Sample records for hook snout carp

  1. Snout Shape in Extant Ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Tennant, Jonathan P.; MacLeod, Norman

    2014-01-01

    Snout shape is a prominent aspect of herbivore feeding ecology, interacting with both forage selectivity and intake rate. Previous investigations have suggested ruminant feeding styles can be discriminated via snout shape, with grazing and browsing species characterised by ‘blunt’ and ‘pointed’ snouts respectively, often with specification of an ‘intermediate’ sub-grouping to represent ambiguous feeding styles and/or morphologies. Snout shape morphology is analysed here using a geometric morphometric approach to compare the two-dimensional profiles of the premaxilla in ventral aspect for a large sample of modern ruminant species, for which feeding modes are known from secondary criteria. Results suggest that, when browsing and grazing ruminants are classified ecologically based on a range of feeding style indicators, they cannot be discriminated unambiguously on the basis of snout profile shape alone. Profile shapes in our sample form a continuum with substantial overlap between groupings and a diverse range of morphologies. Nevertheless, we obtained an 83.8 percent ratio of correct post hoc feeding style categorisations based on the proximity of projected profile shapes to group centroids in the discriminant space. Accordingly, this procedure for identifying species whose feeding strategy is ‘unknown’ can be used with a reasonable degree of confidence, especially if backed-up by additional information. Based on these results we also refine the definitions of snout shape varieties, taking advantage of the descriptive power that geometric morphometrics offers to characterize the morphological disparities observed. The shape variance exhibited by both browsing and grazing ruminants corresponds strongly to body mass, providing further evidence for an interaction between snout shape, feeding style, and body size evolution. Finally, by exploring the role of phylogenetic similarity in snout shape, we find a slight increase in successful categorisation when repeating the analysis with phylogenetic control on the geometric profiles. PMID:25372878

  2. Bighead Carp

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This bighead carp was collected on the Illinois River to learn more about the anatomy and physiology of Asian carp. This information will guide the development of potential biological or chemical controls as part of an integrated pest management approach for natural resource managers. Asian carp ar...

  3. Lunar crane hook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cash, John Wilson, III; Cone, Alan E.; Garolera, Frank J.; German, David; Lindabury, David Peter; Luckado, Marshall Cleveland; Murphey, Craig; Rowell, John Bryan; Wilkinson, Brad

    1988-01-01

    The base and ball hook system is an attachment that is designed to be used on the lunar surface as an improved alternative to the common crane hook and eye system. The design proposed uses an omni-directional ball hook and base to overcome the design problems associated with a conventional crane hook. The base and ball hook is not sensitive to cable twist which would render a robotic lunar crane useless since there is little atmospheric resistance to dampen the motion of an oscillating member. The symmetric characteristics of the ball hook and base eliminates manual placement of the ball hook into the base; commonly associated with the typical hook and eye stem. The major advantage of the base and ball hook system is it's ease of couple and uncouple modes that are advantages during unmanned robotic lunar missions.

  4. Silver Carp Larvae

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This image of live silver carp larvae was taken with a microscope camera at the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become established....

  5. Silver Carp Larva

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This image of a live silver carp larva was taken with a microscope camera at the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become established....

  6. Silver Carp Egg

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This image of a live silver carp egg specimen was taken with a microscope camera at the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become established....

  7. Silver and Bighead Carp

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    These silver and bighead carp were collected on the Illinois River to learn more about the anatomy and physiology of Asian carp. This information will guide the development of potential biological or chemical controls as part of an integrated pest management approach for natural resource managers. ...

  8. Juvenile Bighead Carp

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    These juvenile bighead carps are used to find potential physical, biological or chemical controls as part of an integrated pest management approach for natural resource managers. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become esta...

  9. Juvenile Silver Carp

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    These juvenile silver carps are used to find potential physical, biological or chemical controls as part of an integrated pest management approach for natural resource managers. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become estab...

  10. Injury rates, hooking efficiency and mortality potential of largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoides) captured on circle hooks and octopus hooks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven J. Cooke; Cory D. Suski; Michael J. Siepker; Kenneth G. Ostrand

    2003-01-01

    We compared the injury rates, hooking efficiency, and mortality potential of circle hooks and the more conventional octopus hooks for largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) captured on minnows in central Illinois. Fish captured on circle hooks (N=125) were hooked less deeply, exhibited less bleeding, and were more easily removed from the hook than were those captured on octopus hooks (N=134). The

  11. Macrogeographic genetic variation in broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris).

    PubMed

    Villela, Priscilla Marqui Schmidt; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann; Piña, Carlos Ignacio; Verdade, Luciano M

    2008-12-01

    Broad-snouted caiman's (Caiman latirostris) geographic distribution comprises one of the widest latitudinal ranges among all crocodilians. In this study we analyzed the relationship between geographic distance (along the species latitudinal range) and genetic differentiation using DNA microsatellite loci developed for C. latirostris and Alligator mississippiensis. The results suggest that there is a consistent relationship between geographic distance and genetic differentiation; however, other biogeographical factors seem to be relevant. The Atlantic Chain (Serra do Mar) seems to be an effective geographic barrier, as well as the relatively narrow (< or =1.5 km) sea channel between Cardoso Island and the continent. In addition, coastal populations seem to have been well connected in recent geological time (Pleistocene 16,000 years ago) all along the eastern Brazilian coast. Further studies should focus on the São Francisco River drainage, which is still poorly known for this species. PMID:18661469

  12. THE INTRAEPIDERMAL INNERVATION OF THE SNOUT SKIN OF THE OPOSSUM

    PubMed Central

    Munger, Bryce L.

    1965-01-01

    The intraepidermal innervation of the snout skin of the opossum has been studied with the light and electron microscope. Numerous large nerve fibers loose their myelin sheath in the superficial dermis and pass into the epidermis. The basement membranes of the epidermis and Schwann cell become continuous at the point of entry of the neurite into the epidermis. Within the epidermis, the neurite is associated with a specialized secretory epidermal cell, termed a Merkel cell. This cell has many secretory granules apposed to the neurite. The Merkel cells are epidermal cells since they have desmosomes between them and adjacent epidermal cells. The neurite in the stratum spinosum is enveloped by Schwann cells in a manner analogous to the Schwann cell investment of unmyelinated neurites. In the upper stratum spinosum the nerve fiber evidences changes which can be interpreted as degenerative. The Merkel cell-neurite complex is interpreted as representing a sensory receptor unit. PMID:5859024

  13. Identification and expression analysis on bactericidal permeability-increasing protein/lipopolysaccharide-binding protein of blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala.

    PubMed

    Tang, Leilei; Liang, Yinhua; Jiang, Yuhong; Liu, Shaojun; Zhang, Fuyun; He, Xia; Wang, Tianyi; Zhou, Yi; Zhong, Huan; Yan, Jinpeng

    2015-08-01

    Bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (BPI) and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) belong to the lipid transfer protein/lipopolysaccharide-binding protein family and play a critical role in the innate immune response to Gram-negative bacteria. In the present study, a novel BPI/LBP from blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala (maBPI/LBP) was isolated by RACE techniques. The open reading frame (ORF) of maBPI/LBP gene encoded a polypeptide of 474 amino acids with a putative 18-aa hydrophobic signal peptide. Structurally, the maBPI/LBP showed highly similar to those of BPI/LBPs from invertebrate and teleost, LBPs and BPIs from mammal, which contained an N-terminal BPI/LBP/CETP domain BPI1 with a LPS-binding domain, a C-terminal BPI/LBP/CETP domain BPI2, and proline-rich domain. The homologous identities of deduced amino acid sequences displayed that the maBPI/LBP possessed significant similarity (96.61% and 90.07%) with those of grass carp and common carp, respectively. The recombinant protein of maBPI/LBP showed effectively kill Gram-negative bacteria. The maBPI/LBP gene was expressed in a wide range of normal tested tissues, with the highest expression levels in the kidney. The experiments revealed that the mRNA expression of maBPI/LBP in spleen considerably up-regulated from 2 h to 8 h post LPS stimulation, and peaked rapidly at 2 h (7.40-fold, P < 0.05), which confirmed that maBPI/LBP was the absolute sensitive to LPS stimulation. Furthermore, the level of maBPI/LBP mRNA expression reached the maximum for a second time at 24 h after LPS stimulation. These results suggested that maBPI/LBP was a constitutive and inducible acute-phase protein contributing to the host immune defense against pathogenic bacterial infection in M. amblycephala. This study will further our understanding of the function of BPI/LBP and the molecular mechanism of innate immunity in teleost. PMID:25982396

  14. Hook Proteins: Association with Alzheimer Pathology and Regulatory Role of Hook3 in Amyloid Beta Generation

    PubMed Central

    Arsalan-Werner, Annika; Hilbrich, Isabel; Jäger, Carsten; Flach, Katharina; Suttkus, Anne; Lachmann, Ingolf; Arendt, Thomas; Holzer, Max

    2015-01-01

    Defects in intracellular transport are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Hook proteins are a family of cytoplasmic linker proteins that participate in endosomal transport. In this study we show that Hook1 and Hook3 are expressed in neurons while Hook2 is predominantly expressed in astrocytes. Furthermore, Hook proteins are associated with pathological hallmarks in AD; Hook1 and Hook3 are localized to tau aggregates and Hook2 to glial components within amyloid plaques. Additionally, the expression of Hook3 is reduced in AD. Modelling of Hook3 deficiency in cultured cells leads to slowing of endosomal transport and increases ?-amyloid production. We propose that Hook3 plays a role in pathogenic events exacerbating AD. PMID:25799409

  15. 29 CFR 1915.113 - Shackles and hooks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Gear and Equipment for Rigging and Materials Handling § 1915.113 Shackles and hooks. The provisions...the hook since loading the point overstresses and bends or springs the hook. (3) Hooks shall be inspected periodically...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.113 - Shackles and hooks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Gear and Equipment for Rigging and Materials Handling § 1915.113 Shackles and hooks. The provisions...the hook since loading the point overstresses and bends or springs the hook. (3) Hooks shall be inspected periodically...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.113 - Shackles and hooks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Gear and Equipment for Rigging and Materials Handling § 1915.113 Shackles and hooks. The provisions...the hook since loading the point overstresses and bends or springs the hook. (3) Hooks shall be inspected periodically...

  18. 29 CFR 1915.113 - Shackles and hooks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Gear and Equipment for Rigging and Materials Handling § 1915.113 Shackles and hooks. The provisions...the hook since loading the point overstresses and bends or springs the hook. (3) Hooks shall be inspected periodically...

  19. 29 CFR 1915.113 - Shackles and hooks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Gear and Equipment for Rigging and Materials Handling § 1915.113 Shackles and hooks. The provisions...the hook since loading the point overstresses and bends or springs the hook. (3) Hooks shall be inspected periodically...

  20. Stress, Strain and Hooke's Law

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students are introduced to Hooke's law as well as stress-strain relationships. First they learn the governing equations, then they work through several example problems, first individually, then as a class. Through the lesson's two-part associated activity, students 1) explore Hooke's law by experimentally determining an unknown spring constant, and then 2) apply what they've learned to create a strain graph depicting a tumor using Microsoft Excel®. After the activities, the lesson concludes with a stress-strain quiz to assess each student's comprehension of the concepts.

  1. HookScout: Proactive Binary-Centric Hook Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heng Yin; Pongsin Poosankam; Steve Hanna; Dawn Xiaodong Song

    2010-01-01

    In order to obtain and maintain control, kernel malware usu- ally makes persistent control flow modifications (i.e., installing hooks). To avoid detection, malware developers have started to target function pointers in kernel data structures, especially those dynamically allocated from heaps and memory pools. Function pointer modification is stealthy and the attack surface is large; thus, this type of attacks is

  2. Time(24-hr) Hooks Branchline Floats

    E-print Network

    (m) Seabird Mitigation HaulDir. Begin . End . Begin . F End . R Hooks Branchline Floats Type* # Float line Type* Measured length Weight (g) Shark line on floats? Hook type* Total set *relate to Types described Other explain in comments #12;Bait Light devices Species 0 None 3 Glow bead kg 1 4 Other Hook No. 2

  3. Covariant Formulation of Hooke's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gron, O.

    1981-01-01

    Introducing a four-vector strain and a four-force stress, Hooke's law is written as a four-vector equation. This formulation is shown to clarify seemingly paradoxical results in connection with uniformly accelerated motion, and rotational motion with angular acceleration. (Author/JN)

  4. Field Colonization of the Melaleuca Snout Beetle ( Oxyops vitiosa) in South Florida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thai K. Van; Min Rayachhetry; Gary R. Buckingham; F. Allen Dray; Sue A. Wineriter; Matthew F. Purcell; Paul D. Pratt

    2000-01-01

    The Australian melaleuca snout beetle, Oxyops vitiosa Pascoe, a biological control agent of Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S. T. Blake, was first released in south Florida during spring 1997. Field-emerged adults appeared 3 months later, which affirmed survival of pupae despite occasional flooding. Releases at 12 other locations totaled more than 1500 adults and 6700 larvae by June 1998. Populations established

  5. Impact Statement 2014: Cornell Breeds First Alfalfa Variety With Resistance to Alfalfa Snout Beetle

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    With Resistance to Alfalfa Snout Beetle Impact Summary: Cornell plant breeders and entomologists have developed are often mistaken for winter injury since the majority of plants die after the last harvest and before spring growth. Response: Cornell entomologists have developed an indoor procedure for applying ASB

  6. A Long-Snouted Predatory Dinosaur from Africa and the Evolution of Spinosaurids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul C. Sereno; Allison L. Beck; Didier B. Dutheil; Boubacar Gado; Hans C. E. Larsson; Gabrielle H. Lyon; Jonathan D. Marcot; Oliver W. M. Rauhut; Rudyard W. Sadleir; Christian A. Sidor; David D. Varricchio; Gregory P. Wilson; Jeffrey A. Wilson

    1998-01-01

    Fossils discovered in Lower Cretaceous (Aptian) rocks in the Te «ne «re « Desert of central Niger provide new information about spinosaurids, a peculiar group of piscivorous theropod dinosaurs. The remains, which represent a new genus and species, reveal the extreme elongation and transverse compression of the spinosaurid snout. The postcranial bones include blade-shaped vertebral spines that form a low

  7. Cranial architecture of tube-snouted gasterosteiformes (Syngnathus rostellatus and Hippocampus capensis).

    PubMed

    Leysen, Heleen; Jouk, Philippe; Brunain, Marleen; Christiaens, Joachim; Adriaens, Dominique

    2010-03-01

    The long snout of pipefishes and seahorses (Syngnathidae, Gasterosteiformes) is formed as an elongation of the ethmoid region. This is in contrast to many other teleosts with elongate snouts (e.g., butterflyfishes) in which the snout is formed as an extension of the jaws. Syngnathid fishes perform very fast suction feeding, accomplished by powerful neurocranial elevation and hyoid retraction. Clearly, suction through a long and narrow tube and its hydrodynamic implications can be expected to require certain adaptations in the cranium, especially in musculoskeletal elements of the feeding apparatus. Not much is known about which skeletal elements actually support the snout and what the effect of elongation is on related structures. Here, we give a detailed morphological description of the cartilaginous and bony feeding apparatus in both juvenile and adult Syngnathus rostellatus and Hippocampus capensis. Our results are compared with previous morphological studies of a generalized teleost, Gasterosteus aculeatus. We found that the ethmoid region is elongated early during development, with the ethmoid plate, the hyosymplectic, and the basihyal cartilage being extended in the chondrocranium. In the juveniles of both species almost all bones are forming, although only as a very thin layer. The elongation of the vomeral, mesethmoid, quadrate, metapterygoid, symplectic, and preopercular bones is already present. Probably, because of the long and specialized parental care which releases advanced developmental stages from the brooding pouch, morphology of the feeding apparatus of juveniles is already very similar to that of the adults. We describe morphological features related to snout elongation that may be considered adaptations for suction feeding; e.g. the peculiar shape of the interhyal bone and its saddle-shaped articulation with the posterior ceratohyal bone might aid in explosive hyoid retraction by reducing the risk of hyoid dislocation. PMID:19798732

  8. Utility of snout wipe samples for influenza A virus surveillance in exhibition swine populations

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Jody L; Nelson, Sarah W; Workman, Jeffrey D; Slemons, Richard D; Szablewski, Christine M; Nolting, Jacqueline M; Bowman, Andrew S

    2014-01-01

    Background Sporadic influenza A virus (IAV) outbreaks in humans and swine have resulted from commingling of large numbers of people and pigs at agricultural fairs in the United States. Current antemortem IAV surveillance strategies in swine require collecting nasal swabs, which entails restraining pigs with snares. Restraint is labor-intensive for samplers, stressful for pigs, and displeasing to onlookers because pigs often resist and vocalize. Objective To evaluate the utility of snout wipes in exhibition swine as a method to make IAV surveillance efforts less intrusive, less labor-intensive, and more widely accepted among pig owners and exhibition officials. Methods Three materials (rayon/polyester gauze, cotton gauze, and Swiffer® Sweeper dry cloths) were inoculated with IAV, and viral recoveries from these materials were quantified using qRT-PCR and TCID50 assays. In a field trial, paired cotton gauze snout wipes and gold standard polyester-tipped nasal swabs were collected from 553 pigs representing 29 agricultural fairs and the qualitative results of rRT-PCR and viral isolation were compared. Results and Conclusions Viral recoveries from potential snout wipe materials ranged from 0·26 to 1·59 log10 TCID50/ml less than that of the positive control in which no substrate was included; rayon/polyester gauze performed significantly worse than the other materials. In the field, snout wipes and nasal swabs had high levels of agreement for both rRT-PCR detection and virus isolation. Although further investigation and refinement of the sampling method is needed, results indicate that snout wipes will facilitate convenient and undisruptive IAV surveillance in pigs at agricultural fairs. PMID:25043408

  9. Reproductive condition and occurrence of intersex in bighead carp and silver carp in the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papoulias, D.M.; Chapman, D.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the reproductive biology of the exotic bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix in the Missouri River. In order to fill this gap in understanding, herein is described the reproductive condition of these Asian carps. Evidence is presented which indicates that bighead and silver carp in the Missouri River have a protracted spawning period that extends from early spring through fall and some individual bighead and silver carp are spawning multiple times during a reproductive season. Although bighead and silver carps are successfully maturing and spawning in the Missouri River some reproductive abnormalities such as intersex, atresia, and sterility were observed. Knowledge of the reproductive activity of these invasive carps may be useful to resource managers tasked with their control. Furthermore, the reproductive abnormalities observed should be considered when evaluating the environmental condition of the Missouri River relative to supporting a healthy fish fauna. ?? Springer 2006.

  10. CARP: Fishing for Novel Mechanisms of Neovascularization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan E Samaras; Yubin Shi; Jeffrey M Davidson

    2006-01-01

    Gene expression profiling of mouse skin wounds has led to the discovery of numerous target genes that may have therapeutic or diagnostic value. Among these, cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP, ankrd1) expression was markedly and persistently elevated in several cutaneous compartments. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of CARP and its regulation in biological systems. In addition to

  11. What is Hooking Up? Examining Definitions of Hooking Up in Relation to Behavior and Normative Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Melissa A.; Atkins, David C.; Blayney, Jessica A.; Dent, David V.; Kaysen, Debra L.

    2012-01-01

    Research has demonstrated ambiguity about the definition of hooking up among college students. The current research examined whether there were multiple hooking up definitions among college students and how different definitions might be associated with participant's own hooking up behavior and normative perceptions of peer hooking up behavior. A random sample (N = 1,468) of undergraduates (56.4% female) completed a Web-based survey that was comprised of measures of drinking and sexual behavior. Open-ended definitions of hooking up were content coded and analyzed using a mixture model to explore discrete definitions of hooking up among college students. Findings indicated three clusters of student definitions of hooking up. Cluster 1 had the broadest definition, referring to sex in general, not specific sexual acts, and to making out. Cluster 2 placed an emphasis on interpersonal and social aspects. Cluster 3 defined hooking up as sex with notable references to specific sexual acts. Results further indicated that hooking up behavior and normative perceptions differentiated these three groups of definitions. Clinical implications regarding the inconsistency of student definitions of hooking up and how they may impact negative consequences associated with hooking up are discussed. PMID:23057805

  12. Ultraviolet radiation-induced genotoxic effects in the broad-snouted caiman, Caiman latirostris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. G. Schaumburg; G. L. Poletta; A. Imhof; P. A. Siroski

    2010-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has many positive effects, but overexposure of organisms can generate alterations in DNA, either directly or indirectly, inducing mutagenic and cytotoxic lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects of UVA–B\\/visible light in the broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris), using the micronucleus (MN) test as a biomarker.Seventy two juvenile caimans, approximately 5 months old,

  13. Writers Draw Visual Hooks: Children's Inquiry into Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, S. Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Drawing and writing in response to picturebook read-alouds, elementary children construct varying "visual hooks" in their sketches as effective visual devices for extending ideas for writing: the bubble hook, the zoom hook, and the group hook. This article reports on a 12-week qualitative study in which children in second grade develop as writers…

  14. Can Soft Water Limit Bighead Carp and Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) Invasions?

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is concern that the non-native bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix), now found in many large rivers of the Mississippi River Basin, may spread to other regions. However, evidence suggests that their eggs may not be able to survive in soft ...

  15. Limnological Factors Influencing Growth of Cage-Cultured Bighead Carp ? x Silver Carp ? Hybrids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Bayne; Ash K. Rai; Purushottam L. Joshi; John C. Williams

    1993-01-01

    Four 2-m cages each stocked with 120 bighead carp ? X silver carp ? hybrids were placed in each of four ponds varying in trophic status from mesotrophic to hypereutrophic. Fish were cultured, without feeding, from 13 March to 1 October, 1987. All fish survived but lost weight (-0.37 g\\/fish\\/day) in the mesotrophic pond. Maximum fish growth rate occured in

  16. Applying Hooke's Law to Cancer Detection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

    Students explore Hooke's law while working in small groups at their lab benches. They collect displacement data for springs with unknown spring constants, k, by adding various masses of known weight. After exploring Hooke's law and answering a series of application questions, students apply their new understanding to explore a tissue of known surface area. Students then use the necessary relationships to depict a cancerous tumor amidst normal tissue by creating a graph in Microsoft Excel.

  17. Kinematics of Hooke universal joint robot wrists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinney, William S., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The singularity problem associated with wrist mechanisms commonly found on industrial manipulators can be alleviated by redesigning the wrist so that it functions as a three-axis gimbal system. This paper discussess the kinematics of gimbal robot wrists made of one and two Hooke universal joints. Derivations of the resolved rate motion control equations for the single and double Hooke universal joint wrists are presented using the three-axis gimbal system as a theoretical wrist model.

  18. Hook Lengths and Contents Richard P. Stanley

    E-print Network

    and Contents ­ p. 1 #12;A curiosity Let (w) denote the number of cycles of w Sn. Then 1 n! u,vSn q(uvu-1 v-1 ) = n u (q + cu). Hook Lengths and Contents ­ p. 1 #12;A curiosity Let (w) denote the number of cycles × Sn : (uvu-1 v-1 ) = n - k} Hook Lengths and Contents ­ p. 1 #12;Another curiosity wSn q(w2 ) = n f u

  19. Inferences of Diplodocoid (Sauropoda: Dinosauria) Feeding Behavior from Snout Shape and Microwear Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Background As gigantic herbivores, sauropod dinosaurs were among the most important members of Mesozoic communities. Understanding their ecology is fundamental to developing a complete picture of Jurassic and Cretaceous food webs. One group of sauropods in particular, Diplodocoidea, has long been a source of debate with regard to what and how they ate. Because of their long lineage duration (Late Jurassic-Late Cretaceous) and cosmopolitan distribution, diplodocoids formed important parts of multiple ecosystems. Additionally, fortuitous preservation of a large proportion of cranial elements makes them an ideal clade in which to examine feeding behavior. Methodology/Principal Findings Hypotheses of various browsing behaviors (selective and nonselective browsing at ground-height, mid-height, or in the upper canopy) were examined using snout shape (square vs. round) and dental microwear. The square snouts, large proportion of pits, and fine subparallel scratches in Apatosaurus, Diplodocus, Nigersaurus, and Rebbachisaurus suggest ground-height nonselective browsing; the narrow snouts of Dicraeosaurus, Suuwassea, and Tornieria and the coarse scratches and gouges on the teeth of Dicraeosaurus suggest mid-height selective browsing in those taxa. Comparison with outgroups (Camarasaurus and Brachiosaurus) reinforces the inferences of ground- and mid-height browsing and the existence of both non-selective and selective browsing behaviors in diplodocoids. Conclusions/Significance These results reaffirm previous work suggesting the presence of diverse feeding strategies in sauropods and provide solid evidence for two different feeding behaviors in Diplodocoidea. These feeding behaviors can subsequently be tied to paleoecology, such that non-selective, ground-height behaviors are restricted to open, savanna-type environments. Selective browsing behaviors are known from multiple sauropod clades and were practiced in multiple environments. PMID:21494685

  20. Newton-Hooke Limit of Beltrami-de Sitter Spacetime, Principles of Galilei-Hooke's Relativity and Postulate on Newton-Hooke Universal Time

    E-print Network

    Chao-Guang Huang; Han-Ying Guo; Yu Tian; Zhan Xu; Bin Zhou

    2007-08-15

    Based on the Beltrami-de Sitter spacetime, we present the Newton-Hooke model under the Newton-Hooke contraction of the $BdS$ spacetime with respect to the transformation group, algebra and geometry. It is shown that in Newton-Hooke space-time, there are inertial-type coordinate systems and inertial-type observers, which move along straight lines with uniform velocity. And they are invariant under the Newton-Hooke group. In order to determine uniquely the Newton-Hooke limit, we propose the Galilei-Hooke's relativity principle as well as the postulate on Newton-Hooke universal time. All results are readily extended to the Newton-Hooke model as a contraction of Beltrami-anti-de Sitter spacetime with negative cosmological constant.

  1. Food Preferences, Food Intake, and Growth of the F1 Hybrid of Grass Carp ? X Bighead Carp ?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leroy M. Young; James P. Monaghan Jr; Roy C. Heidinger

    1983-01-01

    Hybrid carp from the cross grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella ? X bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis ? preferred filamentous algae and Najas guadalupensis over Ceratophyllum demersum. Medium-sized (273 g) and large hybrids (360 g) consumed more plant material and grew faster than small hybrids (77 g) at 14 and 22 C in aquaria. Aquarium data suggest that it will require at

  2. Feeding habits of the deep-snouted pipefish Syngnathus typhle in a temperate coastal lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Frederico; Erzini, Karim; Gonçalves, Jorge M. S.

