male sings. For example, male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) change their songs in subtle ways when singing to a female (directed song) compared with when they sing in isolation (undirected song), and some of these changes depend on altered neural activity from a specialized forebrain-basal ganglia circuit, the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP). In particular, variable activity in the AFP during undirected song is thought to actively enable syllable variability, whereas the lower and less-variable AFP firing during directed singing is associated with more stereotyped song. Consequently, directed song has been suggested to reflect a “performance” state, and undirected song a form of vocal motor “exploration.” However, this hypothesis predicts that directed–undirected song differences, despite their subtlety, should matter to female zebra finches, which is a question that has not been investigated. We tested female preferences for this natural variation in song in a behavioral approach assay, and we found that both mated and socially naive females could discriminate between directed and undirected song—and strongly preferred directed song. These preferences, which appeared to reflect attention especially to aspects of song variability controlled by the AFP, were enhanced by experience, as they were strongest for mated females responding to their mate's directed songs. We then measured neural activity using expression of the immediate early gene product ZENK, and found that social context and song familiarity differentially modulated the number of ZENK-expressing cells in telencephalic auditory areas. Specifically, the number of ZENK-expressing cells in the caudomedial

  11. Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) song unit and phrase repertoire progression on a subarctic feeding ground.

    PubMed

    Magnúsdóttir, Edda E; Miller, Patrick J O; Lim, Rangyn; Rasmussen, Marianne H; Lammers, Marc O; Svavarsson, Jörundur

    2015-11-01

    The songs of the male humpback whales have traditionally been associated with breeding activities at low latitude breeding grounds during winter. This study provides the first detailed analysis of humpback whale songs recorded in the subarctic waters of Iceland using passive acoustic recorders. Recordings were collected during three winter seasons: 2008-2009, 2009-2010, and 2011 during which singing was detected in all seasons. Peak song occurrence was during January-February in all years; this coincides with the timing of the peak breeding season of humpback whales in the Northern hemisphere. A total of 2810 song units from all years were measured and statistically divided into 14 groups, which constructed 25 phrases. The song unit repertoires included stable song unit types that occurred frequently in songs during all years while the occurrence of other song unit types varied more between years. Around 60% of the phrases were conserved between the first two study seasons, while the majority of phrases found during the last study season had not been observed before. This study indicates the importance of a subarctic feeding ground for song progression and song exchange and possibly as an opportunistic mating ground for migrating or overwintering humpback whales. PMID:26627808

  12. Recent northward range expansion promotes song evolution in a passerine bird, the Light-vented Bulbul.

    PubMed

    Xing, X Y; Alström, P; Yang, X J; Lei, F M

    2013-04-01

    In common with human speech, song is culturally inherited in oscine passerine birds ('songbirds'). Intraspecific divergence in birdsong, such as development of local dialects, might be an important early step in the speciation process. It is therefore vital to understand how songs diverge, especially in founding populations. The northward expansion of the Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis (J. F. Gmelin, 1789) into north China in the last 30 years provides an excellent opportunity to study birdsong evolution. We compared ~4400 songs from newly established northern populations with ~2900 songs from southern populations to evaluate song divergence after recent expansion. The total pool of syllables and especially song types was considerably smaller in the north than in the south, indicating 'founder effects' in the new population. The ancestral pattern of mosaic song dialects changed into a pattern of wide geographical sharing of a few song types and syllables, likely the result of fewer geographical barriers to 'meme flow', and the recent spread across a large area in the north. Our results suggest that song evolution and vocal trait shifts can arise rapidly after range expansion, and that in the Light-vented Bulbul 'founder effects', geographical isolation, and recent rapid expansions played important roles in the evolution of song dialects. PMID:23438018

  13. Web-Based Music Study: The Effects of Listening Repetition, Song Likeability, and Song Understandability on EFL Learning Perceptions and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Robert E.; Chuang, Yuangshan

    2008-01-01

    This study adds to the body of empirical knowledge regarding the use of music in the EFL classroom. This original investigation centered around the following question: Does listening repetition, song likeability, and/or song understandability influence learning environment perceptions, learning perceptions, and/or learning outcomes in Taiwanese…

  14. Space Radar Image of Hong Kong

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows part of the British territory of Hong Kong, adjacent to mainland China. The South China Sea is shown in dark blue and red on the image. Land surfaces are seen in shades of lighter blue and gold, including Hong Kong Island in the lower center, the Kowloon Peninsula in the upper right and many other small islands. The brightest yellow areas are the densely developed areas of Hong Kong's business and residential districts. The small yellow dots in the water are the many ships that make Hong Kong one of the busiest seaports in the Far East. Images such as this can be used by land-use planners to monitor urban development and its effect on the tropical environment. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 10, 1994. The image is 23 kilometers by 31 kilometers (14 miles by 19 miles) and is centered at 22.3 degreesnorth latitude, 114.1 degrees east longitude. North is toward theupper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequenciesand polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, verticallytransmitted and received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and received; and blue is C-band minus L-band, both vertically transmitted and received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of theGerman, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  15. Aerosol monitoring program in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Heng-Chi; Tanner, P.A.

    1996-12-31

    The control of suspended particulate matter in the Hong Kong environment is currently an important issue, and in December 1995 a diesel-petrol switch plan was voted down by legislators. PM10 have been monitored at 5-minute intervals for the past year at rooftop level in central Kowloon, Hong Kong, together with selected measurements of TSP. Wind speed, wind direction, and the concentrations of SO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} have also been monitored. Measurements are currently in progress of relative contributions of the small particles (nominal aerodynamic diameter 0.3-2.5 gm), as well as of the PM{sub 10} fraction, to the total aerosol content, using two TEOMS. The chemical nature of selected different aerosol size fractions is also under investigation. Aerosol concentration exhibits a marked seasonal trend, being lower in the wet summer than in the dry winter. The diurnal variation shows two peaks which are linked to anthropogenic actions. Our measurements will be compared with the newly-established AQI of the Hong Kong EPD.

  16. Families and family therapy in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Tse, Samson; Ng, Roger M K; Tonsing, Kareen N; Ran, Maosheng

    2012-04-01

    Family therapy views humans not as separate entities, but as embedded in a network of relationships, highlighting the reciprocal influences of one's behaviours on one another. This article gives an overview of family demographics and the implementation of family therapy in Hong Kong. We start with a review of the family demographics in Hong Kong and brief notes on families in mainland China. Demographics show that the landscape has changed markedly in the past decade, with more cross-border marriages, an increased divorce rate, and an ageing overall population - all of which could mean that there is increasing demand for professional family therapy interventions. However, only a limited number of professionals are practising the systems-based approach in Hong Kong. Some possible reasons as to why family therapy is not well disseminated and practised are discussed. These reasons include a lack of mental health policy to support family therapy, a lack of systematic family therapy training, and a shortage of skilled professionals. Furthermore, challenges in applying the western model in Chinese culture are also outlined. We conclude that more future research is warranted to investigate how family therapy can be adapted for Chinese families. PMID:22515459

  17. Character displacement of song and morphology in African tinkerbirds

    PubMed Central

    Kirschel, Alexander N. G.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Smith, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    Divergence in acoustic signals between populations of animals can lead to species recognition failure, reproductive isolation, and speciation. Character displacement may facilitate coexistence of species in natural communities, yet evidence for character displacement in acoustic signals is scant. Here, we find evidence of character displacement in song as well as body size and bill size of 2 related African tinkerbirds. Playback experiments indicate that related species' songs are perceived differently in sympatry than in allopatry. We suggest character displacement occurs in phenotypic traits facilitating species recognition, which has important implications for understanding the processes that lead to speciation and diversification. Because many of the sites where the 2 species coexist are areas where pristine rainforest has been degraded, results also suggest that anthropogenic pressures resulting from deforestation may be a contributing cause of character displacement in these species. PMID:19420223

  18. Feeling-of-knowing for songs and instrumental music.

    PubMed

    Rabinovitz, Brian E; Peynircioğlu, Zehra F

    2011-09-01

    We explored the differences between metamemory judgments for titles as well as for melodies of instrumental music and those for songs with lyrics. Participants were given melody or title cues and asked to provide the corresponding titles or melodies or feeling of knowing (FOK) ratings. FOK ratings were higher but less accurate for titles with melody cues than vice versa, but only in instrumental music, replicating previous findings. In a series of seven experiments, we ruled out style, instrumentation, and strategy differences as explanations for this asymmetry. A mediating role of lyrics between the title and the melody in songs was also ruled out. What emerged as the main explanation was the degree of familiarity with the musical pieces, which was manipulated either episodically or semantically, and within this context, lyrics appeared to serve as an additional source of familiarity. Results are discussed using the Interactive Theory of how FOK judgments are made. PMID:21640958

  19. Seasonal and sex-related variation in song control nuclei in a species with near-monomorphic song, the northern cardinal.

    PubMed

    Jawor, Jodie M; Macdougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2008-10-10

    Studies concerning the song control system (SCS) in songbirds generally focus on males due to their prodigious song production. Both seasonal and age related differences have been found in the size of male SCS regions. Among those studies that have addressed females some level of sexual size dimorphism has been found, with females generally having smaller SCS area than males. Among those species where female song has been studied, typically females either sing much less than males, or they duet with their mates, but in general do not produce independent song. Here we present information on seasonal and sex differences in SCS in the northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) a species where both sexes sing, females sing independent of their mates, and song is produced by males over a prolonged period of time (7-8 months). We collected brains from free-living adult cardinals, both in the late non-breeding season and during the early breeding season, and measured three song control nuclei; HVC, Area X and RA. There were sex differences in all three areas assessed at the two time points considered. Additionally, there was a seasonal difference in both sexes for all areas assessed. In both time points male SCS nuclei were 1.5-2.0 times larger than female SCS nuclei. These data show that even in those species with independent female song there may still exist sex differences in the SCS nuclei. Similarity in song between the sexes could be related to differences in hormone receptors or hormone levels in the brain, while the small-observed changes in SCS area in males may allow for early breeding season song production and song production outside of the breeding season. PMID:18692546

  20. Appreciating the Power of a Song--and a Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patti

    2010-01-01

    For 8-year-old Josh Greiner, the old cliche that music is a universal language has new meaning. As he adapts to a world where being non-verbal sometimes makes it hard to fit in, Josh is coming to understand the power of a song to break everyday communication barriers and provide motivation to try things. Music has always been a part of his daily…

  1. Non-song vocalizations of pygmy blue whales in Geographe Bay, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Recalde-Salas, A; Salgado Kent, C P; Parsons, M J G; Marley, S A; McCauley, R D

    2014-05-01

    Non-song vocalizations of migrating pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) in Western Australia are described. Simultaneous land-based visual observations and underwater acoustic recordings detected 27 groups in Geographe Bay, WA over 2011 to 2012. Six different vocalizations were recorded that were not repeated in a pattern or in association with song, and thus were identified as non-song vocalizations. Five of these were not previously described for this population. Their acoustic characteristics and context are presented. Given that 56% of groups vocalized, 86% of which produced non-song vocalizations and 14% song units, the inclusion of non-song vocalizations in passive-acoustic monitoring is proposed. PMID:24815291

  2. Sex, death, and genetic variation: natural and sexual selection on cricket song

    PubMed Central

    Gray, D. A.; Cade, W. H.

    1999-01-01

    Male field crickets, Gryllus integer, in Texas, USA, produce a trilled calling song that attracts female crickets, resulting in enhanced mating success. Gravid female parasitoid flies, Ormia ochracea, are also attracted to male cricket calling song, resulting in the death of the male within about seven days. Using playbacks of field-cricket calling song in the natural habitat, we show that both female crickets and female parasitoid flies prefer male calling song with average numbers of pulses per trill. Thus female crickets exert stabilizing sexual selection, whereas flies exert disruptive natural selection on male song. Disruptive natural selection will promote genetic variation and population divergence. Stabilizing sexual selection will reduce genetic variation and maintain population cohesiveness. These forces may balance and together maintain the observed high levels of genetic variation (ca. 40%) in male calling song.

  3. Reported Drosophila courtship song rhythms are artifacts of data analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In a series of landmark papers, Kyriacou, Hall, and colleagues reported that the average inter-pulse interval of Drosophila melanogaster male courtship song varies rhythmically (KH cycles), that the period gene controls this rhythm, and that evolution of the period gene determines species differences in the rhythm’s frequency. Several groups failed to recover KH cycles, but this may have resulted from differences in recording chamber size. Results Here, using recording chambers of the same dimensions as used by Kyriacou and Hall, I found no compelling evidence for KH cycles at any frequency. By replicating the data analysis procedures employed by Kyriacou and Hall, I found that two factors - data binned into 10-second intervals and short recordings - imposed non-significant periodicity in the frequency range reported for KH cycles. Randomized data showed similar patterns. Conclusions All of the results related to KH cycles are likely to be artifacts of binning data from short songs. Reported genotypic differences in KH cycles cannot be explained by this artifact and may have resulted from the use of small sample sizes and/or from the exclusion of samples that did not exhibit song rhythms. PMID:24965095

  4. The tectonic structure of the Song Ma fault zone, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Strong; Yeh, Yu-Lien; Tang, Chi-Cha; Phong, Lai Hop; Toan, Dinh Van; Chang, Wen-Yen; Chen, Chau-Huei

    2015-08-01

    Indochina area is a tectonic active region where creates complex topographies and tectonic structures. In particular, the Song Ma fault zone plays an important role in understanding the mechanism and revolution of the collision between the Indian plate and Eurasian plate. In order to have better understanding the seismotectonic structures of the Song Ma fault zone, a three-year project is proposed to study the seismotectonic structures of crust in this region. The main goal of this project is to deploy temporary broad-band seismic stations around/near the shear zone to record high quality microearthquakes. By using the data recorded by the temporary array and the local seismic network, we are able to conduct seismological studies which include using waveform inversion to obtain precise fault plane solutions of microearthquakes, one-dimensional (1-D) velocity structure of the crust in the region as well as the characteristics of seismogeneric zone. From the results of earthquake relocation and focal mechanisms, we find that the spatial distribution of events occurred in Song Ma fault zone forms in several distinct groups which are well correlated local geological structures and further use to gain insights on tectonic evolution.

  5. De novo establishment of wild-type song culture in the zebra finch.

    PubMed

    Fehér, Olga; Wang, Haibin; Saar, Sigal; Mitra, Partha P; Tchernichovski, Ofer

    2009-05-28

    Culture is typically viewed as consisting of traits inherited epigenetically, through social learning. However, cultural diversity has species-typical constraints, presumably of genetic origin. A celebrated, if contentious, example is whether a universal grammar constrains syntactic diversity in human languages. Oscine songbirds exhibit song learning and provide biologically tractable models of culture: members of a species show individual variation in song and geographically separated groups have local song dialects. Different species exhibit distinct song cultures, suggestive of genetic constraints. Without such constraints, innovations and copying errors should cause unbounded variation over multiple generations or geographical distance, contrary to observations. Here we report an experiment designed to determine whether wild-type song culture might emerge over multiple generations in an isolated colony founded by isolates, and, if so, how this might happen and what type of social environment is required. Zebra finch isolates, unexposed to singing males during development, produce song with characteristics that differ from the wild-type song found in laboratory or natural colonies. In tutoring lineages starting from isolate founders, we quantified alterations in song across tutoring generations in two social environments: tutor-pupil pairs in sound-isolated chambers and an isolated semi-natural colony. In both settings, juveniles imitated the isolate tutors but changed certain characteristics of the songs. These alterations accumulated over learning generations. Consequently, songs evolved towards the wild-type in three to four generations. Thus, species-typical song culture can appear de novo. Our study has parallels with language change and evolution. In analogy to models in quantitative genetics, we model song culture as a multigenerational phenotype partly encoded genetically in an isolate founding population, influenced by environmental variables and taking

  6. A Values Approach to Business Education in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radbourne, Jeniifer

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the learning behaviour, learning environment and learning outcomes of Hong Kong Chinese students enrolled on an Australian university's Bachelor of Business degree course taught by visiting Australian lecturers in Hong Kong. The Chinese students are task-focused and passive learners. They do not demonstrate creative…

  7. Identifying Gifted and Talented Students in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, David W.

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses the evolving need for identification of gifted and talented students in Hong Kong, assessment of intelligence, identifying the academically gifted, identifying the creatively gifted, and identification by informal measures. The use of multiple measures for identification used at the Chinese University of Hong Kong is…

  8. Into an Era of Autonomy for Universities in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Sandra S.

    1996-01-01

    Hong Kong universities' purpose has historically been to fulfill colonial labor force needs for economic growth. The 1997 shift in Hong Kong's sovereignty to China will bring changes in higher education's direction and philosophy, probably characterized by greater emphasis on scientific, technological, and cultural exchange with other countries…

  9. Hong Kong Junior Secondary Students' Changing Conceptions of Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Chi Chung; Lai, Edith; Wong, Janice Lai Yin

    2012-01-01

    This study attempted to investigate Hong Kong junior secondary students' conceptions of China before and after the 1997 handover of Hong Kong to China, with a view to finding out any changes in their conceptions, and if any, the factors that might have contributed to these changes. The study found that, over the years from 1997 to 2009, students…

  10. The Provision for Music in Hong Kong Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, M. J.

    1987-01-01

    Reports a study of music education in Hong Kong's secondary schools. States that an ambivalent attitude toward music education has resulted in shortages of teaching periods, space, and resources. Notes that most Hong Kong students do not enjoy classical music and generally consider music education to be less important than other school subjects.…

  11. The Career Trajectory of Physical Education Teachers in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sum, Raymond Kim Wai; Dimmock, Clive

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the career trajectory of primary school physical education teachers (PSPETs) in Hong Kong. It is focused on the problems arising from apparent overload and the multiple roles of physical education teachers' career development in Hong Kong brought about by education and curriculum reforms. The specific research question is,…

  12. Family Effects on Student Achievement in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ming Ming; Ho, Esther Sui Chu

    2006-01-01

    We examine the effects of family structures and processes on student achievement in Hong Kong. Specifically, we show that the negative effects of single parenthood in past studies are not universal. In Hong Kong, 4,405 15-year-old students completed a questionnaire, and tests in reading, mathematics and science. We analysed the data using…

  13. Hong Kong in Transition: A Look at Economic Interdependence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Selena

    Economic interdependence has played an important role in Hong Kong's history, from its earliest days as a British colony to its current status as a center of international trade and finance. Hong Kong occupies a unique place in history because of its unprecedented transfer of power in 1997 from Britain to the People's Republic of China. The future…

  14. Gifted Education in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tommis, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Despite its close geographical, economic, and political ties with mainland China, Hong Kong has not followed the same trajectory on gifted education but instead has preferred to adopt a more Western approach to the definitions and provision for gifted learners (Shi & Zixiu, 2000; Zou, Yang, & Greene, 2007). Hong Kong is, on most measures…

  15. Curriculum Reform in the Hong Kong Primary Classroom: What Gives?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrester, Victor; Wong, Marina

    2008-01-01

    Curriculum reform in Hong Kong is one facet of a broad systemic reform variously explained in terms of addressing a changing sovereignty or more recently, of servicing Hong Kong's economic growth. One initiative supporting this curriculum reform entitled "Assessment for Learning" seeks to promote formative assessment. Three case studies, of…

  16. Elder Learning in Hong Kong: Policies, Programmes, Provisions, and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the notions of active ageing and elder learning in Hong Kong where a strategic approach to elderly education is applied by the government to encourage lifelong learning. The paper outlines the policy development and support for elder learning in Hong Kong in two distinct periods: pre-1997 and post-1997. The post-1997 period is…

  17. Authentic School Partnerships for Enabling Inclusive Education in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forlin, Chris; Rose, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Education reform towards a whole school approach to catering for diversity within Hong Kong government schools has seen the initiation of several strategies to support mainstream schools in this transition. One of these approaches is the use of a resource school model. Special and mainstream schools in Hong Kong are being invited to establish…

  18. Difficulties in Reforming Education Policy: The Hong Kong Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin, C. D.

    1999-01-01

    Over the past decade, the education-policy machinery in Hong Kong has been faced with important quality issues emerging that concern the history and culture of the school system. Evaluates two change-management initiatives between 1990 and 1995 and examines their outcomes in light of the endemic features of Hong Kong civil-service culture and…

  19. Suicidality Among High School Students in Hong Kong, SAR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Paul S. F.; Liu, K. Y.; Lam, T. H.; Stewart, Sunita M.; Chen, Eric; Fan, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Suicide is the leading cause of death in Hong Kong SAR for the youth aged 15?24. This study examined the prevalence of suicidality among secondary school students in Hong Kong using a representative, territory-wide sample of 2,586 students. Suicidal behaviors can be conceptualized as a spectrum of self-destructive behaviors. Cumulative logit model…

  20. Organizational Cultures of Excellent Schools in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Nicholas Sun-Keung

    Currently school organizations are under pressure to achieve excellence. There is no exception to this pressure in the schools of Hong Kong. Research into organizational cultures of excellent schools in Hong Kong is seeking evidence for others striving for excellence. Excellent schools are defined as few schools that have many aspects that…

  1. Hong Kong Teachers' Sources of Stress, Burnout, and Job Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Tak-On; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing

    This study investigated factors that affected stress, burnout, and job satisfaction among Hong Kong high school teachers. First, the researchers interviewed former Hong Kong teachers to determine possible teacher stress sources. On the basis of their suggested list of stress sources, the researchers created a questionnaire that included items…

  2. Imperialism and the English Language in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    Considers whether the charge of linguistic imperialism can be appropriately leveled against the British government during its colonial rule of Hong Kong. The article analyzes the concept of linguistic imperialism, considers landmarks in the history of the English language in Hong Kong, and applies the concept of linguistic imperialism to the…

  3. The Hong Psychological Reactance Scale: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Adrian; Donnell, Alison J.; Buboltz, Walter C., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Study uses confirmatory factor analysis to assess four models of the Hong Psychological Reactance Scale (HPRS) and attempts to provide psychometric information about the subscales. Results found inadequate fit for Hong's four orthogonal models but sufficient fit for two nonorthogonal models. (Contains 29 references and 3 tables.) (GCP)

  4. English in Hong Kong: Word Knowledge Skills of Science Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Raymond

    1999-01-01

    Examines the English language standard of a group of Hong Kong science undergraduates using the ACER Word Knowledge Test Form F. Results show a significant difference in apparent English skill levels between Hong Kong, American, and Australian students.(Author/VWL)

  5. Principal Leadership in Hong Kong Christian Secondary Schools after 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Chuen Ying Connie

    This thesis proposal investigates principal leadership in Hong Kong Christian secondary schools after the turnover of Hong Kong to China in July 1997. Principal and teacher perceptions will be used to describe three aspects of leadership: the leadership role of the principal; the changes, if any, to that role due to the turnover; and the degree of…

  6. Entrepreneurship Education in Hong Kong's Secondary Curriculum: Possibilities and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Chi-Kim

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to give a picture of the entrepreneurship education programs currently provided in Hong Kong secondary schools, to present teachers' evaluations of the effectiveness of the programs offered, and to point out the factors that hinder the development of entrepreneurship education in Hong Kong secondary schools.…

  7. Homework Involvement among Hong Kong Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Vicky C. W.

    2009-01-01

    One component of the curriculum reform in Hong Kong focuses on the use of homework in consolidating learning, deepening understanding and constructing knowledge. This study examines the profile of Hong Kong primary school students' homework involvement, and investigates the relationships between time involvement and academic attributes, namely…

  8. Cultural Issues of School Dropouts in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Yuk King; Tsang, Bill Y. P.; Kwok, Diana K.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the 150 years of British colonial governance in Hong Kong, Chinese collectivist culture continues to be a dominant source of influence in the learning context of students (Cheng, 1998; Salili, Lai and Leung, 2004; Tao and Hong, 2000), placing a great emphasis on education and effort (Salili and Lai, 2003). Education is viewed as the…

  9. Discourse Processes and Products: Land Surveyors in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Winnie; Mok, Esmond

    2008-01-01

    The study reported in this paper aims to provide a description of professional communication pertaining to land surveying project management in Hong Kong, achieved through a comprehensive analysis of both workplace discourse processes and products. The study, situated in Hong Kong, represents a collaborative effort between English and Land…

  10. Hong Kong Perspectives on Educational Technology Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, J. Michael; Yuen, H. K.; Wang, Minhong; Churchill, Daniel; Law, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    This is the 25th anniversary of the Hong Kong Association for Educational Communications and Technology (HKAECT; see http://www.hkaect.org/). The silver anniversary annual meeting will be held at the University of Hong Kong December 8--10, with the theme of the conference being "Communication and Education: New Media, Knowledge Practices, and…

  11. The Professional Development Needs of Hong Kong ESL Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Barley

    2010-01-01

    In the light of changing needs for the professional development (PD) of ESL teachers in Hong Kong, this study investigates current practice and future needs within the context of the implementation of educational reforms by the Hong Kong Government. A cohort of ESL teachers, members of a knowledge sharing community project, participated in a…

  12. Leading the Academy or Being Led? Hong Kong Women Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiston, Sarah Jane

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a new gender-based analysis of survey data collected on Hong Kong academics in 2008. First, it illustrates the gender differences that exist in the Hong Kong academy. Second, it discusses possible explanations for these differences as informed by the data. And third, it offers a novel argument, again informed by the data, for…

  13. Trilingual Education in Hong Kong Primary Schools: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lixun; Kirkpatrick, Andy

    2015-01-01

    Hong Kong is linguistically complex and diverse with three principal languages: Cantonese, English and Putonghua. A substantial debate on the language policies governing the three principal languages has continued for more than two decades among policy-makers and educators. The political transition in 1997 has greatly affected Hong Kong society,…

  14. Inclusive Education Policy in the Hong Kong Primary Music Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Marina Wai-yee; Chik, Maria Pik-yuk

    2016-01-01

    An education reform policy and inclusive education policy have been implemented in Hong Kong for over a decade. As more students with special educational needs have entered the mainstream education system under these policies, Hong Kong's primary music classrooms offer a site where three policies interact--the education reform policy entitled…

  15. Female happy wrens select songs to cooperate with their mates rather than confront intruders.

    PubMed

    Templeton, Christopher N; Ríos-Chelén, Alejandro A; Quirós-Guerrero, Esmeralda; Mann, Nigel I; Slater, Peter J B

    2013-02-23

    Vocal duetting occurs in many taxa, but its function remains much-debated. Like species in which only one sex sings, duetting birds can use their song repertoires to signal aggression by singing song types that match those of territorial intruders. However, when pairs do not share specific combinations of songs (duet codes), individuals must choose to signal aggression by matching the same-sex rival, or commitment by replying appropriately to their mate. Here, we examined the song types used by female happy wrens (Pheugopedius felix) forced to make this decision in a playback experiment. We temporarily removed the male from the territory and then played songs from two loudspeakers to simulate an intruding female and the removed mate's response, using song types that the pair possessed but did not naturally combine into duets. Females were aggressive towards the female playback speaker, approaching it and overlapping the female playback songs, but nevertheless replied appropriately to their mate's songs instead of type matching the intruding female. This study indicates that females use song overlapping to signal aggression but use their vocal repertoires to create pair-specific duet codes with their mates, suggesting that duetting functions primarily to demonstrate pair commitment. PMID:23097462

  16. Zebra Finch Mates Use Their Forebrain Song System in Unlearned Call Communication

    PubMed Central

    Ter Maat, Andries; Trost, Lisa; Sagunsky, Hannes; Seltmann, Susanne; Gahr, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Unlearned calls are produced by all birds whereas learned songs are only found in three avian taxa, most notably in songbirds. The neural basis for song learning and production is formed by interconnected song nuclei: the song control system. In addition to song, zebra finches produce large numbers of soft, unlearned calls, among which “stack” calls are uttered frequently. To determine unequivocally the calls produced by each member of a group, we mounted miniature wireless microphones on each zebra finch. We find that group living paired males and females communicate using bilateral stack calling. To investigate the role of the song control system in call-based male female communication, we recorded the electrical activity in a premotor nucleus of the song control system in freely behaving male birds. The unique combination of acoustic monitoring together with wireless brain recording of individual zebra finches in groups shows that the neuronal activity of the song system correlates with the production of unlearned stack calls. The results suggest that the song system evolved from a brain circuit controlling simple unlearned calls to a system capable of producing acoustically rich, learned vocalizations. PMID:25313846

  17. Variability in the temporal parameters in the song of the Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata var. domestica).

