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1

Habitat-Specific Locomotor Variation among Chinese Hook Snout Carp (Opsariichthys bidens) along a River  

PubMed Central

The Wujiang River is a tributary of the upper Yangtze River that shows great variations in its flow regime and habitat condition. Dams have been built along the Wujiang River and have altered the habitats profoundly enough that they may give rise to reproductive isolation. To test whether the swimming performance and morphology of the Chinese hook snout carp (Opsariichthys bidens), varied among habitats and whether the possible differences had a genetic basis, we measured the steady and unsteady swimming performance, external body shape and genetic distance among fish collected from both the main and tributary streams of the upper, middle and lower reaches along the river. We also measured the routine energy expenditure (RMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR), cost of transport (COT) and calculated the optimal swimming speed. The steady swimming capacity, RMR, MMR and optimal swimming speed were all higher and the COT was lower in the upper reach or tributary streams compared with the lower reach or main stream. However, unsteady swimming performance showed no variation among collecting sites. Flow regimes as suggested by river slope and water velocity were positively correlated with steady swimming performance but not with unsteady swimming performance. Predation stress were significantly related with body morphology and hence energy cost during swimming but not Ucrit value. The fish from only one population (Hao-Kou) showed relatively high genetic differentiation compared with the other populations. Fish from the upper reach or tributary streams exhibited improved steady swimming performance through improved respiratory capacity and lower energy expenditure during swimming at the cost of higher maintenance metabolism. There was no correlation between the steady and unsteady swimming performance at either the population or the individual levels. These results suggest that a trade-off between steady and unsteady swimming does not occur in O. bidens. PMID:22829884

Fu, Shi-Jian; Peng, Zuogang; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Peng, Jiang-Lan; He, Xiao-Ke; Xu, Dandan; Zhang, An-Jie

2012-01-01

2

Snout Shape in Extant Ruminants  

PubMed Central

Snout shape is a prominent aspect of herbivore feeding ecology, interacting with both forage selectivity and intake rate. Previous investigations have suggested ruminant feeding styles can be discriminated via snout shape, with grazing and browsing species characterised by ‘blunt’ and ‘pointed’ snouts respectively, often with specification of an ‘intermediate’ sub-grouping to represent ambiguous feeding styles and/or morphologies. Snout shape morphology is analysed here using a geometric morphometric approach to compare the two-dimensional profiles of the premaxilla in ventral aspect for a large sample of modern ruminant species, for which feeding modes are known from secondary criteria. Results suggest that, when browsing and grazing ruminants are classified ecologically based on a range of feeding style indicators, they cannot be discriminated unambiguously on the basis of snout profile shape alone. Profile shapes in our sample form a continuum with substantial overlap between groupings and a diverse range of morphologies. Nevertheless, we obtained an 83.8 percent ratio of correct post hoc feeding style categorisations based on the proximity of projected profile shapes to group centroids in the discriminant space. Accordingly, this procedure for identifying species whose feeding strategy is ‘unknown’ can be used with a reasonable degree of confidence, especially if backed-up by additional information. Based on these results we also refine the definitions of snout shape varieties, taking advantage of the descriptive power that geometric morphometrics offers to characterize the morphological disparities observed. The shape variance exhibited by both browsing and grazing ruminants corresponds strongly to body mass, providing further evidence for an interaction between snout shape, feeding style, and body size evolution. Finally, by exploring the role of phylogenetic similarity in snout shape, we find a slight increase in successful categorisation when repeating the analysis with phylogenetic control on the geometric profiles. PMID:25372878

Tennant, Jonathan P.; MacLeod, Norman

2014-01-01

3

Bighead Carp  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This bighead carp was collected on the Illinois River to learn more about the anatomy and physiology of Asian carp. This information will guide the development of potential biological or chemical controls as part of an integrated pest management approach for natural resource managers. Asian carp ar...

4

Page ____ of _____ Straight line from SNOUT to...  

E-print Network

, Purple, Other, Unknown Hook location: Not hooked Not known if hooked Hooked but location unknown Internal, active, unknown condition Previously dead- odor, rotten Unknown Released-swam away Dead- Examined/sampled Released- blood visible Dead - marked Released - sank Dead - unmarked Dead- Treated as catch Unknown

5

Silver Carp  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Silver carp are a large a troublesome invasive species from Asia found in the great rivers of the central United States. Silver carp have been observed to jump in response to rocks thrown in the water, passing trains, geese taking off from the water, or just when they unexpectedly find themselves in...

6

Fishery Notes Circle Hooks Outfish  

E-print Network

Fishery Notes Circle Hooks Outfish Traditional Halibut Hooks Table 1. - Halibut hook experiment hooks hooks hooks Hook type observed No. of fish Pounds observed No. of fish Pounds Circle hooks 1 were used in the study. The first involved alternat- ing each hook type (i.e., a circle hook followed

7

Silver Carp Larva  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This image of a live silver carp larva was taken with a microscope camera at the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become established....

8

Silver Carp Larvae  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This image of live silver carp larvae was taken with a microscope camera at the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become established....

9

SNOUT DIMORPHISM IN WHITE STURGEON, ACIPENSER TRANSMONTANUS, FROM THE  

E-print Network

SNOUT DIMORPHISM IN WHITE STURGEON, ACIPENSER TRANSMONTANUS, FROM THE COLUMBIA RIVER AT HANFORD and adult white sturgeon in the Hanford reach of the Columbia River. Materials and Methods Sturgeon were not been reported in other areas of the species range. The occurrence of this dimorphism at Hanford may

10

Juvenile Silver Carp  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

These juvenile silver carps are used to find potential physical, biological or chemical controls as part of an integrated pest management approach for natural resource managers. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become estab...

11

Juvenile Bighead Carp  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

These juvenile bighead carps are used to find potential physical, biological or chemical controls as part of an integrated pest management approach for natural resource managers. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become esta...

12

Silver and Bighead Carp  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

These silver and bighead carp were collected on the Illinois River to learn more about the anatomy and physiology of Asian carp. This information will guide the development of potential biological or chemical controls as part of an integrated pest management approach for natural resource managers. ...

13

Silver Carp Egg  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This image of a live silver carp egg specimen was taken with a microscope camera at the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become established....

14

SUPPLEMENTARY DATA Action at Hooked or Twisted-Hooked DNA  

E-print Network

SUPPLEMENTARY DATA Action at Hooked or Twisted-Hooked DNA Juxtapositions Rationalizes Unlinking. The notation here is identical to that in the main text. Figure S1 provides data for the hooked and free juxta from ideal in this respect. There are always more lattice conformations with a hooked juxtaposition

Chan, Hue Sun

15

Injury rates, hooking efficiency and mortality potential of largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoides) captured on circle hooks and octopus hooks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the injury rates, hooking efficiency, and mortality potential of circle hooks and the more conventional octopus hooks for largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) captured on minnows in central Illinois. Fish captured on circle hooks (N=125) were hooked less deeply, exhibited less bleeding, and were more easily removed from the hook than were those captured on octopus hooks (N=134). The

Steven J. Cooke; Cory D. Suski; Michael J. Siepker; Kenneth G. Ostrand

2003-01-01

16

Snout dimorphism in white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, from the Columbia River at Hanford, Washington  

SciTech Connect

Although differences in snout length and shape between young and adult sturgeon are known, morphological divergence in snout type of similar sized individuals has not been reported. Field observations in the Hanford reach of the Columbia River on 99 white sturgeon ranging from 35 to 205 cm total length showed two snout types based on size and shape. The occurrence of this dimorphism at Hanford may reflect isolating mechanisms, such as physical barriers which block fish movements. (RAF)

Crass, D.W.; Gray, R.H.

1982-01-01

17

Rim Hook Lattices Sergey Fomin*  

E-print Network

Rim Hook Lattices Sergey Fomin* Department of Mathematics, Theory of Algorithms Laboratory 55455 Abstract We consider the partial order on partitions of integers defined by removal of rim hooks of a given length. The isomorphism between this poset and a prod­ uct of Young's lattices leads to rim hook

Fomin, Sergey

18

The evolutionary and biomechanical implications of snout and proboscis morphology in Caenogastropoda (Mollusca: Gastropoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The caenogastropod proboscis is a complex morphological adaptation to a carnivorous diet. This comparative morphological investigation of proboscis and snout anatomy in Caenogastropoda shows that there is undescribed diversity in both snout\\/proboscis wall composition and introversion\\/retraction musculature. There is morphological evidence which suggests that a proboscis evolved separately in at least four separate caenogastropod groups, each characterized by the presence

Rosemary E. Golding; Winston F. Ponder; Maria Byrne

2009-01-01

19

Macrogeographic genetic variation in broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris).  

PubMed

Broad-snouted caiman's (Caiman latirostris) geographic distribution comprises one of the widest latitudinal ranges among all crocodilians. In this study we analyzed the relationship between geographic distance (along the species latitudinal range) and genetic differentiation using DNA microsatellite loci developed for C. latirostris and Alligator mississippiensis. The results suggest that there is a consistent relationship between geographic distance and genetic differentiation; however, other biogeographical factors seem to be relevant. The Atlantic Chain (Serra do Mar) seems to be an effective geographic barrier, as well as the relatively narrow (< or =1.5 km) sea channel between Cardoso Island and the continent. In addition, coastal populations seem to have been well connected in recent geological time (Pleistocene 16,000 years ago) all along the eastern Brazilian coast. Further studies should focus on the São Francisco River drainage, which is still poorly known for this species. PMID:18661469

Villela, Priscilla Marqui Schmidt; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann; Piña, Carlos Ignacio; Verdade, Luciano M

2008-12-01

20

BIJECTIONS FOR HOOK PAIR IDENTITIES C. Krattenthalery  

E-print Network

BIJECTIONS FOR HOOK PAIR IDENTITIES C: April 10, 2000. Abstract. Short, bijective proofs of identities for multisets of `hook pai* *rs' (arm-leg pairs) of the cells of certain diagrams are given. These hook pair identit* *ies were

Krattenthaler, Christian

21

Triploid Grass Carp The grass carp, or white amur (Ctenopharyngodon  

E-print Network

that perform like teeth and let them tear free and grind aquatic plants. Triploid developed a method to cre- ate sterile, non-reproducing grass carp by exposing the fertilized eggs to heat into states like Pennsylvania that prohibit the introduction of diploid grass carp. Diploid and triploid grass

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

22

Hooke's figurations: a figural drawing attributed to Robert Hooke.  

PubMed

The experimental philosopher Robert Hooke (1635-1703) is known to have apprenticed to the leading painter Peter Lely on his first arrival in London in the late 1640s. Yet the relevance of Hooke's artistic training to his mature draughtsmanship and identity has remained unclear. Shedding light on that larger interpretive problem, this article argues for the attribution to Hooke of a figural drawing now in Tate Britain (T10678). This attributed drawing is especially interesting because it depicts human subjects and bears Hooke's name functioning as an artistic signature, both highly unusual features for his draughtsmanship. From evidence of how this drawing was collected and physically placed alongside images by leading artists in the early eighteenth century, I suggest how it can offer new insight into the reception of Hooke and his graphic work in the early Enlightenment. PMID:20973449

Hunter, Matthew C

2010-09-20

23

High-jumping Silver Carp  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Silver carp are a large a troublesome invasive species from Asia found in the great rivers of the central United States. Silver carp have been observed to jump in response to rocks thrown in the water, passing trains, geese taking off from the water, or just when they unexpectedly find themselves in...

24

Leveraging "Choice" to Automate Authorization Hook Placement  

E-print Network

Leveraging "Choice" to Automate Authorization Hook Placement Divya Muthukumaran Pennsylvania State authorization hooks at appropriate locations in server code. The goal of authorization hook placement is to completely mediate all security-sensitive op- erations on shared resources. To date, authorization hook

Ganapathy, Vinod

25

BIJECTIONS FOR HOOK PAIR IDENTITIES C. Krattenthaler  

E-print Network

BIJECTIONS FOR HOOK PAIR IDENTITIES C. Krattenthaler Institut f¨ur Mathematik der Universit¨at Wien for multisets of `hook pairs' (arm-leg pairs) of the cells of certain diagrams are given. These hook pair of degrees of sequences of symmetric group characters, Regev and Vershik obtained some hook formulas, which

Krattenthaler, Christian

26

BIJECTIONS FOR HOOK PAIR IDENTITIES C. Krattenthaler +  

E-print Network

BIJECTIONS FOR HOOK PAIR IDENTITIES C. Krattenthaler + Institut fË?ur Mathematik der Universit for multisets of `hook pairs' (arm­leg pairs) of the cells of certain diagrams are given. These hook pair of degrees of sequences of symmetric group characters, Regev and Vershik obtained some hook formulas, which

Krattenthaler, Christian

27

Robert Hooke, 1635-1703.  

PubMed

Robert Hooke was a polymath whose expertise during the 17th century spanned many different scientific areas. As a schoolboy on the Isle of Wight he was obsessed with the possibility of human flight and later became equally absorbed in cosmology and planetary motion. His skills as an artist were put to good use both as an architect following the Great Fire of London and before that in Micrographia. Although that book is best known for demonstrating the power of Hooke's microscope, Micrographia describes distant planetary bodies, the wave theory of light, the organic origin of fossils, and various other philosophical and scientific interests of its author The following thumbnail sketches of Hooke reveal him to be a man of enormous energy and imagination whose ideas were often pirated or under-rated. PMID:23094324

Rowbury, Robin

2012-01-01

28

Robert Hooke's model of memory.  

PubMed

In 1682 the scientist and inventor Robert Hooke read a lecture to the Royal Society of London, in which he described a mechanistic model of human memory. Yet few psychologists today seem to have heard of Hooke's memory model. The lecture addressed questions of encoding, memory capacity, repetition, retrieval, and forgetting--some of these in a surprisingly modern way. Hooke's model shares several characteristics with the theory of Richard Semon, which came more than 200 years later, but it is more complete. Among the model's interesting properties are that (1) it allows for attention and other top-down influences on encoding; (2) it uses resonance to implement parallel, cue-dependent retrieval; (3) it explains memory for recency; (4) it offers a single-system account of repetition priming; and (5) the power law of forgetting can be derived from the model's assumptions in a straightforward way. PMID:12747488

Hintzman, Douglas L

2003-03-01

29

E-ELT Status Isobel Hook  

E-print Network

E-ELT Status Isobel Hook #12;The European ELT status summary · Detailed design completed in 2011 Isobel Hook Christoph Keller Oleg Kochukhov Rubina Kotak Carlos Martins Didier Queloz Roberto Ragazzoni E

Crowther, Paul

30

Stress, Strain and Hooke's Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to Hooke's law as well as stress-strain relationships. First they learn the governing equations, then they work through several example problems, first individually, then as a class. Through the lesson's two-part associated activity, students 1) explore Hooke's law by experimentally determining an unknown spring constant, and then 2) apply what they've learned to create a strain graph depicting a tumor using Microsoft Excel®. After the activities, the lesson concludes with a stress-strain quiz to assess each student's comprehension of the concepts.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

31

Action at Hooked or TwistedHooked DNA Juxtapositions Rationalizes Unlinking Preference of  

E-print Network

Action at Hooked or Twisted­Hooked DNA Juxtapositions Rationalizes Unlinking Preference of Type-2 passages at hooked juxtapositions can result in dramatic reductions in catenane and knot populations that selective segment passages at hooked juxtapositions reduce the variance of Lk. The dependence of this effect

Chan, Hue Sun

32

Does Hook Choice Matter? Effects of Three Circle Hook Models on Postrelease Survival of White Marlin  

E-print Network

Does Hook Choice Matter? Effects of Three Circle Hook Models on Postrelease Survival of White hooks with natural baits resulted in a highly significant increase in white marlin postrelease survival relative to the use of straight-shank (J-type) hooks with natural baits. However, several models of circle

Newman, Michael C.

33

HookScout: Proactive Binary-Centric Hook , Pongsin Poosankam2,3  

E-print Network

HookScout: Proactive Binary-Centric Hook Detection Heng Yin1 , Pongsin Poosankam2,3 , Steve Hanna2 hooks). To avoid detection, malware developers have started to target function pointers in kernel data for Windows by exploiting two function pointers individually. Then, we propose a new proactive hook detection

Yin, Heng

34

HookFinder: Identifying and Understanding Malware Hooking Behaviors Zhenkai Liang  

E-print Network

HookFinder: Identifying and Understanding Malware Hooking Behaviors Heng Yin Zhenkai Liang Dawn Installing various hooks into the victim system is an important attacking strategy employed by malware, in- cluding spyware, rootkits, stealth backdoors, and others. In order to defeat existing hook detectors

Yin, Heng

35

On hooks of Young diagrams Christine Bessenrodt  

E-print Network

On hooks of Young diagrams Christine Bessenrodt Fakult¨at f¨ur Mathematik Otto re­ movable box for a Young diagram is generalized to arbitrary hooks. As an application originated from a conjecture by Regev and Vershik on hook num­ bers in certain skew Young diagrams, described

Bessenrodt, Christine

36

Tony Bomford's Hyperbolic Hooked Rugs Douglas Dunham  

E-print Network

Tony Bomford's Hyperbolic Hooked Rugs Douglas Dunham Department of Computer Science University://www.d.umn.edu/~ddunham/ Dedicated to the memory of Tony Bomford Abstract Tony Bomford made 18 hooked rugs with mathematical themes-generated rendition of M. C. Escher's print Circle Limit IV. hooked rug; the previous eleven were Euclidean. He

Dunham, Doug

37

HOOK LENGTH FORMULA AND GEOMETRIC COMBINATORICS  

E-print Network

HOOK LENGTH FORMULA AND GEOMETRIC COMBINATORICS Igor Pak Department of Mathematics Massachusetts here a transparent proof of the hook length formula. The formula is reduced to an equality between mysterious hook length formula for this dimension. Ever since, a quest for a simple combinatorial proof has

Pak, Igor

38

Quantum Defects in Hooke's Atom Christina Skowronski  

E-print Network

Quantum Defects in Hooke's Atom Christina Skowronski April 17, 2000 #12; 1 Introduction In quantum and understand the "quantum defects" of di#11;erent systems. In par- ticular, one system of interest is Hooke's atom [3]. Hooke's atom is essentially a three-dimensional harmonic oscillator. It is a relatively

Burke, Kieron

39

Countering Kernel Rootkits with Lightweight Hook Protection  

E-print Network

Countering Kernel Rootkits with Lightweight Hook Protection Zhi Wang, Xuxian J iang, Weidong Cui · Introduction · Motivation · Challenge · HookSafe · Implementation · Evaluation · Conclusion · Questions #12 · Panorama, HookFinder, K-Tracer, and PoKeR ­ Detection of rootkits based on certain symptoms exhibited

Zou, Cliff C.

40

Robert Hooke's Seminal Contribution to Orbital Dynamics  

E-print Network

1 Robert Hooke's Seminal Contribution to Orbital Dynamics Michael Nauenberg* During the second half's laws describing the observed orbital motion of a planet around the Sun. Robert Hooke (1635 or misunderstood. Key words: Robert Hooke; Isaac Newton; astronomy; orbital motion. Introduction One of the most

Belanger, David P.

41

Food habits of the Broad?snouted Caiman (Caiman latirostris: Crocodylia, Alligatoridae) in northwestern Uruguay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The food habits of the Broad?snouted Caiman (Caiman latirostris) were studied in northwestern Uruguay. The most common prey were insects, the shrimp Pseudopalaemon bouvieri, the snail Pomacea canaliculata, fish and birds. Spiders, crabs, amphibians, snakes, turtles and mammals were consumed less frequently. Arthropods were the most frequent prey for juvenile caiman. Fish and snails were consumed by all size classes.

C. Borteiro; F. Gutiérrez; M. Tedros; F. Kolenc

2009-01-01

42

A Long-Snouted Predatory Dinosaur from Africa and the Evolution of Spinosaurids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossils discovered in Lower Cretaceous (Aptian) rocks in the Te «ne «re « Desert of central Niger provide new information about spinosaurids, a peculiar group of piscivorous theropod dinosaurs. The remains, which represent a new genus and species, reveal the extreme elongation and transverse compression of the spinosaurid snout. The postcranial bones include blade-shaped vertebral spines that form a low

Paul C. Sereno; Allison L. Beck; Didier B. Dutheil; Boubacar Gado; Hans C. E. Larsson; Gabrielle H. Lyon; Jonathan D. Marcot; Oliver W. M. Rauhut; Rudyard W. Sadleir; Christian A. Sidor; David D. Varricchio; Gregory P. Wilson; Jeffrey A. Wilson

1998-01-01

43

Hooke, Robert (1635-1703)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientist, born in Freshwater, Isle of Wight, England, educated at Christ Church College, Oxford where he met Boyle and was employed by him to construct his air pump, became professor of geometry at Gresham College, London. Discovered Hooke's law of elasticity. Worked on optics, simple harmonic motion and elasticity in strings. Published a monograph called Micrographia, containing beautiful pict...

P. Murdin

2000-01-01

44

The New Hooked on Books.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This anniversary edition of "Hooked on Books" adds new materials about the general educational context necessary for the success of the approach described in earlier editions. Discussions center on the difficulties of reading instruction, caused by the decreasing importance of reading in a television era; growth in the importance of peer teaching…

Fader, Daniel; And Others

45

Hooke, Robert (1635-1703)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientist, born in Freshwater, Isle of Wight, England, educated at Christ Church College, Oxford where he met Boyle and was employed by him to construct his air pump, became professor of geometry at Gresham College, London. Discovered Hooke's law of elasticity. Worked on optics, simple harmonic motion and elasticity in strings. Published a monograph called Micrographia, containing beautiful pict...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

46

Utility of snout wipe samples for influenza A virus surveillance in exhibition swine populations  

PubMed Central

Background Sporadic influenza A virus (IAV) outbreaks in humans and swine have resulted from commingling of large numbers of people and pigs at agricultural fairs in the United States. Current antemortem IAV surveillance strategies in swine require collecting nasal swabs, which entails restraining pigs with snares. Restraint is labor-intensive for samplers, stressful for pigs, and displeasing to onlookers because pigs often resist and vocalize. Objective To evaluate the utility of snout wipes in exhibition swine as a method to make IAV surveillance efforts less intrusive, less labor-intensive, and more widely accepted among pig owners and exhibition officials. Methods Three materials (rayon/polyester gauze, cotton gauze, and Swiffer® Sweeper dry cloths) were inoculated with IAV, and viral recoveries from these materials were quantified using qRT-PCR and TCID50 assays. In a field trial, paired cotton gauze snout wipes and gold standard polyester-tipped nasal swabs were collected from 553 pigs representing 29 agricultural fairs and the qualitative results of rRT-PCR and viral isolation were compared. Results and Conclusions Viral recoveries from potential snout wipe materials ranged from 0·26 to 1·59 log10 TCID50/ml less than that of the positive control in which no substrate was included; rayon/polyester gauze performed significantly worse than the other materials. In the field, snout wipes and nasal swabs had high levels of agreement for both rRT-PCR detection and virus isolation. Although further investigation and refinement of the sampling method is needed, results indicate that snout wipes will facilitate convenient and undisruptive IAV surveillance in pigs at agricultural fairs. PMID:25043408

Edwards, Jody L; Nelson, Sarah W; Workman, Jeffrey D; Slemons, Richard D; Szablewski, Christine M; Nolting, Jacqueline M; Bowman, Andrew S

2014-01-01

47

Introgressive Hybridization between Bighead Carp and Silver Carp in the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asian carps are classified as either bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis or silver carp H. molitrix by multiple presumptively diagnostic morphological characteristics; however, hybrids pose a dilemma. Fish sharing the morphological characteristics of both species were observed in an Illinois River backwater (Calhoun County, Illinois) approximately 5 mi (8 km) upriver from the confluence with the Mississippi River as well as

James Thomas Lamer; Chad Ryan Dolan; Jessica Lynn Petersen; John Howard Chick; John Michael Epifanio

2010-01-01

48

Phylogeny of snout butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Libyt-heinae): combining evidence from the morphology of extant, fossil,  

E-print Network

Phylogeny of snout butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Libyt- heinae): combining evidence from of Lepidoptera. Relationships among libytheines remain uncertain, especially in the placement of the recently morphologists, taxonomists, and paleontologists studying the Lepidoptera. Libytheines have an extraordinarily

Kawahara, Akito Y.

49

Dorsorostral snout muscles in the rat subserve coordinated movement for whisking and sniffing  

PubMed Central

Histochemical examination of the dorsorostral quadrant of the rat snout revealed superficial and deep muscles that are involved in whisking, sniffing, and airflow control. The part of M. nasolabialis profundus that acts as an intrinsic (follicular) muscle to facilitate protraction and translation of the vibrissae is described. An intraturbinate and selected rostral-most nasal muscles that can influence major routs of inspiratory airflow and rhinarial touch through their control of nostril configuration, atrioturbinate and rhinarium position were revealed. PMID:22641389

Haidarliu, Sebastian; Golomb, David; Kleinfeld, David; Ahissar, Ehud

2014-01-01

50

Variable Spaced Grating (VSG) Snout, Rotator and Rails for use at LLE  

SciTech Connect

The Variable Spaced Grating (VSG) is a spectrometer snout mounted to an X-Ray Framing Camera (XRFC) through the Unimount flange. This equipment already exists and is used at the University of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) facility. The XRFC and the Unimount flange are designed by LLE. The Tilt Rotator fixture that mounts next to the XRFC and the cart rails are designed by LLNL, and are included in this safety note. The other related components, such as the TIM rails and the Unimount flange, are addressed in a separate safety note, EDSN09-500005-AA. The Multipurpose Spectrometer (MSPEC) and VSG are mounted on the TIM Boat through the cart rails that are very similar in design. The tilt rotator combination with the Unimount flange is also a standard mounting procedure. The later mounting system has been included in this safety note. Figure-1 shows the interface components and the VSG snout. Figure-2 shows the VSG assembly mounted on the Unimount flange. The calibration pointer attachment is shown in place of the snout. There are two types of VSG, one made of 6061-T6 aluminum, weighing approximately 3 pounds, and the other made of 304 stainless steel, weighing approximately 5.5 pounds. This safety note examines the VSG steel design. Specific experiments may require orienting the VSG snout in 90 degrees increment with respect to the Unimount flange. This is done by changing the bolts position on the VSG-main body adapter flange to the Unimount adapter plate. There is no hazard involved in handling the VSG during this procedure as it is done outside the target chamber on the cart rail before installing on the TIM. This safety note addresses the mechanical integrity of the VSG structure, the tilt rotating fixture, the cart rails with handle and their connections. Safety Factors are also calculated for the MSPEC in place of the VSG.

Mukherjee, S K; Emig, J A; Griffith, L V; Heeter, R F; House, F A; James, D L; Schneider, M B; Sorce, C M

2010-01-25

51

Robert Hooke's Seminal Contribution to Orbital Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the second half of the seventeenth century, the outstanding problem in astronomy was to understand the physical basis for Kepler’s laws describing the observed orbital motion of a planet around the Sun. In the middle 1660s,Robert Hooke (1635 1703) proposed that a planet’s motion is determined by compounding its tangential velocity with the change in radial velocity impressed by the gravitational attraction of the Sun, and he described his physical concept to Isaac Newton (1642 1726) in correspondence in 1679. Newton denied having heard of Hooke’s novel concept of orbital motion, but shortly after their correspondence he implemented it by a geometric construction from which he deduced the physical origin of Kepler’s area law,which later became Proposition I, Book I, of his Principia in 1687.Three years earlier, Newton had deposited a preliminary draft of it, his De Motu Corporum in Gyrum (On the Motion of Bodies), at the Royal Society of London, which Hooke apparently was able to examine a few months later, because shortly there-after he applied Newton’s construction in a novel way to obtain the path of a body under the action of an attractive central force that varies linearly with the distance from its center of motion (Hooke’s law). I show that Hooke’s construction corresponds to Newton’s for his proof of Kepler’s area law in his De Motu. Hooke’s understanding of planetary motion was based on his observations with mechanical analogs. I repeated two of his experiments and demonstrated the accuracy of his observations.My results thus cast new light on the significance of Hooke’s contributions to the development of orbital dynamics, which in the past have either been neglected or misunderstood.

Nauenberg, Michael

2005-03-01

52

Aspects of Embryonic and Larval Development in Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix  

PubMed Central

As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthysnobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river. PMID:23967350

George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

2013-01-01

53

Aspects of embryonic and larval development in bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river.

George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

2013-01-01

54

Carpe Diem! Prof. Dr. Stefan Krauter  

E-print Network

»Carpe Diem!« Prof. Dr. Stefan Krauter Photovoltaik-Institut Berlin AG 33 »Damals wurden wir noch-Nachhaltigkeit eher Foto:TUPressestelle/Dahl #12;34 35 zur person Prof. Dr. Stefan Krauter motto »Carpe Diem!« mein

Wichmann, Felix

55

85Wells et al.--Control of macrophytes by grass carp Control of macrophytes by grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)  

E-print Network

85Wells et al.--Control of macrophytes by grass carp Control of macrophytes by grass carp for the high plant biomass that accumulates at the end of summer, the effect of stocking diploid grass carp (including the emergents), seven were exotic. Two months after grass carp were released to Churchill East

Waikato, University of

56

Carp-based aquafeeds and market-driven approaches to controlling invasive Asian carp in the Illinois River  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Incentivizing ‘overfishing’ through the creation of high value markets for rendered carp products such as fish meal (FM) is a promising strategy to reduce the density of silver carp and bighead carp (collectively referred to as Asian carp) in the Illinois River. However, the nutrient content and dig...

57

Relationship between Religiosity and "Hooking Up" Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: "Hooking up" behaviors, or sexual activities without commitment or emotional attachment, are occurring among college students. Purpose: This study examined the relationship between hooking up and two measures of religiosity. Methods: Data was obtained from students at a mid-southern university (n=459). Results: Most respondents…

Penhollow, Tina; Young, Michael; Bailey, William

2007-01-01

58

Parachute Line Hook Includes Integral Loop Expander  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parachute packing simplified with modified line hook. One person packs parachutes for test recovery vehicles faster than previously two-person team. New line hook includes expander that opens up two locking loops so parachute lines are pulled through them. Parachutes are packed at high pressure to be compressed into limited space available in test vehicles.

Bayless, G. B.

1983-01-01

59

Cooling system for three hook ring segment  

DOEpatents

A triple hook ring segment including forward, midsection and aft mounting hooks for engagement with respective hangers formed on a ring segment carrier for supporting a ring segment panel, and defining a forward high pressure chamber and an aft low pressure chamber on opposing sides of the midsection mounting hook. An isolation plate is provided on the aft side of the midsection mounting hook to form an isolation chamber between the aft low pressure chamber and the ring segment panel. High pressure air is supplied to the forward chamber and flows to the isolation chamber through crossover passages in the midsection hook. The isolation chamber provides convection cooling air to an aft portion of the ring segment panel and enables a reduction of air pressure in the aft low pressure chamber to reduce leakage flow of cooling air from the ring segment.

Campbell, Christian X.; Eng, Darryl; Lee, Ching-Pang; Patat, Harry

2014-08-26

60

History of introductions and governmental involvement in promoting the use of grass, silver, and bighead carps  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Numerous natural resource agency and media reports have alleged that Asian carps were introduced into the wild through escapes from commercial fish farms. This presentation chronologically traces the introductions of Asian carps (grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys mol...

61

Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

2011-01-01

62

DISCOVERING HOOK LENGTH FORMULAS BY AN EXPANSION TECHNIQUE  

E-print Network

DISCOVERING HOOK LENGTH FORMULAS BY AN EXPANSION TECHNIQUE Guo-Niu Han I.R.M.A. UMR 7501, Universit Classifications: 05A15, 05A30, 05E15, 05C05 ABSTRACT. -- We introduce a hook length expansion technique and explain how to discover old and new hook length formulas for partitions and plane trees. The new hook

Boyer, Edmond

63

The multifunctional human p100 protein `hooks' methylated ligands  

E-print Network

The multifunctional human p100 protein `hooks' methylated ligands Neil Shaw1,6, Min Zhao2 of p100's proposed functions. The interdigitated structure resembles a hook, with a hinge controlling the movement and orientation of the hook. Our studies suggest that a conserved aromatic cage hooks methyl

Zhijie, Liu

64

The Frances Dancy Hooks Award 2015 Award Nomination Packet  

E-print Network

The Frances Dancy Hooks Award 2015 Award Nomination Packet Background: This award was initiated in 1994, when Frances Dancy Hooks and Dr. Benjamin Hooks were here as keynote speakers for the King celebration. The award recognizes students, staff or faculty who exemplify Frances Dancy Hooks' work: building

Escher, Christine

65

Countering Kernel Rootkits with Lightweight Hook Michal Sekletar  

E-print Network

Countering Kernel Rootkits with Lightweight Hook Protection Michal Sekletar College of Engineering of Central Florida) April 2, 2012 3 / 14 #12;Background ­ Hooking Definition - Hook Function pointers, return addresses, e.g. ext3 dir operations->readdir Definition - Hooking Techniques used to alter or augment

Zou, Cliff C.

66

Homage to Robert Hooke (1635-1703): new insights from the recently discovered Hooke Folio.  

PubMed

Microorganisms were first observed by Robert Hooke and Antoni van Leeuwenhoek between 1665 and 1678. In 1665, Hooke published Micrographia, which depicted the details of 60 objects as seen in the microscope. One chapter was devoted to the microfungus Mucor, the first microbe observed by the human eye. Leeuwenhoek, despite having no scientific training, became the first to observe protozoa, red blood cells, the sperm cells of animals, and bacteria, which he described in numerous letters to the Royal Society of London. In 1677, Hooke became Secretary of the Royal Society and, in the same year, confirmed some of Leeuwenhoek's discoveries. The discovery in 2006 of more than 650 pages of Hooke's missing records (the "Hooke Folio") allows us to verify the proceedings of Royal Society meetings and promises to be an important new source of Hooke's views on the renaissance of science in the 17th century. PMID:19684374

Gest, Howard

2009-01-01

67

Respiratory and olfactory turbinals in feliform and caniform carnivorans: the influence of snout length.  

PubMed

To enhance bite force at the canines, feliform carnivorans have short rostra relative to caniform carnivorans. Rostral reduction in feliforms results in less rostrocaudal space for the maxilloturbinals, the complex set of bones involved in conditioning inspired air and conserving water. It is unknown whether the maxilloturbinals might show adaptations to adjust for this loss, such as greater complexity than what is observed in longer snouted caniforms. To understand the impact of rostral shortening on turbinals in feliforms, we used high resolution CT scans to quantify turbinal surface areas (SA) in 16 feliforms and compared them with published data on 20 caniforms. Results indicate that feliforms have reduced maxilloturbinal SA for their body mass relative to caniforms, but comparable fronto-ethmoturbinal SA. However, anterior portions of the ethmoturbinals in feliforms extend forward into the snout and are positioned within the respiratory pathway. When the SA of these anterior ethmoturbinals is added to maxilloturbinal SA to produce an estimated respiratory SA, feliforms and caniforms are similar in respiratory SA. This transfer of ethmoturbinal SA to respiratory function results in feliforms having less estimated olfactory SA relative to caniforms. Previous work on canids found a positive association between olfactory surface area and diet, but this was not found for felids. Results are consistent with feliforms having somewhat reduced olfactory ability relative to caniforms. If confirmed by behavioral data, the relative reduction in olfactory SA in many feliforms may reflect a greater reliance on vision in foraging relative to caniforms. PMID:25312365

van Valkenburgh, Blaire; Pang, Benison; Bird, Deborah; Curtis, Abigail; Yee, Karen; Wysocki, Charles; Craven, Brent A

2014-11-01

68

Histochemical localization of sialic acids and antimicrobial substances in eccrine glands of porcine snout skin  

PubMed Central

The distribution of sialic acids and antimicrobial products (lysozyme, IgA, lactoferrin, ?-defensin 2) as well as Rab3D in the eccrine glands of porcine snout skin was studied by sialoglycoconjugate histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. The secretory epithelium consisted of two types of secretory cells: dark and clear cells. The dark cells exhibited considerable amounts of sialoglycoconjugates, which included O-acetylated sialic acids, whereas sialic acids in the sequence Sia?-2-3Gal1-4GlcNAc were confined to some of the dark cells. All antimicrobial substances and Rab3D were demonstrated to be also mainly present in some of the dark cells. Additionally, in the cytological and cytochemical features, the different characteristics were observed among the dark cells. The results obtained are discussed with regard to the functional significance of the eccrine glands. The secretory products elaborated by this gland type may function as protective agents in order to preserve the skin integrity of the snout region, considering that sialic acids and antimicrobial substances are important in general defense mechanisms. PMID:22472894

Fukui, K.; Yasui, T.; Gomi, H.; Sugiya, H.; Fujimori, O.; Meyer, W.; Tsukise, A.

2012-01-01

69

A strain of calicivirus isolated from lions with vesicular lesions on tongue and snout.  

PubMed

In December 1992, 17 African lions and 7 Siberian tigers in a Safari park in Japan became sick with characteristic clinical symptoms of acute vesicular formations on tongue and snout. The disease was highly contagious since all of these animals showed similar symptoms within two days after the onset of the first case. Swabs were taken from affected animals in rubbing tongues, snouts and some from rectums. Cytopathic viruses were isolated on CRFK cell culture by virological tests. The physicochemical property of a representative virus strain, named Arthur/L, isolated from a male lion was identified as a member of Caliciviridae. However, seroneutralization test indicated that this virus strain was antigenically distinct from Japanese isolates of feline caliciviruses used for comparison. Viral capsid proteins of the present isolate, Arthur/L, and of a feline calicivirus, strain FC7, were compared in an electrophoresis in SDS-PAGE gel. The major viral capsid polypeptide of them were proved to be significantly different in molecular weight. The polypeptide of FC7 was estimated to be ca. 63 KDa whereas that of Arthur/L consisted of 2 components of ca. 65 and 62 KDa. The viral proteins of these two strains were also proved to be distinct by an immunoblotting test. PMID:9208424

Kadoi, K; Kiryu, M; Iwabuchi, M; Kamata, H; Yukawa, M; Inaba, Y

1997-04-01

70

hooks were fished on longline baskets with 9.1-m float lines, 2,160 hooks on baskets with  

E-print Network

hooks were fished on longline baskets with 9.1-m float lines, 2,160 hooks on baskets with 18.3-m float lines, and 2,340 hooks on baskets with 36.6-m float lines. No specimens were taken on longline baskets on each fishing station. More bra- mids were taken on hooks baited with saurv than with squid

71

Hooking mortality: A review for recreational fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Length?limit regulations and promotion of catch?and?release fishing have become increasingly important management approaches for recreational fisheries. We review?studies on catch?and?release (hooking) mortality gathered from the existing fisheries literature and from a survey of fisheries management agencies in all 50 states, the U.S. government, all Canadian provinces, and selected academic and research institutions. We identified hooking mortality estimates for 32 taxa.

Maurice I. Muoneke; W. Michael Childress

1994-01-01

72

Conformal mechanics in Newton-Hooke spacetime  

E-print Network

Conformal many-body mechanics in Newton-Hooke spacetime is studied within the framework of the Lagrangian formalism. Global symmetries and Noether charges are given in a form convenient for analyzing the flat space limit. N=2 superconformal extension is built and a new class on N=2 models related to simple Lie algebras is presented. A decoupling similarity transformation on N=2 quantum mechanics in Newton-Hooke spacetime is discussed.

Anton Galajinsky

2010-03-01

73

Applying Hooke's Law to Cancer Detection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore Hooke's law while working in small groups at their lab benches. They collect displacement data for springs with unknown spring constants, k, by adding various masses of known weight. After exploring Hooke's law and answering a series of application questions, students apply their new understanding to explore a tissue of known surface area. Students then use the necessary relationships to depict a cancerous tumor amidst normal tissue by creating a graph in Microsoft Excel.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

74

Cadmium-binding protein (metallothionein) in carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

When carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to 5 and 30 ppm Cd in the water, the contents of Cd-binding protein, which has low molecular weight, increased in the hepatopancreas, kidney, gills and gastrointestinal tract with duration of exposure. This Cd-binding protein was purified from hepatopancreas, kidney, gills, and spleen of carp administered 2 mg\\/kg Cd (as CdClâ), intraperitoneally for 6

H. Kito; Y. Ose; T. Sato

1986-01-01

75

Can Soft Water Limit Bighead Carp and Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) Invasions?  

EPA Science Inventory

There is concern that the non-native bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix), now found in many large rivers of the Mississippi River Basin, may spread to other regions. However, evidence suggests that their eggs may not be able to survive in soft ...

76

Newton-Hooke Limit of Beltrami-de Sitter Spacetime, Principles of Galilei-Hooke's Relativity and Postulate on Newton-Hooke Universal Time  

E-print Network

Based on the Beltrami-de Sitter spacetime, we present the Newton-Hooke model under the Newton-Hooke contraction of the $BdS$ spacetime with respect to the transformation group, algebra and geometry. It is shown that in Newton-Hooke space-time, there are inertial-type coordinate systems and inertial-type observers, which move along straight lines with uniform velocity. And they are invariant under the Newton-Hooke group. In order to determine uniquely the Newton-Hooke limit, we propose the Galilei-Hooke's relativity principle as well as the postulate on Newton-Hooke universal time. All results are readily extended to the Newton-Hooke model as a contraction of Beltrami-anti-de Sitter spacetime with negative cosmological constant.

Chao-Guang Huang; Han-Ying Guo; Yu Tian; Zhan Xu; Bin Zhou

2007-08-15

77

Relationships among invasive common carp, native fishes and physicochemical characteristics  

E-print Network

). Common carp Cyprinus carpio are distributed worldwide and considered one of the most wide- spread of Freshwater Fish 2011. � 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract ­ Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread

78

The Hispaniolan (Haitian) Boa, Chilabothrus striatus Fisher 1856, is a large (max snout-vent length [SVL  

E-print Network

The Hispaniolan (Haitian) Boa, Chilabothrus striatus Fisher 1856, is a large (max snout-vent length boas and one introduced boa occur. The endangered Virgin Islands Boa (C. monensis granti) occurs). The introduced boa (Boa constrictor) occurs throughout western Puerto Rico (Reynolds et al., 2013), and has been

Revell, Liam

79

In vitro evaluation of synergistic activity between ciprofloxacin and broad snouted caiman serum against Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The in vitro synergistic activity between ciprofloxacin and serum of broad snouted caiman on Escherichia coli was studied. The estimated MIC value of ciprofloxacin was 0.0188?µg/ml, and two assays of kill curve during 5 hours were performed: the first one in a standard culture medium and the second one in the presence of caiman serum. Different concentrations of ciprofloxacin were tested. Ciprofloxacin showed higher values of bacterial elimination rate in the presence of caiman serum in all concentrations tested. The combined activity of sub-inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin and the humoral immune factors present in caiman serum determined an increase in the bacterial elimination observed in this assay. We suggest that the antibacterial activity of complement and natural antibodies present in caiman serum, which can bind to both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and acting through the classical complement pathway, can inhibit bacterial growth of Escherichia coli by lysis. PMID:25468795

Siroski, P A; Russi, N B; Ortega, H H; Formentini, E A

2015-02-01

80

Disseminated Mycobacterium intracellulare infection in a broad-snouted caiman Caiman latirostris.  

PubMed

A 10 yr old broad-snouted caiman Caiman latirostris from a small Dutch animal park was presented with long-term variable periods of anorexia and weight loss. Blood chemistry showed slightly elevated uric acid levels and low ionised calcium concentration. Ultrasonographical thickening of the intestinal wall in the region of the duodenum was evident. Pathological changes were a thickening of the wall of 90% of the small intestines, enlarged spleen with multifocal white foci and an enlarged light-brown liver. Histopathological lesions consisted of disseminated granulomas in the intestinal wall, the liver and the spleen. Multinucleated giant cells and epitheloid macrophages were abundant. Ziehl-Neelsen staining showed numerous intralesional acid-fast bacteria. Polymerase chain reaction for Mycobacterium intracellulare was positive. PMID:24270027

Kik, Marja J L

2013-11-25

81

Intraspecific isotopic niche variation in broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris).  

PubMed

Strategies to minimise intraspecific competition are common in wild animals. For example, individuals may exploit food resources at different levels of the food chain. Analyses of stable isotopes are particularly useful for confirming variations in an intraspecific niche because the chemical composition of animals tends to reflect both the food consumed and the habitats occupied by the species. However, studies using this methodology to investigate neotropical crocodilians are scarce. This study aimed to verify the existence of ontogenetic and sexual niche variation in broad-snouted caiman in a silvicultural landscape in Brazil through the use of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. The isotopic ratios of carbon and nitrogen were determined in claw samples collected from 24 juveniles, 8 adults, and 16 hatchlings of C. latirostris. We identified a discrete ontogenetic variation in the isotopic niche and sexual difference only for juveniles. These results may indicate differences in the exploitation resources and a consequent reduction in competition between age classes. PMID:24117429

Marques, Thiago S; Lara, Neliton R F; Bassetti, Luis A B; Piña, Carlos I; Camargo, Plínio B; Verdade, Luciano M

2013-01-01

82

Hooke, orbital motion, and Newton's Principia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed analysis is given of a 1685 graphical construction by Robert Hooke for the polygonal path of a body moving in a periodically pulsed radial field of force. In this example the force varies linearly with the distance from the center. Hooke's method is based directly on his original idea from the mid-1660s that the orbital motion of a planet is determined by compounding its tangential velocity with a radial velocity impressed by the gravitational attraction of the sun at the center. This hypothesis corresponds to the second law of motion, as formulated two decades later by Newton, and its geometrical implementation constitutes the cornerstone of Newton's Principia. Hooke's diagram represents the first known accurate graphical evaluation of an orbit in a central field of force, and it gives evidence that he demonstrated that his resulting discrete orbit is an approximate ellipse centered at the origin of the field of force. A comparable calculation to obtain orbits for an inverse square force, which Hooke had conjectured to be the gravitational force, has not been found among his unpublished papers. Such a calculation is carried out here numerically with the Newton-Hooke geometrical construction. It is shown that for orbits of comparable or larger eccentricity than Hooke's example, a graphical approach runs into convergence difficulties due to the singularity of the gravitational force at the origin. This may help resolve the long-standing mystery why Hooke never published his controversial claim that he had demonstrated that an attractive force, which is ``...in a duplicate proportion to the Distance from the Center Reciprocall...'' implies elliptic orbits.