    2007-03-01

    Feeding habits of Syngnathus typhle were determined based on monthly sampling during experimental fishing in a coastal lagoon (Ria Formosa, South Portugal) from April 2001 to May 2002. The gut contents of 856 individuals were analysed and quantified with numerical and gravimetric methods, as well as with some complementary indices and measures (vacuity, fullness and relative importance). In this study, this species fed mainly on Copepoda, Mysidacea, small caridean grass shrimps (Hippolytidae and Palaemonidae) and small fishes (Gobiidae) and to a lesser degree on other small invertebrates. No significant differences were found between the diets of males and females. However, significant differences in the fullness indexes of both sexes were observed during the reproductive period. Significant differences in the diet among seasons were also verified but no seasonal trends were discovered. Snout length showed a linear increase with growth while mouth area and total length displayed an allometric relation. Mouth shape varied between an ellipse and an almost perfect circle. The increase in mouth area and snout length as S. typhle grows contributed to the observed ontogenic diet shift with specimens smaller than 10 cm feeding almost exclusively on Copepoda, medium sized specimens feeding mainly on Hippolytidae and Mysidacea, while larger specimens preyed on Hippolytidae, Palaemonidae and Gobiidae. Prey size generally increased with size of S. typhle.

  3. Physiological changes in carps induced by pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Hanke, W.; Gluth, G.; Bubel, H.; Mueller, R.

    1983-04-01

    Several pollutants like DDT, atrazine, PCP, and others induce changes of cortisol and glucose levels in serum, variations of the amount of liver glycogen and liver function, and exert changes of the activity of gill ATPase and acetylcholinesterase in brain and serum of carps. There is always a biphasic response, an increase of concentration or enzyme activity for a short time, and a decrease or inhibition of the enzymes after a longer exposure to the pollutants. The time scale, the duration of the period of increase and that of decrease, depends on the concentration and the toxicity of the pollutants. The influence of the pollutants in normal fresh water was compared with the effects occurring in carps acclimated to 1.2% salt water. This condition enables one to show that the carps are more sensitive to the pollutants under this condition. All responses are unspecific. Advice for the use of these tests as criteria for water quality are given.

  4. Hooking Up and Identity Development of Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kooyman, Leslie; Pierce, Gloria; Zavadil, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Hooking up generally involves casual sex with noncommittal partners. Hooking up is prevalent on college campuses today and can negatively affect the identity development of female students. The authors examined this phenomenon with a feminist developmental perspective, evaluating hooking up in the context of sexual risk taking with physical and…

  5. Cloud Hooks: Security and Privacy Issues in Cloud Computing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne A. Jansen

    2011-01-01

    In meteorology, the most destructive extratropical cyclones evolve with the formation of a bent-back front and cloud head separated from the main polar-front, creating a hook that completely encircles a pocket of warm air with colder air. The most damaging winds occur near the tip of the hook. The cloud hook formation provides a useful analogy for cloud computing, in

  6. The Hispaniolan (Haitian) Boa, Chilabothrus striatus Fisher 1856, is a large (max snout-vent length [SVL

    E-print Network

    Revell, Liam

    The Hispaniolan (Haitian) Boa, Chilabothrus striatus Fisher 1856, is a large (max snout-vent length boas and one introduced boa occur. The endangered Virgin Islands Boa (C. monensis granti) occurs). The introduced boa (Boa constrictor) occurs throughout western Puerto Rico (Reynolds et al., 2013), and has been

  7. Short-Snouted Toothless Ichthyosaur from China Suggests Late Triassic Diversification of Suction Feeding Ichthyosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Sander, P. Martin; Chen, Xiaohong; Cheng, Long; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    Background Ichthyosaurs were an important group of Mesozoic marine reptiles and existed from the Early Triassic to the early Late Cretaceous. Despite a great diversity in body shapes and feeding adaptations, all share greatly enlarged eyes, an elongated rostrum with numerous conical teeth, and a streamlined body. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on new material from China and the restudy of Shastasaurus pacificus, we here reinterpret the classical large-bodied Late Triassic ichthyosaur genus Shastasaurus to differ greatly from the standard ichthyosaurian body plan, indicating much greater morphological diversity and range of feeding adaptations in ichthyosaurs than previously recognized. Phylogenetic analysis indicates a monophyletic clade consisting of the giant Shonisaurus sikanniensis, Guanlingsaurus liangae, and Shastasaurus pacificus to which the genus name Shastasaurus is applied. Shastasaurus liangae comb. nov. is from the Late Triassic (Carnian) Xiaowa Formation of Guizhou Province, southwestern China. The species combines a diminutive head with an entirely toothless and greatly reduced snout. The species also has by far the highest vertebral count among ichthyosaurs (86 presacral vertebrae and >110 caudal vertebrae), a count that is also very high for tetrapods in general. A reduced toothless snout and a diminutive head is also apparently present in the giant S. sikanniensis and presumably in S. pacificus. Conclusions/Significance In analogy to many modern odontocetes, Shastasaurus is interpreted as a specialized suction feeder on unshelled cephalopods and fish, suggesting a unique but widespread Late Triassic diversification of toothless, suction-feeding ichthyosaurs. Suction feeding has not been hypothesized for any of the other diverse marine reptiles of the Mesozoic before, but in Shastasaurus may be linked to the Late Triassic minimum in atmospheric oxygen. PMID:21625429

  8. Predator-induced morphology enhances escape locomotion in crucian carp

    PubMed Central

    Domenici, Paolo; Turesson, Håkan; Brodersen, Jakob; Brönmark, Christer

    2007-01-01

    Fishes show a remarkable diversity of shapes which have been associated with their swimming abilities and anti-predator adaptations. The crucian carp (Carassius carassius) provides an extreme example of phenotypic plasticity in body shape which makes it a unique model organism for evaluating the relationship between body form and function in fishes. In crucian carp, a deep body is induced by the presence of pike (Esox lucius), and this results in lower vulnerability to gape-limited predators, such as pike itself. Here, we demonstrate that deep-bodied crucian carp attain higher speed, acceleration and turning rate during anti-predator responses than shallow-bodied crucian carp. Therefore, a predator-induced morphology in crucian carp enhances their escape locomotor performance. The deep-bodied carp also show higher percentage of muscle mass. Therefore, their superior performance in escape swimming may be due to a combination of higher muscle power and higher thrust. PMID:17971327

  9. Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.

    2011-12-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance and reducing perturbations induced by this invasive species.

  10. A long-snouted, multihorned tyrannosaurid from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Brusatte, Stephen L.; Carr, Thomas D.; Erickson, Gregory M.; Bever, Gabe S.; Norell, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Tyrannosaurid theropods are characterized by a generalized body plan, and all well-known taxa possess deep and robust skulls that are optimized for exerting powerful bite forces. The fragmentary Late Cretaceous Alioramus appears to deviate from this trend, but its holotype and only known specimen is incomplete and poorly described. A remarkable new tyrannosaurid specimen from the Maastrichtian (Late Cretaceous) of Mongolia, including a nearly complete and well-preserved skull and an extensive postcranium, represents a new species of Alioramus, Alioramus altai. This specimen conclusively demonstrates that Alioramus is a small, gracile, long-snouted carnivore that deviates from other tyrannosaurids in its body plan and presumably its ecological habits. As such, it increases the range of morphological diversity in one of the most familiar extinct clades. Phylogenetic analysis places Alioramus deep within the megapredatory Tyrannosauridae, and within the tyrannosaurine subclade that also includes Tarbosaurus and Tyrannosaurus. Both pneumatization and ornamentation are extreme compared with other tyrannosaurids, and the skull contains eight discrete horns. The new specimen is histologically aged at nine years old but is smaller than other tyrannosaurids of similar age. Despite its divergent cranial form, Alioramus is characterized by a similar sequence of ontogenetic changes as the megapredatory Tyrannosaurus and Albertosaurus, indicating that ontogenetic change is conservative in tyrannosaurids. PMID:19805035

  11. A basal ichthyosauriform with a short snout from the Lower Triassic of China.

    PubMed

    Motani, Ryosuke; Jiang, Da-Yong; Chen, Guan-Bao; Tintori, Andrea; Rieppel, Olivier; Ji, Cheng; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2015-01-22

    The incompleteness of the fossil record obscures the origin of many of the more derived clades of vertebrates. One such group is the Ichthyopterygia, a clade of obligatory marine reptiles that appeared in the Early Triassic epoch, without any known intermediates. Here we describe a basal ichthyosauriform from the upper Lower Triassic (about 248 million years ago) of China, whose primitive skeleton indicates possible amphibious habits. It is smaller than ichthyopterygians and had unusually large flippers that probably allowed limited terrestrial locomotion. It also retained characteristics of terrestrial diapsid reptiles, including a short snout and body trunk. Unlike more-derived ichthyosauriforms, it was probably a suction feeder. The new species supports the sister-group relationships between ichthyosauriforms and Hupehsuchia, the two forming the Ichthyosauromorpha. Basal ichthyosauromorphs are known exclusively from south China, suggesting that the clade originated in the region, which formed a warm and humid tropical archipelago in the Early Triassic. The oldest unequivocal record of a sauropterygian is also from the same stratigraphic unit of the region. PMID:25383536

  12. The carp-goldfish nucleocytoplasmic hybrid has mitochondria from the carp as the nuclear donor species.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guangfu; Zou, Guiwei; Liu, Xiangjiang; Liang, Hongwei; Li, Zhong; Hu, Shaona

    2014-02-25

    It is widely accepted that mitochondria and its DNA (mtDNA) exhibit strict maternal inheritance, with sperm contributing no or non-detectable mitochondria to the next generation. In fish, nuclear transfer (NT) through the combination of a donor nucleus and an enucleated oocyte can produce fertile nucleocytoplasmic hybrids (NCHs) even between different genera and subfamilies. One of the best studied fish NCHs is CyCa produced by transplanting the nuclei plus cytoplasm from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis) into the oocytes of the wild goldfish (Carassius auratus), which has been propagated by self-mating for three generations. These NCH fish thus provide a unique model to study the origin of mitochondria. Here we report the complete mtDNA sequence of the CyCa hybrid and its parental species carp and goldfish as nuclear donor and cytoplasm host, respectively. Interestingly, the mtDNA of NCH fish CyCa is 99.69% identical to the nuclear donor species carp, and 89.25% identical to the oocyte host species goldfish. Furthermore, an amino acid sequence comparison of 13 mitochondrial proteins reveals that CyCa is 99.68% identical to the carp and 87.68% identical to the goldfish. On an mtDNA-based phylogenetic tree, CyCa is clustered with the carp but separated from the goldfish. A real-time PCR analysis revealed the presence of carp mtDNA but the absence of goldfish mtDNA. These results demonstrate--for the first time to our knowledge--that the mtDNA of a NCH such as CyCa fish may originate from its nuclear donor rather than its oocyte host. PMID:24365595

  13. Growth hormone gene transfer in common carp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Wu; Yonghua Sun; Zuoyan Zhu

    2003-01-01

    The first successful case of transgenic fish was achieved in 1984. It is in a model system that the integration and expression of recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) in host red common carp (Cyprinus carpio, red var.) have been thoroughly studied. Recently, the integration sites have been recovered and characterized. Compared with non-transgenic peers, hGH-transgenic fish are prior in dietary

  14. Tracks in the sand: Hooke’s pendulum cum grano salis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babovi?, Vukota; Babovi?, Miloš

    2014-01-01

    The history of science remembers more than just formal facts about scientific discoveries. These side stories are often inspiring. One of them, the story of an unfulfilled death wish of Jacob Bernoulli regarding spirals, inspired us to look around ourselves. And we saw natural spirals around us, which led to the creation of a Hooke’s pendulum, an artificial creator of Bernoulli’s spira mirabilis. Mathematics helped us to investigate that strange curve and to control this little sandy route to making our predecessor’s wish come true.

  15. Hook-Up Sexual Experiences and Problem Behaviors among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortunato, Leanna; Young, Amy M.; Boyd, Carol J.; Fons, Courtney E.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the sexual phenomenon of "hooking up." A hook-up is defined as a single sexual encounter that may or may not include sexual intercourse with someone who is a stranger, brief acquaintance, or friend. The aim of this study was to document the prevalence of hook-ups in a sample of 1,011 urban middle and high school students and…

  16. Zooplankton abundance and diversity in Central Florida grass carp ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas L. Fry; John A. Osborne

    1980-01-01

    The effect of the Asian grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) upon the zooplankton in three adjacent experimental ponds (0.139 ha each) was studied for one year. The ponds contained nine species of aquatic macrophytes. Grass carp were stocked into Pond 1 (65 per ha) and Pond 2 (611 per ha) three months after the study was started. At the time

  17. Mitochondrial DNA Dosage Effects in Triploid Grass Carp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel D. Anderson

    2010-01-01

    The grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella is used widely in aquaculture for aquatic weed control. Historically, concern about the proliferative growth of nonnative diploid grass carp populations led to development of the hydrostatic pressure shock technique for the production of sterile triploids. Despite the success of this technique in accomplishing management goals, little is known about the cellular physiology of triploids.

  18. Determination of the acute toxicity of isoniazid to three invasive carp species and rainbow trout in static exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreier, Theresa M.; Hubert, Terrance D.

    2015-01-01

    Three invasive fishes of considerable concern to aquatic resource managers are the Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (bighead carp),Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp), and Ctenopharyngodon idella (grass carp), collectively known as Asian carps. There is a need for an effective chemical control agent for Asian carps. Isoniazid was identified as a potential toxicant for grass carp. The selective toxicity of isoniazid to grass carp was verified as a response to an anecdotal report received in 2013. In addition, the toxicity of isoniazid to bighead carp, silver carp, and Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout) was evaluated. Isoniazid was not toxic to grass carp at the reported anecdotal concentration, which was 13 milligrams per liter. Isoniazid (130 milligrams per liter) was not selectively toxic to bighead carp, silver carp, or grass carp when compared to rainbow trout.

  19. Transcriptome analysis and microsatellite discovery in the blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) after challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngoc Tuan; Gao, Ze-Xia; Zhao, Hong-Hao; Yi, Shao-Kui; Chen, Bo-Xiang; Zhao, Yu-Hua; Lin, Li; Liu, Xue-Qin; Wang, Wei-Min

    2015-07-01

    The blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala, is a herbivorous freshwater fish species native to China and a major aquaculture species in Chinese freshwater polyculture systems. In recent years, the bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila has been reported to be its pathogen causing great losses of farmed fish. To understand the immune response of the blunt snout bream to A. hydrophila infection, we used the Solexa/Illumina technology to analyze the transcriptomic profile after artificial bacterial infection. Two nonnormalized cDNA libraries were synthesized from tissues collected from control blunt snout bream or those injected with A. hydrophila. After assembly, 155,052 unigenes (average length 692.8 bp) were isolated. All unigenes were annotated using BLASTX relative to several public databases: the National Center for Biotechnology Information nonreduntant (Nr) database, SwissProt, Eukaryotic Orthologous Groups of proteins (KOG), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and Gene Ontology (GO). The sequence similarity (86%) of the assembled unigenes was to zebrafish based on the Nr database. A number of unigenes (n = 30,482) were assigned to three GO categories: biological processes (25,242 unigenes), molecular functions (26,096 unigenes), and cellular components (22,778 unigenes). 20,909 unigenes were classified into 25 KOG categories and 28,744 unigenes were assigned into 315 specific signaling pathways. In total, 238 significantly differentially expressed unigenes (mapped to 125 genes) were identified: 101 upregulated genes and 24 downregulated genes. Another 303 unigenes were mapped to unknown or novel genes. Among the known expressed genes identified, 53 were immune-related genes and were distributed in 71 signaling pathways. The expression patterns of selected up- and downregulated genes from the control and injected groups were determined with reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Microsatellites (n = 10,877), including di-to pentanucleotide repeat motifs, were also identified in the blunt snout bream transcriptome profiles. This study extends our understanding of the immune defense mechanisms of the blunt snout bream against A. hydrophila and provides useful data for further studies of the immunogenetics of this species. PMID:25681750

  20. Asian carp behavior in response to static water gun firing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Layhee, Megan J.; Gross, Jackson A.; Parsley, Michael J.; Romine, Jason G.; Glover, David C.; Suski, Cory D.; Wagner, Tristany L.; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The potential for invasion of Asian carp into the Great Lakes has ecological and socio-economic implications. If they become established, Asian carp are predicted to alter lake ecosystems and impact commercial and recreational fisheries. The Chicago Sanitary and Shipping Canal is an important biological conduit between the Mississippi River Basin, where invasive Asian carp are abundant, and the Great Lakes. Millions of dollars have been spent to erect an electric barrier defense in the canal to prevent movement of Asian carp into the Great Lakes, but the need for additional fish deterrent technologies to supplement the existing barrier is warranted. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center are examining seismic water gun technology, formerly used in oceanic oil exploration, as a fish deterrent. The goal of the current study is to employ telemetry and sonar monitoring equipment to assess the behavioral response of Asian carp to seismic water guns and the sound energy it generates.

  1. Swimming performance and energy metabolism of rainbow trout, common carp and gibel carp respond differently to sublethal copper exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. De Boeck; K. van der Ven; J. Hattink; R. Blust

    2006-01-01

    We compared the effects of sublethal waterborne copper exposure on swimming performance and respiration rates in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, with those in less sensitive cyprinid species such as common carp, Cyprinus carpio, and gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio. These cyprinids are considerably more resistant to Cu intoxication, and differ from trout in swimming performance and respiratory behaviour. Critical swimming

  2. Does Hook Choice Matter? Effects of Three Circle Hook Models on Postrelease Survival of White Marlin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. Graves; Andrij Z. Horodysky

    2008-01-01

    Throughout the Atlantic, the white marlin Kajika albida (formerly Tetrapturus albidus) is overfished but remains a major target species for offshore recreational anglers. The vast majority of white marlin taken in the U.S. fishery are caught on natural baits and subsequently released. A previous study demonstrated that the use of circle hooks with natural baits resulted in a highly significant

  3. 77 FR 15722 - Southern California Hook and Line Survey; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ...Southern California Hook and Line Survey review meeting will be...Southern California Hook and Line Survey review meeting will be...Southern California Hook and Line survey design and protocols; (2) examine the analytical methods used to generate rockfish...

  4. A fuzzy-controlled Hooke-Jeeves optimization algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deepak Sankar Somasundaram; Mohamed B. Trabia

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an approach to enhance the Hooke-Jeeves optimization algorithm through the use of fuzzy logic. The Hooke-Jeeves algorithm, similar to many other optimization algorithms, uses predetermined fixed parameters. These parameters do not depend on the objective function values in the current search region. In the proposed algorithm, several fuzzy logic controllers are integrated at the various stages of

  5. Mortality due to a retained circle hook in a longfin mako shark Isurus paucus (Guitart-Manday).

    PubMed

    Adams, D H; Borucinska, J D; Maillett, K; Whitburn, K; Sander, T E

    2015-07-01

    A female longfin mako shark Isurus paucus (Guitart-Manday, 1966) was found moribund on the Atlantic Ocean beach near Canaveral National Seashore, Florida; the shark died shortly after stranding. Macroscopic lesions included a partially healed bite mark on the left pectoral fin, a clefted snout, pericardial effusion and a pericardial mass surrounding a 12/0 circle fishing hook. The heart, pericardial mass, gills, ovary, oviduct, shell gland, epigonal organ, liver, kidney and intrarenal and interrenal glands were processed for histopathology and examined by brightfield microscopy. Microscopic examination revealed chronic proliferative and pyogranulomatous pericarditis and myocarditis with rhabdomyolysis, fibrosis and thrombosis; scant bacteria and multifocal granular deposits of iron were found intralesionally. In addition, acute, multifocal infarcts within the epigonal organ and gill filaments were found in association with emboli formed by necrocellular material. The ovary had high numbers of atretic follicles, and the liver had diffuse, severe hepatocellular degeneration, multifocal spongiosis and moderate numbers of melanomacrophage cells. This report provides evidence of direct mortality due to systemic lesions associated with retained fishing gear in a prohibited shark species. Due to the large numbers of sharks released from both recreational and commercial fisheries worldwide, impact of delayed post-release mortality on shark populations is an important consideration. PMID:24974904

  6. Homology model and molecular dynamics simulation of carp ovum cystatin.

    PubMed

    Su, Yuan-Chen; Lin, Jin-Chung; Liu, Hsuan-Liang

    2005-01-01

    In this study, a homology model of carp ovum cystatin was constructed based on the crystal structure of chicken egg white cystatin. The results of amino acid sequence alignment indicate that these two proteins exhibit 36.11% of sequence identity. The resultant homology model reveals that carp ovum cystatin shares similar folds as chicken egg white cystatin, particularly in the conserved regions of Q48-V49-G52 and P98-W99 and the locations of two disulfide bonds, C67-C76 and C90-C110. However, the results of 1 ns molecular dynamics simulations show that carp ovum cystatin exhibits less structural integrity than chicken egg white cystatin in explicit water at 300 K. The relatively hydrophilic Met62 of carp ovum cystatin, corresponding to the hydrophobic Leu68 of human cystatin C and Ile66 of chicken egg white cystatin, may destabilize the hydrophobic core and form a dimeric structure more easily through domain swapping. A total of 16 positively charged residues are equally distributed on the surface of carp ovum cystatin, resulting in agglutination with the negatively charged spermatozoa via electrostatic interaction. Thus, carp ovum cystatin is considered to be important in preventing carp eggs from polyspermy. PMID:16080717

  7. Body color development and genetic analysis of hybrid transparent crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Xu, W; Tong, G X; Geng, L W; Jiang, H F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic mechanism of the transparent trait in transparent crucian carp. We observed body color development in transparent crucian carp larvae and analyzed heredity of color in hybrids produced with red crucian carp, ornamental carp, and red purse carp. The results showed that the body color of the newly hatched larvae matured into the adult pattern at approximately 54 days post-hatching. Two inter-species reciprocal crosses between transparent crucian carp and red crucian carp, and self-cross F1 of transparent crucian carp and self-cross F1 of red marking transparent crucian carp were conducted, and results indicated that the transparent-scaled trait is dominant over the normal-scaled trait. Furthermore, the transparent trait is a quantitative trait. All offspring in the four inter-genera reciprocal crosses of transparent crucian carp with ornamental carp and red purse carp were hybrids of common carp and crucian carp, and had a relatively low survival rate of 10-20%. Moreover, the transparent-scaled trait was observed to be dominant over the normal-scaled trait in the hybrid fish. In conclusion, our results suggest that the genetic mechanism underlying the color of goldfish is complex and requires further investigation. PMID:25966213

  8. 72 FR 59019 - Injurious Wildlife Species; Black Carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2007-10-18

    ...fish ploidy (the number of sets of chromosomes in a cell or an organism) is most commonly...analysis does not estimate the decreased probability of unintentional introduction, or the decreased probability of a black carp population...

  9. Secondary neutron dose measurement for proton eye treatment using an eye snout with a borated neutron absorber

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We measured and assessed ways to reduce the secondary neutron dose from a system for proton eye treatment. Methods Proton beams of 60.30 MeV were delivered through an eye-treatment snout in passive scattering mode. Allyl diglycol carbonate (CR-39) etch detectors were used to measure the neutron dose in the external field at 0.00, 1.64, and 6.00 cm depths in a water phantom. Secondary neutron doses were measured and compared between those with and without a high-hydrogen–boron-containing block. In addition, the neutron energy and vertices distribution were obtained by using a Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation. Results The ratio of the maximum neutron dose equivalent to the proton absorbed dose (H(10)/D) at 2.00 cm from the beam field edge was 8.79?±?1.28 mSv/Gy. The ratio of the neutron dose equivalent to the proton absorbed dose with and without a high hydrogen-boron containing block was 0.63?±?0.06 to 1.15?±?0.13 mSv/Gy at 2.00 cm from the edge of the field at depths of 0.00, 1.64, and 6.00 cm. Conclusions We found that the out-of-field secondary neutron dose in proton eye treatment with an eye snout is relatively small, and it can be further reduced by installing a borated neutron absorbing material. PMID:23866307

  10. Female homogamety in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) determined by gynogenesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Jon G.