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Ryosuke O; Koumura, Takuya; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2015-12-01

    Birdsong provides a unique model for studying the control mechanisms of complex sequential behaviors. The present study aimed to demonstrate that multiple factors affect temporal control in the song production. We analyzed the song of Bengalese finches in various time ranges to address factors that affected the duration of acoustic elements (notes) and silent intervals (gaps). The gaps showed more jitter across song renditions than did notes. Gaps had longer duration in branching points of song sequence than in stereotypic transitions, and the duration of a gap was correlated with the duration of the note that preceded the gap. When looking at the variation among song renditions, we found notable factors in three time ranges: within-day drift, within-bout changes, and local jitter. Note durations shortened over time from morning to evening. Within each song bout note durations lengthened as singing progressed, while gap durations lengthened only during the late part of song bout. Further analysis after removing these drift factors confirmed that the jitter remained in local song sequences. These results suggest distinct sources of temporal variability exist at multiple levels on the basis of this note-gap relationship, and that song comprised a mixture of these sources. PMID:26512015

  18. Neural representation of calling songs and their behavioral relevance in the grasshopper auditory system.

    PubMed

    Meckenhäuser, Gundula; Krämer, Stefanie; Farkhooi, Farzad; Ronacher, Bernhard; Nawrot, Martin P

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic communication plays a key role for mate attraction in grasshoppers. Males use songs to advertise themselves to females. Females evaluate the song pattern, a repetitive structure of sound syllables separated by short pauses, to recognize a conspecific male and as proxy to its fitness. In their natural habitat females often receive songs with degraded temporal structure. Perturbations may, for example, result from the overlap with other songs. We studied the response behavior of females to songs that show different signal degradations. A perturbation of an otherwise attractive song at later positions in the syllable diminished the behavioral response, whereas the same perturbation at the onset of a syllable did not affect song attractiveness. We applied naïve Bayes classifiers to the spike trains of identified neurons in the auditory pathway to explore how sensory evidence about the acoustic stimulus and its attractiveness is represented in the neuronal responses. We find that populations of three or more neurons were sufficient to reliably decode the acoustic stimulus and to predict its behavioral relevance from the single-trial integrated firing rate. A simple model of decision making simulates the female response behavior. It computes for each syllable the likelihood for the presence of an attractive song pattern as evidenced by the population firing rate. Integration across syllables allows the likelihood to reach a decision threshold and to elicit the behavioral response. The close match between model performance and animal behavior shows that a spike rate code is sufficient to enable song pattern recognition. PMID:25565983

  19. Synchronous seasonal change in fin whale song in the North Pacific.

    PubMed

    Oleson, Erin M; Širović, Ana; Bayless, Alexandra R; Hildebrand, John A

    2014-01-01

    Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) song consists of down-swept pulses arranged into stereotypic sequences that can be characterized according to the interval between successive pulses. As in blue (B. musculus) and humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), these song sequences may be geographically distinct and may correlate with population boundaries in some regions. We measured inter-pulse intervals of fin whale songs within year-round acoustic datasets collected between 2000 and 2006 in three regions of the eastern North Pacific: Southern California, the Bering Sea, and Hawaii. A distinctive song type that was recorded in all three regions is characterized by singlet and doublet inter-pulse intervals that increase seasonally, then annually reset to the same shorter intervals at the beginning of each season. This song type was recorded in the Bering Sea and off Southern California from September through May and off Hawaii from December through April, with the song interval generally synchronized across all monitoring locations. The broad geographic and seasonal occurrence of this particular fin whale song type may represent a single population broadly distributed throughout the eastern Pacific with no clear seasonal migratory pattern. Previous studies attempting to infer population structure of fin whales in the North Pacific using synchronous individual song samples have been unsuccessful, likely because they did not account for the seasonal lengthening in song intervals observed here. PMID:25521493

  20. Metabolic and Respiratory Costs of Increasing Song Amplitude in Zebra Finches

    PubMed Central

    Zollinger, Sue Anne; Goller, Franz; Brumm, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Bird song is a widely used model in the study of animal communication and sexual selection, and several song features have been shown to reflect the quality of the singer. Recent studies have demonstrated that song amplitude may be an honest signal of current condition in males and that females prefer high amplitude songs. In addition, birds raise the amplitude of their songs to communicate in noisy environments. Although it is generally assumed that louder song should be more costly to produce, there has been little empirical evidence to support this assumption. We tested the assumption by measuring oxygen consumption and respiratory patterns in adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) singing at different amplitudes in different background noise conditions. As background noise levels increased, birds significantly increased the sound pressure level of their songs. We found that louder songs required significantly greater subsyringeal air sac pressure than quieter songs. Though increased pressure is probably achieved by increasing respiratory muscle activity, these increases did not correlate with measurable increases in oxygen consumption. In addition, we found that oxygen consumption increased in higher background noise, independent of singing behaviour. This observation supports previous research in mammals showing that high levels of environmental noise can induce physiological stress responses. While our study did not find that increasing vocal amplitude increased metabolic costs, further research is needed to determine whether there are other non-metabolic costs of singing louder or costs associated with chronic noise exposure. PMID:21915258

  1. Synchronous Seasonal Change in Fin Whale Song in the North Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Oleson, Erin M.; Širović, Ana; Bayless, Alexandra R.; Hildebrand, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) song consists of down-swept pulses arranged into stereotypic sequences that can be characterized according to the interval between successive pulses. As in blue (B. musculus) and humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), these song sequences may be geographically distinct and may correlate with population boundaries in some regions. We measured inter-pulse intervals of fin whale songs within year-round acoustic datasets collected between 2000 and 2006 in three regions of the eastern North Pacific: Southern California, the Bering Sea, and Hawaii. A distinctive song type that was recorded in all three regions is characterized by singlet and doublet inter-pulse intervals that increase seasonally, then annually reset to the same shorter intervals at the beginning of each season. This song type was recorded in the Bering Sea and off Southern California from September through May and off Hawaii from December through April, with the song interval generally synchronized across all monitoring locations. The broad geographic and seasonal occurrence of this particular fin whale song type may represent a single population broadly distributed throughout the eastern Pacific with no clear seasonal migratory pattern. Previous studies attempting to infer population structure of fin whales in the North Pacific using synchronous individual song samples have been unsuccessful, likely because they did not account for the seasonal lengthening in song intervals observed here. PMID:25521493

  2. Hamilton and Zuk meet heterozygosity? Song repertoire size indicates inbreeding and immunity in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia).

    PubMed

    Reid, Janem; Arcese, Peter; Cassidy, Alicel E V; Marr, Amyb; Smith, Jamesn M; Keller, Lukasf

    2005-03-01

    Hamilton and Zuk's influential hypothesis of parasite-mediated sexual selection proposes that exaggerated secondary sexual ornaments indicate a male's addictive genetic immunity to parasites. However, genetic correlated of ornaments and immunity have rarely been explicitly identified. Evidence supporting Hamilton and Zuk's hypothesis has instead been gathered by looking for positive phenotypic correlations between ornamentation and immunity; such correlations are assumed to reflect causal, addictive relationships between these traits. We show that in a song sparrows, Melospiza melodia, male's song repertoire size, a secondary sexual trait, increased with his cell-mediated immune response (CMI) to an experimental challenge. However, this phenotypic correlation could be explained because both repertoire size and CMI declined with a male's inbreeding level. Repertoire size therefore primarily indicated a male's relative heterozygosity, a non-addictive genetic predictor of immunity. Caution may therefore be required when interpreting phenotypic correlations as support for Hamilton and Zuk's addictive model of sexual selection. However, our results suggest that female song sparrows choosing with large repertoires would on average acquire more outbred and therefore more heterozygous mates. Such genetic dominance effects on ornamentation are likely to influence evolutionary trajectories of female choice, and should be explicitly incorporated into genetic models of sexual selection. PMID:15799943

  3. One Hong Kong, Two Histories: "History" and "Chinese History" in the Hong Kong School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Flora; Vickers, Edward

    2002-01-01

    The history curriculum in Hong Kong schools is unique in having separate subjects--history and Chinese history--with distinct content, pedagogy, and assumptions about the discipline of history. In contrast to conventional theories of colonial education, this may have been a mutually convenient collaboration between the government and local…

  4. Students' Concepts and Attitudes toward Citizenship: The Case of Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Wing On

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses the data obtained from the findings on Hong Kong, as a part of the IEA second civic study. Because the survey was conducted two years after Hong Kong's return to China, the findings reflect concepts and attitudes toward citizenship among Hong Kong students shortly after the change of sovereignty. The study shows that Hong Kong…

  5. Zebra Finch Song Phonology and Syntactical Structure across Populations and Continents-A Computational Comparison.

    PubMed

    Lachlan, Robert F; van Heijningen, Caroline A A; Ter Haar, Sita M; Ten Cate, Carel

    2016-01-01

    Learned bird songs are often characterized by a high degree of variation between individuals and sometimes between populations, while at the same time maintaining species specificity. The evolution of such songs depends on the balance between plasticity and constraints. Captive populations provide an opportunity to examine signal variation and differentiation in detail, so we analyzed adult male zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) songs recorded from 13 populations across the world, including one sample of songs from wild-caught males in their native Australia. Cluster analysis suggested some, albeit limited, evidence that zebra finch song units belonged to universal, species-wide categories, linked to restrictions in vocal production and non-song parts of the vocal repertoire. Across populations, songs also showed some syntactical structure, although any song unit could be placed anywhere within the song. On the other hand, there was a statistically significant differentiation between populations, but the effect size was very small, and its communicative significance dubious. Our results suggest that variation in zebra finch songs within a population is largely determined by species-wide constraints rather than population-specific features. Although captive zebra finch populations have been sufficiently isolated to allow them to genetically diverge, there does not appear to have been any divergence in the genetically determined constraints that underlie song learning. Perhaps more surprising is the lack of locally diverged cultural traditions. Zebra finches serve as an example of a system where frequent learning errors may rapidly create within-population diversity, within broad phonological and syntactical constraints, and prevent the formation of long-term cultural traditions that allow populations to diverge. PMID:27458396

  6. Recognition of variable courtship song in the field cricket Gryllus assimilis.

    PubMed

    Vedenina, Varvara Yu; Pollack, Gerald S

    2012-07-01

    We analyzed the courtship song of the field cricket Gryllus assimilis. The song comprises two elements: groups of ca. 10 pulses (chirps) with low fundamental frequency (3.5-3.7 kHz) alternating with high-frequency (15-17 kHz) pulses (ticks) that usually occur as doublets. Some elements of courtship song are quite variable (high coefficient of variation) both within and between males, whereas others are more stereotypical. In experiments with playback of synthesized courtship songs, we studied the importance of several song parameters for mating success, which we evaluated as the probability with which females mounted muted, courting males. Altering some features that show little variability, such as chirp-pulse rate or carrier frequency of ticks, resulted in significant decreases in mounting frequency, consistent with the notion that trait values showing little variability are constrained by stabilizing selection exerted by females. However, alteration of one invariant trait, the occurrence of both song components, by omitting either component from test songs only slightly affected female responsiveness. Alteration of a variable song trait, the number of ticks per song phrase, had no effect on female response rate, thus failing to provide support for the idea that variable traits provide a substrate for sexual selection. An unusual characteristic feature of the song of G. assimilis is that chirp pulses often contain substantial high-frequency power, and indeed may entirely lack power at the fundamental frequency. Playback experiments showed that such songs are, nevertheless, behaviorally effective. To understand the neural basis for this, we recorded the responses of the two principal ascending auditory interneurons of crickets, AN1 and AN2. Our results suggest that the frequency selectivity of the neurons is sufficiently broad to tolerate the spectral variability of courtship chirps. PMID:22675181

  7. Zebra Finch Song Phonology and Syntactical Structure across Populations and Continents—A Computational Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Lachlan, Robert F.; van Heijningen, Caroline A. A.; ter Haar, Sita M.; ten Cate, Carel

    2016-01-01

    Learned bird songs are often characterized by a high degree of variation between individuals and sometimes between populations, while at the same time maintaining species specificity. The evolution of such songs depends on the balance between plasticity and constraints. Captive populations provide an opportunity to examine signal variation and differentiation in detail, so we analyzed adult male zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) songs recorded from 13 populations across the world, including one sample of songs from wild-caught males in their native Australia. Cluster analysis suggested some, albeit limited, evidence that zebra finch song units belonged to universal, species-wide categories, linked to restrictions in vocal production and non-song parts of the vocal repertoire. Across populations, songs also showed some syntactical structure, although any song unit could be placed anywhere within the song. On the other hand, there was a statistically significant differentiation between populations, but the effect size was very small, and its communicative significance dubious. Our results suggest that variation in zebra finch songs within a population is largely determined by species-wide constraints rather than population-specific features. Although captive zebra finch populations have been sufficiently isolated to allow them to genetically diverge, there does not appear to have been any divergence in the genetically determined constraints that underlie song learning. Perhaps more surprising is the lack of locally diverged cultural traditions. Zebra finches serve as an example of a system where frequent learning errors may rapidly create within-population diversity, within broad phonological and syntactical constraints, and prevent the formation of long-term cultural traditions that allow populations to diverge. PMID:27458396

  8. Female signalling to male song in the domestic canary, Serinus canaria.

    PubMed

    Amy, Mathieu; Salvin, Pauline; Naguib, Marc; Leboucher, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Most studies on sexual selection focus on male characteristics such as male song in songbirds. Yet female vocalizations in songbirds are growing in interest among behavioural and evolutionary biologists because these vocalizations can reveal the female's preferences for male traits and may affect male display. This study was designed to test whether male song performance influences the different female signals in the domestic canary (Serinus canaria). Female canaries were exposed to three types of song performance, differing in the repetition rate of sexy syllables. This experiment demonstrates that female birds are engaged in multimodal communication during sexual interaction. The results support the copulation solicitation hypothesis for female-specific trills: these trills were positively correlated and had a similar pattern to the copulation solicitation displays; responses were higher to the songs with higher performance and responses decreased with the repetition of the stimulation. Also, we observed a sensitization effect with the repetition of the song of the highest performance for the simple calls. Simple trills and other calls were more frequent during the broadcast of canary songs compared with the heterospecific control songs. The differential use of female signals in response to different song performance reveals a highly differentiated female signalling system which is discussed in light of the role of female traits to understand sexual selection in a broader perspective. PMID:26064577

  9. Captive Rearing Experiments Confirm Song Development without Learning in a Tracheophone Suboscine Bird

    PubMed Central

    Touchton, Janeene M.; Seddon, Nathalie; Tobias, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    The origin of vocal learning in animals has long been the subject of debate, but progress has been limited by uncertainty regarding the distribution of learning mechanisms across the tree of life, even for model systems such as birdsong. In particular, the importance of learning is well known in oscine songbirds, but disputed in suboscines. Members of this diverse group (∼1150 species) are generally assumed not to learn their songs, but empirical evidence is scarce, with previous studies restricted to the bronchophone (non-tracheophone) clade. Here, we conduct the first experimental study of song development in a tracheophone suboscine bird by rearing spotted antbird (Hylophylax naevioides) chicks in soundproofed aviaries. Individuals were raised either in silence with no tutor or exposed to standardized playback of a heterospecific tutor. All individuals surviving to maturity took a minimum of 79 days to produce a crystallized version of adult song, which in all cases was indistinguishable from wild song types of their own species. These first insights into song development in tracheophone suboscines suggest that adult songs are innate rather than learnt. Given that empirical evidence for song learning in suboscines is restricted to polygamous and lek-mating species, whereas tracheophone suboscines are mainly monogamous with long-term social bonds, our results are consistent with the view that sexual selection promotes song learning in birds. PMID:24788343

  10. Losses of female song with changes from tropical to temperate breeding in the New World blackbirds

    PubMed Central

    Price, J. Jordan; Lanyon, Scott M.; Omland, Kevin E.

    2009-01-01

    Birds in which both sexes produce complex songs are thought to be more common in the tropics than in temperate areas, where typically only males sing. Yet the role of phylogeny in this apparent relationship between female song and latitude has never been examined. Here, we reconstruct evolutionary changes in female song and breeding latitude in the New World blackbirds (Icteridae), a family with both temperate and tropical representatives. We provide strong evidence that members of this group have moved repeatedly from tropical to temperate breeding ranges and, furthermore, that these range shifts were associated with losses of female song more often than expected by chance. This historical perspective suggests that male-biased song production in many temperate species is the result not of sexual selection for complex song in males but of selection against such songs in females. Our results provide new insights into the differences we see today between tropical and temperate songbirds, and suggest that the role of sexual selection in the evolution of bird song might not be as simple as we think. PMID:19324802

  11. Variation in the volume of zebra finch song control nuclei is heritable: developmental and evolutionary implications.

    PubMed Central

    Airey, D C; Castillo-Juarez, H; Casella, G; Pollak, E J; DeVoogd, T J

    2000-01-01

    In many songbird species, females prefer males that sing a larger repertoire of syllables. Males with more elaborate songs have a larger high vocal centre (HVC) nucleus, the highest structure in the song production pathway. HVC size is thus a potential target of sexual selection. Here we provide evidence that the size of the HVC and other song production nuclei are heritable across individual males within a species. In contrast, we find that heritabilities of other nuclei in a song-learning pathway are lower, suggesting that variation in the sizes of these structures is more closely tied to developmental and environmental differences between individuals. We find that evolvability, a statistical measure that predicts response to selection, is higher for the HVC and its target for song production, the robustus archistriatalis (RA), than for all other brain volumes measured. This suggests that selection based on the functions of these two structures would result in rapid major shifts in their anatomy. We also show that the size of each song control nucleus is significantly correlated with the song related nuclei to which it is monosynaptically connected. Finally, we find that the volume of the telencephalon is larger in males than in females. These findings begin to join theoretical analyses of the role of female choice in the evolution of bird song to neurobiological mechanisms by which the evolutionary changes in behaviour are expressed. PMID:11416915

  12. Patriotic Songs in Primary School Textbooks in Taiwan from 1949-1987

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Angela

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the inclusion of patriotic songs in schooling that were popular in Taiwan between 1949 and 1987. Many patriotic songs were composed after 1949, and these frequently found their way into primary textbooks. School curriculum policies such as "education for patriotism" cultivate Chinese consciousness among Taiwanese…

  13. Tunes of the Times: Historical Songs as Pedagogy for Recent US History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binkiewicz, Donna M.

    2006-01-01

    Songs are powerful pedagogical tools that enliven a classroom and enhance student learning in an enjoyable manner. Historical songs are valuable primary sources that provide listeners with direct commentary, attitudes, and emotions expressed by real people in particular historical periods. When utilizing primary documentation, music should be…

  14. Influence of Songs in Primary School Students' Motivation for Learning English in Lima, Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguirre, Diego; Bustinza, Daisy; Garvich, Mijail

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown that using music and songs while learning a new language can be of great benefit to students in aspects such as grammar, pronunciation and vocabulary. However, the use of songs in class as motivation to learn English is a subject that has not been explored thoroughly. The purpose of this study is to explore how the use of…

  15. Testing the absolute-tempo hypothesis: context effects for familiar and unfamiliar songs.

    PubMed

    Rashotte, Matthew A; Wedell, Douglas H

    2014-11-01

    In two experiments, we investigated context effects on tempo judgments for familiar and unfamiliar songs performed by popular artists. In Experiment 1, participants made comparative tempo judgments to a remembered standard for song clips drawn from either a slow or a fast context, created by manipulating the tempos of the same songs. Although both familiar and unfamiliar songs showed significant shifts in their points of subjective equality toward the tempo context values, more-familiar songs showed significantly reduced contextual bias. In Experiment 2, tempo pleasantness ratings showed significant context effects in which the ordering of tempos on the pleasantness scale differed across contexts, with the most pleasant tempo shifting toward the contextual values, an assimilation of ideal points. Once again, these effects were significant but reduced for the more-familiar songs. The moderating effects of song familiarity support a weak version of the absolute-tempo hypothesis, in which long-term memory for tempo reduces but does not eliminate contextual effects. Thus, although both relative and absolute tempo information appear to be encoded in memory, the absolute representation may be subject to rapid revision by recently experienced tempo-altered versions of the same song. PMID:24972559

  16. Juvenile zebra finches learn the underlying structural regularities of their fathers’ song

    PubMed Central

    Menyhart, Otília; Kolodny, Oren; Goldstein, Michael H.; DeVoogd, Timothy J.; Edelman, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    Natural behaviors, such as foraging, tool use, social interaction, birdsong, and language, exhibit branching sequential structure. Such structure should be learnable if it can be inferred from the statistics of early experience. We report that juvenile zebra finches learn such sequential structure in song. Song learning in finches has been extensively studied, and it is generally believed that young males acquire song by imitating tutors (Zann, 1996). Variability in the order of elements in an individual’s mature song occurs, but the degree to which variation in a zebra finch’s song follows statistical regularities has not been quantified, as it has typically been dismissed as production error (Sturdy et al., 1999). Allowing for the possibility that such variation in song is non-random and learnable, we applied a novel analytical approach, based on graph-structured finite-state grammars, to each individual’s full corpus of renditions of songs. This method does not assume syllable-level correspondence between individuals. We find that song variation can be described by probabilistic finite-state graph grammars that are individually distinct, and that the graphs of juveniles are more similar to those of their fathers than to those of other adult males. This grammatical learning is a new parallel between birdsong and language. Our method can be applied across species and contexts to analyze complex variable learned behaviors, as distinct as foraging, tool use, and language. PMID:26005428

  17. Structural Design Principles of Complex Bird Songs: A Network-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sasahara, Kazutoshi; Cody, Martin L.; Cohen, David; Taylor, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Bird songs are acoustic communication signals primarily used in male-male aggression and in male-female attraction. These are often monotonous patterns composed of a few phrases, yet some birds have extremely complex songs with a large phrase repertoire, organized in non-random fashion with discernible patterns. Since structure is typically associated with function, the structures of complex bird songs provide important clues to the evolution of animal communication systems. Here we propose an efficient network-based approach to explore structural design principles of complex bird songs, in which the song networks–transition relationships among different phrases and the related structural measures–are employed. We demonstrate how this approach works with an example using California Thrasher songs, which are sequences of highly varied phrases delivered in succession over several minutes. These songs display two distinct features: a large phrase repertoire with a ‘small-world’ architecture, in which subsets of phrases are highly grouped and linked with a short average path length; and a balanced transition diversity amongst phrases, in which deterministic and non-deterministic transition patterns are moderately mixed. We explore the robustness of this approach with variations in sample size and the amount of noise. Our approach enables a more quantitative study of global and local structural properties of complex bird songs than has been possible to date. PMID:23028539

  18. Use of Songs to Promote Independence in Morning Greeting Routines for Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Petra; Wolery, Mark; Aldridge, David

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of individually composed songs on the independent behaviors of two young children with autism during the morning greeting/entry routine into their inclusive classrooms. A music therapist composed a song for each child related to the steps of the morning greeting routine and taught the children's teachers to sing…

  19. Storyscape: The Power of Song in the Protection of Native Lands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Melissa; Klasky, Philip M.

    2001-01-01

    An indigenous rights organization works to preserve and revitalize indigenous communities and their lands by recording tribal creation songs. The songs spiritually reconnect Native people with their land, establish indigenous territorial rights, and preserve endangered languages. An ethnographic audio recording training program will enable tribes…

  20. [Temporal stability in song dialects of black redstarts (Phoenicurus ochruros rufiventris) in Menyuan, Qinghai Province].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ai-Zhen

    2010-12-01

    Bird song dialects provide a useful model for the study of cultural evolution and its interactions with genetic evolution. By comparing song dialects over an 8-year span in the black redstarts (Phoenicurus ochruros rufiventris) of Haibei station (37(0)29'N, 101(0)28'E, 3, 200 m a.s.l.) in Menyuan county, Qinghai Province,This study examined the temporal stability of the birds'song dialects. Songs of black redstarts were recorded from mid-April to late May in 2001 by Uher-CR 210 tape recorder with Sony directional microphone and in 2009 by Marantz PMD 670 digital recorder with Sennheiser ME 66 directional microphone. Songs were analyzed by using Avisoft-SASLab pro. The similarity of songs between different years were analyzed by investigating the sonagram, measuring temporal and frequency properties and processing cluster analysis by Spss 10.0 on windows. The results showed that species-specific syllable, typical song forms, and the typical strophe keep high temporal stability. Males investigated from 2001 and 2009 shared the entire strophe or some of the syllables. Males sampled from 2009 have a larger strophe repertoire than that from 2001. The study also indicated that the divergence of shared strophe in 2009 is correlated with distance between territories. The degree of strophe type sharing and song similarity are higher between neighbours than that from more distant males. PMID:21174351

  1. New Song Academy: Linking Education and Community Development To Build Stronger Families and Neighborhoods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Prudence; Fiester, Leila

    This report describes the New Song Academy, led by New Song Urban Ministries (NSUM), which serves preK-8 children in Baltimore, Maryland, and promotes quality education for urban students through partnerships with families and the community. It operates year-round in six 6-week sessions. Despite the often chaotic nature of children's lives outside…

  2. Salta a Cantar (Jump Up to Sing). Children's Songs in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Mona

    Since most children like to sing, singing Spanish songs is a learning experience that will be remembered. For Spanish speaking children, singing Spanish songs will build their self esteem and create a more comfortable environment. Children who do not speak Spanish will obtain a good feeling for the beauty of the language and will enjoy learning…

  3. Codeswitching for Humour and Ethnic Identity: Written Danish-American Occasional Songs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolen, Marianne

    1992-01-01

    Individual bilingual language performance in occasional songs is examined with focus on the use of Danish and English by a female member of a Danish-American organization in both song-writing and organizational written recordkeeping. The findings confirm the hypothesis of a conditioning effect of features of genre and social role on the…

  4. Quantitative integration of genetic factors in the learning and production of canary song

    PubMed Central

    Mundinger, Paul C.; Lahti, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Learned bird song is influenced by inherited predispositions. The canary is a model system for the interaction of genes and learning on behaviour, especially because some strains have undergone artificial selection for song. In this study, roller canaries (bred for low-pitched songs) and border canaries (whose song is higher pitched, similar to the wild-type) were interbred and backcrossed to produce 58 males that sorted into seven genetically distinct groups. All males were tutored with the same set of songs, which included both low- and high-pitched syllables. Individuals were consistent within genetic groups but differed between groups in the proportion of low- versus high-pitched syllables they learned and sang. Both sex-linked and autosomal factors affected song learning and song production, in an additive manner. Dominant Z-chromosome factors facilitated high-pitched syllable learning and production, whereas the sex-linked alleles associated with the switch to low-pitched syllables under artificial selection were largely recessive. With respect to autosomal effects, the most surprising result is that males in the same genetic group had almost identical repertoires. This result challenges two common preconceptions: that genetic changes at different loci lead to distinct phenotypic changes, and that genetic predispositions affect learning in simple and general ways. Rather, different combinations of genetic changes can be associated with the same phenotypic effect; and predispositions can be remarkably specific, such as a tendency to learn and sing one song element rather than another. PMID:24598419

  5. Using Songs to Enhance L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Yvette; Gómez Gracia, Remei

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the effects of a teaching sequence of song-based activities on the L2 vocabulary acquisition of a group of five-year-old Spanish child EFL learners. Twenty-five preschool children received three 30-minute lessons organized around the presentation and practice of a well-known children's song. Vocabulary picture tests were…

  6. Content Analysis of Songs in Elementary Music Textbooks in Accordance with Values Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalçinkaya, Begüm

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine which values are included in education songs in elementary school textbooks and the level of these values. This study, conducted using document analysis method, involved primary education music class textbooks. Education songs in textbooks were analyzed within the frame of 29 values determined based on…

  7. Singers' Recall for the Words and Melody of a New, Unaccompanied Song

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsborg, Jane; Sloboda, John A.