Nauenberg, Michael

1994-04-01

83

Short-Snouted Toothless Ichthyosaur from China Suggests Late Triassic Diversification of Suction Feeding Ichthyosaurs  

PubMed Central

Background Ichthyosaurs were an important group of Mesozoic marine reptiles and existed from the Early Triassic to the early Late Cretaceous. Despite a great diversity in body shapes and feeding adaptations, all share greatly enlarged eyes, an elongated rostrum with numerous conical teeth, and a streamlined body. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on new material from China and the restudy of Shastasaurus pacificus, we here reinterpret the classical large-bodied Late Triassic ichthyosaur genus Shastasaurus to differ greatly from the standard ichthyosaurian body plan, indicating much greater morphological diversity and range of feeding adaptations in ichthyosaurs than previously recognized. Phylogenetic analysis indicates a monophyletic clade consisting of the giant Shonisaurus sikanniensis, Guanlingsaurus liangae, and Shastasaurus pacificus to which the genus name Shastasaurus is applied. Shastasaurus liangae comb. nov. is from the Late Triassic (Carnian) Xiaowa Formation of Guizhou Province, southwestern China. The species combines a diminutive head with an entirely toothless and greatly reduced snout. The species also has by far the highest vertebral count among ichthyosaurs (86 presacral vertebrae and >110 caudal vertebrae), a count that is also very high for tetrapods in general. A reduced toothless snout and a diminutive head is also apparently present in the giant S. sikanniensis and presumably in S. pacificus. Conclusions/Significance In analogy to many modern odontocetes, Shastasaurus is interpreted as a specialized suction feeder on unshelled cephalopods and fish, suggesting a unique but widespread Late Triassic diversification of toothless, suction-feeding ichthyosaurs. Suction feeding has not been hypothesized for any of the other diverse marine reptiles of the Mesozoic before, but in Shastasaurus may be linked to the Late Triassic minimum in atmospheric oxygen. PMID:21625429

Sander, P. Martin; Chen, Xiaohong; Cheng, Long; Wang, Xiaofeng

2011-01-01

84

Two fault tolerant toggle-hook release  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A coupling device is disclosed which is mechanically two fault tolerant for release. The device comprises a fastener plate and fastener body, each of which is attachable to a different one of a pair of structures to be joined. The fastener plate and body are coupled by an elongate toggle mounted at one end in a socket on the fastener plate for universal pivotal movement thereon. The other end of the toggle is received in an opening in the fastener body and adapted for limited pivotal movement therein. The toggle is adapted to be restrained by three latch hooks arranged in symmetrical equiangular spacing about the axis of the toggle, each hook being mounted on the fastener body for pivotal movement between an unlatching non-contact position with respect to the toggle and a latching position in engagement with a latching surface of the toggle. The device includes releasable lock means for locking each latch hook in its latching position whereby the toggle couples the fastener plate to the fastener body and means for releasing the lock means to unlock each said latch hook from the latch position whereby the unlocking of at least one of the latch hooks from its latching position results in the decoupling of the fastener plate from the fastener body.

Graves, Thomas Joseph (inventor); Brown, Christopher William (inventor)

1991-01-01

85

571Tempero et al.--Age, growth and reproduction of koi carp Age composition, growth, and reproduction of koi carp  

E-print Network

, and reproduction of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the lower Waikato region, New Zealand GrAnT W. Tempero nichol, new Zealand email: nling@waikato.ac.nz Abstract A total of 566 koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) from; age; growth; invasive species; maturity; fecundity INTRODUCTION common carp (Cyprinus carpio l

Waikato, University of

86

FRONT ELEVATION; HOOK & LADDER BUILDING ON THE RIGHT, SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

FRONT ELEVATION; HOOK & LADDER BUILDING ON THE RIGHT, SHOWING THE ARCHED OPENING THAT CONNECTS IT TO THE MAIN FIRE STATION BUILDING, VIEW FACING NORTH NORTHWEST - Kakaako Fire Station, Hook & Ladder Building, 620 South Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

87

46 CFR 173.007 - Location of the hook load.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE Lifting § 173.007 Location of the hook load. When doing the calculations required in this subpart, the hook load must be...

2010-10-01

88

Physiological changes in carps induced by pollution  

SciTech Connect

Several pollutants like DDT, atrazine, PCP, and others induce changes of cortisol and glucose levels in serum, variations of the amount of liver glycogen and liver function, and exert changes of the activity of gill ATPase and acetylcholinesterase in brain and serum of carps. There is always a biphasic response, an increase of concentration or enzyme activity for a short time, and a decrease or inhibition of the enzymes after a longer exposure to the pollutants. The time scale, the duration of the period of increase and that of decrease, depends on the concentration and the toxicity of the pollutants. The influence of the pollutants in normal fresh water was compared with the effects occurring in carps acclimated to 1.2% salt water. This condition enables one to show that the carps are more sensitive to the pollutants under this condition. All responses are unspecific. Advice for the use of these tests as criteria for water quality are given.

Hanke, W.; Gluth, G.; Bubel, H.; Mueller, R.

1983-04-01

89

Robert Hooke (1635-1703) http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/PictDisplay/Hooke.html  

E-print Network

Robert Hooke (1635-1703) http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/PictDisplay/Hooke.html #12 a chorister at Oxford, he came into contact with many scientists, including Robert Boyle, with whom he

Ballarini, Roberto

90

Hook Timers to Measure the Capture Time of Individual Fish  

E-print Network

Hook Timers to Measure the Capture Time of Individual Fish DAVID A. SOMERTON, BERT S. KIKKAWA, and CHRISTOPHER D. WILSON Introduction Gear saturation and interspecific com petition for hooks complicate the use of unoccupied, baited hooks approaches zero before the longline is retrieved. If this occurs, catch

91

THE WEIGHTED HOOK LENGTH FORMULA III: SHIFTED TABLEAUX  

E-print Network

THE WEIGHTED HOOK LENGTH FORMULA III: SHIFTED TABLEAUX MATJAZ KONVALINKA Abstract. Recently, a simple proof of the hook length formula was given via the branch- ing rule. In this paper, we extend the results to shifted tableaux. We give a bijective proof of the branching rule for the hook lengths

Konvalinka, Matjaz

92

On Postnikov's Hook Length Formula for Binary Trees  

E-print Network

On Postnikov's Hook Length Formula for Binary Trees William Y.C. Chen1 and Laura L.M. Yang2 Center@hotmail.com Abstract. We present a combinatorial proof of Postnikov's hook length formula for binary trees. AMS Classification: 05A15, 05A19 Keywords: Binary tree, labeled tree, Postnikov's hook length formula Corresponding

Chen, Bill

93

Hook lengths in a skew Young diagram Svante Janson  

E-print Network

Hook lengths in a skew Young diagram Svante Janson Department of Mathematics, Uppsala University PO some properties of the set of hook lengths for certain skew Young diagrams, using asymptotic obtained some properties of the set of hook lengths for certain skew Young diagrams. They prove the results

Janson, Svante

94

Hook lengths in a skew Young diagram Svante Janson  

E-print Network

Hook lengths in a skew Young diagram Svante of the set of hook lengths for certain skew Young diagrams, usi* *ng asymptotic calculations and Vershik [1] have recently obtained some properties of the set of hook* * lengths for certain skew Young

Janson, Svante

95

Fostering Hooks and Shifts: Tutorial Tactics for Guided Mathematical Discovery  

E-print Network

Fostering Hooks and Shifts: Tutorial Tactics for Guided Mathematical Discovery Dor Abrahamson for enhancing, explaining, or evaluating their interaction strategy. Yet when they engage or ``hook-stepped discovery process as ``hooks and shifts'' (Abrahamson et al. 2011). The study reported in the current paper

Wilensky, Uri

96

Symmetry distribution between hook length and part length for partitions  

E-print Network

2009/04/09 Symmetry distribution between hook length and part length for partitions Christine Bessenrodt and Guo-Niu Han ABSTRACT. -- It is known that the two statistics on integer partitions "hook and to the left of v, in the same column as v and under v). See Fig.1. We define the hook length (resp. part

Bessenrodt, Christine

97

THE WEIGHTED HOOK LENGTH FORMULA III: SHIFTED TABLEAUX  

E-print Network

THE WEIGHTED HOOK LENGTH FORMULA III: SHIFTED TABLEAUX MATJA Ÿ Z KONVALINKA # Abstract. Recently, a simple proof of the hook length formula was given via the branch­ ing rule. In this paper, we extend the results to shifted tableaux. We give a bijective proof of the branching rule for the hook lengths

Konvalinka, Matjaz

98

Hook length formulas for integer partitions and planar trees  

E-print Network

Hook length formulas for integer partitions and planar trees Guo-Niu Han IRMA, Strasbourg Journ´ees de Combinatoire de Bordeaux - 27 Janvier 2010 1 #12;Hook length formulas for partitions and trees Summary: · Some well-known examples · How to discover new hook formulas ? · The Main Theorem

Marckert, Jean-François

99

A Pedagogy of Sight: Microscopic Vision in Robert Hooke's "Micrographia"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Robert Hooke's "Micrographia" (1665) holds an important place in the history of scientific visual rhetoric. Hooke's accomplishment lies not only in a stunning array of engravings, but also in a "pedagogy of sight"--a rhetorical framework that instructs readers how to view images in accordance with an ideological or epistemic program. Hooke not…

Jack, Jordynn

2009-01-01

100

Chaos in Robert Hooke's inverted cone BY MEDERIC ARGENTINA  

E-print Network

Chaos in Robert Hooke's inverted cone BY ME´DE´RIC ARGENTINA 1,2 , PIERRE COULLET 1,2 , JEAN Universite´ de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Institut Robert Hooke, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex 2, France Robert, Robert Hooke was the first to envisage the design of simple experiments with pendula, presented

Argentina, Mederic

101

Robert Hooke's ‘Memoranda’: Memory and natural history  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organ of the memory was of crucial importance for Robert Hooke in his aim to improve natural history and the study of nature in general. As a mechanist he was careful to avoid the confident analogizing of his contemporaries, and he described his model in hypothetical form. However, he saw it as amenable to improvement—just as mechanically as the

Lotte Mulligan

1992-01-01

102

A long-snouted, multihorned tyrannosaurid from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia.  

PubMed

Tyrannosaurid theropods are characterized by a generalized body plan, and all well-known taxa possess deep and robust skulls that are optimized for exerting powerful bite forces. The fragmentary Late Cretaceous Alioramus appears to deviate from this trend, but its holotype and only known specimen is incomplete and poorly described. A remarkable new tyrannosaurid specimen from the Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) of Mongolia, including a nearly complete and well-preserved skull and an extensive postcranium, represents a new species of Alioramus, Alioramus altai. This specimen conclusively demonstrates that Alioramus is a small, gracile, long-snouted carnivore that deviates from other tyrannosaurids in its body plan and presumably its ecological habits. As such, it increases the range of morphological diversity in one of the most familiar extinct clades. Phylogenetic analysis places Alioramus deep within the megapredatory Tyrannosauridae, and within the tyrannosaurine subclade that also includes Tarbosaurus and Tyrannosaurus. Both pneumatization and ornamentation are extreme compared with other tyrannosaurids, and the skull contains eight discrete horns. The new specimen is histologically aged at nine years old but is smaller than other tyrannosaurids of similar age. Despite its divergent cranial form, Alioramus is characterized by a similar sequence of ontogenetic changes as the megapredatory Tyrannosaurus and Albertosaurus, indicating that ontogenetic change is conservative in tyrannosaurids. PMID:19805035

Brusatte, Stephen L; Carr, Thomas D; Erickson, Gregory M; Bever, Gabe S; Norell, Mark A

2009-10-13

103

A basal ichthyosauriform with a short snout from the Lower Triassic of China.  

PubMed

The incompleteness of the fossil record obscures the origin of many of the more derived clades of vertebrates. One such group is the Ichthyopterygia, a clade of obligatory marine reptiles that appeared in the Early Triassic epoch, without any known intermediates. Here we describe a basal ichthyosauriform from the upper Lower Triassic (about 248 million years ago) of China, whose primitive skeleton indicates possible amphibious habits. It is smaller than ichthyopterygians and had unusually large flippers that probably allowed limited terrestrial locomotion. It also retained characteristics of terrestrial diapsid reptiles, including a short snout and body trunk. Unlike more-derived ichthyosauriforms, it was probably a suction feeder. The new species supports the sister-group relationships between ichthyosauriforms and Hupehsuchia, the two forming the Ichthyosauromorpha. Basal ichthyosauromorphs are known exclusively from south China, suggesting that the clade originated in the region, which formed a warm and humid tropical archipelago in the Early Triassic. The oldest unequivocal record of a sauropterygian is also from the same stratigraphic unit of the region. PMID:25383536

Motani, Ryosuke; Jiang, Da-Yong; Chen, Guan-Bao; Tintori, Andrea; Rieppel, Olivier; Ji, Cheng; Huang, Jian-Dong

2015-01-22

104

Some Peculiarities of Newton-Hooke Space-Times  

E-print Network

Newton-Hooke space-times are the non-relativistic limit of (anti-)de Sitter space-times. We investigate some peculiar facts about the Newton-Hooke space-times, among which the "extraordinary Newton-Hooke quantum mechanics" and the "anomalous Newton-Hooke space-times" are discussed in detail. Analysis on the Lagrangian/action formalism is performed in the discussion of the Newton-Hooke quantum mechanics, where the path integral point of view plays an important role, and the physically measurable density of probability is clarified.

Yu Tian

2011-09-28

105

Comparative Genomics of Carp Herpesviruses  

PubMed Central

Three alloherpesviruses are known to cause disease in cyprinid fish: cyprinid herpesviruses 1 and 3 (CyHV1 and CyHV3) in common carp and koi and cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV2) in goldfish. We have determined the genome sequences of CyHV1 and CyHV2 and compared them with the published CyHV3 sequence. The CyHV1 and CyHV2 genomes are 291,144 and 290,304 bp, respectively, in size, and thus the CyHV3 genome, at 295,146 bp, remains the largest recorded among the herpesviruses. Each of the three genomes consists of a unique region flanked at each terminus by a sizeable direct repeat. The CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 genomes are predicted to contain 137, 150, and 155 unique, functional protein-coding genes, respectively, of which six, four, and eight, respectively, are duplicated in the terminal repeat. The three viruses share 120 orthologous genes in a largely colinear arrangement, of which up to 55 are also conserved in the other member of the genus Cyprinivirus, anguillid herpesvirus 1. Twelve genes are conserved convincingly in all sequenced alloherpesviruses, and two others are conserved marginally. The reference CyHV3 strain has been reported to contain five fragmented genes that are presumably nonfunctional. The CyHV2 strain has two fragmented genes, and the CyHV1 strain has none. CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 have five, six, and five families of paralogous genes, respectively. One family unique to CyHV1 is related to cellular JUNB, which encodes a transcription factor involved in oncogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the first time that JUNB-related sequences have been reported in a herpesvirus. PMID:23269803

Kurobe, Tomofumi; Gatherer, Derek; Cunningham, Charles; Korf, Ian; Fukuda, Hideo; Hedrick, Ronald P.; Waltzek, Thomas B.

2013-01-01

106

Cadmium-binding protein (metallothionein) in carp  

SciTech Connect

When carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to 5 and 30 ppm Cd in the water, the contents of Cd-binding protein, which has low molecular weight, increased in the hepatopancreas, kidney, gills and gastrointestinal tract with duration of exposure. This Cd-binding protein was purified from hepatopancreas, kidney, gills, and spleen of carp administered 2 mg/kg Cd (as CdCl/sub 2/), intraperitoneally for 6 days. Two Cd-binding proteins were separated by DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column chromatography. These proteins had Cd-mercaptide bond, high cysteine contents (ca. 29-34%), but no aromatic amino acids or histidine. From these characteristics the Cd-binding proteins were identified as metallothionein. By using antiserum obtained from a rabbit to which carp hepatopancreas MT-II had been administered, immunological characteristics between hepatopancreas MT-I, II and kidney MT-II were studied, and a slight difference in antigenic determinant was observed among them. By immunological staining techniques with horseradish peroxidase, the localization of metallothionein was investigated. Carp were bred in 1 ppm Cd, 5 ppm Zn solution, and tap water for 14 days, following transfer to 15 ppm Cd solution, respectively. The survival ratio was the highest in the Zn group followed by Cd-treated and control groups.

Kito, H.; Ose, Y.; Sato, T.

1986-03-01

107

Toxicity of Trihalomethanes to Common Carp Embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trihalomethanes recently have been identified in real and simulated effluents from power plants where chlorine is used for biofouling control. Toxicity of the four chlorine- or bromine-containing trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) to developing common carp (Cyprinus carpio) embryos was determined under conditions of intermittent (8-hour) toxicant renewal, based on percent hatch as the end point. Nominal median lethal

J. S. Mattice; S. C. Tsai; M. B. Burch; J. J. Beauchamp

1981-01-01

108

Toxicity of trihalomethanes to common carp embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trihalomethanes recently have been identified in real and simulated effluents from power plants where chlorine is used for biofouling control. Toxicity of the four chlorine- or bromine-containing trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) to developing common carp (Cyprinus carpio) embryos was determined under conditions of intermittent (8-hour) toxicant renewal, based on percent hatch as the end point. Nominal median lethal

J. S. Mattice; S. C. Tsai; M. B. Burch; J. J. Beauchamp

1981-01-01

109

Comparative pharmacokinetics of norfloxacin nicotinate in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and crucian carp (Carassius auratus) after oral administration.  

PubMed

Comparative pharmacokinetics of norfloxacin nicotinate (NFXNT) was investigated in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and crucian carp (Carassius auratus) after a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Analyses of plasma samples were performed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with fluorescence detection. After oral dose, plasma concentration-time curves of common carp and crucian carp were best described by a two-compartment open model with first-order absorption. The pharmacokinetic parameters of common carp were similar to those of crucian carp. The distribution half-life (t1/2? ), elimination half-life (t1/2? ), peak concentration (Cmax ), time-to-peak concentration (Tmax ), and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of common carp were 1.58 h, 26.33 h, 6069.79 ?g/L, 1.08 h, and 103072.36 h·?g/L, respectively, and those corresponding to crucian carp were 1.36 h, 26.55 h, 9586.06 ?g/L, 0.84 h, and 126604.4 h·?g/L, respectively. These studies demonstrated that 10 mg NFXNT/kg body weight in common carp and crucian carp following oral dose presented good pharmacokinetic characteristics. PMID:25427758

Xu, N; Ai, X; Liu, Y; Yang, Q

2014-11-27

110

Predator-induced morphology enhances escape locomotion in crucian carp  

PubMed Central

Fishes show a remarkable diversity of shapes which have been associated with their swimming abilities and anti-predator adaptations. The crucian carp (Carassius carassius) provides an extreme example of phenotypic plasticity in body shape which makes it a unique model organism for evaluating the relationship between body form and function in fishes. In crucian carp, a deep body is induced by the presence of pike (Esox lucius), and this results in lower vulnerability to gape-limited predators, such as pike itself. Here, we demonstrate that deep-bodied crucian carp attain higher speed, acceleration and turning rate during anti-predator responses than shallow-bodied crucian carp. Therefore, a predator-induced morphology in crucian carp enhances their escape locomotor performance. The deep-bodied carp also show higher percentage of muscle mass. Therefore, their superior performance in escape swimming may be due to a combination of higher muscle power and higher thrust. PMID:17971327

Domenici, Paolo; Turesson, Håkan; Brodersen, Jakob; Brönmark, Christer

2007-01-01

111

Experimental Hydrodynamics of Turning Maneuvers in Koi Carps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental hydrodynamics of two types of turning maneuvers in koi carps (cyprinus carpio koi) are studied. The flow patterns generated by koi carps during turning are quantified by using digital particle image velocimetry. Based on the velocity fields measured, the momentums in the wake and the impulsive moments exerted on the carps are estimated. On the other hand, turning rates and radii, and moments of inertia of the carps including added mass during turning are obtained by processing the images recorded. Comparisons of the impulsive moments and moments of inertia show good agreements.

Wu, G. H.; Yang, Y.; Zeng, L. J.

112

Use of eyeballs for establishing ploidy of Asian carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and bighead carp H. nobilis are now established and relatively common in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers. Commercial fishers of Louisiana's large rivers report recurrent catches of grass carp, and the frequency of bighead carp and silver carp catch is increasing. Twelve black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus were recently captured from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River system, and 10 were analyzed for ploidy. By using the methods described herein, all 10 fish were determined to be diploid. Such correct identifications of ploidy of feral Asian carp species, as well as other species, would provide science-based information constructive for meeting reporting requirements, tracking fish movements, and forecasting expansion of species distribution. To investigate the postmortem period for sample collection and to lessen demands on field operations for obtaining samples, a laboratory study was performed to determine the length of time for which eyeballs from postmortem black carp could be used for ploidy determinations. Acquiring eyes rather than blood is simpler and quicker and requires no special supplies. An internal DNA reference standard with a documented genome size, including erythrocytes from diploid black carp or Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, was analyzed simultaneously with cells from seven known triploid black carp to assess ploidy through 12 d after extraction. Ploidy determinations were reliable through 8 d postmortem. The field process entails excision of an eyeball, storage in a physiological buffer, and shipment within 8 d at refrigeration temperatures (4??C) to the laboratory for analysis by flow cytometry. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

Jenkins, J.A.; Thomas, R.G.

2007-01-01

113

Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation  

SciTech Connect

Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance and reducing perturbations induced by this invasive species.

Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.

2011-12-01

114

Hook-Up Sexual Experiences and Problem Behaviors among Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on the sexual phenomenon of "hooking up." A hook-up is defined as a single sexual encounter that may or may not include sexual intercourse with someone who is a stranger, brief acquaintance, or friend. The aim of this study was to document the prevalence of hook-ups in a sample of 1,011 urban middle and high school students and…

Fortunato, Leanna; Young, Amy M.; Boyd, Carol J.; Fons, Courtney E.

2010-01-01

115

The carp-goldfish nucleocytoplasmic hybrid has mitochondria from the carp as the nuclear donor species.  

PubMed

It is widely accepted that mitochondria and its DNA (mtDNA) exhibit strict maternal inheritance, with sperm contributing no or non-detectable mitochondria to the next generation. In fish, nuclear transfer (NT) through the combination of a donor nucleus and an enucleated oocyte can produce fertile nucleocytoplasmic hybrids (NCHs) even between different genera and subfamilies. One of the best studied fish NCHs is CyCa produced by transplanting the nuclei plus cytoplasm from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis) into the oocytes of the wild goldfish (Carassius auratus), which has been propagated by self-mating for three generations. These NCH fish thus provide a unique model to study the origin of mitochondria. Here we report the complete mtDNA sequence of the CyCa hybrid and its parental species carp and goldfish as nuclear donor and cytoplasm host, respectively. Interestingly, the mtDNA of NCH fish CyCa is 99.69% identical to the nuclear donor species carp, and 89.25% identical to the oocyte host species goldfish. Furthermore, an amino acid sequence comparison of 13 mitochondrial proteins reveals that CyCa is 99.68% identical to the carp and 87.68% identical to the goldfish. On an mtDNA-based phylogenetic tree, CyCa is clustered with the carp but separated from the goldfish. A real-time PCR analysis revealed the presence of carp mtDNA but the absence of goldfish mtDNA. These results demonstrate--for the first time to our knowledge--that the mtDNA of a NCH such as CyCa fish may originate from its nuclear donor rather than its oocyte host. PMID:24365595

Hu, Guangfu; Zou, Guiwei; Liu, Xiangjiang; Liang, Hongwei; Li, Zhong; Hu, Shaona

2014-02-25

116

Cortisol inhibits apoptosis in carp neutrophilic granulocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct effect of cortisol treatment on carp neutrophil viability was examined in vitro. Cortisol treatment caused an inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis. The effect was blocked by glucocorticoid receptor blocker RU486, showing that rescue from apoptosis was receptor mediated. Using binding studies with radioactive cortisol, a single class of glucocorticoid receptors was detected with high affinity (Kd=2.6 nM) and low

F. A. A. Weyts; G. Flik; B. M. L. Verburg-van Kemenade

1998-01-01

117

Genetic mapping and QTL analysis for body weight in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) compared with mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the genetic linkage map of Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). An F1 population comprising 94 Jian carp individuals was mapped using 254 microsatellite markers. The genetic map spanned 1 381.592 cM and comprised 44 linkage groups, with an average marker distance of 6.58 cM. We identified eight quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for body weight (BW) in seven linkage groups, explaining 12.6% to 17.3% of the phenotypic variance. Comparative mapping was performed between Jian carp and mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), which both have 50 chromosomes. One hundred and ninety-eight Jian carp marker loci were found in common with the mirror carp map, with 186 (93.94%) showing synteny. All 44 Jian carp linkage groups could be one-to-one aligned to the 44 mirror carp linkage groups, mostly sharing two or more common loci. Three QTLs for BW in Jian carp were conserved in mirror carp. QTL comparison suggested that the QTL confidence interval in mirror carp was more precise than the homologous interval in Jian carp, which was contained within the QTL interval in Jian carp. The syntenic relationship and consensus QTLs between the two varieties provide a foundation for genomic research and genetic breeding in common carp.

Gu, Ying; Lu, Cuiyun; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Li, Chao; Yu, Juhua; Sun, Xiaowen

2015-01-01

118

Microsatellite analysis of variation among wild, domesticated, and genetically improved populations of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).  

PubMed

In the present study, the genetic diversity of one selected strain (Pujiang No. 1), two domesticated populations (GA and HX) and four wild populations (LZ, YN, SS and JL) of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) was analyzed using 17 microsatellite markers. The results showed that an average of 4.88-7.65 number of alleles (A); an average of 3.20-5.33 effective alleles (Ne); average observed heterozygosity (Ho) of 0.6985-0.9044; average expected heterozygosity (He) of 0.6501-0.7805; and the average polymorphism information content (PIC) at 0.5706-0.7226. Pairwise FST value between populations ranged from 0.0307-0.1451, and Nei's standard genetic distance between populations was 0.0938-0.4524. The expected heterozygosities in the domesticated populations (GA and HX) were significantly lower than those found in three wild populations (LZ, SS and JL), but no difference was detected when compared with the wild YN population. Likewise, no difference was found between the four wild populations or two domesticated populations. The expected heterozygosity in Pujiang No. 1 was higher than the two domesticated populations and lower than the four wild populations. Regarding pairwise FST value between populations, permutation test P-values were significant between the GA, HX and PJ populations, but not between the four wild populations. These results showed that the expected heterozygosity in the selected strain of blunt snout bream, after seven generations of selective breeding, was lower than that of wild populations, but this strain retains higher levels of genetic diversity than domesticated populations. The genetic differences and differentiation amongst wild populations, domesticated populations and the genetically improved strain of blunt snout bream will provide important conservation criteria and guide the utilization of germplasm resources. PMID:24668653

Tang, Shou-Jie; Li, Si-Fa; Cai, Wan-Qi; Zhao, Yan

2014-03-01

119

The role of HIRA and maternal histones in sperm nucleus decondensation in the gibel carp and color crucian carp.  

PubMed

The histone H3.3 chaperone HIRA is essential for chromatin assembly during male pronucleus formation in Drosophila. However, the role of HIRA during fertilization in vertebrates remains unclear. The gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) is a unique gynogenetic crucian carp (gyno-carp). Heterologous sperm nuclei cannot decondense when incorporated in the egg, thus the eggs produce a clonal lineage of all females by typical gynogenesis. In contrast, after entering the egg, homologous sperm can undergo decondensation and sexual reproduction is activated, which may produce both female and male offspring. Therefore, this fish is a useful model for studying the mechanisms of fertilization. Herein, we first compared HIRA expression during embryogenesis between gyno-carp and the gonochoristic color crucian carp (Carassius auratus; gono-carp). In gono-carp, a dramatic reduction of HIRA protein occurs shortly after fertilization, whereas HIRA protein is consistently expressed during embryogenesis of gyno-carp. Next, we used immunodepletion and an in vitro sperm decondensation system, and found that complete removal of HIRA inhibited sperm decondensation in both of the fish. Immunofluorescence localization showed that in the condensed sperm nuclei of gono-carp incubated in gyno-carp egg extracts, HIRA was detected, but neither the histone H2A variant H2af1o nor acetylated histone H4 was observed. These results suggest that HIRA may be a critical factor required for sperm nucleus decondensation, while the defect in deposition of some maternal histones in the sperm nucleus could be one reason why heterologous sperm cannot decondense in the gibel carp egg. PMID:21337451

Zhao, Zhan-Ke; Li, Wei; Wang, Meng-Yu; Zhou, Li; Wang, Jia-Lin; Wang, Yu-Feng

2011-02-01

120

Effects of Sodium Fluoride on Carp and Rainbow Trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

The symptoms of acute fluoride intoxication in carp and rainbow trout include lethargy, violent and erratic movement, and death where there is partial or complete muscle contraction. Excessive mucus production associated with an increase in mucous cells in the epithelium of the head region and the gills also occurs. Changes in the electrophoretic pattern of the serum proteins in carp

John M. Neuhold; William F. Sigler

1960-01-01

121

Postprandial metabolic changes in larval and juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

E-print Network

Postprandial metabolic changes in larval and juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio). S. J. KAUSHIK K of the model were affected by body weight. Introduction. Attempts to feed carp (Cyprinus carpio) larvae and methods. Eggs of Cyprinus carpio obtained by artificial spawning were hatched in the laboratory (20 °C

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

122

Validating Otolith Annuli for Annual Age Determination of Common Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common carp Cyprinus carpio are an important pest species in Australia, yet little is known regarding their age and growth there. We examined otolith sections of common carp to validate their utility for age determination. For the 1999 year-class in Hut Lake near Barmah, we confirmed the absolute age at first annulus formation as age 1 by repeated sampling of

Paul Brown; Corey Green; K. P. Sivakumaran; Daniel Stoessel; A. Giles

2004-01-01

123

CMA mass-spring system is suspended from a hook (see Fig. 1a). The mass m and the hook can only move vertically. The time dependent vertical  

E-print Network

CMA mass-spring system is suspended from a hook (see Fig. 1a). The mass m and the hook can only move vertically. The time dependent vertical position y(t) of the hook is given. The spring is massless and obeys Hooke's law F = -kx, where F is the force, k is the spring constant, and x is the change in length

Ha, Taekjip

124

Executable Documentation of Template-Hook Interactions in Frameworks using JML  

E-print Network

Executable Documentation of Template-Hook Interactions in Frameworks using JML Neeraj Khanolkar asser- tion checking, template, hook, temporal process documentation, preconditions, postconditions of Template-Hook Interactions in Frameworks using JML Neeraj Khanolkar and Gary T. Leavens Department

Leavens, Gary T.

125

Asian carp behavior in response to static water gun firing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The potential for invasion of Asian carp into the Great Lakes has ecological and socio-economic implications. If they become established, Asian carp are predicted to alter lake ecosystems and impact commercial and recreational fisheries. The Chicago Sanitary and Shipping Canal is an important biological conduit between the Mississippi River Basin, where invasive Asian carp are abundant, and the Great Lakes. Millions of dollars have been spent to erect an electric barrier defense in the canal to prevent movement of Asian carp into the Great Lakes, but the need for additional fish deterrent technologies to supplement the existing barrier is warranted. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center are examining seismic water gun technology, formerly used in oceanic oil exploration, as a fish deterrent. The goal of the current study is to employ telemetry and sonar monitoring equipment to assess the behavioral response of Asian carp to seismic water guns and the sound energy it generates.

Layhee, Megan J.; Gross, Jackson A.; Parsley, Michael J.; Romine, Jason G.; Glover, David C.; Suski, Cory D.; Wagner, Tristany L.; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Gresswell, Robert E.

2013-01-01

126

Secondary neutron dose measurement for proton eye treatment using an eye snout with a borated neutron absorber  

PubMed Central

Background We measured and assessed ways to reduce the secondary neutron dose from a system for proton eye treatment. Methods Proton beams of 60.30 MeV were delivered through an eye-treatment snout in passive scattering mode. Allyl diglycol carbonate (CR-39) etch detectors were used to measure the neutron dose in the external field at 0.00, 1.64, and 6.00 cm depths in a water phantom. Secondary neutron doses were measured and compared between those with and without a high-hydrogen–boron-containing block. In addition, the neutron energy and vertices distribution were obtained by using a Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation. Results The ratio of the maximum neutron dose equivalent to the proton absorbed dose (H(10)/D) at 2.00 cm from the beam field edge was 8.79?±?1.28 mSv/Gy. The ratio of the neutron dose equivalent to the proton absorbed dose with and without a high hydrogen-boron containing block was 0.63?±?0.06 to 1.15?±?0.13 mSv/Gy at 2.00 cm from the edge of the field at depths of 0.00, 1.64, and 6.00 cm. Conclusions We found that the out-of-field secondary neutron dose in proton eye treatment with an eye snout is relatively small, and it can be further reduced by installing a borated neutron absorbing material. PMID:23866307

2013-01-01

127

Management and Ecological Note Effects of hook type on injury and capture efficiency of rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris, angled in south-eastern Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

The injury rates, hooking efficiency, and mortality in rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris Rafinesque, angled using circle hooks and three conventional hook types were compared. Circle hooks have only recently been introduced to recreational fisheries and differ substan- tially from other hook designs. Unlike conventional hooks, the point of a circle hook bends back towards the shank of the hook such

S. J. C OOKE; B. L. B ARTHEL; C. D. S USKI

128

Histopathological changes induced by environmental stress in common carp, Japanese coloured carp, European eel, and African catfish.  

PubMed

Histopathological changes caused by stress during catching and transport were examined in four fish species, the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), the Japanese coloured carp (koi, the coloured variant of the Asian carp, Cyprinus carpio haematopterus), the European eel (Anguilla anguilla), and the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In all species, the goblet cells of the gills and skin were decreased in number and slight detachment of the epithelium of the secondary gill lamellae was seen. Loss of goblet cells and detachment of the columnar epithelial cells were found in the intestinal mucosa of common carp and coloured carp. It is supposed that these lesions may affect ion transport and respiration in the gills and disturb normal intestinal function, thus serving as a starting point for different diseases. PMID:9270124

Szakolczai, J

1997-01-01

129

Lateral approach to the hook of hamate for its fracture.  

PubMed

We have recently experienced one case of the fracture of the hook of the hamate that was diagnosed only by the CT scan. As a surgical approach, lateral approach to the hook of the hamate for its fracture was utilized. We found that this approach was safe, easy and quick. PMID:3958528

Mizuseki, T; Ikuta, Y; Murakami, T; Watari, S

1986-02-01

130

Lateral Approach to the Hook of Hamate for its Fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently experienced one case of the fracture of the hook of the hamate that was diagnosed only by the CT scan. As a surgical approach, lateral approach to the hook of the hamate for its fracture was utilized. We found that this approach was safe, easy and quick.

TAKAYA MIZUSEKI; YOSHIKAZU IKUTA; TSUNEJI MURAKAMI; SADAO WATARI

1986-01-01

131

Using CQUAL for Static Analysis of Authorization Hook Placement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Linux Security Modules (LSM) framework is a set of authorization hooks for implementing e xible access control in the Linux kernel. While much effort has been devoted to denin g the module interfaces, little atten- tion has been paid to verifying the correctness of hook placement. This paper presents a novel approach to the vericatio n of LSM authorization

Xiaolan Zhang; Antony Edwards; Trent Jaeger

2002-01-01

132

Molecular responses differ between sensitive silver carp and tolerant bighead carp and bigmouth buffalo exposed to rotenone.  

PubMed

Some species of fish are more tolerant of rotenone, a commonly used non-specific piscicide, than others. This species-specific tolerance to rotenone has been thought to be associated with the uptake and the efficiency at which the chemical is detoxified. However, rotenone stimulates oxidative stress and superoxides, which are also toxic. Understanding the modes in which fish physiologically respond to rotenone is important in developing improved protocols for its application in controlling aquatic nuisance species. Using a molecular approach, we investigated the physiological and molecular mechanisms of rotenone resistance. Species-specific responses were observed when rotenone-sensitive silver, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and both rotenone-resistant bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, and bigmouth buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus, were exposed to rotenone. Rotenone levels in plasma were highest 90 min after exposure in both silver carp and bigmouth buffalo, but bigmouth buffalo tolerated over twice the burden (ng mL(-1) g(-1)) than silver carp. Expression of genes related with detoxification (cyp1a and gst) increased in silver carp, but either decreased or remained the same in bighead carp. Genes linked with oxidative stress in the cytosol (gpx, cat and sod1) and hsp70 increased only in silver carp after a 6-h exposure. Expression of genes associated with oxidative stress in the mitochondria (sod2 and ucp2) differed between silver carp and bighead carp. Expression of sod2 changed minimally in bighead carp, but expression of ucp2 linearly increased to nearly 85-fold of the level prior to exposure. Expression of sod2 and ucp2 did not change until 6 h in silver carp. Use of sod1 and sod2 to combat oxidative stress results in hydrogen peroxide production, while use of ucp2 produces nitric oxide, a chemical known to inhibit apoptosis. We conclude that the mechanism at which a fish handles oxidative stress plays an important role in the tolerance to rotenone. PMID:22447502

Amberg, Jon J; Schreier, Theresa M; Gaikowski, Mark P

2012-10-01

133

Hook1, microtubules, and Rab22  

PubMed Central

Clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) mediates the internalization of many plasma membrane (PM) proteins involved in homeostasis, immune response, and signaling. CIE cargo molecules are internalized independent of clathrin, and dynamin, and modulated by the small G protein Arf6. After internalization the CIE cargo proteins either follow a default pathway of trafficking to lysosomes for degradation or follow a pathway where they are routed directly to the recycling endosomes for return to the PM. The selective endosomal sorting of molecules like CD44, CD98, and CD147, which are involved in cell-cell and cell-extracellular interactions, indicates that sorting mechanisms dictate the post-endocytic fate of CIE cargo proteins. In a recent study, we identified sorting signals that specify the endosomal trafficking of CIE cargo proteins and uncover a role for Hook1 as an endosomal cargo adaptor that routes CIE cargo to the recycling endosomes. Furthermore, we found that Hook1, microtubules, and Rab22a work in coordination to directly recycle the cargo and facilitate cell spreading. Here, we discuss our current view on the endosomal sorting of CIE cargo proteins and their molecular regulators. PMID:24284901

Maldonado-Báez, Lymarie; Donaldson, Julie G

2013-01-01

134

[Polymorphism of microsatellite markers in breeds of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) of Russian breeding].  

PubMed

Using five microsatellite loci, genotyping and genetic diversity estimates were obtained for nine samples representing seven common carp breeds most widespread in Russia. For comparison, the samples of Amur wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) and a sample of European Hungarian common carp were used. In the samples examined (n = 148) a total of 78 alleles were revealed. The highest mean allele number per locus (4.3) was identified in Amur wild common carp, while the lowest number was found in Cherepets carps (4.0). In different breeds, the observed heterozygosities varied from 0.819 (Altai carp) to 0.651 (Cherepets scaly carp). Three out of five microsatellite loci (MFW-24, MFW-28, and MFW-19) revealed a high level of population differentiation. In the dendrogram of genetic differences, all breeds clustered into two groups. One of these groups was composed of the two strains of Ropsha common carp, Stavropol common carp, Amur wild common carp, and the two samples of Cherepets common carp. The second cluster included Altai common carp (Cis-Ob' and Chumysh populations), two Angelinskii common carp breeds (mirror and scaly), and Hungarian common carp. The pairs of breeds/populations/strains, having common origin, were differentiated. Specifically, these were two populations of Altai common carp, two strains of Ropsha common carp, as well as the breeds of Angelinskii and Cherepets common carps. The reasons for genetic differentiation of Russian common carp breeds, as well as the concordance of the evolutionary histories of these breeds, some of which originated from the European breeds, while the others contain substantial admixture of the Amur wild common carp, are discussed. PMID:20583601

Ludanny?, R I; Khrisanfova, G G; Prizenko, V K; Bogeruk, A K; Semenova, S K

2010-05-01

135

Hooked: Habits of the Chinese Permian gigantopterid Gigantonoclea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based upon anatomical evidence, Permian aged gigantopterid fossils are in general reconstructed as climbing or scrambling plants. Gigantonoclea, a genus of adpressed gigantopterid foliage from the Permian of northern China, has been reported to co-occur with hook-like organs that were interpreted as indicating a scrambling/climbing habit. We reinvestigated these hook-like structures and re-evaluated the nature of the co-occurrences in context with the flora preserved in each plant-bearing fossil 'bed' in the North China sedimentary succession. New findings show that the species Gigantonoclea hallei probably climbed using specially adapted clusters of compound grappling hook-like shoots borne on the stems. This structural arrangement comprising shoots of hooks is new to the scrambling/climbing concept in gigantopterids. However, a key figured specimen previously reported as showing intermediate hook-tipped leaf morphology on a sole pinnule tip is discounted as such and is reinterpreted as a 'normal' pinnule partially hidden under sediment that results in an unusual appearance to this pinnule tip. Adaptations for climbing or scrambling based upon 'hooked leaves' observed in Gigantonoclea lagrelii are no longer supported and are reinterpreted as incompletely expanded leaves where the vernation process was interrupted. These data weaken prior interpretations of G. lagrelii as a climber/scrambler and raise doubts about the ubiquity of hooks amongst the gigantopterids as structures enabling them to climb or scramble their way through the Permian world.

Seyfullah, Leyla J.; Glasspool, Ian J.; Hilton, Jason

2014-04-01

136

Distribution of populations of broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris, Daudin 1802, Alligatoridae) in the São Francisco River basin, Brazil.  

PubMed

We surveyed populations of the broad-snouted caiman, Caiman latirostris, throughout the São Francisco River basin, from Três Marias reservoir, State of Minas Gerais, to the river delta, at the boarder of Sergipe and Alagoas states. We registered the occurrence of crocodilians in 61% of all surveyed localities (n = 64), in which the presence of C. latirostris was confirmed in 44% of the surveyed sites. Caimans occurred in both lentic and lotic habitats, although there was a preference for small dams, oxbow lakes and wetlands. Despite the hunting pressure and human impact on natural habitats, our results indicate that the populations of C. latirostris in the São Francisco basin are not fragmented. PMID:21180900

Filogonio, R; Assis, V B; Passos, L F; Coutinho, M E

2010-11-01

137

Molecular cloning and expression analysis of immunoglobulin M heavy chain gene of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).  

PubMed

Immunoglobulins (Igs), which bind antigens with high specificity, are essential molecules in adaptive immune system of jawed vertebrates. In this study, cDNA encoding the secreted form of the immunoglobulin heavy chain of IgM (sIgM) was cloned from the mesonephros of blunt snout bream (Megalabrama amblycephala) using RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of sIgM heavy chain gene has 1961 nucleotides encoding a putative protein of 569 amino acids, constant region shares high amino acid identity with that of Ctenopharyngodon idella (80%), Carassius auratus langsdorfii (65%) and Danio rerio (59%). Multiple protein sequence alignment revealed that blunt snout bream sIgM was clustered with the homologues of cyprinid fish and constructed one clade. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis, the level of sIgM mRNA was determined, with a V-shape change pattern: decreased initially from unfertilized egg stage to 4 cells stage and increased from 16 cells stage to prelarva. This sharp drop indicates that sIgM mRNA is maternally transferred, and was continuously degraded until 16 cells stage. The drastic rising in sIgM level from blastula stage to prelarva might be attributed to embryonic stem cell differentiation procedure. Compared with juvenile fish, the expression of sIgM was significantly higher in pronephros, liver, spleen, gill and muscle of adult fish. After the injection of Aeromonas hydrophila, the expression pattern of sIgM was found first down-regulated at 4 h, then up-regulated and reached the peak at 7 d and 21 d in mesonephros, spleen, liver and gill, respectively. PMID:24979225

Xia, Hu; Wu, Kang; Liu, Wanjing; Gul, Yasmeen; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Xuezhen

2014-09-01

138

Morphology of the Muscle Articulation Joint Between the Hooks of a Flatworm  

E-print Network

Morphology of the Muscle Articulation Joint Between the Hooks of a Flatworm (Kalyptorhynchia with two stout hooks. The hooks grasp and manipulate prey using a wide range of rotations and translations. These diverse motions are possible because the hook supports may function as a muscle articulation type joint

Kier, William M.

139

Hook Length Formulas for Trees by Han's Expansion William Y.C. Chen1  

E-print Network

Hook Length Formulas for Trees by Han's Expansion William Y.C. Chen1 , Oliver X.Q. Gao2 and Peter L a general formula for the weight function corresponding to the expansion of a series in terms of hook to unifications of the hook length formulas due to Du and Liu, Han, Gessel and Seo, and Postnikov. Keywords: hook

Chen, Bill

140

Genetic evolution and diversity of common carp Cyprinus carpio L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of genetic variation and population structure of existing strains of both farmed and wild common carp Cyprinus carpio L. is absolutely necessary for any efficient fish management and\\/or conservation program. To assess genetic diversity in\\u000a common carp populations, a variety of molecular markers were analyzed. Of those, microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA were\\u000a most frequently used in the analysis of

Dimitry A. Chistiakov; Natalia V. Voronova

2009-01-01

141

Female homogamety in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) determined by gynogenesis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gynogenesis occurred in eggs of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) treated with X-irradiated milt from goldfish (Carassius auratus). Gynogenetic offspring were females, which indicates functional female homogamety in grass carp. Five of these gynogenetic fish were used as an egg source for a second generation of artificially gynogenetic fish. The percentage yield in this second generation was about the same as in the first, which suggests that the tendency to become diploid is not strongly heritable

Stanley, Jon G.