    1976-01-01

    Gynogenesis occurred in eggs of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) treated with X-irradiated milt from goldfish (Carassius auratus). Gynogenetic offspring were females, which indicates functional female homogamety in grass carp. Five of these gynogenetic fish were used as an egg source for a second generation of artificially gynogenetic fish. The percentage yield in this second generation was about the same as in the first, which suggests that the tendency to become diploid is not strongly heritable

  11. Recent advances in carp seed production and milt cryopreservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Routray; D. K. Verma; S. K. Sarkar; N. Sarangi

    2007-01-01

    The fish-seed production industry in India has recorded remarkable growth over the last three decades. The hypophysation technique\\u000a was successfully introduced into India in 1957 and steady progress towards the refinement of the technique has been registered,\\u000a which has revolutionized carp seed production in the Indian subcontinent. Advancement of carp maturity through brood stock\\u000a management and multiple breeding has enabled

  12. Comparative pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of quinocetone in crucian carp (Carassius auratus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) following the same experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Ai, X; Wang, F; Yang, H; Xu, N; Yang, Q

    2015-08-01

    The pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of quinocetone (QCT) in crucian carp (Carassius auratus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were compared after oral administration of QCT (50 mg/kg body weight) at water temperature of 24 ± 1 °C. Similar QCT plasma concentration-time profiles were found in the three species of cyprinid fish at the same dosage regimen and water temperature, which were all fitted two-compartment open pharmacokinetic model. However, different pharmacokinetic parameters were observed in crucian carp, common carp, and grass carp. The absorption rate constants (Ka ) of QCT were 1.65, 1.40 and 1.74/h, respectively and absorption half-lives (t1/2k? ) were 0.42, 0.49, and 0.40/h, respectively. The distribution half-life (t1/2? ) was 2.83, 0.67, and 0.88 h, respectively, and elimination half-lives (t1/2? ) of QCT were 133.97, 63.55, and 40.76 h, respectively. The maximum concentrations (Cmax ) of QCT in plasma were 0.315, 0.182, and 0.139 ?g/mL and the time to peak concentrations (Tp ) were 1.45, 0.96, and 1.08 h, respectively. The area under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUC) were 12.35, 5.99, and 4.52 ?g·h/mL, respectively. The distribution volumes (Vd /F) of QCT were calculated as 117.81, 128.71, and 220.10 L/kg, respectively. The tissue analysis showed that a similar regularity was obtained in the three species of cyprinids with a single dose of 50 mg/kg body weight after oral administration at the same water temperature. The tissue concentration of QCT in each fish was in order of liver>kidney>muscle, while the residues of QCT in the three species of cyprinid fish were in order of crucian carp>common carp>grass carp. PMID:25515188

  13. Evidence for the evolutionary origin of goldfish derived from the distant crossing of red crucian carp × common carp

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Distant hybridization can generate transgressive hybrid phenotypes that lead to the formation of new populations or species with increased genetic variation. In this study, we produced an experimental hybrid goldfish (EG) by distant crossing of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus)?×?common carp (Cyprinus carpio) followed by gynogenesis. Results We evaluated the phenotype, ploidy level, gonadal structure, and 5S rDNA of the EG. Diploid EG possessed a high level of genetic variation, which was stably inherited. In particular, the EG combined transgressive phenotypes, including a forked tail and shortened caudal peduncle, traits that are present in common goldfish. The EG and common goldfish share a number of morphological and genetic similarities. Conclusions Using the EG, we provide new evidence that goldfish originated from hybridization of red crucian carp × common carp. PMID:24628745

  14. Swimming performance and energy metabolism of rainbow trout, common carp and gibel carp respond differently to sublethal copper exposure.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, G; van der Ven, K; Hattink, J; Blust, R

    2006-10-25

    We compared the effects of sublethal waterborne copper exposure on swimming performance and respiration rates in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, with those in less sensitive cyprinid species such as common carp, Cyprinus carpio, and gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio. These cyprinids are considerably more resistant to Cu intoxication, and differ from trout in swimming performance and respiratory behaviour. Critical swimming speed (U(crit)), oxygen consumption, plasma ammonia and muscle ammonia, lactate and pH were measured during a 28-day sublethal exposure to 1 microM Cu. U(crit) decreased with 48, 31 and 13% within the first 12-24 h for rainbow trout, common and gibel respectively. Gibel carp recovered quickly and experienced no further reduction in swimming performance. Recovery of swimming capacity in rainbow trout and common carp was only partial. All three species displayed similar plasma ammonia peaks in the first hours to days, and a more gradual muscle ammonia accumulation over time. Whereas no signs of respiratory stress occurred in rainbow trout, common carp experienced a transient reduction in oxygen consumption combined with anaerobic metabolism after 24 h of exposure. At the same time, oxygen consumption was also reduced in gibel carp, but no signs of anaerobic metabolism were detected. Cu accumulated quickly to similar levels (36-39 microg g(-1) dry weight at day 3) in the gills of all three species, after which accumulation leveled off. Liver tissue of rainbow trout had a high Cu level from the start, and Cu concentration did not show any additional accumulation. In contrast, common carp liver showed a significant Cu accumulation from day 3 onwards, while accumulation in gibel livers was much slower and was significant from day 7 onwards. Interestingly, Cu accumulation patterns in plasma and kidney revealed a possibly important role for the kidney in Cu homeostasis of gibel carp. PMID:16956679

  15. Growth and Food Habits of Cage-Cultured Bighead Carp x Silver Carp Hybrids in Ponds of Varying Trophic Status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Bayne; Purushottam L. Joshi; Ash K. Rai; John C. Williams

    1991-01-01

    Four 20m cages stocked with 120 bighead carp x silver carp hybrids per cage were placed in each of four ponds varying in trophic status from mesotrophic to hypereutophic. Fish were cultured, without feeding, from 13 March to 1 Octorber 1987. Fish in the mesotrophic pond survived but lost weight (-0.37 g\\/fish\\/d). The mesotrophic pond produced insufficient food to sustain

  16. Relationship between tornadoes and hook echoes on April 3, 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, G. S.

    1975-01-01

    Radar observations of tornado families occurring on April 3, 1974 are discussed. Of the 93 tornadoes included in the sample, 81% were associated with hook-like echoes with appendages at least 40 deg to the south of the echo movement. At least one tornado was associated with 62% of the hook-like echoes observed. All of the tornadoes with intensities of F 4 and F 5 were produced by hook-like echoes; the mean intensity of all tornadoes associated with this type of echo was F 3, while the mean intensity of the remaining tornadoes was F1. The tornadic hook-like echoes moved to the right of the non-tornadic echoes forming a tornado line in advance of the squall line. Some tornadoes were associated with 'spiral' echoes.

  17. Breeding Alfalfa Varieties with Resistance to Alfalfa Snout Beetle Jamie Crawford, Julie Hansen,and Don Viands, Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics; Elson Shields and Antonio Testa, Department of

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Breeding Alfalfa Varieties with Resistance to Alfalfa Snout Beetle Jamie Crawford, Julie Hansen,and Don Viands, Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics; Elson Shields and Antonio Testa, Department damage A Field Trial for Evaluating Breeding Progress for Alfalfa Resistant to Alfalfa Snout Beetle

  18. Serodiagnosis of grass carp reovirus infection in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella by a novel Western blot technique.

    PubMed

    He, Yongxing; Jiang, Yousheng; Lu, Liqun

    2013-12-01

    Frequent outbreaks of grass carp hemorrhagic disease, caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection, pose as serious threats to the production of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Although various nucleic acids-based diagnostic methods have been shown effective, lack of commercial monoclonal antibody against grass carp IgM has impeded the development of any reliable immunoassays in detection of GCRV infection. The present study describes the preparation and screening of monoclonal antibodies against the constant region of grass carp IgM protein, and the development of a Western blot (WB) protocol for the specific detection of antibodies against outer capsid VP7 protein of GCRV that serves as antibody-capture antigen in the immunoassay. In comparison to a conventional RT-PCR method, validity of the WB is further demonstrated by testing on clinical fish serum samples collected from a grass carp farm in Jiangxi Province during disease pandemic in 2011. In conclusion, the WB technique established in this study could be employed for specific serodiagnosis of GCRV infection. PMID:23942340

  19. Sublethal copper exposure induces respiratory stress in common and gibel carp but not in rainbow trout

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. De Boeck; K. Van der Ven; W. Meeus; R. Blust

    2007-01-01

    Rainbow trout, common carp, and gibel carp were exposed to sublethal Cu levels (1.0 or 1.7 ?M) for 1 week. In rainbow trout, arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) remained normal and there was no indication of anaerobic metabolism. PaO2 was considerably lower in common and gibel carp and Cu exposure decreased this further. The decrease was transient for common carp but persistent in

  20. Size and depth-dependent variation in habitat and diet of the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emili García-Berthou

    2001-01-01

    The habitat and diet variation of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were studied in Lake Banyoles (Catalonia, Spain). Carp was the second most abundant species offshore and used more the littoral in spring and deep bottoms in winter. The diet of carp was based on detritus, amphipods (Echinogammarus sp.), phantom midge larvae (Chaoborus flavicans), diatom mucilages, and plant debris. Amphipods

  1. Effects of Triploid Grass Carp on Aquatic Plants, Water Quality, and Public Satisfaction in Washington State

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott A. Bonar; Bruce Bolding; Marc Divens

    2002-01-01

    We investigated effects of triploid grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella on aquatic macrophyte communities, water quality, and public satisfaction for 98 lakes and ponds in Washington State stocked with grass carp between 1990 and 1995. Grass carp had few noticeable effects on macrophyte communities until 19 months following stocking. After 19 months, submersed macrophytes were either completely eradicated (39% of the

  2. Effects of Triploid Grass Carp on Aquatic Plants, Water Quality, and Public Satisfaction in Washington State

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott A. Bonar; Bruce Bolding; Marc Divens

    2002-01-01

    We investigated effects of triploid grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella on aquatic macrophyte communities, water quality, and public satisfaction for 98 lakes and ponds in Wash- ington State stocked with grass carp between 1990 and 1995. Grass carp had few noticeable effects on macrophyte communities until 19 months following stocking. After 19 months, submersed macrophytes were either completely eradicated (39% of

  3. CARP Is a Potential Tumor Suppressor in Gastric Carcinoma and a Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism in CARP Gene Might Increase the Risk of Gastric Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yu-chang; Gan, Lu; Shi, Yi; Yang, Han-shuo; Wei, Yu-quan

    2014-01-01

    Background The caspase-associated recruitment domain-containing protein (CARP) is expressed in almost all tissues. Recently, the tumor-suppressive function of CARP was discovered and attracted increasing attention. This study aimed to investigate the role of CARP in the carcinogenesis of human gastric carcinoma. Methodology/Principal Findings Compared with normal gastric tissue, the downregulation of CARP expression was observed in gastric carcinoma tissue by cDNA array and tissue microarray assay. In vitro, the gastric carcinoma cell line (BGC-823) was stably transfected with pcDNA3.1B-CARP or plus CARP siRNA, and we used MTT, flow cytometry, cell migration on type I collagen, cell-matrix adhesion assay and western blot analysis to investigate the potential anti-tumor effects of CARP. The data showed that overexpressing CARP suppressed the malignancy of gastric carcinoma BGC-823 cell line, including significant increases in apoptosis, as well as obvious decreases in cell proliferation, migration, adhesion ability, and tumor growth. The tumor-suppressive effects of CARP were almost restored by siRNA-directed CARP silence. In addition, overexpression of CARP induced G1 arrest, decreased the expressions of cyclin E and CDK2, and increased the expressions of p27, p53 and p21. In vivo, the tumor-suppressive effect of CARP was also verified. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype of CARP (rs2297882) was located in the Kozak sequence of the CARP gene. The reporter gene assay showed that rs2297882 TT caused an obvious downregulation of activity of CARP gene promoter in BGC-823 cells. Furthermore, the association between rs2297882 and human gastric carcinoma susceptibility was analyzed in 352 cases and 889 controls. It displayed that the TT genotype of rs2297882 in the CARP gene was associated with an increased risk of gastric carcinoma. Conclusions/Significance CARP is a potential tumor suppressor of gastric carcinoma and the rs2297882 C>T phenotype of CARP may serve as a predictor of gastric carcinoma. PMID:24870804

  4. The anatomy and fine structure of the echidna Tachyglossus aculeatus snout with respect to its different trigeminal sensory receptors including the electroreceptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. H. Andres; A. Iggo; U. Proske

    1991-01-01

    The gross anatomy and nerve supply of the bill of echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) is described in relation to its function as an outstanding sensory organ. The sensory innervation of the skin of the echidna snout was investigated by means of frontal serial sections, after decalcification of the specimens. A comprehensive light and electron microscopic description of the location and fine

  5. Host finding and host discrimination ability in Anaphes nitens Girault, an egg parasitoid of the Eucalyptus snout-beetle Gonipterus scutellatus Gyllenhal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serena Santolamazza-Carbone; Arnau Rodr??guez-Illamola; Adolfo Cordero Rivera

    2004-01-01

    We investigated host finding and host discrimination ability in Anaphes nitens, a solitary egg parasitoid that attacks a gregarious host, the egg capsules of the Eucalyptus snout-beetle, Gonipterus scutellatus. In a first experiment, females were assigned to three treatments: no experience, one experience on an unparasitized egg capsule or one experience on a parasitized egg capsule. We combined this variable

  6. Distribution of populations of broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris, Daudin 1802, Alligatoridae) in the São Francisco River basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Filogonio, R; Assis, V B; Passos, L F; Coutinho, M E

    2010-11-01

    We surveyed populations of the broad-snouted caiman, Caiman latirostris, throughout the São Francisco River basin, from Três Marias reservoir, State of Minas Gerais, to the river delta, at the boarder of Sergipe and Alagoas states. We registered the occurrence of crocodilians in 61% of all surveyed localities (n = 64), in which the presence of C. latirostris was confirmed in 44% of the surveyed sites. Caimans occurred in both lentic and lotic habitats, although there was a preference for small dams, oxbow lakes and wetlands. Despite the hunting pressure and human impact on natural habitats, our results indicate that the populations of C. latirostris in the São Francisco basin are not fragmented. PMID:21180900

  7. Lectin histochemistry of snout skin and foot pads in the wolf and the domesticated dog (Mammalia: Canidae).

    PubMed

    Meyer, W; Tsukise, A

    1995-01-01

    The distribution and selectivity of complex carbohydrates in the snout skin and the foot pads of the wolf and the domesticated dog were studied by means of light-microscopic histochemical methods, particularly lectin histochemistry. In the snout, moderate to strong staining reactions were confined to intercellular substances among the epidermal cells, containing neutral glycoconjugates (glycoproteins, glycolipids) with various saccharide residues (alpha-D-mannose, beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, alpha-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, beta-D-galactose). In the foot pads, distinct reactions were found in neutral glycoconjugates of intercellular substances of the stratum corneum, with alpha-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl and beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl residues, but only in the wolf, whereas in the dog such substances were concentrated in the spinosal and basal epidermal layers, additionally marked by D-galactose. The eccrine glands exhibited high amounts of mainly neutral glycoconjugates in the secretory portion, especially in the wolf. A clear spectrum of saccharide residues was demonstrable in the dark cells (alpha-D-mannose, beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, alpha-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, alpha-D-galactose), and in the clear cells which lacked mannose and contained beta-D-galactose. In contrast to the wolf, strong reactions for glycoconjugates were visible among intercellular substances of intradermal excretory duct cells in the dog. Only in the wolf did the periphery of the intracorneal excretory ducts and the outer surface of the foot pads show clearly positive reactions for glycoconjugates. The results obtained are discussed with regard to the specific functions of the body regions investigated and the behavioural biology of the Canidae. It is obvious that differences in amounts, quality, and localization of the glycoconjugates produced exist between the wolf and its domesticated descendant. PMID:7872496

  8. Engineering Evaluation of International Low Impact Docking System Latch Hooks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, J.; Patin, R.; Figert, J.

    2013-01-01

    The international Low Impact Docking System (iLIDS) provides a structural arrangement that allows for visiting vehicles to dock with the International Space Station (ISS) (Fig 1). The iLIDS docking units are mechanically joined together by a series of active and passive latch hooks. In order to preserve docking capability at the existing Russian docking interfaces, the iLIDS latch hooks are required to conform to the existing Russian design. The latch hooks are classified as being fail-safe. Since the latch hooks are fail-safe, the hooks are not fracture critical and a fatigue based service life assessment will satisfy the structural integrity requirements. Constant amplitude fatigue testing to failure on four sets of active/passive iLIDS latch hooks was performed at load magnitudes of 10, 11, and 12 kips. Failure analysis of the hook fatigue failures identified multi-site fatigue initiation that was effectively centered about the hook mid-plane (consistent with the 3D model results). The fatigue crack initiation distribution implies that the fatigue damage accumulation effectively results in a very low aspect ratio surface crack (which can be simulated as thru-thickness crack). Fatigue damage progression resulted in numerous close proximity fatigue crack initiation sites. It was not possible to determine if fatigue crack coalescence occurs during cyclic loading or as result of the fast fracture response. The presence of multiple fatigue crack initiation sites on different planes will result in the formation of ratchet marks as the cracks coalesce. Once the stable fatigue crack becomes unstable and the fast fracture advances across the remaining ligament and the plane stress condition at a free-surface will result in failure along a 45 deg. shear plane (slant fracture) and the resulting inclined edge is called a shear lip. The hook thickness on the plane of fatigue crack initiation is 0.787". The distance between the shear lips on this plane was on the order of 0.48" and it was effectively centered about the mid-plane of the section. The numerous ratchet marks between the shear lips on the fracture initiation plane are indicative of multiple fatigue initiation sites within this region. The distribution of the fatigue damage about the centerline of the hook is consistent with the analytical results that demonstrate peak stress/strain response at the mid-plane that decreases in the direction of the hook outer surfaces. Scanning electron microscope images of the failed sections detected fatigue crack striations in close proximity to the free surface of the hook radius. These findings were documented at three locations on the fracture surface : 1) adjacent to the left shear lip, 2) adjacent to the right shear lip, and 3) near the centerline of the section. The features of the titanium fracture surface did not allow for a determination of a critical crack size via identification of the region where the fatigue crack propagation became unstable. The fracture based service life projections where benchmarked with strain-life analyses. The strainrange response in the hook radius was defined via the correlated finite element models and the modified method of universal slopes was incorporated to define the strain-life equation for the titanium alloy. The strain-life assessment confirmed that the fracture based projections were reasonable for the loading range of interest. Based upon the analysis and component level fatigue test data a preliminary service life capability for the iLIDS active and passive hooks of 2 lifetimes is projected (includes a scatter factor of 4).

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Glycophorin from Carp Red Blood Cell Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Takahiko; Chimura, Kenji; Nakao, Nobuhiro; Mizuno, Yasuko

    2014-01-01

    We isolated a high-purity carp glycophorin from carp erythrocyte membranes following extraction using the lithium diiodosalicylate (LIS)-phenol method and streptomycin treatment. The main carp glycophorin was observed to locate at the position of the carp and human band-3 proteins on an SDS-polyacrylamide gel. Only the N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) form of sialic acid was detected in the carp glycophorin. The oligosaccharide fraction was separated into two components (P-1 and P-2) using a Glyco-Pak DEAE column. We observed bacteriostatic activity against five strains of bacteria, including two known fish pathogens. Fractions from the carp erythrocyte membrane, the glycophorin oligosaccharide and the P-1 also exhibited bacteriostatic activity; whereas the glycolipid fraction and the glycophorin fraction without sialic acid did not show the activity. The carp glycophorin molecules attach to the flagellum of V. anguillarum or the cell surface of M. luteus and inhibited bacterial growth. PMID:25110961

  10. Newton–Hooke-type symmetry of anisotropic oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, P.M., E-mail: zhpm@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Horvathy, P.A., E-mail: horvathy@lmpt.univ-tours.fr [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Laboratoire de Mathématiques et de Physique Théorique, Université de Tours (France); Andrzejewski, K., E-mail: k-andrzejewski@uni.lodz.pl [Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Lodz (Poland); Gonera, J., E-mail: jgonera@uni.lodz.pl [Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Lodz (Poland); Kosi?ski, P., E-mail: pkosinsk@uni.lodz.pl [Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Lodz (Poland)

    2013-06-15

    Rotation-less Newton–Hooke-type symmetry, found recently in the Hill problem, and instrumental for explaining the center-of-mass decomposition, is generalized to an arbitrary anisotropic oscillator in the plane. Conversely, the latter system is shown, by the orbit method, to be the most general one with such a symmetry. Full Newton–Hooke symmetry is recovered in the isotropic case. Star escape from a galaxy is studied as an application. -- Highlights: ? Rotation-less Newton–Hooke (NH) symmetry is generalized to an arbitrary anisotropic oscillator. ? The orbit method is used to find the most general case for rotation-less NH symmetry. ? The NH symmetry is decomposed into Heisenberg algebras based on chiral decomposition.

  11. Flexor tendon ruptures secondary to hamate hook fractures.

    PubMed

    Milek, M A; Boulas, H J

    1990-09-01

    Four patients with flexor tendon ruptures secondary to hook of the hamate fracture are described. None of the patients had the diagnosis of fracture made before tendon rupture. All patients were treated with excision of the fractured hook and tendon repair. The tendon repair was usually an end-to-side (Y junction) of the profundus of the small to the profundus of the ring finger. After operation, all patients were free of pain and returned to their preinjury activity levels, but most had some limitation of motion in the digit with the tendon repair. The complication of tendon rupture not uncommonly follows basilar hook of the hamate fractures. Treatment by excision of the fracture and end-to-side tendon repair produces satisfactory results. Range of motion after tendon repair seems to depend more on the patient's age and the amount of inflammation at the site of repair rather than on the method of tendon repair. PMID:2229970

  12. Photocontrol of Hook Opening in Cuscuta gronovii Willd.

    PubMed

    Kujawski, R F; Truscott, F H

    1974-04-01

    Hook opening in seedlings of Cuscuta gronovii Willd. occurred only after prolonged exposures to blue, red, or far red light. Prolonged far red exposure was less effective than prolonged exposure to red or blue light. Brief far red irradiation inhibited the inductive effect of red light. The far red inhibition was in turn reversed by brief red irradiation. These effects suggest the involvement of two photosystems in the control of hook opening in Cuscuta gronovii Willd.: a phytochrome-mediated system and a separate high energy requirement. PMID:16658751

  13. High-density grass carp stocking effects on a reservoir invasive plant and water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garner, A. Brad; Kwak, Thomas J.; Manuel, Kenneth L.; Barwick, D. Hugh

    2013-01-01

    Stocking grass carp [Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes)] is a commonly applied technique to control nuisance aquatic vegetation in reservoirs. Factors that influence the degree of aquatic vegetation control are fish stocking density, regional climate, abundance and species composition of the aquatic plant community, and relative grass carp feeding preferences for plant species. We evaluated high-density grass carp stocking in a southeastern U.S. reservoir for control of parrot-feather [Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell) Verdc.], an invasive aquatic plant that is not preferentially consumed by grass carp and the associated effects on water quality. Lookout Shoals Lake, a 528-ha piedmont North Carolina reservoir, was stocked with triploid grass carp at a density of 100 fish per vegetated hectare. Parrot-feather biomass in the lake was significantly reduced three months after grass carp stocking, compared to biomass in in-situ exclosures. During the second year after grass carp stocking, parrot-feather biomass in the lake compared to biomass in in-situ exclosures indicated continued control, but unexplained lack of growth within most experimental exclosures precluded biomass analyses. Increases in ambient water chlorophyll a, reactive phosphorus, and nitrate-nitrite concentrations were measured after grass carp stocking. The biological significance of observed changes in water chemistry and long-term effects on lake biota remain undetermined. Our results demonstrate that intensive grass carp stocking can control an invasive aquatic plant that is not preferentially consumed by grass carp and reveal associated changes in water quality.

  14. Food handling and mastication in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Sibbing

    1984-01-01

    The process of food handling in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and its structures associated with feeding are analyzed. The aim of this study is to explain the relation between the the architecture of the head and its functions in food processing and to determine the specializations for some food types and the consequent restrictions for others. Such

  15. Karyotypic Diversity in Polyploid Gibel Carp, Carassius Auratus Gibelio Bloch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Zhou; J. F. Gui

    2002-01-01

    Polyploid gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio, is an excellent model system for evolutionary genetics owing to its specific genetic background and reproductive modes. Comparative karyotype studies were performed in three cultured clones, one artificially manipulated group, and one mated group between two clones. Both the clones A and P had 156 chromosomes in their karyotypes, with 36 metacentric, 54 submetacentric,

  16. The Effect of Exposure to a High-Fat Diet on MicroRNA Expression in the Liver of Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dingdong; Lu, Kangle; Dong, Zaijie; Jiang, Guangzhen; Xu, Weina; Liu, Wenbin

    2014-01-01

    Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) are susceptible to hepatic steatosis when maintained in modern intensive culture systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in diet-induced hepatic steatosis in this species. MiRNAs, small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level, are involved in diverse biological processes, including lipid metabolism. Deep sequencing of hepatic small RNA libraries from blunt snout bream fed normal-fat and high-fat diets identified 202 (193 known and 9 novel) miRNAs, of which 12 were differentially expressed between the normal-fat and high-fat diet groups. Quantitative stem-loop reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses confirmed the upregulation of miR-30c and miR-30e-3p and the downregulation of miR-145 and miR-15a-5p in high-fat diet-fed fish. Bioinformatics tools were used to predict the targets of these verified miRNAs and to explore potential downstream gene ontology biological process categories and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Six putative lipid metabolism-related target genes (fetuin-B, Cyp7a1, NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex subunit 2, 3-oxoacid CoA transferase 1b, stearoyl-CoA desaturase, and fatty-acid synthase) were identified as having potential important roles in the development of diet-induced hepatic steatosis in blunt snout bream. The results presented here are a foundation for future studies of miRNA-controlled lipid metabolism regulatory networks in blunt snout bream. PMID:24788396

  17. Catch and release: how do kinetochores hook the right

    E-print Network

    Asbury, Chip

    Catch and release: how do kinetochores hook the right microtubules during mitosis? Krishna K version of this angler's trick, operating at kinetochores, ensures accu- racy during mitosis: the mitotic toward emerging models for other force- activated systems. Although attention in the mitosis field has

  18. Twisted acceleration-enlarged Newton-Hooke Hopf algebras

    E-print Network

    Marcin Daszkiewicz

    2010-07-27

    Ten Abelian twist deformations of acceleration-enlarged Newton-Hooke Hopf algebra are considered. The corresponding quantum space-times are derived as well. It is demonstrate that their contraction limit $\\tau \\to \\infty$ leads to the new twisted acceleration-enlarged Galilei spaces.