    2007-01-01

    The nature of the relationship between words and music in memory has been studied in a variety of ways, from investigations of listeners' recall for the words of songs stored in long-term memory to recall for novel information set to unfamiliar melodies. We asked singers to perform an unaccompanied song from memory following deliberate learning…

  8. Nostalgia and the emotional tone and content of song lyrics.

    PubMed

    Batcho, Krystine Irene

    2007-01-01

    Emotion and topic were manipulated in original song lyrics. Participants completed Batcho's and Holbrook's nostalgia surveys and rated 6 sets of lyrics for happiness, sadness, anger, nostalgia, meaning, liking, and relevance. Nostalgic lyrics were characterized by bittersweet reverie, loss of the past, identity, and meaning. Contrary to theories linking nostalgia to pathology, participants who scored high on Batcho's measure of personal nostalgia preferred happy lyrics, found them more meaningful, and related more closely to them. Consistent with theories relating nostalgia to social connectedness, high-nostalgia respondents preferred other-directed to solitary themes. Historical nostalgia was associated with relating more closely to sad lyrics. PMID:17892084

  9. [The Prevalence and prevention of Cattle Epidemics in Song dynasty].

    PubMed

    Han, Yi

    2011-07-01

    Cattle epidemics broke out many times in Song Dynasty due to pasture transferring to south, abnormal climate, poor stabling hygiene and climatic sickness caused by migration. Mass Mortality and reduction of animal agriculture productivity threatened the stable production of grain, which influenced society and attracted attention from all social classes. Based on the principle of 'prevention before sicken' and 'contagion protection after sicken', the government took a series of medical and economical actions for prevention, such as veterinarians dispatching, drugs providing, pasturage rule regulating, law modifying (cattle trade permitted) and new farm implements popularization (to prevent missing the opportunity of cultivation), which was effective for Cattle Epidemics prevention at that time. PMID:22169486

  10. CitySongs: primary prevention in the field.

    PubMed

    Kivnick, Helen Q; Lymburner, Allison M

    2009-01-01

    This case study describes CitySongs, a primary prevention, out-of-school program in the inner city that promotes social justice through integrated activities aimed at healthy youth development, arts achievement, and community vitality through diversity. Key ideas from social science and human service disciplines that inform the design and implementation of the program are summarized. The authors describe elements of the program's structure and process, as these elements enact primary prevention and promote social justice. Finally, program impact is discussed as reflected in ongoing staff case notes and in de-identified reflective comments from participants, parents, and audience members. PMID:19089618

  11. Hong Kong: women's club movement expanding.

    PubMed

    1980-01-01

    2 more women's clubs have been opened by the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong following the success of the 1st such club at Yue Taipo organized in September 1970. The 2nd club is located at the Hing Shing Temporary Housing Area in Kwai Chung and caters to new residents. The 3rd, established January 4, 1980, is located at the Fortune Street Temporary Housing Area in Cheung Sha Wan. The overall aim of these clubs is to give a boost to the quality of family life through organized educational and recreational facilities. Activities at both clubs were initiated by formal opening ceremonies presided over by representatives of the Housing Estates and Family Planning Association. Welcoming wellwishers at each ceremony, Mrs. Peggy Lam, Acting Director of the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong; drew attention to the important contribution made by family planning to the well being of families. It was through the wise planning of their families that parents were provided with ample time and energy for the upbringing of chilren, said Mrs. Lam. The activities of the women's clubs include instruction on traditional women's activities, and talks on sanitation, childrearing, interpersonal relations, nutrition, and permanent contraception. Mrs. Lam felt that the fact that 79% of married women of childbearing age in Hing Shing were practicing family planning was most encouraging. PMID:12262028

  12. Tunable, nonlinear Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehri, D.; Pletyukhov, M.; Gritsev, V.; Blatter, G.; Schmidt, S.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the two-photon scattering properties of a Jaynes-Cummings (JC) nonlinearity consisting of a two-level system (qubit) interacting with a single-mode cavity, which is coupled to two waveguides, each containing a single incident photon wave packet initially. In this scattering setup, we study the interplay between the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect arising due to quantum interference and effective photon-photon interactions induced by the presence of the qubit. We calculate the two-photon scattering matrix of this system analytically and identify signatures of interference and interaction in the second-order auto- and cross-correlation functions of the scattered photons. In the dispersive regime, when qubit and cavity are far detuned from each other, we find that the JC nonlinearity can be used as an almost linear, in situ tunable beam splitter giving rise to ideal Hong-Ou-Mandel interference, generating a highly path-entangled two-photon NOON state of the scattered photons. The latter manifests itself in strongly suppressed waveguide cross-correlations and Poissonian photon number statistics in each waveguide. If the two-level system and the cavity are on resonance, the JC nonlinearity strongly modifies the ideal HOM conditions leading to a smaller degree of path entanglement and sub-Poissonian photon number statistics. In the latter regime, we find that photon blockade is associated with bunched autocorrelations in both waveguides, while a two-polariton resonance can lead to bunched as well as antibunched correlations.

  13. What Radio Can Do to Increase a Song's Appeal: A Study of Canadian Music Presented to American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Kathleen M.; Silva, Francisco J.

    2009-01-01

    Four experiments examined whether it was possible to quickly and easily increase the appeal of unfamiliar rock songs presented to American college students. In Experiment 1, reading an essay about an artist increased the appeal of the artist's songs, but repeated exposure to the songs did not. In Experiments 2a and 2b, repeatedly following an…

  14. African Children's Songs for American Elementary Children. Resources for Teaching and Research in African Studies, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukuna, Kazadi wa

    Intended for use by elementary teachers, this publication contains the music for ten songs from the Luba in the Kasai and Shaba regions of Zaire. The songs provide a means for young people to enjoy and to appreciate the musical heritage of Africa as a part of their more general understanding of music from around the world. The songs included are…

  15. Strawberry Square II: Take Time Song Book. 33 Lessons in the Arts to Help Children Take Time with Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Tom, Comp.

    Designed to accompany a series of telelessons to stimulate art activities in grades 2 and 3, this songbook correlates with activities in the teacher's guide. Titles of songs included in this book are: Take Time; The Frog's Flute; Howjido; 59th Street Bridge Song; The Put-Togetherer; Good Morning Starshine; Let the Sunshine In; Elephant Song; Spin…

  16. Hong Kong Corals: A Cautionary Tale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodkin, N.; Yang, T.; Yeung, R.; Bryan, S. P.; Hughen, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    High-resolution paleoclimate records are in demand as we increase the need for understanding and predicting sub-annual climate interactions. The geographical footprint of these records must also expand in order to improve spatially diverse reconstructions of climate systems including the Asian monsoon and el Nino among others. The south China coast within the South China Sea has been one location investigated for paleo-climate coral reconstructions, with a focus on the relatively pristine waters of Hai Nan Island. But, records are limited and are often confounded by Sr/Ca signals which differ from instrumental records of SST. In this study, we evaluate the slow-growing (~2-7mm/year on average) Porites corals of Hong Kong Island to investigate the reliability of the Sr/Ca proxy from a coastal environment. Sr/Ca-SST proxies are developed for 6 coral colonies, utilizing 10-years of monthly hydrographic data from more than 45 marine stations around Hong Kong. Seasonal resolution slopes range from -0.03 mmol/mol/°C to -0.06 mmol/mol/°C within the range of previously published slopes from the very slow-growing Diploria corals of the North Atlantic (Cardinal et al. 2000, Goodkin et al. 2005) as well as Porites corals with growth rates >1cm per year. While there is a trend for the absolute value of the slopes to increase with increasing average colony growth rate, no statistically significant growth relationship has been found. Hong Kong corals are known to grow slowly and annual extension-rates are strongly correlated to environmental conditions including spring-time chlorophyll a, temperature and turbidity as well as summer oxygen concentrations (Yang et al., in preparation). Evidence exists within the Sr/Ca record for significant growth hiatuses particularly during the coldest times of the year (late winter-early spring). Growth-hiatuses generally occur when the El Nino Southern Oscillation is inactive. Whereas an active El Nino or La Nina, tend to correspond to no

  17. Reversing song behavior phenotype: testosterone driven induction of singing and measures of song quality in adult male and female canaries (Serinus canaria)

    PubMed Central

    Madison, Farrah N.; Rouse, Melvin L.; Balthazart, Jacques; Ball, Gregory F

    2014-01-01

    In songbirds, such as canaries (Serinus canaria), the song control circuit has been shown to undergo a remarkable change in morphology in response to exogenous testosterone (T). It is also well established that HVC, a telencephalic nucleus involved in song production, is significantly larger in males than in females. T regulates seasonal changes in HVC volume in males and exposure to exogenous T in adult females increases HVC volume and singing activity such that their song becomes more male-like in frequency and structure. However, whether there are sex differences in the ability of T to modulate changes in the song system and song behavior has not been investigated in canaries. In this study, we compared the effects of increasing doses of T on singing and song control nuclei volumes in adult male and female American Singer canaries exposed to identical environmental conditions. Males were castrated and all birds were placed on short days (8L:16D) for 8 weeks. Males and females were implanted either with a 2, 6 or 12 mm long Silastic™ implant filled with crystalline T or an empty 12 mm implant as control. Birds were then housed individually in sound attenuated chambers. Brains were collected from six birds from each group after 1 week or 3 weeks of treatment. Testosterone was not equally effective in increasing singing activity in both males and females. Changes in song quality and occurrence rate took place after a shorter latency in males than in females however, females did undergo marked changes in a number of measures of song behavior if given sufficient time. Males responded with an increase in HVC volume at all three doses. In females, T-induced changes in HVC volume only had limited amplitude and these volumes never reached male-typical levels a suggesting that there are sex differences in the neural substrate that responds to T. PMID:25260250

  18. Natural Changes in Brain Temperature Underlie Variations in Song Tempo during a Mating Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Aronov, Dmitriy; Fee, Michale S.

    2012-01-01

    The song of a male zebra finch is a stereotyped motor sequence whose tempo varies with social context – whether or not the song is directed at a female bird – as well as with the time of day. The neural mechanisms underlying these changes in tempo are unknown. Here we show that brain temperature recorded in freely behaving male finches exhibits a global increase in response to the presentation of a female bird. This increase strongly correlates with, and largely explains, the faster tempo of songs directed at a female compared to songs produced in social isolation. Furthermore, we find that the observed diurnal variations in song tempo are also explained by natural variations in brain temperature. Our findings suggest that brain temperature is an important variable that can influence the dynamics of activity in neural circuits, as well as the temporal features of behaviors that some of these circuits generate. PMID:23112858

  19. Convergent transcriptional specializations in the brains of humans and song-learning birds

    PubMed Central

    Pfenning, Andreas R.; Hara, Erina; Whitney, Osceola; Rivas, Miriam V.; Wang, Rui; Roulhac, Petra L.; Howard, Jason T.; Wirthlin, Morgan; Lovell, Peter V.; Ganapathy, Ganeshkumar; Mouncastle, Jacquelyn; Moseley, M. Arthur; Thompson, J. Will; Soderblom, Erik J.; Iriki, Atsushi; Kato, Masaki; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Zhang, Guojie; Bakken, Trygve; Bongaarts, Angie; Bernard, Amy; Lein, Ed; Mello, Claudio V.; Hartemink, Alexander J.; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2015-01-01

    Song-learning birds and humans share independently evolved similarities in brain pathways for vocal learning that are essential for song and speech and are not found in most other species. Comparisons of brain transcriptomes of song-learning birds and humans relative to vocal nonlearners identified convergent gene expression specializations in specific song and speech brain regions of avian vocal learners and humans. The strongest shared profiles relate bird motor and striatal song-learning nuclei, respectively, with human laryngeal motor cortex and parts of the striatum that control speech production and learning. Most of the associated genes function in motor control and brain connectivity. Thus, convergent behavior and neural connectivity for a complex trait are associated with convergent specialized expression of multiple genes. PMID:25504733

  20. Song recognition without identification: when people cannot "name that tune" but can recognize it as familiar.

    PubMed

    Kostic, Bogdan; Cleary, Anne M

    2009-02-01

    Recognition without identification (RWI) is a common day-to-day experience (as when recognizing a face or a tune as familiar without being able to identify the person or the song). It is also a well-established laboratory-based empirical phenomenon: When identification of recognition test items is prevented, participants can discriminate between studied and unstudied test items. The present study demonstrates this finding in the realm of music. A song RWI effect is reported across 4 experiments, despite very low identification rates in each. The effect was found with unidentifiable song fragments (Experiment 1), with song notes removed from their original rhythms (Experiment 2), and with songs unidentifiable from their tapped out rhythms (Experiments 3 and 4). Theoretical implications of these results are relevant to both the study of familiarity-based recognition and the study of music cognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19203174

  1. Stay tuned: active amplification tunes tree cricket ears to track temperature-dependent song frequency.

    PubMed

    Mhatre, Natasha; Pollack, Gerald; Mason, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Tree cricket males produce tonal songs, used for mate attraction and male-male interactions. Active mechanics tunes hearing to conspecific song frequency. However, tree cricket song frequency increases with temperature, presenting a problem for tuned listeners. We show that the actively amplified frequency increases with temperature, thus shifting mechanical and neuronal auditory tuning to maintain a match with conspecific song frequency. Active auditory processes are known from several taxa, but their adaptive function has rarely been demonstrated. We show that tree crickets harness active processes to ensure that auditory tuning remains matched to conspecific song frequency, despite changing environmental conditions and signal characteristics. Adaptive tuning allows tree crickets to selectively detect potential mates or rivals over large distances and is likely to bestow a strong selective advantage by reducing mate-finding effort and facilitating intermale interactions. PMID:27122007

  2. 'Carcinogens in a puff': smoking in Hong Kong movies.

    PubMed

    Ho, Sai-Yin; Wang, Man-Ping; Lai, Hak-Kan; Hedley, Anthony J; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2010-12-01

    Smoking scenes in movies, exploited by the tobacco industry to circumvent advertisement bans, are linked to adolescent smoking. Recently, a Hong Kong romantic comedy Love in a puff put smoking at centre stage, with numerous smoking scenes and words that glamourise smoking. Although WHO has issued guidelines on reducing the exposure of children to smoking in movies, none is adopted in Hong Kong. Comprehensive tobacco control strategies are urgently needed to protect young people in Hong Kong from cigarette promotion in movies. PMID:20852325

  3. A comparative study of nuclear accident consequences for Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Ching, E.M.K.; Yeung, Mankit Ray )

    1993-02-01

    A two-dimensional dispersion and consequence model called RADIS has been developed and used to perform a site-specific investigation of the consequences and risks for Hong Kong as a result of a potential accident at the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station. The study uses the 1986 Hong Kong weather and demographic data to determine the accident consequences for Hong Kong. The overall cumulative occurrence frequency distributions of early fatality, early injury, latent cancer, and thyroid nodule are compared with those of WASH-1400 and a United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) study. This study is generally consistent with the WASH-1400 results and exhibits less conservatism than the UKAEA study.

  4. Dissociable effects of social context on song and doublecortin immunoreactivity in male canaries

    PubMed Central

    Alward, Beau A.; Mayes, Wade D.; Peng, Katherine; Stevenson, Tyler J.; Balthazart, Jacques; Ball, Gregory F.

    2014-01-01

    Variation in environmental factors such as day length and social context greatly affects reproductive behavior and the brain areas that regulate these behaviors. One such behavior is song in songbirds, which males use to attract a mate during the breeding season. In these species the absence of a potential mate leads to an increase in the number of songs produced, while the presence of a mate greatly diminishes singing. Interestingly, although long days promote song behavior, producing song itself can promote the incorporation of new neurons in brain regions controlling song output. Social context can also affect such neuroplasticity in these song control nuclei. The goal of the present study was to investigate in canaries (Serinus canaria), a songbird species, how photoperiod and social context affect song and the incorporation of new neurons, as measured by the microtubule-associated protein, doublecortin (DCX), in HVC, a key vocal production brain region of the song control system. We show that long days increased HVC size and singing activity. In addition, male canaries paired with a female for two weeks showed enhanced DCX-immunoreactivity in HVC relative to birds housed alone. Strikingly, however, paired males sang fewer songs that exhibited a reduction in acoustic features such as song complexity and energy, compared to birds housed alone, which sang prolifically. These results show that social presence plays a significant role in the regulation of neural and behavioral plasticity in songbirds and can exert these effects in opposition to what might be expected based on activity-induced neurogenesis. PMID:24974859

  5. Dissociable effects of social context on song and doublecortin immunoreactivity in male canaries.

    PubMed

    Alward, Beau A; Mayes, Wade D; Peng, Katherine; Stevenson, Tyler J; Balthazart, Jacques; Ball, Gregory F

    2014-09-01

    Variation in environmental factors such as day length and social context greatly affects reproductive behavior and the brain areas that regulate these behaviors. One such behavior is song in songbirds, which males use to attract a mate during the breeding season. In these species the absence of a potential mate leads to an increase in the number of songs produced, while the presence of a mate greatly diminishes singing. Interestingly, although long days promote song behavior, producing song itself can promote the incorporation of new neurons in brain regions controlling song output. Social context can also affect such neuroplasticity in these song control nuclei. The goal of the present study was to investigate in canaries (Serinus canaria), a songbird species, how photoperiod and social context affect song and the incorporation of new neurons, as measured by the microtubule-associated protein doublecortin (DCX) in HVC, a key vocal production brain region of the song control system. We show that long days increased HVC size and singing activity. In addition, male canaries paired with a female for 2 weeks showed enhanced DCX-immunoreactivity in HVC relative to birds housed alone. Strikingly, however, paired males sang fewer songs that exhibited a reduction in acoustic features such as song complexity and energy, compared with birds housed alone, which sang prolifically. These results show that social presence plays a significant role in the regulation of neural and behavioral plasticity in songbirds and can exert these effects in opposition to what might be expected based on activity-induced neurogenesis. PMID:24974859

  6. Does age matter in song bird vocal interactions? Results from interactive playback experiments

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The song of oscines provides an extensively studied model of age-dependent behaviour changes. Male and female receivers might use song characteristics to obtain information about the age of a signaller, which is often related to its quality. Whereas most of the age-dependent song changes have been studied in solo singing, the role of age in vocal interactions is less well understood. We addressed this issue in a playback study with common nightingales (Luscinia megarhynchos). Previous studies showed that male nightingales had smaller repertoires in their first year than older males and males adjusted their repertoire towards the most common songs in the breeding population. We now compared vocal interaction patterns in a playback study in 12 one year old and 12 older nightingales (cross-sectional approach). Five of these males were tested both in their first and second breeding season (longitudinal approach). Song duration and latency to respond did not differ between males of different ages in either approach. In the cross-sectional approach, one year old nightingales matched song types twice as often as did older birds. Similarly, in the longitudinal approach all except one bird reduced the number of song type matches in their second season. Individuals tended to overlap songs at higher rates in their second breeding season than in their first. The higher levels of song type matches in the first year and song overlapping by birds in their second year suggest that these are communicative strategies to establish relationships with competing males and/or choosy females. PMID:22071317

  7. Neural substrates for semantic memory of familiar songs: is there an interface between lyrics and melodies?

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoko; Ishii, Kenji; Sakuma, Naoko; Kawasaki, Keiichi; Oda, Keiichi; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

    2012-01-01

    Findings on song perception and song production have increasingly suggested that common but partially distinct neural networks exist for processing lyrics and melody. However, the neural substrates of song recognition remain to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the neural substrates involved in the accessing "song lexicon" as corresponding to a representational system that might provide links between the musical and phonological lexicons using positron emission tomography (PET). We exposed participants to auditory stimuli consisting of familiar and unfamiliar songs presented in three ways: sung lyrics (song), sung lyrics on a single pitch (lyrics), and the sung syllable 'la' on original pitches (melody). The auditory stimuli were designed to have equivalent familiarity to participants, and they were recorded at exactly the same tempo. Eleven right-handed nonmusicians participated in four conditions: three familiarity decision tasks using song, lyrics, and melody and a sound type decision task (control) that was designed to engage perceptual and prelexical processing but not lexical processing. The contrasts (familiarity decision tasks versus control) showed no common areas of activation between lyrics and melody. This result indicates that essentially separate neural networks exist in semantic memory for the verbal and melodic processing of familiar songs. Verbal lexical processing recruited the left fusiform gyrus and the left inferior occipital gyrus, whereas melodic lexical processing engaged the right middle temporal sulcus and the bilateral temporo-occipital cortices. Moreover, we found that song specifically activated the left posterior inferior temporal cortex, which may serve as an interface between verbal and musical representations in order to facilitate song recognition. PMID:23029492

  8. Mechanisms of song production in the Australian magpie

    PubMed Central

    Suthers, Roderick A.; Wild, J. Martin; Kaplan, Gisela

    2011-01-01

    Australian magpies (Gymnorhina tibicen) are notable for their vocal prowess. We investigated the syringeal and respiratory dynamics of vocalization by two 6-month-old males, whose songs had a number of adult features. There was no strong lateral syringeal dominance and unilateral phonation was most often achieved by closing the syringeal valve on the contralateral side of the syrinx. Unlike other songbirds studied, magpies sometimes used an alternative syringeal motor pattern during unilateral phonation in which both sides of the syrinx are partially adducted and open to airflow. Also, in contrast to most other songbirds, the higher fundamental frequency during two-voice syllables was usually generated on the left side of the syrinx. Amplitude modulation, a prominent feature of magpie song, was produced by linear or nonlinear interactions between different frequencies which may originate either on opposite sides of the syrinx or on the same side. Pulse tones, similar to vocal fry in human speech, were present in some calls. Unlike small songbirds, the fundamental of the modal frequency can be as low as that of the pulse tone, suggesting that large birds may have evolved pulse tones to increase acoustic diversity, rather than decrease the fundamental frequency. PMID:20852867

  9. Double meaning of courtship song in a moth.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio; Mishiro, Koji; Toyama, Masatoshi; Toda, Satoshi

    2014-08-22

    Males use courtship signals to inform a conspecific female of their presence and/or quality, or, alternatively, to 'cheat' females by imitating the cues of a prey or predator. These signals have the single function of advertising for mating. Here, we show the dual functions of the courtship song in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis, whose males generate a series of short pulses and a subsequent long pulse in a song bout. Repulsive short pulses mimic the echolocation calls of sympatric horseshoe bats and disrupt the approach of male rivals to a female. The attractive long pulse does not mimic bat calls and specifically induces mate acceptance in the female, who raises her wings to facilitate copulation. These results demonstrate that moths can evolve both attractive acoustic signals and repulsive ones from cues that were originally used to identify predators and non-predators, because the bat-like sounds disrupt rivals, and also support a hypothesis of signal evolution via receiver bias in moth acoustic communication that was driven by the initial evolution of hearing to perceive echolocating bat predators. PMID:25009064

  10. Mechanisms of song production in the Australian magpie.

    PubMed

    Suthers, Roderick A; Wild, J Martin; Kaplan, Gisela

    2011-01-01

    Australian magpies (Gymnorhina tibicen) are notable for their vocal prowess. We investigated the syringeal and respiratory dynamics of vocalization by two 6-month-old males, whose songs had a number of adult features. There was no strong lateral syringeal dominance and unilateral phonation was most often achieved by closing the syringeal valve on the contralateral side of the syrinx. Unlike other songbirds studied, magpies sometimes used an alternative syringeal motor pattern during unilateral phonation in which both sides of the syrinx are partially adducted and open to airflow. Also, in contrast to most other songbirds, the higher fundamental frequency during two-voice syllables was usually generated on the left side of the syrinx. Amplitude modulation, a prominent feature of magpie song, was produced by linear or nonlinear interactions between different frequencies which may originate either on opposite sides of the syrinx or on the same side. Pulse tones, similar to vocal fry in human speech, were present in some calls. Unlike small songbirds, the fundamental of the modal frequency can be as low as that of the pulse tone, suggesting that large birds may have evolved pulse tones to increase acoustic diversity, rather than decrease the fundamental frequency. PMID:20852867

  11. Double meaning of courtship song in a moth

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio; Mishiro, Koji; Toyama, Masatoshi; Toda, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Males use courtship signals to inform a conspecific female of their presence and/or quality, or, alternatively, to ‘cheat’ females by imitating the cues of a prey or predator. These signals have the single function of advertising for mating. Here, we show the dual functions of the courtship song in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis, whose males generate a series of short pulses and a subsequent long pulse in a song bout. Repulsive short pulses mimic the echolocation calls of sympatric horseshoe bats and disrupt the approach of male rivals to a female. The attractive long pulse does not mimic bat calls and specifically induces mate acceptance in the female, who raises her wings to facilitate copulation. These results demonstrate that moths can evolve both attractive acoustic signals and repulsive ones from cues that were originally used to identify predators and non-predators, because the bat-like sounds disrupt rivals, and also support a hypothesis of signal evolution via receiver bias in moth acoustic communication that was driven by the initial evolution of hearing to perceive echolocating bat predators. PMID:25009064

  12. Construction of pre-slit system of Chinese SONG spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Pengfei; Hu, Zhongwen; Dai, Songxin

    2015-10-01

    The pre-slit system of Chinese SONG spectrograph is a multi-function unit. The main function is to direct the incoming light from the coudé path to the entrance slit of the spectrograph. The specific functions includes maintaining exit pupil stable, fast guiding and telescope focus corrections. The original optics of this pre-slit system were designed by Aarhus University in Denmark. We built the system and designed the software for it. This system holds a guide/slit-viewing camera, a pupil-viewing camera, two tip-tilt mirrors and its tip-tilt controllers. So it includes two sets of the fast-steering mirror systems applied to image tracking and correction. When this image tracking and correction systems is running, the real-time software algorithm will be presented and simulated simultaneously. From the images taken with camera, a closed loop signals are generated for the tip-tilt mirror to correct image motion. When the camera exposure time is 25ms,the correcting frequency of slit imge tip-tilt motion is about 30Hz. The correcting frequency of pupil imge tip-tilt motion is about 1Hz. In addition, a temperature control system surrounding the spectrograph is necessary to keep spectrograph at a constant temperature. The test results shows that the error is about +/-0.005°C in 69.4 hours. The results prove that the pre-slit system of Chinese SONG spectrograph is effective and feasible.

  13. Space Radar Image of Hong Kong, China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-SAR image spanning an area of approximately 20 kilometers by 40 kilometers (12 miles by 25 miles) of the island of Hong Kong, the Kowloon Peninsula and the new territories in southern China, taken by the imaging radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour on October 4, 1994. North is toward the top left corner of the image. The Kaitak Airport runway on Kowloon Peninsula (center right of image) was built on reclaimed land and extends almost 3 kilometers (nearly 2 miles) into Victoria Harbor. To the south of the harbor lies the island of Hong Kong. The bright areas around the harbor are the major residential and business districts. Housing more than six million residents, Hong Kong is the most densely populated area in the world. The large number of objects visible in the harbor and surrounding waters are a variety of sea-going vessels, anchored in one of the busiest seaports in the Far East. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in

  14. Acoustical conditions of typical classrooms in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kai Ming; Lam, Coriolanus C. L.

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents measurement results of the acoustical environments of local schools in Hong Kong. In the measurements, several acoustical aspects that affect verbal communication in classrooms have been studied. These conditions include outdoor and indoor ambient noise levels, signal-to-noise ratios, reverberation time and the speech transmission index. Typical classrooms in many different schools and other higher-education institutions have been selected in the present study. Experimental results are compared with such national standards as USA (ANSI S 12.60 V 2002), Australian/New Zealand (AS/NZS 2107:2000), China (GB/T 15508 V 1995) and other national and industrial standards. This study will form the basis of devising acceptable standards for use in Hong Kong. [Work supported by the Research Grants Council of the SAR Government, the Research Committee of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University and Architectural Services Department of the Hong Kong SAR Government.