1976-01-01

142

Genotoxicity monitoring of freshwater environments using caged carp ( Cyprinus carpio )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study deals with genotoxicity assessment of freshwaters using caged carp (Cyprinus carpio). Carps were transplanted from a fish-farm to three differently polluted sites in eastern Croatia. Two polluted sites were\\u000a situated in the river Drava, downstream from the cities of Beliš?e and Osijek, while the reference site was in the Nature\\u000a Park Kopa?ki rit, a preserved wetland area

Göran I. V. Klobu?ar; Anamaria Štambuk; Mirjana Pavlica; Mirela Serti? Peri?; Branimir Kutuzovi? Hackenberger; Ketil Hylland

2010-01-01

143

Evidence for the evolutionary origin of goldfish derived from the distant crossing of red crucian carp × common carp  

PubMed Central

Background Distant hybridization can generate transgressive hybrid phenotypes that lead to the formation of new populations or species with increased genetic variation. In this study, we produced an experimental hybrid goldfish (EG) by distant crossing of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus)?×?common carp (Cyprinus carpio) followed by gynogenesis. Results We evaluated the phenotype, ploidy level, gonadal structure, and 5S rDNA of the EG. Diploid EG possessed a high level of genetic variation, which was stably inherited. In particular, the EG combined transgressive phenotypes, including a forked tail and shortened caudal peduncle, traits that are present in common goldfish. The EG and common goldfish share a number of morphological and genetic similarities. Conclusions Using the EG, we provide new evidence that goldfish originated from hybridization of red crucian carp × common carp. PMID:24628745

2014-01-01

144

Twist deformations of Newton-Hooke Hopf algebras  

E-print Network

We construct five new quantum Newton-Hooke Hopf algebras with the use of Abelian twist procedure. Further we demonstrate that the corresponding deformed space-times with quantum space and classical time are periodic or expanding in time.

Marcin Daszkiewicz

2009-04-02

145

Fish-hook injuries: a risk for fishermen.  

PubMed

Fishing is one of the best known and practiced human activities. However, you should remember that, when casting the hook from the riverbank or grasping it to add bait, fishermen run a real risk of injury if the hook punctures the skin.Briefly we describe a case where a young, 32-year-old fisherman who was reeling the hook back to shore when it hit him in the face and embedded itself in his upper eyelid. Upon examination, the eye was found to be unharmed and the hook was removed through a small incision and the aid of a local anesthetic.In the light of this case report, we think it a good idea to advise our friends and patients who we know to be fishermen to wear some form of eye protection as a precaution. PMID:21156039

Inchingolo, Francesco; Tatullo, Marco; Abenavoli, Fabio M; Inchingolo, Alessio D; Inchingolo, Angelo M; Dipalma, Gianna

2010-01-01

146

Fish-hook injuries: a risk for fishermen  

PubMed Central

Fishing is one of the best known and practiced human activities. However, you should remember that, when casting the hook from the riverbank or grasping it to add bait, fishermen run a real risk of injury if the hook punctures the skin. Briefly we describe a case where a young, 32-year-old fisherman who was reeling the hook back to shore when it hit him in the face and embedded itself in his upper eyelid. Upon examination, the eye was found to be unharmed and the hook was removed through a small incision and the aid of a local anesthetic. In the light of this case report, we think it a good idea to advise our friends and patients who we know to be fishermen to wear some form of eye protection as a precaution. PMID:21156039

2010-01-01

147

Relationship between tornadoes and hook echoes on April 3, 1974  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radar observations of tornado families occurring on April 3, 1974 are discussed. Of the 93 tornadoes included in the sample, 81% were associated with hook-like echoes with appendages at least 40 deg to the south of the echo movement. At least one tornado was associated with 62% of the hook-like echoes observed. All of the tornadoes with intensities of F 4 and F 5 were produced by hook-like echoes; the mean intensity of all tornadoes associated with this type of echo was F 3, while the mean intensity of the remaining tornadoes was F1. The tornadic hook-like echoes moved to the right of the non-tornadic echoes forming a tornado line in advance of the squall line. Some tornadoes were associated with 'spiral' echoes.

Forbes, G. S.

1975-01-01

148

14. DETAIL OF ROOF TRUSS STRUCTURE AND HAY HOOK CABLE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. DETAIL OF ROOF TRUSS STRUCTURE AND HAY HOOK CABLE AND PULLEY SYSTEM LOCATED ON WEST END OF BARN. CAMERA POINTED EAST. - James H. Lane Ranch, Barn, One Mile South of Richfield on Highway 26, Richfield, Lincoln County, ID

149

Unusual nasopharyngeal foreign body: a hooked iron rod.  

PubMed

Foreign bodies lodged in the nasopharynx are rare. We report a case of an unusual foreign body in the nasopharynx: a hooked iron rod. The patient was a 5-year-old girl. The foreign body had to be removed under general anesthesia. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no similar published report of a hooked iron rod in the nasopharynx. PMID:22829039

Diom, Evelyne S; Diouf, Raymond; Diop, El Hadji Malick

2012-07-01

150

Performance of barbed and barbless hooks in a marine recreational fishery  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used an angling study to examine catch per unit effort (CPUE), bait loss, and total landings by anglers fishing with natural bait on barbed and barbless hooks in a nearshore marine sport fishery located in the Gulf of Mexico near St. Petersburg, Florida. Anglers fished half the day with a barbed hook and half the day with a barbless hook. We also recorded anatomical hook placement, severity of injury or bleeding, and hook extraction times for each landed fish. Bait loss, CPUE, and mean length of catch did not differ between gears, but anglers landed 22% more fish with barbed hooks. Loss of hooked fish was significantly higher with barbless hooks, and efficiency appeared to vary among species. Mean unhooking times were significantly shorter with barbless hooks. Anatomical hook placement did not differ between gears and most fish were hooked in the jaws. Bleeding did not differ between gears because bleeding was influenced strongly by hook placement, but barbless hooks reduced unhooking injuries. In this fishery, barbless hooks probably did not reduce hooking mortality and conferred only slight benefits at the expense of reduced catches.

Schaeffer, Jeffrey S.; Hoffman, Elizabeth M.

2002-01-01

151

An evaluation of low-density introductions of triploid grass carp in vegetated small sportfishing impoundments  

E-print Network

Low-density stockings of triploid grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella were evaluated to determine their ability to control nuisance submersed vegetation in small sportfishing impoundments. Triploid grass carp were stocked into four small...

Blackwell, Brian Gene

1993-01-01

152

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING USING PHYSIOLOGICAL TELEMETRY A CASE STUDY EXAMINING COMMON CARP  

E-print Network

. During the winters of 1998 and 1999, the response of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to fluctuating thermal study of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Studies of thermal discharges employing continuously monitored

Cooke, Steven J.

153

Using mitochondrial nucleotide sequences to investigate diversity and genealogical relationships within common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

Direct sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop (745 bp) and MTATPase6/MTATPase8 (857 bp) regions was used to investigate genetic variation within common carp and develop a global genealogy of common carp strains. The D-loop region was more variable than the MTATPase6/MTATPase8 region, but given the wide distribution of carp the overall levels of sequence divergence were low. Levels of haplotype diversity varied widely among countries with Chinese, Indonesian and Vietnamese carp showing the greatest diversity whereas Japanese Koi and European carp had undetectable nucleotide variation. A genealogical analysis supports a close relationship between Vietnamese, Koi and Chinese Color carp strains and to a lesser extent, European carp. Chinese and Indonesian carp strains were the most divergent, and their relationships do not support the evolution of independent Asian and European lineages and current taxonomic treatments. PMID:15670127

Thai, B T; Burridge, C P; Pham, T A; Austin, C M

2005-02-01

154

Identical sequences but different expression patterns of Hira gene in gynogenetic and gonochoristic crucian carps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hir\\/Hira (histone regulation) genes were first identified in yeast as negative regulators of histone gene expression. It has been\\u000a confirmed that HIRA is a conserved family of proteins present in various animals and plants. In this paper, the cDNAs of the\\u000a Hira homolog named CagHira and CaHira were isolated from gynogenetic gibel carp (gyno-carp) and gonochoristic color crucian carp (gono-carp)

X. Z. Du; L. Zhou; H. B. Zhao; Y. F. Wang; J. F. Gui

2008-01-01

155

The evolutionary history of sharp- and blunt-snouted lenok (Brachymystax lenok (Pallas, 1773)) and its implications for the paleo-hydrological history of Siberia  

PubMed Central

Background Broad-scale phylogeographic studies of freshwater organisms provide not only an invaluable framework for understanding the evolutionary history of species, but also a genetic imprint of the paleo-hydrological dynamics stemming from climatic change. Few such studies have been carried out in Siberia, a vast region over which the extent of Pleistocene glaciation is still disputed. Brachymystax lenok is a salmonid fish distributed throughout Siberia, exhibiting two forms hypothesized to have undergone extensive range expansion, genetic exchange, and multiple speciation. A comprehensive phylogeographic investigation should clarify these hypotheses as well as provide insights on Siberia's paleo-hydrological stability. Results Molecular-sequence (mtDNA) based phylogenetic and morphological analysis of Brachymystax throughout Siberia support that sharp- and blunt-snouted lenok are independent evolutionary lineages, with the majority of their variation distributed among major river basins. Their evolutionary independence was further supported through the analysis of 11 microsatellite loci in three areas of sympatry, which revealed little to no evidence of introgression. Phylogeographic structure reflects climatic limitations, especially for blunt-snouted lenok above 56° N during one or more glacial maxima. Presumed glacial refugia as well as interbasin exchange were not congruent for the two lineages, perhaps reflecting differing dispersal abilities and response to climatic change. Inferred demographic expansions were dated earlier than the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Evidence for repeated trans-basin exchange was especially clear between the Amur and Lena catchments. Divergence of sharp-snouted lenok in the Selenga-Baikal catchment may correspond to the isolation of Lake Baikal in the mid-Pleistocene, while older isolation events are apparent for blunt-snouted lenok in the extreme east and sharp-snouted lenok in the extreme west of their respective distributions. Conclusion Sharp- and blunt-snouted lenok have apparently undergone a long, independent, and demographically dynamic evolutionary history in Siberia, supporting their recognition as two good biological species. Considering the timing and extent of expansions and trans-basin dispersal, it is doubtful that these historical dynamics could have been generated without major rearrangements in the paleo-hydrological network, stemming from the formation and melting of large-scale glacial complexes much older than the LGM. PMID:18254941

2008-01-01

156

Capture Efficiencies of Two Hook Types and Associated Injury and Mortality of Juvenile Muskellunge Angled with Live Baitfish  

E-print Network

Capture Efficiencies of Two Hook Types and Associated Injury and Mortality of Juvenile Muskellunge. With many anglers using live baitfish to capture muskellunge, the use of circle hooks may reduce deep hooking and hence mortality. We contrasted the performance of circle hooks and J-style aberdeen hooks when

Cooke, Steven J.

157

J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 51: 2733 High-density grass carp stocking effects on a  

E-print Network

J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 51: 27­33 High-density grass carp stocking effects on a reservoir invasive Stocking grass carp [Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenci- ennes)] is a commonly applied technique to control community, and relative grass carp feeding preferences for plant species. We evaluated high-density grass

Kwak, Thomas J.

158

Grass Carp: A Fish for Biological Management of Hydrilla and Other Aquatic Weeds in Florida1  

E-print Network

BUL867 Grass Carp: A Fish for Biological Management of Hydrilla and Other Aquatic Weeds in Florida1 aquatic weed problems. This bulletin provides information on a biological method, the grass carp plants. Since the grass carp is a living organism, in contrast to ei- ther herbicides or mechanical

Watson, Craig A.

159

Population Dynamics of Common Carp in Eastern South Dakota Glacial Lakes Quinton E. Phelps  

E-print Network

precision among four alternative structures compared to otoliths for 139 common carp collected from fivePopulation Dynamics of Common Carp in Eastern South Dakota Glacial Lakes By Quinton E. Phelps and Fisheries Sciences South Dakota State University 2006 #12;11 Population Dynamics of Common Carp in Eastern

160

First year growth and survival of common carp in two glacial lakes  

E-print Network

University, Brookings, SD, USA Abstract Cohorts of common carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, were monitored from the previous autumn. K E Y W O R D S : Common carp, Cyprinus carpio, overwinter survival, recruitment. Introduction Management strategies for common carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, tend to differ for native

161

Spatial variability of common carp populations in relation to lake morphology and physicochemical  

E-print Network

, often by mediating nutrient flow and species interactions. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is listed 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract ­ Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a widespread invasive species, SD, USA Key words: common carp; Cyprinus carpio; autecology; spatial distribution; abiotic factors

162

Thermal and hydrologic suitability of Lake Erie and its major tributaries for spawning of Asian carps  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (hereafter Asian carps) have expanded throughout the Mississippi River basin and threaten to invade Lakes Michigan and Erie. Adult bighead carp and grass carp have been captured in Lake Erie, but self-sustaining populations probably do not exist. We examined thermal conditions within Lake Erie to determine if Asian carps would mature, and to estimate time of year when fish would reach spawning condition. We also examined whether thermal and hydrologic conditions in the largest tributaries to western and central Lake Erie were suitable for spawning of Asian carps. We used length of undammed river, predicted summer temperatures, and predicted water velocity during flood events to determine whether sufficient lengths of river are available for spawning of Asian carps. Most rivers we examined have at least 100 km of passable river and summer temperatures suitable (> 21 C) for rapid incubation of eggs of Asian carps. Predicted water velocity and temperature were sufficient to ensure that incubating eggs, which drift in the water column, would hatch before reaching Lake Erie for most flood events in most rivers if spawned far enough upstream. The Maumee, Sandusky, and Grand Rivers were predicted to be the most likely to support spawning of Asian carps. The Black, Huron, Portage, and Vermilion Rivers were predicted to be less suitable. The weight of the evidence suggests that the largest western and central Lake Erie tributaries are thermally and hydrologically suitable to support spawning of Asian carps.

Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Chapman, Duane C.; McKenna, James E.

2012-01-01

163

Population genetics of invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in coastal drainages in eastern Australia.  

PubMed

The common carp Cyprinus carpio introduced in two drainages in eastern Australia are largely descended from European common carp, and in a third drainage they descend largely from East Asian common carp. The partial genetic differentiation among the species in those drainages is consistent with their origins. PMID:21039496

Haynes, G D; Gilligan, D M; Grewe, P; Moran, C; Nicholas, F W

2010-10-01

164

Size and depth-dependent variation in habitat and diet of the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The habitat and diet variation of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were studied in Lake Banyoles (Catalonia, Spain). Carp was the second most abundant species offshore and used more the littoral in spring and deep bottoms in winter. The diet of carp was based on detritus, amphipods (Echinogammarus sp.), phantom midge larvae (Chaoborus flavicans), diatom mucilages, and plant debris. Amphipods

Emili García-Berthou

2001-01-01

165

CARP Is a Potential Tumor Suppressor in Gastric Carcinoma and a Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism in CARP Gene Might Increase the Risk of Gastric Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background The caspase-associated recruitment domain-containing protein (CARP) is expressed in almost all tissues. Recently, the tumor-suppressive function of CARP was discovered and attracted increasing attention. This study aimed to investigate the role of CARP in the carcinogenesis of human gastric carcinoma. Methodology/Principal Findings Compared with normal gastric tissue, the downregulation of CARP expression was observed in gastric carcinoma tissue by cDNA array and tissue microarray assay. In vitro, the gastric carcinoma cell line (BGC-823) was stably transfected with pcDNA3.1B-CARP or plus CARP siRNA, and we used MTT, flow cytometry, cell migration on type I collagen, cell-matrix adhesion assay and western blot analysis to investigate the potential anti-tumor effects of CARP. The data showed that overexpressing CARP suppressed the malignancy of gastric carcinoma BGC-823 cell line, including significant increases in apoptosis, as well as obvious decreases in cell proliferation, migration, adhesion ability, and tumor growth. The tumor-suppressive effects of CARP were almost restored by siRNA-directed CARP silence. In addition, overexpression of CARP induced G1 arrest, decreased the expressions of cyclin E and CDK2, and increased the expressions of p27, p53 and p21. In vivo, the tumor-suppressive effect of CARP was also verified. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype of CARP (rs2297882) was located in the Kozak sequence of the CARP gene. The reporter gene assay showed that rs2297882 TT caused an obvious downregulation of activity of CARP gene promoter in BGC-823 cells. Furthermore, the association between rs2297882 and human gastric carcinoma susceptibility was analyzed in 352 cases and 889 controls. It displayed that the TT genotype of rs2297882 in the CARP gene was associated with an increased risk of gastric carcinoma. Conclusions/Significance CARP is a potential tumor suppressor of gastric carcinoma and the rs2297882 C>T phenotype of CARP may serve as a predictor of gastric carcinoma. PMID:24870804

Hu, Yu-chang; Gan, Lu; Shi, Yi; Yang, Han-shuo; Wei, Yu-quan

2014-01-01

166

Engineering Evaluation of International Low Impact Docking System Latch Hooks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The international Low Impact Docking System (iLIDS) provides a structural arrangement that allows for visiting vehicles to dock with the International Space Station (ISS) (Fig 1). The iLIDS docking units are mechanically joined together by a series of active and passive latch hooks. In order to preserve docking capability at the existing Russian docking interfaces, the iLIDS latch hooks are required to conform to the existing Russian design. The latch hooks are classified as being fail-safe. Since the latch hooks are fail-safe, the hooks are not fracture critical and a fatigue based service life assessment will satisfy the structural integrity requirements. Constant amplitude fatigue testing to failure on four sets of active/passive iLIDS latch hooks was performed at load magnitudes of 10, 11, and 12 kips. Failure analysis of the hook fatigue failures identified multi-site fatigue initiation that was effectively centered about the hook mid-plane (consistent with the 3D model results). The fatigue crack initiation distribution implies that the fatigue damage accumulation effectively results in a very low aspect ratio surface crack (which can be simulated as thru-thickness crack). Fatigue damage progression resulted in numerous close proximity fatigue crack initiation sites. It was not possible to determine if fatigue crack coalescence occurs during cyclic loading or as result of the fast fracture response. The presence of multiple fatigue crack initiation sites on different planes will result in the formation of ratchet marks as the cracks coalesce. Once the stable fatigue crack becomes unstable and the fast fracture advances across the remaining ligament and the plane stress condition at a free-surface will result in failure along a 45 deg. shear plane (slant fracture) and the resulting inclined edge is called a shear lip. The hook thickness on the plane of fatigue crack initiation is 0.787". The distance between the shear lips on this plane was on the order of 0.48" and it was effectively centered about the mid-plane of the section. The numerous ratchet marks between the shear lips on the fracture initiation plane are indicative of multiple fatigue initiation sites within this region. The distribution of the fatigue damage about the centerline of the hook is consistent with the analytical results that demonstrate peak stress/strain response at the mid-plane that decreases in the direction of the hook outer surfaces. Scanning electron microscope images of the failed sections detected fatigue crack striations in close proximity to the free surface of the hook radius. These findings were documented at three locations on the fracture surface : 1) adjacent to the left shear lip, 2) adjacent to the right shear lip, and 3) near the centerline of the section. The features of the titanium fracture surface did not allow for a determination of a critical crack size via identification of the region where the fatigue crack propagation became unstable. The fracture based service life projections where benchmarked with strain-life analyses. The strainrange response in the hook radius was defined via the correlated finite element models and the modified method of universal slopes was incorporated to define the strain-life equation for the titanium alloy. The strain-life assessment confirmed that the fracture based projections were reasonable for the loading range of interest. Based upon the analysis and component level fatigue test data a preliminary service life capability for the iLIDS active and passive hooks of 2 lifetimes is projected (includes a scatter factor of 4).

Martinez, J.; Patin, R.; Figert, J.

2013-01-01

167

Mitochondrial DNA diversity, population structure, and conservation genetics of four native carps within the Yangtze River, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon piceus), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), and black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) rank first, second, fourth, and seventh in world fish production. In China, the Yangtze River harbours the most important natural populations of these species. We performed a polymerase chain reaction ñ restriction fragment length poymorphism analysis on 365 juvenile fish representing three nursery

Guoqing Lu; Sifa Li; Louis Bernatchez

1997-01-01

168

Spring Viremia of Carp1 Barbara D. Petty, Ruth Francis-Floyd, and Roy P.E. Yanong2  

E-print Network

significant mortality in several carp species including the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). These species infections with the virus have been reported in common carp (or koi), (Cyprinus carpio), goldfish (Carassius? Spring viremia of carp is an infection caused by Rhabdo- virus carpio, a bullet-shaped RNA virus. Natural

Watson, Craig A.

169

The Effect of Exposure to a High-Fat Diet on MicroRNA Expression in the Liver of Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala)  

PubMed Central

Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) are susceptible to hepatic steatosis when maintained in modern intensive culture systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in diet-induced hepatic steatosis in this species. MiRNAs, small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level, are involved in diverse biological processes, including lipid metabolism. Deep sequencing of hepatic small RNA libraries from blunt snout bream fed normal-fat and high-fat diets identified 202 (193 known and 9 novel) miRNAs, of which 12 were differentially expressed between the normal-fat and high-fat diet groups. Quantitative stem-loop reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses confirmed the upregulation of miR-30c and miR-30e-3p and the downregulation of miR-145 and miR-15a-5p in high-fat diet-fed fish. Bioinformatics tools were used to predict the targets of these verified miRNAs and to explore potential downstream gene ontology biological process categories and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Six putative lipid metabolism-related target genes (fetuin-B, Cyp7a1, NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex subunit 2, 3-oxoacid CoA transferase 1b, stearoyl-CoA desaturase, and fatty-acid synthase) were identified as having potential important roles in the development of diet-induced hepatic steatosis in blunt snout bream. The results presented here are a foundation for future studies of miRNA-controlled lipid metabolism regulatory networks in blunt snout bream. PMID:24788396

Zhang, Dingdong; Lu, Kangle; Dong, Zaijie; Jiang, Guangzhen; Xu, Weina; Liu, Wenbin

2014-01-01

170

Eos Interviews Robert Van Hook, Former AGU Interim Executive Director  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Robert Van Hook, who served as AGU's interim executive director since January 2009, led the organization during a transition period that began with the retirement of long-serving executive director A. F. (“Fred”) Spilhaus Jr. Van Hook's tenure concluded on 30 August when Christine McEntee assumed her position as AGU's new executive director (see Eos, 91(17), 153, 156, 2010). During his tenure at AGU, which overlapped with a global economic recession, Van Hook helped to guide the organization through key structural governance changes, strategic planning, and upgrades in technology, human resources, and accounting. He also helped to revitalize public outreach and member services, among many other efforts. Van Hook, president of Transition Management Consulting, recently reflected upon his tenure, the transition period, and the future of AGU. Van Hook credits AGU's strong volunteer leadership—including past presidents Tim Killeen and Tim Grove, current president Mike McPhaden, and president-elect Carol Finn—for courage in moving the organization through a successful transition. “They were the ones who shoved the boat off from the shore. I was lucky enough to be invited into the boat,” he said. He also credits the staff for their resiliency and commitment to supporting AGU's science.

Showstack, Randy

2010-08-01

171

Isolation and Characterization of Glycophorin from Carp Red Blood Cell Membranes  

PubMed Central

We isolated a high-purity carp glycophorin from carp erythrocyte membranes following extraction using the lithium diiodosalicylate (LIS)-phenol method and streptomycin treatment. The main carp glycophorin was observed to locate at the position of the carp and human band-3 proteins on an SDS-polyacrylamide gel. Only the N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) form of sialic acid was detected in the carp glycophorin. The oligosaccharide fraction was separated into two components (P-1 and P-2) using a Glyco-Pak DEAE column. We observed bacteriostatic activity against five strains of bacteria, including two known fish pathogens. Fractions from the carp erythrocyte membrane, the glycophorin oligosaccharide and the P-1 also exhibited bacteriostatic activity; whereas the glycolipid fraction and the glycophorin fraction without sialic acid did not show the activity. The carp glycophorin molecules attach to the flagellum of V. anguillarum or the cell surface of M. luteus and inhibited bacterial growth. PMID:25110961

Aoki, Takahiko; Chimura, Kenji; Nakao, Nobuhiro; Mizuno, Yasuko

2014-01-01

172

EAARL Coastal Topography - Sandy Hook 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of Gateway National Recreation Area's Sandy Hook Unit in New Jersey, acquired on May 16, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for pre-survey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that represent submerged or first surface topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation from a point cloud of last return elevations.

Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.

2008-01-01

173

Toxicity of trihalomethanes to common carp embryos  

SciTech Connect

Trihalomethanes recently have been identified in real and simulated effluents from power plants where chlorine is used for biofouling control. Toxicity of the four chlorine- or bromine-containing trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) to developing common carp (Cyprinus carpio) embryos was determined under conditions of intermittent (8-hour) toxicant renewal, based on percent hatch as the end point. Nominal median lethal concentrations (LC50) ranged from 161 mg/liter for chloroform to 53 mg/liter for dibromochloromethane. Decay studies conducted under conditions similar to those used for the toxicity studies, but in distilled water, indicated that (1) half-lives of the trihalomethanes ranged from 4.4 to 6.9 hours; (2) decay was due primarily to volatilization; (3) higher relative toxicity of dibromochloromethane probably was due to formation of a degradation product (likely Br/sub 2/). Correction of the nominal LC50 values to time-weighted mean concentrations over the period between toxicant changes gave weighted LC50 values of 97.2, 67.4, 33.5, and 52.3 mg/liter for chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, respectively. In addition, the period of water-hardening of fertilized eggs was not critical for expression of toxicity of dibromochloromethane. Comparison of these and other published data on effluent and toxic concentrations, persistence, and bioaccumulation of water-chlorination products suggests that trihalomethanes are not as environmentally critical as other chlorinated organic compounds or residual chlorine.

Mattice, J.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN); Tsai, S.C.; Burch, M.B.; Beauchamp, J.J.

1981-03-01

174

Management and Ecological Note Effects of hook type on injury and capture  

E-print Network

, Ambloplites rupestris, angled in south-eastern Ontario S . J . C O O K E & B . L . B A R T H E L Program, Ambloplites rupestris Rafinesque, angled using circle hooks and three conventional hook types were compared

Cooke, Steven J.

175

Central African Regional Program for the Environment (CARPE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Comprised of numerous scientific and advocacy partners, and funded by the US Agency for International Development (USAID), CARPE seeks to help identify and establish conditions and practices which will reduce deforestation and biodiversity loss in the Congo Basin. CARPE arose in response to both local and international concern about the consequences of the current pattern of unsustainable resource use in the region. Main sections at this site include: Briefing Sheet, Partners, Activities, Products, Donor Coordination and related sites. Users can join a discussion group or link to related sites.

1997-01-01

176

Photocontrol of Hook Opening in Cuscuta gronovii Willd 1  

PubMed Central

Hook opening in seedlings of Cuscuta gronovii Willd. occurred only after prolonged exposures to blue, red, or far red light. Prolonged far red exposure was less effective than prolonged exposure to red or blue light. Brief far red irradiation inhibited the inductive effect of red light. The far red inhibition was in turn reversed by brief red irradiation. These effects suggest the involvement of two photosystems in the control of hook opening in Cuscuta gronovii Willd.: a phytochrome-mediated system and a separate high energy requirement. PMID:16658751

Kujawski, Ronald F.; Truscott, F. H.

1974-01-01

177

BOOK REVIEW: Robert Hooke and the Royal Society  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many physics students only come across Hooke when they learn his law of stretching springs, which is a pity because it is just one of his contributions to progress in science, and a minor one at that. His, Micrographia, the first great book of microscopical observations, arouses admiration to this day. He was also active in horology, astronomy, geology and surveying, and he took part in biological experiments, transfusing blood between animals. Much of his work was done while he was curator of experiments for the Royal Society, in which he was involved almost from its foundation. This was by no means a full-time occupation, however. After the Great Fire of London, Hooke was appointed one of the three surveyors for the rebuilding of the city. One of the others was Christopher Wren, a lifelong friend. In this role Hooke was responsible for the design of several buildings, including the Monument. Nichols writes about all these activities, as well as Hooke's childhood, his education at Westminster School, the University of Oxford when Hooke was an undergraduate, and the founding of the Royal Society. The book draws on research for a master's degree. Turning a dissertation into a popular book is risky. The author has avoided the pitfall of making it too academic, but the result is not satisfying. Nichols seems overawed by Hooke and his work, frequently seeming to credit Hooke with a far-reaching influence that he did not necessarily have. There may be a case for lauding Hooke as the father of English microscopy, the father of English meteorology, and the founder of English geology and earth sciences, but it needs to be made much more critically, even in a popular work. Hooke was full of good ideas, but he rarely continued long enough to put them into practice. There is no doubt that Hooke proposed using a balance wheel and spring to improve the timekeeping of a watch, for example, but he did not have a watch made to his design until after Christiaan Huygens had independently devised a similar mechanism and published it. Hooke did propose a marine chronometer to solve the (already well understood) problem of finding longitude at sea, but it was John Harrison, decades later, who built a chronometer, and there is not the slightest reason to believe he owed anything to Hooke. The book records Hooke's activities, but is devoid of comment or analysis. The casual cruelty (by modern standards) to the animals used in the blood transfusion experiments passes without remark. The chapter about Oxford University reads almost like entries from a biographical dictionary. The purpose of this and the following chapter on the founding of the Royal Society only becomes apparent at the end, if the reader has not lost interest by then. Expert opinion acknowledges that the popular belief that Wren was primarily responsible for the rebuilding of the City of London undervalues Hooke's work, but Nichols, in his unwavering support for Hooke, glosses over the genuine problems of disentangling their contributions. The disputes between Hooke and Newton are well known, and no-one suggests that Newton was a pleasant person, but the unpleasantness was not all on one side. Historians agree that Hooke was a difficult man. There are no numbered references or notes, a not unusual policy in a popular book, but many sources (most of them secondary) are mentioned in the text. They do not help to make it read well, and the details are incomplete, but so are the details of many of the items listed in the bibliography. An index would be useful, but it is lacking. There are signs in a number of places that the book has not been carefully revised and edited. This ought to be a book to recommend to young students, but it would fail to inspire them. This is a pity, because there is no doubt that Hooke was one of the towering figures of the beginning of the scientific revolution. The fledgling Royal Society might not have survived without the experiments and demonstrations he provided. Historians know this but it deserves to be more widely recognized.

Brown, Neil

2000-01-01

178

Photocontrol of Hook Opening in Cuscuta gronovii Willd.  

PubMed

Hook opening in seedlings of Cuscuta gronovii Willd. occurred only after prolonged exposures to blue, red, or far red light. Prolonged far red exposure was less effective than prolonged exposure to red or blue light. Brief far red irradiation inhibited the inductive effect of red light. The far red inhibition was in turn reversed by brief red irradiation. These effects suggest the involvement of two photosystems in the control of hook opening in Cuscuta gronovii Willd.: a phytochrome-mediated system and a separate high energy requirement. PMID:16658751

Kujawski, R F; Truscott, F H

1974-04-01

179

By Hook or by Crook? Morphometry, Competition and Cooperation in Rodent Sperm  

E-print Network

By Hook or by Crook? Morphometry, Competition and Cooperation in Rodent Sperm Simone Immler1 of most murid rodents are characterised by an apical hook of the sperm head that varies markedly in extent across species. In the European woodmouse Apodemus sylvaticus (Muridae), the highly reflected apical hook

Nachman, Michael

180

A UNIFYING APPROACH FOR PROVING HOOK-LENGTH FORMULAS FOR WEIGHTED TREE FAMILIES  

E-print Network

A UNIFYING APPROACH FOR PROVING HOOK-LENGTH FORMULAS FOR WEIGHTED TREE FAMILIES MARKUS KUBA and extends recent results on hook-length formulas of trees obtained by Han [10], Chen et al. [3], and Yang [19]. Moreover, the approach presented is used to derive new hook-length formulas for tree families

Kuba, Markus

181

On Han's Hook Length Formulas for Trees William Y.C. Chen1  

E-print Network

On Han's Hook Length Formulas for Trees William Y.C. Chen1 Oliver X.Q. Gao2 Peter L. Guo3 Center Mathematics Subject Classifications: 05A15, 05A19 Abstract Recently, Han obtained two hook length formulas on the structure of k-ary trees associated with staircase labelings. Keywords: hook length formula, k-ary tree

Chen, Bill

182

Hook-ups: How Youth Learn Through Creating Physical Computer Interfaces  

E-print Network

Hook-ups: How Youth Learn Through Creating Physical Computer Interfaces by Amon Daran Millner Accepted by Andrew B. Lippman Chairperson Departmental Committee on Graduate Studies #12;2 #12;Hook of Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology June 2005 ABSTRACT The Hook-ups project introduces

183

Runtime Verification of Authorization Hook Placement for the Linux Security Modules Framework  

E-print Network

Runtime Verification of Authorization Hook Placement for the Linux Security Modules Framework consists of a set of authorization hooks inserted into the Linux ker- nel to enable additional that placement of the LSM hooks ensures that all the kernel's security-sensitive operations are authorized. We

Yener, Aylin

184

A New Mechanism of Hook Formation during Continuous Casting of Ultra-Low-Carbon Steel Slabs  

E-print Network

A New Mechanism of Hook Formation during Continuous Casting of Ultra-Low-Carbon Steel Slabs JOYDEEP phenomena, which cause periodic oscillation marks (OMs), subsurface hooks, and related surface defects. This article presents a detailed mechanism for the formation of curved hooks and their associated OMs, based

Thomas, Brian G.

185

Theoretical Computer Science 117 (1993) 273-287 Combinatorial proofs of hook  

E-print Network

Theoretical Computer Science 117 (1993) 273-287 Elsevier 273 Combinatorial proofs of hook University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1027. USA Abstract Sagan, B.E., Combinatorial proofs of hook generating combinatorial proofs of two hook generating functions for skew plane partitions. One proof involves the Hillman

Sagan, Bruce

186

PROOF OF A CONJECTURE ON MULTISETS OF HOOK NUMBERS Amitai REGEV 1and Doron ZEILBERGER2  

E-print Network

PROOF OF A CONJECTURE ON MULTISETS OF HOOK NUMBERS Amitai REGEV 1and Doron ZEILBERGER2 The notion of hook number was originally defined for the cells of the Young} of a partition a = (a1, . .,.ak). The hook number, h(x), of a cell x = (i, j)* * is simply the number

Zeilberger, Doron

187

Bijective proofs of the hook formulas for the number of standard Young tableaux, ordinary and shifted  

E-print Network

Bijective proofs of the hook formulas for the number of standard Young. Submitted: February 20, 1995; Accepted: July 9, 1995 Abstract. Bijective proofs of the hook formulas* *rdinary and shifted hook formulas. The proofs proceed by combining the ordinary, resp* *ectively

Krattenthaler, Christian

188

CS2Bio 2010 Process Algebra with Hooks for Models of  

E-print Network

CS2Bio 2010 Process Algebra with Hooks for Models of Pattern Formation Andrea Degasperi1 and Muffy Process Algebra with Hooks (PA[H]). In PA[H] processes represent different layers of abstraction, from biochemistry to tissue, and special synchronisations via hook actions ensure consistency between

Calder, Muffy

189

BILABELLED INCREASING TREES AND HOOK-LENGTH FORMULAS MARKUS KUBA AND ALOIS PANHOLZER  

E-print Network

BILABELLED INCREASING TREES AND HOOK-LENGTH FORMULAS MARKUS KUBA AND ALOIS PANHOLZER Abstract. We and is in bijection with a tree family introduced by Poupard [11]. Both increasing bilabellings naturally lead to hook has two main concerns: first we want to give combinatorial interpretations and proofs of certain hook

Panholzer, Alois

190

Hook lengths and shifted parts of partitions Guo-Niu HAN  

E-print Network

2008/11/17 Hook lengths and shifted parts of partitions Guo-Niu HAN Dedicated to George Andrews, on the occasion of his seventieth birthday. ABSTRACT. -- Some conjectures on partition hook lengths, recently- tions can be used instead. The purpose of this note is to prove it. 1. Introduction The hook lengths

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

191

A BIJECTIVE PROOF OF THE HOOK-CONTENT FORMULA FOR SUPER SCHUR FUNCTIONS  

E-print Network

A BIJECTIVE PROOF OF THE HOOK-CONTENT FORMULA FOR SUPER SCHUR FUNCTIONS AND A MODIFIED JEU DE functions (also called hook Schur functions) is given using the combinatorial description of super Schur) is a sequence of integers with 1 2 · · · r > 0. The super Schur function S(x, y) (or hook Schur function

Krattenthaler, Christian

192

Rapid Prototyping in Architecture Research using Hardware Hooks in COTS Systems  

E-print Network

Rapid Prototyping in Architecture Research using Hardware Hooks in COTS Systems Smruti R. Sarangi://iacoma.cs.uiuc.edu Abstract This paper makes the case for using little-known hardware hooks in COTS (Commodity. This approach in- volves using little-known hardware hooks in existing COTS processors and chipsets that can

Torrellas, Josep

193

THE WEIGHTED HOOK LENGTH FORMULA IONUT CIOCANFONTANINE # , MATJA Z KONVALINKA + , AND IGOR PAK #  

E-print Network

THE WEIGHTED HOOK LENGTH FORMULA IONUT� CIOCAN­FONTANINE # , MATJA Ÿ Z KONVALINKA + , AND IGOR PAK for the classical hook length formula, and give two proofs of this result. The first proof is completely bijective, and in a special case gives a new short combinatorial proof of the hook length formula. Our second proof

Pak, Igor

194

A BIJECTIVE PROOF OF THE HOOK-CONTENT FORMULA FOR SUPER SCHUR FUNCTIONS  

E-print Network

A BIJECTIVE PROOF OF THE HOOK-CONTENT FORMULA FOR SUPER SCHUR of super Schur functions (also called hook Schur functions) is given using the comb* *inatorial of integers with ~1 ~2 . . .~r > 0. The super Schur function S~(x, y) (or hook Schur fu* *nction), where

Krattenthaler, Christian

195

THE WEIGHTED HOOK LENGTH FORMULA IONUT CIOCAN-FONTANINE, MATJAZ KONVALINKA, AND IGOR PAK  

E-print Network

THE WEIGHTED HOOK LENGTH FORMULA IONUT¸ CIOCAN-FONTANINE, MATJAZ KONVALINKA, AND IGOR PAK Abstract for the classical hook length formula, and give two proofs of this result. The first proof is completely bijective, and in a special case gives a new short combinatorial proof of the hook length formula. Our second proof

Ciocan-Fontanine, Ionut

196

Another involution principle-free bijective proof of Stanley's hook-content formula  

E-print Network

of Stanley's hook-content formula C. Krattenthaler://radon.mat.univie.ac.at/People/kratt Abstract. Another bijective proof of Stanley's hook-content formula for th* *e generating func- tion's previous bijective proof ("An involution principle-free * *bijective proof of Stanley's hook

Krattenthaler, Christian

197

Extracting abundance indices from longline surveys: method to account for hook competition  

E-print Network

Extracting abundance indices from longline surveys: method to account for hook competition and unbaited hooks. Marie-Pierre Etienne, Shannon Obradovich, Lynne Yamanaka, Murdoch McAllister June 14, 2010 is catch per unit effort (CPUE), here defined as the number of fish of the targeted species caught per hook

Boyer, Edmond

198

ORIGINAL PAPER Sustainable fishing gear: the case of modified circle hooks  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Sustainable fishing gear: the case of modified circle hooks in a Costa Rican fishing selectivity and reduce incidental capture of non-target species. Catch rates and anatomical hook locations (AHL) were compared when using a 14/0 standard ``control'' circle hook with a 0° offset

Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

199

FPSAC 2010, San Francisco, USA DMTCS proc. AN, 2010, 259270 Weighted branching formulas for the hook  

E-print Network

for the hook lengths Ionut¸ Ciocan-Fontanine1 , Matjaz Konvalinka2 and Igor Pak3 1 School of Mathematics of Mathematics, UCLA, Los Angeles CA, USA Abstract. The famous hook-length formula is a simple consequence of the branching rule for the hook lengths. While the Greene-Nijenhuis-Wilf probabilistic proof is the most famous

Ciocan-Fontanine, Ionut

200

Zapiski Nauchn. Seminarov POMI, to appear On the Number of Rim Hook Tableaux  

E-print Network

Zapiski Nauchn. Seminarov POMI, to appear On the Number of Rim Hook Tableaux Sergey Fomin 02138 Abstract A hooklength formula for the number of rim hook tableaux is used to obtain an inequal­ ity relating the number of rim hook tableaux of a given shape to the number of standard Young tableaux

Fomin, Sergey

201

Bijective proofs of the hook formulas for the number of standard Young tableaux, ordinary and shifted  

E-print Network

Bijective proofs of the hook formulas for the number of standard Young tableaux, ordinary, Austria. Submitted: February 20, 1995; Accepted: July 9, 1995 Bijective proofs of the hook formulas and shifted hook formulas. The proofs proceed by combining the ordinary, respectively shifted, Hillman

Krattenthaler, Christian

202

Stochastic Dynamics of a Drill-String with Uncertain Weight-on-Hook  

E-print Network

Stochastic Dynamics of a Drill-String with Uncertain Weight-on-Hook T.G. Rittoa,b , C. Soizeb system. However, this article is concerned only with uncertainties in the weight-on-hook, which is the supporting force exerted by the hook at the top. A probabilistic model is constructed for the random variable

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

203

On hooks of skew Young diagrams and bars in shifted diagrams  

E-print Network

1 On hooks of skew Young diagrams and bars in shifted diagrams Christine Bessenrodt Fakultat f;ectiveness of the methods introduced in [1] we investi- gate hooks in skew Young diagrams and bars in shifted combinatorial proofs for re#12;ned identities on multisets of hooks in the case of shift-symmetric partitions. 1

Bessenrodt, Christine

204

AN ALGORITHMIC SIGN-REVERSING INVOLUTION FOR SPECIAL RIM-HOOK TABLEAUX  

E-print Network

AN ALGORITHMIC SIGN-REVERSING INVOLUTION FOR SPECIAL RIM-HOOK TABLEAUX BRUCE E. SAGAN AND JAEJIN matrix K-1 in terms of special rim-hook tableaux. They were able to use this interpretation to give an algorithmic sign- reversing involution on rooted special rim-hook tableaux which can be used to prove

Sagan, Bruce

205

Bijective proofs of the hook formulas for the number of standard Young tableaux, ordinary and shifted  

E-print Network

Bijective proofs of the hook formulas for the number of standard Young tableaux, ordinary, Austria. Submitted: February 20, 1995; Accepted: July 9, 1995 Abstract. Bijective proofs of the hook and shifted hook formulas. The proofs proceed by combining the ordinary, respectively shifted, Hillman

Krattenthaler, Christian

206

Combining hook length formulas and BG-ranks for partitions via the Littlewood decomposition  

E-print Network

2009/08/24 Combining hook length formulas and BG-ranks for partitions via the Littlewood decomposition Guo-Niu HAN and Kathy Q. JI ABSTRACT. -- Recently, the first author has studied hook length formulas for partitions in a systematic manner. In the present paper we show that most of those hook length

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

207

THE RIEMANN PROBLEM FOR AN ELASTIC STRING WITH A LINEAR HOOKE'S LAW  

E-print Network

THE RIEMANN PROBLEM FOR AN ELASTIC STRING WITH A LINEAR HOOKE'S LAW HARALD HANCHE­OLSEN, HELGE stretching, i.e., with a linear Hooke's law. The motion is governed by a 4 � 4 system of conservation laws, elastic string with a linear stress­strain relationship (Hooke's law). Shearer solved the Riemann problem

208

The Nekrasov-Okounkov hook length formula: refinement, elementary proof, extension and applications  

E-print Network

2008/05/09 The Nekrasov-Okounkov hook length formula: refinement, elementary proof, extension for the powers of the Euler Product in terms of partition hook lengths, discovered by Nekrasov and Okounkov function for t-cores. Several applications are derived, including the "marked hook formula". 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

209

Scheme of the longline used in this study. Numbers show hook position. Ramon Munoz-Chapuli  

E-print Network

Figure 1 Scheme of the longline used in this study. Numbers show hook position. Ramon Munoz was to obtain a simple, statistical relationship between the fishing efficiency of each hook in a basket (a of each hook and in estimating absolute depths. Yoshi- hara (1951) reports that the vertical distributions

210

PROOF OF HAN'S HOOK EXPANSION CONJECTURE KEVIN CARDE, JOE LOUBERT, AARON POTECHIN, AND ADRIAN SANBORN  

E-print Network

PROOF OF HAN'S HOOK EXPANSION CONJECTURE KEVIN CARDE, JOE LOUBERT, AARON POTECHIN, AND ADRIAN classical hook expansion formulas. We give an equivalent formulation of this conjecture and expand one side Functions 12 4. Expanding Coefficients 13 5. Constant Through Quartic Terms 14 6. The Alternating Hook Sum

Weinberger, Hans

211

Hooke's September 1685 Ellipse Vertices Construction and Newton's Instantaneous Impulse Construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relatively little-known 1685 manuscript by Robert Hooke provides the occasion for another chapter in the well-known controversy between Hooke and Newton on priority in the field of centripetal force mechanics. This manuscript, with accompanying diagram, was discussed in a 1994 paper by Michael Nauenberg, who claimed that Hooke's manuscript and diagram were “effectively the mathematical formulation of the principles

Herman Erlichson

1997-01-01

212

Problem in Two Unknowns: Robert Hooke and a Worm in Newton's Apple.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the place that Robert Hooke has in science history versus the scientific contributions he made. Examines the relationship between Hooke and his contemporary, Isaac Newton, and Hooke's claims that Newton built on his ideas without receiving Newton's recognition. (26 references) (MDH)

Weinstock, Robert

1992-01-01

213

Mechanism and activity in the scientific revolution: The case of Robert Hooke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent ‘revisionist’ studies of the Scientific Revolution have utilized Robert Hooke as an example of a mechanical philosopher who incorporated active principles in his world system. This paper carefully examines Hooke's natural philosophy in order to determine the extent to which he employed active agents in his work. Thorough investigation reveals that although Hooke sometimes refrained from offering causal explanations

Mark E. Ehrlich

1995-01-01

214

Hepatic ?-Oxidation and Regulation of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase (CPT) I in Blunt Snout Bream Megalobrama amblycephala Fed a High Fat Diet  

PubMed Central

High-fat diets may promote growth, partly through their protein-sparing effects. However, high-fat diets often lead to excessive fat deposition, which may have a negative impact on fish such as poor growth and suppressive immune. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of a fat-rich diet on the mechanisms of fat deposition in the liver. Three-hundred blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) juveniles (initial mass 18.00±0.05 g) were fed with one of two diets (5% or 15% fat) for 8 weeks. ?-Oxidation capacity and regulation of rate-limiting enzymes were assessed. Large fat droplets were present in hepatocytes of fish fed the high-fat diet. This observation is thought to be largely owing to the reduced capacity for mitochondrial and peroxisomal ?-oxidation in the livers of fish fed the high-fat diet, as well as the decreased activities of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) I and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO), which are enzymes involved in fatty-acid metabolism. Study of CPT I kinetics showed that CPT I had a low affinity for its substrates and a low catalytic efficiency in fish fed the high-fat diet. Expression of both CPT I and ACO was significantly down-regulated in fish fed the high-fat diet. Moreover, the fatty-acid composition of the mitochondrial membrane varied between the two groups. In conclusion, the attenuated ?-oxidation capacity observed in fish fed a high-fat diet is proposed to be owing to decreased activity and/or catalytic efficiency of the rate-limiting enzymes CPT I and ACO, via both genetic and non-genetic mechanisms. PMID:24676148

Lu, Kang-Le; Xu, Wei-Na; Wang, Li-Na; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Zhang, Chun-Nuan; Liu, Wen-Bin

2014-01-01

215

Analysis of koi herpesvirus latency in wild common carp and ornamental koi in Oregon, USA.  