  19. Two new species of Polystachya Hook. (Orchidaceae) from Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Przemys?aw Baranow; Joanna Mytnik-Ejsmont

    2009-01-01

    Two new species of Polystachya Hook. are described and illustrated: Polystachya rydingii Baranow & Mytnik occurring from the Democratic Republic of Congo and P. sosefii Baranow & Mytnik from Cameroon. The species belong to the section Polystachya Kraenzl., which is the only pantropical section in the genus. Maps of the distribution for the new species and their closest\\u000a relatives and

  20. Extraction of Fronto-orbital Shower Hook through Transcranial Orbitotomy.

    PubMed

    Elia, Maxwell D; Gunel, Murat; Servat, Juan J; Levin, Flora

    2014-06-01

    Transorbital foreign bodies threaten both the integrity of the globe and the brain. We present an unusual case of a penetrating right frontal lobe-orbital metallic shower hook. Extensive intracranial involvement necessitated transcranial orbitotomy allowing for the removal of the object without loss of the globe. PMID:25050150

  1. Hook-Up Property of Information Flow Secure Nets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijay Varadharajan

    1991-01-01

    The paper addresses some of the issues related to the problem of composing secure systems to form a composite secure system. The author uses the Petri net based on information flow security model and develops several hook-up schemes for connecting secure information flow nets. He shows that it is possible to produce security composite nets from two component secure information

  2. CAMERA IS ON CATWALK ABOVE MTR. CRANE HOOK LOWERS TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CAMERA IS ON CATWALK ABOVE MTR. CRANE HOOK LOWERS TOP PLUG ONTO REACTOR. NOTE PLANK-LIKE BRIDGE (WALKWAY) TO BALCONY AT UPPER RIGHT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 4502. Unknown Photographer, probable date 3/31/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. Minerals and antinutrients in fluted pumpkin ( Telfairia occidentalis Hook f.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ekpedeme U Akwaowo; Bassey A Ndon; Ekaete U Etuk

    2000-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the biochemical composition of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook f.) at different stages of growth. Analyses were carried out at 12 and 50 weeks after planting on stems, leaves and roots, while seeds were analysed 8 and 32 weeks, respectively, after antethesis. Proximate moisture and carbohydrate content decreased in stems, leaves, roots and seeds with

  4. Fostering Hooks and Shifts: Tutorial Tactics for Guided Mathematical Discovery

    E-print Network

    Wilensky, Uri

    mathematical content? Are current explanatory models of pedagogical practice suitable to capture pragmatic for enhancing, explaining, or evaluating their interaction strategy. Yet when they engage or ``hook affordances. As a result, their strategy ``shifts''--it becomes newly instrumented, effectively reconfigured

  5. PAUL B. HOOK Wetland and Watershed Scientist, Intermountain Aquatics, Inc.

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    PAUL B. HOOK Wetland and Watershed Scientist, Intermountain Aquatics, Inc. 215 South 7th St, and restoration of wetland, riparian, and rangeland ecosystems Watershed analysis and best management practice and plant effects in wastewater treatment wetlands and riparian buffers Wetland and riparian restoration

  6. Hook of the hamate fractures. Diagnosis, treatment, and complications.

    PubMed

    Boulas, H J; Milek, M A

    1990-06-01

    Four cases of undiagnosed hook of the hamate fracture are presented. In each case, the initial injury was considered trivial; medical attention was not sought until rupture of the little profundus/superficialis tendon occurred. All were treated with excision of the hook and tendon repair, which usually consisted of an end-to-side or "Y" type repair of the little to the ring profundus. Postoperatively, all patients were pain-free; they returned to their respective preinjury activities, although most had some limitation of motion in the digits with the tendon repair. A review of the English literature revealed 127 cases of hook of the hamate fracture, with 14 instances of associated tendon rupture and four histories of tendon fraying. The addition of these four cases constitutes a rupture/injury rate of approximately 14%. Since tendon rupture is a serious problem that not uncommonly follows hook of the hamate fracture, a high index of suspicion must be maintained when initially evaluating these injuries. PMID:2367145

  7. Anharmonic Vibrations of an "Ideal" Hooke's Law Oscillator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomchick, John; McKelvey, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a model describing the vibrations of a mass connected to fixed supports by "ideal" Hooke's law springs which may serve as a starting point in the study of the properties of irons in a crystal undergoing soft mode activated transition. (SL)

  8. A Comprehensive Analysis of Codon Usage Patterns in Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) Based on RNA-Seq Data

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xiaoke; Yi, Shaokui; Guo, Xianwu; Wang, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) is an important fish species for its delicacy and high economic value in China. Codon usage analysis could be helpful to understand its codon biology, mRNA translation and vertebrate evolution. Based on RNA-Seq data for M. amblycephala, high-frequency codons (CUG, AGA, GUG, CAG and GAG), as well as low-frequency ones (NUA and NCG codons) were identified. A total of 724 high-frequency codon pairs were observed. Meanwhile, 14 preferred and 199 avoided neighboring codon pairs were also identified, but bias was almost not shown with one or more intervening codons inserted between the same pairs. Codon usage bias in the regions close to start and stop codons indicated apparent heterogeneity, which even occurs in the flanking nucleotide sequence. Codon usage bias (RSCU and SCUO) was related to GC3 (GC content of 3rd nucleotide in codon) bias. Six GO (Gene ontology) categories and the number of methylation targets were influenced by GC3. Codon usage patterns comparison among 23 vertebrates showed species specificities by using GC contents, codon usage and codon context analysis. This work provided new insights into fish biology and new information for breeding projects. PMID:26016504

  9. Genome-Wide SNP Discovery from Transcriptome of Four Common Carp Strains

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; Ji, Peifeng; Zhao, Zixia; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jianxin; Wang, Jian; Li, Jiongtang; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Lan; Liu, Guangzan; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen

    2012-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been used as genetic marker for genome-wide association studies in many species. Gene-associated SNPs could offer sufficient coverage in trait related research and further more could themselves be causative SNPs for traits. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquaculture species in the world accounting for nearly 14% of freshwater aquaculture production. There are various strains of common carp with different economic traits, however, the genetic mechanism underlying the different traits have not been elucidated yet. In this project, we identified a large number of gene-associated SNPs from four strains of common carp using next-generation sequencing. Results Transcriptome sequencing of four strains of common carp (mirror carp, purse red carp, Xingguo red carp, Yellow River carp) was performed with Solexa HiSeq2000 platform. De novo assembled transcriptome was used as reference for alignments, and SNP calling was done through BWA and SAMtools. A total of 712,042 Intra-strain SNPs were discovered in four strains, of which 483,276 SNPs for mirror carp, 486,629 SNPs for purse red carp, 478,028 SNPs for Xingguo red carp and 488,281 SNPs for Yellow River carp were discovered, respectively. Besides, 53,893 inter-SNPs were identified. Strain-specific SNPs of four strains were 53,938, 53,866, 48,701, 40,131 in mirror carp, purse red carp, Xingguo red carp and Yellow River carp, respectively. GO and KEGG pathway analysis were done to reveal strain-specific genes affected by strain-specific non-synonymous SNPs. Validation of selected SNPs revealed that 48% percent of SNPs (12 of 25) were tested to be true SNPs. Conclusions Transcriptome analysis of common carp using RNA-Seq is a cost-effective way of generating numerous reads for SNP discovery. After validation of identified SNPs, these data will provide a solid base for SNP array designing and genome-wide association studies. PMID:23110192

  10. Low-Density Triploid Grass Carp Stockings for Submersed Vegetation Control in Small Impoundments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian G. Blackwell; Brian R. Murphy

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated the ability of low-density triploid grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) stockings to provide partial control of submersed vegetation (maintain 10–40% coverage) in four small impoundments. Triploid grass carp were stocked during May 1991 at densities ranging from 4.0 to 7.5 per surface ha; additional triploid grass carp (5.0 per surface ha) were added to one impoundment during June 1992.

  11. Sublethal copper exposure induces respiratory stress in common and gibel carp but not in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, G; Van der Ven, K; Meeus, W; Blust, R

    2007-01-01

    Rainbow trout, common carp, and gibel carp were exposed to sublethal Cu levels (1.0 or 1.7 microM) for 1 week. In rainbow trout, arterial oxygen tension (P(aO(2))) remained normal and there was no indication of anaerobic metabolism. P(aO(2)) was considerably lower in common and gibel carp and Cu exposure decreased this further. The decrease was transient for common carp but persistent in gibel carp and coincided with an elevation in arterial carbon dioxide tension (P(aCO(2))) indicating that all gas exchange was compromised in both cyprinid species. The disturbed gas exchange resulted in acidosis, which was respiratory and metabolic for common carp but mainly respiratory for gibel carp. Gibel carp produced ethanol as end product of their alternative anaerobic pathway. The hypothesis that hypertrophy and hyperplasia, resulting in increased diffusion distances, are reducing P(aO(2)) appeared invalid. Hypoventilation seems a more likely cause. Ionoregulatory parameters responded more uniform among species. Fast and pronounced decreases in plasma sodium and chloride developed for all three species, independent of the observed gill damage. Rainbow trout lost 20% of their plasma Na in the first 3 days, while common and gibel carp had only lost 13 and 16% respectively at that time. This difference might be crucial when challenged with Cu exposure and allow a fish to survive the first shock phase and supports it the hypothesis that sodium turnover is a key factor in predicting Cu toxicity. PMID:17196885

  12. Spring Viremia of Carp Virus (SVCV) Rule and the Importation of Susceptible Fish General Information and Suggested Procedural Checklist for

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    (Carassius auratus) Tench (Tinca tinca) Sheatfish (Silurus glanis) If yes, then go to step 2. 2. Do you have (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) Bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) Goldfish

  13. Hepatic ?-Oxidation and Regulation of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase (CPT) I in Blunt Snout Bream Megalobrama amblycephala Fed a High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kang-Le; Xu, Wei-Na; Wang, Li-Na; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Zhang, Chun-Nuan; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2014-01-01

    High-fat diets may promote growth, partly through their protein-sparing effects. However, high-fat diets often lead to excessive fat deposition, which may have a negative impact on fish such as poor growth and suppressive immune. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of a fat-rich diet on the mechanisms of fat deposition in the liver. Three-hundred blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) juveniles (initial mass 18.00±0.05 g) were fed with one of two diets (5% or 15% fat) for 8 weeks. ?-Oxidation capacity and regulation of rate-limiting enzymes were assessed. Large fat droplets were present in hepatocytes of fish fed the high-fat diet. This observation is thought to be largely owing to the reduced capacity for mitochondrial and peroxisomal ?-oxidation in the livers of fish fed the high-fat diet, as well as the decreased activities of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) I and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO), which are enzymes involved in fatty-acid metabolism. Study of CPT I kinetics showed that CPT I had a low affinity for its substrates and a low catalytic efficiency in fish fed the high-fat diet. Expression of both CPT I and ACO was significantly down-regulated in fish fed the high-fat diet. Moreover, the fatty-acid composition of the mitochondrial membrane varied between the two groups. In conclusion, the attenuated ?-oxidation capacity observed in fish fed a high-fat diet is proposed to be owing to decreased activity and/or catalytic efficiency of the rate-limiting enzymes CPT I and ACO, via both genetic and non-genetic mechanisms. PMID:24676148

  14. Hooke's law correlation in two-electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loos, Pierre-François

    2010-03-01

    We study the properties of the Hooke’s law correlation energy (Ec), defined as the correlation energy when two electrons interact via a harmonic potential in a D-dimensional space. More precisely, we investigate the 1S ground-state properties of two model systems: the Moshinsky atom (in which the electrons move in a quadratic potential) and the spherium model (in which they move on the surface of a sphere). A comparison with their Coulombic counterparts is made that highlights the main differences of the Ec in both the weakly and strongly correlated limits. Moreover, we show that the Schrödinger equation of the spherium model is exactly solvable for two values of the dimension (D=1and3) and that the exact wave function is based on Mathieu functions.

  15. On the reliability of hook echoes as tornado indicators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, G. S.

    1981-01-01

    A study of radar echoes associated with the tornadoes of the 3 April 1974 outbreak was performed to evaluate the usefulness of echo shape as an indicator of tornadic thunderstorms. The hook shape was usually successful in characterizing an echo as tornadic, with a false alarm rate of 16%. Because hook echoes were relatively rare, however, a less restrictive shape called distinctive was more successful at detecting tornadic thunderstorms, identifying 65% of the tornadic echoes. An echo had a distinctive shape if it possessed a marked appendage on its right rear flank or was in the shape of a spiral, comma or line echo wave pattern (LEWP). Characteristics of the distinctive echo are given.

  16. The description and host-parasite relationships of a new quadrigyrid species (Acanthocephala) from the Persian tooth-carp, Aphanius farsicus (Actinoptreygii: Cyprinodontidae) in Iran.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Gholami, Zeinab; Akhlaghi, Mostafa; Heckmann, Richard A

    2013-04-01

    Acanthogyrus (Acanthosentis) barmeshoori n. sp. (Quadrigyridae) is described from the Persian tooth-carp, Aphanius farsicus Teimori, Esmaeili, and Reichenbacher, 2011 (Cyprinodontidae) in the Maharlu Lake basin, southern Iran. Aphanius farsicus is an endemic freshwater fish found in streams and springs that drain into Maharlu Lake, Shiraz, Iran. The new species is the smallest of all the 44 known species of the subgenus Acanthosentis Verma and Datta, 1929, measuring between 0.26 and 1.68 mm in length. It is further distinguished by having a short cylindrical proboscis with very long anterior hooks widely separated from very small hooks in 2 very close circles posteriorly (hook length ratio about 4:1). It is separated from 4 other species of Acanthosentis with similar proboscis armature but with less-extreme diversification of hook length. The new species is also distinguished in having anterior para-receptacle structures (PRS) and a similar posterior structure like those reported in only 1 other species of Acanthosentis from Japan. Proboscis receptacle is single walled with a large triangular cephalic ganglion. Testes are large, pre-equatorial, and Saefftigen's pouch is prominent. Fourteen to 25 circles of spines cover the anterior 50-70% of the trunk, but a few spines may be present at posterior end of trunk. This is the first species of Acanthosentis where SEM images, showing external morphological details, are provided. From a total of 357 fish specimens examined between July 2006 and June 2007, 173 specimens (48.5%) were infected with individuals of the new species. The prevalence of infection decreased with increasing fish size. The parasite was observed all year, with the highest abundance and intensity in May while the prevalence was highest in February. The prevalence of acanthocephalans decreased with increasing fish size. While most worms were recovered in fish within the length range of 18-29.9 mm, 1 of the longest parasites (1.68 mm long) was found in fish within the range of 30-33.9 mm long. PMID:22994245

  17. Oblique triangular neurovascular osteocutaneous flap for hook nail deformity correction.

    PubMed

    García-López, Antonio; Laredo, Carlos; Rojas, Adaly

    2014-07-01

    Hook nail deformity results in aesthetic and functional problems after fingertip amputations. Previously described techniques do not correct the osseous defect, which may be the principle cause of the problem. We present a surgical technique based on a compound homodigital advancement flap combining bone of the distal phalanx, finger pulp, and skin. We describe this technique, report a case, and discuss the advantages over former techniques. PMID:24969498

  18. Photocontrol ofHookOpening in Cuscuta gronovii Willd

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. H. TRUSCOTT

    Hook openingin seedlings of Cuscutagronovii Willd. occurred onlyafterprolonged exposures toblue,red,orfar redlight. Prolonged farredexposure waslesseffective than prolonged exposure toredorbluelight. Brieffarredirradia- tioninhibited theinductive effect ofredlight. Thefarred inhibition wasinturnreversed bybrief redirradiation. These effects suggest theinvolvement oftwophotosystems inthe control ofhookopening inCuscuta gronovii Willd.: aphyto- chrome-mediated systemanda separate highenergyrequire- ment. Thegrowth ofdodder (Cuscuta gronovii Willd.) seedlings is characterized bythepresence ofastemhook.Becausecoty- ledons donotdevelop indodder seedlings (22)this

  19. Hooking Up” Among College Students: Demographic and Psychosocial Correlates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesse J. Owen; Galena K. Rhoades; Scott M. Stanley; Frank D. Fincham

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated 832 college students’ experiences with hooking up, a term that refers to a range of physically intimate\\u000a behavior (e.g., passionate kissing, oral sex, and intercourse) that occurs outside of a committed relationship. Specifically,\\u000a we examined how five demographic variables (sex, ethnicity, parental income, parental divorce, and religiosity) and six psychosocial\\u000a factors (e.g., attachment styles, alcohol use, psychological

  20. Kohn's theorem and Newton-Hooke symmetry for Hill's equations

    E-print Network

    P. M. Zhang; G. W. Gibbons; P. A. Horvathy

    2012-02-24

    Hill's equations, which first arose in the study of the Earth-Moon-Sun system, admit the two-parameter centrally extended Newton-Hooke symmetry without rotations. This symmetry allows for extending Kohn's theorem about the center-of-mass decomposition. Particular light is shed on the problem using Duval's "Bargmann" framework. The separation of the center-of-mass motion into that of a guiding center and relative motion is derived by a generalized chiral decomposition.

  1. Hook-Up Culture: Setting a New Research Agenda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline Heldman; Lisa Wade

    2010-01-01

    Summarizing the major findings of literature on hook-up culture, we propose a new research agenda focusing on when and why\\u000a this sexual subculture emerged. We explore a series of hypotheses to explain this sexual paradigm shift, including college\\u000a and university policies, the gender distribution of students, changes in the nature of alcohol use, access to and consumption\\u000a of pornography, the

  2. Volatile components of Discaria americana Gillies & Hook (Rhamnaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvana Rodriguez; Ana Paula Murray

    2008-01-01

    The volatile fraction from aerial parts (flowers, stems and leaves) of Discaria americana Gillies & Hook (Rhamnaceae) was obtained by hydrodistillation and the chemical composition of this oil was determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The major constituents resulted to be 4-methylphenol (15.5%), eugenol (11%), 3-methylindole (9.7%) and ?-terpineol (6.2%). The essential oil of this plant displayed strong

  3. Carp thrombocyte phagocytosis requires activation factors secreted from other leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Takahiro; Somamoto, Tomonori; Nakao, Miki

    2015-10-01

    Thrombocytes are nucleated blood cells in non-mammalian vertebrates, which were recently focused on not only as hemostatic cells but also as immune cells with potent phagocytic activities. We have analyzed the phagocytic activation mechanisms in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) thrombocytes. MACS-sorted mAb(+) thrombocytes showed no phagocytic activity even in the presence of several stimulants. However, remixing these thrombocytes with other anti-thrombocyte mAb(-) leukocyte populations restored their phagocytic activities, indicating that carp thrombocyte phagocytosis requires an appropriate exogenous stimulation. Culture supernatant from anti-thrombocyte mAb(-) leukocytes harvested after PMA or LPS stimulation, but not culture supernatant from unstimulated leukocytes, could activate thrombocyte phagocytosis. This proposed mechanism of thrombocyte phagocytosis activation involving soluble factors produced by activated leukocytes suggests that thrombocyte activation is restricted to areas proximal to injured tissues, ensuring suppression of excessive thrombocyte activation and a balance between inflammation and tissue repair. PMID:25978929

  4. Quantitative dietary lysine requirement of juvenile grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheng Wang; Yong-Jian Liu; Li-Xia Tian; Ming-Quan Xie; Hui-Jun Yang; Yong Wang; Gui-Ying Liang

    2005-01-01

    A 90-day feeding trail was conducted to determine the dietary lysine requirement of juvenile grass carp using six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets (38% protein, 14 MJ digestible energy kg?1) with wheat gluten–casein–gelatin as protein resource supplemented with six graded levels of crystalline lysine (from 0.69% to 3.08% of dry diet). Crystalline amino acid mixtures were supplemented to simulate the amino

  5. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides activate grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus) macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhen Meng; Jianzhong Shao; Lixin Xiang

    2003-01-01

    In mice and humans, B cells, antigen-presenting cells including monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells and natural killer cells can be stimulated directly or indirectly by the bacterial DNA and oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing the CpG motifs (CpG DNA). Using head kidney macrophages of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) as an in vitro model, we investigated the effects of several CpG-ODNs on fish

  6. Food Selection by Grass Carp Fingerlings in a Vegetated Pond

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas E. Colle; Jerome V. Shireman; Roger W. Rottmann

    1978-01-01

    Five thousand grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fry were stocked into a 0.81-hectare pond in Marion County, Florida. The fry grew from 48.2 mm to 186 mm total length in 6 months with a survival rate of less than 7%. Food consumption decreased to near maintenance ration when water temperature fell below 14 C and growth was reduced. The 76 grass

  7. The Lake Wingra Carp-Free Enclosure and its Effect on an Aquatic Macrophyte, Lemna minor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Patterson; Jessa Underwood

    Various people and organizations have spent time and energy into trying to find out if the carp in Lake Wingra are having a negative impact on the other forms of life within the ecosystem. In order to try and answer this question an enclosure was created to remove the carp from a small section of the water. For our experiment

  8. Age Structure and Growth of Common Carp Populations in Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    E-print Network

    Koford, Rolf R.

    Age Structure and Growth of Common Carp Populations in Malheur National Wildlife Refuge Principal"isnearingcompletionandtargetedforpublicationinNorthAmericanJournalofFisheriesManagement. Asecondmanuscriptentitled:"Ageandgrowthofcommoncarp(Cyprinuscarpio)inMalheurNationalWildlife Refuge be used to estimate age. Age and growth.--Age and growth varied for carp populations within the refuge

  9. Tales of two fish: the dichotomous biology of crucian carp (Carassius carassius (L.)) in northern Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ismo J. Holopainen; William M. Tonn; Cynthia A. Paszkowski

    1997-01-01

    Crucian carp, a common Eurasian cyprinid fish, shows striking dichotomies in several aspects of its physiology and ecology, at both the individual and population levels. These dichotomies consistently reflect the communities and ecosystems in which they occur, contrasting crucian carp that occur in \\

  10. Phenotypic plasticity in the spawning traits of bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) in novel ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coulter, Alison A.; Keller, Doug; Amberg, Jon J.; Bailey, Elizabeth J.; Goforth, Reuben R.

    2013-01-01

    1.?Bigheaded carp, including both silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead (H. nobilis) carp, are successful invasive fishes that threaten global freshwater biodiversity. High phenotypic plasticity probably contributes to their success in novel ecosystems, although evidence of plasticity in several spawning traits has hitherto been largely anecdotal or speculative. 2.?We collected drifting eggs from a Midwestern U.S.A. river from June to September 2011 and from April to June 2012 to investigate the spawning traits of bigheaded carp in novel ecosystems. 3.?Unlike reports from the native range, the presence of drifting bigheaded carp eggs was not related to changes in hydrological regime or mean daily water temperature. Bigheaded carp also exhibited protracted spawning, since we found drifting eggs throughout the summer and as late as 1 September 2011. Finally, we detected bigheaded carp eggs in a river reach where the channel is c. 30 m wide with a catchment area of 4579 km2, the smallest stream in which spawning has yet been documented. 4.?Taken with previous observations of spawning traits that depart from those observed within the native ranges of both bighead and silver carp, our findings provide direct evidence that bigheaded carp exhibit plastic spawning traits in novel ecosystems that may facilitate invasion and establishment in a wider range of river conditions than previously envisaged.

  11. Effects of triiodothyronine and of some gonadotropic and steroid hormones on the maturation of carp

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effects of triiodothyronine and of some gonadotropic and steroid hormones on the maturation of carp) and of gonadotropic and steroid hormones on carp oocyte maturation in vitro were investigated using ovarian fragments from 5 females that had completed vitellogenesis. The percentages of mature oocytes were consistently

  12. The annual reproduction cycle in adult carp in Poland : ovarian state and serum gonadotropin level

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The annual reproduction cycle in adult carp in Poland : ovarian state and serum gonadotropin level, 30-059 Krakow, Poland * Laboratoire de Physiologie des Poissons, LN.R.A. 78350 Jouy en Josas, France. Summary. In environmental conditions in Poland, new vitellogenesis began in carp just after the spawning

  13. Effects of Triploid Grass Carp on Aquatic Vegetation in Two South Dakota Lakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daryl L. Bauer; David W. Willis

    1990-01-01

    Triploid grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were stocked at a mean length of 229 mm (total length) into two small South Dakota lakes in 1985. Chara sp. was the predominant aquatic macrophyte in both lakes. Prior Lake contained a fish community in which the largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) was the only top-level predator. An introduction of 49 grass carp per hectare

  14. Construction and characterization of BAC libraries for three fish species; rainbow trout, carp and tilapia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Katagiri; S. Asakawa; S. Minagawa; N. Shimizu; I. Hirono; T. Aoki

    2001-01-01

    Summary Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries are important tools for genomic research. We have constructed seven genomic BAC libraries from three fish species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), carp (Cyprinus carpio) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The two rainbow trout BAC libraries have average insert sizes of 58 and 110 kb. The average size of inserts in the carp BAC library is

  15. The Influence of Hook Type, Angler Experience, and Fish Size on Injury Rates and the Duration of Capture in an Alaskan Catch-and-Release Rainbow Trout Fishery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie M. Meka

    2004-01-01

    Owing to concerns about the high incidence of past hooking injuries in Alagnak River rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, fish were captured with spin- and fly-fishing gear with barbed and barbless circle and “J” hooks to determine gear types contributing to injury. Landing and hook removal times were measured for a portion of fish captured, and the anatomical hooking location, hooking

  16. Aerobic bacterial microflora of Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) oral cavity and cloaca, originating from parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, Paraíba, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, J.S.A.; Mota, R.A.; Pinheiro Júnior, J.W.; Almeida, M.C.S.; Silva, D.R.; Ferreira, D.R.A.; Azevedo, J.C.N.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate and identify the aerobic bacterial microflora from the oral cavity mucosa and cloaca’s samples, collected from Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris), born and bred in captivity at Parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. The most common bacteria were Staphylococcus sp. (14.74%), Corynebacterium sp. (13.68%), Escherichia coli (13.68%) and Shigella sp.(11.58%), and the less common were Citrobacter sp. (1.05%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (1.05%) and Salmonella sp. (1.05%).This emphasizes the importance of these microorganisms’ participation in infectious processes (sepsis) and injuries caused by crocodilians. PMID:24031343

  17. Identification and characterization of microRNAs involved in growth of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) by Solexa sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) is an economically important fish species in the Chinese freshwater polyculture system for its delicacy and high economic value. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulation of almost all biological processes in eukaryotes. Although previous studies have identified thousands of miRNAs from many species, little information is known for miRNAs of M. amblycephala. To investigate functions of miRNAs associated with growth of M. amblycephala, we adopted the Solexa sequencing technology to sequence two small RNA libraries prepared from four growth related tissues (brain, pituitary, liver and muscle) of M. amblycephala using individuals with relatively high and low growth rates. Results In this study, we have identified 347 conserved miRNAs (belonging to 123 families) and 22 novel miRNAs in M. amblycephala. Moreover, we observed sequence variants and seed edits of the miRNAs. Of the 5,166 single nucleotide substitutions observed in two libraries, the most abundant were G-to-U (15.9%), followed by U-to-C (12.1%), G-to-A (11.2%), and A to G (11.2%). Subsequently, we compared the expression patterns of miRNAs in the two libraries (big-size group with high growth rate versus small-size group with low growth rate). Results indicated that 27 miRNAs displayed significant differential expressions between the two libraries (p?

  18. Sustainable fishing gear: the case of modified circle hooks in a Costa Rican longline fishery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yonat Swimmer; Jenny Suter; Randall Arauz; Keith Bigelow; Andrés López; Ilena Zanela; Alan Bolaños; Jorge Ballestero; Raúl Suárez; John Wang; Christofer Boggs

    2011-01-01

    Our research aims to identify longline fishing gear modifications that can improve fishing selectivity and reduce incidental\\u000a capture of non-target species. Catch rates and anatomical hook locations (AHL) were compared when using a 14\\/0 standard “control”\\u000a circle hook with a 0° offset and an experimental “appendage” hook in a Costa Rican longline fishery. With the appendage, the\\u000a maximum dimension of

  19. Age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of adult bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, in the lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrank, S.J.; Guy, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Bighead carp were introduced into Arkansas in 1973 to improve water clarity in production ponds. Bighead carp subsequently escaped aquaculture facilities in the early 1980's and dispersed into the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. The first documentation of bighead carp reproduction in the Mississippi River system was in 1989. The population has increased in the Missouri River as is evident in their increased proportion in the commercial harvest since 1990. The effect of this exotic planktivore on native ecosystems of the U.S. has not been examined. Basic biological data on bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis in the Missouri River are needed to predict potential ecological problems and provide a foundation for manipulative studies. The objectives of this study were to assess age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of bighead carp in the Missouri River. Adult bighead carp in our sample varied from age 3 to age 7 and length varied from 475 to 1050 mm. There was a large variation in length at age, and overall bighead carp exhibited fast growth. For example, mean back-calculated length at age 3 was 556 mm. The sample was dominated by bighead carp from the 1994 year class. There was no difference in gonad development (i.e., gonadal somatic index, egg diameter) between winter and spring samples. Length of male bighead carp and GSI were not significantly correlated; however, females exhibited a positive linear relationship between length and GSI. In each ovary, egg diameter frequencies exhibited a bimodal distribution, indicating protracted spawning. Mean fecundity was 226 213, with a maximum fecundity of 769 964. Bighead carp in the Missouri River have similar life history characteristics to Asian and European populations. They have become well established in the Missouri River and it is likely that dispersal and population density will increase.