  15. Continuing Education Reform in Hong Kong: Issues of Contextualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowson, Chris; Bodycott, Peter; Walker, Allan; Coniam, David

    2003-01-01

    Studied how reforms in four particular areas (professional development of principals, higher education, English language standards, and inclusion of students with learning disabilities) have been conceived, contextualized, and managed in Hong Kong since the early 1990s. (SLD)

  16. Hong Kong experiences the 'Ultimate superbug': NDM-1 Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Tsang, K Y; Luk, S; Lo, Janice Y C; Tsang, T Y; Lai, S T; Ng, T K

    2012-10-01

    We report the second imported case of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM-1) Enterobacteriaceae encountered in Hong Kong soon after the patient's arrival in the territory for medical care. As NDM-1 is spreading throughout the world via international travel, being an international city, Hong Kong was always expected to encounter the same public health threat. This case also illustrates the importance of active surveillance of at-risk patients in preventing the spread of this 'superbug'. PMID:23018074

  17. Bird song and anthropogenic noise: vocal constraints may explain why birds sing higher-frequency songs in cities

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, Erwin; Pieretti, Nadia; Zollinger, Sue Anne; Geberzahn, Nicole; Partecke, Jesko; Miranda, Ana Catarina; Brumm, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    When animals live in cities, they have to adjust their behaviour and life histories to novel environments. Noise pollution puts a severe constraint on vocal communication by interfering with the detection of acoustic signals. Recent studies show that city birds sing higher-frequency songs than their conspecifics in non-urban habitats. This has been interpreted as an adaptation to counteract masking by traffic noise. However, this notion is debated, for the observed frequency shifts seem to be less efficient at mitigating noise than singing louder, and it has been suggested that city birds might use particularly high-frequency song elements because they can be produced at higher amplitudes. Here, we present the first phonetogram for a songbird, which shows that frequency and amplitude are strongly positively correlated in the common blackbird (Turdus merula), a successful urban colonizer. Moreover, city blackbirds preferentially sang higher-frequency elements that can be produced at higher intensities and, at the same time, happen to be less masked in low-frequency traffic noise. PMID:23303546

  18. Bird song and anthropogenic noise: vocal constraints may explain why birds sing higher-frequency songs in cities.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Erwin; Pieretti, Nadia; Zollinger, Sue Anne; Geberzahn, Nicole; Partecke, Jesko; Miranda, Ana Catarina; Brumm, Henrik

    2013-03-01

    When animals live in cities, they have to adjust their behaviour and life histories to novel environments. Noise pollution puts a severe constraint on vocal communication by interfering with the detection of acoustic signals. Recent studies show that city birds sing higher-frequency songs than their conspecifics in non-urban habitats. This has been interpreted as an adaptation to counteract masking by traffic noise. However, this notion is debated, for the observed frequency shifts seem to be less efficient at mitigating noise than singing louder, and it has been suggested that city birds might use particularly high-frequency song elements because they can be produced at higher amplitudes. Here, we present the first phonetogram for a songbird, which shows that frequency and amplitude are strongly positively correlated in the common blackbird (Turdus merula), a successful urban colonizer. Moreover, city blackbirds preferentially sang higher-frequency elements that can be produced at higher intensities and, at the same time, happen to be less masked in low-frequency traffic noise. PMID:23303546

  19. Bimodal Hong-Ou-Mandel Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundarraman, Deepika; Gilliss, Thomas; Leary, Cody

    2013-03-01

    We investigate two-photon Hong-Ou-Mandel interference in several interferometric systems, in which each of the two interfering input photons exist in arbitrary linear superpositions of the first-order Hermite-Gaussian modes HG10 and HG01 . We find that if both input photons are in balanced superpositions of the HG10 and HG01 modes, the resulting two-photon interference can be engineered to transform these diagonal Hermite-Gaussian inputs into output modes of the Laguerre Gaussian type, which are entangled with respect to both output path and transverse spatial mode. We show that such two-photon interference effects can occur even if the input photons are prepared with distinguishable transverse spatial states. This work was supported in part by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

  20. Atomic Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, R.; Imanaliev, A.; Aspect, A.; Cheneau, M.; Boiron, D.; Westbrook, C. I.

    2015-04-01

    Two-particle interference is a fundamental feature of quantum mechanics, and is even less intuitive than wave-particle duality for a single particle. In this duality, classical concepts--wave or particle--are still referred to, and interference happens in ordinary space-time. On the other hand, two-particle interference takes place in a mathematical space that has no classical counterpart. Entanglement lies at the heart of this interference, as it does in the fundamental tests of quantum mechanics involving the violation of Bell's inequalities. The Hong, Ou and Mandel experiment is a conceptually simpler situation, in which the interference between two-photon amplitudes also leads to behaviour impossible to describe using a simple classical model. Here we report the realization of the Hong, Ou and Mandel experiment using atoms instead of photons. We create a source that emits pairs of atoms, and cause one atom of each pair to enter one of the two input channels of a beam-splitter, and the other atom to enter the other input channel. When the atoms are spatially overlapped so that the two inputs are indistinguishable, the atoms always emerge together in one of the output channels. This result opens the way to testing Bell's inequalities involving mechanical observables of massive particles, such as momentum, using methods inspired by quantum optics, and to testing theories of the quantum-to-classical transition. Our work also demonstrates a new way to benchmark non-classical atom sources that may be of interest for quantum information processing and quantum simulation.

  1. Virtual blood banking in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, K F; Kwan, Angela M Y; Wong, Michael L G; Lam, Clarence C K; Yip, S C

    2012-08-01

    OBJECTIVE. To review our experience in virtual blood banking for intra-operative transfusion in Hong Kong. DESIGN. Retrospective study. SETTING. Three major acute hospitals and a specialised centre for joint replacement surgery with installation of an Operating Theatre Blood Transaction System. PATIENTS. Patients undergoing surgery under anaesthesia and requiring intra-operative transfusion for the period from the implementation of the system in individual institutes (Queen Elizabeth Hospital: June 1997; Princess Margaret Hospital: May 2001; Queen Mary Hospital: October 2009; and Hong Kong Buddhist Hospital: December 2010) till September 2011. RESULTS. Under the system, 58 923 units of red cells were released intra-operatively for 18 264 patients (11% of the total number of blood units issued by the blood banks in these institutes during the study period). About 1% of them (613 units) entailed unmatched red cells given to 183 patients for emergency transfusions during surgery. The mean time required for the issue of the first unit of red cells was less than 1 minute. A total of 1231 units of red cells were returned unused after being released. Among them, 95 units were deemed unfit for re-issue because they had left the temperature-monitored blood storage refrigerators in the operating theatres for more than 30 minutes. There was no delay in transfusion or postponement of surgery due to problems or downtime of the Operating Theatre Blood Transaction System. CONCLUSION. Our experience has shown that our virtual blood banking system was efficient and effective, and helped ensure that the right patient received the right amount of the right blood at the right time. The system can be implemented either locally in the same hospital with a central blood bank, or in a more remote and networked site without a nearby supporting blood bank. PMID:22865174

  2. Management of Familial Hypercholesterolemia in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Hu, Miao; Hooper, Amanda J; Bockxmeer, Frank M van; Watts, Gerald F; Chan, Juliana Cn; Tomlinson, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal-dominant genetic disease characterized by elevated plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and increased risk of premature atherosclerotic coronary heart disease (CHD). Patients with FH in Hong Kong were found by the identification of potential probands with primary hypercholesterolemia manifesting total cholesterol levels greater than 7.5 mmol/L or LDL-C levels greater than 4.9 mmol/L and undertaking cascade screening of available relatives in the Department of Medicine & Therapeutics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong since the early 1990s. Our previous study in a group of 252 subjects from 87 pedigrees clinically diagnosed as having heterozygous FH reported the mean plasma LDL-C level as 7.2±1.5 mmol/L. Xanthomata were present in 40.6% of males and 54.8% of females. The prevalence of known CHD was relatively low at 9.9% in males and 8.5% in females. All FH patients were offered treatment with statins and many of them reached the LDL-C goal with a moderate or high dose of potent statin alone. Ezetimibe is usually added for patients who have not achieved target LDL-C levels on statin alone, particularly in patients with established CHD. Some FH patients who have not achieved the LDL-C targets with this combination have entered into clinical trials with new cholesterol-modifying agents such as the monoclonal antibodies to proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9. Increased awareness, early identification, and optimal treatment are essential to reduce the risk of CHD, increase life expectancy, and improve the quality of life of patients with FH. PMID:26875521

  3. Quantifying urban heat island intensity in Hong Kong SAR, China.

    PubMed

    Siu, Leong Wai; Hart, Melissa A

    2013-05-01

    This paper addresses the methodological concerns in quantifying urban heat island (UHI) intensity in Hong Kong SAR, China. Although the urban heat island in Hong Kong has been widely investigated, there is no consensus on the most appropriate fixed point meteorological sites to be used to calculate heat island intensity. This study utilized the Local Climate Zones landscape classification system to classify 17 weather stations from the Hong Kong Observatory's extensive fixed point meteorological observation network. According to the classification results, the meteorological site located at the Hong Kong Observatory Headquarters is the representative urban weather station in Hong Kong, whereas sites located at Tsak Yue Wu and Ta Kwu Ling are appropriate rural or nonurbanized counterparts. These choices were validated and supported quantitatively through comparison of long-term annual and diurnal UHI intensities with rural stations used in previous studies. Results indicate that the rural stations used in previous studies are not representative, and thus, the past UHI intensities calculated for Hong Kong may have been underestimated. PMID:23007798

  4. Renal registry in Hong Kong—the first 20 years

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Chi Bon; Cheung, Wai Lun; Li, Philip Kam Tao

    2015-01-01

    Renal Registry was started by the Hospital Authority (HA) in Hong Kong in 1995. It is an online system developed by HA. It collects all patients under care in HA, which is about 90–95 % of all requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) in Hong Kong. The total number of patients treated increased from 3312 in 1996 to 8510 in 2013. In 2013, there were 3501 renal transplant, 1192 hemodialysis (HD) and 3817 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. In 2013, 1147 new patients joined the RRT program, 49.6% of them suffered from diabetic nephropathy. Glomerulonephritis and hypertension are the 2nd and 3rd most common causes of RRT in Hong Kong. The median age was 59.1 years with male to female ratio of 1.54 to 1. Hong Kong practices ‘PD first' policy and the majority of the patients are on CAPD treatment. The ratio of PD to HD was 76.2% to 23.8%. Eighty-six percent of all PD patients are on CAPD; the remaining 14% are on automated peritoneal dialysis (APD). Sixty-five percent of all dialysis patients are on erythropoiesis-stimulating agent treatment. The Hong Kong Renal Registry with online real-time data input and access can provide timely data and information to facilitate patient care and management and also provides invaluable data to help in development and planning of renal services in Hong Kong. PMID:26097783

  5. Developmental shifts in gene expression in the auditory forebrain during the sensitive period for song learning

    PubMed Central

    London, Sarah E.; Dong, Shu; Replogle, Kirstin; Clayton, David F.

    2009-01-01

    A male zebra finch begins to learn to sing by memorizing a tutor’s song during a sensitive period in juvenile development. Tutor song memorization requires molecular signaling within the auditory forebrain. Using microarray and in situ hybridizations, we tested whether the auditory forebrain at an age just prior to tutoring expresses a different set of genes compared to later in life after song learning has ceased. Microarray analysis revealed differences in expression of thousands of genes in the male auditory forebrain at posthatch day 20 (P20) compared to adulthood. Further, song playbacks had essentially no impact on gene expression in P20 auditory forebrain, but altered expression of hundreds of genes in adults. Most genes that were song-responsive in adults were expressed at constitutively high levels at P20. Using in situ hybridization with a representative sample of 44 probes, we confirmed these effects and found that birds at P20 and P45 were similar in their gene expression patterns. Additionally, 8 of the probes showed male-female differences in expression. We conclude that the developing auditory forebrain is in a very different molecular state from the adult, despite its relatively mature gross morphology and electrophysiological responsiveness to song stimuli. Developmental gene expression changes may contribute to fine-tuning of cellular and molecular properties necessary for song learning. PMID:19360720

  6. Geographic analysis of nucleotide diversity and song sparrow (Aves: Emberizidae) population history.

    PubMed

    Fry, A J; Zink, R M

    1998-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control-region (CR) sequences were analysed to address three questions regarding the evolution of geographical variation in song sparrows. (i) Are mtDNA sequences more informative about phylogenetic relationships and population history than previously published restriction fragment (RFLP) data? (ii) Are song sparrow CR sequences evolving in a selectively neutral manner? (iii) What do the haplotype cladogram and geographical pattern of nucleotide diversity (pi) suggest about the recent evolutionary history of song sparrow populations? Results from phylogenetic analyses of CR sequences corroborate RFLP results and reveal instances in which haplotypes do not group by locality. Neutrality tests (Tajima 1989a) suggest that song sparrow mtDNA is evolving in a selectively neutral manner, although exceptions are noted. A novel geographical pattern of pi suggests a model of song sparrow population history involving multiple Pleistocene refugia and colonization of some formerly glaciated regions from multiple sources. Moreover, application of coalescence theory to the haplotype cladogram suggests that two different haplotypes (48NF and 151HA) may have predominated in different parts of the song sparrow's range. This model provides insight into the current distribution of song sparrow mtDNA haplotypes and may explain the discordance between evolutionary history inferred from mtDNA and morphology in this species. PMID:9787442

  7. Physically Challenging Song Traits, Male Quality, and Reproductive Success in House Wrens

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Emily R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Physically challenging signals are likely to honestly indicate signaler quality. In trilled bird song two physically challenging parameters are vocal deviation (the speed of sound frequency modulation) and trill consistency (how precisely syllables are repeated). As predicted, in several species, they correlate with male quality, are preferred by females, and/or function in male-male signaling. Species may experience different selective pressures on their songs, however; for instance, there may be opposing selection between song complexity and song performance difficulty, such that in species where song complexity is strongly selected, there may not be strong selection on performance-based traits. I tested whether vocal deviation and trill consistency are signals of male quality in house wrens (Troglodytes aedon), a species with complex song structure. Males’ singing ability did not correlate with male quality, except that older males sang with higher trill consistency, and males with more consistent trills responded more aggressively to playback (although a previous study found no effect of stimulus trill consistency on males’ responses to playback). Males singing more challenging songs did not gain in polygyny, extra-pair paternity, or annual reproductive success. Moreover, none of the standard male quality measures I investigated correlated with mating or reproductive success. I conclude that vocal deviation and trill consistency do not signal male quality in this species. PMID:23527137

  8. Macrogeographical variation in the song of a widely distributed African warbler.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Lauryn; Bowie, Rauri C K

    2009-08-23

    The songs of oscine passerine birds vary on many spatial scales, reflecting the actions of diverse evolutionary pressures. Here we examine the songs of Cisticola erythrops, which effectively signal species identity across a geographical area spanning 6500 km in sub-Saharan Africa. Selection for species identification should promote stability in song traits, while sexual selection and geographical segregation should promote diversity. Cisticola erythrops share syllable types across the entire range of species and structure songs similarly, but individuals sing highly variable songs through improvisational recombination of syllables. Patterns of syllable use change gradually across the range of the species and do not show distinct breaks at subspecies boundaries. The acoustic properties of the most common syllable type also change gradually with distance. The results illustrate how songs can be simultaneously species-specific and highly variable at an individual level. At a larger level, patterns of variation indicate that cultural drift has generated song diversity through an isolation by distance mechanism. PMID:19443510

  9. The two parts of the blackcap song: Acoustic analysis and male responses to playbacks.

    PubMed

    Linossier, Juliette; Courvoisier, Hélène; Aubin, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Bird songs are complex manifold acoustic signals serving two main functions: mate attraction and territorial defense. The way information is encoded in the song often reflects adaptation to proximate and ultimate constraints. Male blackcaps, Sylvia atricapilla, display versatile songs with two parts, a warble and a whistle, whose functions remain unclear. We showed that the two parts of songs differ in terms of intensity, frequency and temporal parameters. They also contain totally different sets of syllables. Furthermore, the warble is versatile whereas the whistle part shows syllable sharing between individuals leaving closeby. Altogether, the results of our analysis suggest that the two parts encode different information potentially directed to different audiences. In order to test the potential function of these two parts, we performed playback experiments by broadcasting entire songs and each part separately. Warble and whistle alone are sufficient to trigger male responses and males sing both parts in responses to all stimuli, showing that both parts of the song are used in male-male competition. It is suggested that the segregation of information in the blackcap song could be related to public versus private communication, used in both intra- and intersexual contexts, rather than directed to male versus female audiences only. PMID:26522931

  10. The organisation of musical semantic memory: evidence from false memories for familiar songs.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Susan M; Kennerley, Jo

    2014-01-01

    By adapting a well-known paradigm for studying memory for words-the Deese-Roediger-McDermott or DRM paradigm (Deese, 1959, Roediger & McDermott, 1995)-the two experiments reported here explore memory for song titles and song clips. Participants were presented with five song titles (Experiment 1a) or five 30-second song clips (Experiment 1b) for each of nine popular artists (e.g., Robbie Williams). The most popular song identified for each artist in a pilot task was omitted from the sets of titles/clips. Following a distractor task, participants were asked to write down as many of the songs as they could recall. They were also asked to return a week later and complete a second recall task. Participants falsely recalled a significant number of the related but non-presented songs in both experiments and this increased a week later, while correct recall for presented items decreased. The results are discussed in terms of theory for musical memory as well as in the context of providing a novel method for exploring the organisation of musical memory. PMID:24111630

  11. Acoustic Divergence with Gene Flow in a Lekking Hummingbird with Complex Songs

    PubMed Central

    González, Clementina; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Hummingbirds have developed a remarkable diversity of learned vocalizations, from single-note songs to phonologically and syntactically complex songs. In this study we evaluated if geographic song variation of wedge-tailed sabrewings (Campylopterus curvipennis) is correlated with genetic divergence, and examined processes that explain best the origin of intraspecific song variation. We contrasted estimates of genetic differentiation, genetic structure, and gene flow across leks from microsatellite loci of wedge-tailed sabrewings with measures for acoustic signals involved in mating derived from recordings of males singing at leks throughout eastern Mexico. We found a strong acoustic structure across leks and geography, where lek members had an exclusive assemblage of syllable types, differed in spectral and temporal measurements of song, and song sharing decreased with geographic distance. However, neutral genetic and song divergence were not correlated, and measures of genetic differentiation and migration estimates indicated gene flow across leks. The persistence of acoustic structuring in wedge-tailed sabrewings may thus best be explained by stochastic processes across leks, in which intraspecific vocal variation is maintained in the absence of genetic differentiation by postdispersal learning and social conditions, and by geographical isolation due to the accumulation of small differences, producing most dramatic changes between populations further apart. PMID:25271429

  12. Acoustic divergence with gene flow in a lekking hummingbird with complex songs.

    PubMed

    González, Clementina; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Hummingbirds have developed a remarkable diversity of learned vocalizations, from single-note songs to phonologically and syntactically complex songs. In this study we evaluated if geographic song variation of wedge-tailed sabrewings (Campylopterus curvipennis) is correlated with genetic divergence, and examined processes that explain best the origin of intraspecific song variation. We contrasted estimates of genetic differentiation, genetic structure, and gene flow across leks from microsatellite loci of wedge-tailed sabrewings with measures for acoustic signals involved in mating derived from recordings of males singing at leks throughout eastern Mexico. We found a strong acoustic structure across leks and geography, where lek members had an exclusive assemblage of syllable types, differed in spectral and temporal measurements of song, and song sharing decreased with geographic distance. However, neutral genetic and song divergence were not correlated, and measures of genetic differentiation and migration estimates indicated gene flow across leks. The persistence of acoustic structuring in wedge-tailed sabrewings may thus best be explained by stochastic processes across leks, in which intraspecific vocal variation is maintained in the absence of genetic differentiation by postdispersal learning and social conditions, and by geographical isolation due to the accumulation of small differences, producing most dramatic changes between populations further apart. PMID:25271429

  13. Cultural change in the songs of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) from Tonga

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eriksen, N.; Miller, L.A.; Tougaard, J.; Helweg, D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Some humpback whales migrate annually from Antarctic feeding grounds to the seas around the Tongan Islands to give birth and mate. The Tongan humpbacks are considered part of Southern Hemisphere Group V that splits during migration, some swimming to Eastern Australia and others to various Polynesian Islands. During this time long complex songs are produced. The song is thought to be a male breeding display and may serve either as an intra-sexual or an inter-sexual signal or both. It is in a constant state of change that occurs every season. Since these changes are directional they cannot be described by drift, and singers incorporate changes as they occur, thus song must be shared through cultural transmission. This investigation describes the cultural changes that occurred in 158 songs recorded from Tongan humpbacks through the 1990s. The rate of change differed within years, some themes were retained for as much as five years and others were lost after only two years. The farther apart the years the less similar are the songs, as in the humpback songs of the Northern Hemisphere. The largest number of changes seems to have occurred in the early 1990s where all themes seemed to have been lost and new ones originated. What initiates these changes remains speculative, but we assess some hypotheses in relation to humpback whale behaviour and cultural transmission in avian song. ?? Koninklijke Brill NV, 2005.

  14. Speech versus Song: Multiple Pitch-Sensitive Areas Revealed by a Naturally Occurring Musical Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Fred; Deutsch, Diana; Sereno, Marty

    2013-01-01

    It is normally obvious to listeners whether a human vocalization is intended to be heard as speech or song. However, the 2 signals are remarkably similar acoustically. A naturally occurring boundary case between speech and song has been discovered where a spoken phrase sounds as if it were sung when isolated and repeated. In the present study, an extensive search of audiobooks uncovered additional similar examples, which were contrasted with samples from the same corpus that do not sound like song, despite containing clear prosodic pitch contours. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that hearing these 2 closely matched stimuli is not associated with differences in response of early auditory areas. Rather, we find that a network of 8 regions, including the anterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) just anterior to Heschl's gyrus and the right midposterior STG, respond more strongly to speech perceived as song than to mere speech. This network overlaps a number of areas previously associated with pitch extraction and song production, confirming that phrases originally intended to be heard as speech can, under certain circumstances, be heard as song. Our results suggest that song processing compared with speech processing makes increased demands on pitch processing and auditory–motor integration. PMID:22314043

  15. Mutations of the Drosophila Myosin Regulatory Light Chain Affect Courtship Song and Reduce Reproductive Success

    PubMed Central

    Chakravorty, Samya; Vu, Hien; Foelber, Veronica; Vigoreaux, Jim O.

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila indirect flight muscles (IFM) rely on an enhanced stretch-activation response to generate high power output for flight. The IFM is neurally activated during the male courtship song, but its role, if any, in generating the small amplitude wing vibrations that produce the song is not known. Here, we examined the courtship song properties and mating behavior of three mutant strains of the myosin regulatory light chain (DMLC2) that are known to affect IFM contractile properties and impair flight: (i) Dmlc2Δ2–46 (Ext), an N-terminal extension truncation; (ii) Dmlc2S66A,S67A (Phos), a disruption of two MLC kinase phosphorylation sites; and (iii) Dmlc2Δ2–46;S66A,S67A (Dual), expressing both mutations. Our results show that the Dmlc2 gene is pleiotropic and that mutations that have a profound effect on flight mechanics (Phos and Dual) have minimal effects on courtship song. None of the mutations affect interpulse interval (IPI), a determinant of species-specific song, and intrapulse frequency (IPF) compared to Control (Dmlc2+ rescued null strain). However, abnormalities in the sine song (increased frequency) and the pulse song (increased cycles per pulse and pulse length) evident in Ext males are not apparent in Dual males suggesting that Ext and Phos interact differently in song and flight mechanics, given their known additive effect on the latter. All three mutant males produce a less vigorous pulse song and exhibit impaired mating behavior compared to Control males. As a result, females are less receptive to Ext, Phos, and Dual males when a Control male is present. These results open the possibility that DMLC2, and perhaps contractile protein genes in general, are partly under sexual selection. That mutations in DMLC2 manifest differently in song and flight suggest that this protein fulfills different roles in song and flight and that stretch activation plays a smaller role in song production than in flight. PMID:24587213

  16. The development of the Hong Kong Heat Index for enhancing the heat stress information service of the Hong Kong Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K. L.; Chan, Y. H.; Lee, T. C.; Goggins, William B.; Chan, Emily Y. Y.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a study to develop a heat index, for use in hot and humid sub-tropical climate in Hong Kong. The study made use of hospitalization data and heat stress measurement data in Hong Kong from 2007 to 2011. The heat index, which is called Hong Kong Heat Index (HKHI), is calculated from the natural wet bulb temperature, the globe temperature, and the dry bulb temperature together with a set of coefficients applicable to the high humidity condition in the summer of Hong Kong. Analysis of the response of hospitalization rate to variation in HKHI and two other heat indices, namely Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) and Net Effective Temperature (NET), revealed that HKHI performed generally better than WBGT and NET in reflecting the heat stress impact on excess hospitalization ratio in Hong Kong. Based on the study results, two reference criteria of HKHI were identified to establish a two-tier approach for the enhancement of the heat stress information service in Hong Kong.

  17. The development of the Hong Kong Heat Index for enhancing the heat stress information service of the Hong Kong Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K. L.; Chan, Y. H.; Lee, T. C.; Goggins, William B.; Chan, Emily Y. Y.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a study to develop a heat index, for use in hot and humid sub-tropical climate in Hong Kong. The study made use of hospitalization data and heat stress measurement data in Hong Kong from 2007 to 2011. The heat index, which is called Hong Kong Heat Index (HKHI), is calculated from the natural wet bulb temperature, the globe temperature, and the dry bulb temperature together with a set of coefficients applicable to the high humidity condition in the summer of Hong Kong. Analysis of the response of hospitalization rate to variation in HKHI and two other heat indices, namely Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) and Net Effective Temperature (NET), revealed that HKHI performed generally better than WBGT and NET in reflecting the heat stress impact on excess hospitalization ratio in Hong Kong. Based on the study results, two reference criteria of HKHI were identified to establish a two-tier approach for the enhancement of the heat stress information service in Hong Kong.

  18. The development of the Hong Kong Heat Index for enhancing the heat stress information service of the Hong Kong Observatory.

    PubMed

    Lee, K L; Chan, Y H; Lee, T C; Goggins, William B; Chan, Emily Y Y

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a study to develop a heat index, for use in hot and humid sub-tropical climate in Hong Kong. The study made use of hospitalization data and heat stress measurement data in Hong Kong from 2007 to 2011. The heat index, which is called Hong Kong Heat Index (HKHI), is calculated from the natural wet bulb temperature, the globe temperature, and the dry bulb temperature together with a set of coefficients applicable to the high humidity condition in the summer of Hong Kong. Analysis of the response of hospitalization rate to variation in HKHI and two other heat indices, namely Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) and Net Effective Temperature (NET), revealed that HKHI performed generally better than WBGT and NET in reflecting the heat stress impact on excess hospitalization ratio in Hong Kong. Based on the study results, two reference criteria of HKHI were identified to establish a two-tier approach for the enhancement of the heat stress information service in Hong Kong. PMID:26546311

  19. [Military medical and health care system in the Song Dynasty].

    PubMed

    DU, J

    2016-05-01

    The military medical and health care system in the Song Dynasty manifested as two aspects, namely disease prevention and medical treatment. Disease prevention included ensuring food and drink safety, avoiding dangerous stations and enjoying regular vacations, etc. Medical treatment included sending medical officials to patrol, stationing military physicians to follow up, applying emergency programs, establishing military medical and pharmacy centers, dispensing required medicines, and accommodating and nursing sick and injured personnel, etc. Meanwhile, the imperial court also supervised the implementation of military medical mechanism, in order to check the soldiers' foods, check and restrict the military physicians' responsibilities, etc., which did play a positive role in protecting soldier's health, guaranteeing the military combat effectiveness, and maintaining national security. PMID:27485867

  20. Avian cognition: examples of sophisticated capabilities in space and song.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Neil; Hahn, Allison H; Spetch, Marcia L; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2015-01-01

    Although birds have traditionally and colloquially been considered less cognitively complex than mammals, and especially primates, more recent research has consistently refuted these assumptions. We argue that the impressive abilities of birds to navigate and communicate require considerable information-processing capabilities. These capacities include collecting, organizing, and selecting from a wide variety of navigational cues to orient toward and find a goal location in the spatial domain, and utilizing open-ended categorization and possibly even abstract reasoning to discriminate species-specific acoustic features of songs and calls. Furthermore, these abilities may be present across many avian species, providing evidence for domain-general cognitive facilities. We provide examples of processes in spatial learning and communication in birds, and locate them within the general literature, as evidence that the term 'bird-brain' should not be considered a pejorative. PMID:26263230

  1. To Write Is To Live: Creative English Writing in Hong Kong Secondary School Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Amy

    2003-01-01

    Discusses creative writing in Hong Kong secondary school classrooms, a place where the concept of "creative" is relatively alien. Provides examples of poetry written by Hong Kong students, and discusses strategies for promoting creative writing. (Author/VWL)

  2. Women migrant workers' vulnerability to HIV infection in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, M; Thomas, J

    2002-08-01

    Research on population mobility and HIV/AIDS risk among migrant populations is quite limited, and research on migrant women workers' vulnerability is further limited. Hong Kong, the Special Administrative Region of China, has currently about 200,000 women migrant workers working as domestic helps. This paper reports migrant women worker's access to AIDS-related health information and health care facilities, perceptions about vulnerability, and risk behaviour profile. Data was collected through a pre-tested questionnaire from a random sample of 2,010 women migrant workers. A majority of the migrant women workers (63.6%) have been living and working in Hong Kong for between 4-10 years. Fifty-four per cent of the respondents felt that being a female they were vulnerable to HIV infection. Overall, the knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS and its route of transmission is inadequate amongst the migrant women workers in Hong Kong. It appears that AIDS-related information education and communication needs of women migrants workers are not met by the current HIV prevention and care activities in Hong Kong. The study indicates that migrant women workers who experienced sexual violence (9%) in Hong Kong perceive themselves to be 'at risk' of HIV infection. Seventy per cent of the respondents reported that they have felt discriminated against in Hong Kong, of which 42% felt discriminated against in Hong Kong hospitals. Addressing discrimination in health care settings is an essential element of AIDS prevention. The discussion urges researchers and policy makers to pay more attention to the vulnerability of migrant women workers. PMID:12204153

  3. Typical versions of learned swamp sparrow song types are more effective signals than are less typical versions

    PubMed Central

    Lachlan, R. F.; Anderson, R. C.; Peters, S.; Searcy, W. A.; Nowicki, S.