PubMed

Koi herpesvirus (KHV) infection is associated with high mortalities in both common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi) worldwide. Although acute infection has been reported in both domestic and wild common carp, the status of KHV latent infection is largely unknown in wild common carp. To investigate whether KHV latency is present in wild common carp, the distribution of KHV latent infection was investigated in two geographically distinct populations of wild common carp in Oregon, as well as in koi from an Oregon-based commercial supplier. Latent KHV infection was demonstrated in white blood cells from each of these populations. Although KHV isolated from acute infections has two distinct genetic groups, Asian and European, KHV detected in wild carp has not been genetically characterized. DNA sequences from ORF 25 to 26 that are unique between Asian and European were investigated in this study. KHV from captive koi and some wild common carp were found to have ORF-25-26 sequences similar to KHV-J (Asian), while the majority of KHV DNA detected in wild common carp has similarity to KHV-U/-I (European). In addition, DNA sequences from IL-10, and TNFR were sequenced and compared with no differences found, which suggests immune suppressor genes of KHV are conserved between KHV in wild common carp and koi, and is consistent with KHV-U, -I, -J. PMID:23174162

Xu, Jia-Rong; Bently, Jennifer; Beck, Linda; Reed, Aimee; Miller-Morgan, Tim; Heidel, Jerry R; Kent, Michael L; Rockey, Daniel D; Jin, Ling

2013-02-01

216

Zinc Hyperaccumulation and Uptake by Potentilla Griffithii Hook  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of Potentilla griffithii Hook var. velutina Cardot to hypaeraccumulate zinc (Zn) was identified through field survey and hydroponic experiments. Our results showed that P. griffithii could be classified as a new Zn hyperaccumulator. Zn concentrations in the shoots of P. griffithii averaged 6250 mg kg (3870–8530 mg kg) growing in Zn-rich soils. The highest Zn concentration was observed

Rongliang Qiu; Xiaohang Fang; Yetao Tang; Suojun Du; Xiaowen Zeng; Eric Brewer

2006-01-01

217

Development of an externally powered prosthetic hook for amputees  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The powered hook with trigger finger appears to be a useful adaptation of a terminal device for an amputee when performing vocational activities involving the use of a powered tool requiring a trigger control. The proportional control system includes transducers and amplifiers and appears to have widespread application for control of any external power, whether it be in the orthotic or prosthetic field.

Karchak, A., Jr.; Allen, J. R.; Bontrager, E. L.

1973-01-01

218

Twisted acceleration-enlarged Newton-Hooke Hopf algebras  

E-print Network

Ten Abelian twist deformations of acceleration-enlarged Newton-Hooke Hopf algebra are considered. The corresponding quantum space-times are derived as well. It is demonstrate that their contraction limit $\\tau \\to \\infty$ leads to the new twisted acceleration-enlarged Galilei spaces.

Marcin Daszkiewicz

2010-07-27

219

Hooked on Learning at the Minnesota Science Museum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a voluntary museum program where instructors teach science, math, and technology through art. Activities that can be used as "hooks" to get students interested in the program are provided. Topics include privacy and personal space, imaginary worlds, toys, behind the scenes, fads, friendly materials, humor, and the imagination. (KR)

Neumann, Jane

1991-01-01

220

Food handling and mastication in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of food handling in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and its structures associated with feeding are analyzed. The aim of this study is to explain the relation between the the architecture of the head and its functions in food processing and to determine the specializations for some food types and the consequent restrictions for others. Such

F. A. Sibbing

1984-01-01

221

The Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) in the Mississippi River  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report collections of the bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845) in the Mississippi River in Missouri and Illinois between 1991 and 1994. In all, we collected 48 specimens ranging from 18 to 790 mm total length. Young-of-the-year fish were caught in 1992 and 1994, which suggests that the species is able to reproduce in the Mississippi River and may

John K. Tucker; Frederick A. Cronin; Robert A. Hrabik; Michael D. Petersen; David P. Herzog

1996-01-01

222

Hormonal regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis in the carp, Cyprinus carpio  

SciTech Connect

Carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver maintained normal glycogen content and enzyme complement for several days in organ culture. Epinephrine-stimulated glycogenolysis, phosphorylase activation, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner with EC/sub 50/s of 100, 100, and 500 nM, respectively. These actions were blocked by the ..beta..-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, but not by the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. Glycogenolysis and tissue cAMP were uninfluenced by 10/sup -6/ M arginine vasotocin, arginine vasopressin, lysine vasotocin, lysine vasopressin, mesotocin, or oxytocin, but were slightly increased by 10/sup -5/ M isotocin and slightly decreased by 10/sup -6/ M angiotensin II. (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol (ICP), a ..beta..-adrenergic ligand, bound to isolated carp liver membranes with a K/sub D/ of 83 pM. Maximum binding of 45 fmol/mg protein was at 600 pM. Propranolol, isoprenaline, epinephrine, phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and phenoxybenzamine displaced ICP with K/sub D/s of 100 nM, 2, 20, 20, 60, and 200 ..mu..M, respectively. The ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonists, yohimbine and prazosin, showed no specific binding. These data provide evidence that catecholamines act via ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in carp liver and that ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors are not present. Vasoactive peptides play no significant role in regulation of carp liver glycogenolysis.

Janssens, P.A.; Lowrey, P.

1987-04-01

223

Genome-Wide SNP Discovery from Transcriptome of Four Common Carp Strains  

PubMed Central

Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been used as genetic marker for genome-wide association studies in many species. Gene-associated SNPs could offer sufficient coverage in trait related research and further more could themselves be causative SNPs for traits. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquaculture species in the world accounting for nearly 14% of freshwater aquaculture production. There are various strains of common carp with different economic traits, however, the genetic mechanism underlying the different traits have not been elucidated yet. In this project, we identified a large number of gene-associated SNPs from four strains of common carp using next-generation sequencing. Results Transcriptome sequencing of four strains of common carp (mirror carp, purse red carp, Xingguo red carp, Yellow River carp) was performed with Solexa HiSeq2000 platform. De novo assembled transcriptome was used as reference for alignments, and SNP calling was done through BWA and SAMtools. A total of 712,042 Intra-strain SNPs were discovered in four strains, of which 483,276 SNPs for mirror carp, 486,629 SNPs for purse red carp, 478,028 SNPs for Xingguo red carp and 488,281 SNPs for Yellow River carp were discovered, respectively. Besides, 53,893 inter-SNPs were identified. Strain-specific SNPs of four strains were 53,938, 53,866, 48,701, 40,131 in mirror carp, purse red carp, Xingguo red carp and Yellow River carp, respectively. GO and KEGG pathway analysis were done to reveal strain-specific genes affected by strain-specific non-synonymous SNPs. Validation of selected SNPs revealed that 48% percent of SNPs (12 of 25) were tested to be true SNPs. Conclusions Transcriptome analysis of common carp using RNA-Seq is a cost-effective way of generating numerous reads for SNP discovery. After validation of identified SNPs, these data will provide a solid base for SNP array designing and genome-wide association studies. PMID:23110192

Xu, Jian; Ji, Peifeng; Zhao, Zixia; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jianxin; Wang, Jian; Li, Jiongtang; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Lan; Liu, Guangzan; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen

2012-01-01

224

"Hook and roll technique" using an articulating hook cautery to provide a critical view during single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy.  

PubMed

We describe a new simple and easy technique called the "Hook and roll technique" (HRT) that uses an articulating hook cautery to provide a critical view during single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC). A 2-cm incision is made at the umbilicus to insert three 5-mm trocars or a multichannel port. After dissection of the serosa of the dorsal and ventral sides of the gall bladder, including Calot's triangle, the angled tip of the hook cautery is inserted between the cystic artery and duct with its tip placed dorsally. The tip is then rotated in a clockwise manner to avoid bile duct injury, allowing the connective tissue between them to be hooked, coagulated and cut. This procedure is repeated several times, followed by dissection between the cystic artery and the liver bed to achieve a critical view. From December 2008 to May 2011, 121 patients underwent SILC using HRT in our hospital without any serious complications. This technique is suitable for SILC, as it is consists of simple procedures that can be performed safely and easily, even by left hand in a cross-over approach, and it allows complete dissection of Calot's triangle to achieve a critical view without using any dissector under dangerous in-line viewing. PMID:23970325

Idani, Hitoshi; Nakano, Kanyu; Asami, Shinya; Kubota, Tetsushi; Komoto, Satoshi; Kurose, Yohei; Kubo, Shinichiro; Nojima, Hiroki; Hioki, Katsuyoshi; Kin, Hitoshi; Takakura, Norihisa

2013-01-01

225

Laminar hook instrumentation in the cervical spine. An experimental study on the relation of hooks to the spinal cord  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several anterior and posterior methods are today available for stabilization of the cervical spine. Factors such as level and degree of instability, method of decompression, bone quality, length of fixation and safety factors influence the choice of method for a particular patient. The use of laminar hooks in the cervical spine has been restricted by fear of cord compression with

T. Fagerström; R. Hedlund; P. Bancel; R. Robert; B. Dupas

2001-01-01

226

Fisheries Research 80 (2006) 239250 Effects of circle versus J-style hooks on target and non-target  

E-print Network

Fisheries Research 80 (2006) 239­250 Effects of circle versus J-style hooks on target and non from J-style hooks to circle hooks may reduce bycatch mortality, but the effects of this change, hooking location, and number of fish alive at haulback during 85 sets in the fall and spring seasonal

Newman, Michael C.

227

Robert Hooke's Trinity College ‘Musick Scripts’, his music theory and the role of music in his cosmology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article consists of a short introduction and three parts. Part I contains a transcription and interpretation of Robert Hooke's Trinity College, Cambridge, ‘Musick Scripts’. In Part II a summary is provided of Hooke's music theory from the fragmentary evidence of records of Hooke's experiments and lectures at Gresham College as well as from the writings of Hooke and some

J. C. Kassler; D. R. Oldroyd

1983-01-01

228

Single-walled carbon nanotubes as candidate recombinant subunit vaccine carrier for immunization of grass carp against grass carp reovirus.  

PubMed

Grass carp reovirus (GCRV), the most pathogenic aquareovirus, can cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in fingerling and yearling grass carp. Vaccination by injection is by far the most effective method of combating disease. However it is labor intensive, costly and not feasible to vaccinate large numbers of the fish. Thus, an efficient and economic strategy for the prevention of GCRV infection becomes urgent. Here, functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as carrier were used to manufacture SWCNTs-VP7 subunit vaccine with chemical modification. Different developmental stages of grass carps were immunized by VP7/SWCNTs-VP7 subunit vaccine against GCRV by intramuscular injection and bath immunization. The results indicate that better immune responses of grass carp immunized with the SWCNTs-VP7 subunit vaccine were induced in comparison with VP7 subunit vaccine alone. Immunization doses/concentrations are significantly reduced (about 5-8 times) to prevent GCRV infection in different developmental stages of grass carp with injection or bath treatment when SWCNTs carrier was used. A good immune protective effect (relative percentage survival greater than 95%) is observed in smaller size fish (0.2 g) with SWCNTs-VP7 bath immunization. In addition, serum respiratory burst activity, complement activity, lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, immune-related genes and antibody levels were significantly enhanced in fish immunized with vaccine. This study suggested that functionalized SWCNTs was the promising carrier for recombinant subunit vaccine and might be used to vaccinate fish by bath approach. PMID:25240976

Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Gong, Yu-Xin; Ling, Fei; Song, Lin-Sheng; Wang, Gao-Xue

2014-12-01

229

Tolrance physiologique de l'œuf de carpe (Cyprinus carpio L.) un choc acide appliqu au cours  

E-print Network

Tolérance physiologique de l'œuf de carpe (Cyprinus carpio L.) à un choc acide appliqué au Corzent 74203 Thonon-les-Bains, France. Summary. Physiological tolerance of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) eggs

Boyer, Edmond

230

Les vitesses de renouvellement des ARN du foie de carpe (Cyprinus carpio L.) soumise un jene total et prolong  

E-print Network

Les vitesses de renouvellement des ARN du foie de carpe (Cyprinus carpio L.) soumise à un jeûne in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after prolonged total starvation. 1. Turnover rate and half-life of hepatic

Boyer, Edmond

231

Editor's Choice Series on Sharing Data and Materials Carpe Diem. Retooling the "Publish or Perish" Model into  

E-print Network

Editor's Choice Series on Sharing Data and Materials Carpe Diem. Retooling the "Publish or Perish understanding of plant biology. So, how can the plant research community carpe diem? To transform the vast

232

Dynamical realizations of l-conformal Newton-Hooke group  

E-print Network

The method of nonlinear realizations and the technique previously developed in arXiv:1208.1403 are used to construct a dynamical system without higher derivative terms, which holds invariant under the l-conformal Newton-Hooke group. A configuration space of the model involves coordinates, which parametrize a particle moving in d spatial dimensions and a conformal mode, which gives rise to an effective external field.The dynamical system describes a generalized multi-dimensional oscillator, which undergoes accelerated/decelerated motion in an ellipse in accord with evolution of the conformal mode. Higher derivative formulations are discussed as well. It is demonstrated that the multi-dimensional Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator enjoys the l=3/2-conformal Newton-Hooke symmetry for a particular choice of its frequencies.

Galajinsky, Anton

2013-01-01

233

Hooke's law correlation in two-electron systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the properties of the Hooke’s law correlation energy (Ec), defined as the correlation energy when two electrons interact via a harmonic potential in a D-dimensional space. More precisely, we investigate the 1S ground-state properties of two model systems: the Moshinsky atom (in which the electrons move in a quadratic potential) and the spherium model (in which they move on the surface of a sphere). A comparison with their Coulombic counterparts is made that highlights the main differences of the Ec in both the weakly and strongly correlated limits. Moreover, we show that the Schrödinger equation of the spherium model is exactly solvable for two values of the dimension (D=1and3) and that the exact wave function is based on Mathieu functions.

Loos, Pierre-François

2010-03-01

234

On the reliability of hook echoes as tornado indicators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of radar echoes associated with the tornadoes of the 3 April 1974 outbreak was performed to evaluate the usefulness of echo shape as an indicator of tornadic thunderstorms. The hook shape was usually successful in characterizing an echo as tornadic, with a false alarm rate of 16%. Because hook echoes were relatively rare, however, a less restrictive shape called distinctive was more successful at detecting tornadic thunderstorms, identifying 65% of the tornadic echoes. An echo had a distinctive shape if it possessed a marked appendage on its right rear flank or was in the shape of a spiral, comma or line echo wave pattern (LEWP). Characteristics of the distinctive echo are given.

Forbes, G. S.

1981-01-01

235

Apparent digestibility of Asian carp and common carp-derived fish meals in feeds for hybrid striped bass Morone saxatilis female x M. chrysops male and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of nutrients (crude protein, amino acids, crude lipid, fatty acids, and minerals) were determined for fish meals derived from menhaden, Asian carp (combination of silver and bighead carps), and common carp in feeds for hybrid striped bass and rainbow trout....

236

Volatile components of Discaria americana Gillies & Hook (Rhamnaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile fraction from aerial parts (flowers, stems and leaves) of Discaria americana Gillies & Hook (Rhamnaceae) was obtained by hydrodistillation and the chemical composition of this oil was determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The major constituents resulted to be 4-methylphenol (15.5%), eugenol (11%), 3-methylindole (9.7%) and ?-terpineol (6.2%). The essential oil of this plant displayed strong

Silvana Rodriguez; Ana Paula Murray

2008-01-01

237

Conformal Galilei groups, Veronese curves, and Newton-Hooke spacetimes  

E-print Network

Finite-dimensional nonrelativistic conformal Lie algebras spanned by polynomial vector fields of Galilei spacetime arise if the dynamical exponent is z=2/N with N=1,2,.... Their underlying group structure and matrix representation are constructed (up to a covering) by means of the Veronese map of degree N. Suitable quotients of the conformal Galilei groups provide us with Newton-Hooke nonrelativistic spacetimes with a quantized reduced negative cosmological constant \\lambda=-N.

Christian Duval; Peter Horvathy

2011-07-04

238

Kohn's theorem and Newton-Hooke symmetry for Hill's equations  

E-print Network

Hill's equations, which first arose in the study of the Earth-Moon-Sun system, admit the two-parameter centrally extended Newton-Hooke symmetry without rotations. This symmetry allows for extending Kohn's theorem about the center-of-mass decomposition. Particular light is shed on the problem using Duval's "Bargmann" framework. The separation of the center-of-mass motion into that of a guiding center and relative motion is derived by a generalized chiral decomposition.

P. M. Zhang; G. W. Gibbons; P. A. Horvathy

2012-02-24

239

Studying Hooke's Law by Using a Pogo Stick  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perhaps the pogo stick was little Robert Hooke's favorite childhood toy, consisting of a stiff spring inserted in a tube fixed at the upper end and connected to a moveable rod at the other. Hand grips and a foot rest are connected to the tube. The idea is to jump on it taking advantage of the force provided by the spring when it is compressed. Figure 1 shows a schematic of a pogo stick.

Silva, Nicolás

2011-05-01

240

Studying Hooke's Law by Using a Pogo Stick  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perhaps the pogo stick was little Robert Hooke's favorite childhood toy, consisting of a stiff spring inserted in a tube fixed at the upper end and connected to a moveable rod at the other. Hand grips and a foot rest are connected to the tube. The idea is to jump on it taking advantage of the force provided by the spring when it is compressed.…

Silva, Nicolas

2011-01-01

241

Photocontrol ofHookOpening in Cuscuta gronovii Willd  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hook openingin seedlings of Cuscutagronovii Willd. occurred onlyafterprolonged exposures toblue,red,orfar redlight. Prolonged farredexposure waslesseffective than prolonged exposure toredorbluelight. Brieffarredirradia- tioninhibited theinductive effect ofredlight. Thefarred inhibition wasinturnreversed bybrief redirradiation. These effects suggest theinvolvement oftwophotosystems inthe control ofhookopening inCuscuta gronovii Willd.: aphyto- chrome-mediated systemanda separate highenergyrequire- ment. Thegrowth ofdodder (Cuscuta gronovii Willd.) seedlings is characterized bythepresence ofastemhook.Becausecoty- ledons donotdevelop indodder seedlings (22)this

F. H. TRUSCOTT

242

The description and host-parasite relationships of a new quadrigyrid species (Acanthocephala) from the Persian tooth-carp, Aphanius farsicus (Actinoptreygii: Cyprinodontidae) in Iran.  

PubMed

Acanthogyrus (Acanthosentis) barmeshoori n. sp. (Quadrigyridae) is described from the Persian tooth-carp, Aphanius farsicus Teimori, Esmaeili, and Reichenbacher, 2011 (Cyprinodontidae) in the Maharlu Lake basin, southern Iran. Aphanius farsicus is an endemic freshwater fish found in streams and springs that drain into Maharlu Lake, Shiraz, Iran. The new species is the smallest of all the 44 known species of the subgenus Acanthosentis Verma and Datta, 1929, measuring between 0.26 and 1.68 mm in length. It is further distinguished by having a short cylindrical proboscis with very long anterior hooks widely separated from very small hooks in 2 very close circles posteriorly (hook length ratio about 4:1). It is separated from 4 other species of Acanthosentis with similar proboscis armature but with less-extreme diversification of hook length. The new species is also distinguished in having anterior para-receptacle structures (PRS) and a similar posterior structure like those reported in only 1 other species of Acanthosentis from Japan. Proboscis receptacle is single walled with a large triangular cephalic ganglion. Testes are large, pre-equatorial, and Saefftigen's pouch is prominent. Fourteen to 25 circles of spines cover the anterior 50-70% of the trunk, but a few spines may be present at posterior end of trunk. This is the first species of Acanthosentis where SEM images, showing external morphological details, are provided. From a total of 357 fish specimens examined between July 2006 and June 2007, 173 specimens (48.5%) were infected with individuals of the new species. The prevalence of infection decreased with increasing fish size. The parasite was observed all year, with the highest abundance and intensity in May while the prevalence was highest in February. The prevalence of acanthocephalans decreased with increasing fish size. While most worms were recovered in fish within the length range of 18-29.9 mm, 1 of the longest parasites (1.68 mm long) was found in fish within the range of 30-33.9 mm long. PMID:22994245

Amin, Omar M; Gholami, Zeinab; Akhlaghi, Mostafa; Heckmann, Richard A

2013-04-01

243

Hooking up and penetrative hookups: correlates that differentiate college men.  

PubMed

One prominent pathway to sexual intimacy among college student populations is hooking up. Past research has largely compared men and women, with limited attention given to how men differ regarding involvement in hookups and their hookup behaviors. This study used a sample of 412 college men to examine the individual, social, relational, and family background correlates of (1) hooking up during a semester and (2) penetrative hookup encounters (e.g., oral sex, intercourse). Overall, 69% reported a hookup during the semester, with 73% of those who hooked up reporting penetrative hookups. Using logistic regression, men were more likely to hookup if they had an extraverted personality, were consuming more alcohol, and had previous hookup experience. They were less likely to hookup if they were more thoughtful about their relationship decisions and if they were in a stable, committed romantic relationship. Men also were more likely to engage in penetrative hookups only if they held more permissive attitudes towards sex and if they had previous penetrative hookup experience. Implications for intervention and research are discussed. PMID:22350126

Olmstead, Spencer B; Pasley, Kay; Fincham, Frank D

2013-05-01

244

Influence of nutritional status on the daily patterns of nitrogen excretion in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

E-print Network

after the start of the particular feeding regime. b) Trials with carp. - Three carp (Cyprinus carpio LInfluence of nutritional status on the daily patterns of nitrogen excretion in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri R.) S. J. KAUSHIK Denise BLANC Laboratoire de Nutrition

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

245

A review of genetic improvement of the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and other cyprinids by crossbreeding, hybridization and selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic research and application have mainly focused on the common carp, while little attention has been given to Chinese and Indian carps. The only exceptions are interspecific and intergeneric hybridization involving the latter species. The common carp is the only species for which distinct varieties exist. Several of these have been used for crossbreeding, and heterosis for growth was shown

Gideon Hulata

1995-01-01

246

CarpeDiem: an Algorithm for the Fast Evaluation of SSL Classifiers Roberto Esposito esposito@di.unito.it  

E-print Network

CarpeDiem: an Algorithm for the Fast Evaluation of SSL Classifiers Roberto Esposito esposito.so Svizzera 185 ­ 10149 Torino, Italy Abstract In this paper we present a novel algorithm, CarpeDiem, to the HMPerceptron algorithm. We illustrate CarpeDiem in full details, and provide experi- mental results

Radicioni, Daniele

247

Purification and characterization of pyrophosphatase from bighead carp ( Aristichthys nobilis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrophosphatase (PPase, EC 3.6.1.1) responsible to the hydrolysis of pyrophosphate (PPi) in muscle was purified from bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), and characterized in detail herein for the first time. PPase was extracted with 20mmol\\/L Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.0) containing 0.05mol\\/L KCl, followed by heat treatment and ammonium sulfate precipitation. Then it was purified by deithylaminoethyl-cellulose (DE52) and Sephacryl S-300 chromatography,

Rui-chang Gao; Chang-hu Xue; Li Yuan; Jin Zhang; Zhao-jie Li; Yong Xue; Hui Feng

2008-01-01

248

The development of a radioimmunoassay for carp, Cyprinus carpio , vitellogenin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of an easily — performed and robust radioimmunoassay (RIA) to carp, Cyprinus carpio, vitellogenin (c-VTG) is described. Purified c-VTG was iodinated using Iodogen. The resulting c-VTG label was useful for\\u000a up to 60 days. High titre antibodies were raised in rabbits to the purified c-VTG. The practical operating range of the c-VTG\\u000a RIA was between 2 and 200

Charles R. Tyler; John P. Sumpter

1990-01-01

249

The purification and partial characterization of carp, Cyprinus carpio , vitellogenin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure is described for the isolation of intact vitellogenin (c-VTG) from the carp, Cyprinus carpio. VTG was induced in juvenile females using oestradiol-17? and purified from the plasma using a combination of gel-filtration\\u000a chromatography on Sepharose 6B and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. Purification procedures were conducted at\\u000a low temperatures (below 9°C) in the presence of the proteolytic enzyme

Charles R. Tyler; John P. Sumpter

1990-01-01

250

Essentiality of dietary phospholipids for carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the essentiality of phospholipid (PL) addition to semi-purified diets for first-feeding carp larvae. In Experiment I (25 days), a casein-based diet was supplemented with 0, 2 or 4% of a purified PL source (PL level in source: 98%) and with 0 or 4% of peanut oil (PO). One casein-based diet without

Inge Geurden; João Radünz-Neto; Pierre Bergot

1995-01-01

251

HIRA is essential for the development of gibel carp.  

PubMed

HIRA is one of the chaperones of histone H3.3. Mutation of Hira results in embryonic lethality in mice, suggesting a critical role in embryogenesis. However, Hira-mutated Drosophila may survive to adults, indicating that it is dispensable in Drosophila development. The role of Hira in fish development is unknown. In this study we first investigated the expression of Hira during embryogenesis of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) by whole-mount in situ hybridization. We found that Hira signal appeared ubiquitously in the early embryos. After gastrulation, it appeared mainly along the anterior-posterior axis, including the tail bud. In hatching period, the signal was detected in head, heart, and the endoderm region on the back of yolk. Then by microinjection with morpholino-HIRA at the beginning of development, we observed delayed gastrulation and abnormal somitogenesis in gibel carp embryos. The HIRA morphants exhibited short trunk, limited yolk extension, and twisted tail. Most of the mutants died during embryogenesis or shortly after hatching. The rest of the HIRA morphants could survive to larvae but with severe defects in organogenesis. These data suggest that HIRA may be essential for the development of gibel carp, and this function is conserved in vertebrates. PMID:23912483

Wang, Meng-Yu; Guo, Qiu-Hong; Du, Xin-Zheng; Zhou, Li; Luo, Qian; Zeng, Qiao-Hui; Wang, Jia-Lin; Zhao, Hao-Bin; Wang, Yu-Feng

2014-02-01

252

Mechanics and Newton-Cartan-Like Gravity on the Newton-Hooke Space-time  

E-print Network

We focus on the dynamical aspects of Newton-Hooke space-time ${\\cal NH}_+$ mainly from the viewpoint of geometric contraction of the de Sitter spacetime. We first discuss the Newton-Hooke classical mechanics, especially the continuous medium mechanics, in this framework. Then, we establish a consistent theory of gravity on the Newton-Hooke space-time as a kind of Newton-Cartan-like theory, parallel to the Newton's gravity in the Galilei space-time. Finally, we give the Newton-Hooke invariant Schr\\"odinger equation from the geometric contraction, where we can relate the conservative probability in some sense to the mass density in the Newton-Hooke continuous medium mechanics. Similar consideration may apply to the Newton-Hooke space-time ${\\cal NH}_-$ contracted from anti-de Sitter spacetime.

Yu Tian; Han-Ying Guo; Chao-Guang Huang; Zhan Xu; Bin Zhou

2005-02-27

253

Some Combinatorial Properties of Hook Lengths, Contents, and Parts of Partitions1  

E-print Network

Some Combinatorial Properties of Hook Lengths, Contents, and Parts of Partitions1 Richard P! n f2 F(h2 u : u ), where hu denotes the hook length of the square u of the parti- tion of n and f the hook length formula of Frame, Robinson, and Thrall [3][13, Cor. 7.21.6]: f = n! u hu , #12;where u

254

PROOF OF A CONJECTURE ON MULTISETS OF HOOK NUMBERS Amitai REGEV 1 and Doron ZEILBERGER 2  

E-print Network

PROOF OF A CONJECTURE ON MULTISETS OF HOOK NUMBERS Amitai REGEV 1 and Doron ZEILBERGER 2 The notion of hook number was originally de#12;ned for the cells of the Young diagram D(a) := f(i; j) j 1 #20; j #20; k ; 1 #20; i #20; a k j+1 g of a partition a = (a 1 ; : : : ; a k ). The hook number, h

Zeilberger, Doron

255

Lightweight steel–concrete–steel sandwich system with J-hook connectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates a new concept for designing composite structures comprising a lightweight concrete core sandwiched in between two steel plates which are interconnected by J-hook connectors. Specifically, lightweight concrete (density less than 1450 kg\\/m3) and novel J-hook connectors have been developed for this purpose. The hook connectors are capable of resisting tension and shear, and their uses are not restricted

J. Y. Richard Liew; K. M. A. Sohel

2009-01-01

256

The Lake Wingra Carp-Free Enclosure and its Effect on an Aquatic Macrophyte, Lemna minor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various people and organizations have spent time and energy into trying to find out if the carp in Lake Wingra are having a negative impact on the other forms of life within the ecosystem. In order to try and answer this question an enclosure was created to remove the carp from a small section of the water. For our experiment

D. Patterson; Jessa Underwood

257

Effectiveness of an Electrical Barrier and Lake Drawdown for Reducing Common Carp and Bigmouth Buffalo Abundances  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overabundance of common carp Cvprinus carpio and bigmouth buffalo Ictiobus cyprinellus in North and South Heron lakes, Minnesota, has hindered production of food plants for waterfowl. These shallow (maximum depth, 1.5 m), turbid lakes are partially drawn down each winter. Common carp were radio-tracked in both lakes during the winters of' 1991 and 1992 to monitor their movements and

Donovan D. Verrill; Charles R. Berry JR

1995-01-01

258

Protein digestion and amino acid absorption along the intestine of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.),  

E-print Network

Protein digestion and amino acid absorption along the intestine of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio amino acids and the apparent absorption of amino acids (AAaa) were evaluated in different segments of carp intestine. The AAaa analysed using Crz03 as a marker indicated that 73.2 % of the amino acids were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

259

Distribution and Population Dynamics of Asian Carp in Iowa Rivers Principal Investigator: Michael J. Weber  

E-print Network

rivers, including the Mississippi, Des Moines, Skunk, Iowa, and Cedar rivers o Evaluate Asian carp the Mississippi, Des Moines, Skunk, Iowa, and Cedar rivers Introduction: Bighead (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis southeastern Iowa. Asian carp are known to inhabit lower portions of the Des Moines, Iowa, Cedar, Skunk

Koford, Rolf R.

260

PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Biomass-dependent effects of age-0 common carp on aquatic  

E-print Network

in structuring aquatic ecosystems through top-down and bottom-up processes. Adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio, although effects may be accrued through different pathways. Keywords Early life history Á Cyprinus carpio Á common carp (Cypri- nus carpio) populations are often associated with the degradation of shallow aquatic

261

Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol., 31(3) 2011, 112 Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and  

E-print Network

Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol., 31(3) 2011, 112 NOTE Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Cyprinus carpio). In order for fish to transfer the #12;Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol., 31(3) 2011, 113 virus Cook University, Queensland, Australia Abstract Goldfish, Carassius auratus, and common carp, Cyprinus

Gray, Matthew

262

Origin and domestication of the wild carp, Cyprinus carpio: from Roman gourmets to the swimming flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleogeographical, morphological, ecological, physiological, linguistic, archeological and historical evidence is used to explain the origin and history of the domestication of the wild carp. The wild ancestor of the common carp originated in the Black, Caspian and Aral sea drainages and dispersed east into Siberia and China and west as far as the Danube River. It is represented today by

Eugene K. Balon

1995-01-01

263

Cryopreservation of Sperm in Common Carp Cyprinus carpio: Sperm Motility and Hatching Success of Embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, fish sperm cryopreservation methods were elaborated upon for ex situ conservation of nine strains of Bohemian common carp. Common carp sperm were diluted in Kurokura medium and chilled to 4°C and dimethyl sulfoxide was added. Cryotubes of sperm with media were then cooled from +4 to ?9°C at a rate of 4°C min?1 and then from ?9

Otomar Linhart; Marek Rodina; Jacky Cosson

2000-01-01

264

Organophosphate Effects on Antioxidant System of Carp ( Cyprinus carpio) and Catfish ( Ictalurus nebulosus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the organophosphate insecticide Dichlorvos on antioxidant enzymes and other oxidative and redox parameters of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and catfish (Ictalurus nebulosus) were studied. Changes in superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and in the case of carp acetylcholinesterase activities were studied in tissue homogenates. Other parameters studied: changes of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and the amounts of

Do Quy Hai; Sz. Ilona Varga; B Matkovics

1997-01-01

265

Short sequence-paper Uncoupling protein 2 from carp and zebrash, ectothermic vertebrates  

E-print Network

vertebrates. UCPs from two fish species, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) and carp (Cyprinus carpio), were Acta 1413 (1999) 50^54 www.elsevier.com/locate/bba #12;ESTs from the carp Cyprinus carpio (accession. carpio `peritoneal exudate cell' cDNA library and from a D. rerio `day 0 fin regeneration' cDNA library

Stuart, Jeffrey A.

266

Influence of the Moran Effect on Spatiotemporal Synchrony in Common Carp Recruitment  

E-print Network

on a regionwide scale may further our understanding of fish population dynamics. Common carp Cyprinus carpio geographical scale (i.e., the Moran effect) would induce synchrony in recruitment for common carp Cyprinus carpio among 18 glacial lakes across a 175-km2 area in eastern South Dakota. Cross-correlation analysis

267

Genetic variability of German and foreign common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to describe their genetic variability the polymorphisms of 8 enzymatic systems representing 23 gene loci were studied in 11 German and 5 foreign common carp lines using horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. The highest variability measured by the mean number of alleles per locus and the percentage of polymorphic loci was observed in Vietnamese wild carp (1.9 and 50%,

Klaus Kohlmann; Petra Kersten

1999-01-01

268

Pathological and Biochemical Characterization of Microcystin-Induced Hepatopancreas and Kidney Damage in Carp ( Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass occurrences of cyanobacteria, due to their inherent capacity for toxin production, specifically of microcystins (MC), have been associated with fish kills worldwide. The uptake of MC-LR and the sequence of pathological and associated biochemical changes was investigated in carp (Cyprinus carpio) in vivo over 72 h. Carp were gavaged with a single sublethal bolus dose of toxic Microcystis aeruginosa

W. J. Fischer; D. R. Dietrich

2000-01-01

269

Effects of Temperature on Auditory Sensitivity in Eurythermal Fishes: Common Carp Cyprinus carpio  

E-print Network

Effects of Temperature on Auditory Sensitivity in Eurythermal Fishes: Common Carp Cyprinus carpio in response to clicks were measured in the common carp Cyprinus carpio (order Cypriniformes) and the Wels Cyprinus carpio (Family Cyprinidae) versus Wels Catfish Silurus glanis (Family Siluridae). PLoS ONE 9(9): e

Ladich, Friedrich

270

Effects of Static versus Flowing Water on Aquatic Plant Preferences of Triploid Grass Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triploid grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella were presented with three aquatic plant species (sago pondweed Potamogeton pectinatus, Eurasian watermilfoil Myriophyllum spicatum, and American pondweed P. nodosus) in outdoor canals with static and flowing water in winter, spring, and summer. Plant consumption by triploid grass carp in winter was low but increased dramatically in spring and summer. Based on plant shoot lengths,

Robert T. Pine; Lars W. J. Anderson; Silas S. O. Hung

1989-01-01

271

History of introductions and governmental invovlement in promoting the use of Asian carps  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Numerous natural resource agency and media reports have alleged that Asian carps were introduced into the wild through escapes from commercial fish farms. This chapter traces the chronology associated with introductions of Asian carps and discusses the likeliest pathways of their introduction to th...

272

Effects of Triploid Grass Carp on Aquatic Vegetation in Two South Dakota Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triploid grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were stocked at a mean length of 229 mm (total length) into two small South Dakota lakes in 1985. Chara sp. was the predominant aquatic macrophyte in both lakes. Prior Lake contained a fish community in which the largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) was the only top-level predator. An introduction of 49 grass carp per hectare

Daryl L. Bauer; David W. Willis

1990-01-01

273

Movement and Habitat Selection by Invasive Asian Carps in a Large River  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the habitat use and movements of 50 adult bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and 50 silver carp H. molitrix by means of ultrasonic telemetry during spring-summer 2004 and 2005 to gain insight into the conditions that facilitate their establishment, persistence, and dispersal in the lower Illinois River (river kilometer 0-130). Movement and habitat use were monitored with stationary receivers

Kelly L. DeGrandchamp; James E. Garvey; Robert E. Colombo

2008-01-01

274

Phenotypic plasticity in the spawning traits of bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) in novel ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1.?Bigheaded carp, including both silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead (H. nobilis) carp, are successful invasive fishes that threaten global freshwater biodiversity. High phenotypic plasticity probably contributes to their success in novel ecosystems, although evidence of plasticity in several spawning traits has hitherto been largely anecdotal or speculative. 2.?We collected drifting eggs from a Midwestern U.S.A. river from June to September 2011 and from April to June 2012 to investigate the spawning traits of bigheaded carp in novel ecosystems. 3.?Unlike reports from the native range, the presence of drifting bigheaded carp eggs was not related to changes in hydrological regime or mean daily water temperature. Bigheaded carp also exhibited protracted spawning, since we found drifting eggs throughout the summer and as late as 1 September 2011. Finally, we detected bigheaded carp eggs in a river reach where the channel is c. 30 m wide with a catchment area of 4579 km2, the smallest stream in which spawning has yet been documented. 4.?Taken with previous observations of spawning traits that depart from those observed within the native ranges of both bighead and silver carp, our findings provide direct evidence that bigheaded carp exhibit plastic spawning traits in novel ecosystems that may facilitate invasion and establishment in a wider range of river conditions than previously envisaged.

Coulter, Alison A.; Keller, Doug; Amberg, Jon J.; Bailey, Elizabeth J.; Goforth, Reuben R.

2013-01-01

275

Effects of triiodothyronine and of some gonadotropic and steroid hormones on the maturation of carp  

E-print Network

Effects of triiodothyronine and of some gonadotropic and steroid hormones on the maturation of carp) and of gonadotropic and steroid hormones on carp oocyte maturation in vitro were investigated using ovarian fragments greater in the subgroups incubated with T3 + steroid hormone, or with T3 + gonadotropic hormone, than

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

276

Development and impact of hooks of high droplet concentration on remote southeast Pacific stratocumulus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the southeastern Pacific (SEP), droplet concentration (Nd) in the typically unpolluted marine stratocumulus west of 80° W (> 1000 km offshore) is periodically strongly enhanced in zonally elongated "hook"-shaped features that increase albedo. Here, we examine three hook events using the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem) with 14 km horizontal resolution, satellite data, and aircraft data from the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx). A particularly strong hook yields insights into the development, decay, and radiative impact of these features. Hook development occurs with Nd increasing to polluted levels over the remote ocean primarily due to entrainment of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) from the lower free troposphere (FT). The feature advects northwestward until the FT CCN source is depleted, after which Nd decreases over a few days due to precipitation and dilution. The model suggests that the FT CCN source supplying the hook consists of high concentrations of small accumulation-mode aerosols that contribute a relatively small amount of aerosol mass to the MBL, in agreement with near-coast VOCALS measurements of polluted layers in the FT. The aerosol particles in this hook originate mainly from a pulse of offshore flow that transports Santiago-region (33-35° S) emissions to the remote marine FT. To provide pollution CCN that can sustain hooks, the FT transport of pollution plumes to the remote ocean requires strong, deep offshore flow. Such flow is favored by a trough approaching the South American coast and a southeastward shift of the climatological subtropical high-pressure system. The model simulations show precipitation suppression in the hook and a corresponding increase in liquid water path (LWP) compared with a simulation without anthropogenic sources. LWP also increases as the hook evolves over time due to increasing stability and decreasing subsidence. WRF-Chem suggests that dimethyl sulfide (DMS) significantly influences the aerosol number and size distributions in a hook, but that hooks do not form without FT CCN. The Twomey effect contributes ~ 50-70% of the albedo increase due to the presence of the hook, while secondary aerosol indirect effects and meteorological influences also contribute significantly. The source of hook aerosols is difficult to determine with the available observations alone. The model provides further explanation of the factors influencing hook formation. Two other weaker hooks during VOCALS-REx are not as well simulated but are also associated with FT offshore flow near Santiago. Hooks demonstrate the importance of free-tropospheric transport of aerosols in modulating the droplet concentration in the southeastern Pacific stratocumulus deck, and present a formidable challenge to simulate accurately in large-scale models.

George, R. C.; Wood, R.; Bretherton, C. S.; Painter, G.

2013-07-01

277

Acceleration-extended Newton-Hooke symmetry and its dynamical realization  

E-print Network

Newton-Hooke group is the nonrelativistic limit of de Sitter (anti-de Sitter) group, which can be enlarged with transformations that describe constant acceleration, as well as central charges. We consider a higher order Lagrangian that is quasi-invariant under the acceleration-extended Newton-Hooke symmetry, and obtain the Schr\\"{o}dinger equation quantizing the Hamiltonian corresponding to its first order form. We show that the Schr\\"{o}dinger equation is invariant under the acceleration-extended Newton-Hooke transformations. We also discuss briefly the exotic conformal Newton-Hooke symmetry in 2+1 dimension.

Fu-Li Liu; Yu Tian

2008-06-08

278

Formation and biological characterization of three new types of improved crucian carp.  

PubMed

The improved tetraploids (G(1)xAT) were obtained by distant crossing and gynogenesis and the high-body individuals accounted for 2% among G(1)xAT. After mating with each other, the high-body individuals produced three kinds of bisexual fertile diploid fishes: high-body red crucian carp, high-body fork-like-tails goldfish and gray common carp. The high-body red crucian carp mating with each other formed three types of improved crucian carp (ICC) including improved red crucian carp (IRCC), improved color crucian carp (ICCC) and improved gray crucian carp (IGCC). The phenotypes, chromosome numbers, gonadal structure and fertility of the three kinds of ICC and their offspring were observed. All the three kinds of ICC possessed some improved phenotypes such as higher body, smaller head and shorter tail. The ratios of the body height to body length of IRCC, ICCC and IGCC were 0.54, 0.51 and 0.54, respectively. All of them were obviously higher than that of red crucian carp 0.41 (P<0.01). Three kinds of ICC had the same chromosome number as red crucian carp with 100 chromosomes. All the ICC possessed normal gonads producing mature eggs or sperm, which was important for the production of an improved diploid population. Compared with red crucian carp, all the ICC had stronger fertility such as higher gametes production, higher fertilization rate and higher hatchery rate. Three types of improved diploid fish population were generated from the three kinds of ICC by self-crossing, respectively. The ICC can serve as ornamental fish and edible fish. They are also ideal parents to produce triploids by mating with tetraploids. The new ICC plays an important role in biological evolution and fish genetic breeding. PMID:18488175

Wang, Jing; Qin, QinBo; Chen, Song; Liu, ShaoJun; Duan, Wei; Liu, JinHui; Zhang, Chun; Luo, KaiKun; Xiao, Jun; Liu, Yun

2008-06-01

279

Age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of adult bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, in the lower Missouri River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bighead carp were introduced into Arkansas in 1973 to improve water clarity in production ponds. Bighead carp subsequently escaped aquaculture facilities in the early 1980's and dispersed into the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. The first documentation of bighead carp reproduction in the Mississippi River system was in 1989. The population has increased in the Missouri River as is evident in their increased proportion in the commercial harvest since 1990. The effect of this exotic planktivore on native ecosystems of the U.S. has not been examined. Basic biological data on bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis in the Missouri River are needed to predict potential ecological problems and provide a foundation for manipulative studies. The objectives of this study were to assess age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of bighead carp in the Missouri River. Adult bighead carp in our sample varied from age 3 to age 7 and length varied from 475 to 1050 mm. There was a large variation in length at age, and overall bighead carp exhibited fast growth. For example, mean back-calculated length at age 3 was 556 mm. The sample was dominated by bighead carp from the 1994 year class. There was no difference in gonad development (i.e., gonadal somatic index, egg diameter) between winter and spring samples. Length of male bighead carp and GSI were not significantly correlated; however, females exhibited a positive linear relationship between length and GSI. In each ovary, egg diameter frequencies exhibited a bimodal distribution, indicating protracted spawning. Mean fecundity was 226 213, with a maximum fecundity of 769 964. Bighead carp in the Missouri River have similar life history characteristics to Asian and European populations. They have become well established in the Missouri River and it is likely that dispersal and population density will increase.

Schrank, S.J.; Guy, C.S.

2002-01-01

280

Robert Hooke: early respiratory physiologist, polymath, and mechanical genius.  