  20. Acceleration-extended Newton-Hooke symmetry and its dynamical realization

    E-print Network

    Fu-Li Liu; Yu Tian

    2008-08-05

    Newton-Hooke group is the nonrelativistic limit of de Sitter (anti-de Sitter) group, which can be enlarged with transformations that describe constant acceleration, as well as central charges. We consider a higher order Lagrangian that is quasi-invariant under the acceleration-extended Newton-Hooke symmetry, and obtain the Schr\\"{o}dinger equation quantizing the Hamiltonian corresponding to its first order form. We show that the Schr\\"{o}dinger equation is invariant under the acceleration-extended Newton-Hooke transformations. We also discuss briefly the exotic conformal Newton-Hooke symmetry in 2+1 dimension.

  1. Development and impact of hooks of high droplet concentration on remote southeast Pacific stratocumulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, R. C.; Wood, R.; Bretherton, C. S.; Painter, G.

    2013-07-01

    Over the southeastern Pacific (SEP), droplet concentration (Nd) in the typically unpolluted marine stratocumulus west of 80° W (> 1000 km offshore) is periodically strongly enhanced in zonally elongated "hook"-shaped features that increase albedo. Here, we examine three hook events using the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem) with 14 km horizontal resolution, satellite data, and aircraft data from the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx). A particularly strong hook yields insights into the development, decay, and radiative impact of these features. Hook development occurs with Nd increasing to polluted levels over the remote ocean primarily due to entrainment of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) from the lower free troposphere (FT). The feature advects northwestward until the FT CCN source is depleted, after which Nd decreases over a few days due to precipitation and dilution. The model suggests that the FT CCN source supplying the hook consists of high concentrations of small accumulation-mode aerosols that contribute a relatively small amount of aerosol mass to the MBL, in agreement with near-coast VOCALS measurements of polluted layers in the FT. The aerosol particles in this hook originate mainly from a pulse of offshore flow that transports Santiago-region (33-35° S) emissions to the remote marine FT. To provide pollution CCN that can sustain hooks, the FT transport of pollution plumes to the remote ocean requires strong, deep offshore flow. Such flow is favored by a trough approaching the South American coast and a southeastward shift of the climatological subtropical high-pressure system. The model simulations show precipitation suppression in the hook and a corresponding increase in liquid water path (LWP) compared with a simulation without anthropogenic sources. LWP also increases as the hook evolves over time due to increasing stability and decreasing subsidence. WRF-Chem suggests that dimethyl sulfide (DMS) significantly influences the aerosol number and size distributions in a hook, but that hooks do not form without FT CCN. The Twomey effect contributes ~ 50-70% of the albedo increase due to the presence of the hook, while secondary aerosol indirect effects and meteorological influences also contribute significantly. The source of hook aerosols is difficult to determine with the available observations alone. The model provides further explanation of the factors influencing hook formation. Two other weaker hooks during VOCALS-REx are not as well simulated but are also associated with FT offshore flow near Santiago. Hooks demonstrate the importance of free-tropospheric transport of aerosols in modulating the droplet concentration in the southeastern Pacific stratocumulus deck, and present a formidable challenge to simulate accurately in large-scale models.

  2. Effects of different dietary phospholipid levels on growth performance, fatty acid composition, PPAR gene expressions and antioxidant responses of blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Gao, Jian; Huang, Songqian

    2015-04-01

    A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of dietary phospholipid (PL) from soybean lecithin on growth performance, liver fatty acid composition, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gene expression levels and antioxidant responses of blunt snout bream fingerlings. Fish (average initial weight 0.35 ± 0.01 g) were fed five experimental diets containing the following inclusion levels of PL: 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8%. Results showed that final body weight, weight gain and specific growth rate increased significantly (P < 0.05) as dietary PL level increased from 0 to 6%, meanwhile the survival was not affected by dietary PL supplementation. Increasing dietary PL level significantly (P < 0.05) increased in 20:4n-6 content in neutral lipid of liver, indicating fish had the capacity to convert C18 to C20 and C22 by elongation and desaturation. The expression levels of PPAR-? and PPAR-? and the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in liver were significantly (P < 0.05) increased, and liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value was decreased with dietary PL supplementation up to 6% compared with the control. Therefore, it was concluded that supplementation of 6% (18.8 g kg(-1), polar lipid of diet) PL could improve growth performance of blunt snout bream fingerlings. PMID:25261016

  3. Tree hook length formulae, Feynman rules and B-series

    E-print Network

    Bradley R. Jones; Karen Yeats

    2014-12-18

    We consider weighted generating functions of trees where the weights are products of functions of the sizes of the subtrees. This work begins with the observation that three different communities, largely independently, found substantially the same result concerning these series. We unify these results with a common generalization. Next we use the insights of one community on the problems of another in two different ways. Namely, we use the differential equation perspective to find a number of new interesting hook length formulae for trees, and we use the body of examples developed by the combinatorial community to give quantum field theory toy examples with nice properties.

  4. Development and impact of hooks of large droplet concentration on remote southeast Pacific stratocumulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, R. C.; Wood, R.; Bretherton, C. S.; Painter, G.

    2013-01-01

    Over the southeastern Pacific (SEP), droplet concentration (Nd) in the typically unpolluted marine stratocumulus west of 80° W (> 1000 km offshore) is periodically strongly enhanced in zonally-elongated "hook"-shaped arcs that increase albedo. Here, we examine three hook events using the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem) with 14 km horizontal resolution, satellite data and aircraft data from the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx). A particularly strong hook yields insights to the development, decay, and radiative impact of these features. Hook development occurs with Nd increasing to polluted levels over the remote ocean primarily due to entrainment of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) from the free troposphere (FT). The feature advects northwestward until the FT CCN source is depleted, after which Nd decreases over a few days due to precipitation and dilution. The model suggests that the FT CCN source supplying the hook consists of high concentrations of small accumulation mode aerosols that contribute a relatively small amount of aerosol mass to the MBL. The aerosol particles originate mainly from a pulse of offshore flow that transports Santiago region (33-35° S) emissions to the marine FT. To provide a sustained hook CCN source, the FT transport of pollution plumes to the remote ocean requires strong, deep offshore flow. Such flow is favored by a trough approaching the South American coast and a southeastward shift of the climatological subtropical high pressure system. The model simulations show precipitation suppression in the hook and a corresponding increase in liquid water path (LWP) compared with a simulation without anthropogenic sources. LWP also increases in time as the hook evolves due to increasing stability and decreasing subsidence. WRF-Chem suggests that DMS significantly influences the aerosol number and size distributions in a hook, but that hooks do not form without FT CCN. The Twomey effect contributes ~ 50-70% of the albedo increase due the presence of the hook, while secondary aerosol indirect effects and meteorological influences also contribute significantly. The source of hook aerosols is difficult to determine with the available observations alone. The model explains the observations and puts them in context of the factors influencing hook formation. Two other weaker hooks during VOCALS-REx are not as well simulated but are also associated with FT offshore flow near Santiago. Hooks demonstrate the importance of free-tropospheric transport of aerosols in modulating the droplet concentration in the southeastern Pacific stratocumulus deck, and present a formidable challenge to simulate accurately in large scale models.

  5. Effects of triploid grass carp on aquatic plants, water quality, and public satisfaction in Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonar, Scott A.; Bolding, B.; Divens, M.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated effects of triploid grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella on aquatic macrophyte communities, water quality, and public satisfaction for 98 lakes and ponds in Washington State stocked with grass carp between 1990 and 1995. Grass carp had few noticeable effects on macrophyte communities until 19 months following stocking. After 19 months, submersed macrophytes were either completely eradicated (39% of the lakes) or not controlled (42% of the lakes) in most lakes. Intermediate control of submersed macrophytes occurred in 18% of lakes at a median stocking rate of 24 fish per vegetated surface acre. Most of the landowners interviewed (83%) were satisfied with the results of introducing grass carp. For sites where all submersed macrophytes were eradicated, average turbidity was higher (11 nephelometric turbidity units, NTU) than at sites where macrophytes were controlled to intermediate levels (4 NTU) or unaffected by grass carp grazing (5 NTU). Chlorophyll a was not significantly different between levels of macrophyte control; therefore, we concluded that most of this turbidity was abiotic and not algal. Triploid grass carp were a popular control option and effectively grazed most submersed macrophytes in Washington State. However, calculating stocking rates based on landowner estimates of aquatic plant coverage rarely resulted in intermediate levels of aquatic plant control. Additionally, the effects of particular stocking rates varied considerably. We recommend against using grass carp in Washington lakes where eradication of submersed vegetation cannot be tolerated.

  6. Elements of concern in fillets of bighead and silver carp from the Illinois River, Illinois.

    PubMed

    Levengood, Jeffrey M; Soucek, David J; Sass, Gregory G; Dickinson, Amy; Epifanio, John M

    2014-06-01

    Efforts to control invasive bighead (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix) may include harvest for human consumption. We measured concentrations of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) in fillets from silver and bighead carp collected from the lower Illinois River, Illinois, USA, to determine whether concentrations were of health concern and differed by species, size, and location. Concentrations of total As were below detection limits in most bighead (92%) and silver (77%) carp fillets, whereas inorganic As was below detection limits in all samples. Mean Hg concentrations were greater in bighead (0.068 mg kg(-1)) than in silver carp (0.035 mg kg(-1)), and were smallest in carp from the confluence of the Illinois and Mississippi rivers. Mercury concentrations in fillets were positively correlated with body mass in both species. Concentrations of Hg were below the US Food and Drug Administration's (USFDA) action level (1 ppm as methyl-Hg); however, concentrations in some bighead (70%) and silver (12%) carp fell within the range that would invoke a recommendation to limit meals in sensitive cohorts. Mean Se concentrations were greater in silver (0.332 mg kg(-1)) than in bighead (0.281 mg kg(-1)) carp fillets, and were below the 1.5 mg kg(-1) limit for an unrestricted number of meals/month. The mean molar ratio of Se:Hg in fillets was lower in bighead (14.0) than in silver (29.1) carp and was negatively correlated with mass in both species Concentrations of Hg in bighead and silver carp fillets should be considered when assessing the risks associated with the use of these species as a protein source. PMID:24300421

  7. 50 CFR Table 49 to Part 679 - Groundfish Licenses Qualifying for Hook-and-Line Catcher/Processor Endorsement Exemption

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Qualifying for Hook-and-Line Catcher/Processor Endorsement Exemption Groundfishlicense * * * Shall receive a Pacific cod endorsement with a catcher/processor and a hook-and-line designation in the following regulatory area(s) * * *...

  8. Hook2 is involved in the morphogenesis of the primary cilium

    PubMed Central

    Baron Gaillard, Carole L.; Pallesi-Pocachard, Emilie; Massey-Harroche, Dominique; Richard, Fabrice; Arsanto, Jean-Pierre; Chauvin, Jean-Paul; Lecine, Patrick; Krämer, Helmut; Borg, Jean-Paul; Le Bivic, André

    2011-01-01

    Primary cilia originate from the centrosome and play essential roles in several cellular, developmental, and pathological processes, but the underlying mechanisms of ciliogenesis are not fully understood. Given the involvement of the adaptor protein Hook2 in centrosomal homeostasis and protein transport to pericentrosomal aggresomes, we explored its role in ciliogenesis. We found that in human retinal epithelial cells, Hook2 localizes at the Golgi apparatus and centrosome/basal body, a strategic partitioning for ciliogenesis. Of importance, Hook2 depletion disrupts ciliogenesis at a stage before the formation of the ciliary vesicle at the distal tip of the mother centriole. Using two hybrid and immunoprecipitation assays and a small interfering RNA strategy, we found that Hook2 interacts with and stabilizes pericentriolar material protein 1 (PCM1), which was reported to be essential for the recruitment of Rab8a, a GTPase that is believed to be crucial for membrane transport to the primary cilium. Of interest, GFP::Rab8a coimmunoprecipitates with endogenous Hook2 and PCM1. Finally, GFP::Rab8a can overcome Hook2 depletion, demonstrating a functional interaction between Hook2 and these two important regulators of ciliogenesis. The data indicate that Hook2 interacts with PCM1 in a complex that also contains Rab8a and regulates a limiting step required for further initiation of ciliogenesis after centriole maturation. PMID:21998199

  9. Are College Students Replacing Dating and Romantic Relationships with Hooking Up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebenbruner, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed female college students' ("N" = 197) participation in dating, romantic relationships, hooking up behaviors, and the intersection of these activities. Hooking up was prevalent among students ("n" = 78; 39.6%), but dating ("n" = 139; 70.6%) and romantic relationship ("n" = 147; 74.6%)…

  10. Twisted acceleration-enlarged Newton-Hooke space-times and breaking classical symmetry phenomena

    E-print Network

    Marcin Daszkiewicz

    2012-01-25

    We find the subgroup of classical acceleration-enlarged Newton-Hooke Hopf algebra which acts covariantly on the twisted acceleration-enlarged Newton-Hooke space-times. The case of classical acceleration-enlarged Galilei quantum group is considered as well.

  11. Size-related Hooking Mortality of Incidentally Caught Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    E-print Network

    Size-related Hooking Mortality of Incidentally Caught Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and all chinook salmon caught must be released. Fisheries managers require estimates ABSTRACT-Mortality salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawy tscha, was assessed. Observed cumulative mortality 4-6 days after hooking

  12. Grasp and Force Based Taxonomy of Split-Hook Prosthetic Terminal Devices

    E-print Network

    Dollar, Aaron M.

    Grasp and Force Based Taxonomy of Split-Hook Prosthetic Terminal Devices Joseph T. Belter, Bo C developed two taxonomies of split-hook use, one on grasp shape and one on force exertion, illustrating of the classifications. These taxonomies serve to establish a common language and means of comparing the types of grasps

  13. Combining hook length formulas and BG-ranks for partitions via the Littlewood decomposition

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    formulas can be generalized and include more variables via the Littlewood decomposition, which maps each generalizations of classical and new hook length formulas, including the Nekrasov-Okounkov, the Han-Carde-Loubert-Potechin-Sanborn. Generating function for partitions. §4. Two classical hook length formulas. §5. The Han-Carde-Loubert-Potechin-Sanborn

  14. Hooking tomorrow's geoscientists: Authentic field inquiry as a compelling pedagogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallstrom, Erica

    2015-04-01

    Engaging high school students in the geosciences without providing them with opportunities to directly explore, understand, and question the natural world is like trying to catch a fish without a hook. How can educators hope to inspire youth to pursue a career in the geosciences when the subject is first introduced to teenagers within the confines of a classroom? Regardless of the content and activities employed by the teacher, the synthetic classroom setting is unable to recreate the organic richness of an authentic outdoor learning environment. A new course offering at Rutland High School in Rutland, Vermont, USA shifts away from the traditional classroom based pedagogy by focusing the learning on exploring the temporal changes occurring in the region's geologic features. Numerous visits to local quarries, outcrops, overlooks, and universities guide the course curriculum. Students use their new understandings and personal observations to complete a culminating independent investigation. This alternate learning model is made possible through collaboration with local universities, businesses, and government agencies. If the geosciences is to remain competitive in the recruitment of exemplary STEM candidates, than the focus of high school earth science programs must be considered. This course offers one alternative to improve engagement and understanding of the geoscience standards. While not the only option, it offers one possibility for hooking students on geosciences.

  15. Thorn and hook ontogeny in Artabotrys hexapetalus (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    Posluszny, U; Fisher, J B

    2000-11-01

    Artabotrys hexapetalus is widely planted in the tropics and is known as "climbing ylang-ylang," an ornamental liana or woody climber. New natural sprouts, or water shoots, and those induced by the damage of Hurricane Andrew (24 August 1992) were collected and fixed in formalin/acidic acid/alcohol. Seeds from these plants were planted and grown in a greenhouse where seedling morphology was observed and young material collected and fixed. The development of lateral plagiotropic and orthotropic shoots was studied using both epi-illumination light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A series of buds develops in the axils of leaves on the orthotropic shoot. At the lateral margins of the axillary shelf, plagiotropic shoots form that will develop into either vegetative shoots, or thorns, or sympodial shoots that bear hooks and flowers. In between the two marginal buds, a series of median vertical buds develop that either remain dormant or grow out as renewal orthotropic shoots. Previous work that suggested that the plagiotropic shoot buds were displaced out of the median vertical series of supernumerary buds is not supported. The sympodial development of plagiotropic branches as inflorescence hooks is documented. PMID:11080105

  16. Isomerization kinetics of AT hook decapeptide solution structures.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Emily R; Ridgeway, Mark E; Park, Melvin A; Leng, Fenfei; Fernandez-Lima, Francisco

    2014-01-21

    The mammalian high mobility group protein HMGA2 contains three DNA binding motifs associated with many physiological functions including oncogenesis, obesity, stem cell youth, human height, and human intelligence. In the present paper, trapped ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (TIMS-MS) has been utilized to study the conformational dynamics of the third DNA binding motif using the "AT hook" decapeptide unit (Lys(1)-Arg(2)-Prol(3)-Arg(4)-Gly(5)-Arg(6)-Prol(7)-Arg(8)-Lys(9)-Trp(10), ATHP) as a function of the solvent state. Solvent state distributions were preserved during electrospray ion formation, and multiple IMS bands were identified for the [M + 2H](2+) and for the [M + 3H](3+) charge states. Conformational isomer interconversion rates were measured as a function of the trapping time for the [M + 2H](2+) and [M + 3H](3+) charge states. Candidate structures were proposed for all IMS bands observed. Protonation site, proline residue conformation, and side chain orientations were identified as the main motifs governing the conformational interconversion processes. Conformational dynamics from the solvent state distribution to the gas-phase "de-solvated" state distribution demonstrated that ATHP is "structured", and relative abundances are associated with the relative stability between the proposed conformers. The most stable ATHP [M + 2H](2+) conformation at the "de-solvated" state corresponds to the AT hook motif observed in AT-rich DNA regions. PMID:24364733

  17. The validation of a generalized Hooke's law for coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong; Zhang, Wei; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2008-01-01

    The exponential form of constitutive model is widely used in biomechanical studies of blood vessels. There are two main issues, however, with this model: 1) the curve fits of experimental data are not always satisfactory, and 2) the material parameters may be oversensitive. A new type of strain measure in a generalized Hooke's law for blood vessels was recently proposed by our group to address these issues. The new model has one nonlinear parameter and six linear parameters. In this study, the stress-strain equation is validated by fitting the model to experimental data of porcine coronary arteries. Material constants of left anterior descending artery and right coronary artery for the Hooke's law were computed with a separable nonlinear least-squares method with an excellent goodness of fit. A parameter sensitivity analysis shows that the stability of material constants is improved compared with the exponential model and a biphasic model. A boundary value problem was solved to demonstrate that the model prediction can match the measured arterial deformation under experimental loading conditions. The validated constitutive relation will serve as a basis for the solution of various boundary value problems of cardiovascular biomechanics. PMID:17933971

  18. Theoretical Analysis of Twist/Bend Ratio and Mechanical Moduli of Bacterial Flagellar Hook and Filament

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Terence C.; Ma, Jianpeng

    2004-01-01

    Certain motile bacteria employ rotating flagella for propulsion. The relative flexibility of two key components of the flagellum, filament and hook, is partially responsible for the mechanistic workings of this motor. A new computational method, the quantized elastic deformational model, was employed in this article to calculate the dimensionless twist/bend ratio (EI/GJ) of the filament and hook, providing a quantitative means to compare their relative stiffness. Both ratios were much <1.0, an average of 0.0440 for the filament and 0.0512 for the hook, indicating that within each structure bending is favored over twisting. These two ratios, along with previous experimental measurements, allowed us to propose a theoretical Young's modulus (E) between 106 and 107 dyn/cm2 for the hook. This value is orders of magnitude smaller than experimentally determined Young's moduli of the filament, hence in agreement with empirical evidence linking compliance in the flagellum mainly to the hook. PMID:15111433

  19. Prevalence of Ingested Fish Hooks in Freshwater Turtles from Five Rivers in the Southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Steen, David A.; Hopkins, Brittney C.; Van Dyke, James U.; Hopkins, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater turtles may ingest baited fish hooks because many are opportunistic scavengers. Although the ingestion of fish hooks is known to be a source of mortality in multiple vertebrate groups, the prevalence of hook ingestion by freshwater turtles has not been well studied. We trapped turtles from five rivers in the southeastern United States and used radiographs to examine over 600 individuals of four species. Depending on the species, sex, and age class, 0–33% of turtles contained ingested fish hooks. For some species, larger turtles were more likely to contain a fish hook than smaller individuals. Freshwater turtle demography suggests that even small increases in adult mortality may lead to population declines. If our study areas are representative of other aquatic systems that receive fishing pressure, this work likely identifies a potential conflict between a widespread, common recreational activity (i.e., fishing) and an imperiled taxonomic group. PMID:24621919

  20. Prevalence of ingested fish hooks in freshwater turtles from five rivers in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Steen, David A; Hopkins, Brittney C; Van Dyke, James U; Hopkins, William A

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater turtles may ingest baited fish hooks because many are opportunistic scavengers. Although the ingestion of fish hooks is known to be a source of mortality in multiple vertebrate groups, the prevalence of hook ingestion by freshwater turtles has not been well studied. We trapped turtles from five rivers in the southeastern United States and used radiographs to examine over 600 individuals of four species. Depending on the species, sex, and age class, 0-33% of turtles contained ingested fish hooks. For some species, larger turtles were more likely to contain a fish hook than smaller individuals. Freshwater turtle demography suggests that even small increases in adult mortality may lead to population declines. If our study areas are representative of other aquatic systems that receive fishing pressure, this work likely identifies a potential conflict between a widespread, common recreational activity (i.e., fishing) and an imperiled taxonomic group. PMID:24621919

  1. A novel approach for removing the hook effect artefact from Electrical Bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buendia, R.; Seoane, F.; Gil-Pita, R.

    2010-04-01

    Very often in Electrical Bioimpedance (EBI) spectroscopy measurements the presence of stray capacitances creates a measurement artefact commonly known as Hook Effect. Such an artefact creates a hook-alike deviation of the EBI data noticeable when representing the measurement on the impedance plane. Such Hook Effect is noticeable at high frequencies but it also causes a data deviation at lower measurement frequencies. In order to perform any accurate analysis of the EBI spectroscopy data, the influence of the Hook Effect must be removed. An established method to compensate the hook effect is the well known Td compensation, which consists on multiplying the obtained spectrum, Zmeas(?) by a complex exponential in the form of exp[j?Td]. Such a method cannot correct entirely the Hook Effect since the hook-alike deviation occurs a broad frequency range in both magnitude and phase of the measured impedance, and by using a scalar value for Td. First a scalar only modifies the phase of the measured impedance and second, a single value can truly corrects the Hook Effect only at a single frequency. In addition, the process to select a value for the scalar Td by an iterative process with the aim to obtain the best Cole fitting lacks solid scientific grounds. In this work the Td compensation method is revisited and a modified approach for correcting the Hook Effect including a novel method for selecting the correcting values is proposed. The initial validation results confirm that the proposed method entirely corrects the Hook Effect at all frequencies.

  2. Effect of Cadmium Chloride on Metallothionein Levels in Carp

    PubMed Central

    Kovarova, Jana; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech; Harustiakova, Danka; Celechovska, Olga; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2009-01-01

    Due to anthropogenic activities, heavy metals still represent a threat for various trophic levels. If aquatic animals are exposed to heavy metals, we can obviously observe considerable toxicity. It is well known that organisms treated with heavy metals synthesize low molecular mass compounds rich in cysteine. In this work the effects of cadmium chloride (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5 mg/L) on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was investigated. We determined cadmium content in tissue of muscle, liver and kidney by atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization and content of metallothionein (MT) in the same tissues by the Brdicka reaction. Electrochemical methods can be considered as suitable and sensitive tools for MT determination in carp tissues. Results of our study showed a gradually enhancing of cadmium content in muscle with time and dose of cadmium chloride in water. MT levels in liver reached both high levels (above 130 ng/g) in fish exposed to 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg/L and low level (to 50 ng/g) in fish exposed to 10 and 12.5 mg/L of cadmium chloride. This finding confirms that the synthesis of metallothioneins and binding capacity of these proteins is restricted. PMID:22408554

  3. Invasive potential of common carp (*Cyprinus carpio*) and Nile tilapia (*Oreochromis niloticus*) in American freshwater systems

    E-print Network

    Zambrano, Luis; Martí nez-Meyer, Enrique; Menezes, Naercio; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2006-07-25

    perspective is necessary to better assess areas vulnerable to fish introductions, for example to set up policies for prevent- ing or mitigating negative effects of introductions. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Nile tilapia (Oreo- chromis niloticus...

  4. An evaluation of low-density introductions of triploid grass carp in vegetated small sportfishing impoundments

    E-print Network

    Blackwell, Brian Gene

    1993-01-01

    of 7.5 triploid grass carp/surface hectare southern naiad Najas guadalupensis was removed in one growing season from an impoundment containing only southern naiad. In a mixed vegetation community southern naiad nearly was eliminated in one growing...

  5. Hooke's Law and the Stiffness of a Plastic Spoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestka, Kenneth A.; Warren, Cori

    2012-11-01

    The study of elastic properties of solids is essential to both physics and engineering. Finding simple, easy-to-visualize examples to demonstrate these concepts is often difficult. In a previous article written by one of us (KAPII), a simple method for determining Youngs modulus using marshmallows was given. In this article we will illustrate another method to explore elastic properties of everyday materials. This experiment uses a common plastic spoon exposed to a transverse force in order to determine the stiffness constant, yield point, and rupture point of the plastic spoon. In addition, much like the "Youngs Modulus of a Marshmallow" activity, this experiment visually demonstrates Hooke's law, is fun and easy to perform, and leaves a lasting impression on the students.

  6. Hooke's law correlation in two-electron systems

    SciTech Connect

    Loos, Pierre-Francois [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200 (Australia)

    2010-03-15

    We study the properties of the Hooke's law correlation energy (E{sub c}), defined as the correlation energy when two electrons interact via a harmonic potential in a D-dimensional space. More precisely, we investigate the {sup 1}S ground-state properties of two model systems: the Moshinsky atom (in which the electrons move in a quadratic potential) and the spherium model (in which they move on the surface of a sphere). A comparison with their Coulombic counterparts is made that highlights the main differences of the E{sub c} in both the weakly and strongly correlated limits. Moreover, we show that the Schroedinger equation of the spherium model is exactly solvable for two values of the dimension (D=1 and 3) and that the exact wave function is based on Mathieu functions.