    2014-01-01

    The learned songs of songbirds often cluster into population-wide types. Here, we test the hypothesis that male and female receivers respond differently to songs depending on how typical of those types they are. We used computational methods to cluster a large sample of swamp sparrow (Melospiza georgiana) songs into types and to estimate the degree to which individual song exemplars are typical of these types. We then played exemplars to male and female receivers. Territorial males responded more aggressively and captive females performed more sexual displays in response to songs that are highly typical than to songs that are less typical. Previous studies have demonstrated that songbirds distinguish song types that are typical for their species, or for their population, from those that are not. Our results show that swamp sparrows also discriminate typical from less typical exemplars within learned song-type categories. In addition, our results suggest that more typical versions of song types function better, at least in male–female communication. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that syllable type typicality serves as a proxy for the assessment of song learning accuracy. PMID:24807252

  4. The interplay of within-species perceptual predispositions and experience during song ontogeny in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)

    PubMed Central

    ter Haar, Sita M.; Kaemper, Wiebke; Stam, Koen; Levelt, Clara C.; ten Cate, Carel

    2014-01-01

    Vocal acquisition in songbirds and humans shows many similarities, one of which is that both involve a combination of experience and perceptual predispositions. Among languages some speech sounds are shared, while others are not. This could reflect a predisposition in young infants for learning some speech sounds over others, which combines with exposure-based learning. Similarly, in songbirds, some sounds are common across populations, while others are more specific to populations or individuals. We examine whether this is also due to perceptual preferences for certain within-species element types in naive juvenile male birds, and how such preferences interact with exposure to guide subsequent song learning. We show that young zebra finches lacking previous song exposure perceptually prefer songs with more common zebra finch song element types over songs with less common elements. Next, we demonstrate that after subsequent tutoring, birds prefer tutor songs regardless of whether these contain more common or less common elements. In adulthood, birds tutored with more common elements showed a higher song similarity to their tutor song, indicating that the early bias influenced song learning. Our findings help to understand the maintenance of similarities and the presence of differences among birds' songs, their dialects and human languages. PMID:25320162

  5. The interplay of within-species perceptual predispositions and experience during song ontogeny in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    ter Haar, Sita M; Kaemper, Wiebke; Stam, Koen; Levelt, Clara C; ten Cate, Carel

    2014-12-01

    Vocal acquisition in songbirds and humans shows many similarities, one of which is that both involve a combination of experience and perceptual predispositions. Among languages some speech sounds are shared, while others are not. This could reflect a predisposition in young infants for learning some speech sounds over others, which combines with exposure-based learning. Similarly, in songbirds, some sounds are common across populations, while others are more specific to populations or individuals. We examine whether this is also due to perceptual preferences for certain within-species element types in naive juvenile male birds, and how such preferences interact with exposure to guide subsequent song learning. We show that young zebra finches lacking previous song exposure perceptually prefer songs with more common zebra finch song element types over songs with less common elements. Next, we demonstrate that after subsequent tutoring, birds prefer tutor songs regardless of whether these contain more common or less common elements. In adulthood, birds tutored with more common elements showed a higher song similarity to their tutor song, indicating that the early bias influenced song learning. Our findings help to understand the maintenance of similarities and the presence of differences among birds' songs, their dialects and human languages. PMID:25320162

  6. Dopamine regulation of human speech and bird song: A critical review

    PubMed Central

    Simonyan, Kristina; Horwitz, Barry; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2012-01-01

    To understand the neural basis of human speech control, extensive research has been done using a variety of methodologies in a range of experimental models. Nevertheless, several critical questions about learned vocal motor control still remain open. One of them is the mechanism(s) by which neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, modulate speech and song production. In this review, we bring together the two fields of investigations of dopamine action on voice control in humans and songbirds, who share similar behavioral and neural mechanisms for speech and song production. While human studies investigating the role of dopamine in speech control are limited to reports in neurological patients, research on dopaminergic modulation of bird song control has recently expanded our views on how this system might be organized. We discuss the parallels between bird song and human speech from the perspective of dopaminergic control as well as outline important differences between these species. PMID:22284300

  7. Neural circuits. Inhibition protects acquired song segments during vocal learning in zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Vallentin, Daniela; Kosche, Georg; Lipkind, Dina; Long, Michael A

    2016-01-15

    Vocal imitation involves incorporating instructive auditory information into relevant motor circuits through processes that are poorly understood. In zebra finches, we found that exposure to a tutor's song drives spiking activity within premotor neurons in the juvenile, whereas inhibition suppresses such responses upon learning in adulthood. We measured inhibitory currents evoked by the tutor song throughout development while simultaneously quantifying each bird's learning trajectory. Surprisingly, we found that the maturation of synaptic inhibition onto premotor neurons is correlated with learning but not age. We used synthetic tutoring to demonstrate that inhibition is selective for specific song elements that have already been learned and not those still in refinement. Our results suggest that structured inhibition plays a crucial role during song acquisition, enabling a piece-by-piece mastery of complex tasks. PMID:26816377

  8. Second Language Acquisition: Possible Insights from Studies on How Birds Acquire Song.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neapolitan, Denise M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews research that demonstrates parallels between general linguistic and cognitive processes in human language acquisition and avian acquisition of song and discusses how such research may provide new insights into the processes of second-language acquisition. (Author/CB)

  9. Repertoire and classification of non-song calls in Southeast Alaskan humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae).

    PubMed

    Fournet, Michelle E; Szabo, Andy; Mellinger, David K

    2015-01-01

    On low-latitude breeding grounds, humpback whales produce complex and highly stereotyped songs as well as a range of non-song sounds associated with breeding behaviors. While on their Southeast Alaskan foraging grounds, humpback whales produce a range of previously unclassified non-song vocalizations. This study investigates the vocal repertoire of Southeast Alaskan humpback whales from a sample of 299 non-song vocalizations collected over a 3-month period on foraging grounds in Frederick Sound, Southeast Alaska. Three classification systems were used, including aural spectrogram analysis, statistical cluster analysis, and discriminant function analysis, to describe and classify vocalizations. A hierarchical acoustic structure was identified; vocalizations were classified into 16 individual call types nested within four vocal classes. The combined classification method shows promise for identifying variability in call stereotypy between vocal groupings and is recommended for future classification of broad vocal repertoires. PMID:25618033

  10. Langue francaise et chanson (debat) (The French Language and Song -- a Discussion)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvet, Louis Jean; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of the difficulties one experiences in understanding a foreign language in song. The difficulty comes from the rhyme and rhythm, and from the medium, the form of linguistic expression, itself. (AMH)

  11. Music, emotion, and autobiographical memory: they're playing your song.

    PubMed

    Schulkind, M D; Hennis, L K; Rubin, D C

    1999-11-01

    Very long-term memory for popular music was investigated. Older and younger adults listened to 20-sec excerpts of popular songs drawn from across the 20th century. The subjects gave emotionality and preference ratings and tried to name the title, artist, and year of popularity for each excerpt. They also performed a cued memory test for the lyrics. The older adults' emotionality ratings were highest for songs from their youth; they remembered more about these songs, as well. However, the stimuli failed to cue many autobiographical memories of specific events. Further analyses revealed that the older adults were less likely than the younger adults to retrieve multiple attributes of a song together (i.e., title and artist) and that there was a significant positive correlation between emotion and memory, especially for the older adults. These results have implications for research on long-term memory, as well as on the relationship between emotion and memory. PMID:10586571

  12. Inhibition protects acquired song segments during vocal learning in zebra finches

    PubMed Central

    Vallentin, Daniela; Kosche, Georg; Lipkind, Dina; Long, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Vocal imitation involves incorporating instructive auditory information into relevant motor circuits through processes that are poorly understood. In zebra finches, we find that exposure to a tutor’s song drives spiking activity within premotor neurons in the juvenile but that inhibition suppresses such responses upon learning in adulthood. We measure inhibitory currents evoked by the tutor song throughout development while simultaneously quantifying each bird’s learning trajectory. Surprisingly, we find that the maturation of synaptic inhibition onto premotor neurons is correlated with learning but not age. We used synthetic tutoring to demonstrate that inhibition is selective for specific song elements that have already been learned and not those still in refinement. Our results suggest that structured inhibition is playing a crucial role during song acquisition, enabling a piece-by-piece mastery of complex tasks. PMID:26816377

  13. Context-Dependent Links between Song Production and Opioid-Mediated Analgesia in Male European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Kelm-Nelson, Cynthia A.; Stevenson, Sharon A.; Riters, Lauren V.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the neural mechanisms that ensure appropriate vocal behaviors within specific social contexts. Male songbirds produce spontaneous (undirected) songs as well as female-directed courtship songs. Opioid neuropeptide activity in specific brain regions is rewarding, at least in mammals, and past studies suggest that the opioid met-enkephalin in such areas is more tightly linked to undirected than female-directed song. Recent data using a song-associated place preference paradigm further suggest that production of undirected but not directed song is tightly linked to intrinsic reward. Opioids have analgesic properties. Therefore, if production of undirected song is closely linked to opioid-mediated reward, the production of undirected but not directed song should be associated with analgesia. Consistent with this prediction, in male starlings we identified a positive correlation between analgesia (decreased reactivity to a hot water bath) and undirected song (in non-breeding season condition males in affiliative flocks) but not female-directed song (in breeding season condition males presented with females). When breeding condition males were divided according to social status, a negative correlation was found in subordinate males (i.e. males that failed to acquire a nest box). These data are consistent with the hypotheses 1) that the production of undirected song is facilitated or maintained by opioids (and/or other neuromodulators that also induce analgesia) and 2) that production of female-directed song is not linked in the same way to release of the same neuromodulators. Results also demonstrate a link between analgesia and song in subordinate individuals lacking a nesting territory within the breeding season. Overall, the findings indicate that distinct neural mechanisms regulate communication in different social contexts and support the working hypothesis that undirected but not directed song is tightly linked to opioid release. PMID:23056422

  14. Context-dependent links between song production and opioid-mediated analgesia in male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Kelm-Nelson, Cynthia A; Stevenson, Sharon A; Riters, Lauren V

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the neural mechanisms that ensure appropriate vocal behaviors within specific social contexts. Male songbirds produce spontaneous (undirected) songs as well as female-directed courtship songs. Opioid neuropeptide activity in specific brain regions is rewarding, at least in mammals, and past studies suggest that the opioid met-enkephalin in such areas is more tightly linked to undirected than female-directed song. Recent data using a song-associated place preference paradigm further suggest that production of undirected but not directed song is tightly linked to intrinsic reward. Opioids have analgesic properties. Therefore, if production of undirected song is closely linked to opioid-mediated reward, the production of undirected but not directed song should be associated with analgesia. Consistent with this prediction, in male starlings we identified a positive correlation between analgesia (decreased reactivity to a hot water bath) and undirected song (in non-breeding season condition males in affiliative flocks) but not female-directed song (in breeding season condition males presented with females). When breeding condition males were divided according to social status, a negative correlation was found in subordinate males (i.e. males that failed to acquire a nest box). These data are consistent with the hypotheses 1) that the production of undirected song is facilitated or maintained by opioids (and/or other neuromodulators that also induce analgesia) and 2) that production of female-directed song is not linked in the same way to release of the same neuromodulators. Results also demonstrate a link between analgesia and song in subordinate individuals lacking a nesting territory within the breeding season. Overall, the findings indicate that distinct neural mechanisms regulate communication in different social contexts and support the working hypothesis that undirected but not directed song is tightly linked to opioid release. PMID:23056422

  15. Minke whale song, spacing, and acoustic communication on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedamke, Jason

    An inquisitive population of minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata ) that concentrates on the Great Barrier Reef during its suspected breeding season offered a unique opportunity to conduct a multi-faceted study of a little-known Balaenopteran species' acoustic behavior. Chapter one investigates whether the minke whale is the source of an unusual, complex, and stereotyped sound recorded, the "star-wars" vocalization. A hydrophone array was towed from a vessel to record sounds from circling whales for subsequent localization of sound sources. These acoustic locations were matched with shipboard and in-water observations of the minke whale, demonstrating the minke whale was the source of this unusual sound. Spectral and temporal features of this sound and the source levels at which it is produced are described. The repetitive "star-wars" vocalization appears similar to the songs of other whale species and has characteristics consistent with reproductive advertisement displays. Chapter two investigates whether song (i.e. the "star-wars" vocalization) has a spacing function through passive monitoring of singer spatial patterns with a moored five-sonobuoy array. Active song playback experiments to singers were also conducted to further test song function. This study demonstrated that singers naturally maintain spatial separations between them through a nearest-neighbor analysis and animated tracks of singer movements. In response to active song playbacks, singers generally moved away and repeated song more quickly suggesting that song repetition interval may help regulate spatial interaction and singer separation. These results further indicate the Great Barrier Reef may be an important reproductive habitat for this species. Chapter three investigates whether song is part of a potentially graded repertoire of acoustic signals. Utilizing both vessel-based recordings and remote recordings from the sonobuoy array, temporal and spectral features, source levels, and

  16. True Katydids (Pseudophyllinae) from Guadeloupe: Acoustic Signals and Functional Considerations of Song Production

    PubMed Central

    Stumpner, Andreas; Dann, Angela; Schink, Matthias; Gubert, Silvia; Hugel, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Guadeloupe, the largest of the Leeward Islands, harbors three species of Pseudophyllinae (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) belonging to distinct tribes. This study examined the basic aspects of sound production and acousto-vibratory behavior of these species. As the songs of many Pseudophyllinae are complex and peak at high frequencies, they require high quality recordings. Wild specimens were therefore recorded ex situ. Collected specimens were used in structure-function experiments. Karukerana aguilari Bonfils (Pterophyllini) is a large species with a mirror in each tegmen and conspicuous folds over the mirror. It sings 4–6 syllables, each comprising 10–20 pulses, with several peaks in the frequency spectrum between 4 and 20 kHz. The song is among the loudest in Orthoptera (> 125 dB SPL in 10 cm distance). The folds are protective and have no function in song production. Both mirrors may work independently in sound radiation. Nesonotus reticulatus (Fabricius) (Cocconotini) produces verses from two syllables at irregular intervals. The song peaks around 20 kHz. While singing, the males often produce a tremulation signal with the abdomen at about 8–10 Hz. To our knowledge, it is the first record of simultaneous calling song and tremulation in Orthoptera. Other males reply to the tremulation with their own tremulation. Xerophyllopteryx fumosa (Brunner von Wattenwyl) (Pleminiini) is a large, bark-like species, producing a syllable of around 20 pulses. The syllables are produced with irregular rhythms (often two with shorter intervals). The song peaks around 2–3 kHz and 10 kHz. The hind wings are relatively thick and are held between the half opened tegmina during singing. Removal of the hind wings reduces song intensity by about 5 dB, especially of the low frequency component, suggesting that the hind wings have a role in amplifying the song. PMID:24785151

  17. The Effect of Polychlorinated Biphenyls on the Song of Two Passerine Species

    PubMed Central

    DeLeon, Sara; Halitschke, Rayko; Hames, Ralph S.; Kessler, André; DeVoogd, Timothy J.; Dhondt, André A.

    2013-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chemical pollutants with demonstrated detrimental toxic and developmental effects on humans and wildlife. Laboratory studies suggest that PCBs influence behavior due to their effects on endocrine and neurological systems, yet little is known about the behavioral consequences of sublethal PCB exposure in the field. Additionally, specific PCB congener data (in contrast to total PCB load) is necessary to understand the possible effects of PCBs in living organisms since number and position of chlorine substitution in a PCB molecule dictates the toxicity and chemical fate of individual PCB congeners. We non-lethally investigated total PCB loads, congener specific PCB profiles, and songs of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) and song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) along a historical PCB gradient at the Hudson River in New York State. Our results indicate that black-capped chickadees and song sparrows have higher total blood PCBs in regions with higher historic PCB contamination. The two bird species varied substantially in their congener-specific PCB profiles; within sites, song sparrows showed a significantly higher proportion of lower chlorinated PCBs, while black-capped chickadees had higher proportions of highly chlorinated PCBs. In areas of PCB pollution, the species-specific identity signal in black-capped chickadee song varied significantly, while variation in song sparrow trill performance was best predicted by the mono-ortho PCB load. Thus, PCBs may affect song production, an important component of communication in birds. In conclusion, we suggest that the ramifications of changes in song quality for bird populations may extend the toxic effects of environmental PCB pollution. PMID:24058475

  18. Learning and Knowing Songs: A Study of Children as Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kullenberg, Tina; Pramling, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    In this study we analyze how learners constitute what it means to learn and know a song. This is investigated in the context of four 9- to 10-year-old children in dyads teaching each other to sing a song of their own choosing. How the children take on this task is studied in terms of how they dialogically co-construct pedagogical and musical…

  19. Sleepless in Town – Drivers of the Temporal Shift in Dawn Song in Urban European Blackbirds

    PubMed Central

    Nordt, Anja; Klenke, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Organisms living in urban environments are exposed to different environmental conditions compared to their rural conspecifics. Especially anthropogenic noise and artificial night light are closely linked to urbanization and pose new challenges to urban species. Songbirds are particularly affected by these factors, because they rely on the spread of acoustic information and adjust their behaviour to the rhythm of night and day, e.g. time their dawn song according to changing light intensities. Our aim was to clarify the specific contributions of artificial night light and traffic noise on the timing of dawn song of urban European Blackbirds (Turdus merula). We investigated the onset of blackbird dawn song along a steep urban gradient ranging from an urban forest to the city centre of Leipzig, Germany. This gradient of anthropogenic noise and artificial night light was reflected in the timing of dawn song. In the city centre, blackbirds started their dawn song up to 5 hours earlier compared to those in semi-natural habitats. We found traffic noise to be the driving factor of the shift of dawn song into true night, although it was not completely separable from the effects of ambient night light. We additionally included meteorological conditions into the analysis and found an effect on the song onset. Cloudy and cold weather delayed the onset, but cloud cover was assumed to reflect night light emissions, thus, amplified sky luminance and increased the effect of artificial night light. Beside these temporal effects, we also found differences in the spatial autocorrelation of dawn song onset showing a much higher variability in noisy city areas than in rural parks and forests. These findings indicate that urban hazards such as ambient noise and light pollution show a manifold interference with naturally evolved cycles and have significant effects on the activity patterns of urban blackbirds. PMID:23940759

  20. The effect of polychlorinated biphenyls on the song of two passerine species.

    PubMed

    DeLeon, Sara; Halitschke, Rayko; Hames, Ralph S; Kessler, André; DeVoogd, Timothy J; Dhondt, André A

    2013-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chemical pollutants with demonstrated detrimental toxic and developmental effects on humans and wildlife. Laboratory studies suggest that PCBs influence behavior due to their effects on endocrine and neurological systems, yet little is known about the behavioral consequences of sublethal PCB exposure in the field. Additionally, specific PCB congener data (in contrast to total PCB load) is necessary to understand the possible effects of PCBs in living organisms since number and position of chlorine substitution in a PCB molecule dictates the toxicity and chemical fate of individual PCB congeners. We non-lethally investigated total PCB loads, congener specific PCB profiles, and songs of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) and song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) along a historical PCB gradient at the Hudson River in New York State. Our results indicate that black-capped chickadees and song sparrows have higher total blood PCBs in regions with higher historic PCB contamination. The two bird species varied substantially in their congener-specific PCB profiles; within sites, song sparrows showed a significantly higher proportion of lower chlorinated PCBs, while black-capped chickadees had higher proportions of highly chlorinated PCBs. In areas of PCB pollution, the species-specific identity signal in black-capped chickadee song varied significantly, while variation in song sparrow trill performance was best predicted by the mono-ortho PCB load. Thus, PCBs may affect song production, an important component of communication in birds. In conclusion, we suggest that the ramifications of changes in song quality for bird populations may extend the toxic effects of environmental PCB pollution. PMID:24058475

  1. Sleepless in town--drivers of the temporal shift in dawn song in urban European blackbirds.

    PubMed

    Nordt, Anja; Klenke, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Organisms living in urban environments are exposed to different environmental conditions compared to their rural conspecifics. Especially anthropogenic noise and artificial night light are closely linked to urbanization and pose new challenges to urban species. Songbirds are particularly affected by these factors, because they rely on the spread of acoustic information and adjust their behaviour to the rhythm of night and day, e.g. time their dawn song according to changing light intensities. Our aim was to clarify the specific contributions of artificial night light and traffic noise on the timing of dawn song of urban European Blackbirds (Turdus merula). We investigated the onset of blackbird dawn song along a steep urban gradient ranging from an urban forest to the city centre of Leipzig, Germany. This gradient of anthropogenic noise and artificial night light was reflected in the timing of dawn song. In the city centre, blackbirds started their dawn song up to 5 hours earlier compared to those in semi-natural habitats. We found traffic noise to be the driving factor of the shift of dawn song into true night, although it was not completely separable from the effects of ambient night light. We additionally included meteorological conditions into the analysis and found an effect on the song onset. Cloudy and cold weather delayed the onset, but cloud cover was assumed to reflect night light emissions, thus, amplified sky luminance and increased the effect of artificial night light. Beside these temporal effects, we also found differences in the spatial autocorrelation of dawn song onset showing a much higher variability in noisy city areas than in rural parks and forests. These findings indicate that urban hazards such as ambient noise and light pollution show a manifold interference with naturally evolved cycles and have significant effects on the activity patterns of urban blackbirds. PMID:23940759

  2. Testosterone Affects Song Modulation during Simulated Territorial Intrusions in Male Black Redstarts (Phoenicurus ochruros)

    PubMed Central

    Goymann, Wolfgang; Kipper, Silke

    2012-01-01

    Although it has been suggested that testosterone plays an important role in resource allocation for competitive behavior, details of the interplay between testosterone, territorial aggression and signal plasticity are largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated if testosterone acts specifically on signals that communicate the motivation or ability of individuals to engage in competitive situations in a natural context. We studied the black redstart, a territorial songbird species, during two different life-cycle stages, the early breeding phase in spring and the non-breeding phase in fall. Male territory holders were implanted with the androgen receptor blocker flutamide (Flut) and the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (Let) to inhibit the action of testosterone and its estrogenic metabolites. Controls received a placebo treatment. Three days after implantation birds were challenged with a simulated territorial intrusion (STI). Song was recorded before, during and after the challenge. In spring, both treatment groups increased the number of elements sung in parts of their song in response to the STI. However, Flut/Let-implanted males reacted to the STI with a decreased maximum acoustic frequency of one song part, while placebo-implanted males did not. Instead, placebo-implanted males sang the atonal part of their song with a broader frequency range. Furthermore, placebo-, but not Flut/Let-implanted males, sang shorter songs with shorter pauses between parts in the STIs. During simulated intrusions in fall, when testosterone levels are naturally low in this species, males of both treatment groups sang similar to Flut/Let-implanted males during breeding. The results suggest that song sung during a territorial encounter is of higher competitive value than song sung in an undisturbed situation and may, therefore, convey information about the motivation or quality of the territory holder. We conclude that testosterone facilitates context-dependent changes in song structures

  3. Testosterone affects song modulation during simulated territorial intrusions in male black redstarts (Phoenicurus ochruros).

    PubMed

    Apfelbeck, Beate; Kiefer, Sarah; Mortega, Kim G; Goymann, Wolfgang; Kipper, Silke

    2012-01-01

    Although it has been suggested that testosterone plays an important role in resource allocation for competitive behavior, details of the interplay between testosterone, territorial aggression and signal plasticity are largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated if testosterone acts specifically on signals that communicate the motivation or ability of individuals to engage in competitive situations in a natural context. We studied the black redstart, a territorial songbird species, during two different life-cycle stages, the early breeding phase in spring and the non-breeding phase in fall. Male territory holders were implanted with the androgen receptor blocker flutamide (Flut) and the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (Let) to inhibit the action of testosterone and its estrogenic metabolites. Controls received a placebo treatment. Three days after implantation birds were challenged with a simulated territorial intrusion (STI). Song was recorded before, during and after the challenge. In spring, both treatment groups increased the number of elements sung in parts of their song in response to the STI. However, Flut/Let-implanted males reacted to the STI with a decreased maximum acoustic frequency of one song part, while placebo-implanted males did not. Instead, placebo-implanted males sang the atonal part of their song with a broader frequency range. Furthermore, placebo-, but not Flut/Let-implanted males, sang shorter songs with shorter pauses between parts in the STIs. During simulated intrusions in fall, when testosterone levels are naturally low in this species, males of both treatment groups sang similar to Flut/Let-implanted males during breeding. The results suggest that song sung during a territorial encounter is of higher competitive value than song sung in an undisturbed situation and may, therefore, convey information about the motivation or quality of the territory holder. We conclude that testosterone facilitates context-dependent changes in song structures

  4. Pauses enhance chunk recognition in song element strings by zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Spierings, Michelle; de Weger, Anouk; Ten Cate, Carel

    2015-07-01

    When learning a language, it is crucial to know which syllables of a continuous sound string belong together as words. Human infants achieve this by attending to pauses between words or to the co-occurrence of syllables. It is not only humans that can segment a continuous string. Songbirds learning their song tend to copy 'chunks' from one or more tutors' songs and combine these into their own song. In the tutor songs, these chunks are often separated by pauses and a high co-occurrence of elements, suggesting that these features affect chunking and song learning. We examined experimentally whether the presence of pauses and element co-occurrence affect the ability of adult zebra finches to discriminate strings of song elements. Using a go/no-go design, two groups of birds were trained to discriminate between two strings. In one group (Pause-group), pauses were inserted between co-occurring element triplets in the strings, and in the other group (No-pause group), both strings were continuous. After making a correct discrimination, an individual proceeded to a reversal training using string segments. Segments were element triplets consistent in co-occurrence, triplets that were partly consistent in composition and triplets consisting of elements that did not co-occur in the strings. The Pause-group was faster in discriminating between the two strings. This group also responded differently to consistent triplets in the reversal training, compared to inconsistent triplets. The No-pause group did not differentiate among the triplet types. These results indicate that pauses in strings of song elements aid song discrimination and memorization of co-occurring element groups. PMID:25771964

  5. Music and dance make me feel alive: from Mandela's prison songs and dances to public policy.

    PubMed

    Buis, Johann S

    2013-01-01

    How is it possible for song and dance to exist in political incarceration and manifest itself later as public policy responding to apartheid atrocities? Examining the body of songs, oral history accounts, and eye-witness reports provided by fellow-prisoners of Mandela on Robben Island prison, I uncover a psychological environment mediated through music and dance--within the confines of a political prison. This source of prison music-making by political prisoners in detention, provide us with the artistic expressions of revolutionary songs, parody songs, praise songs, laments, etc. These music genres reflect ontologies embedded in Mandela's juristic imagination. My framework for explaining these ontologies is a theoretical framework I call an aesthetic of function: internal ontologies that speak to the African cultural ground against which external ontologies are expressed in the jurisprudential redress to apartheid atrocities. Examining his external (jurisprudential) ontologies through song and dance, one realizes that the best way for him to have solved the unprecedented public redress of apartheid atrocities is evident in the songs he sang in Robben Island prison. Retribution could have been a logical solution for him. Instead, he turned to truth-telling and reconciliation as public policy. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission's unprecedented breaking of social and jurisprudential boundaries, the claim of agency for both victims and perpetrators, and public policy of South Africa's first democratically elected black president, lie deeply embedded in cultural practices he testified to in his autobiography, "The Long Walk to Freedom". These cultural practices in prison were singing and dancing. This paper complements the music-as-torture trope: here music in detention carries ontological agency. Musical evidence of stylistic features, text, and contextual analyses, and related literary criticism devices, expose Mandela's embedded internal and external

  6. Restructuring Hong Kong's Schools: The Applicability of Western Theories, Policies, and Practices to an Asian Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmock, Clive

    1998-01-01

    Explores the appropriateness and synchrony between educational policy reforms imported into Hong Kong and central features of the host culture. Draws upon Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions to provide a framework for identifying and matching Hong Kong's culture in juxtaposition with other cultures. Despite powerful Western influences, Hong Kong…

  7. Impacts of Credit Cards on Individuals, Families and Society in Hong Kong: An Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Alfred C. M.