PubMed

Robert Hooke (1635-1703) was a polymath who made important contributions to respiratory physiology and many other scientific areas. With Robert Boyle, he constructed the first air pump that allowed measurements on small animals at a reduced atmospheric pressure, and this started the discipline of high-altitude physiology. He also built the first human low-pressure chamber and described his experiences when the pressure was reduced to the equivalent of an altitude of ?2,400 m. Using artificial ventilation in an animal preparation, he demonstrated that movement of the lung was not essential for life. His book Micrographia describing early studies with a microscope remains a classic. He produced an exquisite drawing of the head of a fly, showing the elaborate compound eye. There is also a detailed drawing of a flea, and Hooke noted how the long, many-jointed legs enable the insect to jump so high. For 40 years, he was the curator of experiments for the newly founded Royal Society in London and contributed greatly to its intellectual ferment. His mechanical inventions covered an enormous range, including the watch spring, the wheel barometer, and the universal joint. Following the Great Fire of London in 1666, he designed many of the new buildings in conjunction with Christopher Wren. Unfortunately, Hooke had an abrasive personality, which was partly responsible for a lack of recognition of his work for many years. However, during the last 25 years, there has been renewed interest, and he is now recognized as a brilliant scientist and innovator. PMID:24985326

West, John B

2014-07-01

281

Development and impact of hooks of large droplet concentration on remote southeast Pacific stratocumulus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the southeastern Pacific (SEP), droplet concentration (Nd) in the typically unpolluted marine stratocumulus west of 80° W (> 1000 km offshore) is periodically strongly enhanced in zonally-elongated "hook"-shaped arcs that increase albedo. Here, we examine three hook events using the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem) with 14 km horizontal resolution, satellite data and aircraft data from the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx). A particularly strong hook yields insights to the development, decay, and radiative impact of these features. Hook development occurs with Nd increasing to polluted levels over the remote ocean primarily due to entrainment of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) from the free troposphere (FT). The feature advects northwestward until the FT CCN source is depleted, after which Nd decreases over a few days due to precipitation and dilution. The model suggests that the FT CCN source supplying the hook consists of high concentrations of small accumulation mode aerosols that contribute a relatively small amount of aerosol mass to the MBL. The aerosol particles originate mainly from a pulse of offshore flow that transports Santiago region (33-35° S) emissions to the marine FT. To provide a sustained hook CCN source, the FT transport of pollution plumes to the remote ocean requires strong, deep offshore flow. Such flow is favored by a trough approaching the South American coast and a southeastward shift of the climatological subtropical high pressure system. The model simulations show precipitation suppression in the hook and a corresponding increase in liquid water path (LWP) compared with a simulation without anthropogenic sources. LWP also increases in time as the hook evolves due to increasing stability and decreasing subsidence. WRF-Chem suggests that DMS significantly influences the aerosol number and size distributions in a hook, but that hooks do not form without FT CCN. The Twomey effect contributes ~ 50-70% of the albedo increase due the presence of the hook, while secondary aerosol indirect effects and meteorological influences also contribute significantly. The source of hook aerosols is difficult to determine with the available observations alone. The model explains the observations and puts them in context of the factors influencing hook formation. Two other weaker hooks during VOCALS-REx are not as well simulated but are also associated with FT offshore flow near Santiago. Hooks demonstrate the importance of free-tropospheric transport of aerosols in modulating the droplet concentration in the southeastern Pacific stratocumulus deck, and present a formidable challenge to simulate accurately in large scale models.

George, R. C.; Wood, R.; Bretherton, C. S.; Painter, G.

2013-01-01

282

Kohn's theorem and Newton-Hooke symmetry for Hill's equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hill’s equations, which first arose in the study of the Earth-Moon-Sun system, admit the two-parameter centrally extended Newton-Hooke symmetry without rotations. This symmetry allows us to extend Kohn’s theorem about the center-of-mass decomposition. Particular light is shed on the problem using Duval’s “Bargmann” framework. The separation of the center-of-mass motion into that of a guiding center and relative motion is derived by a generalized chiral decomposition.

Zhang, P. M.; Gibbons, G. W.; Horvathy, P. A.

2012-02-01

283

Tree hook length formulae, Feynman rules and B-series  

E-print Network

We consider weighted generating functions of trees where the weights are products of functions of the sizes of the subtrees. This work begins with the observation that three different communities, largely independently, found substantially the same result concerning these series. We unify these results with a common generalization. Next we use the insights of one community on the problems of another in two different ways. Namely, we use the differential equation perspective to find a number of new interesting hook length formulae for trees, and we use the body of examples developed by the combinatorial community to give quantum field theory toy examples with nice properties.

Bradley R. Jones; Karen Yeats

2014-12-18

284

Robert Hooke (1635-1703), in his own words.  

PubMed

The diaries and other writings of Robert Hooke (1635-1703), as well as those of his contemporaries, are drawn upon to sketch his social and scientific life. An account is presented of his involvement with the Royal Society from its earliest days, and of his relations with notable scientists. In exploring the similarity between combustion and respiration, he established that air is composed of different gases, and that it is not motion of the lungs but a supply of fresh air that is necessary for life. PMID:14562156

Breathnach, C S

2003-11-01

285

Effects of dietary fructooligosaccharide levels and feeding modes on growth, immune responses, antioxidant capability and disease resistance of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the effects of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) levels and its feeding modes on growth, immune response, antioxidant capability and disease resistance of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). Fish (12.5 ± 0.5 g) were subjected to three FOS levels (0, 0.4% and 0.8%) and two feeding modes (supplementing FOS continuously and supplementing FOS two days interval 5 days) according to a 3 × 2 factorial design. At the end of 8-week feeding trial, fish were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila with concentration of 1 × 10(5) CFU mL(-1) and mortality was recorded for the next 96 h. Fish fed 0.4% FOS continuously (D2) and fish fed the basal diet for 5 days followed by 0.8% FOS for 2 days (D5) showed admirable growth performance. The highest plasma lysozyme, acid phosphatase and myeloperoxidase activities as well as complement component 3, total protein and immunoglobulin M (IgM) levels were all observed in fish fed D5. They were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the control group and/or fish fed 0.8% FOS continuously, but exhibited no statistical difference (P > 0.05) with that of fish fed D2. A similar trend was also observed in antioxidant capability as well as the expression of Leap-I and Leap-?. Mortality showed an opposite trend with the immune response with the lowest rate observed in fish fed D5. The results indicated that diet supplementing FOS in appropriate levels and feeding modes could improve the growth, immune response and antioxidant capability of fish, as might consequently lead to enhanced disease resistance. It can be speculated that the basal diet for 5 days followed by 0.8% FOS for 2 days was most suitable for blunt snout bream. PMID:25451000

Zhang, Chun-Nuan; Li, Xiang-Fei; Jiang, Guang-Zhen; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Tian, Hong-Yan; Li, Jun-Yi; Liu, Wen-Bin

2014-12-01

286

The influence of hook type, angler experience, and fish size on injury rates and the duration of capture in an Alaskan catch-and-release rainbow trout fishery  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Owing to concerns about the high incidence of past hooking injuries in Alagnak River rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, fish were captured with spin- and fly-fishing gear with barbed and barbless circle and "J" hooks to determine gear types contributing to injury. Landing and hook removal times were measured for a portion of fish captured, and the anatomical hooking location, hooking scar locations, bleeding intensity, angler experience, and fish size were recorded for all captured fish. Approximately 62% of fish captured experienced at least one new hooking injury, and 29% of fish had at least one past hooking injury. Small fish sustained higher new injury and bleeding rates, but large fish had higher past injury rates. Injury rates were higher for barbed J hooks, barbed J hooks took longer to remove, and fish caught by spin-fishing were injured more frequently than fish caught by fly-fishing. Fewer fly-fishing-caught fish were injured using circle hooks, and circle hooks tended to hook fish in only one location, generally in the jaw. Barbed J hooks were more efficient at landing fish, and J hooks were more efficient at landing fish than circle hooks. Novice anglers injured proportionally more fish than experienced anglers, primarily during hook removal. Landing time was positively correlated with fish size, and experienced anglers took longer to land fish than novices because they captured larger fish. These results suggest that a reduction in hooking injuries may be achieved by using circle hooks as an alternative to J hooks and barbless J hooks to reduce injury and handling time, yet catch efficiency for both methods would be reduced. Although fish captured with barbless J hooks and circle hooks had fewer injuries, it is important to note that each hook type also caused significant injury, and angler education is recommended to promote proper hook removal techniques.

Meka, J.M.

2004-01-01

287

33 CFR 334.102 - Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel, restricted area...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal... DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.102 Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and...

2010-07-01

288

Building Prior Knowledge and Vocabulary in Science in the Intermediate Grades: Creating Hooks for Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary knowledge is a salient factor influencing success both in and out of school. The specialized vocabulary knowledge in science represents the concept-laden hooks on which learning is hung and enables students to build prior knowledge through the expansion of these conceptual hooks. We have identified four levels of learners--struggling…

Rupley, William H.; Slough, Scott

2010-01-01

289

Hook2 is involved in the morphogenesis of the primary cilium  

PubMed Central

Primary cilia originate from the centrosome and play essential roles in several cellular, developmental, and pathological processes, but the underlying mechanisms of ciliogenesis are not fully understood. Given the involvement of the adaptor protein Hook2 in centrosomal homeostasis and protein transport to pericentrosomal aggresomes, we explored its role in ciliogenesis. We found that in human retinal epithelial cells, Hook2 localizes at the Golgi apparatus and centrosome/basal body, a strategic partitioning for ciliogenesis. Of importance, Hook2 depletion disrupts ciliogenesis at a stage before the formation of the ciliary vesicle at the distal tip of the mother centriole. Using two hybrid and immunoprecipitation assays and a small interfering RNA strategy, we found that Hook2 interacts with and stabilizes pericentriolar material protein 1 (PCM1), which was reported to be essential for the recruitment of Rab8a, a GTPase that is believed to be crucial for membrane transport to the primary cilium. Of interest, GFP::Rab8a coimmunoprecipitates with endogenous Hook2 and PCM1. Finally, GFP::Rab8a can overcome Hook2 depletion, demonstrating a functional interaction between Hook2 and these two important regulators of ciliogenesis. The data indicate that Hook2 interacts with PCM1 in a complex that also contains Rab8a and regulates a limiting step required for further initiation of ciliogenesis after centriole maturation. PMID:21998199

Baron Gaillard, Carole L.; Pallesi-Pocachard, Emilie; Massey-Harroche, Dominique; Richard, Fabrice; Arsanto, Jean-Pierre; Chauvin, Jean-Paul; Lecine, Patrick; Krämer, Helmut; Borg, Jean-Paul; Le Bivic, André

2011-01-01

290

Twisted acceleration-enlarged Newton-Hooke space-times and breaking classical symmetry phenomena  

E-print Network

We find the subgroup of classical acceleration-enlarged Newton-Hooke Hopf algebra which acts covariantly on the twisted acceleration-enlarged Newton-Hooke space-times. The case of classical acceleration-enlarged Galilei quantum group is considered as well.

Marcin Daszkiewicz

2012-01-25

291

Comparison of Cotrel-Dubousset pedicle screws and hooks in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-two patients with idiopathic scoliosis were treated by Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation between 1987 and 1991. Twenty were treated with hooks only, 47 with screws and hooks, and 15 with screws only. The methods were compared and the findings showed that screw fixation can be used in the thoracic spine without neurological complications. The screws provided immediate stability with rigid fixation, together

S. I. Suk; C. K. Lee; H. J. Min; K. H. Cho; J. H. Oh

1994-01-01

292

N=2 superconformal Newton-Hooke algebra and many-body mechanics  

E-print Network

A representation of the conformal Newton-Hooke algebra on a phase space of n particles in arbitrary dimension which interact with one another via a generic conformal potential and experience a universal cosmological repulsion or attraction is constructed. The minimal N=2 superconformal extension of the Newton-Hooke algebra and its dynamical realization in many-body mechanics are studied.

Anton Galajinsky

2009-09-17

293

33 CFR 80.170 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. 80.170 Section 80... COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.170 Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. (a) A line drawn...

2010-07-01

294

33 CFR 165.130 - Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey-security zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey-security zone. 165.130 Section...Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.130 Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey—security zone. (a) Naval...

2010-07-01

295

46 CFR 7.35 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Cape May, NJ.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sandy Hook, NJ to Cape May, NJ. 7.35 Section 7.35 Shipping...TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.35 Sandy Hook, NJ to Cape May, NJ. (a) A line drawn from Shark...

2010-10-01

296

Grasp and Force Based Taxonomy of Split-Hook Prosthetic Terminal Devices  

E-print Network

Grasp and Force Based Taxonomy of Split-Hook Prosthetic Terminal Devices Joseph T. Belter, Bo C developed two taxonomies of split-hook use, one on grasp shape and one on force exertion, illustrating of the classifications. These taxonomies serve to establish a common language and means of comparing the types of grasps

Dollar, Aaron M.

297

Building Prior Knowledge and Vocabulary in Science in the Intermediate Grades: Creating Hooks for Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vocabulary knowledge is a salient factor influencing success both in and out of school. The specialized vocabulary knowledge in science represents the concept-laden hooks on which learning is hung and enables students to build prior knowledge through the expansion of these conceptual hooks. We have identified four levels of learners—struggling readers (SR), English Language Learners (ELL), breakthrough learners (BL), and

William H. Rupley; Scott Slough

2010-01-01

298

33 CFR 165.130 - Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey-security zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey-security zone. 165.130 Section... § 165.130 Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey—security zone. (a) Naval Ammunition...Ammunition Depot Piers at Leonardo, New Jersey. (3) Vessels may...

2012-07-01

299

33 CFR 165.130 - Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey-security zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey-security zone. 165.130 Section... § 165.130 Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey—security zone. (a) Naval Ammunition...Ammunition Depot Piers at Leonardo, New Jersey. (3) Vessels may...

2013-07-01

300

33 CFR 165.130 - Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey-security zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey-security zone. 165.130 Section... § 165.130 Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey—security zone. (a) Naval Ammunition...Ammunition Depot Piers at Leonardo, New Jersey. (3) Vessels may...

2014-07-01

301

33 CFR 165.130 - Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey-security zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey-security zone. 165.130 Section... § 165.130 Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey—security zone. (a) Naval Ammunition...Ammunition Depot Piers at Leonardo, New Jersey. (3) Vessels may...

2011-07-01

302

Phytologia (December 2009) 91(3) 361 JUNIPERUS RECURVA VAR. UNCINATA, THE HOOKED  

E-print Network

juniper, a shrub with short leaves and hooked or recurved branchlet tips, growing at 3900 m. Analyses in having branchlet tips that are hook-shaped, having shorter leaves, and branching near the base at BAYLU. One gram (fresh weight) of the foliage was placed in 20 g of activated silica gel and transported

Adams, Robert P.

303

Tom Glavich, Robert O. Green, Simon J. Hook, Betsy Middleton Francois Rogez, Stephen Ungar  

E-print Network

Tom Glavich, Robert O. Green, Simon J. Hook, Betsy Middleton Francois Rogez, Stephen Ungar Presented by Robert O. Green February 11-12, 2009 NASA Headquarters #12;Visible ShortWave InfraRed (VSWIR. Green, S. Hook, E. Middleton, S. Ungar 31 member scientists Science oversights, Mission Dev. and Sci

Christian, Eric

304

Isomerization kinetics of AT hook decapeptide solution structures  

PubMed Central

The mammalian high mobility group protein HMGA2 contains three DNA binding motifs associated with many physiological functions including oncogenesis, obesity, stem cell youth, human height, and human intelligence. In the present paper, trapped ion mobility spectrometry – mass spectrometry (TIMS-MS) has been utilized to study the conformational dynamics of the third DNA binding motif using the “AT hook” decapeptide unit (Lys1-Arg2-Prol3-Arg4-Gly5-Arg6-Prol7-Arg8-Lys9-Trp10, ATHP) as a function of the solvent state. Solvent state distributions were preserved during electrospray ion formation and multiple IMS bands were identified for the [M+2H]+2 and for the [M+3H]+3 charge states. Conformational isomer inter-conversion rates were measured as a function of the trapping time for the [M+2H]+2 and [M+3H]+3 charge states. Candidate structures were proposed for all IMS bands observed. Protonation site, proline residue conformation, and side chain orientations were identified as the main motifs governing the conformational inter-conversion processes. Conformational dynamics from the solvent state distribution to the gas-phase “de-solvated” state distribution demonstrated that ATHP is “structured”, and relative abundances are associated to the relative stability between the proposed conformers. The most stable ATHP [M+2H]+2 conformation at the “de-solvated” state corresponds to the AT-hook motif observed in AT-rich DNA regions. PMID:24364733

Schenk, Emily R.; Ridgeway, Mark E.; Park, Melvin A.; Leng, Fenfei; Fernandez-Lima, Francisco

2014-01-01

305

Isomerization kinetics of AT hook decapeptide solution structures.  

PubMed

The mammalian high mobility group protein HMGA2 contains three DNA binding motifs associated with many physiological functions including oncogenesis, obesity, stem cell youth, human height, and human intelligence. In the present paper, trapped ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (TIMS-MS) has been utilized to study the conformational dynamics of the third DNA binding motif using the "AT hook" decapeptide unit (Lys(1)-Arg(2)-Prol(3)-Arg(4)-Gly(5)-Arg(6)-Prol(7)-Arg(8)-Lys(9)-Trp(10), ATHP) as a function of the solvent state. Solvent state distributions were preserved during electrospray ion formation, and multiple IMS bands were identified for the [M + 2H](2+) and for the [M + 3H](3+) charge states. Conformational isomer interconversion rates were measured as a function of the trapping time for the [M + 2H](2+) and [M + 3H](3+) charge states. Candidate structures were proposed for all IMS bands observed. Protonation site, proline residue conformation, and side chain orientations were identified as the main motifs governing the conformational interconversion processes. Conformational dynamics from the solvent state distribution to the gas-phase "de-solvated" state distribution demonstrated that ATHP is "structured", and relative abundances are associated with the relative stability between the proposed conformers. The most stable ATHP [M + 2H](2+) conformation at the "de-solvated" state corresponds to the AT hook motif observed in AT-rich DNA regions. PMID:24364733

Schenk, Emily R; Ridgeway, Mark E; Park, Melvin A; Leng, Fenfei; Fernandez-Lima, Francisco

2014-01-21

306

THE BLUE HOOK POPULATIONS OF MASSIVE GLOBULAR CLUSTERS  

SciTech Connect

We present new Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet color-magnitude diagrams of five massive Galactic globular clusters: NGC 2419, NGC 6273, NGC 6715, NGC 6388, and NGC 6441. These observations were obtained to investigate the 'blue hook' (BH) phenomenon previously observed in UV images of the globular clusters {omega} Cen and NGC 2808. Blue hook stars are a class of hot (approximately 35,000 K) subluminous horizontal branch stars that occupy a region of the HR diagram that is unexplained by canonical stellar evolution theory. By coupling new stellar evolution models to appropriate non-LTE synthetic spectra, we investigate various theoretical explanations for these stars. Specifically, we compare our photometry to canonical models at standard cluster abundances, canonical models with enhanced helium (consistent with cluster self-enrichment at early times), and flash-mixed models formed via a late helium-core flash on the white dwarf cooling curve. We find that flash-mixed models are required to explain the faint luminosity of the BH stars, although neither the canonical models nor the flash-mixed models can explain the range of color observed in such stars, especially those in the most metal-rich clusters. Aside from the variation in the color range, no clear trends emerge in the morphology of the BH population with respect to metallicity.

Brown, Thomas M.; Smith, Ed [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sweigart, Allen V. [Code 667, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Lanz, Thierry [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Landsman, Wayne B. [Adnet Systems, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Hubeny, Ivan, E-mail: tbrown@stsci.ed, E-mail: edsmith@stsci.ed, E-mail: allen.v.sweigart@nasa.go, E-mail: lanz@astro.umd.ed, E-mail: wayne.b.landsman@nasa.go, E-mail: hubeny@aegis.as.arizona.ed [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85712 (United States)

2010-08-01

307

Differential gene expression in fully-grown oocytes between gynogenetic and gonochoristic crucian carps.  

PubMed

Silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) is a unique triploid bisexual species that can reproduce by gynogenesis. As all other gynogenetic animals, it keeps its chromosome integrity by inhibiting the first meiosis division (no extrusion of the first pole body). To understand the molecular events governing this reproduction mode, suppression subtractive hybridization was used to identify the genes differentially expressed in fully-grown oocytes of the gynogenetic and gonochoristic crucian carp (gyno-carp and gono-carp). From two specific subtractive cDNA libraries, the clones screened out by dot blots and virtual Northern blots were chosen to clone full-length cDNA by RACE. Four differentially expressed genes were obtained. Two are novel genes and are expressed specifically in the oocytes. The gyno-carp stores much more mRNA of cyclin A2, a new member of the fish A-type cyclin gene, in its fully-grown oocyte than in the gono-carp. The last gene is histone H2A. The histone H2As of these two closely related crucian carps are quite different in the C-terminus. Preliminary characterization of the four genes has been analyzed by nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence and Northern analysis. PMID:11410372

Xie, J; Wen, J J; Chen, B; Gui, J F

2001-06-13

308

Effects of growth hormone over-expression on reproduction in the common carp Cyprinus carpio L.  

PubMed

To study the complex interaction between growth and reproduction we have established lines of transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio) carrying a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) growth hormone (GH) transgene. The GH-transgenic fish showed delayed gonadal development compared with non-transgenic common carp. To gain a better understanding of the phenomenon, we studied body growth, gonad development, changes of reproduction related genes and hormones of GH-transgenic common carp for 2years. Over-expression of GH elevated peripheral gh transcription, serum GH levels, and inhibited endogenous GH expression in the pituitary. Hormone analyses indicated that GH-transgenic common carp had reduced pituitary and serum level of luteinizing hormone (LH). Among the tested genes, pituitary lh? was inhibited in GH-transgenic fish. Further analyses in vitro showed that GH inhibited lh? expression. Localization of ghr with LH indicates the possibility of direct regulation of GH on gonadotrophs. We also found that GH-transgenic common carp had reduced pituitary sensitivity to stimulation by co-treatments with a salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and a dopamine antagonist. Together these results suggest that the main cause of delayed reproductive development in GH transgenic common carp is reduced LH production and release. PMID:24184869

Cao, Mengxi; Chen, Ji; Peng, Wei; Wang, Yaping; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; Trudeau, Vance L; Zhu, Zuoyan; Hu, Wei

2014-01-01

309

Selection pressures have driven population differentiation of domesticated and wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

Selection pressures are the principle evolutionary forces for the genetic differentiation of populations. Recent changes in selection pressures on mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite have been described in a wide variety of organisms. The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) has experienced strong selection pressure, in particular artificial selection, during its domestication. However, the contribution and extent of artificial selection in driving genome-wide population differentiation remain unclear. We investigated the genetic differentiation of 4 domesticated strains (Xingguo red common carp, Glass red common carp, Purse red common carp, and Jian common carp, which have been generated by artificial selection since 1970s) and 2 wild populations (Shishou section in Hubei and Yangzhou section in Jiangsu of the Yangtze River) of common carp in China by sequencing the mitochondrial DNA D-loop and by genotyping 10 microsatellite loci. It was found that the domesticated strains exhibited linkage disequilibrium within the population and less genetic variability, higher inbreeding coefficients (F(IS) = 0.101 vs 0.038), and higher genetic differentiation (F(ST) = 0.087 vs 0.001) than the wild populations, which indicates strong selection pressures in the process of domestication. Of the 10 loci, 5 appeared to be under positive directional selection in the domesticated strains, and all 10 loci in wild populations were potentially under balancing selection. We conclude that strong selection pressures, artificial selection in particular, have caused genetic differentiation between populations of domesticated and wild common carp. PMID:23079816

Xu, L H; Wang, C H; Wang, J; Dong, Z J; Ma, Y Q; Yang, X X

2012-01-01

310

Carp liver DNase--isolation, further characterization and interaction with endogenous actin.  

PubMed

Deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I)-like enzyme from the liver of the carp (Cyprinus carpio) was purified to homogeneity and further characterized. Ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, molecular filtration on Sephacryl S-300 and Con A-Sepharose affinity chromatography were applied for enzyme isolation. Carp liver DNase, similarly to DNase I from bovine pancreas, was found to be an endonuclease that hydrolyses linear DNA from salmon sperm as well as circular DNA forms--plasmid and cosmid. The purified enzyme is a glycoprotein and shows microheterogeneity, as observed in DNase zymograms prepared after native and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). The composition of sugar component of the enzyme was characterized. Special attention was focused on the ability of carp liver DNase to interact with carp liver actin. The carp liver enzyme was inhibited by endogenous actin. The estimated binding constant of carp liver DNase to carp liver actin was calculated to be 1.1 x 10(6) M(-1). PMID:15621519

Krawczenko, Agnieszka; Ciszak, Lidia; Malicka-Blaszkiewicz, Maria

2005-01-01

311

Variation in Apical Hook Length Reflects the Intensity of Sperm Competition in Murine Rodents  

PubMed Central

Background Post-copulatory sexual selection has been shown to shape morphology of male gametes. Both directional and stabilizing selection on sperm phenotype have been documented in vertebrates in response to sexual promiscuity. Methodology Here we investigated the degree of variance in apical hook length and tail length in six taxa of murine rodents. Conclusions Tail sperm length and apical hook length were positively associated with relative testis mass, our proxy for levels of sperm competition, thus indicating directional post-copulatory selection on sperm phenotypes. Moreover, our study shows that increased levels of sperm competition lead to the reduction of variance in the hook length, indicating stabilizing selection. Hence, the higher risk of sperm competition affects increasing hook length together with decreasing variance in the hook length. Species-specific post-copulatory sexual selection likely optimizes sperm morphology. PMID:23844198

Šandera, Martin; Albrecht, Tomáš; Stopka, Pavel

2013-01-01

312

Prevalence of Ingested Fish Hooks in Freshwater Turtles from Five Rivers in the Southeastern United States  

PubMed Central

Freshwater turtles may ingest baited fish hooks because many are opportunistic scavengers. Although the ingestion of fish hooks is known to be a source of mortality in multiple vertebrate groups, the prevalence of hook ingestion by freshwater turtles has not been well studied. We trapped turtles from five rivers in the southeastern United States and used radiographs to examine over 600 individuals of four species. Depending on the species, sex, and age class, 0–33% of turtles contained ingested fish hooks. For some species, larger turtles were more likely to contain a fish hook than smaller individuals. Freshwater turtle demography suggests that even small increases in adult mortality may lead to population declines. If our study areas are representative of other aquatic systems that receive fishing pressure, this work likely identifies a potential conflict between a widespread, common recreational activity (i.e., fishing) and an imperiled taxonomic group. PMID:24621919

Steen, David A.; Hopkins, Brittney C.; Van Dyke, James U.; Hopkins, William A.

2014-01-01

313

Robert Hooke, inventor of the vacuum pump and the first altitude chamber (1671).  

PubMed

Robert Hooke (1635-1703), an assistant researcher to Robert Boyle (1627-1691), invented the first functional British air pump. Applying it to scientific research, Hooke operated the world's first hypobaric chamber in 1671, using it for self-experimentation. He recorded the first physiological observations in an artificial altitude-equivalent environment up to 2400 m. Though Hooke's experiment showed some methodological insufficiencies, his imaginative experimental techniques were remarkable for their time and were indicative of the lively intellectual atmosphere of the Royal Society and the significant contributions of Hooke, who was a member. Two centuries passed before the French physiologist Paul Bert (1830-1886) conducted his famous laboratory-supported investigations of high altitude physiology. Bert played a decisive role in the discovery of the causes of decompression sickness; a contribution Hooke could not make due to the technical deficiencies of the 17th century. PMID:16909884

Harsch, Viktor

2006-08-01

314

Identical sequences but different expression patterns of Hira gene in gynogenetic and gonochoristic crucian carps.  

PubMed

Hir/Hira (histone regulation) genes were first identified in yeast as negative regulators of histone gene expression. It has been confirmed that HIRA is a conserved family of proteins present in various animals and plants. In this paper, the cDNAs of the Hira homolog named CagHira and CaHira were isolated from gynogenetic gibel carp (gyno-carp) and gonochoristic color crucian carp (gono-carp) respectively. The full-length CagHira is 3,860 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) of 3,033 bp that encodes 1,011 amino acids, while the full-length CaHira is 3,748 bp in length and also has an ORF of 3,033 bp. The deduced amino acid sequences of both Hira homologs contain seven WD domains and show high identity with other HIRA family members. RT-PCR analyses revealed strong expression of Hira in the ovaries, whereas no expression was detected in the testes of either of the fishes. Hira transcription was not detected in the liver of gyno-carp, but a high level of Hira mRNA was observed in gono-carp. The temporal expression pattern showed that the Hira mRNA is consistently expressed during all embryonic development stages in gyno-carp. However, the abundance of CaHira mRNA significantly decreased (P < 0.05) shortly after fertilization and then increased again and remained stable from gastrula till hatching. The varying spatiotemporal expression patterns of Hira genes in gyno-carp and gono-carp may be associated with the differing reproductive modes used by these two closely related fishes. Our results suggest that Hira may play a role not only in the decondensation of sperm nucleus and the formation of pronucleus during fertilization, but also in gastrulation and the subsequent development of embryos. PMID:18649035

Du, X Z; Zhou, L; Zhao, H B; Wang, Y F; Gui, J F

2008-06-01

315

Elements of concern in fillets of bighead and silver carp from the Illinois River, Illinois.  

PubMed

Efforts to control invasive bighead (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix) may include harvest for human consumption. We measured concentrations of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) in fillets from silver and bighead carp collected from the lower Illinois River, Illinois, USA, to determine whether concentrations were of health concern and differed by species, size, and location. Concentrations of total As were below detection limits in most bighead (92%) and silver (77%) carp fillets, whereas inorganic As was below detection limits in all samples. Mean Hg concentrations were greater in bighead (0.068 mg kg(-1)) than in silver carp (0.035 mg kg(-1)), and were smallest in carp from the confluence of the Illinois and Mississippi rivers. Mercury concentrations in fillets were positively correlated with body mass in both species. Concentrations of Hg were below the US Food and Drug Administration's (USFDA) action level (1 ppm as methyl-Hg); however, concentrations in some bighead (70%) and silver (12%) carp fell within the range that would invoke a recommendation to limit meals in sensitive cohorts. Mean Se concentrations were greater in silver (0.332 mg kg(-1)) than in bighead (0.281 mg kg(-1)) carp fillets, and were below the 1.5 mg kg(-1) limit for an unrestricted number of meals/month. The mean molar ratio of Se:Hg in fillets was lower in bighead (14.0) than in silver (29.1) carp and was negatively correlated with mass in both species Concentrations of Hg in bighead and silver carp fillets should be considered when assessing the risks associated with the use of these species as a protein source. PMID:24300421

Levengood, Jeffrey M; Soucek, David J; Sass, Gregory G; Dickinson, Amy; Epifanio, John M

2014-06-01

316

Comparative analysis of the intestinal bacterial communities in different species of carp by pyrosequencing.  

PubMed

Gut microbiota is increasingly regarded as an integral component of the host, due to important roles in the modulation of the immune system, the proliferation of the intestinal epithelium and the regulation of the dietary energy intake. Understanding the factors that influence the composition of these microbial communities is essential to health management, and the application to aquatic animals still requires basic investigation. In this study, we compared the bacterial communities harboured in the intestines and in the rearing water of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri), and bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), by using 454-pyrosequencing with barcoded primers targeting the V4 to V5 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The specimens of the three species were cohabiting in the same pond. Between 6,218 and 10,220 effective sequences were read from each sample, resulting in a total of 110,398 sequences for 13 samples from gut microbiota and pond water. In general, the microbial communities of the three carps were dominated by Fusobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, but the abundance of each phylum was significantly different between species. At the genus level, the overwhelming group was Cetobacterium (97.29?±?0.46 %) in crucian carp, while its abundance averaged c. 40 and 60 % of the sequences read in the other two species. There was higher microbial diversity in the gut of filter-feeding bighead carp than the gut of the two other species, with grazing feeding habits. The composition of intestine microbiota of grass carp and crucian carp shared higher similarity when compared with bighead carp. The principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) with the weighted UniFrac distance and the heatmap analysis suggested that gut microbiota was not a simple reflection of the microbial community in the local habitat but resulted from species-specific selective pressures, possibly dependent on behavioural, immune and metabolic characteristics. PMID:25145494

Li, Tongtong; Long, Meng; Gatesoupe, François-Joël; Zhang, Qianqian; Li, Aihua; Gong, Xiaoning

2015-01-01

317

A novel approach for removing the hook effect artefact from Electrical Bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very often in Electrical Bioimpedance (EBI) spectroscopy measurements the presence of stray capacitances creates a measurement artefact commonly known as Hook Effect. Such an artefact creates a hook-alike deviation of the EBI data noticeable when representing the measurement on the impedance plane. Such Hook Effect is noticeable at high frequencies but it also causes a data deviation at lower measurement frequencies. In order to perform any accurate analysis of the EBI spectroscopy data, the influence of the Hook Effect must be removed. An established method to compensate the hook effect is the well known Td compensation, which consists on multiplying the obtained spectrum, Zmeas(?) by a complex exponential in the form of exp[j?Td]. Such a method cannot correct entirely the Hook Effect since the hook-alike deviation occurs a broad frequency range in both magnitude and phase of the measured impedance, and by using a scalar value for Td. First a scalar only modifies the phase of the measured impedance and second, a single value can truly corrects the Hook Effect only at a single frequency. In addition, the process to select a value for the scalar Td by an iterative process with the aim to obtain the best Cole fitting lacks solid scientific grounds. In this work the Td compensation method is revisited and a modified approach for correcting the Hook Effect including a novel method for selecting the correcting values is proposed. The initial validation results confirm that the proposed method entirely corrects the Hook Effect at all frequencies.

Buendia, R.; Seoane, F.; Gil-Pita, R.

2010-04-01

318

HOOKED: A GAME FOR DISCOVERING WHAT MAKES MUSIC CATCHY John Ashley Burgoyne Dimitrios Bountouridis Jan Van Balen Henkjan Honing  

E-print Network

surprisingly little empirical research on the more general concept of the musical hook, the most salient moment in a piece of mu- sic, or the even more general concept of what may make music `catchy'. Almost by definition the hooks within these pieces of music. The concepts of the hook and of catchiness are vital

Veltkamp, Remco

319

AMO --Advanced Modeling and Optimization, Volume 13, Number 3, 2011 A Hooke and Jeeves--CARTopt hybrid method  

E-print Network

AMO -- Advanced Modeling and Optimization, Volume 13, Number 3, 2011 A Hooke and Jeeves be nonsmooth or discontinuous. The method is a combination of the Hooke and Jeeves algorithm, and the random search CARTopt algorithm. Iterations of an altered Hooke and Jeeves algorithm are applied until

Reale, Marco

320

Seminaire Lotharingien de Combinatoire 61A (2009), Article B61A PROBABILISTIC PROOFS OF HOOK LENGTH FORMULAS  

E-print Network

S´eminaire Lotharingien de Combinatoire 61A (2009), Article B61A PROBABILISTIC PROOFS OF HOOK, Robinson, and Thrall [1] discovered the hook formula for standard Young tableaux. Greene, Nijenhuis, and Wilf [2] then gave a probabilistic proof of this result where the hook lengths appeared in a very

Sagan, Bruce

321

Oscillating Rim Hook Tableaux and Colored Matchings William Y.C. Chen1 and Peter L. Guo2  

E-print Network

Oscillating Rim Hook Tableaux and Colored Matchings William Y.C. Chen1 and Peter L. Guo2 Center tableaux and matchings, we find a correspondence between oscillating m-rim hook tableaux and m-colored matchings, where m is a positive integer. An oscillating m-rim hook tableau is defined as a sequence (0, 1

Chen, Bill

322

FPSAC 2010, San Francisco, USA DMTCS proc. (subm.), by the authors, 112 Weighted branching formulas for the hook  

E-print Network

formulas for the hook lengths Ionut¸ Ciocan-Fontanine1 , Matjaz Konvalinka2 and Igor Pak3 1 School Department of Mathematics, UCLA, Los Angeles CA, USA Abstract. The famous hook-length formula is a simple consequence of the branching rule for the hook lengths. While the Greene-Nijenhuis-Wilf probabilistic proof

Konvalinka, Matjaz

323

FPSAC 2010, San Francisco, USA DMTCS proc. (subm.), by the authors, 1--12 Weighted branching formulas for the hook  

E-print Network

formulas for the hook lengths Ionut� Ciocan­Fontanine 1 , MatjaŸ z Konvalinka 2 and Igor Pak 3 1 School Department of Mathematics, UCLA, Los Angeles CA, USA Abstract. The famous hook­length formula is a simple consequence of the branching rule for the hook lengths. While the Greene­Nijenhuis­Wilf probabilistic proof

Konvalinka, Matjaz

324

AMO --Advanced Modeling and Optimization, Volume 11, Number 1, 2009 A hybrid Hooke and Jeeves--Direct method for  

E-print Network

AMO -- Advanced Modeling and Optimization, Volume 11, Number 1, 2009 A hybrid Hooke and Jeeves. The method is a combination of that of Hooke and Jeeves, and the global optimization algorithm direct of Jones, Perttunen, and Stuckman. The method performs modified iterations of Hooke and Jeeves until

Reale, Marco

325

Wnt and EGF pathways act together to induce C. elegans male hook development Hui Yu a,1,2  

E-print Network

Wnt and EGF pathways act together to induce C. elegans male hook development Hui Yu a,1,2 , Adeline on the evolution of patterning networks, we studied the C. elegans male hook competence group (HCG), an equivalence of the EGF pathway decreases dependence on LIN-17 and causes ectopic hook development. Our results suggest

Horvitz, H. Robert

326

Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science 1, 1997, 5367 A direct bijective proof of the hook-length  

E-print Network

of the hook-length formula Jean-Christophe Novelli1 , Igor Pak2 and Alexander V. Stoyanovskii3 1Universit proof of the hook-length formula, which computes the number of standard Young tableaux of a given shape with some examples. Keywords: Hook-length formula, bijective proof, inverse algorithms 1 Introduction

Pak, Igor

327

Seminaire Lotharingien de Combinatoire 61A (2009), Article B61A PROBABILISTIC PROOFS OF HOOK LENGTH FORMULAS  

E-print Network

Sâ??eminaire Lotharingien de Combinatoire 61A (2009), Article B61A PROBABILISTIC PROOFS OF HOOK, Robinson, and Thrall [1] discovered the hook formula for standard Young tableaux. Greene, Nijenhuis, and Wilf [2] then gave a probabilistic proof of this result where the hook lengths appeared in a very

Sagan, Bruce

328

Visualization of Hook and Oscillation Mark Formation Mechanism in Ultra-Low Carbon Steel Slabs During Continuous Casting  

E-print Network

11 Visualization of Hook and Oscillation Mark Formation Mechanism in Ultra-Low Carbon Steel Slabs Oscillation marks accompanied by sub-surface hooks routinely appear on the surface of continuously cast steel observations, and analyses based on optical and scanning electron microscopy. Hooks form by solidification

Thomas, Brian G.

329

Mechanism of Hook Formation in Ultra-low Carbon Steel based on Microscopy Analysis and Thermal-stress Modeling  

E-print Network

Mechanism of Hook Formation in Ultra-low Carbon Steel based on Microscopy Analysis and Thermal@postech.ac.kr Keywords: Continuous casting, Oscillation marks, Hooks, Ultra-low carbon steel, formation mechanism a "hook"2, 4, 5) often accompanies deep oscillation marks in steels with low (

Thomas, Brian G.

330

Analysis of Hook Formation Mechanism in Ultra Low Carbon Steel using CON1D Heat Flow Solidification Model  

E-print Network

Analysis of Hook Formation Mechanism in Ultra Low Carbon Steel using CON1D Heat Flow carbon steel, Continuous casting process, Hook formation, Heat flow, Initial solidification Abstract Subsurface hook formation at the meniscus during the continuous casting of steel slabs is an important cause

Thomas, Brian G.

331

Genomic insight into the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) genome by sequencing analysis of BAC-end sequences  

PubMed Central

Background Common carp is one of the most important aquaculture teleost fish in the world. Common carp and other closely related Cyprinidae species provide over 30% aquaculture production in the world. However, common carp genomic resources are still relatively underdeveloped. BAC end sequences (BES) are important resources for genome research on BAC-anchored genetic marker development, linkage map and physical map integration, and whole genome sequence assembling and scaffolding. Result To develop such valuable resources in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), a total of 40,224 BAC clones were sequenced on both ends, generating 65,720 clean BES with an average read length of 647 bp after sequence processing, representing 42,522,168 bp or 2.5% of common carp genome. The first survey of common carp genome was conducted with various bioinformatics tools. The common carp genome contains over 17.3% of repetitive elements with GC content of 36.8% and 518 transposon ORFs. To identify and develop BAC-anchored microsatellite markers, a total of 13,581 microsatellites were detected from 10,355 BES. The coding region of 7,127 genes were recognized from 9,443 BES on 7,453 BACs, with 1,990 BACs have genes on both ends. To evaluate the similarity to the genome of closely related zebrafish, BES of common carp were aligned against zebrafish genome. A total of 39,335 BES of common carp have conserved homologs on zebrafish genome which demonstrated the high similarity between zebrafish and common carp genomes, indicating the feasibility of comparative mapping between zebrafish and common carp once we have physical map of common carp. Conclusion BAC end sequences are great resources for the first genome wide survey of common carp. The repetitive DNA was estimated to be approximate 28% of common carp genome, indicating the higher complexity of the genome. Comparative analysis had mapped around 40,000 BES to zebrafish genome and established over 3,100 microsyntenies, covering over 50% of the zebrafish genome. BES of common carp are tremendous tools for comparative mapping between the two closely related species, zebrafish and common carp, which should facilitate both structural and functional genome analysis in common carp. PMID:21492448

2011-01-01

332

Hooke's law correlation in two-electron systems  

SciTech Connect

We study the properties of the Hooke's law correlation energy (E{sub c}), defined as the correlation energy when two electrons interact via a harmonic potential in a D-dimensional space. More precisely, we investigate the {sup 1}S ground-state properties of two model systems: the Moshinsky atom (in which the electrons move in a quadratic potential) and the spherium model (in which they move on the surface of a sphere). A comparison with their Coulombic counterparts is made that highlights the main differences of the E{sub c} in both the weakly and strongly correlated limits. Moreover, we show that the Schroedinger equation of the spherium model is exactly solvable for two values of the dimension (D=1 and 3) and that the exact wave function is based on Mathieu functions.

Loos, Pierre-Francois [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200 (Australia)

2010-03-15

333

The Longitudinal Relationships Among Injunctive Norms and Hooking Up Attitudes and Behaviors in College Students.  

PubMed

Limited research has explored the influence of perceived injunctive norms for distal (e.g., typical student) and proximal (e.g., close friend and parents) referents on hooking up. The current study examined the longitudinal relationships among perceived injunctive norms, personal approval, and hooking up behavior, and the moderating effects of gender in a sample of heavy-drinking college students. At Time 1, participants completed Web-based assessments of personal approval of hooking up and perceptions of close friend, parent, and typical student approval. Three months later, participants reported on whether they had hooked up. The results of a path analysis indicated that greater perceived friend and parent approval predicted greater personal approval. Further, greater perceived approval by close friends and parents indirectly contributed to hooking up behavior as mediated by participants' own approval. Multigroup analyses indicated that close friend injunctive norms were a stronger predictor of student approval for men as compared to women. While previous research has often failed to find an association between perceived injunctive norms and hooking up, the current findings suggest that this may reflect the use of distal referents. The findings underscore that perceptions of close friend and family approval may be useful predictors of hooking up behavior. PMID:25255916

Napper, Lucy E; Kenney, Shannon R; LaBrie, Joseph W

2014-09-25

334

Assessment of microcystin concentration in carp and catfish: a case study from Lakshmikund pond, Varanasi, India.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to analyse microcystin concentrations in Lakshmikund pond, Varanasi, India, as well as in carp and catfish of the pond. The concentrations of microcystin were found well above the WHO guidelines (1 µg/L) both for the dissolved and particulate fractions of bloom samples. The microcystin concentrations in different organs of carp and catfish were in the following sequence; liver > gut > kidney > gall bladder > gills > muscles and gut > liver > kidney > gall bladder > gills > muscles, respectively. The bioaccumulation of microcystin in carp and catfish was negatively correlated with body weight, and showed species specificity. The higher bioaccumulation of microcystin in muscles of catfish (>tenfold) over carp indicates a possible threat to human beings on consumption of catfish. Therefore, to avoid animal and human intoxication, routine analyses of microcystin in pond water as well as fishes are strongly recommended. PMID:24771133

Singh, Shweta; Asthana, Ravi Kumar

2014-06-01

335

Diets of Three Sunfishes in Lake Conroe, TX Before and After Grass Carp Introduction.  

E-print Network

Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) is an invasive aquatic plant that grows quickly across shallow freshwater habitats. It is a problem for recreational users of lakes and landowners. Grass carp (Ctenopharynogodon idella) is an effective biological...

Sifuentes, Matthew L.

2010-07-14

336

Cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory protein (CARP)-1 is expressed in osteoblasts and regulated by PTH.  