  7. New steroidal saponin from Antigonon leptopus Hook. and Arn.

    PubMed Central

    Apaya, Maria Karmella L.; Chichioco-Hernandez, Christine L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antigonon leptopus Hook. and Arn., Polygonaceae (cadena de amor), is a herbal remedy for pain and gout-like symptoms in the Philippines. The methanol extract of A. leptopus have shown strong inhibitory action against xanthine oxidase. Objective: To isolate and identify the compound responsible for the xanthine oxidase inhibitory action. Materials and Methods: A bioassay-guided isolation scheme using an in vitro assay for the inhibition of xanthine oxidase was employed. The structure was established using spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. Results: The isolated compound was determined to be a noncompetitive inhibitor of xanthine with an IC50 of 1.79 ?g/mL. Conclusion: The isolated compound may represent a new class of xanthine oxidase inhibitors. PMID:25298666

  8. Enhanced Accumulation of Arsenate in Carp in the Presence of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongwen Sun; Xuezhi Zhang; Qian Niu; Yongsheng Chen; John C. Crittenden

    2007-01-01

    In this study adsorption of arsenic (As) onto TiO2 nanoparticles and the facilitated transport of As into carp (Cyprinus carpio) by TiO2 nanoparticles was examined. Adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherm were conducted by adding As(V) to TiO2 suspensions. Facilitated transport of As by TiO2 nanoparticles was assessed by accumulation tests exposing carp to As(V) contaminated water in the presence of

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON MUSCLE VELOCITY AND SUSTAINED PERFORMANCE IN SWIMMING CARP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LAWRENCE C. ROME; ROEL P. FUNKE

    1990-01-01

    Summary The aim of this study was to evaluate how fish locomote at different muscle temperatures. Sarcomere length excursion and muscle shortening velocity, V, were determined from high-speed motion pictures of carp, Cyprinus carpio (11-14cm), swimming steadily at various sustained speeds at 10, 15 and 20°C. In the middle and posterior regions of the carp, sarcomeres of the lateral red

  10. Biomass-dependent effects of common carp on water quality in shallow ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew M. Chumchal; Weston H. Nowlin; Ray W. Drenner

    2005-01-01

    We examined the biomass-dependent effects of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) on water quality in 10 ponds at the Eagle Mountain Fish Hatchery, Fort Worth, Texas, USA. Ponds contained 0–465 kg ha-1 of common carp. We measured limnological variables at weekly intervals for four weeks in early summer, after which ponds were drained and the biomass of fish and macrophytes was determined. Common

  11. Genomic insight into the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) genome by sequencing analysis of BAC-end sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peng Xu; Jiongtang Li; Yan Li; Runzi Cui; Jintu Wang; Jian Wang; Yan Zhang; Zixia Zhao; Xiaowen Sun

    2011-01-01

    Background  Common carp is one of the most important aquaculture teleost fish in the world. Common carp and other closely related Cyprinidae\\u000a species provide over 30% aquaculture production in the world. However, common carp genomic resources are still relatively\\u000a underdeveloped. BAC end sequences (BES) are important resources for genome research on BAC-anchored genetic marker development,\\u000a linkage map and physical map integration,

  12. The Economic Impact of Restricting Use of Black Carp for Snail Control on Hybrid Striped Bass Farms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Suhk Wui; Carole R. Engle

    2007-01-01

    Black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus have been used in the U.S. for several decades for snail control in fish ponds. Recent concerns over the potential environmental effects of escaped fish have resulted in proposals to list black carp as an injurious species. A mixed-integer programming model was extended to evaluate the farm-level economic effects of restricting access to black carp for

  13. Zinc transferrin stimulates red blood cell formation in the head kidney of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Hua; Fang, Szu-Wei; Jeng, Sen-Shyong

    2013-09-01

    The common carp is one of the few fish able to tolerate extremely low oxygen levels. These fish store zinc in their digestive tract tissue and head kidney at concentrations of 300-500?g/g of fresh tissue, which is 5-10 times higher than in other fish. Previous studies have indicated a link between the high zinc levels in the common carp and stress erythropoiesis. In this report, using suspension-cultured common carp head kidney cells with or without ZnCl2 supplementation, we found that zinc stimulated the proliferation of immature red blood cells; however, this effect was only observed when the culture was supplemented with carp serum. We identified the active component of carp serum to be transferrin. The zinc-transferrin complex interacts with the transferrin receptor and stimulates the proliferation of immature red blood cells. In addition, the growth rate of the immature red blood cells was regulated by the supplied ZnCl2 concentration. Under stress, the zinc in the common carp digestive tract tissue was released and used as a signal to induce red blood cell formation in the head kidney. This cell culture system might provide a means for exploring the regulatory role of zinc in hematopoietic cell growth. PMID:23665074

  14. Seasonal variations of fatty acid profile in different tissues of farmed bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis).

    PubMed

    Hong, Hui; Fan, Hongbing; Wang, Hang; Lu, Han; Luo, Yongkang; Shen, Huixing

    2015-02-01

    Bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) is one of the major farmed species of freshwater fish in China. Byproduct volume of bighead carp is significant at up to 60 % of whole fish weight. A better understanding of the nutritional composition is needed to optimize the use of these raw materials. The objective of this research was to characterize seasonal variations of fatty acid profile in different tissues (heads, bones, skin, scales, viscera, muscle and fins) of farmed bighead carp. The fatty acid composition of farmed bighead carp varied significantly with seasons and tissues. The highest lipid content was determined in viscera while the highest EPA and DHA composition were observed in muscle compared to the other tissues. Significantly higher ?EPA+DHA (%) was recorded in all tissues in summer (June) when compared with those of the other three seasons (p?carp caught in summer could better balance the n-3 PUFA needs of consumers. The byproducts of bighead carp can be utilized for the production of fish oil. PMID:25694699

  15. Coordinated regulation of apical hook development by gibberellins and ethylene in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings.

    PubMed

    An, Fengying; Zhang, Xing; Zhu, Ziqiang; Ji, Yusi; He, Wenrong; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Li, Mingzhe; Guo, Hongwei

    2012-05-01

    Dark-grown Arabidopsis seedlings develop an apical hook when germinating in soil, which protects the cotyledons and apical meristematic tissues when protruding through the soil. Several hormones are reported to distinctly modulate this process. Previous studies have shown that ethylene and gibberellins (GAs) coordinately regulate the hook development, although the underlying molecular mechanism is largely unknown. Here we showed that GA(3) enhanced while paclobutrazol repressed ethylene- and EIN3-overexpression (EIN3ox)-induced hook curvature, and della mutant exhibited exaggerated hook curvature, which required an intact ethylene signaling pathway. Genetic study revealed that GA-enhanced hook development was dependent on HOOKLESS 1 (HLS1), a central regulator mediating the input of the multiple signaling pathways during apical hook development. We further found that GA(3) induced (and DELLA proteins repressed) HLS1 expression in an ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3/EIN3-LIKE 1 (EIN3/EIL1)-dependent manner, whereby EIN3/EIL1 activated HLS1 transcription by directly binding to its promoter. Additionally, DELLA proteins were found to interact with the DNA-binding domains of EIN3/EIL1 and repress EIN3/EIL1-regulated HLS1 expression. Treatment with naphthylphthalamic acid, a polar auxin transport inhibitor, repressed the constitutively exaggerated hook curvature of EIN3ox line and della mutant, supporting that auxin functions downstream of the ethylene and GA pathways in hook development. Taken together, our results identify EIN3/EIL1 as a new class of DELLA-associated transcription factors and demonstrate that GA promotes apical hook formation in cooperation with ethylene partly by inducing the expression of HLS1 via derepression of EIN3/EIL1 functions. PMID:22349459

  16. Effects of hook plate on shoulder function after treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chang-Hong; Dong, Qi-Rong; Zhou, Rong-Kui; Zhen, Hua-Qing; Jiao, Ya-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Internal fixation with hook plate has been used to treat acromioclavicular joint dislocation. This study aims to evaluate the effect of its use on shoulder function, to further analyze the contributing factors, and provide a basis for selection and design of improved internal fixation treatment of the acromioclavicular joint dislocation in the future. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on patients treated with a hook plate for acromioclavicular joint dislocation in our hospital from January 2010 to February 2013. There were 33 cases in total, including 25 males and 8 females, with mean age of 48.27 ± 8.7 years. There were 29 cases of Rockwood type III acromioclavicular dislocation, 4 cases of type V. The Constant-Murley shoulder function scoring system was used to evaluate the shoulder function recovery status after surgery. Anteroposterior shoulder X-ray was used to assess the position of the hook plate, status of acromioclavicular joint reduction and the occurrence of postoperative complications. Results: According to the Constant-Murley shoulder function scoring system, the average scores were 78 ± 6 points 8 to 12 months after the surgery and before the removal of the hook plate, the average scores were 89 ± 5 minutes two months after the removal of hook plate. Postoperative X-ray imaging showed osteolysis in 10 cases (30.3%), osteoarthritis in six cases (18.1%), osteolysis associated with osteoarthritis in four cases(12.1%), and steel hook broken in one case (3%). Conclusion: The use of hook plate on open reduction and internal fixation of the acromioclavicular joint dislocation had little adverse effect on shoulder function and is an effective method for the treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocation. Osteoarthritis and osteolysis are the two common complications after hook plate use, which are associated with the impairment of shoulder function. Shoulder function will be improved after removal of the hook plate. PMID:25356110

  17. Analysis of apical hook formation in Alaska pea with a 3-D clinostat and agravitropic mutant ageotropum

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Kensuke; Yamasaki, Takahiro; Uheda, Eiji; Ueda, Junichi

    2013-01-01

    The formation of the apical hook in dicotyledonous seedlings is believed to be effected by gravity in the dark. However, this notion is mostly based on experiments with the hook formed on the hypocotyl, and no detailed studies are available with the developmental manners of the hook, particularly of the epicotyl hook. The present study aims at clarifying the dynamics of hook formation including the possible involvement of gravity. Time-course studies with normal Alaska pea (Pisum sativum L., cv. Alaska) and an agravitropic pea mutant, ageotropum, under the 1-g conditions and on a 3-D clinostat revealed that (1) the apical hook of the epicotyl forms by the development of the arc-shaped plumule of the embryo existing in the non-germinated seed. The process of formation consists of two stages: development and partial opening, which are controlled by some intrinsic property of the plumule, but not gravity. Approximately when the epicotyl emerges from the seed coat, the hook is established in both pea varieties. In Alaska the established hook is sustained or enhanced by gravity, resulting in a delay of hook opening compared with on a clinostat, which might give an incorrect idea that gravity causes hook formation. (2) During the hook development and opening processes the original plumular arc holds its orientation unchanged to be an established hook, which, therefore, is at the same side of the epicotyl axis as the cotyledons. This is true for both Alaska and ageotropum under 1-g conditions as well as on the clinostat, supporting finding (1). (3) Application of auxin polar transport inhibitors, hydroxyfluorenecarboxylic acid, naphthylphthalamic acid, and triiodobenzoic acid, suppressed the curvature of hook by equal extents in Alaska as well as ageotropum, suggesting that the hook development involves auxin polar transport probably asymmetrically distributed across the plumular axis by some intrinsic property of the plumule not directly related with gravity action. PMID:24782877

  18. Electrical coupling between bipolar cells in carp retina

    PubMed Central

    Kujiraoka, Toru; Saito, Takehiko

    1986-01-01

    Intracellular recordings were made simultaneously from pairs of neighboring bipolar cells by advancing two independent microelectrodes into retinas of carp (Cyprinus carpio). Bipolar cells were identified by their response properties and in several samples were verified by intracellular injection of Lucifer yellow. Current of either polarity injected into one member of the bipolar cell pair elicited a signconserving, sustained potential change in the other bipolar cell without any significant delay. This electrical coupling was reciprocal, and it was observed between cell types similar in function and in morphology. Our results strongly suggest that there is a spatial summation of signals at the level of bipolar cells, which makes central receptive field areas much larger than their dendritic fields. Images PMID:16593707

  19. Une forme exceptionnelle de la luxation perilunaire du carpe

    PubMed Central

    Elouakili, Issam; Ouchrif, Younes; Najib, Abdeljaouad; Ouakrim, Redouane; Lamrani, Omar; Kharmaz, Mohammed; Ismael, Farid; Lahlou, Abdo; Elouadghiri, Mohammed; El Bardouni, Ahmed; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Berrada, Mohammed Saleh; El Yaccoubi, Mouradh

    2014-01-01

    Les luxations périlunaires (LPL) du carpe sont des lésions extrêmement rares, qui peuvent passer inaperçue en raison d'un tableau clinique souvent trompeur, des radiographies en profil non strict ou d'interprétation difficile. Nous rapportons l'observation d'une luxation périlunaire stade III selon la classification de Witvoët et Allieu chez un patient de 32 ans, il s'agit d'une forme encore plus rare voire exceptionnelle et qui peut induire de sérieux problèmes en raison de la sévérité des dommages ligamentaires et du risque de nécrose du semilunaire plus important dans ce type de lésions. Le traitement est toujours chirurgical et doit être réalisé dans les plus brefs délais afin d’éviter les complications. PMID:25404968

  20. Ontogenetic development of adipose tissue in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Pin; Ji, Hong; Li, Chao; Tian, Jingjing; Wang, Yifei; Yu, Ping

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the adipose tissue development process during the early stages of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) development, samples were collected from fertilized eggs to 30 days post-fertilization (dpf) of fish. Paraffin and frozen sections were taken to observe the characteristics of adipocytes in vivo by different staining methods, including hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Oil red O, and BODIPY. The expression of lipogenesis-related genes of the samples at different time points was detected by real-time qPCR. In addition, protein expression level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ? (PPAR ?) was detected by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the neutral lipid droplets accumulated first in the hepatocytes of 14-dpf fish larvae, and visceral adipocytes appeared around the hepatopancreas on 16 dpf. As grass carp grew, the adipocytes increased in number and spread to other tissues. In 20-dpf fish larvae, the intestine was observed to be covered by adipose tissue. However, there was no significant change in the average size (30.40-40.01 ?m) of adipocytes during this period. Accordingly, the gene expression level of PPAR ? and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins ? (C/EBP ?) was significantly elevated after fertilization for 12 days (p < 0.05), but C/EBP ? declined at 20 dpf. Expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) increased from 2 to 16 dpf and then declined. In addition, immunoreaction of PPAR ? was positive on hepatocytes after fertilization for 15 days. These results implied that the early developmental stage of adipose tissue is caused by active recruitment of adipocytes as opposed to hypertrophy of the cell. In addition, our study indicated that lipogenesis-related genes might regulate the ongoing development of adipose tissue. PMID:25893904

  1. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 is Expressed inOsteoblasts and Regulated by PTH

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Sonali; Mahalingam, Chandrika D.; Das, Varsha [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)] [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Jamal, Shazia [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)] [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Levi, Edi [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States) [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Rishi, Arun K. [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States) [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); VA Medical Center, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Datta, Nabanita S., E-mail: ndatta@med.wayne.edu [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Cardiovascular Research Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •CARP-1 is identified for the first time in bone cells. •PTH downregulates CARP-1 expression in differentiated osteoblasts. •PTH displaces CARP-1 from nucleus to the cytoplasm in differentiated osteoblasts. •Downregulation of CARP-1 by PTH involves PKA, PKC and P-p38 MAPK pathways. -- Abstract: Bone mass is dependent on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and life-span of osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. Intermittent administration of PTH increases bone mass but the mechanism of action are complex and incompletely understood. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including cell growth and differentiation factors. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism, we investigated involvement of CARP-1 in PTH signaling in osteoblasts. Immunostaining studies revealed presence of CARP-1 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while a minimal to absent levels were noted in the chondrocytes of femora from 10 to 12-week old mice. Treatment of 7-day differentiated MC3T3-E1 clone-4 (MC-4) mouse osteoblastic cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts with PTH for 30 min to 5 h followed by Western blot analysis showed 2- to 3-fold down-regulation of CARP-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the respective vehicle treated control cells. H-89, a Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, suppressed PTH action on CARP-1 protein expression indicating PKA-dependent mechanism. PMA, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonist, mimicked PTH action, and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, partially blocked PTH-dependent downregulation of CARP-1, implying involvement of PKC. U0126, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Kinase (MEK) inhibitor, failed to interfere with CARP-1 suppression by PTH. In contrast, SB203580, p38 inhibitor, attenuated PTH down-regulation of CARP-1 suggesting that PTH utilized an Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase (ERK)-independent but p38 dependent pathway to regulate CARP-1 protein expression in osteoblasts. Immunofluorescence staining of differentiated osteoblasts further revealed nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of CARP-1 protein following PTH treatment. Collectively, our studies identified CARP-1 for the first time in osteoblasts and suggest its potential role in PTH signaling and bone anabolic action.

  2. Hook-ups : how youth learn through creating physical computer interfaces

    E-print Network

    Millner, Amon Daran

    2005-01-01

    The Hook-ups project introduces a new set of tools, materials, and activities intended to support children in creating physical computer input devices for computer programs they write. This project introduces a new approach ...

  3. Light-Stimulated Apical Hook Opening in Wild-Type Arabidopsis thaliana Seedlings.

    PubMed Central

    Liscum, E.; Hangarter, R. P.

    1993-01-01

    Apical hook opening and cotyledon unfolding are characteristic responses that occur during deetiolation of dicotyledonous seedlings. Light-stimulated apical hook opening and cotyledon unfolding in etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings appears to involve the activities of multiple photosensory systems. Red, far-red, and blue light are all effective in stimulating these responses in Arabidopsis. Stimulation of hook opening by red light and low fluence blue light is inductive, far-red reversible, and exhibits reciprocity, as is characteristic of many low fluence-dependent phytochrome-mediated responses. Far-red and high-fluence blue light appear to stimulate hook opening and cotyledon unfolding through high-irradiance-response systems during long-term light treatments. Although a phytochrome high-irradiance-response system presumably mediates the responses in far-red light, the responses to high-fluence blue light may be mediated by a blue light-specific photosensory system. PMID:12231711

  4. Summary We determined how ecophysiological charac-teristics of two juniper species, Juniperus occidentalis Hook.

    E-print Network

    occidentalis Hook. (western juniper) and Juniperus osteosperma (Torr.) Little (Utah juniper), changed alongSummary We determined how ecophysiological charac- teristics of two juniper species, Juniperus range with J. occidentalis and two with J. osteosperma. Differences in carbon assimilation based

  5. Mechanics and Newton-Cartan-like gravity on the Newton-Hooke space-time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Tian; Han-Ying Guo; Chao-Guang Huang; Zhan Xu; Bin Zhou

    2005-01-01

    We focus on the dynamical aspects on Newton-Hooke space-time NH+ mainly from the viewpoint of geometric contraction of the de Sitter spacetime with Beltrami metric. (The term spacetime is used to denote a space with non-degenerate metric, while the term space-time is used to denote a space with degenerate metric.) We first discuss the Newton-Hooke classical mechanics, especially the continuous

  6. Effects of water hardness on size and hatching success of silver carp eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, Jeff J.; Sass, Greg G.; Luoma, James A.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    Eggs of silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix absorb water after release from the female, causing them to become turgid and to increase substantially in size. The volume of water that diffuses within an egg is most likely determined by (1) the difference in ionic concentration between the egg and the water that surrounds it and (2) the elasticity of the egg membrane. Prior observations suggest that silver carp eggs may swell and burst in soft waters. If water hardness affects silver carp reproductive success in nonnative ecosystems, this abiotic factor could limit silver carp distribution or abundance. In this study, we tested the effect of water hardness on silver carp egg enlargement and hatching success. Groups of newly fertilized silver carp eggs were placed in water at one of five nominal water hardness levels (50, 100, 150, 200, or 250 mg/L as CaCO3) for 1 h to harden (absorb water after fertilization). Egg groups were then placed in separate incubation vessels housed in two recirculation systems that were supplied with either soft (50 mg/L as CaCO3) or hard (250 mg/L as CaCO3) water to evaluate hatching success. Tests were terminated within 24 h after viable eggs had hatched. Eggs that were initially placed in 50-mg/L water to harden were larger (i.e., swelled more) and had a greater probability of hatch than eggs hardened in other water hardness levels. Unlike the effect of water hardness during egg hardening, the water hardness during incubation appeared to have no effect on egg hatching success. Our research suggests that water hardness may not be a limiting factor in the reproduction, recruitment, and range expansion of silver carp in North America.

  7. HookA is a novel dynein–early endosome linker critical for cargo movement in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Qiu, Rongde; Arst, Herbert N.; Peñalva, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein transports membranous cargoes along microtubules, but the mechanism of dynein–cargo interaction is unclear. From a genetic screen, we identified a homologue of human Hook proteins, HookA, as a factor required for dynein-mediated early endosome movement in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. HookA contains a putative N-terminal microtubule-binding domain followed by coiled-coil domains and a C-terminal cargo-binding domain, an organization reminiscent of cytoplasmic linker proteins. HookA–early endosome interaction occurs independently of dynein–early endosome interaction and requires the C-terminal domain. Importantly, HookA interacts with dynein and dynactin independently of HookA–early endosome interaction but dependent on the N-terminal part of HookA. Both dynein and the p25 subunit of dynactin are required for the interaction between HookA and dynein–dynactin, and loss of HookA significantly weakens dynein–early endosome interaction, causing a virtually complete absence of early endosome movement. Thus, HookA is a novel linker important for dynein–early endosome interaction in vivo. PMID:24637327

  8. Different changes in mastication between crisp grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus C.et V) and grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus) after heating: The relationship between texture and ultrastructure in muscle tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wan-Ling Lin; Qing-Xiao Zeng; Zhi-Wei Zhu

    2009-01-01

    In order to study special mastication of Crisp grass carp (CGC), the relationships between the texture and ultrastructure in raw fresh and heated CGC and grass carp (GC) were studied. In raw samples, all textural results of raw CGC (RCGC) were higher than those of raw GC (RGC). From the ultrastructural results, short muscle fiber diameter, dense fiber density, large

  9. Until May 31, 2009, retirees belonging to Member Associations of CURAC/ARUCC may join CARP (or existing CARP members may extend their memberships) at the discounted rates given below (25% off

    E-print Network

    Warkentin, Ian G.

    Until May 31, 2009, retirees belonging to Member Associations of CURAC/ARUCC may join CARP (or existing CARP members may extend their memberships) at the discounted rates given below (25% off advertised membership fees). After May 31, 2009, members of CURAC/ARUCC Associations will continue

  10. Asymmetric Responsiveness to Ethylene Mediates Cell Elongation in the Apical Hook of Peas

    PubMed Central

    Peck, S. C.; Pawlowski, K.; Kende, H.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract The apical hook of dark-grown dicotyledonous seedlings is a protective structure resulting from an inhibition of cell elongation on the inner portion of the hook. This differential growth response is mediated by ethylene. Expression of the gene encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO), the terminal enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis, is induced by ethylene via a positive feedback loop. Therefore, the ACO transcript can serve as a molecular marker for both ethylene formation and ethylene responsiveness. We examined the distribution of ACO mRNA of pea, Ps-ACO1, and of ACO enzyme activity in the apical hook of etiolated pea seedlings. In situ hybridization showed that cells on the inner, concave side of pea hooks accumulated more Ps-ACO1 mRNA than did cells on the outer, convex side. The distribution of ACO enzyme activity followed the same pattern. A direct correlation was observed between the cellular distribution of Ps-ACO1 mRNA, ACO enzyme activity, and the inhibition of cell elongation. Pea seedlings treated with a saturating concentration of ethylene still accumulated higher levels of the Ps-ACO1 transcript on the inner side of the apical hook, demonstrating an increased responsiveness to ethylene in this tissue. These results indicate that an asymmetrically distributed component of the ethylene signal transduction pathway mediates hook formation. Based on existing genetic evidence, we propose that this component is downstream from the serine/threonine protein kinase CTR1.

  11. Mechanics and Newton-Cartan-like gravity on the Newton-Hooke space-time

    SciTech Connect

    Tian Yu [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing 100080 (China); Guo Hanying [CCAST (World Laboratory), P.O. Box 8730, Beijing 100080 (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing 100080 (China); Huang Chaoguang [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918-4, Beijing 100049 (China); Xu Zhan [Physics Department, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhou Bin [Physics Department, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Interdisciplinary Center of Theoretical Studies, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2005-02-15

    We focus on the dynamical aspects on Newton-Hooke space-time NH{sub +} mainly from the viewpoint of geometric contraction of the de Sitter spacetime with Beltrami metric. (The term spacetime is used to denote a space with non-degenerate metric, while the term space-time is used to denote a space with degenerate metric.) We first discuss the Newton-Hooke classical mechanics, especially the continuous medium mechanics, in this framework. Then, we establish a consistent theory of gravity on the Newton-Hooke space-time as a kind of Newton-Cartan-like theory, parallel to the Newton's gravity in the Galilei space-time. Finally, we give the Newton-Hooke invariant Schroedinger equation from the geometric contraction, where we can relate the conservative probability in some sense to the mass density in the Newton-Hooke continuous medium mechanics. Similar consideration may apply to the Newton-Hooke space-time NH{sub -} contracted from anti-de Sitter spacetime.

  12. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahon, Andrew R.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L.; Chadderton, W. Lindsay; Lodge, David M.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Nico, Leo G.

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided.

  13. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Lodge, David M; Hunter, Margaret E; Nico, Leo G

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided. PMID:23472178

  14. Validation of eDNA Surveillance Sensitivity for Detection of Asian Carps in Controlled and Field Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Mahon, Andrew R.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L.; Chadderton, W. Lindsay; Lodge, David M.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Nico, Leo G.

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided. PMID:23472178

  15. Effects of ions on the motility of fresh and demembranate spermatozoa of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) and paddlefish ( Polyodon spathula )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Linhart; J. Cosson; S. D. Mims; M. Rodina; D. Gela; W. L. Shelton

    2003-01-01

    In the present study was summarize the factors activating and\\/or inhibiting the motility of intact and\\/or demembranated spermatozoa of common carp and paddlefish as teleostean and chondrostean models using methods of sperm demembranation. The movement of spermatozoa of cyprinids species, common carp, is influenced by osmotic pressure or high concentration of ions. The movements of spermatozoa of chrondrostean species, paddlefish,

  16. Precision of Five Structures for Estimating Age of Common Carp QUINTON E. PHELPS,* KRIS R. EDWARDS, AND DAVID W. WILLIS

    E-print Network

    , extraction and processing of common carp otoliths are time consuming and require sacrifice of fish. Therefore be time consuming, and fish sacrifice may not be feasible in certain situations. The common carp Cyprinus carpio was among the first fish species for which age estimation techniques were used (Carlander 1987

  17. Automation Hooks Architecture Trade Study for Flexible Test Orchestration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin A.; Maclean, John R.; Graffagnino, Frank J.; McCartney, Patrick A.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the conclusions of a technology and communities survey supported by concurrent and follow-on proof-of-concept prototyping to evaluate feasibility of defining a durable, versatile, reliable, visible software interface to support strategic modularization of test software development. The objective is that test sets and support software with diverse origins, ages, and abilities can be reliably integrated into test configurations that assemble and tear down and reassemble with scalable complexity in order to conduct both parametric tests and monitored trial runs. The resulting approach is based on integration of three recognized technologies that are currently gaining acceptance within the test industry and when combined provide a simple, open and scalable test orchestration architecture that addresses the objectives of the Automation Hooks task. The technologies are automated discovery using multicast DNS Zero Configuration Networking (zeroconf), commanding and data retrieval using resource-oriented Restful Web Services, and XML data transfer formats based on Automatic Test Markup Language (ATML). This open-source standards-based approach provides direct integration with existing commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) analysis software tools.