    Credit cards have swept through almost every social class and all ages in Hong Kong. This paper attempts to provide a preliminary analysis of the possible impact of credit cards on individuals and their families in Hong Kong. A literature review reveals that Hong Kong people, while enjoying the freedom and convenience of "plastic money," are…

  8. Hong Kong and China: 'One Country, Two Systems'? Headline Series No. 310.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Frank

    This booklet chronicles the emergence of Hong Kong through its stormy history and examines the current status as changes are underway with the return of Hong Kong to China. Maps and charts illustrate the text. Chapters include: (1) Prelude; (2) "The Tiananmen Massacre and Its Aftermath"; (3) "Transition Years: 1991-96"; (4) "Hong Kong's Economy";…

  9. Education Reform in Hong Kong: The "Through-Road" Model and Its Societal Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Anita Y. K.; Wong, Yiu-Chung

    2008-01-01

    Although Hong Kong's education system has long been criticized as lacking in creativity and over-emphasising rote learning, on the whole it has served Hong Kong well in the past years, breeding outstanding business, academic and political leaders who continue to maintain Hong Kong's competitive edge. The traditional elite schools have played a…

  10. The Paradox of Educational Quality and Education Policy in Hong Kong and Macau: A Postcolonial Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Bill K. P.

    2012-01-01

    This article seeks to explain a paradox concerning education qualities and reform in Hong Kong and Macau: Hong Kong is ranked higher than Macau on Program for International Student Assessment and various world university leagues. Even so, the education reform in Hong Kong is more profound and vigorous than that in Macau. From the postcolonial…

  11. Implementation of the Hong Kong Language Policy in Pre-School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Cheung-Shing Sam; Lim, Swee Eng Audrey; Li, Yuen Ling

    2013-01-01

    In the past, the Curriculum Development Council in Hong Kong [Curriculum Development Council (CDC). (1996). "Guide to the Pre-Primary Curriculum." Hong Kong: Government Printer; CDC. (2000). "Consultation Document: Learning to Learn: The Way Forward in Curriculum Development." Hong Kong: Government Printer; CDC. (2001).…

  12. Referencing and Borrowing from Other Systems: The Hong Kong Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forestier, Katherine; Adamson, Bob; Han, Christine; Morris, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background: This paper analyses the role of, and approach to, policy referencing and borrowing in Hong Kong's recent reforms that culminated in the creation of its New Academic Structure and the Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education. Main argument: It argues that Hong Kong has gone further than most jurisdictions not just in responding to…

  13. Impacts of a STSE High School Biology Course on the Scientific Literacy of Hong Kong Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Kwok-chi

    2013-01-01

    The PISA performance of Hong Kong has prompted this study to investigate if scientific literacy (SL) of Hong Kong students can be improved further through a high school biology course employing the STSE approach. A STSE course was developed in accordance to the contexts of Hong Kong and a framework for the assessment of scientific literacy was…

  14. The Discrepancy between Teachers' Beliefs and Practices: A Study of Kindergarten Teachers in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Wai Ling

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the discrepancy between teachers' beliefs and practices in Hong Kong kindergartens and the factors that influence this discrepancy. Three kindergartens, considered by the Hong Kong Education Bureau to be of varying quality, were chosen from different areas of Hong Kong. Questionnaires about teaching beliefs were administered to…

  15. Grade Level and Achievement of Immigrants' Children: Academic Redshirting in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pong, Suet-Ling

    2009-01-01

    Data from Hong Kong PISA 2003 show that 15-year-old Hong Kong students who have immigrant parents from mainland China are grossly overrepresented in grades below the modal grade attended by most native Hong Kong students. Same-age comparison, when grade level is not taken into account, puts immigrants' children at a disadvantaged position in the…

  16. Higher Education in Hong Kong: A Case Study of Universities Navigating through the Asian Economic Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Phoebe Hsu

    2010-01-01

    Since the establishment of the University of Hong Kong in 1911, higher education in Hong Kong has been transformed from an elitist system to one that supports the Hong Kong government's vision of a highly educated workforce and widely accessible lifelong learning. Between the late 1970s and 1994 the system expanded from admitting 2% of college-age…

  17. The Double Marking of Liberal Studies in the Hong Kong Public Examination System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coniam, David

    2011-01-01

    Background: This article reports a study into the double marking of Liberal Studies in Hong Kong. This is now a compulsory subject in Hong Kong's Years 10-12 curriculum which, when first examined in the new Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education in 2012, will increase its candidature from its current 3,300 to 80,000. Aims: To examine the…

  18. Sources of sulfur dioxide pollution in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Tsui, Wing-Sing; Pang, Sik-Wing; Chin, H.C.P.

    1996-12-31

    Sulfur dioxide pollution problem was serious in Hong Kong before the implementation of the fuel restriction regulations in July 1990, which restricted the use of low sulfur content fossil fuels. Since then SO{sub 2} concentrations dropped drastically. There was no exceedance of the Hong Kong Air Quality Objectives (AQO) in 1991, comparing to 13 exceedance in 1989, and the Hong Kong annual average reduced from 34 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in 1989 to 21 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in 1991. However, it doesn`t mean that SO{sub 2} can be neglected. In 1993, there were two exceedances of the 1-hour AQO of 800 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, and the Hong Kong annual average increased again to 26 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. The major emission sources of SO{sub 2} in Hong Kong are the power stations, which accounted for 84% of the total 185 K tonnes of SO{sub 2} emissions in 1993. Though these stations are at the down-wind side of the territory, the potential impact should not be over looked. Results are given.

  19. Male song quality modulates c-Fos expression in the auditory forebrain of the female canary.

    PubMed

    Monbureau, Marie; Barker, Jennifer M; Leboucher, Gérard; Balthazart, Jacques

    2015-08-01

    In canaries, specific phrases of male song (sexy songs, SS) that are difficult to produce are especially attractive for females. Females exposed to SS produce more copulation displays and deposit more testosterone into their eggs than females exposed to non-sexy songs (NS). Increased expression of the immediate early genes c-Fos or zenk (a.k.a. egr-1) has been observed in the auditory forebrain of female songbirds hearing attractive songs. C-Fos immunoreactive (Fos-ir) cell numbers were quantified here in the brain of female canaries that had been collected 30min after they had been exposed for 60min to the playback of SS or NS or control white noise. Fos-ir cell numbers increased in the caudomedial mesopallium (CMM) and caudomedial nidopallium (NCM) of SS birds as compared to controls. Song playback (pooled SS and NS) also tended to increase average Fos-ir cell numbers in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) but this effect did not reach full statistical significance. At the individual level, Fos expression in CMM was correlated with its expression in NCM and in MBH but also with the frequency of calls that females produced in response to the playbacks. These data thus indicate that male songs of different qualities induce a differential metabolic activation of NCM and CMM. The correlation between activation of auditory regions and of the MBH might reflect the link between auditory stimulation and changes in behavior and reproductive physiology. PMID:25846435

  20. Prediction of Potential Hit Song and Musical Genre Using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monterola, Christopher; Abundo, Cheryl; Tugaff, Jeric; Venturina, Lorcel Ericka

    Accurately quantifying the goodness of music based on the seemingly subjective taste of the public is a multi-million industry. Recording companies can make sound decisions on which songs or artists to prioritize if accurate forecasting is achieved. We extract 56 single-valued musical features (e.g. pitch and tempo) from 380 Original Pilipino Music (OPM) songs (190 are hit songs) released from 2004 to 2006. Based on an effect size criterion which measures a variable's discriminating power, the 20 highest ranked features are fed to a classifier tasked to predict hit songs. We show that regardless of musical genre, a trained feed-forward neural network (NN) can predict potential hit songs with an average accuracy of ΦNN = 81%. The accuracy is about +20% higher than those of standard classifiers such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA, ΦLDA = 61%) and classification and regression trees (CART, ΦCART = 57%). Both LDA and CART are above the proportional chance criterion (PCC, ΦPCC = 50%) but are slightly below the suggested acceptable classifier requirement of 1.25*ΦPCC = 63%. Utilizing a similar procedure, we demonstrate that different genres (ballad, alternative rock or rock) of OPM songs can be automatically classified with near perfect accuracy using LDA or NN but only around 77% using CART.

  1. Common cues to emotion in the dynamic facial expressions of speech and song

    PubMed Central

    Livingstone, Steven R.; Thompson, William F.; Wanderley, Marcelo M.; Palmer, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Speech and song are universal forms of vocalization that may share aspects of emotional expression. Research has focused on parallels in acoustic features, overlooking facial cues to emotion. In three experiments, we compared moving facial expressions in speech and song. In Experiment 1, vocalists spoke and sang statements each with five emotions. Vocalists exhibited emotion-dependent movements of the eyebrows and lip corners that transcended speech–song differences. Vocalists’ jaw movements were coupled to their acoustic intensity, exhibiting differences across emotion and speech–song. Vocalists’ emotional movements extended beyond vocal sound to include large sustained expressions, suggesting a communicative function. In Experiment 2, viewers judged silent videos of vocalists’ facial expressions prior to, during, and following vocalization. Emotional intentions were identified accurately for movements during and after vocalization, suggesting that these movements support the acoustic message. Experiment 3 compared emotional identification in voice-only, face-only, and face-and-voice recordings. Emotion judgements for voice-only singing were poorly identified, yet were accurate for all other conditions, confirming that facial expressions conveyed emotion more accurately than the voice in song, yet were equivalent in speech. Collectively, these findings highlight broad commonalities in the facial cues to emotion in speech and song, yet highlight differences in perception and acoustic-motor production. PMID:25424388

  2. Variation in social relationships relates to song preferences and EGR1 expression in a female songbird.

    PubMed

    Schubloom, Hannah E; Woolley, Sarah C

    2016-09-01

    Social experiences can profoundly shape social behavior and the underlying neural circuits. Across species, the formation of enduring social relationships is associated with both neural and behavioral changes. However, it remains unclear how longer-term relationships between individuals influence brain and behavior. Here, we investigated how variation in social relationships relates to variation in female preferences for and neural responses to song in a pair-bonding songbird. We assessed variation in the interactions between individuals in male-female zebra finch pairs and found that female preferences for their mate's song were correlated with the degree of affiliation and amount of socially modulated singing, but not with the frequency of aggressive interactions. Moreover, variation in measures of pair quality and preference correlated with variation in the song-induced expression of EGR1, an immediate early gene related to neural activity and plasticity, in brain regions important for auditory processing and social behavior. For example, females with weaker preferences for their mate's song had greater EGR1 expression in the nucleus Taeniae, the avian homologue of the mammalian medial amygdala, in response to playback of their mate's courtship song. Our data indicate that the quality of social interactions within pairs relates to variation in song preferences and neural responses to ethologically relevant stimuli and lend insight into neural circuits sensitive to social information. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 1029-1040, 2016. PMID:26713856

  3. Patterns of phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase vary with song production in female starlings

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Jesse M. S.; Riters, Lauren V.

    2013-01-01

    Vocal signal production in male songbirds is well studied, but the neural correlates of female song production are poorly understood. In European starlings, females sing to defend nesting resources, and song can be considered agonistically motivated. Across vertebrates catecholamines strongly influence motivated, agonistic social behaviors. The present study was designed to provide insight into a possible role for catecholamine activity in territorial song in female starlings. We presented females that were defending nest-cavities with an unfamiliar female and assessed song production. We then measured immunolabeling for phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase (pTH-ir), a rate-limiting enzyme for catecholamine synthesis, in brain regions in which catecholamines stimulate agonistic behavior. Females that sang had higher pTH-ir in the caudomedial ventral tegmental area and the lateral septum than females that did not sing. Furthermore, the number of songs produced correlated positively with pTH-ir in the medial preoptic nucleus. Phosphorylation of TH is thought to occur after catecholamine release, so these results link increased catecholamine activity in several brain regions governing agonistic behavior to territorial song production in females. PMID:23270608

  4. Interaction between auditory and motor activities in an avian song control nucleus.

    PubMed Central

    McCasland, J S; Konishi, M

    1981-01-01

    Discrete telencephalic nuclei HVc (hyperstriatum ventrale, pars caudale) and RA (nucleus robustus archistriatalis) have been implicated by lesion studies in the control of vocalization in songbirds. We demonstrate directly the role of HVc in vocalization by presenting neuronal recordings taken from HVc of singing birds. Intracellular recordings from anesthetized birds have shown that many neurons in HVc respond to auditory stimuli. We confirm this result in the extracellular recordings from awake-behaving birds and further demonstrate responses of HVc neurons to playback of the bird's own song. The functional significance of these responses is not yet clear, but behavioral studies show that auditory feedback plays a crucial role in the development of normal song. We show that the song-correlated temporal pattern of neural activity persists even in the deaf bird. Furthermore, we show that in the normal bird, the activity pattern correlated with production of certain song elements can be clearly distinguished from the pattern of auditory responses to the same song elements. This result implies that an interaction occurs in HVc of the singing bird between motor and auditory activity. Through experiments involving playback of sound while the bird is singing, we show that the interaction consists of motor inhibition of auditory activity in HVc and that this inhibition decays slowly over a period of seconds after the song terminates. PMID:6950421

  5. Pairing context determines condition-dependence of song rate in a monogamous passerine bird

    PubMed Central

    David, Morgan; Auclair, Yannick; Dall, Sasha R. X.; Cézilly, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Condition-dependence of male ornaments is thought to provide honest signals on which females can base their sexual choice for genetic quality. Recent studies show that condition-dependence patterns can vary within populations. Although long-term association is thought to promote honest signalling, no study has explored the influence of pairing context on the condition-dependence of male ornaments. In this study, we assessed the influence of natural variation in body condition on song rate in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) in three different situations: during short and long encounters with an unfamiliar female, and within heterosexual mated pairs. We found consistent individual differences in male directed and undirected song rate. Moreover, body condition had a positive effect on song rate in paired males. However, male song rate was not influenced by body condition during short or long encounters with unfamiliar females. Song rate appears to be an unreliable signal of condition to prospective females as even poor-condition birds can cheat and sing at a high rate. By contrast, paired females can reliably use song rate to assess their mate's body condition, and possibly the genetic quality. We propose that species' characteristics, such as mating system, should be systematically taken into account to generate relevant hypotheses about the evolution of condition-dependent male ornaments. PMID:23256191

  6. Male mice song syntax depends on social contexts and influences female preferences

    PubMed Central

    Chabout, Jonathan; Sarkar, Abhra; Dunson, David B.; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2005, Holy and Guo advanced the idea that male mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) with some features similar to courtship songs of songbirds. Since then, studies showed that male mice emit USV songs in different contexts (sexual and other) and possess a multisyllabic repertoire. Debate still exists for and against plasticity in their vocalizations. But the use of a multisyllabic repertoire can increase potential flexibility and information, in how elements are organized and recombined, namely syntax. In many bird species, modulating song syntax has ethological relevance for sexual behavior and mate preferences. In this study we exposed adult male mice to different social contexts and developed a new approach of analyzing their USVs based on songbird syntax analysis. We found that male mice modify their syntax, including specific sequences, length of sequence, repertoire composition, and spectral features, according to stimulus and social context. Males emit longer and simpler syllables and sequences when singing to females, but more complex syllables and sequences in response to fresh female urine. Playback experiments show that the females prefer the complex songs over the simpler ones. We propose the complex songs are to lure females in, whereas the directed simpler sequences are used for direct courtship. These results suggest that although mice have a much more limited ability of song modification, they could still be used as animal models for understanding some vocal communication features that songbirds are used for. PMID:25883559

  7. Song type matching is an honest early threat signal in a hierarchical animal communication system

    PubMed Central

    Akçay, Çag˘lar; Tom, Mari E.; Campbell, S. Elizabeth; Beecher, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive encounters between animals often involve significant amounts of signalling before or in lieu of physical fights. When, as is often the case, these apparent threat signals are neither inherently costly nor inherently indicative of fighting ability, we should ask whether they are in fact honest signals, i.e. do they predict that escalation is imminent? While signalling theories have indicated that such ‘conventional’ threat signals can honestly predict escalation, attempts to gather supporting empirical evidence have mostly failed. For example, recent studies in songbirds of song type matching (replying to an opponent's song with the same song type he has just sung) have failed to confirm that it predicts an eventual attack by the signaller. In the present study of song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), we tested the hypothesis that song type matching is an early threat signal in a hierarchical signalling system. We used an improved model-playback design that simulated an escalating intrusion onto the subject's territory: the simulated opponent first sang in hiding from the boundary before moving to the centre of the territory, where he revealed himself and continued to sing. We found that type matching beginning in the boundary phase and continuing into the escalation phase, or beginning immediately after the escalation, reliably predicted both subsequent escalated signalling (soft songs and wing waves) and subsequent attack on the model, supporting the hypothesis that type matching is a reliable early threat signal. PMID:23378665

  8. Transcontinental latitudinal variation in song performance and complexity in house wrens (Troglodytes aedon).

    PubMed

    Kaluthota, Chinthaka; Brinkman, Benjamin E; Dos Santos, Ednei B; Rendall, Drew

    2016-02-10

    There is growing interest in latitudinal effects on animal behaviour and life history. One recent focus is on birdsong, which is hypothesized to be more elaborated or complex in the north temperate zone compared with the tropics. Current evidence is mixed and based on cross-species comparisons, or single species with restricted distributions. We circumvent these limitations using a transcontinental sample of 358 songs from house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) at 281 locations spanning more than 100° of latitude (52° N-55° S) across the Americas. We found a significant latitudinal gradient in several basic elements of song performance and complexity between north temperate and tropical populations. Furthermore, we document convergence in song patterns between populations at higher latitudes in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Effects were strongest for the number of elements in a song, and the rate of element production, both increasing towards the poles, with similar but weaker effects for other song dimensions (e.g. number of unique elements, trills and trill rate). We consider possible causes related to variable habitats and morphology, concluding that the shorter breeding seasons at higher latitudes in both hemispheres may favour greater song elaboration to mediate territory competition and mate choice. PMID:26865297

  9. Assessing visual requirements for social context-dependent activation of the songbird song system

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Erina; Kubikova, Lubica; Hessler, Neal A.; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2008-01-01

    Social context has been shown to have a profound influence on brain activation in a wide range of vertebrate species. Best studied in songbirds, when males sing undirected song, the level of neural activity and expression of immediate early genes (IEGs) in several song nuclei is dramatically higher or lower than when they sing directed song to other birds, particularly females. This differential social context-dependent activation is independent of auditory input and is not simply dependent on the motor act of singing. These findings suggested that the critical sensory modality driving social context-dependent differences in the brain could be visual cues. Here, we tested this hypothesis by examining IEG activation in song nuclei in hemispheres to which visual input was normal or blocked. We found that covering one eye blocked visually induced IEG expression throughout both contralateral visual pathways of the brain, and reduced activation of the contralateral ventral tegmental area, a non-visual midbrain motivation-related area affected by social context. However, blocking visual input had no effect on the social context-dependent activation of the contralateral song nuclei during female-directed singing. Our findings suggest that individual sensory modalities are not direct driving forces for the social context differences in song nuclei during singing. Rather, these social context differences in brain activation appear to depend more on the general sense that another individual is present. PMID:18826930

  10. Dominance-related seasonal song production is unrelated to circulating testosterone in a subtropical songbird.

    PubMed

    York, Jenny E; Radford, Andrew N; de Vries, Bonnie; Groothuis, Ton G; Young, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    Circulating testosterone (T) is widely considered to play a key role in the production of sexual displays by male vertebrates. While numerous studies support a role for circulating T in promoting the production of song in male birds, this understanding is based primarily on evidence from seasonally breeding northern temperate species, leaving it unclear whether this mechanism generalizes to other regions of the world. Here we investigate whether variation in circulating levels of T can explain the marked within- and among-individual variation in male song performance observed in a subtropical population of the year-round territorial white-browed sparrow weaver (Plocepasser mahali mahali). Our findings reveal that both circulating T and male song production peaked at a similar time point, halfway through the population-level breeding season. However, while dominant males were more likely to sing and sang for longer than subordinate males, within-group paired comparisons revealed no dominance-related differences in circulating T. Moreover, comparisons both among and within individual dominant males revealed that song duration, syllable rate and proportion of time spent singing were all unrelated to circulating T. Together, our findings suggest that natural variation in male song production, at least in this population of white-browed sparrow weavers, is achieved principally through mechanisms other than variation in circulating T concentration. More widely, our results are in line with the view that male song production is not exclusively regulated by gonadally synthesized steroids. PMID:27179883

  11. Sensory Constraints on Birdsong Syntax: Neural Responses to Swamp Sparrow Songs with Accelerated Trill Rates

    PubMed Central

    Prather, JF; Peters, S; Mooney, R; Nowicki, S

    2013-01-01

    Both sensory and motor mechanisms can constrain behavioral performance. Sensory mechanisms may be especially important for constraining behaviors that depend on experience, such as learned birdsongs. Swamp sparrows learn to sing by imitating the song of a tutor, but sparrows fail to accurately imitate artificial tutor songs with abnormally accelerated trills, instead singing brief and rapid trills interrupted by silent gaps. This “broken syntax” has been proposed to arise from vocal-motor limitations. Here we consider whether sensory limitations exist that could also contribute to broken syntax. We tested this idea by recording auditory-evoked activity of sensorimotor neurons in the swamp sparrow’s brain that are known to be important for the learning, performance and perception of song. In freely behaving adult sparrows that sang songs with normal syntax, neurons were detected that exhibited precisely time-locked activity to each repetition of the syllable in a trill when presented at a natural rate. Those cells failed to faithfully follow syllables presented at an accelerated rate, however, and their failure to respond to consecutive syllables increased as a function of trill rate. This “flickering” auditory representation in animals performing normal syntax reveals a central constraint on the sensory processing of rapid trills. Furthermore, because these neurons are implicated in both song learning and perception, and because auditory flickering began to occur at accelerated trill rates previously associated with the emergence of broken song syntax, these sensory constraints may contribute to the emergence of broken syntax. PMID:23976787

  12. Songs of two starling species: common traits versus adaptations to the social environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houdelier, C.; Hausberger, M.; Craig, A. J. F. K.

    2012-12-01

    We analysed, for the first time, songs of the African Red-winged Starling Onychognathus morio and compared their general characteristics with those of the European Starling Sturnus vulgaris. Both species are gregarious during the non-breeding season, but European Starlings tend to nest in colonies, form unstable pair-bonds and are occasionally polygynous, whereas Red-winged Starlings form long-term pair-bonds and occupy exclusive nesting territories. Red-winged Starlings produced the same basic song categories as European Starlings: warbles and whistles. These two categories appeared to be involved in similar social interactions in the two species. However, several aspects of song behaviour differed between the two species: Red-winged Starlings, breeding in isolated nests, preferentially used whistles for long-distance communication and showed a simpler organization of warbling song. Whistles in the Red-winged Starling were mostly shared between birds and, in contrast to the European Starling, were not indicators of individual identity. Also in contrast to the European Starling, female song in Red-winged Starlings appeared very important throughout the breeding period. Our results suggest that some song characteristics in the two species are phylogenetically conserved whereas others are affected by the distinct social systems of the two species.

  13. Geographic variation in Northwest Atlantic fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) song: implications for stock structure assessment.

    PubMed

    Delarue, Julien; Todd, Sean K; Van Parijs, Sofie M; Di Iorio, Lucia

    2009-03-01

    Passive acoustic data are increasingly being used as a tool for helping to define marine mammal populations and stocks. Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) songs present a unique opportunity to determine interstock differences. Their highly stereotyped interpulse interval has been shown to vary between geographic areas and to remain stable over time in some areas. In this study the structure of songs recorded at two geographically close feeding aggregations in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (GSL) and Gulf of Maine (GoM) was compared. Recordings were made from September 2005 through February 2006 in the GSL and intermittently between January 2006 and September 2007 at two locations in the GoM. 6257 pulse intervals corresponding to 19 GSL and 29 GoM songs were measured to characterize songs from both areas. Classification trees showed that GSL songs differ significantly from those in the GoM. The results are consistent with those derived from other stock structure assessment methodologies, such as chemical signature and photoidentification analysis, suggesting that fin whales in these areas may form separate management stocks. Song structure analysis could therefore provide a useful and cost-efficient tool for defining conservation units over temporal and geographical scales relevant to management objectives in fin whales. PMID:19275334

  14. Devonian fluviodeltaic sedimentation in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, N. S.; Fyfe, J. A.; Sewell, R. J.; Lai, K. W.; Lee, C. M.

    1997-12-01

    Twenty-three distinct sedimentary facies have been distinguished in the Devonian Bluff Head Formation exposed around the Tolo Channel area of northeastern Hong Kong. These facies have been combined into five facies associations: channel, aeolian, sheetflood, deltaic and palaeosol, with the bulk of the formation belonging to the channel association. The lower part of the Bluff Head Formation, around Plover Cove, consists of upwards-coarsening cycles, each typically 3 m thick. The basal parts of some cycles contain distinctive marine fossils of Early to Middle Devonian age. Sedimentation occurred on a marine-influenced delta plain, with eustatic sea level rises controlling cycle development. The middle and upper parts of the formation contrast strongly with the lower part and show a distinct change to alluvial plain sedimentation. Upward-fining cycles, each approximately 40 m thick, comprise basal multistorey, braided, conglomerate-filled channel deposits at the base passing upwards into finer-grained sheetflood, aeolian and channel sandstones at the top. Palaeosols in the higher parts of the cycles indicate periods of non-deposition under semi-arid climatic conditions. These cycles represent repeated abandonments of the fluvial system which we suggest were controlled by tectonic pulses.