PubMed

Bone mass is dependent on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and life-span of osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. Intermittent administration of PTH increases bone mass but the mechanism of action are complex and incompletely understood. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including cell growth and differentiation factors. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism, we investigated involvement of CARP-1 in PTH signaling in osteoblasts. Immunostaining studies revealed presence of CARP-1 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while a minimal to absent levels were noted in the chondrocytes of femora from 10 to 12-week old mice. Treatment of 7-day differentiated MC3T3-E1 clone-4 (MC-4) mouse osteoblastic cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts with PTH for 30min to 5h followed by Western blot analysis showed 2- to 3-fold down-regulation of CARP-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the respective vehicle treated control cells. H-89, a Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, suppressed PTH action on CARP-1 protein expression indicating PKA-dependent mechanism. PMA, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonist, mimicked PTH action, and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, partially blocked PTH-dependent downregulation of CARP-1, implying involvement of PKC. U0126, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Kinase (MEK) inhibitor, failed to interfere with CARP-1 suppression by PTH. In contrast, SB203580, p38 inhibitor, attenuated PTH down-regulation of CARP-1 suggesting that PTH utilized an Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase (ERK)-independent but p38 dependent pathway to regulate CARP-1 protein expression in osteoblasts. Immunofluorescence staining of differentiated osteoblasts further revealed nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of CARP-1 protein following PTH treatment. Collectively, our studies identified CARP-1 for the first time in osteoblasts and suggest its potential role in PTH signaling and bone anabolic action. PMID:23764399

Sharma, Sonali; Mahalingam, Chandrika D; Das, Varsha; Jamal, Shazia; Levi, Edi; Rishi, Arun K; Datta, Nabanita S

2013-07-12

337

Effects of hook plate on shoulder function after treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocation  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Internal fixation with hook plate has been used to treat acromioclavicular joint dislocation. This study aims to evaluate the effect of its use on shoulder function, to further analyze the contributing factors, and provide a basis for selection and design of improved internal fixation treatment of the acromioclavicular joint dislocation in the future. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on patients treated with a hook plate for acromioclavicular joint dislocation in our hospital from January 2010 to February 2013. There were 33 cases in total, including 25 males and 8 females, with mean age of 48.27 ± 8.7 years. There were 29 cases of Rockwood type III acromioclavicular dislocation, 4 cases of type V. The Constant-Murley shoulder function scoring system was used to evaluate the shoulder function recovery status after surgery. Anteroposterior shoulder X-ray was used to assess the position of the hook plate, status of acromioclavicular joint reduction and the occurrence of postoperative complications. Results: According to the Constant-Murley shoulder function scoring system, the average scores were 78 ± 6 points 8 to 12 months after the surgery and before the removal of the hook plate, the average scores were 89 ± 5 minutes two months after the removal of hook plate. Postoperative X-ray imaging showed osteolysis in 10 cases (30.3%), osteoarthritis in six cases (18.1%), osteolysis associated with osteoarthritis in four cases(12.1%), and steel hook broken in one case (3%). Conclusion: The use of hook plate on open reduction and internal fixation of the acromioclavicular joint dislocation had little adverse effect on shoulder function and is an effective method for the treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocation. Osteoarthritis and osteolysis are the two common complications after hook plate use, which are associated with the impairment of shoulder function. Shoulder function will be improved after removal of the hook plate. PMID:25356110

Chen, Chang-Hong; Dong, Qi-Rong; Zhou, Rong-Kui; Zhen, Hua-Qing; Jiao, Ya-Jun

2014-01-01

338

Coordinated regulation of apical hook development by gibberellins and ethylene in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings.  

PubMed

Dark-grown Arabidopsis seedlings develop an apical hook when germinating in soil, which protects the cotyledons and apical meristematic tissues when protruding through the soil. Several hormones are reported to distinctly modulate this process. Previous studies have shown that ethylene and gibberellins (GAs) coordinately regulate the hook development, although the underlying molecular mechanism is largely unknown. Here we showed that GA(3) enhanced while paclobutrazol repressed ethylene- and EIN3-overexpression (EIN3ox)-induced hook curvature, and della mutant exhibited exaggerated hook curvature, which required an intact ethylene signaling pathway. Genetic study revealed that GA-enhanced hook development was dependent on HOOKLESS 1 (HLS1), a central regulator mediating the input of the multiple signaling pathways during apical hook development. We further found that GA(3) induced (and DELLA proteins repressed) HLS1 expression in an ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3/EIN3-LIKE 1 (EIN3/EIL1)-dependent manner, whereby EIN3/EIL1 activated HLS1 transcription by directly binding to its promoter. Additionally, DELLA proteins were found to interact with the DNA-binding domains of EIN3/EIL1 and repress EIN3/EIL1-regulated HLS1 expression. Treatment with naphthylphthalamic acid, a polar auxin transport inhibitor, repressed the constitutively exaggerated hook curvature of EIN3ox line and della mutant, supporting that auxin functions downstream of the ethylene and GA pathways in hook development. Taken together, our results identify EIN3/EIL1 as a new class of DELLA-associated transcription factors and demonstrate that GA promotes apical hook formation in cooperation with ethylene partly by inducing the expression of HLS1 via derepression of EIN3/EIL1 functions. PMID:22349459

An, Fengying; Zhang, Xing; Zhu, Ziqiang; Ji, Yusi; He, Wenrong; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Li, Mingzhe; Guo, Hongwei

2012-05-01

339

Dietary exposure of mink to carp from Saginaw Bay, Michigan: 2. Hematology and liver pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of consumption of environmental contaminants contained in carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Saginaw Bay, Michigan on various hematological parameters and liver integrity of adult female mink (Mustela vison) were determined. Mink were fed diets that contained 0 (control), 10, 20, or 40% carp prior to and throughout the reproductive period (182 days). The diets contained 0.015, 0.72, 1.53, and

S. N. Heaton; S. J. Bursian; J. P. Giesy; D. E. Tillitt; J. A. Render; P. D. Jones; D. A. Verbrugge; T. J. Kubiak; R. J. Aulerich

1995-01-01

340

Gene structure of the carp fish ribosomal protein L41: seasonally regulated expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seasonal acclimatization of the carp fish demands physiological compensatory responses. The process involves profound nucleolar adjustments and remarkable changes in rRNA synthesis, which affect ribosomal biogenesis. We have documented that protein kinase CK2, whose activity is related to ribosomal protein L41 and the regulation of rRNA synthesis, was expressed in notably higher amounts in summer-acclimatized carp compared to the

Alfredo Molina; Aintzane Corta; Rody San Martin; Marco Alvarez; Luis O Burzio; Manuel Krauskopf; Mar??a Inés Vera

2002-01-01

341

Melatonin accelerates maturation inducing hormone (MIH): induced oocyte maturation in carps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present communication is an attempt to demonstrate the influence of melatonin on the action of maturation inducing hormone (MIH) on the maturation of oocytes in carps. The oocytes from gravid female major carp Labeo rohita were isolated and incubated separately in Medium 199 containing (a) only MIH (1?g\\/ml), (b) only melatonin (at concentrations of 50, 100 or 500pg\\/ml), and

Asamanja Chattoraj; Sharmistha Bhattacharyya; Dipanjan Basu; Shelley Bhattacharya; Samir Bhattacharya; Saumen Kumar Maitra

2005-01-01

342

Feeding at different plankton densities alters invasive bighead carp ( Hypophthalmichthys nobilis ) growth and zooplankton species composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive Asian carps Hypophthalmichthys spp. are an ecological threat to non-native aquatic ecosystems throughout the world, and are poised to enter the Laurentian\\u000a Great Lakes. Little is known about how these filter-feeding planktivores grow and impact zooplankton communities in mesotrophic\\u000a to oligotrophic systems like the Great Lakes. Our purpose was to determine how different plankton densities affect bighead\\u000a carp H.

Sandra L. Cooke; Walter R. Hill; Kevin P. Meyer

2009-01-01

343

The complete nucleotide sequence and gene organization of carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) mitochondrial genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete sequence of the carp mitochondrial genome of 16,575 base pairs has been determined. The carp mitochondrial genome encodes the same set of genes (13 proteins, 2 rRNAs, and 22 tRNAs) as do other vertebrate mitochondrial DNAs. Comparison of this teleostean mitochondrial genome with those of other vertebrates reveals a similar gene order and compact genomic organization. The codon

Yea-sha Chang; Fore-lien Huang; Tung-bin Lo

1994-01-01

344

Contaminant concentrations in Asian carps, invasive species in the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers.  

PubMed

Populations of invasive fishes quickly reach extremely high biomass. Before control methods can be applied, however, an understanding of the contaminant loads of these invaders carry is needed. We investigated differences in concentrations of selected elements in two invasive carp species as a function of sampling site, fish species, length and trophic differences using stable isotopes (delta (15)N, delta (13)C). Fish were collected from three different sites, the Illinois River near Havana, Illinois, and two sites in the Mississippi River, upstream and downstream of the Illinois River confluence. Five bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and five silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) from each site were collected for muscle tissue analyses. Freshwater mussels (Amblema plicata) previously collected in the same areas were used as an isotopic baseline to standardize fish results among sites. Total fish length, trophic position, and corrected (13)C, were significantly related to concentrations of metals in muscle. Fish length explained the most variation in metal concentrations, with most of that variation related to mercury levels. This result was not unexpected because larger fish are older, giving them a higher probability of exposure and accumulation of contaminants. There was a significant difference in stable isotope profiles between the two species. Bighead carp occupied a higher trophic position and had higher levels of corrected (13)C than silver carp. Additionally bighead carp had significantly lower concentrations of arsenic and selenium than silver carp. Stable isotope ratios of nitrogen in Asian carp were at levels that are more commonly associated with higher-level predators, or from organisms in areas containing high loads of wastewater effluent. PMID:18850294

Rogowski, D L; Soucek, D J; Levengood, J M; Johnson, S R; Chick, J H; Dettmers, J M; Pegg, M A; Epifanio, J M

2009-10-01

345

Indian carp (Labeo rohita) gall bladder poisoning-report of four cases in a single family.  

PubMed

The ingestion of Indian carp gallbladder may result in transient hepatitis with subsequent acute renal failure. This case series also illustrates the importance of understanding the use and potential serious complications of alternative medicines. So fish gallbladder poisoning should be considered in unexplained acute renal failure in Chinese and Asian patients. We report four family members who developed acute renal failure and toxic hepatitis at the same time following ingestion of raw Indian carp (Labeo rohita) gall bladder. PMID:21207198

Patnaik, Rashmi; Kar, Subhranshu Sekhar; Ray, Rajib; Mahapatro, Samarendra

2011-06-01

346

Difference in the gain in the phototransduction cascade between rods and cones in carp.  

PubMed

In the vertebrate retina, there are two types of photoreceptors, rods and cones. Rods are highly light-sensitive and cones are less light-sensitive. One of the possible mechanisms accounting for the lower light-sensitivity in cones would be lower signal amplification, i.e., lower gain in the phototransduction cascade in cones. In this study, we compared the difference in the gain between rods and cones electrophysiologically in carp. The initial rising phases of the light responses were analyzed to determine an index of the gain, G, a parameter that can be used to compare the gain among cells of varying outer segment volumes. G (in fL · sec(-2)) was 91.2 ± 14.8 (n = 5) in carp rods and 25.3 ± 3.2 (n = 4) in carp red cones, so that the gain in carp red cones is ?1/4 of that in carp rods. G was also determined in bullfrog rods and was 81.0 ± 17.2 (n = 3) which was very similar to that in carp rods. The difference in the gain between rods and cones in carp determined in this study (?1/4 in cones compared with rods) is consistent with that we recently determined biochemically (?1/5 in cones compared with rods). Together with the result obtained in bullfrog rods in this study and the results obtained by others, we concluded that the gain in the cascade is several-fold lower in cones than in rods in carp and probably in other animal species also. PMID:25355220

Kawakami, Naoto; Kawamura, Satoru

2014-10-29

347

Biochemical changes and sensory assessment on tissues of carp ( Cyprinus carpio , Linnaeus 1758) during sale conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, some biochemical changes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) tissues were investigated. Studies have been carried out on carp which have regional economical importance.\\u000a Storage temperature and time are the most important factors that affect the quality of fish during sales. It was observed\\u000a that the temperature varied between 9 and 12°C in sale conditions. In addition,

Ayhan Duran; Zeliha Selamoglu Talas

2009-01-01

348

Generation of the first BAC-based physical map of the common carp genome  

PubMed Central

Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), a member of Cyprinidae, is the third most important aquaculture species in the world with an annual global production of 3.4 million metric tons, accounting for nearly 14% of the all freshwater aquaculture production in the world. Apparently genomic resources are needed for this species in order to study its performance and production traits. In spite of much progress, no physical maps have been available for common carp. The objective of this project was to generate a BAC-based physical map using fluorescent restriction fingerprinting. Result The first generation of common carp physical map was constructed using four- color High Information Content Fingerprinting (HICF). A total of 72,158 BAC clones were analyzed that generated 67,493 valid fingerprints (5.5 × genome coverage). These BAC clones were assembled into 3,696 contigs with the average length of 476 kb and a N50 length of 688 kb, representing approximately 1.76 Gb of the common carp genome. The largest contig contained 171 BAC clones with the physical length of 3.12 Mb. There are 761 contigs longer than the N50, and these contigs should be the most useful resource for future integrations with linkage map and whole genome sequence assembly. The common carp physical map is available at http://genomics.cafs.ac.cn/fpc/WebAGCoL/Carp/WebFPC/. Conclusion The reported common carp physical map is the first physical map of the common carp genome. It should be a valuable genome resource facilitating whole genome sequence assembly and characterization of position-based genes important for aquaculture traits. PMID:22044723

2011-01-01

349

Identification and Profiling of MicroRNAs from Skeletal Muscle of the Common Carp  

PubMed Central

The common carp is one of the most important cultivated species in the world of freshwater aquaculture. The cultivation of this species is particularly productive due to its high skeletal muscle mass; however, the molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle development in the common carp remain unknown. It has been shown that a class of non-coding ?22 nucleotide RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in vertebrate development. They regulate gene expression through sequence-specific interactions with the 3? untranslated regions (UTRs) of target mRNAs and thereby cause translational repression or mRNA destabilization. Intriguingly, the role of miRNAs in the skeletal muscle development of the common carp remains unknown. In this study, a small-RNA cDNA library was constructed from the skeletal muscle of the common carp, and Solexa sequencing technology was used to perform high throughput sequencing of the library. Subsequent bioinformatics analysis identified 188 conserved miRNAs and 7 novel miRNAs in the carp skeletal muscle. The miRNA expression profiling showed that, miR-1, miR-133a-3p, and miR-206 were specifically expressed in muscle-containing organs, and that miR-1, miR-21, miR-26a, miR-27a, miR-133a-3p, miR-206, miR-214 and miR-222 were differentially expressed in the process of skeletal muscle development of the common carp. This study provides a first identification and profiling of miRNAs related to the muscle biology of the common carp. Their identification could provide clues leading towards a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of carp skeletal muscle development. PMID:22303472

Li, Yunchao; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Liang, Yang; Sun, Xiaowen; Teng, Chun-Bo

2012-01-01

350

The Economic Impact of Restricting Use of Black Carp for Snail Control on Hybrid Striped Bass Farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus have been used in the U.S. for several decades for snail control in fish ponds. Recent concerns over the potential environmental effects of escaped fish have resulted in proposals to list black carp as an injurious species. A mixed-integer programming model was extended to evaluate the farm-level economic effects of restricting access to black carp for

Yong-Suhk Wui; Carole R. Engle

2007-01-01

351

Diet overlap among two Asian carp and three native fishes in backwater lakes on the Illinois and Mississippi rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bighead and silver carp are well established in the Mississippi River basin following their accidental introduction in the\\u000a 1980s. Referred to collectively as Asian carp, these species are filter feeders consuming phytoplankton and zooplankton. We\\u000a examined diet overlap and electivity of Asian carp and three native filter feeding fishes, bigmouth buffalo, gizzard shad,\\u000a and paddlefish, in backwater lakes of the

Schuyler J. Sampson; John H. Chick; Mark A. Pegg

2009-01-01

352

Demasculinisation of sexually mature male common carp, Cyprinus carpio, exposed to 4- tert-pentylphenol during spermatogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexually mature male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed for a 3-month period to sublethal concentrations of 4-tert-pentylphenol (TPP) and to 17?-estradiol (E2) during spermatogenesis. This was part of a broad research programme investigating the effects of TPP on the life stages of the carp which might prove susceptible to endocrine disruption. Exposure of adult male carp to the pseudo-estrogen

Sylvia Gimeno; Hans Komen; Susan Jobling; John Sumpter; Tim Bowmer

1998-01-01

353

Use of blunt scalp hooks for abdominal procedure in lumboperitoneal shunt placement: technical note.  

PubMed

In obese patients, we often find difficulty in laparotomy for placing a lumboperitoneal shunt catheter. The authors introduced an easy technique to get a sufficiently wide and shallow operative field through small abdominal incision in obese people. Four blunt scalp hooks and rubber bands, commonly used in craniotomy, were prepared. The fat layer and the rectus abdominis muscle layer were retracted and pulled up using these hooks. Blunt scalp hooks were useful for safe and effective retraction of abdominal wall, which made a sufficient and shallow operative field. PMID:24759096

Kawahara, Takashi; Higashi, Takuichiro; Tokimura, Hiroshi; Arita, Kazunori; Atsuchi, Masamichi; Takasaki, Koji

2014-01-01

354

The remarkable vision of Robert Hooke (1635-1703): first observer of the microbial world.  

PubMed

Robert Hooke played important roles in the early development of the Royal Society of London. As Curator of Experiments of the Society, he became a pioneering microscopist, prolific inventor, astronomer, geologist, architect, and an effective surveyor of the City of London following the Great Fire of 1666. Hooke's Micrographia (1665) revealed the microscopic structures of numerous biological and inorganic objects and became an important source of information for later studies. Aside from the body of detailed observations reported and depicted in Micrographia, the Preface is in itself an extraordinary document that exhibits Hooke's fertile mind, philosophical insights, and rare ability to look into the future. PMID:15834198

Gest, Howard

2005-01-01

355

Development of an antimycin-impregnated bait for controlling common carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The common carp Cyprinus carpio is a major problem for fisheries and wildlife managers because its feeding behavior causes degradation of valuable fish and waterfowl habitat. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an antimycin-impregnated bait for control of common carp. The toxic bait contained fish meal, a binder, antimycin, and water. The ingredients were mixed together and made into pellets. This bait was force-fed to common carp or administered in a pond environment, where fish voluntarily fed on the bait. The lowest lethal dose in the forcefeeding study was 0.346 mg antimycin/kg of fish and doses that exceeded 0.811 mg antimycin/kg were toxic to all fish. On three occasions, adult common carp held in 0.004-ha concrete ponds were offered 10 g of toxic bait containing 5.0, 7.5, and 10 mg antimycin/g of bait and the mean mortalities 96 h later were 21, 35, and 51%, respectively. Three tests were conducted in 0.04-ha earthen ponds each containing 100 adult common carp; these fish were offered 50 g of the toxic bait that contained 10 mg antimycin/g, and the mean mortalities (96 h) were 19, 32, and 74%. Toxic baits should be used in conjunction with other management techniques, and only when common carp are congregated and actively feeding, and when few nontarget bottom- feeding species are present.

Rach, J.J.; Luoma, J.A.; Marking, L.L.

1994-01-01

356

Characterization of two thymosins as immune-related genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

Prothymosin alpha (ProT?) and thymosin beta (T?) belong to thymosin family, which consists of a series of highly conserved peptides involved in stimulating immune responses. ProT? b and T? are still poorly studied in teleost. Here, the full-length cDNAs of ProT? b and T?-like (T?-l) were cloned and identified in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The expressions of carp ProT? b and T?-l exhibited rise-fall pattern and then trended to be stable during early development. After spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) infection, the carp ProT? b and T?-l transcripts were significantly up-regulated in some immune-related organs. When transiently over-expressed carp ProT? b and T?-l in zebrafish, these two proteins up-regulated the expressions of T lymphocytes-related genes (Rag 1, TCR-?, CD4 and CD8?). These results suggest that carp ProT? b and T? may ultimately enhance the immune response during viral infection and modulate the development of T lymphocytes in teleost. PMID:25596145

Xiao, Zhangang; Shen, Jing; Feng, Hong; Liu, Hong; Wang, Yaping; Huang, Rong; Guo, Qionglin

2015-05-01

357

Sensitivity of adult, embryonic, and larval carp Cyprinus carpio to copper  

SciTech Connect

The copper sensitivity of adult, embryonic, and larval stages of carp Cyprinus carpio was determined using flow-through bioassay methods. Carp adults, embryos, and larvae were exposed continuously to copper concentrations that ranged from those producing an immediate effect to those producing none. Carp embryos were obtained after we induced adults to spawn. Exposure of embryos began at 4 to 6, 8 to 10, and 20 to 24 h after fertilization and continued until hatching. Exposure of larvae began 6 to 8 h after hatching and continued until yolk sac absorption. From the family of curves of cumulative mortality versus duration of exposure, median lethal times were determined and used to construct comparative toxicity curves. The 24-h LC50s show the order of acute copper sensitivity of carp life-history stages, measured in micrograms per liter, as; larvae (180 ..mu..g/L) > embryos (240 ..mu..g/L) > adults (540 ..mu..g/L). Estimated incipient lethal concentrations give the order of subacute copper sensitivity of carp life-history stages as: larvae (110 ..mu..g/L) > adult (120 ..mu..g/L) > embryo (230 ..mu..g/L). The sensitivity of carp embryos to copper changed as embryogenesis progressed; for example, embryos were approximately twice as sensitive before as after blastopore closure. 70 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

Harrison, F.L.; Rice, D.W. Jr.

1981-03-01

358

Carp liver actin: isolation, polymerization and interaction with deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to isolate and to characterize actin from the carp liver cytosol and to examine its ability to polymerize and interact with bovine pancreatic DNase I. Carp liver actin was isolated by ion-exchange chromatography, followed by gel filtration and a polymerization/depolymerization cycle or by affinity chromatography using DNase I immobilized to agarose. The purified carp liver actin was a cytoplasmic beta-actin isoform as verified by immunoblotting using isotype specific antibodies. Its isoelectric point (pI) was slightly higher than the pI of rabbit skeletal muscle alpha-actin. Polymerization of purified carp liver actin by 2 mM MgCl(2) or CaCl(2) was only obtained after addition of phalloidin or in the presence of 1 M potassium phosphate. Carp liver actin interacted with DNase I leading to the formation of a stable complex with concomitant inhibition of the DNA degrading activity of DNase I and its ability to polymerize. The estimated binding constant (K(b)) of carp liver actin to DNase I was calculated to be 1.85x10(8) M(-1) which is about 5-fold lower than the affinity of rabbit skeletal muscle alpha-actin to DNase I. PMID:10446396

Ciszak, L; Krawczenko, A; Polzar, B; Mannherz, H G; Malicka-Blaszkiewicz, M

1999-08-12

359

Complete mitogenome sequence of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) and its use for molecular phylogeny of leuciscine fishes.  

PubMed

The black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus (Cyprinidae), native to eastern Asian, is a large, commercially important fish, and has been introduced to many other countries for variable reasons. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequences from three specimens of black carp were first determined and were used to evaluate the sister relationship between black carp and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). Two individuals had a mitogenome of 16,609 bp, while the other was 16,611 bp in length. Similar to most vertebrates, the black carp contains the same gene order and an identical number of genes or regions, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 1 putative control region. Phylogenetic analyses using three different computational algorithms (Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood, and Bayesian analysis) revealed two distinct clades in subfamily Leuciscinae. However, the sister taxonomic relationship of black carp and grass carp was not observed using sequences of nearly complete mitochondrial genomes, which suggests more nuclear gene markers are needed to resolve the phylogenetic relationship between black carp and grass carp. PMID:22350152

Wang, Chenghui; Wang, Jun; Yang, Jinquan; Lu, Guoqing; Song, Xiao; Chen, Qin; Xu, Jiawei; Yang, Qinling; Li, Sifa

2012-05-01

360

Oligochitosan stimulated phagocytic activity of macrophages from blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) associated with respiratory burst coupled with nitric oxide production.  

PubMed

The immunostimulating effects of oligochitosan have been proven in several fish, however, the mechanisms underlying the stimulation are not characterized. In the present study, the effects of oligochitosan were investigated using macrophages isolated from blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). The results showed that the phagocytic activity of the macrophages was enhanced by the addition of oligochitosan in vitro and in vivo. The two of the most important antimicrobial pathways of macrophages, NADPH oxidase and iNOS pathways were included for further studies. The amounts of superoxide anion and the mRNAs of the five subunits of NADPH oxidase genes were significantly enhanced in the oligochitosan-treated macrophages and macrophages isolated from fish fed with feed containing oligochitosan. In addition, the NO production, iNOS activity and iNOS gene expression were all significantly increased in the presence of oligochitosan. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of the TNF-? and IL-1? were also significantly increased in the macrophages derived from fish fed with oligochitosan. In conclusion, the stimulation effects of oligochitosan on the phagocytic activity of the fish macrophages were associated with respiratory burst coupled with nitric oxide production. PMID:24968077

Liu, Lichun; Zhou, Yang; Zhao, Xiaoheng; Wang, Hong; Wang, Li; Yuan, Gailing; Asim, Muhammad; Wang, Weimin; Zeng, Lingbing; Liu, Xiaoling; Lin, Li

2014-11-01

361

The eggshell features and clutch viability of the broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) are associated with the egg burden of organochlorine compounds.  

PubMed

Organochlorine compounds (OCCs) are toxic and have been identified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The broad-snouted Caiman (Caiman latirostris) is an oviparous species widely distributed in South America with potential to accumulate OCCs. The eggshell is formed during passage of the eggs through the oviduct. Since the oviduct is a target of hormone actions, exposure to OCCs could modify eggshell quality, thus affecting clutch viability. Eight clutches were collected from wetlands of Parana River tributaries, in north-eastern Argentina. Two to four eggs per clutch were used to establish the burden of OCCs, eggshell thickness and eggshell porosity. The remaining eggs were incubated in controlled conditions. Ten days after hatching, hatchling survival was assessed. Organochlorine pesticide residues (OCPs) were found in all clutches, while polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were present in all but one clutch. The principal contributors to the OCP burden were members of the DDT family and oxychlordane. Eggshell thickness was 400.9±6.0 ?m and, unexpectedly, no association between eggshell thickness and the OCC burden was found. The number of pores in the outer surface was 25.3±4.3 pores/cm². A significant inverse correlation between porosity and OCC burden was found (Pearson r= -0.81, p= 0.01). Furthermore, a decrease in caiman survival with decreased pore density was observed (Pearson r= 0.73, p= 0.04). Our findings highlight another potential negative impact of current and past use of OCCs on wildlife species. PMID:24054891

Stoker, C; Zayas, M A; Ferreira, M A; Durando, M; Galoppo, G H; Rodríguez, H A; Repetti, M R; Beldoménico, H R; Caldini, E G; Luque, E H; Muñoz-de-Toro, M

2013-12-01

362

Spectra of disc operator for twisted acceleration-enlarged Newton-Hooke space-times  

E-print Network

The time-dependent spectra of disc area operator for twisted acceleration-enlarged Newton-Hooke space-times are derived. It is demonstrated that the corresponding area quanta are expanding or oscillating in time.

Marcin Daszkiewicz

2011-01-10

363

There's Never Been a Better Time to Use Technology! What Got Me Hooked.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two articles discuss changes that are making technology useful to teachers. After examining computer uses in education, the articles describe new research and educational technology trends, and products and projects that got three teachers hooked on technology. (SM)

Novelli, Joan, Ed.

1993-01-01

364

Spatially resolved excitation temperature measurements in a hypersonic flow using the hook method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following an analysis of the hook equations for variation of refractivity along a spectrograph slit a series of experiments is reported, in which CO2 was used as the test gas, and the flow variations were spatially resolved. The hooked spectra were used to measure the ground state number densities of the impurity atom of CrI present in the flow. The excitation temperature of the CrI 1-eV level was obtained from the separation of the hooks of the CrI 425.4-nm transition resonance line and simultaneously the 434.4-nm CrI eV lower level line, from the shock to the body of the hypersonic shock tunnel flow. This excitation temperature is compared with theoretical calculations of the CO2 gas temperature. Some further applications of the hook type methods to gas diagnostics are discussed.

Sandeman, R. J.; Ebrahim, N. A.

1977-01-01

365

Hook-ups : how youth learn through creating physical computer interfaces  

E-print Network

The Hook-ups project introduces a new set of tools, materials, and activities intended to support children in creating physical computer input devices for computer programs they write. This project introduces a new approach ...

Millner, Amon Daran

2005-01-01

366

Light-Stimulated Apical Hook Opening in Wild-Type Arabidopsis thaliana Seedlings.  

PubMed Central

Apical hook opening and cotyledon unfolding are characteristic responses that occur during deetiolation of dicotyledonous seedlings. Light-stimulated apical hook opening and cotyledon unfolding in etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings appears to involve the activities of multiple photosensory systems. Red, far-red, and blue light are all effective in stimulating these responses in Arabidopsis. Stimulation of hook opening by red light and low fluence blue light is inductive, far-red reversible, and exhibits reciprocity, as is characteristic of many low fluence-dependent phytochrome-mediated responses. Far-red and high-fluence blue light appear to stimulate hook opening and cotyledon unfolding through high-irradiance-response systems during long-term light treatments. Although a phytochrome high-irradiance-response system presumably mediates the responses in far-red light, the responses to high-fluence blue light may be mediated by a blue light-specific photosensory system. PMID:12231711

Liscum, E.; Hangarter, R. P.

1993-01-01

367

Massless hook field in AdS d+1 from the holographic perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We systematically consider the AdS/CFT correspondence for a simplest mixed- symmetry massless gauge field described by hook Young diagram. We introduce the radial gauge fixing and explicitly solve the Dirichlet problem for the hook field equations. Solution finding conveniently splits in two steps. We first define an incomplete solution characterized by a functional freedom and then impose the boundary conditions. The resulting complete solution is fixed unambiguously up to boundary values. Two-point correlation function of hook primary operators is found via the corresponding boundary effective action computed separately in even and odd boundary dimensions. In particular, the higher-derivative action for boundary conformal hook fields is identified with a singular part of the effective action in even dimensions. The bulk/boundary symmetry transmutation within the Dirichlet boundary problem is explicitly studied. It is shown that traces of boundary fields are Stueckelberg-like modes that can be algebraically gauged away so that boundary fields are traceless.

Alkalaev, Konstantin

2013-01-01

368

Structural study and geochronology in the Hook Batholith, Central Zambia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pan-African Hook batholith is emplaced N of the Mwembeshi dislocation, a regional scale structure at the contact between Zambezi Belt and Lufilian Arc in Central Zambia. Exposed over 12000 km2 the batholith is composed mainly of fine-grained and coarse-grained porphyritic granites and leucogranites affected by solid-state deformation along high-strain zones. Two main zones of deformation were investigated - the Itezhi-Tezhi Zone (ITZ) in the SW part of the batholith and the Nalusanga Zone (NZ) to the NE. The 2.5 km wide, N-S trending, subvertical ITZ is a medium-grade, pure shear dominated structure, reflecting probably regional scale E-W shortening. In the central part of the zone, augen-gneiss textures developed. Mineral lineations plunging ~40° S are recorded occasionally. The deformed feldspar porphyroclasts show symmetrical tails and rarely sinistral stair-stepping. In the SE part of the Hook batholith the continuation of the ITZ trends E-W. This orientation can be explained by rotation of the original ITZ trend by N-S shortening that also has been recorded in the siliciclastic metasediments S of the contact. S dipping, up to 15 cm wide thrust zones observed in the ITZ area were probably formed during this tectonic event. The 3 km wide NZ is a subvertical to steeply SSW dipping structure, parallel to the NE contact of the batholith, with well-developed foliation and mineral stretching lineations. Field and microstructural analyses defined the NZ as a medium-grade, non-coaxial, sinistral strike-slip shear zone. The transition from weak foliated granite to S-C mylonites and ultramylonites was observed. The sinistral shearing is consistent with E-W shortening in agreement with the tectonic framework of the ITZ. The low grade metasediments to the E of the granite are folded in N to NNW trending structures also implying E-W shortening. Temperature conditions during the deformation in ITZ and NZ inferred from microstructural analyses are about 500°-550°C. The metamorphism in the country rocks E of the batholith is in the lower greenschist facies indicating that deformation along the ITZ and NZ occurred during the cooling of the granite. U-Pb zircon LA-SF-ICP-MS analyses reveal that the coarse-grained and fine-grained granites in the NE part of the batholith have the same age of 549×2 Ma. The age of an undeformed aplite that truncates the NZ's foliation brackets the strike-slip shearing between 549×2 Ma and 541×3 Ma. In the SE margin of the batholith deformed coarse-grained granite is dated at 544×2 Ma and an undeformed granitic vein gave an age of 543×3 Ma, thus relating the fabric formation to the same time interval. To the SW the deformed granite in the ITZ is dated at 533×3 Ma indicating that the E-W shortening was still active at this time. This study reports two deformational stages recorded in the Hook batholith and its country rocks. E-W shortening folded the sediments form the E margin of the granite and formed the solid-state fabric in the batholith. The following N-S shortening cold be related to the final docking of the Zambezi sequence to the Lufilian Arc along the Mwembeshi dislocation.

Naydenov, K.; Lehmann, J.; Saalmann, K.; Milani, L.; Kinnaird, J.; Charlesworth, G.; Frei, D.

2013-12-01

369

Effects of dynamic conditions and sheave efficiency on hook load, derrick load, and line tension  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF DYNAMIC CONDITIONS AND SHEAVE EFFICIENCY ON HOOK LOAD, DERRICK LOAD, AND LINE TENSION A Thesis by GREGORY ROBERT LUKE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering EFFECTS OF DYNAMIC CONDITIONS AND SHEAVE EFFICIENCY ON HOOK LOAD, DERRICK LOAD, AND LINE TENSION A Thesis by GREGORY ROBERT LUKE Approved as to style and content by: Hans...

Luke, Gregory Robert

1991-01-01

370

HookA is a novel dynein–early endosome linker critical for cargo movement in vivo  

PubMed Central

Cytoplasmic dynein transports membranous cargoes along microtubules, but the mechanism of dynein–cargo interaction is unclear. From a genetic screen, we identified a homologue of human Hook proteins, HookA, as a factor required for dynein-mediated early endosome movement in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. HookA contains a putative N-terminal microtubule-binding domain followed by coiled-coil domains and a C-terminal cargo-binding domain, an organization reminiscent of cytoplasmic linker proteins. HookA–early endosome interaction occurs independently of dynein–early endosome interaction and requires the C-terminal domain. Importantly, HookA interacts with dynein and dynactin independently of HookA–early endosome interaction but dependent on the N-terminal part of HookA. Both dynein and the p25 subunit of dynactin are required for the interaction between HookA and dynein–dynactin, and loss of HookA significantly weakens dynein–early endosome interaction, causing a virtually complete absence of early endosome movement. Thus, HookA is a novel linker important for dynein–early endosome interaction in vivo. PMID:24637327

Zhang, Jun; Qiu, Rongde; Arst, Herbert N.; Peñalva, Miguel A.

2014-01-01

371

Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 is Expressed inOsteoblasts and Regulated by PTH  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •CARP-1 is identified for the first time in bone cells. •PTH downregulates CARP-1 expression in differentiated osteoblasts. •PTH displaces CARP-1 from nucleus to the cytoplasm in differentiated osteoblasts. •Downregulation of CARP-1 by PTH involves PKA, PKC and P-p38 MAPK pathways. -- Abstract: Bone mass is dependent on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and life-span of osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. Intermittent administration of PTH increases bone mass but the mechanism of action are complex and incompletely understood. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including cell growth and differentiation factors. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism, we investigated involvement of CARP-1 in PTH signaling in osteoblasts. Immunostaining studies revealed presence of CARP-1 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while a minimal to absent levels were noted in the chondrocytes of femora from 10 to 12-week old mice. Treatment of 7-day differentiated MC3T3-E1 clone-4 (MC-4) mouse osteoblastic cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts with PTH for 30 min to 5 h followed by Western blot analysis showed 2- to 3-fold down-regulation of CARP-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the respective vehicle treated control cells. H-89, a Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, suppressed PTH action on CARP-1 protein expression indicating PKA-dependent mechanism. PMA, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonist, mimicked PTH action, and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, partially blocked PTH-dependent downregulation of CARP-1, implying involvement of PKC. U0126, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Kinase (MEK) inhibitor, failed to interfere with CARP-1 suppression by PTH. In contrast, SB203580, p38 inhibitor, attenuated PTH down-regulation of CARP-1 suggesting that PTH utilized an Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase (ERK)-independent but p38 dependent pathway to regulate CARP-1 protein expression in osteoblasts. Immunofluorescence staining of differentiated osteoblasts further revealed nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of CARP-1 protein following PTH treatment. Collectively, our studies identified CARP-1 for the first time in osteoblasts and suggest its potential role in PTH signaling and bone anabolic action.

Sharma, Sonali; Mahalingam, Chandrika D.; Das, Varsha [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)] [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Jamal, Shazia [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)] [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Levi, Edi [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States) [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Rishi, Arun K. [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States) [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); VA Medical Center, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Datta, Nabanita S., E-mail: ndatta@med.wayne.edu [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Cardiovascular Research Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)

2013-07-12

372

Hormonal networks involved in apical hook development in darkness and their response to light  

PubMed Central

In darkness, the dicot seedlings produce an apical hook as result of differential cell division and extension at opposite sides of the hypocotyl. This hook protects the apical meristem from mechanical damage during seedling emergence from the soil. In darkness, gibberellins act via the DELLA-PIF (PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORs) pathway, and ethylene acts via the EIN3/EIL1 (ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3/EIN3 like 1)-HLS1 (HOOKLESS 1) pathway to control the asymmetric accumulation of auxin required for apical hook formation and maintenance. These core pathways form a network with multiple points of connection. Light perception by phytochromes and cryptochromes reduces the activity of PIFs and (COP1) CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1—both required for hook formation in darkness—, lowers the levels of gibberellins, and triggers hook opening as a component of the switch between heterotrophic and photoautotrophic development. Apical hook opening is thus a suitable model to study the convergence of endogenous and exogenous signals on the control of cell division and cell growth. PMID:24616725

Mazzella, Maria A.; Casal, Jorge J.; Muschietti, Jorge P.; Fox, Ana R.

2013-01-01

373

Differential screening and characterization analysis of the egg envelope glycoprotein ZP3 cDNAs between gynogenetic and gonochoristic crucian carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gynogenetic silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio, is an intriguing model system. In the present work, a systemic study has been initiated by introducing suppression subtractive hybridization technique into this model system to identify the differentially expressed genes in oocytes between gynogenetic silver crucian carp and its closely related gonochoristic color crucian carp. Five differential cDNA fragments were identified from

Lian Chun FAN; Shu Ting YANG; Jian Fang GUI; Jian Fang QUI

2001-01-01

374

Isolation of innate immune response genes, expression analysis, polymorphism identification and development of genetic marker for linkage analysis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Common carp are economically important foodfish worldwide. Over the past few years, carp aquaculture has suffered from enormous losses to a disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3). A recent study reported that common carp strains/crossbreds have differential resistance to CyHV-3, suggest...

375

Using ecological niche-based modeling techniques to predict the establishment, abundance1 and relative impacts of introduced species: application to the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)2  

E-print Network

and relative impacts of introduced species: application to the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)2 3 Stefanie A as well as the32 abundance of a widespread aquatic NIS, common carp (Cyprinus carpio). We then tested the recipient systems.45 46 Keywords: Non-indigenous species, impact, Cyprinus carpio, common carp, ecological

Leung, Brian

376

Predictions on the effect of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) exclusion on water quality, zooplankton, and submergent macrophytes in a Great Lakes wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a study to examine the relationship between common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) exclusion, water quality, zooplankton, and submergent macrophytes. Twelve 50-m 2 in situ experimental enclosures were installed in degraded Cootes Paradise Marsh during the carp spawning period in 1995. Enclosures were stocked with two or three carp of similar size, ranging from 13 to 59 cm and

Vanessa L. Lougheed; Barb Crosbie; Patricia Chow-Fraser

1998-01-01

377

The Carpe Diem West Academy: a compendium of tools, training, and best practices for water resources planning in an era of climate uncertainty  

E-print Network

The Carpe Diem West Academy: a compendium of tools, training, and best practices for waterLaboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ. kmorino@ltrr.arizona.edu; 3Carpe Diem engagement. We integrated several organizing frameworks into an interactive `toolbox', the Carpe Diem West

Miami, University of

378

Passing of northern pike and common carp through experimental barriers designed for use in wetland restoration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Restoration plans for Metzger Marsh, a coastal wetland on the south shore of western Lake Erie, incorporated a fish-control system designed to restrict access to the wetland by large common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ingress fish passageways in the structure contain slots into which experimental grates of varying size and shape can be placed to selectively allow entry and transfer of other large fish species while minimizing the number of common carp to be handled. We tested different sizes and shapes of grates in experimental tanks in the laboratory to determine the best design for testing in the field. We also tested northern pike (Esox lucius) because lack of access to wetland spawning habitat has greatly reduced their populations in western Lake Erie. Based on our results, vertical bar grates were chosen for installation because common carp were able to pass through circular grates smaller than body height by compressing their soft abdomens; they passed through rectangular grates on the diagonal. Vertical bar grates with 5-cm spacing that were installed across much of the control structure should limit access of common carp larger than 34 cm total length (TL) and northern pike larger than 70 cm. Vertical bar grates selected for initial field trials in the fish passageway had spacings of 5.8 and 6.6 cm, which increased access by common carp to 40 and 47 cm TL and by northern pike to 76 and 81 cm, respectively. The percentage of potential common carp biomass (fish seeking entry) that must be handled in lift baskets in the passageway increased from 0.9 to 4.8 to 15.4 with each increase in spacing between bars. Further increases in spacing would greatly increase the number of common carp that would have to be handled. The results of field testing should be useful in designing selective fish-control systems for other wetland restoration sites adjacent to large water bodies.

French, John R. P., III; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

1999-01-01

379

Molecular and functional characterization of an IL-1? receptor antagonist in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).  

PubMed

In the present study, we discovered a novel IL-1 family member (nIL-1F) from grass carp that possessed the ability to bind with grass carp IL-1? receptor type 1 (gcIL-1R1) and attenuate grass carp IL-1? activity in head kidney leukocytes (HKLs), suggesting that it may function as an IL-1? receptor antagonist. Grass carp nIL-1F transcript was constitutively expressed with the highest levels in some lymphoid organs, including head kidney, spleen and intestine, implying its potential in grass carp immunity. In agreement with this notion, in vitro and in vivo studies showed that nIL-1F mRNA was inductively expressed in grass carp with a rapid kinetics, indicating that it may be an early response gene during immune challenges. In addition, recombinant grass carp IL-1? (rgcIL-1?) induced nIL-1F mRNA expression via NF-?B and MAPK (JNK, p38 and p42/44) signaling pathways in HKLs. Particularly, the orthologs of nIL-1F found in other fish species, including zebrafish, pufferfish and rainbow trout are not homologous to mammalian IL-1? receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), indicating that fish nIL-1F and mammalian IL-1Ra may not share a common evolutionary ancestor. Taken together, our data suggest the existence of a naturally occurring fish nIL-1F, which may function like mammalian IL-1Ra, being beneficial to understand the auto-regulatory mechanism of IL-1? activity in fish immunity. PMID:25475961

Yao, Fuli; Yang, Xiao; Wang, Xinyan; Wei, He; Zhang, Anying; Zhou, Hong

2015-04-01

380

A Tale of Four “Carp”: Invasion Potential and Ecological Niche Modeling  

PubMed Central

Background Invasive species are a serious problem in ecosystems, but are difficult to eradicate once established. Predictive methods can be key in determining which areas are of concern regarding invasion by such species to prevent establishment [1]. We assessed the geographic potential of four Eurasian cyprinid fishes (common carp, tench, grass carp, black carp) as invaders in North America via ecological niche modeling (ENM). These “carp” represent four stages of invasion of the continent (a long-established invader with a wide distribution, a long-established invader with a limited distribution, a spreading invader whose distribution is expanding, and a newly introduced potential invader that is not yet established), and as such illustrate the progressive reduction of distributional disequilibrium over the history of species' invasions. Methodology/Principal Findings We used ENM to estimate the potential distributional area for each species in North America using models based on native range distribution data. Environmental data layers for native and introduced ranges were imported from state, national, and international climate and environmental databases. Models were evaluated using independent validation data on native and invaded areas. We calculated omission error for the independent validation data for each species: all native range tests were highly successful (all omission values <7%); invaded-range predictions were predictive for common and grass carp (omission values 8.8 and 19.8%, respectively). Model omission was high for introduced tench populations (54.7%), but the model correctly identified some areas where the species has been successful; distributional predictions for black carp show that large portions of eastern North America are at risk. Conclusions/Significance ENMs predicted potential ranges of carp species accurately even in regions where the species have not been present until recently. ENM can forecast species' potential geographic ranges with reasonable precision and within the short screening time required by proposed U.S. invasive species legislation. PMID:19421314

DeVaney, Shannon C.; McNyset, Kristina M.; Williams, Justin B.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Wiley, Edward O.

2009-01-01

381

An experimental investigation into electromyography, constitutive relationship and morphology of crucian carp for biomechanical "digital fish"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, the integrated biomechanical studies on fish locomotion come into focus, so it is urgent to provide reliable and systematic experimental results, and to establish a biomechanical "digital fish" database for some typical fish species. Accordingly, based on the control framework of "Neural Control — Active Contraction of Muscle — Passive Deformation", the electromyography (EMG) signals, the mechanical properties and the constitutive relationship of skin, muscle, and body trunk, as well as morphological parameters of crucian carp, are investigated with experiments, from which a simplified database of biomechanical "digital fish" is established. First, the EMG signals from three lateral superficial red muscles of crucian carp, which was evolving in the C-start movement, were acquired with a self-designing amplifier. The modes of muscle activity were also investigated. Secondly, the Young's modulus and the reduced relaxation function of crucian carp's skin and muscle were determined by failure tests and relaxation tests in uniaxial tensile ways, respectively. Viscoelastic models were adopted to deduce the constitutive relationship. The mechanical properties and the angular stiffness of different sites on the crucian carp's body trunk were obtained with dynamic bending experiments, where a self-designing dynamic bending test machine was employed. The conclusion was drawn regarding the body trunk of crucian carp under dynamic bending deformation as an approximate elastomer. According to the above experimental results, a possible benefit of body effective stiffness increasing with a little energy dissipation was discussed. Thirdly, the distribution of geometric parameters and weight parameters for a single experimental individual and multiple individuals of crucian carp was studied with experiments. Finally, considering all the above results, generic experimental data were obtained by normalization, and a preliminary biomechanical "digital fish" database for crucian carp was established.

Zhou, Meng; Yin, Xiezhen; Tong, Binggang

2011-05-01

382

Microsatellite-centromere mapping in common carp through half-tetrad analysis in diploid meiogynogenetic families.  