  18. Spectral eddy-viscosity in isotropic turbulence: cusp or hook?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meneveau, Charles

    2002-11-01

    Kraichnan (1976) used the Test-Field Model to calculate the spectral eddy-viscosity for high-Reynolds number isotropic turbulence. The result consisted of a plateau in the inertial range terminating with a sharp monotonic upward cusp near the cut-off wavenumber. Similar calculations and results were later obtained based on the EDQNM closure by Leslie and Quarini (1979) and others, for spectral cutoff filter. Tests using low Reynolds number DNS have in general confirmed these trends. In this presentation we will raise the possibility that at high Reynolds numbers the spectral eddy viscosity is not simply a monotonic cusp towards the cutoff wavenumber, but decreases before rising towards the cusp (i.e. is hook-shaped). We review evidence from experimental measurements at moderately high Reynolds number (Cerutti et al. 2000, JFM) and more recent EDQNM calculations by Schilling and Zhou (2002, Phys. Fluids). Further evidence is provided from the energy spectra obtained from LES that use simple eddy-viscosity closures. The spectra show consistently a drop in energy before the usual pile-up near the cutoff wavenumber, suggesting that the proper spectral eddy-viscosity should be reduced in this intermediate wavenumber range. We conclude that interesting and important open problems remain for turbulence theories to explain subtle trends in the spectral evolution of isotropic turbulence.

  19. Quantum Hooke's Law to Classify Pulse Laser Induced Ultrafast Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hao; Ding, Hepeng; Liu, Feng

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the ultrafast crystal-to-amorphous phase transition induced by femtosecond pulse laser excitation by exploiting the property of quantum electronic stress (QES) induced by the electron-hole plasma, which follows quantum Hooke's law. We demonstrates that two types of crystal-to-amorphous transitions occur in two distinct material classes: the faster nonthermal process, having a time scale shorter than one picosecond (ps), must occur in materials like ice having an anomalous phase diagram characterized with dTm/dP <0, where Tm is the melting temperature and P is pressure; while the slower thermal process, having a time scale of several ps, occurs preferably in other materials. The nonthermal process is driven by the QES acting like a negative internal pressure, which is generated predominantly by the holes in the electron-hole plasma that increases linearly with hole density. These findings significantly advance our fundamental understanding of physics underlying the ultrafast crystal-to-amorphous phase transitions, enabling quantitative a priori prediction. The work was supported by DOE-BES (Grant # DE-FG02-04ER46148), NSF MRSEC (Grant No. DMR-1121252) and DOE EFRC (Grant Number DE-SC0001061).

  20. Quantum Hooke's Law to Classify Pulse Laser Induced Ultrafast Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hao; Ding, Hepeng; Liu, Feng

    2015-02-01

    Ultrafast crystal-to-liquid phase transition induced by femtosecond pulse laser excitation is an interesting material's behavior manifesting the complexity of light-matter interaction. There exist two types of such phase transitions: one occurs at a time scale shorter than a picosecond via a nonthermal process mediated by electron-hole plasma formation; the other at a longer time scale via a thermal melting process mediated by electron-phonon interaction. However, it remains unclear what material would undergo which process and why? Here, by exploiting the property of quantum electronic stress (QES) governed by quantum Hooke's law, we classify the transitions by two distinct classes of materials: the faster nonthermal process can only occur in materials like ice having an anomalous phase diagram characterized with dTm/dP < 0, where Tm is the melting temperature and P is pressure, above a high threshold laser fluence; while the slower thermal process may occur in all materials. Especially, the nonthermal transition is shown to be induced by the QES, acting like a negative internal pressure, which drives the crystal into a ``super pressing'' state to spontaneously transform into a higher-density liquid phase. Our findings significantly advance fundamental understanding of ultrafast crystal-to-liquid phase transitions, enabling quantitative a priori predictions.

  1. CLEIA CA125 evidences: good analytical performance avoiding "Hook effect".

    PubMed

    Falzarano, R; Viggiani, V; Michienzi, S; Colaprisca, B; Longo, F; Frati, L; Anastasi, E

    2013-02-01

    Cancer antigen 125 (CA125) is a coelomic epithelium-related antigen carried by a high molecular weight glycoprotein complex. It is commonly used as a tumor marker for ovarian cancer to monitor disease progression and response to therapy and as an early detection for recurrence after treatment. The aim of this study was to test the reliability of two different assay methods, a radioimmunometric assay (RIA) and an automated chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) system, by measuring CA125 serum levels using both methods in 357 patients and comparing the results. Patients were recruited from Oncologic Unit A, Policlinico Umberto I, Roma. Eighty-six were healthy donors, while 271 were oncologic patients representing a variety of diagnoses. Within this group, 76 patients were diagnosed with an ovarian related pathology (28 cancerous and 48 benign). The evaluation of CA125 marker blood levels showed a high agreement in healthy donors group (R (2)?=?0.9003). Interesting results emerged when sera collected from oncologic patients were assessed: significant differences between the two assays were found in nine samples. When assayed again with RIA after a dilution, new values agreed with undiluted CLEIA values (R (2)?=?0.9847). Our data suggest an overall good comparison between the two methods. However, some artifacts were obtained with RIA and indicate an underlying presence of "hook effect". CLEIA automated assay showed a good reliability and should be preferred to one-step radioimmunoassays in order to minimize errors. PMID:23111756

  2. Quantum Hooke's Law to Classify Pulse Laser Induced Ultrafast Melting

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hao; Ding, Hepeng; Liu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast crystal-to-liquid phase transition induced by femtosecond pulse laser excitation is an interesting material's behavior manifesting the complexity of light-matter interaction. There exist two types of such phase transitions: one occurs at a time scale shorter than a picosecond via a nonthermal process mediated by electron-hole plasma formation; the other at a longer time scale via a thermal melting process mediated by electron-phonon interaction. However, it remains unclear what material would undergo which process and why? Here, by exploiting the property of quantum electronic stress (QES) governed by quantum Hooke's law, we classify the transitions by two distinct classes of materials: the faster nonthermal process can only occur in materials like ice having an anomalous phase diagram characterized with dTm/dP < 0, where Tm is the melting temperature and P is pressure, above a high threshold laser fluence; while the slower thermal process may occur in all materials. Especially, the nonthermal transition is shown to be induced by the QES, acting like a negative internal pressure, which drives the crystal into a “super pressing” state to spontaneously transform into a higher-density liquid phase. Our findings significantly advance fundamental understanding of ultrafast crystal-to-liquid phase transitions, enabling quantitative a priori predictions. PMID:25645258

  3. Tissue-specific fatty acids response to different diets in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Böhm, Markus; Schultz, Sebastian; Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Kainz, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA) to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively) in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue) of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO) with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption. PMID:24733499

  4. Microsatellite genetic diversity and differentiation of native and introduced grass carp populations in three continents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.; Chen, Qin; Wang, Chenghui; Zhao, Jinlian; Lu, Guoqing; Zsigmond, Jeney; Li, Sifa

    2012-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater species native to China, has been introduced to about 100 countries/regions and poses both biological and environmental challenges to the receiving ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation in grass carp from three introduced river systems (Mississippi River Basin in US, Danube River in Hungary, and Tone River in Japan) as well as its native ranges (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur Rivers) in China using 21 novel microsatellite loci. The allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, and within-population gene diversity were found to be lower in the introduced populations than in the native populations, presumably due to the small founder population size of the former. Significant genetic differentiation was found between all pairwise populations from different rivers. Both principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed obvious genetic distinction between the native and introduced populations. Interestingly, genetic bottlenecks were detected in the Hungarian and Japanese grass carp populations, but not in the North American population, suggesting that the Mississippi River Basin grass carp has experienced rapid population expansion with potential genetic diversification during the half-century since its introduction. Consequently, the combined forces of the founder effect, introduction history, and rapid population expansion help explaining the observed patterns of genetic diversity within and among both native and introduced populations of the grass carp.

  5. Tissue-Specific Fatty Acids Response to Different Diets in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Markus; Schultz, Sebastian; Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Kainz, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA) to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively) in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue) of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO) with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption. PMID:24733499

  6. CARP-1 / CCAR1: A biphasic regulator of cancer cell growth and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Muthu, Magesh; Cheriyan, Vino T.; Rishi, Arun K.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted cancer therapy using small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) has been useful in targeting the tumor cells while sparing the normal cells. Despite clinical success of many targeted therapies, their off-target effects and development of resistance are emerging as significant and challenging problems. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify targets to devise new means to treat cancers and their drug-resistant phenotypes. CARP-1/CCAR1 (Cell division cycle and apoptosis regulator 1), a peri-nuclear phospho-protein, plays a dynamic role in regulating cell growth and apoptosis by serving as a co-activator of steroid/thyroid nuclear receptors, ?-catenin, Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) E3 ligase, and tumor suppressor p53. CARP-1/CCAR1 also regulates chemotherapy-dependent apoptosis. CARP-1/CCAR1 functional mimetics (CFMs) are a novel SMIs of CARP-1/CCAR1 interaction with APC/C. CFMs promote apoptosis in a manner independent of p53. CFMs are potent inhibitors of a variety of cancer cells including the drug (Adriamycin or Tamoxifen)-resistant breast cancer cells but not the immortalized breast epithelial cells, while a nano-lipid formulation of the lead compound CFM-4 improves its bioavailability and efficacy in vivo when administered orally. This review focuses on the background and pleiotropic roles of CARP-1/CCAR1 as well as its apoptosis signaling mechanisms in response to chemotherapy in cancer cells. PMID:25894788

  7. Effects of nitric oxide on blood-brain barrier permeability in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Kovaci?, Sanja; Rumora, Lada; Gjurcevic, Emil; Klaric, Maja Šegvic; Ivkic, Goran

    2015-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine in vivo effects of nitric oxide (NO) on blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). ANIMALS 148 carp. PROCEDURES Carp received glyceryl trinitrate (1 mg/kg) as an NO donor or received no treatment (control group). Nitrite and nitrate concentrations in carp sera were determined 0.25, 1, 3, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hours after treatment. In control and treatment groups, BBB permeability was analyzed by assessment of leakage of Evans blue dye into various brain areas at 6, 12, and 24 hours after glyceryl trinitrate treatment. Brain edema was determined by means of the wet-dry weight method and assessed with light microscopy on H&E-stained preparations of tissues obtained 6 and 24 hours after glyceryl trinitrate treatment. RESULTS Treatment with glyceryl trinitrate induced endogenous synthesis of NO, which was upregulated 6 and 8 hours after treatment. Increased NO synthesis was associated with increased permeability of the BBB, which developed 6 hours after treatment with the NO donor. Although the BBB became impermeable again by 12 hours after glycerol trinitrate treatment, brain edema still persisted 24 hours after treatment. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, treatment with an NO donor caused reversible opening of the BBB and brain edema in common carp. An intact BBB is important to prevent influx of potentially harmful substances into the brain. This investigation highlighted the possibility of BBB disarrangement caused by NO, a substance found in the CNS of all vertebrates evaluated. PMID:26111091

  8. Fish Hook Injury: Removal by ‘’Push Through and Cut Off‘’ Technique: A Case Report and Brief Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad Khan, Hayat; Kamal, Younis; Lone, Ansar ul Haq

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Fishing is a leisure activity for some people around the world. Accidently the fish hook can get hooked in the hand. If the hook is barbed, removal becomes difficult. We report a case of such a injury in the hand and discuss the technique for its removal with a brief review of the literature. Case Presentation: A thirty-two year old male accidently suffered a fishhook injury to his hand. He came to the orthopaedic ward two hours after the incident with pain; the fish hook was hanging from the hand. Unsuccessful attempts to remove it were made by his relatives. A push-through and cut-off technique was used for removal of barbed hook. Discussion: Barbed hooks are to be removed atraumatically with controlled incision over properly anaesthetised skin. Proper wound management and prophylactic antibiotics suitable for treatment of Aeromonas species should be initiated to prevent complications. PMID:25032153

  9. THE USE OF A HOOK-PLATE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF ACROMIOCLAVICULAR INJURIES. REPORT OF TEN CASES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. FARAJ; B. KETZER

    2001-01-01

    A hook-plate is a clavicular small fragment AO plate with a hook engaging below the acromion. It is pri- marily used to secure the ligament repair in the treat- ment of displaced acromioclavicular joint disloca- tions. We have used the hook-plate in conjunction with a Weaver-Dunn procedure to secure the repair in seven patients. In another three we used this

  10. Length Control of the Flagellar Hook in a Temperature-Sensitive flgE Mutant of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Kaoru; Dono, Kohei

    2013-01-01

    The flagellar hook is a short, curved, extracellular structure located between the basal body and the filament. The hook is composed of the FlgE protein. In this study, we analyzed flagellum assembly in a temperature-sensitive flgE mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. When the mutant cells were grown at 30°C, they produced flagella of a normal length (71% of the population) and short hooks without filaments (26%). At 37°C, 70% of the basal bodies lacked hooks, and intact flagella made up only 6% of the population. Mutant cells secreted monomeric FlgE in abundance at 37°C, suggesting that the mutant FlgE protein might be defective in polymerization at higher temperatures. The average length of the hooks in intact filaments was 55 nm, whereas after acid treatment, it was 45 nm. SDS-PAGE analysis of the hook-basal body showed that HAP1 was missing in the mutant but not in the wild type. We concluded that hook length in the mutant is controlled in the same way as in the wild type, but the hook appeared short after acid treatment due to the lack of HAP1. We also learned that the true length of the hook is possibly 45 nm, not 55 nm, as has been believed. PMID:23749974

  11. Use of structured expert judgment to forecast invasions by bighead and silver carp in Lake Erie.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Marion E; Cooke, Roger M; Rothlisberger, John D; Rutherford, Edward S; Zhang, Hongyan; Mason, Doran M; Lodge, David M

    2015-02-01

    Identifying which nonindigenous species will become invasive and forecasting the damage they will cause is difficult and presents a significant problem for natural resource management. Often, the data or resources necessary for ecological risk assessment are incomplete or absent, leaving environmental decision makers ill equipped to effectively manage valuable natural resources. Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is a mathematical and performance-based method of eliciting, weighting, and aggregating expert judgments. In contrast to other methods of eliciting and aggregating expert judgments (where, for example, equal weights may be assigned to experts), SEJ weights each expert on the basis of his or her statistical accuracy and informativeness through performance measurement on a set of calibration variables. We used SEJ to forecast impacts of nonindigenous Asian carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) in Lake Erie, where it is believed not to be established. Experts quantified Asian carp biomass, production, and consumption and their impact on 4 fish species if Asian carp were to become established. According to experts, in Lake Erie Asian carp have the potential to achieve biomass levels that are similar to the sum of biomasses for several fishes that are harvested commercially or recreationally. However, the impact of Asian carp on the biomass of these fishes was estimated by experts to be small, relative to long term average biomasses, with little uncertainty. Impacts of Asian carp in tributaries and on recreational activities, water quality, or other species were not addressed. SEJ can be used to quantify key uncertainties of invasion biology and also provide a decision-support tool when the necessary information for natural resource management and policy is not available. PMID:25132396

  12. Binational ecological risk assessment of bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) for the Great Lakes Basin.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cudmore, B.; Mandrak, N.E.; Dettmers, J.; Chapman, D.C.; Kolar, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    Bigheaded carps (Bighead and Silver carps) are considered a potential threat to the Great Lakes basin. A binational ecological risk assessment was conducted to provide scientifically defensible advice for managers and decision-makers in Canada and the United States. This risk assessment looked at the likelihood of arrival, survival, establishment, and spread of bigheaded carps to obtain an overall probability of introduction. Arrival routes assessed were physical connections and human-mediated releases. The risk assessment ranked physical connections (specifically the Chicago Area Waterway System) as the most likely route for arrival into the Great Lakes basin. Results of the risk assessment show that there is enough food and habitat for bigheaded carp survival in the Great Lakes, especially in Lake Erie and productive embayments in the other lakes. Analyses of tributaries around the Canadian Great Lakes and the American waters of Lake Erie indicate that there are many suitable tributaries for bigheaded carp spawning. Should bigheaded carps establish in the Great Lakes, their spread would not likely be limited and several ecological consequences can be expected to occur. These consequences include competition for planktonic food leading to reduced growth rates, recruitment and abundance of planktivores. Subsequently this would lead to reduced stocks of piscivores and abundance of fishes with pelagic, early life stages. Overall risk is highest for lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie, followed by Lake Ontario then Lake Superior. To avoid the trajectory of the invasion process and prevent or minimize anticipated consequences, it is important to continue to focus efforts on reducing the probability of introduction of these species at either the arrival, survival, establishment, or spread stage (depending on location).

  13. Cytosolic CARP Promotes Angiotensin II- or Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy through Calcineurin Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ci; Shen, Liang; Cao, Shiping; Li, Xixian; Xuan, Wanling; Zhang, Jingwen; Huang, Xiaobo; Bin, Jianping; Xu, Dingli; Li, Guofeng; Kitakaze, Masafumi; Liao, Yulin

    2014-01-01

    The gene ankyrin repeat domain 1 (Ankrd1) is an enigmatic gene and may exert pleiotropic function dependent on its expression level, subcellular localization and even types of pathological stress, but it remains unclear how these factors influence the fate of cardiomyocytes. Here we attempted to investigate the role of CARP on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. In neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVCs), angiotensin II (Ang II) increased the expression of both calpain 1 and CARP, and also induced cytosolic translocation of CARP, which was abrogated by a calpain inhibitor. In the presence of Ang-II in NRVCs, infection with a recombinant adenovirus containing rat Ankrd1 cDNA (Ad-Ankrd1) enhanced myocyte hypertrophy, the upregulation of atrial natriuretic peptide and ?-myosin heavy chain genes and calcineurin proteins as well as nuclear translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cells. Cyclosporin A attenuated Ad-Ankrd1-enhanced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Intra-myocardial injection of Ad-Ankrd1 in mice with transverse aortic constriction (TAC) markedly increased the cytosolic CARP level, the heart weight/body weight ratio, while short hairpin RNA targeting Ankrd1 inhibited TAC-induced hypertrophy. The expression of calcineurin was also significantly increased in Ad-Ankrd1-infected TAC mice. Olmesartan (an Ang II receptor antagonist) prevented the upregulation of CARP in both Ang II-stimulated NRVCs and hearts with pressure overload. These findings indicate that overexpression of Ankrd1 exacerbates pathological cardiac remodeling through the enhancement of cytosolic translocation of CARP and upregulation of calcineurin. PMID:25089522

  14. Intensity of parasitic infestation in silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix *

    PubMed Central

    Alam, M. M.; Khan, M. A.; Hussain, M. A.; Moumita, D.; Mazlan, A. G.; Simon, K. D.

    2012-01-01

    Silver carp, Hypopthalmichthys molitrix is one of the most economically valuable fish species in Bangladesh. However, its production is often hindered by parasite-induced mortality. The present study reports the intensity of parasitic infestation in 216 specimens of H. molitrix collected from different fish markets in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh. Nine different parasite species (Trichodina pediculatus, Dactylogyrus vastator, Ichthyophthirius multifilis, Gyrodactylus elegans, Lernaea sp., Apiosoma sp., Myxobolus rohitae, Camallanus ophiocephali, and Pallisentis ophiocephali) were recovered from the gill, skin, stomach, and intestine of host fish. The highest level of infection was observed for host skin, while lower levels were observed for host gill, stomach, and intestine. The results also revealed that the intensity of parasite infection in different organs of H. molitrix varied with the season. In particular, the highest levels of infection were recorded during the winter period (November–February), when fish are most susceptible to parasites. The findings of the study will help in the management and conservation of H. molitrix. PMID:23225858

  15. Observations on two new species of Myxobolus Butschli, 1882 from minor carps of Tripura, India.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, Remya; Bandyopadhyay, Probir K; Santosh, B

    2013-04-01

    Tripura is a north-eastern state of India with a total geographical area of 10,491 sq.km. Labeo bata, L. calbasu, L. gonius of the genus Labeo Cuvier and Cirrhinus reba of genus Cirrhinus Oken are the most popular and commercially important native minor carps of the state. During a detailed survey on the protozoan parasites of the minor carps of Tripura, two new species of myxozoan (Myxozoa: Bivalvulida) parasites Myxobolus tripurensis sp.n. and Myxobolus potularis sp.n. were encountered on the gill filaments of the host fishes. Distinctive characteristics of the plasmodia and the spores have been described. PMID:24431542

  16. The biology of free-ranging grass carp in East Texas river and bay systems

    E-print Network

    Elder, Howard Stanton

    1994-01-01

    THE BIOLOGY OF FREE-RANGING GRASS CARP IN EAST TEXAS RIVER AND BAY SYSTEMS A Thesis by HOWARD STANTON ELDER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1994 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences THE BIOLOGY OF FREE-RANGING GRASS CARP IN EAST TEXAS RIVER AND BAY SYSTEMS A Thesis by HOWARD STANTON ELDER Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  17. Characterization of Common Carp Transcriptome: Sequencing, De Novo Assembly, Annotation and Comparative Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Peifeng; Liu, Guiming; Xu, Jian; Wang, Xumin; Li, Jiongtang; Zhao, Zixia; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen

    2012-01-01

    Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquaculture species of Cyprinidae with an annual global production of 3.4 million tons, accounting for nearly 14% of the freshwater aquaculture production in the world. Due to the economical and ecological importance of common carp, genomic data are eagerly needed for genetic improvement purpose. However, there is still no sufficient transcriptome data available. The objective of the project is to sequence transcriptome deeply and provide well-assembled transcriptome sequences to common carp research community. Result Transcriptome sequencing of common carp was performed using Roche 454 platform. A total of 1,418,591 clean ESTs were collected and assembled into 36,811 cDNA contigs, with average length of 888 bp and N50 length of 1,002 bp. Annotation was performed and a total of 19,165 unique proteins were identified from assembled contigs. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were performed and classified all contigs into functional categories for understanding gene functions and regulation pathways. Open Reading Frames (ORFs) were detected from 29,869 (81.1%) contigs with an average ORF length of 763 bp. From these contigs, 9,625 full-length cDNAs were identified with sequence length from 201 bp to 9,956 bp. Comparative analysis revealed that 27,693(75.2%) contigs have significant similarity to zebrafish Refseq proteins, and 24,371(66.2%), 24,501(66.5%) and 25,025(70.0%) to teraodon, medaka and three-spined stickleback refseq proteins. A total of 2,064 microsatellites were initially identified from 1,730 contigs, and 1,639 unique sequences had sufficient flanking sequences on both sides for primer design. Conclusion The transcriptome of common carp had been deep sequenced, de novo assembled and characterized, providing the valuable resource for better understanding of common carp genome. The transcriptome data will facilitate future functional studies on common carp genome, and gradually apply in breeding programs of common carp, as well as closely related other Cyprinids. PMID:22514716

  18. Differential growth at the apical hook: all roads lead to auxin

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Mohamad; Alabadí, David; Blázquez, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    The apical hook is a developmentally regulated structure that appears in dicotyledonous seedlings when seeds germinate buried in the soil. It protects the shoot apical meristem and cotyledons from damage while the seedling is pushing upwards seeking for light, and it is formed by differential cell expansion between both sides of the upper part of the hypocotyl. Its apparent simplicity and the fact that it is dispensable when seedlings are grown in vitro have converted the apical hook in one of the favorite experimental models to study the regulation of differential growth. The involvement of hormones –especially auxin—in this process was manifested already in the early studies. Remarkably, a gradient of this hormone across the hook curvature is instrumental to complete its development, similar to what has been proposed for other processes involving the bending of an organ, such as tropic responses. In agreement with this, other hormones—mainly gibberellins and ethylene—and the light, regulate in a timely and interconnected manner the auxin gradient to promote hook development and its opening, respectively. Here, we review the latest findings obtained mainly with the apical hook of Arabidopsis thaliana, paying special attention to the molecular mechanisms for the cross-regulation between the different hormone signaling pathways that underlie this developmental process. PMID:24204373

  19. The influence of pornography on sexual scripts and hooking up among emerging adults in college.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Scott R; Coulson, Gwen; Keddington, Krista; Fincham, Frank D

    2015-01-01

    The explosive growth in access to the Internet has led to a commensurate increase in the availability, anonymity, and affordability of pornography. An emerging body of research has shown associations between pornography and certain behaviors and attitudes; yet, how pornography actually influences these outcomes has not been documented. In two studies (Study 1 N = 969; Study 2 N = 992) we examined the hypothesis that pornography influences potentially risky sexual behavior (hooking up) among emerging adults via sexual scripts. Our results demonstrate that more frequent viewing of pornography is associated with a higher incidence of hooking up and a higher number of unique hook up partners. We replicated these effects both cross-sectionally and longitudinally while accounting for the stability of hook ups over the course of an academic semester. We also demonstrated that more frequent viewing of pornography is associated with having had more previous sexual partners of all types, more one occasion sexual partners ("one night stands"), and plans to have a higher number of sexual partners in the future. Finally, we provided evidence that more permissive sexual scripts mediated the association between more frequent pornography viewing and hooking up. We discuss these findings with an eye toward mitigating potential personal and public health risks among emerging adults. PMID:25239659

  20. Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp in North Croatia after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Frani?, Zdenko; Marovi?, Gordana

    2007-01-01

    Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carp decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of (137)Cs was estimated to be about 1 year during 1987-2002 and 5 years during 1993-2005. The observed (134)Cs:(137)Cs activity ratio in carp was found to be similar to the ratio observed in other environmental samples. The concentration factor for carp (wet weight) was estimated to be 128+/-74 Lkg(-1), which is in reasonable agreement with model prediction based on K(+) concentrations in water. Estimated annual effective dose received by adult members of the Croatian population due to consumption of carp contaminated with (134)Cs and (137)Cs are small: per capita dose from this source during 1987-2005 was estimated to be 0.5+/-0.2 microSv. Due to minor freshwater fish consumption in Croatia and low radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp, it can be concluded that carp consumption was not a critical pathway for the transfer of radiocaesium from fallout to humans after the Chernobyl accident. PMID:17343962

  1. Acute and subchronic toxic effects of atrazine and chlorpyrifos on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.): Immunotoxicity assessments.