  15. Lifestyle and Depression among Hong Kong Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Teris; Yip, Paul S.F.

    2016-01-01

    Recent longitudinal data suggest a close association between depression and lifestyle. Little work to date has estimated the prevalence of depression in the nursing workforce in China, nor considered what lifestyle factors might be correlated with it—a gap filled by the present study. The study’s web-based cross-sectional survey solicited data from qualified nurses aged between 21 and 65 registered with the Hong Kong Nursing Council. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 was used to measure 850 nurses for depression, anxiety and symptoms of stress; a generalized linear regression model examined associations between lifestyle factors and depression. Mean depression symptom scores show a downward linear trend for male and female participants. Gender and age, however, did not emerge as significant predictors of depression. Three lifestyles factors (sleep, entertainment and hobbies) showed a significant association with depression. Nurses should make therapeutic lifestyle changes to improve their work-life balance and safeguard their functioning at work and personal well-being. PMID:26784216

  16. Acrylamide in Asian foods in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Leung, K S; Lin, A; Tsang, C K; Yeung, S T K

    2003-12-01

    About 400 food samples, mainly Asian foods available in Hong Kong, were tested for acrylamide by an LC-MS/MS method using [1, 2, 3-(13)C(3)]-acrylamide as surrogate. The acrylamide levels in the more commonly consumed food items in the food groups such as rice and rice products, noodles, bakery and batter-based products, were generally less than 60 microg kg(-1). Higher levels were found in the food groups such as biscuit-related products and crisps. The highest levels were detected in potato crisps (1500-1700 microg kg(-1)). Lower levels were found in rye flour-based crisps (440 microg kg(-1)), followed by corn-based (65 to 230 microg kg(-1)) and wheat flour-based crisps (61-200 microg kg(-1)), and then rice flour-based crisps (15-42 microg kg(-1)). The acrylamide formation during deep frying of a wheat flour-based product, Chinese fried fritter, was studied. Deep-frying at 170 degrees C resulted in gentle but steady rise in acrylamide content. A steep rise for frying at 210 degrees C was recorded. The moisture content of the product decreased with frying time, but the fat content increased. It is proposed that the reaction for the formation of acrylamide was initiated on the surface and then penetrated into the interior of the food matrix by heat transfer via radiation/conduction and diffusion of hot oil. PMID:14726273

  17. Changing Intergroup Relations with Mainland Chinese: An Analysis of Changes in Hong Kong Movies as a Popular Cultural Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Emily Tsz Yan

    2010-01-01

    Hong Kong popular culture played an important role in the construction and consolidation of Hong Kong identity long before the handover to China. In the past few years leading up to the 10th anniversary of the handover, both Hong Kong and China have undergone numerous changes which seem to be changing their relations. Whilst Hong Kong people had…

  18. Developmental issues of university students in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L; Cheung, Boris P M

    2013-01-01

    Four domains of developmental issues of university students in Hong Kong are examined in this paper. First, behavioral and lifestyle problems of university students are identified, including alcohol consumption, Internet addiction, cyber-pornography, irregular sleep patterns, and interpersonal violence. Second, the mental health problems of university students, including suicidal ideation, depression and anxiety problems, are outlined. Third, issues on self-determination (including establishment of personal goals), self-confidence, and materialism of the students are reviewed. Fourth, issues related to students' connection to the society, including egocentrism and civic engagement, are discussed. The views of employers about university graduates in Hong Kong are also examined. With the emergence of developmental issues among Hong Kong university students, it is argued that promoting the psychosocial competencies of university students via positive youth development programs is an important strategy in addressing such issues. PMID:23612589

  19. [Strategies for sustainable development of Hong Kong Global Geopark].

    PubMed

    Ng, Sai-Leung; Fang, Shi-Ming; Li, Jiang-Feng

    2012-04-01

    Hong Kong has a limited area of 1108 km2 but remarkably rich geodiversity and diversified geology, landforms, and assemblages of associated features and processes. Some of the geological features can even be considered as world-class, which deserves more attention. Over the years, Hong Kong has allocated a lot of resources in biodiversity conservation, but the geodiversity conservation has been a missing piece in the initiatives of biocentric conversation for decades. The National Geopark in Hong Kong was eventually established in 2009, and listed as a Global Geopark by UNESCO in September 2011. This Geopark not only aims at the protection of natural environment, but also provides the public with opportunities of recreation and education. While these objectives seem to be conflicting, the conflicts can be solved by balancing the orientation first, and then, according to the real situation, implementing proper design, planning, and management. PMID:22803454

  20. Child slavery in Hong Kong: case report and historical review.

    PubMed

    Lee, A C W; So, K T

    2006-12-01

    An 11-year-old girl was admitted with multiple injuries sustained during a 1-year servitude of domestic labour. She was acquired from her parents in Mainland China by a relative in Hong Kong. The child's parents received a sum of money that the child had to repay with work. Her hardship was characterised by long hours of incessant labour and physical torture when she failed to meet the demands of her mistress or her mistress' children. This case resembles Mui Tsai, a form of child slavery and exploitative domestic labour that was rife in Hong Kong a century ago, and illustrates the new challenges to child rights and protection consequent to the increasing social and economic integration between the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Mainland China. PMID:17148801

  1. Eastern Bluebirds Alter their Song in Response to Anthropogenic Changes in the Acoustic Environment.

    PubMed

    Kight, Caitlin R; Swaddle, John P

    2015-09-01

    Vocal responses to anthropogenic noise have been documented in several species of songbird. However, only a few studies have investigated whether these adjustments are made in "real time" or are longer-term responses to particular soundscapes. Furthermore, increased ambient noise often is accompanied by structural changes to the habitat, including the introduction of noisy roadways and the removal of native vegetation. To date, no studies have simultaneously investigated the impact of both acoustic and structural disturbance on the same species. The relevance of each of these variables must be quantified if we wish to refine our understanding of the ways in which human activities influence avian communication. In this study, we quantified both among-male and within-male adjustments of song in response to ambient noise, and also investigated whether anthropogenic modifications of the habitat explained variations in songs' parameters. Recordings of songs were collected from male, breeding eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) residing in a network of nestboxes distributed across a gradient of anthropogenic disturbance. Levels of ambient noise were associated both with the average song-parameters of each male and with the change in a male's song-parameters between the loudest and quietest periods at his nest box. Males' song parameters were also related to habitat structure, as assessed using geographic information systems techniques. Males in noisier sites produced both higher-pitched and louder songs than did birds in quieter areas. Likewise, individual males demonstrated immediate adjustments to disturbance by noise, increasing the amplitude of their song between periods of quiet and loud ambient noise. Both spectral and temporal aspects of a male's song were related to whether his habitat was more "natural" or "anthropogenic." Our results indicate that males' adjustments of song may represent simultaneous responses to multiple modifications of the habitat by humans

  2. Song environment affects singing effort and vasotocin immunoreactivity in the forebrain of male Lincoln’s sparrows

    PubMed Central

    Sewall, Kendra B.; Dankoski, Elyse C.; Sockman, Keith W.

    2010-01-01

    Male songbirds often establish territories and attract mates by singing, and some song features can reflect the singer’s condition or quality. The quality of the song environment can change, so male songbirds should benefit from assessing the competitiveness of the song environment and appropriately adjusting their own singing behavior and the neural substrates by which song is controlled. In a wide range of taxa social modulation of behavior is partly mediated by the arginine vasopressin or vasotocin (AVP/AVT) systems. To examine the modulation of singing behavior in response to the quality of the song environment we compared the song output of laboratory-housed male Lincoln’s sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii) exposed to one week of chronic playback of songs categorized as either high or low quality, based on song length, complexity and trill performance. To explore the neural basis of any facultative shifts in behavior, we also quantified the subjects’ AVT immunoreactivity (AVT-IR) in three forebrain regions that regulate socio-sexual behavior: the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm), the lateral septum (LS) and the preoptic area. We found that high quality songs increased singing effort and reduced AVT-IR in the BSTm and LS, relative to low quality songs. The effect of the quality of the song environment on both singing effort and forebrain AVT-IR raises the hypothesis that AVT within these brain regions plays a role in the modulation of behavior in response to competition that individual males may assess from the prevailing song environment. PMID:20399213

  3. Grade level and achievement of immigrants’ children: academic redshirting in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Data from Hong Kong PISA 2003 show that 15-year-old Hong Kong students who have immigrant parents from mainland China are grossly overrepresented in grades below the modal grade attended by most native Hong Kong students. Same-age comparison, when grade level is not taken into account, puts immigrants’ children at a disadvantaged position in the mathematics, reading, and science literacy tests. The academic advantage of immigrants’ children in Hong Kong is only revealed after grade is statistically controlled. Also, mainland immigrant students who are repeaters outperform native Hong Kong repeaters. Immigrant redshirting is a possible driving force behind these results. PMID:25214810

  4. A Brief Overview of Adolescent Developmental Problems in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Keung Ma, Hing; Sun, Rachel C. F.

    2011-01-01

    Several adolescent developmental problems in Hong Kong are briefly reviewed in this paper. First, rising adolescent substance abuse trends are described. Second, Internet use problems and Internet addiction among young people are examined. Third, worrying trends in adolescent sexuality are identified. Fourth, phenomena on bullying among young people are reviewed. Finally, phenomena related to adolescent materialistic orientation are focused upon. With reference to these adolescent developmental problems, possible solutions are briefly discussed particularly with reference to the ecological perspective. It is argued that the related scientific literature provides useful pointers for designing the curriculum in the extension phase of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong. PMID:22194661

  5. A brief overview of adolescent developmental problems in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L; Keung Ma, Hing; Sun, Rachel C F

    2011-01-01

    Several adolescent developmental problems in Hong Kong are briefly reviewed in this paper. First, rising adolescent substance abuse trends are described. Second, Internet use problems and Internet addiction among young people are examined. Third, worrying trends in adolescent sexuality are identified. Fourth, phenomena on bullying among young people are reviewed. Finally, phenomena related to adolescent materialistic orientation are focused upon. With reference to these adolescent developmental problems, possible solutions are briefly discussed particularly with reference to the ecological perspective. It is argued that the related scientific literature provides useful pointers for designing the curriculum in the extension phase of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong. PMID:22194661

  6. Arrhythmic Song Exposure Increases ZENK Expression in Auditory Cortical Areas and Nucleus Taeniae of the Adult Zebra Finch

    PubMed Central

    Lampen, Jennifer; Jones, Katherine; McAuley, J. Devin; Chang, Soo-Eun; Wade, Juli

    2014-01-01

    Rhythm is important in the production of motor sequences such as speech and song. Deficits in rhythm processing have been implicated in human disorders that affect speech and language processing, including stuttering, autism, and dyslexia. Songbirds provide a tractable model for studying the neural underpinnings of rhythm processing due to parallels with humans in neural structures and vocal learning patterns. In this study, adult zebra finches were exposed to naturally rhythmic conspecific song or arrhythmic song. Immunohistochemistry for the immediate early gene ZENK was used to detect neural activation in response to these two types of stimuli. ZENK was increased in response to arrhythmic song in the auditory association cortex homologs, caudomedial nidopallium (NCM) and caudomedial mesopallium (CMM), and the avian amygdala, nucleus taeniae (Tn). CMM also had greater ZENK labeling in females than males. The increased neural activity in NCM and CMM during perception of arrhythmic stimuli parallels increased activity in the human auditory cortex following exposure to unexpected, or perturbed, auditory stimuli. These auditory areas may be detecting errors in arrhythmic song when comparing it to a stored template of how conspecific song is expected to sound. CMM may also be important for females in evaluating songs of potential mates. In the context of other research in songbirds, we suggest that the increased activity in Tn may be related to the value of song for assessing mate choice and bonding or it may be related to perception of arrhythmic song as aversive. PMID:25259620

  7. Experimental exposure to urban and pink noise affects brain development and song learning in zebra finches (Taenopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    Potvin, Dominique A; Curcio, Michael T; Swaddle, John P; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    Recently, numerous studies have observed changes in bird vocalizations-especially song-in urban habitats. These changes are often interpreted as adaptive, since they increase the active space of the signal in its environment. However, the proximate mechanisms driving cross-generational changes in song are still unknown. We performed a captive experiment to identify whether noise experienced during development affects song learning and the development of song-control brain regions. Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were bred while exposed, or not exposed, to recorded traffic urban noise (Study 1) or pink noise (Study 2). We recorded the songs of male offspring and compared these to fathers' songs. We also measured baseline corticosterone and measured the size of song-control brain regions when the males reached adulthood (Study 1 only). While male zebra finches tended to copy syllables accurately from tutors regardless of noise environment, syntax (the ordering of syllables within songs) was incorrectly copied affected by juveniles exposed to noise. Noise did not affect baseline corticosterone, but did affect the size of brain regions associated with song learning: these regions were smaller in males that had been had been exposed to recorded traffic urban noise in early development. These findings provide a possible mechanism by which noise affects behaviour, leading to potential population differences between wild animals occupying noisier urban environments compared with those in quieter habitats. PMID:27602270

  8. Song Perception by Professional Singers and Actors: An MEG Study.

    PubMed

    Rosslau, Ken; Herholz, Sibylle C; Knief, Arne; Ortmann, Magdalene; Deuster, Dirk; Schmidt, Claus-Michael; Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Antoinetteam; Pantev, Christo; Dobel, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The cortical correlates of speech and music perception are essentially overlapping, and the specific effects of different types of training on these networks remain unknown. We compared two groups of vocally trained professionals for music and speech, singers and actors, using recited and sung rhyme sequences from German art songs with semantic and/ or prosodic/melodic violations (i.e. violations of pitch) of the last word, in order to measure the evoked activation in a magnetoencephalographic (MEG) experiment. MEG data confirmed the existence of intertwined networks for the sung and spoken modality in an early time window after word violation. In essence for this early response, higher activity was measured after melodic/prosodic than semantic violations in predominantly right temporal areas. For singers as well as for actors, modality-specific effects were evident in predominantly left-temporal lateralized activity after semantic expectancy violations in the spoken modality, and right-dominant temporal activity in response to melodic violations in the sung modality. As an indication of a special group-dependent audiation process, higher neuronal activity for singers appeared in a late time window in right temporal and left parietal areas, both after the recited and the sung sequences. PMID:26863437

  9. How Do “Mute” Cicadas Produce Their Calling Songs?

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Changqing; Wei, Cong; Nansen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Insects have evolved a variety of structures and mechanisms to produce sounds, which are used for communication both within and between species. Among acoustic insects, cicada males are particularly known for their loud and diverse sounds which function importantly in communication. The main method of sound production in cicadas is the tymbal mechanism, and a relative small number of cicada species possess both tymbal and stridulatory organs. However, cicadas of the genus Karenia do not have any specialized sound-producing structures, so they are referred to as “mute”. This denomination is quite misleading, as they indeed produce sounds. Here, we investigate the sound-producing mechanism and acoustic communication of the “mute” cicada, Karenia caelatata, and discover a new sound-production mechanism for cicadas: i.e., K. caelatata produces impact sounds by banging the forewing costa against the operculum. The temporal, frequency and amplitude characteristics of the impact sounds are described. Morphological studies and reflectance-based analyses reveal that the structures involved in sound production of K. caelatata (i.e., forewing, operculum, cruciform elevation, and wing-holding groove on scutellum) are all morphologically modified. Acoustic playback experiments and behavioral observations suggest that the impact sounds of K. caelatata are used in intraspecific communication and function as calling songs. The new sound-production mechanism expands our knowledge on the diversity of acoustic signaling behavior in cicadas and further underscores the need for more bioacoustic studies on cicadas which lack tymbal mechanism. PMID:25714608

  10. Song Perception by Professional Singers and Actors: An MEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Rosslau, Ken; Herholz, Sibylle C.; Knief, Arne; Ortmann, Magdalene; Deuster, Dirk; Schmidt, Claus-Michael; Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Antoinetteam; Pantev, Christo; Dobel, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The cortical correlates of speech and music perception are essentially overlapping, and the specific effects of different types of training on these networks remain unknown. We compared two groups of vocally trained professionals for music and speech, singers and actors, using recited and sung rhyme sequences from German art songs with semantic and/ or prosodic/melodic violations (i.e. violations of pitch) of the last word, in order to measure the evoked activation in a magnetoencephalographic (MEG) experiment. MEG data confirmed the existence of intertwined networks for the sung and spoken modality in an early time window after word violation. In essence for this early response, higher activity was measured after melodic/prosodic than semantic violations in predominantly right temporal areas. For singers as well as for actors, modality-specific effects were evident in predominantly left-temporal lateralized activity after semantic expectancy violations in the spoken modality, and right-dominant temporal activity in response to melodic violations in the sung modality. As an indication of a special group-dependent audiation process, higher neuronal activity for singers appeared in a late time window in right temporal and left parietal areas, both after the recited and the sung sequences. PMID:26863437

  11. Complexity, Predictability and Time Homogeneity of Syntax in the Songs of Cassin's Vireo (Vireo cassinii).

    PubMed

    Hedley, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    Many species of animals deliver vocalizations in sequences presumed to be governed by internal rules, though the nature and complexity of these syntactical rules have been investigated in relatively few species. Here I present an investigation into the song syntax of fourteen male Cassin's Vireos (Vireo cassinii), a species whose song sequences are highly temporally structured. I compare their song sequences to three candidate models of varying levels of complexity-zero-order, first-order and second-order Markov models-and employ novel methods to interpolate between these three models. A variety of analyses, including sequence simulations, Fisher's exact tests, and model likelihood analyses, showed that the songs of this species are too complex to be described by a zero-order or first-order Markov model. The model that best fit the data was intermediate in complexity between a first- and second-order model, though I also present evidence that some transition probabilities are conditioned on up to three preceding phrases. In addition, sequences were shown to be predictable with more than 54% accuracy overall, and predictability was positively correlated with the rate of song delivery. An assessment of the time homogeneity of syntax showed that transition probabilities between phrase types are largely stable over time, but that there was some evidence for modest changes in syntax within and between breeding seasons, a finding that I interpret to represent changes in breeding stage and social context rather than irreversible, secular shifts in syntax over time. These findings constitute a valuable addition to our understanding of bird song syntax in free-living birds, and will contribute to future attempts to understand the evolutionary importance of bird song syntax in avian communication. PMID:27050537

  12. Asymmetry in cricket song: female preference and proximate mechanism of discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Hirtenlehner, Stefan; Küng, Saskia; Kainz, Franz; Römer, Heiner

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Subtle random deviations from perfect symmetry in bilateral traits are suggested to signal reduced phenotypic and genetic quality of a sender, but little is known about the related receiver mechanisms for discriminating symmetrical from asymmetrical traits. Here, we investigated these mechanisms in behavioural and neurophysiological experiments in the Mediterranean field cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. A downward frequency modulation at the end of each syllable in the calling song has been suggested to indicate morphological asymmetry in sound radiating structures between left and right forewings. Even under ideal laboratory conditions on a trackball system, female crickets only discriminated between songs of symmetrical and asymmetrical males in two-choice experiments at carrier frequencies of 4.4 kHz and a large modulation depth of 600 and 800 Hz. Under these conditions they preferred the pure-tone calling songs over the modulated (asymmetrical) alternative, whereas no preference was observed at carrier frequencies of 4.9 and 5.2 kHz. These preferences correlate well with the responses of a pair of identified auditory interneurons (AN1), known for their importance in female phonotaxis. The AN1 interneuron is tuned to an average frequency of 4.9 kHz, and the roll-off towards lower and higher frequencies determines the magnitude of responses to pure-tone and frequency-modulated calling songs. The difference in response magnitude between the two neurons appears to drive the decision of females towards the song alternatives. We discuss the relevance of song differences based on asymmetry in the morphology of song-producing structures under natural conditions. PMID:23470661

  13. Song Practice Promotes Acute Vocal Variability at a Key Stage of Sensorimotor Learning

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Julie E.; Hilliard, Austin T.; White, Stephanie A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Trial by trial variability during motor learning is a feature encoded by the basal ganglia of both humans and songbirds, and is important for reinforcement of optimal motor patterns, including those that produce speech and birdsong. Given the many parallels between these behaviors, songbirds provide a useful model to investigate neural mechanisms underlying vocal learning. In juvenile and adult male zebra finches, endogenous levels of FoxP2, a molecule critical for language, decrease two hours after morning song onset within area X, part of the basal ganglia-forebrain pathway dedicated to song. In juveniles, experimental ‘knockdown’ of area X FoxP2 results in abnormally variable song in adulthood. These findings motivated our hypothesis that low FoxP2 levels increase vocal variability, enabling vocal motor exploration in normal birds. Methodology/Principal Findings After two hours in either singing or non-singing conditions (previously shown to produce differential area X FoxP2 levels), phonological and sequential features of the subsequent songs were compared across conditions in the same bird. In line with our prediction, analysis of songs sung by 75 day (75d) birds revealed that syllable structure was more variable and sequence stereotypy was reduced following two hours of continuous practice compared to these features following two hours of non-singing. Similar trends in song were observed in these birds at 65d, despite higher overall within-condition variability at this age. Conclusions/Significance Together with previous work, these findings point to the importance of behaviorally-driven acute periods during song learning that allow for both refinement and reinforcement of motor patterns. Future work is aimed at testing the observation that not only does vocal practice influence expression of molecular networks, but that these networks then influence subsequent variability in these skills. PMID:20066039

  14. Neural correlates of binding lyrics and melodies for the encoding of new songs.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Irene; Davachi, Lila; Valabrègue, Romain; Lambrecq, Virginie; Dupont, Sophie; Samson, Séverine

    2016-02-15

    Songs naturally bind lyrics and melody into a unified representation. Using a subsequent memory paradigm, we examined the neural processes associated with binding lyrics and melodies during song encoding. Participants were presented with songs in two conditions: a unified condition (melodies sung with lyrics), and a separate condition (melodies sung with the syllable "la"). In both cases, written lyrics were displayed and participants were instructed to memorize them by repeating them covertly or by generating mental images of the songs. We expected the unified condition to recruit the posterior superior temporal gyrus, known to be involved in perceptual integration of songs, as well as the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Conversely, we hypothesized that the separate condition would engage a larger network including the hippocampus to bind lyrics and melodies of songs, and the basal ganglia and the cerebellum to ensure the correct sequence coupling of verbal and musical information in time. Binding lyrics and melodies in the unified condition revealed activation of the left IFG, bilateral middle temporal gyrus (MTG), and left motor cortex, suggesting a strong linguistic processing for this condition. Binding in the separate compared to the unified condition revealed greater activity in the right hippocampus as well as other areas including the left caudate, left cerebellum, and right IFG. This study provides novel evidence for the role of the right hippocampus in binding lyrics and melodies in songs. Results are discussed in light of studies of binding in the visual domain and highlight the role of regions involved in timing and synchronization such as the basal ganglia and the cerebellum. PMID:26706449

  15. Catalogue and Bibliography of the Hong Kong Carabidae Latreille, 1802 (Coleoptera: Adephaga), with notes on the historic boundaries of Hong Kong as related to zoological collections.

    PubMed

    Aston, Paul

    2016-01-01

    A complete list of Carabidae species historically collected in Hong Kong combined with more recent records and notes on their biology is given. Notes on the historic boundaries of Hong Kong through the colonial period are given, as this is an important element relating to our understanding of the origins of historic zoological collections made in the region. Likewise a list of collectors in Hong Kong up to the outbreak of hostilities in the Second World War is given. A full bibliography of Hong Kong Carabidae is included. PMID:27395221

  16. Activity in a Cortical-Basal Ganglia Circuit for Song Is Required for Social Context-Dependent Vocal Variability

    PubMed Central

    Stepanek, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    Variability in adult motor output is important for enabling animals to respond to changing external conditions. Songbirds are useful for studying variability because they alter the amount of variation in their song depending on social context. When an adult zebra finch male sings to a female (“directed”), his song is highly stereotyped, but when he sings alone (“undirected”), his song varies across renditions. Lesions of the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (LMAN), the output nucleus of a cortical-basal ganglia circuit for song, reduce song variability to that of the stereotyped “performance” state. However, such lesions not only eliminate LMAN's synaptic input to its targets, but can also cause structural or physiological changes in connected brain regions, and thus cannot assess whether the acute activity of LMAN is important for social modulation of adult song variability. To evaluate the effects of ongoing LMAN activity, we reversibly silenced LMAN in singing zebra finches by bilateral reverse microdialysis of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol. We found that LMAN inactivation acutely reduced undirected song variability, both across and even within syllable renditions, to the level of directed song variability in all birds examined. Song variability returned to pre-muscimol inactivation levels after drug washout. However, unlike LMAN lesions, LMAN inactivation did not eliminate social context effects on song tempo in adult birds. These results indicate that the activity of LMAN neurons acutely and actively generates social context-dependent increases in adult song variability but that social regulation of tempo is more complex. PMID:20884763

  17. Familial bias and auditory feedback regulation of vocal babbling patterns during early song development.

    PubMed

    Sato, Daisuke; Mori, Chihiro; Sawai, Azusa; Wada, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Learned vocalizations are a crucial acoustic biosignal conveying individual traits in many species. Songbirds learn song patterns by listening to a tutor song and performing vocal practice during a sensitive developmental period. However, when and how individual differences in song patterns develop remain unknown. Here, we report that individual differences in vocal output exist even at the earliest song development stage, called subsong. Experiments involving the manipulation of both breeding pairs and song tutoring conditions revealed that the parental pair combination contributes to generating familial differences in syllable duration and variability in the subsong of offspring. Furthermore, after deafening, juveniles immediately changed their subsong by shortening the syllable durations but maintained the individual variability of their subsong temporal patterns, suggesting both auditory-sensitive modification and independent intrinsic regulation of vocal output. These results indicate that the temporal patterns of subsong are not merely disordered vocalization but are regulated by familial bias with sensitivity to auditory feedback, thus generating individual variability at the initiation of vocal development. PMID:27444993

  18. The Forebrain Song System Mediates Predictive Call Timing in Female and Male Zebra Finches.

    PubMed

    Benichov, Jonathan I; Benezra, Sam E; Vallentin, Daniela; Globerson, Eitan; Long, Michael A; Tchernichovski, Ofer

    2016-02-01

    The dichotomy between vocal learners and non-learners is a fundamental distinction in the study of animal communication. Male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) are vocal learners that acquire a song resembling their tutors', whereas females can only produce innate calls. The acoustic structure of short calls, produced by both males and females, is not learned. However, these calls can be precisely coordinated across individuals. To examine how birds learn to synchronize their calls, we developed a vocal robot that exchanges calls with a partner bird. Because birds answer the robot with stereotyped latencies, we could program it to disrupt each bird's responses by producing calls that are likely to coincide with the bird's. Within minutes, the birds learned to avoid this disruptive masking (jamming) by adjusting the timing of their responses. Notably, females exhibited greater adaptive timing plasticity than males. Further, when challenged with complex rhythms containing jamming elements, birds dynamically adjusted the timing of their calls in anticipation of jamming. Blocking the song system cortical output dramatically reduced the precision of birds' response timing and abolished their ability to avoid jamming. Surprisingly, we observed this effect in both males and females, indicating that the female song system is functional rather than vestigial. We suggest that descending forebrain projections, including the song-production pathway, function as a general-purpose sensorimotor communication system. In the case of calls, it enables plasticity in vocal timing to facilitate social interactions, whereas in the case of songs, plasticity extends to developmental changes in vocal structure. PMID:26774786

  19. "Wait a while, my love" -- an Indonesian popular song with a family planning message.

    PubMed

    Pekerti, R; Musa, R

    1989-10-01

    "Wait a While, My Love," recorded by pop singer Irianti Emingpraja, was the first Indonesian rock sock to contain a family planning message. The album including the song has sold over 100,000 copies. The song has also been packaged as a 60-second video that can be used as an opening theme for radio and television programs. The song, aimed at encouraging Indonesian youth to postpone marriage, has the following lyrics: "Flying free like a seagull/I'll cover many places 'round the world/Give me time for study and reflection, to grow as a mature wise woman/Oh, wait a while, my love/Don't buy me a ring, reflection of your inner love/I'll climb my way up to the top of the world/And reaching our rainbow of hope." The song was produced with support from the United Nations Fund for Population Activities and the Indonesian National Family Planning Coordinating Board. Key factors to be examined in producing a popular song with a family planning message include the specific message desired, the target audience, type of music, the singer, the producer, marketing, a multimedia campaign strategy, and distribution outlets. PMID:12315970

  20. A new paradigm to induce mental stress: the Sing-a-Song Stress Test (SSST)

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Hogervorst, Maarten A.