PubMed

Gene-centromere (G-C) mapping provides insights into the understanding of the composition, structure, and evolution of vertebrate genomes. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is an important aquaculture fish and has been proposed to undertake tetraploidization. In this study, we selected 214 informative microsatellite markers across 50 linkage groups of a common carp genetic map to perform gene-centromere mapping using half-tetrad analysis. A total of 199 microsatellites were segregated under the Mendelian expectations in at least one of the three gynogenetic families and were used for G-C distance estimation. The G-C recombination frequency (y) ranged from 0 to 0.99 (0.43 on average), corresponding to a fixation index (F) of 0.57 after one generation of gynogenesis. Large y values for some loci together with significant correlation between G-C distances and genetic linkage map distances suggested the presence of high interference in common carp. Under the assumption of complete interference, 50 centromeres were localized onto corresponding linkage groups (LGs) of common carp, with G-C distances of centromere-linked markers per LG ranging from 0 to 10.3 cM (2.9 cM on average). Based on the information for centromere positions, we proposed a chromosome formula of 2n?=?100?=?58 m/sm?+?42 t/st with 158 chromosome arms for common carp, which was similar to a study observed by cytogenetic method. The examination of crossover distributions along 10 LGs revealed that the proportion of crossover chromatids was overall higher than that of non-crossover chromatids in gynogenetic progenies, indicating high recombination levels across most LGs. Comparative genomics analyses suggested that the chromosomes of common carp have undergone extensive rearrangement after genome duplication. This study would be valuable to elucidate the mechanism of genome evolution and integrate physical and genetic maps in common carp. PMID:25171918

Feng, Xiu; Wang, Xinhua; Yu, Xiaomu; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Lu, Cuiyun; Sun, Xiaowen; Tong, Jingou

2014-08-30

383

Duplication and differentiation of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) myoglobin genes revealed by BAC analysis.  

PubMed

Two distinct myoglobin (mb) transcripts have been reported in common carp, Cyprinus carpio, which is a hypoxia-tolerant fish living in habitats with greatly fluctuant dissolved oxygen levels. Recombinant protein analysis has shown functional specialization of the two mb transcripts. In this work, analysis for mb-containing bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones indicated different genome loci for common carp myoglobin-1 (mb-1) and myoglobin-2 (mb-2) genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that mb-1 and mb-2 are located on separate chromosomes. In both of the mb-1 and mb-2 containing BAC clones, gene synteny was well conserved with the homologous region on zebrafish chromosome 1, supporting that the common carp specific mb-2 gene originated from the recent whole genome duplication event in cyprinid lineage. Transcription factor binding sites search indicated that both common carp mb genes lacked specificity Protein 1 (Sp1) and myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) binding sites, which mediated muscle-specific and calcium-dependent expression in the well-studied mb promoters. Potential hypoxia response elements (HREs) were predicted in the regulatory region of common carp mb genes. These characteristics of common carp mb gene regulatory region well interpreted the hypoxia-inducible, non-muscle expression pattern of mb-1. In the case of mb-2, a 10 bp insertion to the binding site of upstream stimulatory factor (USF), which was a co-factor of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), might cause the non-response to hypoxia treatment of mb-2. The case of common carp mb gene duplication and subsequent differentiation in expression pattern and protein function provided an example for adaptive evolution toward aquatic hypoxia tolerance. PMID:25026501

Zhao, Zi-Xia; Xu, Peng; Cao, Ding-Chen; Kuang, You-Yi; Deng, Hai-Xia; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Li-Ming; Li, Jiong-Tang; Xu, Jian; Sun, Xiao-Wen

2014-09-15

384

Quantum Hooke's Law to Classify Pulse Laser Induced Ultrafast Melting  

PubMed Central

Ultrafast crystal-to-liquid phase transition induced by femtosecond pulse laser excitation is an interesting material's behavior manifesting the complexity of light-matter interaction. There exist two types of such phase transitions: one occurs at a time scale shorter than a picosecond via a nonthermal process mediated by electron-hole plasma formation; the other at a longer time scale via a thermal melting process mediated by electron-phonon interaction. However, it remains unclear what material would undergo which process and why? Here, by exploiting the property of quantum electronic stress (QES) governed by quantum Hooke's law, we classify the transitions by two distinct classes of materials: the faster nonthermal process can only occur in materials like ice having an anomalous phase diagram characterized with dTm/dP < 0, where Tm is the melting temperature and P is pressure, above a high threshold laser fluence; while the slower thermal process may occur in all materials. Especially, the nonthermal transition is shown to be induced by the QES, acting like a negative internal pressure, which drives the crystal into a “super pressing” state to spontaneously transform into a higher-density liquid phase. Our findings significantly advance fundamental understanding of ultrafast crystal-to-liquid phase transitions, enabling quantitative a priori predictions. PMID:25645258

Hu, Hao; Ding, Hepeng; Liu, Feng

2015-01-01

385

Quantum Hooke's Law to Classify Pulse Laser Induced Ultrafast Melting.  

PubMed

Ultrafast crystal-to-liquid phase transition induced by femtosecond pulse laser excitation is an interesting material's behavior manifesting the complexity of light-matter interaction. There exist two types of such phase transitions: one occurs at a time scale shorter than a picosecond via a nonthermal process mediated by electron-hole plasma formation; the other at a longer time scale via a thermal melting process mediated by electron-phonon interaction. However, it remains unclear what material would undergo which process and why? Here, by exploiting the property of quantum electronic stress (QES) governed by quantum Hooke's law, we classify the transitions by two distinct classes of materials: the faster nonthermal process can only occur in materials like ice having an anomalous phase diagram characterized with dTm/dP < 0, where Tm is the melting temperature and P is pressure, above a high threshold laser fluence; while the slower thermal process may occur in all materials. Especially, the nonthermal transition is shown to be induced by the QES, acting like a negative internal pressure, which drives the crystal into a "super pressing" state to spontaneously transform into a higher-density liquid phase. Our findings significantly advance fundamental understanding of ultrafast crystal-to-liquid phase transitions, enabling quantitative a priori predictions. PMID:25645258

Hu, Hao; Ding, Hepeng; Liu, Feng

2015-01-01

386

Automation Hooks Architecture Trade Study for Flexible Test Orchestration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe the conclusions of a technology and communities survey supported by concurrent and follow-on proof-of-concept prototyping to evaluate feasibility of defining a durable, versatile, reliable, visible software interface to support strategic modularization of test software development. The objective is that test sets and support software with diverse origins, ages, and abilities can be reliably integrated into test configurations that assemble and tear down and reassemble with scalable complexity in order to conduct both parametric tests and monitored trial runs. The resulting approach is based on integration of three recognized technologies that are currently gaining acceptance within the test industry and when combined provide a simple, open and scalable test orchestration architecture that addresses the objectives of the Automation Hooks task. The technologies are automated discovery using multicast DNS Zero Configuration Networking (zeroconf), commanding and data retrieval using resource-oriented Restful Web Services, and XML data transfer formats based on Automatic Test Markup Language (ATML). This open-source standards-based approach provides direct integration with existing commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) analysis software tools.

Lansdowne, Chatwin A.; Maclean, John R.; Graffagnino, Frank J.; McCartney, Patrick A.

2010-01-01

387

Seasonal modulation of growth hormone mRNA and protein levels in carp pituitary: evidence for two expressed genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation of eurythermal fish to naturally varying environmental conditions involves modulation of expressions of various factors in the hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis. Here we used three complementary approaches to assess the seasonal variation of growth hormone (GH) protein and mRNA levels in pituitary glands of acclimatized carp fish. First, a polyclonal antibody raised against an oligopeptide derived from the carp GH sequence

J. Figueroa; R. San Martín; C. Flores; H. Grothusen; G. Kausel

2005-01-01

388

Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in north Croatia after the Chernobyl accident  

E-print Network

Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carps decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of 137Cs in carps was estimated to be about 1 year for 1987-2002 period and 5 years for 1993-2005 period. The observed 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio in carps has been found to be similar to the ratio that has been observed in other environmental samples. Concentration factor for carps (wet weight) was roughly estimated to be 128 +/- 74 Lkg-1, which is in reasonable agreement with model prediction based on K+ concentrations in water. Estimated annual effective doses received by 134Cs and 137Cs intake due to consumption of carps for an adult member of Croatian population are small, per caput dose for the 1987 - 2005 estimated to be 0.5 +/- 0.2 microSv. Due to minor freshwater fish consumption in Croatia and low radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps, it can be concluded that carps consumption was no...

Franic, Z

2007-01-01

389

Synthetic releasing hormones LH/FSH-RH and LH-RH : effect of intracerebral and intramuscular injections on female carp  

E-print Network

of synthetic LH/FSH-RH at a dose of1[Jog/kg of body weight proved effective in accelerating oocyte maturity injections on female carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) maturation Miroslawa SOKOLOWSKA W. POPEK K. BIENIARZ Institute and intramuscular injections of synthetic LH/FSH-RH on the maturation of female carp was investigated. The results

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

390

Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided.

Mahon, Andrew R.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L.; Chadderton, W. Lindsay; Lodge, David M.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Nico, Leo G.

2013-01-01

391

Validation of eDNA Surveillance Sensitivity for Detection of Asian Carps in Controlled and Field Experiments  

PubMed Central

In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided. PMID:23472178

Mahon, Andrew R.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L.; Chadderton, W. Lindsay; Lodge, David M.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Nico, Leo G.

2013-01-01

392

Ectoparasitic protozoa fauna of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) caught in the Sinop region of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ectoparasitic protozoan fauna resident on farmed and wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) from two localities in the Sinop region of Turkey were investigated during the period June 1994–May 1995. Following the investigation of 125 common carp, Trichodina acuta Lom, 1961, Trichodina mutabilis Kazubski and Migala, 1968, Trichodina nigra Lom, 1960, Trichodinella subtilis Lom, 1959, Apiosoma piscicola Blanchard,

A. Özer; O. Erdem

1998-01-01

393

Precision of Five Structures for Estimating Age of Common Carp QUINTON E. PHELPS,* KRIS R. EDWARDS, AND DAVID W. WILLIS  

E-print Network

been validated as an accurate structure for estimating age of common carp Cyprinus carpio. However be time consuming, and fish sacrifice may not be feasible in certain situations. The common carp Cyprinus carpio was among the first fish species for which age estimation techniques were used (Carlander 1987

394

A comparison of trace element concentrations in cultured and wild carp ( Cyprinus carpio) of Lake Kasumigaura, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of 13 elements were determined in the muscle, liver, intestine, kidney, and gonads of cultured and wild carp caught at two sites in Lake Kasumigaura, Japan, between September 1994 and September 1995. Despite having a reputation for being heavily polluted, the carp were not heavily burdened with metals. Our results suggest that despite their dietary differences, the wild

M. G. M Alam; A Tanaka; G Allinson; L. J. B Laurenson; F Stagnitti; E. T Snow

2002-01-01

395

Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.  

PubMed

In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided. PMID:23472178

Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Lodge, David M; Hunter, Margaret E; Nico, Leo G

2013-01-01

396

EFFECT OF PESTICIDES (ATRAZINE AND LINDANE) ON THE REPLICATION OF SPRING VIREMIA OF CARP VIRUS IN VITRO  

E-print Network

EFFECT OF PESTICIDES (ATRAZINE AND LINDANE) ON THE REPLICATION OF SPRING VIREMIA OF CARP VIRUS Curie, BP 67, 94703 Maisons-Alfort Cedex, France accepted 04/12/87 Résumé EFFECT OF PESTICIDES (ATRAZINE AND LINDANE) ON THE REPLICATION OF SPRING VIREMIA OF CARP VIRUS IN VITRO - L'atrazine et le lindane, les

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

397

Fish Hook Injury: Removal by ‘’Push Through and Cut Off‘’ Technique: A Case Report and Brief Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Fishing is a leisure activity for some people around the world. Accidently the fish hook can get hooked in the hand. If the hook is barbed, removal becomes difficult. We report a case of such a injury in the hand and discuss the technique for its removal with a brief review of the literature. Case Presentation: A thirty-two year old male accidently suffered a fishhook injury to his hand. He came to the orthopaedic ward two hours after the incident with pain; the fish hook was hanging from the hand. Unsuccessful attempts to remove it were made by his relatives. A push-through and cut-off technique was used for removal of barbed hook. Discussion: Barbed hooks are to be removed atraumatically with controlled incision over properly anaesthetised skin. Proper wound management and prophylactic antibiotics suitable for treatment of Aeromonas species should be initiated to prevent complications. PMID:25032153

Ahmad Khan, Hayat; Kamal, Younis; Lone, Ansar ul Haq

2014-01-01

398

Molecular cloning and expression analysis of major histocompatibility complex class I, IIA and IIB genes of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).  

PubMed

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays an important role in the immune response of vertebrates. In this study, we isolated MHC class IIA and IIB genes from blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) by rapid amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR). In order to study the function of the MHC genes in M. amblycephala, tissue distribution and immune response of the MHC genes to bacterial challenge were analyzed. All the characteristic features of MHC class II chain structure could be identified in the deduced amino sequences of MHC IIA and IIB, including the leader peptide, ?1/?1 and ?2/?2 domains, connecting peptide and transmembrane and cytoplasmic regions, as well as conserved cysteines and N-glycosylation site. The deduced amino acid sequence of the MHC IIA and IIB molecules shared from 48% to 88% and from 65% to 77% similarity with those of other teleosts, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) demonstrated that MHC I and II genes were ubiquitously expressed in ten tissues, with high level in immune related tissues, including kidney, intestine, gill and spleen. Challenge of M. amblycephala with the extracellular pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila, resulted in a significant increase in the expression of MHC I, MHC IIA and IIB mRNA within 72 h after infection in gill, kidney, intestine and liver, followed by a recovery to normal level after 120 h. The changes of expression levels for MHC IIA and IIB in most tissues were significantly higher than that of MHC I in the corresponding tissues at most time points (P<0.05). These results demonstrated the MHC genes played an important role in response to bacterial infection in M. amblycephala; however, MHC class I and II genes showed different functional activity, which need be further investigated in teleost. PMID:23994238

Luo, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Wen, Jiu-fu; Liu, Hong; Wang, Wei-min; Gao, Ze-xia

2014-02-01

399

Ex vivo digestion of carp muscle tissue - ACE inhibitory and antioxidant activities of the obtained hydrolysates.  

PubMed

In the digestive tract of humans, bioactive peptides, i.e. protein fragments impacting the physiological activity of the body, may be released during the digestion of food proteins, including those of fish. The aim of the study was to establish the method of human ex vivo digestion of carp muscle tissue and evaluate the angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of hydrolysates obtained after digestion. It was found that the hydrolysates of carp muscle tissue obtained with the three-stage method of simulated ex vivo digestion showed ACE inhibitory as well as antioxidative activities. It was demonstrated that the degree of hydrolysis depended on the duration of individual stages and the degree of comminution of the examined material. Although the applied gastric juices initiated the process of hydrolysis of carp muscle tissue, the duodenal juices caused a rapid increase in the amount of hydrolysed polypeptide bonds. The antihypertensive and antioxidative activities of the hydrolysates of carp muscle tissue increased together with progressive protein degradation. However, the high degree of protein hydrolysis does not favour an increase in the activity of free radical scavenging. The presented results are an example of the first preliminary screening of the potential health-promoting biological activity of carp muscle tissue in an ex vivo study. PMID:25367247

Borawska, J; Darewicz, M; Vegarud, G E; Iwaniak, A; Minkiewicz, P

2015-01-24

400

Carp edema virus/koi sleepy disease: an emerging disease in central-East europe.  

PubMed

Koi sleepy disease (KSD), also known as carp edema virus (CEV), was first reported from juvenile colour carp in Japan in the 1970s. Recently, this pox virus was detected in several European countries, including Germany, France and the Netherlands. In England, in addition to colour carp, outbreaks in common carp are reported. KSD/CEV is an emerging infectious disease characterized by a typical sleepy behaviour, enophthalmia, generalized oedematous condition and gill necrosis, leading to hypoxia. High mortality, of up to 80-100%, is seen in juvenile koi collected from infected ponds. In Austria, this disease had not been detected until now. In spring 2014, diagnostic work revealed the disease in two unrelated cases. In one instance, a pond with adult koi was affected; in the other, the disease was diagnosed in adult common carp recently imported from the Czech Republic. A survey was carried out on recent cases (2013/2014), chosen from those with similar anamnestic and physical examination findings, revealing a total of 5/22 cases positive for KSD/CEV. In this study, two paradigmatic cases are presented in detail. Results together with molecular evidence shaped the pattern of the first diagnosis of KSD/CEV in fish from Austrian ponds. In the light of the positive cases detected from archived material, and the spread of the disease through live stock, imported from a neighbouring country, the need for epidemiological investigations in Austria and surrounding countries is emphasized. PMID:25382453

Lewisch, E; Gorgoglione, B; Way, K; El-Matbouli, M

2015-02-01

401

Tissue-Specific Fatty Acids Response to Different Diets in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA) to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively) in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue) of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO) with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption. PMID:24733499

Böhm, Markus; Schultz, Sebastian; Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Kainz, Martin J.

2014-01-01

402

Microsatellite genetic diversity and differentiation of native and introduced grass carp populations in three continents  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater species native to China, has been introduced to about 100 countries/regions and poses both biological and environmental challenges to the receiving ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation in grass carp from three introduced river systems (Mississippi River Basin in US, Danube River in Hungary, and Tone River in Japan) as well as its native ranges (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur Rivers) in China using 21 novel microsatellite loci. The allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, and within-population gene diversity were found to be lower in the introduced populations than in the native populations, presumably due to the small founder population size of the former. Significant genetic differentiation was found between all pairwise populations from different rivers. Both principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed obvious genetic distinction between the native and introduced populations. Interestingly, genetic bottlenecks were detected in the Hungarian and Japanese grass carp populations, but not in the North American population, suggesting that the Mississippi River Basin grass carp has experienced rapid population expansion with potential genetic diversification during the half-century since its introduction. Consequently, the combined forces of the founder effect, introduction history, and rapid population expansion help explaining the observed patterns of genetic diversity within and among both native and introduced populations of the grass carp.

Chapman, Duane C.; Chen, Qin; Wang, Chenghui; Zhao, Jinlian; Lu, Guoqing; Zsigmond, Jeney; Li, Sifa

2012-01-01

403

JOURNAL OF ALGORITHMS 3, 317-343 (1982) A Bijective Proof of the Hook-Length Formula  

E-print Network

JOURNAL OF ALGORITHMS 3, 317-343 (1982) A Bijective Proof of the Hook-Length Formula D.S. FRANZBLAU by the product of the hook-lengths. We give a new combinatorial proof of this formula by exhibiting a bijection) in the Ferrers diagram of A, define the hook to be the set of cells Hij = {(k, I) ]k = i and I ?j or k 2 i and I

Zeilberger, Doron

404

Studies on resistance characteristic and cDNA sequence conservation of transferrin from crucian carp, Carassius auratus.  

PubMed

Transferrin (Tf) is a kind of non-heme beta-globulin with two iron ions (Fe(3+))-binding sites. To prove Tf's physiological functions, Fe(3+)-proteins, serum iron contents, and total iron-binding capabilities were tested for Tfs of crucian carps (Carassius auratus) and sliver carps (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). The above results demonstrated that sliver carps shared 1/3 Tf alleles with crucian carps; Tf of crucian carps had stronger Fe(3+)-binding ability and transportation ability in plasma than that of sliver carps. In addition, the results of oxygen consumption experiments indicated that crucian carps had the higher oxygen utility rate than sliver carps. For acute hypoxia exposure assay, normoxic gas mixture, hypoxic gas mixture A, and hypoxic gas mixture B were used to induce oxygen-regulated gene expression of crucian carps in acute hypoxia. The results of quantitative real-time PCR revealed that mRNA levels of Tf gene, Tfr gene and ATPase gene were down-regulated in acute hypoxia but mRNA level of LDHa gene was up-regulated in acute hypoxia. The results of crucian carp Tf-cDNA sequence analysis showed that cDNA regions of two Fe(3+)-binding sites were T(747)-T(1026) and T(1737)-A(1884) based on the principle of bioinformatics. The sequence conservation of two Fe(3+)-binding sites was higher than that of the other five regions, which were confirmed according to the subregion model of Tf-cDNA sequence. PMID:17646932

Long, Hua; Yu, Qi-Xing

2007-09-01

405

Correction to hook, davis, owen, worthington, and utsey.  

PubMed

Reports an error in "Cultural humility: Measuring openness to culturally diverse clients" by Joshua N. Hook, Don E. Davis, Jesse Owen, Everett L. Worthington Jr. and Shawn O. Utsey (Journal of Counseling Psychology, 2013[Jul], Vol 60[3], 353-366). A syntax error was made when calculating the cultural humility total score. Instead of calculating the score with 12 items, the total score was calculated with 13 items (the 12 correct items plus one incorrect item). The two total scores are very similar (correlations between the two are above .99 in all three samples); however, the mean is higher due to the extra item added. All of the results are almost identical, and none of the conclusions in the article changed. The corrected statistics are included in the erratum. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2013-15106-001.) Building on recent theory stressing multicultural orientation, as well as the development of virtues and dispositions associated with multicultural values, we introduce the construct of cultural humility, defined as having an interpersonal stance that is other-oriented rather than self-focused, characterized by respect and lack of superiority toward an individual's cultural background and experience. In 4 studies, we provide evidence for the estimated reliability and construct validity of a client-rated measure of a therapist's cultural humility, and we demonstrate that client perceptions of their therapist's cultural humility are positively associated with developing a strong working alliance. Furthermore, client perceptions of their therapist's cultural humility were positively associated with improvement in therapy, and this relationship was mediated by a strong working alliance. We consider implications for research, practice, and training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25602610

2015-01-01

406

Zinc hyperaccumulation and uptake by Potentilla griffithii Hook.  

PubMed

The ability of Potentilla griffithii Hook var. velutina Cardot to hypaeraccumulate zinc (Zn) was identified through field survey and hydroponic experiments. Our results showed that P. griffithii could be classified as a new Zn hyperaccumulator. Zn concentrations in the shoots of P. griffithii averaged 6250 mg kg(-1) (3870-8530 mg kg(-1)) growing in Zn-rich soils. The highest Zn concentration was observed in the leaves of P. griffithii at 22,990 mg kg(-1). The fact that P. griffithii was able to grow in a mining soil with a Zn concentration of 193,000 mg kg(-1) without showing a major sign of phytotoxicity demonstrated its high tolerance to Zn. When growing in hydroponic systems, P. griffithii accumulated a maximum 26700 mg kg(-1) zinc concentration in the shoots, indicating the ability of this species to effectively take up and translocate Zn. Translocation factors (the ratio of Zn concentration in shoot to root) of 1.1 to 1.6 were obtained. Compared to the control, dry biomass of P. griffithii in 160 mg L(-1) Zn treatment increased 66.6% (P < 0.05). The time-course experiment showed that the maximum Zn concentration at 100 mg L(-1) Zn treatment was found at 16 d, much later than that of the 10 mg L(-1) Zn treatment, which might be an attribution of a accumulating mechanism or detoxification of a plant. The report of a new Zn hyperaccumulator provides a new plant species for the phytoremediation of contaminated soil and for the research on mechanisms of Zn hyperaccumulation in plants. PMID:17305304

Qiu, Rongliang; Fang, Xiaohang; Tang, Yetao; Du, Suojun; Zeng, Xiaowen; Brewer, Eric

2006-01-01

407

Assessment of synthetic organic compounds, and endocrinology and histology of carp in Lake Mead  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated the presence and biologic effects of synthetic organic compounds transported by Las Vegas Wash to Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Water, bottom sediment, and carp (Cyprinus carpio) were analyzed for synthetic organic compounds. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used to sample the water column. Blood samples were collected from Carp for analysis of sex steroid hormones and vitellogenin. Samples of external abnormalities and organs (liver, gill, kidney, small intestine, and gonad) were collected for histologic analysis. Compounds known to affect endocrine systems (PAHs, phthalate esters, PCBs, dioxins and furans) were detected in SPMD, bottom-sediment, and/or carp samples. The number and concentrations of compounds generally were greater in samples from Las Vegas Wash and Bay, than in samples from Callville Bay, a reference site in Lake Mead. High levels of PAHs detected in SPMDs from Callville Bay could indicate the existence of contaminant sources other than Las Vegas Wash.

Bevans, H.; Goodbred, S.; Miesner, J.

1995-12-31

408

Autoradiographic localization of gonadotrophin receptors in ovaries of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

SciTech Connect

Binding sites for carp gonadotrophin have been located in carp ovaries using (/sup 125/I)labeled gonadotrophin and autoradiography. The radioactive gonadotrophin was displaced from tissue by unlabeled gonadotrophin or carp hypophysial homogenate in a dose-dependent fashion. No binding of gonadotrophin was found in previtellogenic oocytes but binding appeared with the first indications of vitellogenesis. In the smaller vitellogenic oocytes binding was uniformly distributed in the follicular envelope, but in the largest oocytes binding was restricted to the interstitial tissue. In these more mature oocytes gonadotrophin was also found within the oocyte and appeared to migrate toward the nucleus. The relationship between binding location, steroidogenesis, and oocyte maturation is discussed. We found no evidence for specific binding of (/sup 125/I)thyroxine under comparable conditions.

Bieniarz, K.; Kime, D.E.

1986-10-01

409

The history and evolution of surgical instruments. VII. Spring forceps (tweezers), hooks and simple retractors.  

PubMed Central

Instruments manufactured by bending a basic metal strip or rod, either about its middle to create spring forceps (tweezers), or towards one extremity to create hooks and retractors are related structures. Spring forceps depend on tension mediated at the bend (hoop) or fixed end which is transmitted as dynamic 'spring' to the jaws, whereas the bend of hooks and retractors remains fixed and static. If such instruments refine the digital postures of pinch, pincer and retraction during surgery, they have not supplanted these manual actions entirely. After a brief historical introduction, the structure, modifications, functions and controls of spring forceps are analysed. Importantly, this instrument enjoys both right and left-handed functions, some of which are ancient, some transient as haemostats and needle-holders, and some, including left-handed dissection, surprisingly recent. Hooks are sharp or blunt and, among other functions, pre-date the left-handed spring forceps for dissection; in general hooks function as retractors. Hand-held retractors are enlarged blunt hooks, the wide retracting contact surface reducing trauma to wound margins and viscera. The physical effort of employing these retractors deep in body cavities is abated by applying them autostatically around a square or circular frame. Images Figure 1 PMID:8943642

Kirkup, J.

1996-01-01

410

No evidence of sperm conjugate formation in an Australian mouse bearing sperm with three hooks.  

PubMed

Sperm conjugation occurs when two or more sperm physically unite for motility or transport through the female reproductive tract. In many muroid rodent species, sperm conjugates have been shown to form by a single, conspicuous apical hook located on the sperm head. These sperm "trains" have been reported to be highly variable in size and, despite all the heads pointing in roughly the same direction, exhibit a relatively disordered arrangement. In some species, sperm "trains" have been shown to enhance sperm swimming speed, and thus have been suggested to be advantageous in sperm competition. Here, we assessed the behavior of sperm in the sandy inland mouse (Pseudomys hermannsburgensis), a muroid rodent that bears sperm with three apical hooks. First, we accrued genetic evidence of multiple paternity within "wild" litters to unequivocally show that sperm competition does occur in this species. Following this we utilized both in vitro and in vivo methodologies to determine whether sandy inland mouse sperm conjugate to form motile trains. Our observations of in vitro preparations of active sperm revealed that sandy inland mouse sperm exhibit rapid, progressive motility as individual cells only. Similarly, histological sections of the reproductive tracts of mated females revealed no in vivo evidence of sperm conjugate formation. We conclude that the unique, three-hooked morphology of the sandy inland mouse sperm does not facilitate the formation of motile conjugates, and discuss our findings in relation to the different hypotheses for the evolution of the muroid rodent hook/s. PMID:23919134

Firman, Renée C; Bentley, Blair; Bowman, Faye; Marchant, Fernando García-Solís; Parthenay, Jahmila; Sawyer, Jessica; Stewart, Tom; O'Shea, James E

2013-07-01

411

The influence of pornography on sexual scripts and hooking up among emerging adults in college.  

PubMed

The explosive growth in access to the Internet has led to a commensurate increase in the availability, anonymity, and affordability of pornography. An emerging body of research has shown associations between pornography and certain behaviors and attitudes; yet, how pornography actually influences these outcomes has not been documented. In two studies (Study 1 N = 969; Study 2 N = 992) we examined the hypothesis that pornography influences potentially risky sexual behavior (hooking up) among emerging adults via sexual scripts. Our results demonstrate that more frequent viewing of pornography is associated with a higher incidence of hooking up and a higher number of unique hook up partners. We replicated these effects both cross-sectionally and longitudinally while accounting for the stability of hook ups over the course of an academic semester. We also demonstrated that more frequent viewing of pornography is associated with having had more previous sexual partners of all types, more one occasion sexual partners ("one night stands"), and plans to have a higher number of sexual partners in the future. Finally, we provided evidence that more permissive sexual scripts mediated the association between more frequent pornography viewing and hooking up. We discuss these findings with an eye toward mitigating potential personal and public health risks among emerging adults. PMID:25239659

Braithwaite, Scott R; Coulson, Gwen; Keddington, Krista; Fincham, Frank D

2015-01-01

412

Microtubule-dependent endosomal sorting of clathrin-independent cargo by Hook1  

PubMed Central

Many plasma membrane (PM) proteins enter cells nonselectively through clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE). Here, we present evidence that cytoplasmic sequences in three CIE cargo proteins—CD44, CD98, and CD147—were responsible for the rapid sorting of these proteins into endosomal tubules away from endosomes associated with early endosomal antigen 1 (EEA1). We found that Hook1, a microtubule- and cargo-tethering protein, recognized the cytoplasmic tail of CD147 to help sort it and CD98 into Rab22a-dependent tubules associated with recycling. Depletion of Hook1 from cells altered trafficking of CD44, CD98, and CD147 toward EEA1 compartments and impaired the recycling of CD98 back to the PM. In contrast, another CIE cargo protein, major histocompatibility complex class I, which normally traffics to EEA1 compartments, was not affected by depletion of Hook1. Loss of Hook1 also led to an inhibition of cell spreading, implicating a role for Hook1 sorting of specific CIE cargo proteins away from bulk membrane and back to the PM. PMID:23589492

Maldonado-Báez, Lymarie; Cole, Nelson B.; Krämer, Helmut

2013-01-01

413

Microtubule-dependent endosomal sorting of clathrin-independent cargo by Hook1.  

PubMed

Many plasma membrane (PM) proteins enter cells nonselectively through clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE). Here, we present evidence that cytoplasmic sequences in three CIE cargo proteins-CD44, CD98, and CD147-were responsible for the rapid sorting of these proteins into endosomal tubules away from endosomes associated with early endosomal antigen 1 (EEA1). We found that Hook1, a microtubule- and cargo-tethering protein, recognized the cytoplasmic tail of CD147 to help sort it and CD98 into Rab22a-dependent tubules associated with recycling. Depletion of Hook1 from cells altered trafficking of CD44, CD98, and CD147 toward EEA1 compartments and impaired the recycling of CD98 back to the PM. In contrast, another CIE cargo protein, major histocompatibility complex class I, which normally traffics to EEA1 compartments, was not affected by depletion of Hook1. Loss of Hook1 also led to an inhibition of cell spreading, implicating a role for Hook1 sorting of specific CIE cargo proteins away from bulk membrane and back to the PM. PMID:23589492

Maldonado-Báez, Lymarie; Cole, Nelson B; Krämer, Helmut; Donaldson, Julie G

2013-04-15

414

Arthroscopic evaluation for omalgia patients undergoing the clavicular hook plate fixation of distal clavicle fractures  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study is to investigate the anatomic changes in the shoulder joints responsible for omalgia after the clavicular hook plate fixation under arthroscope. Methods Arthroscopic examination was carried out for 12 omalgia patients who underwent clavicular hook plate fixation due to distal clavicle fractures. Functional outcome of shoulder was measured by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score before and after the withdrawal of the fixation plate. Results The rotator cuff compression by the clavicular hook was arthroscopically observed in 11 of the 12 cases. The JOA scores of the shoulder were significantly improved at 1 month after the withdrawal of the fixation plate (pain, 28?±?2.4 vs. 15?±?5.2; function, 19.2?±?1.0 vs. 11.7?±?1.9; range of movements, 26.8?±?2.6 vs. 14.8?±?3.4) compared with before. Conclusions The impingement of the hook to the rotator cuff may be the main cause for the omalgia. The appropriate hook and plate that fit to the curve of the clavicle as well as the acromion are necessary to decrease the severity of omalgia. PMID:24917508

2014-01-01

415

Differential growth at the apical hook: all roads lead to auxin  

PubMed Central

The apical hook is a developmentally regulated structure that appears in dicotyledonous seedlings when seeds germinate buried in the soil. It protects the shoot apical meristem and cotyledons from damage while the seedling is pushing upwards seeking for light, and it is formed by differential cell expansion between both sides of the upper part of the hypocotyl. Its apparent simplicity and the fact that it is dispensable when seedlings are grown in vitro have converted the apical hook in one of the favorite experimental models to study the regulation of differential growth. The involvement of hormones –especially auxin—in this process was manifested already in the early studies. Remarkably, a gradient of this hormone across the hook curvature is instrumental to complete its development, similar to what has been proposed for other processes involving the bending of an organ, such as tropic responses. In agreement with this, other hormones—mainly gibberellins and ethylene—and the light, regulate in a timely and interconnected manner the auxin gradient to promote hook development and its opening, respectively. Here, we review the latest findings obtained mainly with the apical hook of Arabidopsis thaliana, paying special attention to the molecular mechanisms for the cross-regulation between the different hormone signaling pathways that underlie this developmental process. PMID:24204373

Abbas, Mohamad; Alabadí, David; Blázquez, Miguel A.

2013-01-01

416

No evidence of sperm conjugate formation in an Australian mouse bearing sperm with three hooks  

PubMed Central

Sperm conjugation occurs when two or more sperm physically unite for motility or transport through the female reproductive tract. In many muroid rodent species, sperm conjugates have been shown to form by a single, conspicuous apical hook located on the sperm head. These sperm “trains” have been reported to be highly variable in size and, despite all the heads pointing in roughly the same direction, exhibit a relatively disordered arrangement. In some species, sperm “trains” have been shown to enhance sperm swimming speed, and thus have been suggested to be advantageous in sperm competition. Here, we assessed the behavior of sperm in the sandy inland mouse (Pseudomys hermannsburgensis), a muroid rodent that bears sperm with three apical hooks. First, we accrued genetic evidence of multiple paternity within “wild” litters to unequivocally show that sperm competition does occur in this species. Following this we utilized both in vitro and in vivo methodologies to determine whether sandy inland mouse sperm conjugate to form motile trains. Our observations of in vitro preparations of active sperm revealed that sandy inland mouse sperm exhibit rapid, progressive motility as individual cells only. Similarly, histological sections of the reproductive tracts of mated females revealed no in vivo evidence of sperm conjugate formation. We conclude that the unique, three-hooked morphology of the sandy inland mouse sperm does not facilitate the formation of motile conjugates, and discuss our findings in relation to the different hypotheses for the evolution of the muroid rodent hook/s. PMID:23919134

Firman, Renée C; Bentley, Blair; Bowman, Faye; Marchant, Fernando García-Solís; Parthenay, Jahmila; Sawyer, Jessica; Stewart, Tom; O'Shea, James E

2013-01-01

417

Use of structured expert judgment to forecast invasions by bighead and silver carp in Lake Erie.  

PubMed

Identifying which nonindigenous species will become invasive and forecasting the damage they will cause is difficult and presents a significant problem for natural resource management. Often, the data or resources necessary for ecological risk assessment are incomplete or absent, leaving environmental decision makers ill equipped to effectively manage valuable natural resources. Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is a mathematical and performance-based method of eliciting, weighting, and aggregating expert judgments. In contrast to other methods of eliciting and aggregating expert judgments (where, for example, equal weights may be assigned to experts), SEJ weights each expert on the basis of his or her statistical accuracy and informativeness through performance measurement on a set of calibration variables. We used SEJ to forecast impacts of nonindigenous Asian carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) in Lake Erie, where it is believed not to be established. Experts quantified Asian carp biomass, production, and consumption and their impact on 4 fish species if Asian carp were to become established. According to experts, in Lake Erie Asian carp have the potential to achieve biomass levels that are similar to the sum of biomasses for several fishes that are harvested commercially or recreationally. However, the impact of Asian carp on the biomass of these fishes was estimated by experts to be small, relative to long term average biomasses, with little uncertainty. Impacts of Asian carp in tributaries and on recreational activities, water quality, or other species were not addressed. SEJ can be used to quantify key uncertainties of invasion biology and also provide a decision-support tool when the necessary information for natural resource management and policy is not available. El Uso de Juicio Experto Estructurado para Predecir Invasiones de Carpas Asiáticas en el Lago Erie. PMID:25132396

Wittmann, Marion E; Cooke, Roger M; Rothlisberger, John D; Rutherford, Edward S; Zhang, Hongyan; Mason, Doran M; Lodge, David M

2015-02-01

418

Cloning and preliminary functional studies of the JAM-A gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).  

PubMed

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is a very important aquaculture species in China and other South-East Asian countries; however, disease outbreaks in this species are frequent, resulting in huge economic losses. Grass carp hemorrhage caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is one of the most serious diseases. Junction adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) is the mammalian receptor for reovirus, and has been well studied. However, the JAM-A gene in grass carp has not been studied so far. In this study, we cloned and elucidated the structure of the JAM-A gene in grass carp (GcJAM-A) and then studied its functions during grass carp hemorrhage. GcJAM-A is composed of 10 exons and 9 introns, and its full-length cDNA is 1833 bp long, with an 888 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a 295 amino acid protein. The GcJAM-A protein is predicted to contain a typical transmembrane domain. Maternal expression pattern of GcJAM-A is observed during early embryogenesis, while zygote expression occurs at 8 h after hatching. GcJAM-A is expressed strongly in the gill, liver, intestine and kidney, while it is expressed poorly in the blood, brain, spleen and head kidney. Moreover, lower expression is observed in the gill, liver, intestine, brain, spleen and kidney of 30-month-old individuals, compared with 6-month-old. In a GcJAM-A-knockdown cell line (CIK) infected with GCRV, the expression of genes involved in the interferon and apoptosis pathways was significantly inhibited. These results suggest that GcJAM-A could be a receptor for GCRV. We have therefore managed to characterize the GcJAM-A gene and provide evidence for its role as a receptor for GCRV. PMID:23542603

Du, Fukuan; Su, Jianguo; Huang, Rong; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

2013-06-01

419

The biology of free-ranging grass carp in East Texas river and bay systems  

E-print Network

THE BIOLOGY OF FREE-RANGING GRASS CARP IN EAST TEXAS RIVER AND BAY SYSTEMS A Thesis by HOWARD STANTON ELDER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1994 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences THE BIOLOGY OF FREE-RANGING GRASS CARP IN EAST TEXAS RIVER AND BAY SYSTEMS A Thesis by HOWARD STANTON ELDER Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

Elder, Howard Stanton

2012-06-07

420

Characterization of Common Carp Transcriptome: Sequencing, De Novo Assembly, Annotation and Comparative Genomics  

PubMed Central

Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquaculture species of Cyprinidae with an annual global production of 3.4 million tons, accounting for nearly 14% of the freshwater aquaculture production in the world. Due to the economical and ecological importance of common carp, genomic data are eagerly needed for genetic improvement purpose. However, there is still no sufficient transcriptome data available. The objective of the project is to sequence transcriptome deeply and provide well-assembled transcriptome sequences to common carp research community. Result Transcriptome sequencing of common carp was performed using Roche 454 platform. A total of 1,418,591 clean ESTs were collected and assembled into 36,811 cDNA contigs, with average length of 888 bp and N50 length of 1,002 bp. Annotation was performed and a total of 19,165 unique proteins were identified from assembled contigs. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were performed and classified all contigs into functional categories for understanding gene functions and regulation pathways. Open Reading Frames (ORFs) were detected from 29,869 (81.1%) contigs with an average ORF length of 763 bp. From these contigs, 9,625 full-length cDNAs were identified with sequence length from 201 bp to 9,956 bp. Comparative analysis revealed that 27,693(75.2%) contigs have significant similarity to zebrafish Refseq proteins, and 24,371(66.2%), 24,501(66.5%) and 25,025(70.0%) to teraodon, medaka and three-spined stickleback refseq proteins. A total of 2,064 microsatellites were initially identified from 1,730 contigs, and 1,639 unique sequences had sufficient flanking sequences on both sides for primer design. Conclusion The transcriptome of common carp had been deep sequenced, de novo assembled and characterized, providing the valuable resource for better understanding of common carp genome. The transcriptome data will facilitate future functional studies on common carp genome, and gradually apply in breeding programs of common carp, as well as closely related other Cyprinids. PMID:22514716

Ji, Peifeng; Liu, Guiming; Xu, Jian; Wang, Xumin; Li, Jiongtang; Zhao, Zixia; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen

2012-01-01

421

Anisotropic harmonic oscillator, non-commutative Landau problem and exotic Newton-Hooke symmetry  

E-print Network

We investigate the planar anisotropic harmonic oscillator with explicit rotational symmetry as a particle model with non-commutative coordinates. It includes the exotic Newton-Hooke particle and the non-commutative Landau problem as special, isotropic and maximally anisotropic, cases. The system is described by the same (2+1)-dimensional exotic Newton-Hooke symmetry as in the isotropic case, and develops three different phases depending on the values of the two central charges. The special cases of the exotic Newton-Hooke particle and non-commutative Landau problem are shown to be characterized by additional, so(3) or so(2,1) Lie symmetry, which reflects their peculiar spectral properties.

Pedro D. Alvarez; Joaquim Gomis; Kiyoshi Kamimura; Mikhail S. Plyushchay

2007-11-16

422

The discovery of microorganisms by Robert Hooke and Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek, fellows of the Royal Society.  

PubMed

The existence of microscopic organisms was discovered during the period 1665-83 by two Fellows of The Royal Society, Robert Hooke and Antoni van Leeuwenhoek. In Micrographia (1665), Hooke presented the first published depiction of a microganism, the microfungus Mucor. Later, Leeuwenhoek observed and described microscopic protozoa and bacteria. These important revelations were made possible by the ingenuity of Hooke and Leeuwenhoek in fabricating and using simple microscopes that magnified objects from about 25-fold to 250-fold. After a lapse of more than 150 years, microscopy became the backbone of our understanding of the roles of microbes in the causation of infectious diseases and the recycling of chemical elements in the biosphere. PMID:15209075

Gest, Howard

2004-05-01

423

Resistance of genetically different common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., families against experimental bacterial challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the differences in disease resistance against artificial infection with Aeromonas hydrophila between genetically different common carp families. Four strains differing in their origin and breeding history were selected from the live gene bank of common carp maintained at the Research Institute for Fisheries, Aquaculture and Irrigation (HAKI, Szarvas, Hungary) to establish families with wide genetic background: Szarvas 15 (15), an inbred mirror line; Tata (T) scaly noble carp; Duna (D), a Hungarian wild carp and Amur (A), an East Asian wild carp. A diallele mating structure was used to allow the assessment of genetic variation within and between the tested 96 families for a variety of traits. The existing technologies of fertilization and incubation of carp eggs, as well as larval and fingerling rearing had been modified because of the large number of baseline populations. Two challenge trials of the 96 families of carp with Aeromonas hydrophila were done. The 10 most resistant and 10 most susceptible families to A. hydrophila were identified from these two challenges. The crosses that produced the most resistant families were mainly those having parents from Tata and Szarvas 15 domesticated strains, while the most susceptible families were from the wild strains Duna and Amur. PMID:21118271

Jeney, G; Ardó, L; Rónyai, A; Bercsényi, M; Jeney, Z

2011-01-01

424

Clavicular hook plate may induce subacromial shoulder impingement and rotator cuff lesion - dynamic sonographic evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Clavicular hook plates are effective fixation devices for distal clavicle fractures and severe acromioclavicular joint dislocations. However, increasing number of studies has revealed that subacromial portion of the hook may induce acromial bony erosion, shoulder impingement, or even rotator cuff damage. By sonographic evaluation, we thus intended to determine whether the presence of hook plate may induce subacromial shoulder impingement and its relationship relative to surrounding subacromial structures. Methods We prospectively followed 40 patients with either distal clavicle fracture or acromioclavicular joint dislocation that had surgery using the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) clavicular hook plate. All patients were evaluated by monthly clinical and radiographic examinations. Static and dynamic musculoskeletal sonography examinations were performed at final follow-up before implant removal. Clinical results for pain, shoulder function, and range of motion were evaluated using Constant-Murley and Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) scores. Results Clinically, 15 out of 40 patients (37.5%) presented with subacromial impingement syndrome and their functional scores were poorer than the non-impinged patients. Among them, six patients were noted to have rotator cuff lesion. Acromial erosion caused by hook pressure developed in 20 patients (50%). Conclusions We demonstrated by musculoskeletal sonography that clavicular hook plate caused subacromial shoulder impingement and rotator cuff lesion. The data also suggest an association between hardware-induced impingement and poorer functional scores. To our knowledge, the only solution is removal of the implant after bony consolidation/ligamentous healing has taken place. Thus, we advocate the removal of the implant as soon as bony union and/or ligamentous healing is achieved. PMID:24502688

2014-01-01

425

Biomechanical comparison of different combinations of hook and screw in one spine motion unit - an experiment in porcine model  

PubMed Central

Background The biomechanical performance of the hooks and screws in spinal posterior instrumentation is not well-characterized. Screw-bone interface failure at the uppermost and lowermost vertebrae is not uncommon. Some have advocated for the use of supplement hooks to prevent screw loosening. However, studies describing methods for combined hook and screw systems that fully address the benefits of these systems are lacking. Thus, the choice of which implant to use in a given case is often based solely on a surgeon’s experience instead of on the biomechanical features and advantages of each device. Methods We conducted a biomechanical comparison of devices instrumented with different combinations of hooks and screws. Thirty-six fresh low thoracic porcine spines were assigned to three groups (12 per group) according to the configuration used for of fixation: (1) pedicle screw; (2) lamina hook and (3) combination of pedicle screw and lamina hook. Axial pullout tests backward on transverse plane in the direction normal to the rods were performed using a material testing machine and a specially designed grip with self-aligned function. Results The pullout force for the pedicle screws group was significantly greater than for the hooks and the combination (p?hooks and the combination (p?>?0.05). Conclusions Pedicle screws achieve the maximal pullout strength for spinal posterior instrumentation. PMID:24913189

2014-01-01

426

Subsurface macro-inclusions and solidified hook character in aluminum-killed deep-drawing steel slabs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsurface macro-inclusions and hooks are detrimental to the surface quality of deep-drawing steel sheets. However, little is known about the relationship between macro-inclusions and hooks. Thus, in this work, two ultralow carbon (ULC) steel slabs and two low carbon (LC) aluminum-killed steel slabs were sampled to study the relationship between hooks and subsurface macro-inclusions, which were detected on the cross-sections of steel samples with an area of 56058 mm2 using an automated scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy system. Results show that subsurface inclusions larger than 200 ?m were almost entrapped by hook structures, whereas the location of other inclusions smaller than 200 ?m had no obvious dependence on the location of solidified hooks. Furthermore, the number density (ND) of subsurface inclusions larger than 200 ?m decreased from 0.02 to 0 cm-2 in ULC steel as the mean hook depth decreased from 1.57 to 1.01 mm. Similar trends were also observed in LC steel. In addition, the detected inclusions larger than 200 ?m were concentrated in the region near the slab center (3/8 width-5/8 width), where hook depths were also larger than those at any other locations. Therefore, minimizing the hook depth is an effective way to reduce inclusion-induced sliver defects in deep-drawing steels.

Deng, Xiao-xuan; Li, Lin-ping; Wang, Xin-hua; Ji, Yun-qing; Ji, Chen-xi; Zhu, Guo-sen

2014-06-01

427

The hooked element in the pes of turtles (Testudines): a global approach to exploring primary and secondary homology.  

PubMed

The hooked element in the pes of turtles was historically identified by most palaeontologists and embryologists as a modified fifth metatarsal, and often used as evidence to unite turtles with other reptiles with a hooked element. Some recent embryological studies, however, revealed that this element might represent an enlarged fifth distal tarsal. We herein provide extensive new myological and developmental observations on the hooked element of turtles, and re-evaluate its primary and secondary homology using all available lines of evidence. Digital count and timing of development are uninformative. However, extensive myological, embryological and topological data are consistent with the hypothesis that the hooked element of turtles represents a fusion of the fifth distal tarsal with the fifth metatarsal, but that the fifth distal tarsal dominates the hooked element in pleurodiran turtles, whereas the fifth metatarsal dominates the hooked element of cryptodiran turtles. The term 'ansulate bone' is proposed to refer to hooked elements that result from the fusion of these two bones. The available phylogenetic and fossil data are currently insufficient to clarify the secondary homology of hooked elements within Reptilia. PMID:24102560

Joyce, Walter G; Werneburg, Ingmar; Lyson, Tyler R

2013-11-01

428

A Dense Genetic Linkage Map for Common Carp and Its Integration with a BAC-Based Physical Map  

PubMed Central

Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquaculture species with an annual global production of 3.4 million metric tons. It is also an important ornamental species as well as an important model species for aquaculture research. To improve the economically important traits of this fish, a number of genomic resources and genetic tools have been developed, including several genetic maps and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based physical map. However, integrated genetic and physical maps are not available to study quantitative trait loci (QTL) and assist with fine mapping, positional cloning and whole genome sequencing and assembly. The objective of this study was to integrate the currently available BAC-based physical and genetic maps. Results The genetic map was updated with 592 novel markers, including 312 BAC-anchored microsatellites and 130 SNP markers, and contained 1,209 genetic markers on 50 linkage groups, spanning 3,565.9 cM in the common carp genome. An integrated genetic and physical map of the common carp genome was then constructed, which was composed of 463 physical map contigs and 88 single BACs. Combined lengths of the contigs and single BACs covered a physical length of 498.75 Mb, or around 30% of the common carp genome. Comparative analysis between common carp and zebrafish genomes was performed based on the integrated map, providing more insights into the common carp specific whole genome duplication and segmental rearrangements in the genome. Conclusion We integrated a BAC-based physical map to a genetic linkage map of common carp by anchoring BAC-associated genetic markers. The density of the genetic linkage map was significantly increased. The integrated map provides a tool for both genetic and genomic studies of common carp, which will help us to understand the genomic architecture of common carp and facilitate fine mapping and positional cloning of economically important traits for genetic improvement and modification. PMID:23704958

Ji, Peifeng; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Zixia; Hou, Guangyuan; Huo, Linhe; Liu, Guiming; Li, Chao; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen

2013-01-01

429

Visitor and Community Survey Results for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge: Completion Report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Executive Summary This study was commissioned by the Northeast Region of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in support of the Comprehensive Conservation Planning at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge (Prime Hook NWR or Refuge). The National Wildlife Refuge Improvement Act of 1997 (Public Law 105-57, USC668dd) mandates a Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) for every refuge in the system. A refuge CCP outlines goals, objectives, and management strategies for all refuge programs over the next 15 years, while providing opportunities for compatible, wildlife-dependent public uses. The plan evaluates refuge wildlife, habitat, land protection, and visitor service priorities during the planning process.

Sexton, Natalie R.; Stewart, Susan C.; Koontz, Lynne; Ponds, Phadrea; Walters, Katherine D.

2007-01-01

430

(2+1)D Exotic Newton-Hooke Symmetry, Duality and Projective Phase  

E-print Network

A particle system with a (2+1)D exotic Newton-Hooke symmetry is constructed by the method of nonlinear realization. It has three essentially different phases depending on the values of the two central charges. The subcritical and supercritical phases (describing 2D isotropic ordinary and exotic oscillators) are separated by the critical phase (one-mode oscillator), and are related by a duality transformation. In the flat limit, the system transforms into a free Galilean exotic particle on the noncommutative plane. The wave equations carrying projective representations of the exotic Newton-Hooke symmetry are constructed.

Pedro D. Alvarez; Joaquim Gomis; Kiyoshi Kamimura; Mikhail S. Plyushchay

2007-06-17

431

Automation Hooks Architecture for Flexible Test Orchestration - Concept Development and Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Automation Hooks Architecture Trade Study for Flexible Test Orchestration sought a standardized data-driven alternative to conventional automated test programming interfaces. The study recommended composing the interface using multicast DNS (mDNS/SD) service discovery, Representational State Transfer (Restful) Web Services, and Automatic Test Markup Language (ATML). We describe additional efforts to rapidly mature the Automation Hooks Architecture candidate interface definition by validating it in a broad spectrum of applications. These activities have allowed us to further refine our concepts and provide observations directed toward objectives of economy, scalability, versatility, performance, severability, maintainability, scriptability and others.

Lansdowne, C. A.; Maclean, John R.; Winton, Chris; McCartney, Pat

2011-01-01

432

Volume 3, Chapter 18: Hanging Hooks. Ch'in should be hung up. One should not leave them horizontal for long periods. It is be  

E-print Network

113 Volume 3, Chapter 18: Hanging Hooks. Ch'in should be hung up. One should not leave them pillar or wooden wall, window frame, or other place. In order to make a hook, use brass or iron. The head of the hook should be rounded and flat, and five to six­tenths of an inch in length. 1 The hook's body should

Binkley, Jim

433

Identification of differentially expressed genes in carp rods and cones  

PubMed Central

Purpose Rods and cones differ in their photoresponse characteristics, morphology, and susceptibilities to certain diseases. To contribute to the studies at the molecular level of these differences, we tried to identify genes expressed preferentially in rods or cones. Methods From purified carp rods and cones, we extracted their RNA and obtained corresponding cDNA pools (rod cDNA and cone cDNA). We employed the suppression subtractive hybridization method to identify the genes expressed preferentially in rods or cones. Cone cDNA was subtracted from rod cDNA to obtain cDNA, which ideally contained cDNA expressed preferentially in rods (R/c cDNA). Similarly, rod cDNA was subtracted from cone cDNA to obtain C/r cDNA. With differential array screening, we screened candidate genes that were expressed mainly or exclusively in rods or cones. The nucleotide sequences of the positive genes were determined. In some of them, their mRNA localizations were confirmed by in situ hybridization. Results R/c cDNA contained genes already known to code rod specific proteins, such as cGMP gated channel, transducin ?1, and rhodopsin. In sharp contrast, C/r cDNA contained genes that code proteins of which functions are mostly unknown. Among them, N-myc downregulated gene 1-like (NDRG1L) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2 (AhR2) were most abundant, and by in situ hybridization, they were proven to be expressed specifically in cones. Conclusions Using purified rods and cones, we identified mRNAs expressed preferentially in rods or cones. Of particular interest is the specific expression of NDRG1L and AhR2 in cones. PMID:18334952

Shimauchi-Matsukawa, Yoshie; Aman, Yoshinobu; Tachibanaki, Shuji

2008-01-01

434

Protective immunity of grass carp immunized with DNA vaccine encoding the vp7 gene of grass carp reovirus using carbon nanotubes as a carrier molecule.  

PubMed

The uses of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as carriers for DNA delivery have received considerable attention in cell studies. DNA vaccination of fish has been shown to elicit durable transgene expression, but no reports exist on intramuscular administration of SWCNTs-DNA vaccine electrostatic complexes which prepared through non-covalent conjugation. In this study, we injected grass carp intramuscularly with a plasmid vector containing a major capsid protein gene (vp7) of grass carp reovirus as a) naked pcDNA-vp7, b) SWCNTs-pcDNA-vp7, c) empty plasmid vector, or phosphate buffered saline. After intramuscular administration, the ability of the different immune treatments to induce transgene expression was analyzed. The results indicated that higher levels of transcription and expression of the vp7 gene could be detected in muscle tissues of grass carp 28 days intramuscular injection in SWCNTs-pcDNA-vp7 treatment groups compare with naked pcDNA-vp7 treatment groups. Moreover, the serum respiratory burst activity, complement activity, lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase activity, immune-related genes, antibody levels and relative percentage survival were significantly enhanced in fish immunized with SWCNTs-pcDNA-vp7 vaccine. The data in this study suggested that SWCNTs were promising carriers for plasmid DNA vaccine and might be used to vaccinate fish by intramuscular approach. PMID:25463298

Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Gong, Yu-Xin; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-Xue

2015-02-01

435

Published in Proceedings of the 12 th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, November 2005 Automatic Placement of Authorization Hooks  

E-print Network

, November 2005 Automatic Placement of Authorization Hooks in the Linux Security Modules Framework Vinod placement of authorization hooks, and apply it to the Linux security modules (LSM) frame­ work. LSM. It consists of a kernel module which encapsulates an authorization policy, and hooks into the kernel module

Jha, Somesh

436

Thomas, B.G., J. Sengupta, and C. Ojeda, "Mechanism of Hook and Oscillation Mark Formation In Ultra-Low Carbon Steel", Second Baosteel Biennial Conference, (May  

E-print Network

Thomas, B.G., J. Sengupta, and C. Ojeda, "Mechanism of Hook and Oscillation Mark Formation In Ultra. 112-117. Mechanism Of Hook And Oscillation Mark Formation In Ultra-Low Carbon Steel THOMAS, Brian G.1 USA; 2. Dofasco, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada) Abstract: A new mechanism for the formation of hooks

Thomas, Brian G.

437

8. Simplification of the Equations of Hooke's Law 15 In these equations a..{ ay,az) is the normal stress acting on a plane  

E-print Network

· 8. Simplification of the Equations of Hooke's Law 15 In these equations a..{ ay,az) is the normal as coefficients of elasticity. 8. Simplification of the Equations of Hooke's Law as a Consequence of Crystal Symmetry The equations expressing Hooke's law can be greatly simplified if the symmetry of crystals

Cambridge, University of

438

arXiv:1205.0369v1[math.CO]2May2012 A MULTIVARIATE HOOK FORMULA FOR LABELLED TREES  

E-print Network

arXiv:1205.0369v1[math.CO]2May2012 A MULTIVARIATE HOOK FORMULA FOR LABELLED TREES VALENTIN FÃ?RAY AND I. P. GOULDEN ABSTRACT. Several hook summation formulae for binary trees have appeared recently to vertex degree. We give three proofs of the hook formula. One of these proofs arises somewhat indirectly

Goulden, Ian

439

q-Hook Length Formulas for Signed Labeled Forests William Y.C. Chen1, Oliver X.Q. Gao2 and Peter L. Guo3  

E-print Network

q-Hook Length Formulas for Signed Labeled Forests William Y.C. Chen1, Oliver X.Q. Gao2 and Peter L introduce for signed permutations, which is closely related to the major defined by Reiner. We obtain q-hook. Keywords: statistic, forest, q-hook length formula, Coxeter groups of types B and D, (P, w)-partition AMS

Chen, Bill

440

Candidate gene markers for selective breeding of CyHV-3-resistant common carp  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Common carp and koi producers around the world have suffered financial losses for a disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) also known as koi herpes virus (KHV). This disease is highly contagious and causes massive mortality to infected fish. Efforts to identify genetic resistance to the ...

441

Comparison of the polymerases (L genes) of spring viremia of carp virus  

E-print Network

Comparison of the polymerases (L genes) of spring viremia of carp virus and infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus HV Björklund* EJ Emmenegger, G Kurath National Biological Service, Northwest virus (SVCV) and infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). At this point we have deduced the amino

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

442

Differential gene expression in fully-grown oocytes between gynogenetic and gonochoristic crucian carps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) is a unique triploid bisexual species that can reproduce by gynogenesis. As all other gynogenetic animals, it keeps its chromosome integrity by inhibiting the first meiosis division (no extrusion of the first pole body). To understand the molecular events governing this reproduction mode, suppression subtractive hybridization was used to identify the genes differentially expressed

Jing Xie; Jian-Jun Wen; Bo Chen; Jian-Fang Gui

2001-01-01

443

A consensus linkage map of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) based on microsatellites and SNPs  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) belongs to the family Cyprinidae which includes more than 2000 fish species. It is one of the most important freshwater food fish species in world aquaculture. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping traits of interest and is often the first step towards understanding genome evolution. The aim of this study is to

Jun Hong Xia; Feng Liu; Ze Yuan Zhu; Jianjun Fu; Jianbin Feng; Jiale Li; Gen Hua Yue

2010-01-01

444

MONTHLY VARIATION IN SPERM MOTILITY IN COMMON CARP ASSESSED USING COMPUTER-ASSISTED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA)  

EPA Science Inventory

Sperm motility variables from the milt of the common carp Cyprinus carpio were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system across several months (March-August 1992) known to encompass the natural spawning period. Two-year-old pond-raised males obtained each mo...

445

Atrazine and chlorpyrifos exposure induces liver autophagic response in common carp.  

PubMed

Under normal conditions, autophagy occurs at basal levels but can be induced rapidly in response to stress conditions and extracellular signals. Increasing experimental evidence indicates that the expression of autophagy-related genes play very important roles in toxicology. Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are the most common agrochemical in the freshwater ecosystems of the world. This study assessed the effects of ATR, CPF and combined ATR/CPF exposure on the liver of common carp. Carp were sampled after a 40-d exposure to ATR and CPF, individually or in combination, followed by a 40-d recovery to measure the mRNA and protein levels of autophagy-related genes in the liver. In addition, we also investigated the change in ultrastructure in the liver. The results revealed that the mRNA and protein levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 B (LC3B) and dynein were significantly induced in the treated groups compared to the solvent control group. Transmission electron microscope assays indicated that autolysosomes were observed in the exposure and recovery groups. These results indicated that ATR and CPF could induce autophagy in carp liver. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to study the autophagy effects caused by sub-chronic exposure to ATR, CPF and the ATR/CPF combination in common carp. The information presented in the present study may provide new insights into the mechanisms used by fish to adapt to stressful environments. PMID:25483372

Xing, Houjuan; Wang, Zhilei; Gao, Xuejiao; Chen, Dechun; Wang, Liangliang; Li, Shu; Xu, Shiwen

2014-12-01

446

Effects of atrazine and chlorpyrifos on cytochrome P450 in common carp liver.  

PubMed

Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF), widely used in agriculture, have resulted in a series of toxicological and environmental problems. We investigated the activities of the biotransformation enzymes ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (PROD), total cytochrome P450 (CYP), CYP1A mRNA level and level of tissue ATR, CPF, and their metabolites in the liver of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after a 40-d exposure to CPF and ATR, alone or in combination, and a 20-d recovery. In the present study, juvenile common carp was exposed to ATR (at concentrations of 4.28, 42.8 and 428 ?g L(-1)), CPF (1.16, 11.6 and 116 ?g L(-1)), and ATR/CPF mixture (at concentrations of 1.13, 11.3 and 113 ?g L(-1)). A general increasing trend for the activity of the biotransformation enzymes (EROD and PROD), CYP and CYP1A mRNA level was observed in the liver of common carp exposed to ATR, CPF and the ATR/CPF mixture. In addition, ATR, CPF, and their metabolites demonstrated a high accumulation in the liver. These results demonstrated that the CYP system in fish could be used as a biomarkers in evaluating the impact of ATR and CPF exposure on the common carp. PMID:24530164

Xing, Houjuan; Zhang, Ziwei; Yao, Haidong; Liu, Tao; Wang, Liangliang; Xu, Shiwen; Li, Shu

2014-06-01

447

POTENTIAL OF CARP TO BIOACTIVATE BENZO[A]PYRENE TO METABOLITES THAT BIND TO DNA  

EPA Science Inventory

We have investigated the formation of DNA adducts in starved, fed, and 5,6-benzoflavone-pretreated carp following i.p. administration of benzo(a)pyrene. 32p-postlabeling analysis of the liver DNAs showed the presence of one predominant (>92%) adduct in all three groups. ochromato...

448

Mechanisms of resistance of freshwater macrophytes to herbivory by invasive juvenile common carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. Herbivory on freshwater macrophytes has been assumed to be insignificant and rare. More recent evidence suggests herbivory is common and the impact of invasive invertebrate herbivores can be substantial. However, little is known about consumption of macrophytes by fish. 2. We performed a series of feeding assays, based on the consumption by common carp (Cyprinus carpio), to determine

STEPHANIE A. M ILLER; D. P ROVENZA

2007-01-01

449

THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF PRAZIQUANTEL TO GRASS CARP AND GOLDEN SHINERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Acute praziquantel toxicity and no observable effect concentrations (NOEC), were determined in the laboratory for grass carp and golden shiners, two commercially raised cyprinids known to harbor Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Praziquantel is an anthelmintic used to treat fish with ta...

450

Fat absorption by the enterocytes of the carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the carp, the absorption of fat from the food occurs at the level of the enterocytes of the proximal region of the intestine. The absorbed fat gives rise to the presence of two forms of inclusions: lipid particles and lipid droplets. These two forms, whose precise significance is unknown, definitely play different roles in fat absorption. Only lipid particles

J. Noaillac-Depeyre; N. Gas

1974-01-01

451

Uptake and Tissue Distribution of Dietary and Aqueous Cadmium by Carp ( Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess whether contaminated prey can be a major source of Cd for fish. For this purpose, the uptake and tissue distribution of dietary and aqueous cadmium by the carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied. The fish were exposed to either Cd-contaminated food or Cd-contaminated water for 4 weeks in laboratory experiments. When exposed to

M. H. Kraal; M. H. S. Kraak; C. J. Degroot; C. Davids

1995-01-01

452

Genetic variability in reared stocks of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) based on allozymes and microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic variability of cultured stocks of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied using two types of genetic markers: allozymes and microsatellites. A comparative analysis was investigated between six strains from extensive aquaculture in two French regions (Dombes and Forez) and five strains from the Czech Republic stemming from artificial selection and maintained in the Research Center of Vodnany. Observed

Jean François Desvignes; Jean Laroche; Jean Dominique Durand; Yvette Bouvet

2001-01-01

453

UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. STOUKINGI T H E STETTINER IiAlTF WIT11 CARP.`  

E-print Network

the Megdeburgische Zeitung, No.501, Magdoburg, Ootobur 27, 1881.1 A truly gigantic enterprise which will greatly of starting the enterprise would be too great, and the par- ties to profit by this arrangment would procure the required 22,000,000 of carp, not by buy- ing them, but in the simplest manner in the world

454

SNP discovery and marker development for disease resistance candidate genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune response genes have been reported as markers of susceptibility to infectious diseases in human and livestock. A disease caused by cyprinid herpes virus 3 (CyHV-3) is highly contagious and virulent in common carp. With the aim to investigate the gene...

455

COMPUTER-ASSISTED MOTION ANALYSIS OF SPERM FROM THE COMMON CARP  

EPA Science Inventory

Computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) technology was applied to the measurement of sperm motility parameters in the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Activated sperm were videotaped at 200 frames s-1 and analysed with the CellTrak/S CASA research system. The percentage of motile cel...

456

Transcriptome Analysis of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) by Paired-End RNA Sequencing  

PubMed Central

The silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) is among the most intensively pond-cultured fish species and is used in the wild to counteract water bloom in China. However, little genomic information is available for this species, especially regarding its ability to grow rapidly in water, even water contaminated with high concentrations of poisonous microcystin. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of the 17.10 million short-read sequences produced by the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. Using an improved multiple k-mer contig assembly method coupled with further scaffolding, 85 759 sequences were obtained. There were 23 044 sequences annotated with 3423 gene ontology terms for 104 196 term occurrences and the three corresponding organizing principles. A total of 38 200 assembled sequences were involved in 218 predicted Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes metabolic pathways. We also recovered 41 of 44 genes involved in the biosynthesis of glutathione. Of these, five genes were identified as experienced positive selection between silver carp and zebrafish, as determined by the likelihood ratio test. This report is the first annotated review of the silver carp transcriptome. These data will be of interest to researchers investigating the evolution and biological processes of the silver carp. This work also provides an archive for future studies of recent speciation and evolution of Cyprinidae fishes and can be used in comparative studies of other fishes. PMID:22279088

Fu, Beide; He, Shunping

2012-01-01

457

BIOAVAILABILITY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS FROM CONTAMINATED WISCONSIN RIVER SEDIMENT TO CARP  

EPA Science Inventory

The bioavailability of 2,3,7,8-TCDD from sediment to freshwater fish was studied in laboratory exposures. Carp (10g) exposed to Wisconsin River sediment (39pg/g) for 55 days accumulated 7.5 pg/g. Maintaining exposured fish in clean water for an additional 205 days resulted in dep...

458

Location and timing of Asian carp spawning in the Lower Missouri River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We sampled for eggs of Asian carps, (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella) in 12 sites on the Lower Missouri River and in six tributaries from the months of May through July 2005 and May through June 2006 to examine the spatial and temporal dynamics of spawning activity. We categorized eggs into thirty developmental stages, but usually they could not be identified to species. We estimated spawning times and locations based on developmental stage, temperature dependent rate of development and water velocity. Spawning rate was higher in the daytime between 05:00 and 21:00 h than at night. Spawning was not limited to a few sites, as has been reported for the Yangtze River, where these fishes are native, but more eggs were spawned in areas of high sinuosity. We employ a sediment transport model to estimate vertical egg concentration profiles and total egg fluxes during spawning periods on the Missouri River. We did not identify substantial spawning activity within tributaries or at tributary confluences examined in this study.

Deters, Joseph E.; Chapman, Duane C.; McElroy, Brandon

2013-01-01

459

Differential transcription of multiple forms of alpha-2-macroglobulin in carp (Cyprinus carpio) infected with parasites.  

PubMed

Alpha-2-macroglobulin (a2M) is a non-specific protease inhibitor involved in host defense mechanisms, inhibiting both endogenous and exogenous proteases. It is unique among the plasma anti-proteases with respect to the diversity of proteases that it can inactivate. Carp a2M consists of an alpha and beta chain of which the first includes the bioactive regions. Previously, three a2M alpha chain sequences were reported for East-Asian common carp. We studied a2M alpha chain variability in European common carp and report the cloning of a fourth a2M alpha chain with distinct sequence diversity in the bait region. The role of a2M in the immune response to parasites was studied in the liver of carp infected with Trypanoplasma borreli or with Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Quantitative gene transcription analysis showed a differential regulation of the four isoforms, most clearly seen in infections with I. multifiliis. A2M3 was the only a2M isoform with a highly upregulated transcription during infection, suggesting that this particular isoform is of foremost biological importance. PMID:17662386

Onara, Dalia F; Forlenza, Maria; Gonzalez, Santiago F; Rakus, Krzysztof ?; Pilarczyk, Andrzej; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Wiegertjes, Geert F

2008-01-01

460

Biological Control of Aquatic Pest Snails by the Black Carp Mylopharyngodon piceus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some freshwater snail species are severe pests to human health or agriculture. We tested the hypothesis that the fish Mylopharyngodon piceus, the black carp, may serve as a biological control agent of two pest snails, Physella acuta (a bank-dwelling snail) and Melanoides tuberculata (a substratum-dwelling snail). Experiments were carried out in the laboratory and under controlled field conditions. In the

Frida Ben-Ami; Joseph Heller

2001-01-01

461

Detection of spring viremia of carp virus by hybridization with biotinylated DNA probes  

E-print Network

. This enabled us to construct DNA probes to the genome RNA and to the mRNA of SVCV. The single- stranded DNADetection of spring viremia of carp virus by hybridization with biotinylated DNA probes SF hybridization test for SVCV we constructed DNA probes using the technique of reverse transcription

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

462

Evoked potentials to electrical stimulation of the facial nerve in the carp tectum mesencephali  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tectal evoked potentials to stimulation of the facial nerve, containing afferent fibers of nonolfactory chemoreception, in the carp are positive evoked potentials with a latent period of 5 to 25 msec which show no phase shift as the microelectrode is advanced to a depth of 600 µ. Depending on the amplitude and latency of evoked potentials seven active zones differing

N. E. Vasilevskaya; L. N. Stankevich

1976-01-01

463

Some observations on the narcotizing ability of electric currents on the common carp Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

Some effects of alternating current electronarcosis and of rectified current electronarcosis on C. carpio were investigated. In all instances recovery from narcosis was accompanied by convulsive spasms. Haemorrhaging of the gills was also observed to occur. Carp do not appear to be suitable candidates for electronarcosis. PMID:2812707

Barham, W T; Schoonbee, H J; Visser, J G

1989-09-01

464

Sequence, genomic organization and expression of ghrelin receptor in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus.  

PubMed

The growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (GHS-R) is an endogenous receptor for the gut hormone ghrelin. Here we report the identification and characterization of GHS-R1a in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus. The full-length GHS-R1a cDNA contained a 1803-bp coding domain sequence which encoded a peptide of 360 amino acid residues. Comparison analysis revealed that the amino acid sequences of GHS-R1a were highly conserved in vertebrates and shared 97% amino acid identity with zebrafish (Danio rerio), 96% with jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) and 93% with goldfish (Carassius auratus). The GHS-R1a showed the highest level of mRNA expression in the pituitary, followed by the brain and liver, and the lowest expression was observed in the hindgut. Intraperitoneally injected with grass carp ghrelin (50, 100 and 150ng/g body weight (BW)), grass carp showed greater mRNA expression of GHS-R1a in the pituitary compared with saline injected at 0.5h postinjection. It was observed that food deprivation could promote the expression of ghrelin and GHS-R1a in the pituitary, demonstrating that nutritional status can influence the expression of both ghrelin and GHS-R1a in the pituitary. After a 2- or 4-week fast, plasma growth hormone (GH) increased, was positively correlated with ghrelin and GHS-R1a mRNA expression levels in the pituitary. These results suggested that the involvement of ghrelin/GHS-R1a systems in mediating the effects of nutritional status and ghrelin on growth processes in grass carp. PMID:25242546

Cai, Wen-Jing; Yuan, Xiao-Chen; Yuan, Yong-Chao; Xie, Shou-Qi; Gong, Yuan; Su, Hang; Qiao, Yang

2015-01-01

465

Genome Wide Identification, Phylogeny and Expression of Zinc Transporter Genes in Common Carp  

PubMed Central

Background Zinc is an essential trace element in organisms, which serves as a cofactor for hundreds of enzymes that are involved in many pivotal biological processes including growth, development, reproduction and immunity. Therefore, the homeostasis of zinc in the cell is fundamental. The zinc transporter gene family is a large gene family that encodes proteins which regulate the movement of zinc across cellular and intracellular membranes. However, studies on teleost zinc transporters are mainly limited to model species. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified a set of 37 zinc transporters in common carp genome, including 17 from SLC30 family (ZnT), and 20 from SLC39 family (ZIP). Phylogenetic and syntenic analysis revealed that most of the zinc transporters are highly conserved, though recent gene duplication and gene losses do exist. Through examining the copy number of zinc transporter genes across several vertebrate genomes, thirteen zinc transporters in common carp are found to have undergone the gene duplications, including SLC30A1, SLC30A2, SLC30A5, SLC30A7, SLC30A9, SLC30A10, SLC39A1, SLC39A3, SLC39A4, SLC39A5, SLC39A6, SLC39A7 and SLC39A9. The expression patterns of all zinc transporters were established in various tissues, including blood, brain, gill, heart, intestine, liver, muscle, skin, spleen and kidney, and showed that most of the zinc transporters were ubiquitously expressed, indicating the critical role of zinc transporters in common carp. Conclusions To some extent, examination of gene families with detailed phylogenetic or orthology analysis could verify the authenticity and accuracy of assembly and annotation of the recently published common carp whole genome sequences. The gene families are also considered as a unique source for evolutionary studies. Moreover, the whole set of common carp zinc transporters provides an important genomic resource for future biochemical, toxicological and physiological studies of zinc in teleost. PMID:25551462

Feng, Shuaisheng; Sun, Jinsheng; Xu, Peng

2014-01-01

466

Centromere Localization for Bighead Carp (Aristichthys nobilis) through Half-Tetrad Analysis in Diploid Gynogenetic Families  

PubMed Central

Gene-centromere (G-C) mapping provides insights into structural and behavioural properties of chromosomes. In this study, G-C mapping using microsatellite markers and meiogynogenetic (meiotic gynogenetic) families were performed in bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis, 2N?=?48), which belongs to Cyprinidae. A total of 218 microsatellites were selected across 24 linkage groups (LGs) of a recently well-defined genetic linkage map for bighead carp, with 151 being heterozygous in at least one of six dams in diploid meiogynogenetic families. After tests for Mendelian segregation in two diploid control families, 103 microsatellites were used for G-C distance calculation in 383 gynogens. The second division segregation frequency (y) was computed through half-tetrad analyses, and the values ranged from 0 to 0.97 (mean 0.40). High G-C recombination frequencies (over 0.667) were observed in 18 (17.5%) of the loci examined, which revealed a low level of chiasma interferences compared with other fishes studied previously. Distribution of G-C distances across LGs ranged from 0 cM to 48.5 cM (mean 20 cM) under the assumption of complete interference. All 24 centromeres were localized according to their closest-related microsatellites at 95% confident intervals. The average distance between centromeres and their closest-linked markers was 6.1 cM with 15 out of 24 LGs having a distance below 5 cM. Based on the centromere positions in this study, we proposed a formula of 24 m/sm+24 t/st chromosomes with 92 arms for bighead carp, which was mostly in accordance with a previously reported karyotype for bighead carp (24 m/sm+24 st). These results of centromere localization provide a basic framework and important resources for genetics and comparative genomics studies in bighead carp and its closely-related cyprinid species. PMID:24376614

Zhu, Chuankun; Sun, Yanhong; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou

2013-01-01

467

Effect of different river flow rates on biomarker responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

The present study investigated effects of different river flow rates on basal activities of selected biomarkers and the occurrence of oxidative stress in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Juvenile carp were exposed to different river flow rates (5-120 cm/s) by caging for 3 weeks. After this period, one half of the fish were sacrificed and used for analysis. The other half received a single intraperitoneal injection of 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and after 6 days were sacrificed and used for analysis. In order to investigate whether the physical activity of carp in the environment will influence the condition status of carp, following biomarkers were measured - activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and concentration of protein carbonyls (PC). The results showed that different flow rates significantly influenced biochemical biomarkers. The basal activity of GST did not change significantly after exposure to different river flow rates, whereas the activity of CAT increased with increasing river flow rates. The application of 3-MC caused significant increases in GST and CAT activities, but there were no difference between 3-MC control and 3-MC different flow rates. The occurrence of oxidative stress as a result of exposure to increased physical activity, i.e. increased river flow rates, was confirmed by measurement of PC levels - the level of PC increased with increasing river flow rates. Measurement of EROD basal activity showed that at lower river flow rates the EROD activity increased and at higher river flow rates decreased towards control levels demonstrating a close relationship between oxidative stress, PC levels and EROD activity. Obviously, biomarker responses in carp of different condition status can differ substantially. It can be concluded that flow rate may be an important factor in biomonitoring of rivers using biomarkers and since at different locations river water flow rate can vary significantly, the site selection is extremely important for proper design of river biomonitoring studies involving caging. PMID:25463866

Hackenberger, Branimir K; Velki, Mirna; Lon?ari?, Zeljka; Hackenberger, Davorka K; E?imovi?, Sandra

2015-02-01

468

Fatigue life simulation of a rear tow hook assembly of a passenger car  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison between laboratory test data on fatigue crack nucleation in a rear tow hook pin assembly of passenger vehicle and a computational methodology using commercial package software is presented. Fatigue damage is determined using local material response, measured during experimental tests. Experiments were performed simulating the actual conditions in the customer environment. Stress and strain were experimentally measured by

C. L. Petracconi; S. E. Ferreira; E. S. Palma

2010-01-01

469

Twisted acceleration-enlarged Newton-Hooke space-times and conservative force terms  

E-print Network

There are analyzed two classical systems defined on twist-deformed acceleration-enlarged Newton-Hooke space-times - nonrelativistic particle moving in constant field force $\\vec{F}$ and harmonic oscillator model. It is demonstrated that only in the case of canonical twist deformation the force terms generated by space-time noncommutativity remain conservative for both models.

Marcin Daszkiewicz

2011-08-09

470

Assessing College Students' Autonomy over Smoking with the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective, Participants, and Methods: In this study, the authors explored the psychometric properties of the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC) among 300 college students who were current smokers. The HONC is a 10-item survey instrument designed to measure diminished autonomy over smoking, a key aspect of dependence. Autonomy is diminished when…

Wellman, Robert; McMillen, Robert; DiFranza, Joseph

2008-01-01

471

Remarks on l-conformal extension of the Newton-Hooke algebra  

E-print Network

The l-conformal extension of the Newton-Hooke algebra proposed in [J. Math. Phys. 38 (1997) 3810] is formulated in the basis in which the flat space limit is unambiguous. Admissible central charges are specified. The infinite-dimensional Virasoro-Kac-Moody type extension is given.

Anton Galajinsky; Ivan Masterov

2011-06-30

472

Model of hydrogen atom for twisted acceleration-enlarged Newton-Hooke space-times  

E-print Network

We define the model of hydrogen atom for twist-deformed acceleration-enlarged Newton-Hooke space-time. Further, using time-dependent perturbation theory, we find in first step of iteration procedure the solution of corresponding Schroedinger equation as well as the probability of transition between two different energy-eigenstates.

Daszkiewicz, Marcin

2013-01-01

473

Massless hook field in AdS(d+1) from the holographic perspective  

E-print Network

We systematically consider the AdS/CFT correspondence for a simplest mixed-symmetry massless gauge field described by hook Young diagram. We introduce the radial gauge fixing and explicitly solve the Dirichlet problem for the hook field equations. Solution finding conveniently splits in two steps. We first define an incomplete solution characterized by a functional freedom and then impose the boundary conditions. The resulting complete solution is fixed unambiguously up to boundary values. Two-point correlation function of hook primary operators is found via the corresponding boundary effective action computed separately in even and odd boundary dimensions. In particular, the higher-derivative action for boundary conformal hook fields is identified with a singular part of the effective action in even dimensions. The bulk/boundary symmetry transmutation within the Dirichlet boundary problem is explicitly studied. It is shown that traces of boundary fields are Stueckelberg-like modes that can be algebraically gauged away so that boundary fields are traceless.

K. B. Alkalaev

2012-10-13

474

Symposium of Hope: Recovery and Resiliency after the Sandy Hook Tragedy. Crisis Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On February 27 and 28, 2013, The Symposium of Hope: Recovery and Resilience after the Sandy Hook Tragedy, was held in Danbury, Connecticut. The event was hosted by the United Way of Western Connecticut and Western Connecticut State University. Frank J. Zenere, school psychologist and crisis team member in the Division of Student Services of the…

Zenere, Frank J.

2013-01-01

475

Tracks in the Sand: Hooke's Pendulum "Cum Grano Salis"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history of science remembers more than just formal facts about scientific discoveries. These side stories are often inspiring. One of them, the story of an unfulfilled death wish of Jacob Bernoulli regarding spirals, inspired us to look around ourselves. And we saw natural spirals around us, which led to the creation of a Hooke's…

Babovic, Vukota; Babovic, Miloš

2014-01-01

476

Cheating, Hooking Up, and Attention to Romantic Alternatives among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While numerous studies have emphasized more situational factors related to cheating, hooking up, and attention to romantic alternatives (e.g., alcohol use, need fulfillment, opportunity), the present findings support Finkel el al.'s (2012) argument for greater attentiveness to personal factors intrinsic to the individual that may influence…

Buri, John R.; Cromett, Cristina E.; Pappas, Sarah J.

2014-01-01

477

Scour downstream of J-Hook vanes in straight horizontal channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

J-Hook vanes are grade control structures used to stabilize the riverbed. This paper aims to investigate the behaviour of J-Hook vanes as a grade-control structure in straight rivers. Scour downstream of J-Hook vane structures like other grade-control structures depends on the shape of the structure and the river hydraulic conditions. The purpose of this study is classifying the scour geometry and predicting the main scour parameters such as the scour depth, length, width, and the ridge height and length downstream of the J-Hook vanes in straight rivers. Experiments were carried out in a horizontal channel. For each length of the structure, three heights in different hydraulic conditions, including densimetric Froude numbers, water drops, and opening ratios, were tested. Results show that the densimetric Froude number, the drop height, and the height of the structure are the key parameters to form and classify the scour. Equations have been derived using dimensional analysis and experimental data to predict the maximum scour depth, the maximum length of the scour, the maximum scour width, and the maximum height and length of the dune. All the experiments were conducted in clear water conditions.

Pagliara, Stefano; Kurdistani, Sahameddin M.; Santucci, Italo

2013-10-01

478

Micropropagation of Araucaria columnaris Hook. L. Sehgal* O.P. Sehgal P.K. Khosla  

E-print Network

Micropropagation of Araucaria columnaris Hook. L. Sehgal* O.P. Sehgal P.K. Khosla DYSP University. Successful micropropagation of this spe- cies has not been reported. The aim of this study was to use and Conclusion Micropropagation of most of the conifers has not been successful. Out of 6 or so reports

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

479

cry1 and GPA1 signaling genetically interact in hook opening and anthocyanin synthesis in Arabidopsis  

E-print Network

cry1 and GPA1 signaling genetically interact in hook opening and anthocyanin synthesis) null mutant gpa1. Both cry1 and gpa1 also showed reduced accumulation of anthocyanin under blue light of cotyledon unfold- ing and opening (Lin 2002) and anthocyanin accumulat

Jones, Alan M.

480

Expression and Functional Characterization of Xhmg-at-hook Genes in Xenopus laevis  

PubMed Central

High Mobility Group A proteins (HMGA1 and HMGA2) are architectural nuclear factors involved in development, cell differentiation, and cancer formation and progression. Here we report the cloning, developmental expression and functional analysis of a new multi-AT-hook factor in Xenopus laevis (XHMG-AT-hook) that exists in three different isoforms. Xhmg-at-hook1 and 3 isoforms, but not isoform 2, are expressed throughout the entire development of Xenopus, both in the maternal and zygotic phase. Localized transcripts are present in the animal pole in the early maternal phase; during the zygotic phase, mRNA can be detected in the developing central nervous system (CNS), including the eye, and in the neural crest. We show evidence that XHMG-AT-hook proteins differ from typical HMGA proteins in terms of their properties in DNA binding and in protein/protein interaction. Finally, we provide evidence that they are involved in early CNS development and in neural crest differentiation. PMID:23936116

Ros, Gloria; Maurizio, Elisa; Zammitti, Salvina; Milani, Ornella; Onorati, Marco; Vignali, Robert; Manfioletti, Guidalberto

2013-01-01

481

Laterally oscillated and force-balanced micro vibratory rate gyroscope supported by fish hook shape springs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new concept micro vibratory rate gyroscope supported by fish hook shape springs, where the oscillating position sensing and force balancing take place on the wafer surface, has been developed. The gyroscope consists of: a grid-type planar mass; LT shape position sense electrodes for detecting the Coriolis motion; pairs of force-balancing electrodes to improve the linearity and dynamic range; prominence

K. Y. Park; C. W. Lee; Y. S. Oh; Y. H. Cho

1997-01-01

482

Risk Factors and Consequences of Unwanted Sex among University Students: Hooked up, Alcohol, and Stress Response  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first study of unwanted sexual experiences in the collegiate "hooking-up" culture. In a representative sample of 178 students at a small liberal arts university. Twenty-three percent of women and 7% of men surveyed reported one or more experiences of unwanted sexual intercourse. Seventy-eight percent of unwanted vaginal, anal, and oral…

Flack, William F., Jr.; Daubman, Kimberly A.; Caron, Marcia L.; Asadorian, Jenica A.; D'Aureli, Nicole R.; Gigliotti, Shannon N.; Hall, Anna T.; Kiser, Sarah; Stine, Erin R.

2007-01-01

483

Latitude Hooks and Azimuth Kings: How To Build and Use 18 Traditional Navigational Tools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains directions for building and using 18 different traditional navigational tools. Each of the devices discussed has at one time or another been used for the practical business of navigation. Devices featured in this book include the Latitude Hook, Kamal, Astrolabe, Quadrant, Astronomical Ring, Sundial, Nocturnal, Cross Staff,…

Fisher, Dennis

484

The role of acoustics and music theory in the scientific work of Robert Hooke  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work of Robert Hooke (1635–1703) on acoustics and music theory is a larger subject than might seem the case from studies of his career so far available. First, there are his experiments for the Royal Society which can be defined as purely acoustical, which anticipate later experiments performed by men such as J. Sauveur and E. Chladni. Second, there

Penelope Gouk

1980-01-01

485

Empirical Musicology Review Vol. 5, No. 4, 2010 Hooked on Music Information Retrieval  

E-print Network

players, other artists might be capable of satisfying my aching desire. Nowadays, their music will veryEmpirical Musicology Review Vol. 5, No. 4, 2010 176 Hooked on Music Information Retrieval W. BAS DE to ,,Lure(d) into listening: The potential of cognition-based music information retrieval, in which Henkjan

Veltkamp, Remco

486

A double standard for "Hooking Up": How far have we come toward gender equality?  

PubMed

While sexual attitudes have liberalized in the past half century, research is mixed as to whether attitudes have become less gendered over time. Recent studies on college students' sexual and romantic relationships suggest that a sexual double standard continues to organize sexuality on many campuses. Data from the Online College Social Life Survey shed light on students' evaluation of casual sex, or "hooking up." In addition to exploring gendered attitudinal patterns, we use gender structure theory to explore how individual characteristics and normative expectations of campus group affiliations shape attitudes. While three quarters of students do not hold different standards for men and women's hooking up, attitudes are more conservative than liberal, with almost half of students losing respect for men and women who hook up "a lot." However, men are more likely to hold a traditional double standard, while women are more likely to espouse egalitarian conservative attitudes. Individual characteristics, including age, religion, race, social class and sexual orientation are frequently related to sexual attitudes, as are number of hook ups, fraternity/sorority affiliation and varsity athletic participation. PMID:23859725

Allison, Rachel; Risman, Barbara J

2013-09-01

487

Damage Investigation and Redesign of the Latch Assembly for the CH47 Chinook Cargo Hook  

Microsoft Academic Search

The latch assembly, a sub-assembly of the CH- 47 Chinook cargo hook, suffers irreparable damage during operation. The legacy design does not allow for repair, resulting in an unacceptably high rate of replacement. The assembly has been redesigned by instituting structural and material changes that mitigate the damage as well as allow for repair if damage does exceed acceptable limits.

G. Dicks; W. Sequeira; M. Jensen; E. Peterson; S. Thieman

488

Effects of nitrite exposure on blood respiratory properties, acid-base and electrolyte regulation in the carp ( Cyprinus carpio )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult carp were subjected to 1 mM environmental nitrite for 48 h and nitrite uptake and changes in blood respiratory properties, extracellular electrolyte composition and acid-base status were examined.

Frank B. Jensen; Niels A. Andersen; Norbert Heisler

1987-01-01

489

Physiological responses of over-wintering common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) to disturbance by Eurasian otter ( Lutra lutra )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a tame animal, the impact of otter (Lutra lutra) disturbance on over-wintering carp (Cyprinus carpio) was monitored in two experiments, 133 and 140 days, respectively, over two consecutive winters (November–April). The level\\u000a of stress in over-wintering carp exposed to various intensities of disturbance by otters was quantified using biological indicators\\u000a of stress (cortisol, cortisone, indices of nitrogen, carbohydrate, lipid and

LukᚠPoledník; Ji?í ?ehulka; Andreas Kranz; Kate?ina Poledníková; Václav Hlavá?; Hana Kazihnitková

2008-01-01

490

Influences of traditional Chinese medicine on non-specific immunity of Jian Carp ( Cyprinus carpio var . Jian)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulation from Astragalus Root (Radix astragalin seu Hedysari) and Chinese Angelica Root (R. Angelicae Sinensis) at a ratio of 5:1 (w\\/w) on non-specific immunity of Jian carp, Cyprinus carpio var. Jian was investigated. The number of NBT-positive cells in the blood and lysozyme and complement activities in the serum of Carp fed with

Jichang Jian; Zaohe Wu

2004-01-01

491

The Flagellar Soluble Protein FliK Determines the Minimal Length of the Hook in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium  

PubMed Central

The length of the flagellar hook is controlled by the soluble protein FliK. FliK is structurally divided into two halves with distinct functions; the N-terminal half determines hook length, while the C-terminal half switches the secretion substrate specificity, consequently terminating hook elongation. FliK properly achieves both functions only when it is secreted. In a previous paper, we showed that a temperature-sensitive flgE mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, SJW2219, produced basal bodies with short hooks (average length, 25 nm) at 37°C. In this study, we show that the mutant cells grown at 37°C secrete FliK but not flagellin (FliC), indicating that FliK is abortively secreted into the medium when the hook is shorter than 30 nm. In contrast, FliK unfailingly switches the gate modes when the hook is longer than 30 nm. Taking the FliC, FliK, and FlgM secretion patterns into account, we conclude that FliK determines the minimal