    2014-01-01

    We here introduce a new experimental paradigm to induce mental stress in a quick and easy way while adhering to ethical standards and controlling for potential confounds resulting from sensory input and body movements. In our Sing-a-Song Stress Test, participants are presented with neutral messages on a screen, interleaved with 1-min time intervals. The final message is that the participant should sing a song aloud after the interval has elapsed. Participants sit still during the whole procedure. We found that heart rate and skin conductance during the 1-min intervals following the sing-a-song stress message are substantially higher than during intervals following neutral messages. The order of magnitude of the rise is comparable to that achieved by the Trier Social Stress Test. Skin conductance increase correlates positively with experienced stress level as reported by participants. We also simulated stress detection in real time. When using both skin conductance and heart rate, stress is detected for 18 out of 20 participants, approximately 10 s after onset of the sing-a-song message. In conclusion, the Sing-a-Song Stress Test provides a quick, easy, controlled and potent way to induce mental stress and could be helpful in studies ranging from examining physiological effects of mental stress to evaluating interventions to reduce stress. PMID:25120425

  1. Neural mechanisms underlying song and speech perception can be differentiated using an illusory percept.

    PubMed

    Hymers, Mark; Prendergast, Garreth; Liu, Can; Schulze, Anja; Young, Michellie L; Wastling, Stephen J; Barker, Gareth J; Millman, Rebecca E

    2015-03-01

    The issue of whether human perception of speech and song recruits integrated or dissociated neural systems is contentious. This issue is difficult to address directly since these stimulus classes differ in their physical attributes. We therefore used a compelling illusion (Deutsch et al. 2011) in which acoustically identical auditory stimuli are perceived as either speech or song. Deutsch's illusion was used in a functional MRI experiment to provide a direct, within-subject investigation of the brain regions involved in the perceptual transformation from speech into song, independent of the physical characteristics of the presented stimuli. An overall differential effect resulting from the perception of song compared with that of speech was revealed in right midposterior superior temporal sulcus/right middle temporal gyrus. A left frontotemporal network, previously implicated in higher-level cognitive analyses of music and speech, was found to co-vary with a behavioural measure of the subjective vividness of the illusion, and this effect was driven by the illusory transformation. These findings provide evidence that illusory song perception is instantiated by a network of brain regions that are predominantly shared with the speech perception network. PMID:25512041

  2. Anthropogenic noise affects song structure in red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus).

    PubMed

    Hanna, Dalal; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel; Wilson, David R; Mennill, Daniel J

    2011-11-01

    Anthropogenic noise can mask animal signals that are crucial for communicating information about food, predators and mating opportunities. In response to noise masking, signallers can potentially improve acoustic signal transmission by adjusting the timing, frequency or amplitude of their signals. These changes can be a short-term modification in response to transient noise or a long-term modification in response to chronic noise. An animal's ability to adapt to anthropogenic noise can be crucial to its success. In this study, we evaluated the effects of anthropogenic noise on the structure of red-winged blackbird song. First, we manipulated the presence of anthropogenic noise by experimentally broadcasting either silence or low-frequency white noise to subjects inhabiting quiet marshes located away from roadsides. Subjects exhibited increased signal tonality when temporarily exposed to low-frequency white noise, suggesting that red-winged blackbirds can alter their signals rapidly in response to sudden noise. Second, we compared songs produced in quiet marshes located away from roadsides with songs produced during quiet periods at roadside marshes that are normally noisy. This allowed us to test whether birds that are exposed to chronic anthropogenic noise exhibit altered song structure during temporarily quiet periods. Subjects residing in roadside marshes that are normally polluted with anthropogenic noise sang songs with increased tonality during quiet periods. Overall, our results show that anthropogenic noise influences the structure of birdsong. These effects should be considered in conservation and wildlife management. PMID:21993783

  3. Changes in Humpback Whale Song Occurrence in Response to an Acoustic Source 200 km Away

    PubMed Central

    Risch, Denise; Corkeron, Peter J.; Ellison, William T.; Van Parijs, Sofie M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of underwater anthropogenic sound on marine mammals is of increasing concern. Here we show that humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) song in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary (SBNMS) was reduced, concurrent with transmissions of an Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing (OAWRS) experiment approximately 200 km away. We detected the OAWRS experiment in SBNMS during an 11 day period in autumn 2006. We compared the occurrence of song for 11 days before, during and after the experiment with song over the same 33 calendar days in two later years. Using a quasi-Poisson generalized linear model (GLM), we demonstrate a significant difference in the number of minutes with detected song between periods and years. The lack of humpback whale song during the OAWRS experiment was the most substantial signal in the data. Our findings demonstrate the greatest published distance over which anthropogenic sound has been shown to affect vocalizing baleen whales, and the first time that active acoustic fisheries technology has been shown to have this effect. The suitability of Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing technology for in-situ, long term monitoring of marine ecosystems should be considered, bearing in mind its possible effects on non-target species, in particular protected species. PMID:22253769

  4. Nests and nest sites of the San Miguel Island Song Sparrow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kern, Michael D.; Sogge, Mark K.; Kern, Robert B.; Van Riper, Charles, III

    1993-01-01

    Nests and nest sites of the San Miguel Island (SMI) Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia micronyx) are described; nests are compared with those of 16 other races of Song Sparrows. Bush lupins (Lupinus albifrons), coyote brush (Baccharis pilularis) and golden bush (Haplopappus venetus) were the shrubs used most commonly as nest sites by Song Sparrows on SMI. As a result of its location, the nest was effectively concealed from gray foxes (Urocyon littoralis), the major predator of this sparrow. Nest and nest site also moderated the combined chilling effects of cool air temperatures and strong northwesterly winds on the eggs and nestlings. Even in the absence of these moderating effects of the nest site, the energetic cost of incubation, estimated at 41-53% of the sparrow's resting metabolic rate, was modest. Twenty-nine percent of the canopy above the nest was open and as much as 73% of the nest cup was in the sun at midday, a time when surface temperatures of foliage, nest and nestlings sometimes exceeded 40 C. Whereas this exposure did not apparently reduce fledging success, it may explain why the incidence of addled eggs was so high in this population of Song Sparrows compared to others. Significant differences existed among races of Song Sparrows in the size, porosity and insulation of the nest. In most cases, these differences were not related to the latitude of the races' nesting areas.

  5. Male songbird indicates body size with low-pitched advertising songs.

    PubMed

    Hall, Michelle L; Kingma, Sjouke A; Peters, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Body size is a key sexually selected trait in many animal species. If size imposes a physical limit on the production of loud low-frequency sounds, then low-pitched vocalisations could act as reliable signals of body size. However, the central prediction of this hypothesis--that the pitch of vocalisations decreases with size among competing individuals--has limited support in songbirds. One reason could be that only the lowest-frequency components of vocalisations are constrained, and this may go unnoticed when vocal ranges are large. Additionally, the constraint may only be apparent in contexts when individuals are indeed advertising their size. Here we explicitly consider signal diversity and performance limits to demonstrate that body size limits song frequency in an advertising context in a songbird. We show that in purple-crowned fairy-wrens, Malurus coronatus coronatus, larger males sing lower-pitched low-frequency advertising songs. The lower frequency bound of all advertising song types also has a significant negative relationship with body size. However, the average frequency of all their advertising songs is unrelated to body size. This comparison of different approaches to the analysis demonstrates how a negative relationship between body size and song frequency can be obscured by failing to consider signal design and the concept of performance limits. Since these considerations will be important in any complex communication system, our results imply that body size constraints on low-frequency vocalisations could be more widespread than is currently recognised. PMID:23437221

  6. Familial bias and auditory feedback regulation of vocal babbling patterns during early song development

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Daisuke; Mori, Chihiro; Sawai, Azusa; Wada, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Learned vocalizations are a crucial acoustic biosignal conveying individual traits in many species. Songbirds learn song patterns by listening to a tutor song and performing vocal practice during a sensitive developmental period. However, when and how individual differences in song patterns develop remain unknown. Here, we report that individual differences in vocal output exist even at the earliest song development stage, called subsong. Experiments involving the manipulation of both breeding pairs and song tutoring conditions revealed that the parental pair combination contributes to generating familial differences in syllable duration and variability in the subsong of offspring. Furthermore, after deafening, juveniles immediately changed their subsong by shortening the syllable durations but maintained the individual variability of their subsong temporal patterns, suggesting both auditory-sensitive modification and independent intrinsic regulation of vocal output. These results indicate that the temporal patterns of subsong are not merely disordered vocalization but are regulated by familial bias with sensitivity to auditory feedback, thus generating individual variability at the initiation of vocal development. PMID:27444993

  7. Changes in humpback whale song occurrence in response to an acoustic source 200 km away.

    PubMed

    Risch, Denise; Corkeron, Peter J; Ellison, William T; Parijs, Sofie M Van

    2012-01-01

    The effect of underwater anthropogenic sound on marine mammals is of increasing concern. Here we show that humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) song in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary (SBNMS) was reduced, concurrent with transmissions of an Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing (OAWRS) experiment approximately 200 km away. We detected the OAWRS experiment in SBNMS during an 11 day period in autumn 2006. We compared the occurrence of song for 11 days before, during and after the experiment with song over the same 33 calendar days in two later years. Using a quasi-Poisson generalized linear model (GLM), we demonstrate a significant difference in the number of minutes with detected song between periods and years. The lack of humpback whale song during the OAWRS experiment was the most substantial signal in the data. Our findings demonstrate the greatest published distance over which anthropogenic sound has been shown to affect vocalizing baleen whales, and the first time that active acoustic fisheries technology has been shown to have this effect. The suitability of Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing technology for in-situ, long term monitoring of marine ecosystems should be considered, bearing in mind its possible effects on non-target species, in particular protected species. PMID:22253769

  8. Language and Literature Division, Faculty of Education, Hong Kong University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qin, Xie; Andrews, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The Language and Literature Division (LLD) is the largest of the six divisions of the Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong (HKU). It is currently home to 34 academic staff, who specialize either in the fields of Chinese Language, English Language and/or Literature Education, and to 60 full-time and 28 part-time doctoral students, who are…

  9. Role Management Strategies of Beginning Teachers in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Pik Lin; Tang, Sylvia Yee Fan

    2005-01-01

    Beginning teachers encounter new challenges as the role system in contemporary society has become more and more demanding. By means of the life history method, role management strategies of four Hong Kong beginning teachers employed to cope with role demands and intra-role conflicts were located in their biographical, workplace and wider…

  10. Conceptualization, Reporting and Underreporting of Child Abuse in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Joseph T. F.; Liu, Joseph L. Y.; Yu, Aaron; Wong, C. K.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 1,001 Hong Kong adults found a discrepancy between perceived prevalence and the ability to name different child abuse types without prompting. Only about 40 percent would report abuse cases to authorities. Those who would not report abuse were less likely to classify abuse situations as abusive. (Author/CR)

  11. Suicidality and Migration among Adolescents in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Y. K.; Ip, W. C.

    2007-01-01

    Suicide as a cause of death among adolescents and migration as a component of population have been growing in importance. Very little research has been conducted on the connections between migration and suicidality among adolescents in Hong Kong, and so is the aim of this article. It uses census and registration data to study suicide mortality,…

  12. Nursing Stress and Coping Patterns in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Beatrice K. M.; Lee, Peter W. H.

    The role of nurses in providing patient care is both instrumental and expressive. Fulfillment of these dual roles depends on the psychosocial and physical well-being of nurses. This study examined the stress experience of nurses in Hong Kong. Various factors affecting the experience of stress and the coping strategies adopted were also…

  13. Western impressions of the Hong Kong health care system.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, C L; Pei, G K; Ultmann, J E

    1996-01-01

    Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, and Malaysia are initiating health care reform to meet the changing demands of populations with improved socioeconomic status and access to modern technologies and who are living longer than in previous generations. Hong Kong, in particular, is facing a unique set of circumstances as its people prepare for the transition in 1997 from a British colony to a Special Administrative Region of China. While spending only 4% of its gross domestic product on health care, it has a large and regulated public hospital system for most inpatient medical care and a separate, loosely regulated private health care system for most outpatient medical care. In 1993 the Secretary for Health and Welfare of Hong Kong initiated a year-long process to debate the pros and cons of 5 fundamental programs for health care reform. After a year of open consultation, options were chosen. We describe the Hong Kong health care system, the fundamental changes that have been adopted, and lessons for reformers in the United States. PMID:8855683

  14. Gender Differences in Financial Literacy among Hong Kong Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Kar-Ming; Wu, Alfred M.; Chan, Wai-Sum; Chou, Kee-Lee

    2015-01-01

    Using a phone survey conducted in 2012, we examined whether there is a gender difference in financial literacy among Hong Kong workers; and if such a difference exists, whether it can be explained by gender differences in sociodemographic variables, social or psychological factors, and/or the outcomes of retirement planning. Results show a gender…

  15. Educational Challenge: The Meaning of Leadership in Hong Kong Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Ruth Ming Har

    2010-01-01

    Different scholars have defined and redefined leadership at different levels and in different contexts (e.g., Ball, 1981; Hargreaves, 1967; Richardson, 1973), although the results of research on the characteristics of effective leaders may not apply in all contexts. This study compares and contrasts the meanings of leadership in the Hong Kong…

  16. Integrated Arts Curriculum in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Marina Wai-yee

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study (2001-09) of two Hong Kong secondary schools highlights six issues with an integrated arts curriculum: first, integration of knowledge and skills negatively precedes the integration of learners' construction of meaning; second, integration is perceived as challenging the profession's status; third, teachers are unaccustomed…

  17. Accelerated Schools for Quality Education: A Hong Kong Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chi-kin Lee, John; Levin, Henry; Soler, Pilar

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses the application of the Accelerated Schools Project (ASP) model in Hong Kong, as well as specific aspects of implementation in two schools. One lesson from the localized project, the Accelerated Schools for Quality Education (ASPQE), is that change is slow. This suggests that time should be given for both cultural change and…

  18. Adequacy of Hong Kong-California Business Communication Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, John W.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Interviewed managers of companies communicating between Hong Kong and California and found they employed seven basic methods: telex, letter, telephone, visit, courier, computer, and telegram. Revealed advantages and disadvantages of each method and recommended a number of safeguards against their misuse. (PD)

  19. What Hong Kong Teachers and Parents Think about Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Mei-Yung Lam; Lim, Swee Eng; Ma, Jung Chen; Adams, Leah D.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of teachers and parents of preschoolers in Hong Kong regarding what constitutes thinking skills, the importance of thinking skills in children's lives, strategies they use to foster thinking skills in young children, and their perceived roles in facilitating thinking skills. Responses revealed the need for more…

  20. Difficulties with Team Teaching in Hong Kong Kindergartens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Mei Lee

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on qualitative classroom observation and interview data from a case study of one native-English speaker teacher (NEST) teaching in a Hong Kong kindergarten. Features of the NEST's teaching are identified, namely their professional limitations, their part-time involvement in teaching, and their limited collaboration with the…

  1. Reward Allocation among Chinese High School Students in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Chi-Yue

    1989-01-01

    Examined effects of personality and performance on reward allocation. Subjects were 89 Hong Kong senior high school students. Results showed that the subjects took into consideration the recipient's personality when they allocated reward to a relatively low performer. Personality was not a factor in allocation of reward to a high performer. (GG)

  2. Community College Policy in Hong Kong: Intention, Practices, and Consequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Yi-Lee

    2015-01-01

    In order to increase the competitiveness of the workforce at low cost, the Hong Kong government brought in the idea of community colleges and the associate degree while keeping the same annual set quota of first-year, first-degree places at publicly-funded universities. At first glance, in doing so, the government could avoid expanding the sector…

  3. Teacher Stress in Working with Challenging Students in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, I-Wah

    2012-01-01

    This article first illustrates how recent social, economic and educational development in Hong Kong contributes to teacher stress. It then presents data from an international study on teacher stress with respect to working with challenging students, i.e. students with behavioural problems. Teachers were asked to report on the perceived behavioural…

  4. A Case Study of Curriculum Implementation in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carless, David R.

    1998-01-01

    Describes and analyzes the perceptions and reactions of a well-qualified, positively oriented primary-school English teacher to Hong Kong's target-oriented curriculum (TOC) initiative, a major government-sponsored innovation. The analysis encompasses teacher attitudes, teacher training and support, teachers' understanding of an innovation, teacher…

  5. Paradigms, Perspectives and Dichotomies amongst Teacher Educators in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katyal, Kokila Roy; Fai, Pang Ming

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that the concepts, beliefs and understandings of local and non-local teacher educators in a Hong Kong university are grounded in their own cultural cognition and antecedents. It presents the viewpoint that contemporary notions of good practice were compromised when applied to a context that is strongly influenced by the tenets of…

  6. Active Ageing, Active Learning: Policy and Provision in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between ageing and learning, previous literature having confirmed that participation in continued learning in old age contributes to good health, satisfaction with life, independence and self-esteem. Realizing that learning is vital to active ageing, the Hong Kong government has implemented policies and…

  7. Lifelong Learning for Elders in Hong Kong: Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    Hong Kong's ageing population is growing at an unprecedented rate. Over the past two decades, the government has implemented policies and innovative engagement activities for elders in areas including lifelong learning and community participation. This paper aims to discuss conceptual, policy and practical issues relevant to the participation of…

  8. Undergraduates' Career Perceptions and First Job Needs in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Agnes; Pang, Mary

    1995-01-01

    Focus groups (n=23) and survey responses (n=492) of Hong Kong business graduates reveal a belief that intrinsic and extrinsic rewards are important, but they tend to make job rather than career decisions, seek extrinsic rewards in initial jobs, lack commitment to organizations, have a short-term perspective, and focus on gaining exposure and…

  9. Lessons Learned? School Leadership and Curriculum Reform in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Siu Yin Annie

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the processes of implementing curriculum reform in schools. Specifically, it investigates how schools learn lessons from previous experiences of reform and apply them when challenged by new reforms. The context for this study is Hong Kong's New Secondary School Curriculum (NSSC), with particular reference to the subject of…

  10. Teaching Business Ethics in Hong Kong: Challenges and Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Dennis P.; Lam, Joanna Kit Chun; Chiu, Randy K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a program for teaching business ethics to undergraduate business students at the Hong Kong Baptist University. Provides an anecdotal account to illustrate that in non-Western cultural contexts, figurative rather than scientific language often captures the essence of qualitative phenomena. Underscores the importance of understanding and…

  11. Young Children's Number Sense in Finland, Hong Kong and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aunio, Pirjo; Ee, Jessie; Lim, Swee Eng Audrey; Hautamaki, Jarkko; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines young children's number sense in subjects from Finland (n =254), Hong Kong (n =246), and Singapore (n =130). Chinese, English and Finnish versions of the Early Numeracy Test (ENT; Van Luit et al., 1994) were used. Two highly correlated aspects of number sense were measured, one reflecting children's abilities to organize and…

  12. Teaching Chinese National Identity to Elementary Students in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Joe Tin-Yau; Merryfield, Merry M.

    2008-01-01

    Developing national identity is a goal of schools around the world. Historically this goal has been especially important for nations coming out of colonization as new governments seek to unify their nations and promote national identities. From 1842 to 1997, Hong Kong was a British colony whose excellent harbor made it a linchpin of British…

  13. Physical Activity in the Lives of Hong Kong Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Amy S.; Macdonald, Doune; Pang, Bonnie O. H.

    2010-01-01

    To understand the physical activity culture in the lives of Hong Kong Chinese children and their parents, 48 young people between the ages 9 and 16 and their parents, with different socio-economic backgrounds and geographical locations, were interviewed for this study. By applying Confucianism and postcolonialism, this study aimed to investigate…

  14. Challenges to Values Education in Hong Kong School Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Wai-Chung

    2006-01-01

    This study deals with the issue of incorporating values education in music education in Hong Kong's primary and secondary schools. It includes the development of the state's cultural and national identity since its handover from the United Kingdom to the People's Republic of China (PRC). Thirty primary and secondary school music teachers were…

  15. Social Class and Language Attitudes in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Mee Ling

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relation between social class and language attitudes through a triangulated study that analyses the attitudes of 836 secondary school students from different socioeconomic backgrounds toward the 3 official spoken languages used in postcolonial Hong Kong (HK; i.e., Cantonese, English, and Putonghua). The respondents were…

  16. Hong Kong Students' Approaches to Learning: Cross-Cultural Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dasari, Bhoomiah

    2009-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence abounds in Hong Kong to the effect that students entering tertiary education are predisposed to a "rote" learning approach. With the internalisation of higher education in many countries, there is still insufficient understanding of how Chinese students approach their learning. Except few studies were conducted locally, there…

  17. Teacher Educators' Pedagogical Principles and Practices: Hong Kong Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Edmond Hau-Fai; Joughin, Gordon; Kennedy, Kerry J.; Tse, Harrison; Yu, Wai Ming

    2007-01-01

    This study sought to explore the teaching practices of lecturers within one department of a university-level institute of education in Hong Kong. A sample of 19 teachers were interviewed in the study. Short interview schedules were designed to elicit teachers' descriptions of how they taught and the thinking behind their pedagogical practices. A…

  18. Sleep and Academic Performance in Hong Kong Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lee, So-Lun; Ho, Sai-Yin; Lo, Wing-Sze; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sleep problems may have different influences on students' academic performance. We investigated the prevalence of sleep patterns, naps, and sleep disorders, and their associations with academic performance in Hong Kong adolescents. Methods: In 2007-2008, 22,678 students aged 12-18 (41.6% boys) completed a questionnaire on…

  19. School-Based Management in Hong Kong: Centralizing or Decentralizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, I-Wah

    2008-01-01

    This paper examined the debate on a reform of school-based management in Hong Kong, which was to set up the Incorporated Management Committee (IMC) to manage the subsidized school. The nature of the debate during legislation and the characteristics of the reform were examined. The advantages, disadvantages and the implications of the reform were…

  20. Attitudes toward Suicide among Chinese People in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sing; Tsang, Adley; Li, Xian-yun; Phillips, Michael Robert; Kleinman, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Since suicide in Chinese people exhibits certain distinctive characteristics, it is important to develop indigenous measures to assess Chinese attitudes toward suicide that may be used to inform suicide reduction programs. Combining qualitative and quantitative methods, we developed a Hong Kong version of the Chinese Attitude toward Suicide…

  1. Distributed Curriculum Leadership in Action: A Hong Kong Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Edmond; Galton, Maurice; Wan, Sally

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed primarily to investigate the impact of school-based curriculum development teams on teacher development within the tradition of school-based curriculum development. The results are expected to provide valuable insights for teachers, school management and policy making. Teacher interviews in a primary school in Hong Kong…

  2. Politics, Culture, and School Curriculum: The Struggles in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Wai-Chung

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the Hong Kong (HK) school curriculum, especially the general curriculum for civic education and other social subjects, in relation to the political events of the 1984 Sino-British Joint Declaration, the 1989 Tiananmen Square Incident, and the return of HK's sovereignty from the United Kingdom (UK) to the…

  3. Students' and Faculty's Perception of Academic Integrity in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwong, Theresa; Ng, Hing-Man; Kai-Pan, Mark; Wong, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare students' and faculty members' perceptions of academic integrity; their understanding of experiences pertaining to different aspects of academic misconduct (e.g. plagiarism); and to examine the underlying reasons behind academic integrity violations in a Hong Kong context.…

  4. Teacher Supply in Hong Kong: Educational Qualifications and Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Yue-ping; Hung, Fan-sing

    This paper explores Hong Kong secondary teacher supply patterns related to teacher retention using data collected from 1991-99. Secondary teachers are classified into five categories by initial educational qualifications: registered Graduate Master (trained GM), who are university graduates with majors in a subject discipline; permitted Graduate…

  5. Mathematics Achievement of Mainland Immigrant Students in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Yan; Leung, Frederick K. S.

    2011-01-01

    One of the main features of globalization is the increasing mobility of population. As an immigrant society, Hong Kong has witnessed waves of Mainland Chinese arrivals and assimilation into her mainstream, particularly around the change of sovereignty period. School-aged children constitute a substantial fraction of the new population. Given their…

  6. The Evolution from Integration to Inclusion: The Hong Kong Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon-McBrayer, Kim Fong

    2014-01-01

    As a worldwide movement, some forms or stages of inclusive education have been experimented and/or mandated in various countries since the mid-1970s. Integration was piloted in Hong Kong in 1997 and remains the official rhetoric and policy. Three developmental phases of inclusive education, namely, integration, integration in transition to…

  7. A Buddy Reading Programme in Hong Kong Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Barley; Coniam, David; Kwan, Meimei Chan Shin

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at Year 9 (age 13) ESL learners in a secondary school in Hong Kong producing--with minimal input and support from their teachers--their own story books, these being the final task outcome in a series of lessons focusing on creativity. Over a period of two months, as an integral part of their ESL lessons, groups of students…

  8. Online Independent Vocabulary Learning Experience of Hong Kong University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Eunice; Chung, Edsoulla; Li, Eddy; Yeung, Steven

    2016-01-01

    In response to the limited vocabulary size of its undergraduates, an independent vocabulary learning platform, VLearn was designed and launched in a university in Hong Kong. As an e-learning environment that supports self-directed vocabulary learning of Chinese learners, the primary aim of VLearn is to equip users with appropriate knowledge and…

  9. The Intercultural Approach in a Hong Kong Academic Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabau, Béatrice

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the various educational paradigms used in the design of a European studies undergraduate programme in Hong Kong to enhance the acquisition of intercultural competences (IC) among students. The intercultural approach is supported by intensive foreign language (FL) learning and is motivated by a compulsory full year academic…

  10. Differentiated Instruction: Hong Kong Prospective Teachers' Teaching Efficacy and Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Sally Wai-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Catering for learner diversity is one of the key areas in the recent educational reform in Hong Kong. Pre-service teacher education acts as a fundamental way to equip pre-service teachers ready for accommodating diverse learning needs and to build up pre-service teachers' self-efficacy. The purpose of the study is to examine prospective teachers'…

  11. Conceptions of Creativity among Hong Kong University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2013-01-01

    This research had two objectives. The first was to determine the reliability and validity of the multifaceted assessment of creativity (MAC) for evaluating Hong Kong university students' conceptions of creativity. The second was to establish if the theory-practice and gender gaps discovered among mainland Chinese university students would be…

  12. Barriers Impacting Students with Disabilities at a Hong Kong University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilson, Christie L.; Dymond, Stacy K.

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative study was conducted to examine the barriers to postsecondary education experienced by students with disabilities in Hong Kong and the impact of those barriers. Data were gathered from six students with disabilities, their instructors, and university staff with whom they interacted to procure disability-related services using…

  13. People of Hong Kong: Building Bridges of Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    The purpose of this communication learning aid is to help Americans become more effective in understanding and communicating with people of another culture. This publication discusses some differences encountered in Hong Kong in such things as food, laws, customs, religion, language, dress and basic attitudes. The first section describes the…

  14. Live poultry exposures, Hong Kong and Hanoi, 2006.

    PubMed

    Fielding, Richard; Bich, Tran H; Quang, La Ngoc; Lam, Wendy W T; Leung, Gabriel M; Tien, Truong Q; Ho, Ella Y Y; Anht, Le V

    2007-07-01

    Since 1997, the largest epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) ever recorded has caused 172 human and several billion bird deaths. Recently administered questionnaires determined that live poultry exposures have declined by approximately 63% in Hong Kong since 2004 and that, in Vietnam, domestic backyard exposures to poultry are likely more important than retail exposures. PMID:18214181

  15. Faculty Research Productivity in Hong Kong across Academic Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Jisun

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the research productivity of Hong Kong academics. Specifically, it explores the individual and institutional factors that contribute to their productivity while also comparing determinants across academic disciplines. We have conducted OLS regression analysis using the international survey data from "The Changing Academics…

  16. Sustainable Development Index in Hong Kong: Approach, Method and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tso, Geoffrey K. F.; Yau, Kelvin K. W.; Yang, C. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable development is a priority area of research in many countries and regions nowadays. This paper illustrates how a multi-stakeholders engagement process can be applied to identify and prioritize the local community's concerns and issues regarding sustainable development in Hong Kong. Ten priority areas covering a wide range of community's…

  17. Family Norms in a Rapidly Industrializing Society: Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podmore, David; Chaney, David

    1974-01-01

    A sample of 1123 young people in Hong Kong responded to a number of statements concerning family norms. Data suggest that with regard to relationships between husband and wife, and parents and children, views are more consonant with the norms of the Western conjugal family than the traditional Chinese family. (Author)

  18. Negotiating Teacher Professionalism: Governmentality and Education Reform in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chee, Wai-Chi

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates how the Hong Kong state controls and disciplines the education sector through the regulation and manipulation of discourses. The authoritative narratives are that some schools are failing the students and parents for not being able to provide quality education, and that these schools are not subject to public scrutiny…

  19. Fear and Trembling: Hong Kong Librarians Face Their Uncertain Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chepesiuk, Ron

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of the possible changes in Hong Kong in 1997 when rule passes to the People's Republic of China focuses on the uncertain future of libraries and librarians. Topics discussed include the political climate; the departure of qualified Chinese librarians; and the growth of libraries and computerized systems. (LRW)

  20. Life Satisfaction and Family Structure among Adolescents in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Ying-Keung

    2008-01-01

    Relationships between family structure and perceived life satisfaction in overall life and five domains of the Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale, family life, friendships, school experience, myself, and where I live were examined among 4,502 Chinese adolescent secondary school students in Hong Kong. Bivariate analyses showed…