    PubMed

    Xing, Houjuan; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Ziwei; Wang, Xiaolong; Xu, Shiwen

    2015-08-01

    Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are widely used pesticides in agricultural practices throughout world. It has resulted in a series of toxicological and environmental problems, such as impacts on many non-target aquatic species, including fish. The spleen and head kidney in the bony fish are the major hematopoietic organs, and play a crucial part in immune responses. This study evaluated the subchronic effects of ATR and CPF on the mRNA and protein levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 in the immune organs of common carp and compared the acute and subchronic effects of ATR and CPF on the swimming speed (SS) of common carp. The results of acute toxicity tests showed that the 96 h-LC50 of ATR and CPF for common carp was determined to be 2.142 and 0.582 mg/L, respectively. Meanwhile, acute and subacute toxicity of ATR and CPF in common carp resulted in hypoactivity. We also found that the mRNA and protein levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 genes were induced in the spleen and head kidney of common carp exposed to ATR and CPF in the subchronic toxicity test. Our results indicate that ATR and CPF are highly toxic to common carp, and hypoactivity in common carp by acute and subchronic toxicity of ATR and CPF may provide a useful tool for assessing the toxicity of triazine herbicide and organophosphorous pesticides to aquatic organisms. In addition, the results from the subchronic toxicity test exhibited that increasing concentration of ATR and CPF in the environment causes considerable stress for common carp, suggesting that ATR and CPF exposure cause immunotoxicity to common carp. PMID:25917970

  2. The Dimerization State of the Mammalian High Mobility Group Protein AT-Hook 2 (HMGA2)

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Lorraine; Baez, Maria A. M.; Harrilal, Christopher; Garabedian, Alyssa; Fernandez-Lima, Francisco; Leng, Fenfei

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian high mobility group protein AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) is a chromosomal architectural transcription factor involved in cell transformation and oncogenesis. It consists of three positively charged “AT-hooks” and a negatively charged C-terminus. Sequence analyses, circular dichroism experiments, and gel-filtration studies showed that HMGA2, in the native state, does not have a defined secondary or tertiary structure. Surprisingly, using combined approaches of 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) chemical cross-linking, analytical ultracentrifugation, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), and mass spectrometry, we discovered that HMGA2 is capable of self-associating into homodimers in aqueous buffer solution. Our results showed that electrostatic interactions between the positively charged “AT-hooks” and the negatively charged C-terminus greatly contribute to the homodimer formation. PMID:26114780

  3. Subsurface macro-inclusions and solidified hook character in aluminum-killed deep-drawing steel slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiao-xuan; Li, Lin-ping; Wang, Xin-hua; Ji, Yun-qing; Ji, Chen-xi; Zhu, Guo-sen

    2014-06-01

    Subsurface macro-inclusions and hooks are detrimental to the surface quality of deep-drawing steel sheets. However, little is known about the relationship between macro-inclusions and hooks. Thus, in this work, two ultralow carbon (ULC) steel slabs and two low carbon (LC) aluminum-killed steel slabs were sampled to study the relationship between hooks and subsurface macro-inclusions, which were detected on the cross-sections of steel samples with an area of 56058 mm2 using an automated scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy system. Results show that subsurface inclusions larger than 200 ?m were almost entrapped by hook structures, whereas the location of other inclusions smaller than 200 ?m had no obvious dependence on the location of solidified hooks. Furthermore, the number density (ND) of subsurface inclusions larger than 200 ?m decreased from 0.02 to 0 cm-2 in ULC steel as the mean hook depth decreased from 1.57 to 1.01 mm. Similar trends were also observed in LC steel. In addition, the detected inclusions larger than 200 ?m were concentrated in the region near the slab center (3/8 width-5/8 width), where hook depths were also larger than those at any other locations. Therefore, minimizing the hook depth is an effective way to reduce inclusion-induced sliver defects in deep-drawing steels.

  4. Rod-to-Hook Transition for Extracellular Flagellum Assembly Is Catalyzed by the L-Ring-Dependent Rod Scaffold Removal

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Eli J.

    2014-01-01

    In Salmonella, the rod substructure of the flagellum is a periplasmic driveshaft that couples the torque generated by the basal body motor to the extracellular hook and filament. The rod subunits self-assemble, spanning the periplasmic space and stopping at the outer membrane when a mature length of ?22 nm is reached. Assembly of the extracellular hook and filament follow rod completion. Hook initiation requires that a pore forms in the outer membrane and that the rod-capping protein, FlgJ, dislodges from the tip of the distal rod and is replaced with the hook-capping protein, FlgD. Approximately 26 FlgH subunits form the L-ring around the distal rod that creates the pore through which the growing flagellum will elongate from the cell body. The function of the L-ring in the mature flagellum is also thought to act as a bushing for the rotating rod. Work presented here demonstrates that, in addition to outer membrane pore formation, L-ring formation catalyzes the removal of the FlgJ rod cap. Rod cap removal allows the hook cap to assemble at the rod tip and results in the transition from rod completion in the periplasm to extracellular hook polymerization. By coupling the rod-to-hook switch to outer membrane penetration, FlgH ensures that hook and filament polymerization is initiated at the appropriate spatial and temporal point in flagellar biosynthesis. PMID:24748615

  5. 60 FR 56001 - Groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Area; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Hook-and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1995-11-06

    ...Cod by Vessels Using Hook-and-Line or Pot Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands AGENCY...allowable catch (TAC) from vessels using trawl gear to vessels using hook-and-line or pot gear and is opening [[Page 56002

  6. 60 FR 57545 - Groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Area; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Hook-and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1995-11-16

    ...Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Hook-and-Line Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands AGENCY...specified for the Pacific cod hook-and-line gear fishery and the other non-trawl gear fishery in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

  7. 33 CFR 334.102 - Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel, restricted area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel... § 334.102 Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel...enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Weapons Station Earle, and/or other...

  8. 33 CFR 334.102 - Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel, restricted area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel... § 334.102 Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel...enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Weapons Station Earle, and/or other...

  9. 33 CFR 334.102 - Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel, restricted area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel... § 334.102 Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel...enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Weapons Station Earle, and/or other...

  10. Fisheries Research 80 (2006) 239250 Effects of circle versus J-style hooks on target and non-target

    E-print Network

    Newman, Michael C.

    2006-01-01

    , marine mammals. Reducing the rate of interaction and mortality of non-target species has been identified-target species in a pelagic longline fishery D.W. Kerstetter, J.E. Graves Virginia Institute of Marine Science from J-style hooks to circle hooks may reduce bycatch mortality, but the effects of this change

  11. 33 CFR 334.102 - Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel, restricted area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel... § 334.102 Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel...enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Weapons Station Earle, and/or other...

  12. 33 CFR 334.102 - Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel, restricted area...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel... § 334.102 Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel...enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Weapons Station Earle, and/or other...

  13. Domain organization of the subunit of the Salmonella typhimurium flagellar hook.

    PubMed

    Morgan, D G; Macnab, R M; Francis, N R; DeRosier, D J

    1993-01-01

    The deduced amino acid sequences of the family of axial proteins of the bacterial flagellum possess N and C-terminal heptad repeats of hydrophobic amino acid residues, which suggests that these proteins all fold to form bundles of alpha-helices (e.g. coiled coils). There is evidence that flagellin, which is one of the axial proteins, has an axially oriented bundle of alpha-helices that gives rise to the inner, rod-shaped domains seen in electron density maps. We present evidence that a second member of the family, the hook subunit, also has such an axially oriented, rod-shaped domain. In three-dimensional reconstructions from electron micrographs of the helical hook of Salmonella typhimurium, the rod-shaped domain has a diameter of 18 A, which is that expected for a coiled coil. The corresponding domain in the flagellin subunit of the filament, however, is larger, having a diameter of 24 A suggesting a bundle of three or more alpha-helices. In addition to the rod-shaped domain, the hook has two other domains. At a radius of 55 A is the middle spheroidal domain about 25 A in diameter and at a radius of 75 A is the outer ellipsoidal domain about 20 A by 30 A by 40 A. The flagellin subunit also has a middle and an outer domain although they appear different from those of the hook. This is no doubt a result of the lack of any sequence similarity of the hook and flagellin subunits, apart from the N and C-terminal heptad repeats. Along the hook axis, there is a 25 A wide channel, which presumably serves in the export of hook and flagellin subunits in the assembly of the filament. There is a comparably sized channel in the filaments as deduced from electron micrographs. Thus, electron microscopy consistently finds a small channel, whereas in X-ray diffraction studies of the filament, the channel size appeared to be about 60 A. At a diameter of 60 A, the channel could pass the flagellin or hook subunit in its completely folded state, but if the channel is only 25 A in diameter, the subunit would have to be at least partially unfolded in order to pass through the channel. PMID:8421316

  14. Characterization of grass carp reovirus minor core protein VP4

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Grass Carp Reovirus (GCRV), a tentative member in the genus Aquareovirus of family Reoviridae, contains eleven segmented (double-stranded RNA) dsRNA genome which encodes 12 proteins. A low-copy core component protein VP4, encoded by the viral genome segment 5(S5), has been suggested to play a key role in viral genome transcription and replication. Results To understand the role of minor core protein VP4 played in molecular pathogenesis during GCRV infection, the recombinant GCRV VP4 gene was constructed and expressed in both prokaryotic and mammalian cells in this investigation. The recombinant His-tag fusion VP4 products expressed in E.coli were identified by Western blotting utilizing His-tag specific monoclonal and GCRV polyclonal antibodies. In addition, the expression of VP4 in GCRV infected cells, appeared in granules structure concentrated mainly in the cytoplasm, can be detected by Immunofluorescence (IF) using prepared anti-VP4 polyclonal antibody. Meanwhile, VP4 protein in GCRV core and infected cell lysate was identified by Immunoblotting (IB) assay. Of particular note, the VP4 protein was exhibited a diffuse distribution in the cytoplasm and nucleus in transfected cells, suggesting that VP4 protein may play a partial role in the nucleus by regulating cell cycle besides its predicted cytoplasmic function in GCRV infection. Conclusions Our results indicate the VP4 is a core component in GCRV. The cellular localization of VP4 is correlated with its predicted function. The data provide a foundation for further studies aimed at understanding the role of VP4 in viroplasmic inclusion bodies (VIB) formation during GCRV replication and assembly. PMID:22559058

  15. Grass Carp: A Fish for Biological Management of Hydrilla and Other Aquatic Weeds in Florida1

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    BUL867 Grass Carp: A Fish for Biological Management of Hydrilla and Other Aquatic Weeds in Florida1 visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl. edu. 2. David L. Sutton, professor (aquatic weeds), retired; Vernon V. Vandiver Jr., associate professor (aquatic weeds specialist), retired; and Jeffrey E

  16. NONYLPHENOL AND NONYLPHENOL-ETHOXYLATES IN CARP, WATER, AND SEDIMENT SAMPLES FROM CUYAHOGA RIVER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study of the occurrence of alkylphenol and alkylphenol ethoxylates in the Cuyahoga, Ohio, river system revealed that high levels of total APEs (NP 0 to 2 EO) occur in carp starting at the Akron WWTP and continues to the river mouth near Cleveland, e.g., 0.9 to 0.46 ppm wet weight, respectively. T...

  17. Effects of Oxytetracycline Containing Feed on Pond Ecosystem and Health of Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Svobodová; E. Sudová; L. Nepejchalová; S. ?ervinka; B. Vykusová; H. Modrá; J. Kolá?ová

    2006-01-01

    Svobodová Z., E. Sudová, L. Nepejchalová, S. âervinka, B. Vykusová, H. Modrá, J. Koláfiová: Effects of Oxytetracycline Containing Feed on Pond Ecosystem and Health of Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Acta Vet. Brno 2006, 75: 571-577. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of medicated feed, Rupin Special gran. ad us. vet. with oxytetracyclini chloridum as active

  18. LINKING SILVER CARP HABITAT SELECTION TO PHYTOPLANKTON CONSUMPTION IN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER

    E-print Network

    TO PHYTOPLANKTON CONSUMPTION IN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER by Heather Ann Calkins B.S., University of Missouri-Columbia by Heather Ann Calkins B.S., University of Missouri-Columbia, 2007 A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment LINKING SILVER CARP HABITAT SELECTION TO PHYTOPLANKTON CONSUMPTION IN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER

  19. Indonesian Experience on the Outbreak of Koi Herpesvirus in Koi and Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agus SUNARTO; Akhmad RUKYANI; Toshiaki ITAMI; Harsono RM; Gakuen Kibana-dai Nishi

    2005-01-01

    Koi Herpes Virus (KHV) is a new emerging disease known to cause gill and skin damage in koi and carp (Cyprinus carpio). The disease suspected to have been introduced into Indonesia through importation of koi from Hongkong. It is currently occurring in Indonesia since March 2002 starting in the area of Blitar in East Java. Since then it has been

  20. Location and timing of Asian carp spawning in the Lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deters, Joseph E.; Chapman, Duane C.; McElroy, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    We sampled for eggs of Asian carps, (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella) in 12 sites on the Lower Missouri River and in six tributaries from the months of May through July 2005 and May through June 2006 to examine the spatial and temporal dynamics of spawning activity. We categorized eggs into thirty developmental stages, but usually they could not be identified to species. We estimated spawning times and locations based on developmental stage, temperature dependent rate of development and water velocity. Spawning rate was higher in the daytime between 05:00 and 21:00 h than at night. Spawning was not limited to a few sites, as has been reported for the Yangtze River, where these fishes are native, but more eggs were spawned in areas of high sinuosity. We employ a sediment transport model to estimate vertical egg concentration profiles and total egg fluxes during spawning periods on the Missouri River. We did not identify substantial spawning activity within tributaries or at tributary confluences examined in this study.

  1. GIS-based rapid-assessment of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845) suitability in reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, James M.; Liang, Yu; Shoup, Daniel E.; Dzialowski, Andrew R.; Bidwell, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Broad-scale niche models are good for examining the potential for invasive species occurrences, but can fall short in providing managers with site-specific locations for monitoring. Using Oklahoma as an example, where invasive bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) are established in certain reservoirs, but predicted to be widely distributed based on broad-scale niche models, we cast bighead carp reproductive ecology in a site-specific geospatial framework to determine their potential establishment in additional reservoirs. Because bighead carp require large, long free-flowing rivers with suitable hydrology for reproduction but can persist in reservoirs, we considered reservoir tributaries with mean annual daily discharge ?8.5 cubic meters per second (m3 /s) and quantified the length of their unimpeded portions. In contrast to published broad-scale niche models that identified nearly the entire state as susceptible to invasion, our site-specific models showed that few reservoirs in Oklahoma (N = 9) were suitable for bighead carp establishment. Moreover, this method was rapid and identified sites that could be prioritized for increased study or scrutiny. Our results highlight the importance of considering the environmental characteristics of individual sites, which is often the level at which management efforts are implemented when assessing susceptibility to invasion.

  2. THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF PRAZIQUANTEL TO GRASS CARP AND GOLDEN SHINERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acute praziquantel toxicity and no observable effect concentrations (NOEC), were determined in the laboratory for grass carp and golden shiners, two commercially raised cyprinids known to harbor Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Praziquantel is an anthelmintic used to treat fish with ta...

  3. Precision of Scales and Dorsal Spines for Estimating Age of Common Carp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zachary J. Jackson; Michael C. Quist; Joseph G. Larscheid; Edward C. Thelen; Michael J. Hawkins

    2007-01-01

    We examined precision in age estimates from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) scales and dorsal spines sampled from 28 Iowa lakes (N = 501 individual fish). Exact agreement between two readers was 28.5% for scales and 90.6% for dorsal spines. Agreement of scale ages between readers was poor across the distribution of assigned ages. Agreement of dorsal spine ages increased to

  4. Biological Control of Aquatic Pest Snails by the Black Carp Mylopharyngodon piceus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frida Ben-Ami; Joseph Heller

    2001-01-01

    Some freshwater snail species are severe pests to human health or agriculture. We tested the hypothesis that the fish Mylopharyngodon piceus, the black carp, may serve as a biological control agent of two pest snails, Physella acuta (a bank-dwelling snail) and Melanoides tuberculata (a substratum-dwelling snail). Experiments were carried out in the laboratory and under controlled field conditions. In the

  5. Comparative Study of the Blood Biochemistry of Three Species of Indian Carp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. C. Das

    1961-01-01

    Samples of three species of Indian carp, Catla catla, Cirrhina mrigala, and Labeo rohita, were examined when they were 480 days old by biochemical tests and electrophoresis of the blood and plasma. The three species did not differ significantly in total plasma protein (micro-Kjeldahl), relative amounts of total plasma protein and total lipoprotein, and plasma albumin. Significant differences were found

  6. A Battery of Tests for Ecotoxicological Evaluation of Pentachlorophenol on Common Carp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhao-Xiang Han; Jia-Hong Wang; Wen Zhou Lv

    2009-01-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a highly toxic contaminant of chlorophenols. Due to its slow and incomplete biodegradation, it can be found in surface, groundwater, and in soils. In this study, immunotoxicity, defensive toxicity, cytotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, and mitochondrial toxicity test of common carp exposed to PCP for 24 and 72 h were examined. The results showed that the lymphocyte and granulocyte

  7. Acute Toxicity of Synthetic Pyrethroid Cypermethrin on the Common Carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) Embryos and Larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rahmi Ayd?n; Kenan Köprücü; Mustafa Dörücü; Sibel ?im?ek Köprücü; Murat Pala

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the toxic effects on the embryos and larvae of the common carp were used as a model to investigate the synthetic pyrethroid pesticide, cypermethrin, which contaminates aquatic ecosystems. Data obtained from the cypermethrin acute toxicity tests were evaluated using the Probit Analysis Statistical Method. The control and eight test experiments were repeated five times. The number of

  8. Parnum11 Gordon and Gordon AN OVERVIEW OF THE CARP-CG ALGORITHM

    E-print Network

    Gordon, Dan

    Parnum11 Gordon and Gordon AN OVERVIEW OF THE CARP-CG ALGORITHM Dan Gordon Dept. of Computer Science, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905, Israel. gordon@cs.haifa.ac.il Rachel Gordon Dept. of Aerospace-7, 2011 #12;Gordon and Gordon Parnum11 The usual approach to solving problems with large off

  9. Age differences in neural distinctiveness revealed by multi-voxel pattern analysis Joshua Carp a,

    E-print Network

    Age differences in neural distinctiveness revealed by multi-voxel pattern analysis Joshua Carp a multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to measure age differences in the distinctiveness of neural less distinctive in old age, a phenomenon known as dedifferentiation. The present study used multi-voxel

  10. Effectiveness of Three Barrier Types for Confining Grass Carp in Embayments of Lake Seminole, Georgia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Maceina; Jeffery W. Slipke; John M. Grizzle

    1999-01-01

    Three types of barriers were evaluated in Lake Seminole (13,158 ha) to determine the success of confining triploid grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in two embayments (250 and 350 ha) that were almost entirely covered with submersed macrophytes. In 1995, two different physical barriers that permitted boat passage were constructed. One had tandem V-shaped weirs placed at the entrance of a

  11. Genome Wide Identification, Phylogeny and Expression of Zinc Transporter Genes in Common Carp

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Shuaisheng; Sun, Jinsheng; Xu, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Background Zinc is an essential trace element in organisms, which serves as a cofactor for hundreds of enzymes that are involved in many pivotal biological processes including growth, development, reproduction and immunity. Therefore, the homeostasis of zinc in the cell is fundamental. The zinc transporter gene family is a large gene family that encodes proteins which regulate the movement of zinc across cellular and intracellular membranes. However, studies on teleost zinc transporters are mainly limited to model species. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified a set of 37 zinc transporters in common carp genome, including 17 from SLC30 family (ZnT), and 20 from SLC39 family (ZIP). Phylogenetic and syntenic analysis revealed that most of the zinc transporters are highly conserved, though recent gene duplication and gene losses do exist. Through examining the copy number of zinc transporter genes across several vertebrate genomes, thirteen zinc transporters in common carp are found to have undergone the gene duplications, including SLC30A1, SLC30A2, SLC30A5, SLC30A7, SLC30A9, SLC30A10, SLC39A1, SLC39A3, SLC39A4, SLC39A5, SLC39A6, SLC39A7 and SLC39A9. The expression patterns of all zinc transporters were established in various tissues, including blood, brain, gill, heart, intestine, liver, muscle, skin, spleen and kidney, and showed that most of the zinc transporters were ubiquitously expressed, indicating the critical role of zinc transporters in common carp. Conclusions To some extent, examination of gene families with detailed phylogenetic or orthology analysis could verify the authenticity and accuracy of assembly and annotation of the recently published common carp whole genome sequences. The gene families are also considered as a unique source for evolutionary studies. Moreover, the whole set of common carp zinc transporters provides an important genomic resource for future biochemical, toxicological and physiological studies of zinc in teleost. PMID:25551462

  12. Microbial succession of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) filets during storage at 4°C and its contribution to biogenic amines' formation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hang; Luo, Yongkang; Huang, Heping; Xu, Qian

    2014-11-01

    Investigation on the microbial succession of grass carp filets during storage at 4°C was carried out. For identification, 16S rRNA genes of the isolated pure strains were sequenced and analyzed. Acinetobacter was dominant in fresh grass carp. Species from the genera Brevundimonas, Empedobacter, Pseudomonas, Microbacterium, Flavobacterium, Moraxella, Shewanella and Soonwooa were also detected at the initial day. The communities were dominated by Aeromonas and Acinetobacter after 6days. Aeromonas followed by Pseudomonas was the predominant genera at the end of shelf-life of grass carp, while other genera such as Shewanella, Acinetobacter, Flavobacteriaceae and Psychrobacter were present in smaller numbers. We investigated biogenic amines' (BAs) production by six strains isolated from spoiled grass carp filets. Shewanella putrefaciens showed significantly higher abilities to produce putrescine, than those from other genera. Aeromonas veronii revealed a strong ability to produce putrescine and cadaverine. However, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter showed little ability to produce BAs. PMID:25194259

  13. cry1 and GPA1 signaling genetically interact in hook opening and anthocyanin synthesis in Arabidopsis

    E-print Network

    Jones, Alan M.

    ) typically used for plant Ga proteins, recognized a 54 kDa band in the wild type but not in gpa1 and cry1-012-9950-x #12;hypocotyl growth is reduced, the apical hook opens and cotyledons unfold and expand of cotyledon unfold- ing and opening (Lin 2002) and anthocyanin accumulat

  14. Hook-ups: How Youth Learn Through Creating Physical Computer Interfaces

    E-print Network

    input devices for computer programs they write. This project introduces a new approach to learning around theory, design, and practice. I benefit from her growing interest in informal learning and valueHook-ups: How Youth Learn Through Creating Physical Computer Interfaces by Amon Daran Millner

  15. Twisted acceleration-enlarged Newton-Hooke space-times and conservative force terms

    E-print Network

    Marcin Daszkiewicz

    2011-08-09

    There are analyzed two classical systems defined on twist-deformed acceleration-enlarged Newton-Hooke space-times - nonrelativistic particle moving in constant field force $\\vec{F}$ and harmonic oscillator model. It is demonstrated that only in the case of canonical twist deformation the force terms generated by space-time noncommutativity remain conservative for both models.

  16. Stochastic Dynamics of a Drill-String with Uncertain Weight-on-Hook

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and drills into the rock in search of oil. There are many sources of uncertainties in this complex dynamicalStochastic Dynamics of a Drill-String with Uncertain Weight-on-Hook T.G. Rittoa,b , C. Soizeb-la-Vallée, France. christian.soize@univ-paris-est.fr Abstract A drill-string is a slender structure that turns

  17. Assessing College Students' Autonomy over Smoking with the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Robert; McMillen, Robert; DiFranza, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective, Participants, and Methods: In this study, the authors explored the psychometric properties of the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC) among 300 college students who were current smokers. The HONC is a 10-item survey instrument designed to measure diminished autonomy over smoking, a key aspect of dependence. Autonomy is diminished when…

  18. INSTRUCTIONS FOR HOOKING UP A LAPTOP/MACBOOK TO LCD LOLLYPOP STAND

    E-print Network

    Angenent, Lars T.

    INSTRUCTIONS FOR HOOKING UP A LAPTOP/MACBOOK TO LCD LOLLYPOP STAND LAPTOP 1) Plug the power cord to project on the LCD.) 3) Hit the Fn and F8 (CRT/LCD) keys at the same time and, if necessary, choose Duplicate to project to the LCD. 4) Right-click on the desktop and select Screen Resolution and then change

  19. INSTRUCTIONS FOR HOOKING UP A LAPTOP/MACBOOK TO LCD LOLLYPOP STAND

    E-print Network

    Angenent, Lars T.

    INSTRUCTIONS FOR HOOKING UP A LAPTOP/MACBOOK TO LCD LOLLYPOP STAND LAPTOP 1) Plug the power cord allows the laptop to project on the LCD.) 3) Hit the Fn and F8 (CRT/LCD) keys at the same time to project to the LCD. (This works as a toggle, so keep hitting the key-combination until the display is correct.) 4

  20. Tracks in the Sand: Hooke's Pendulum "Cum Grano Salis"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babovic, Vukota; Babovic, Miloš

    2014-01-01

    The history of science remembers more than just formal facts about scientific discoveries. These side stories are often inspiring. One of them, the story of an unfulfilled death wish of Jacob Bernoulli regarding spirals, inspired us to look around ourselves. And we saw natural spirals around us, which led to the creation of a Hooke's…

  1. Symposium of Hope: Recovery and Resiliency after the Sandy Hook Tragedy. Crisis Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenere, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    On February 27 and 28, 2013, The Symposium of Hope: Recovery and Resilience after the Sandy Hook Tragedy, was held in Danbury, Connecticut. The event was hosted by the United Way of Western Connecticut and Western Connecticut State University. Frank J. Zenere, school psychologist and crisis team member in the Division of Student Services of the…

  2. Risk Factors and Consequences of Unwanted Sex among University Students: Hooked up, Alcohol, and Stress Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flack, William F., Jr.; Daubman, Kimberly A.; Caron, Marcia L.; Asadorian, Jenica A.; D'Aureli, Nicole R.; Gigliotti, Shannon N.; Hall, Anna T.; Kiser, Sarah; Stine, Erin R.

    2007-01-01

    This is the first study of unwanted sexual experiences in the collegiate "hooking-up" culture. In a representative sample of 178 students at a small liberal arts university. Twenty-three percent of women and 7% of men surveyed reported one or more experiences of unwanted sexual intercourse. Seventy-eight percent of unwanted vaginal, anal, and oral…

  3. Phytologia (December 2009) 91(3) 361 JUNIPERUS RECURVA VAR. UNCINATA, THE HOOKED

    E-print Network

    Adams, Robert P.

    Phytologia (December 2009) 91(3) 361 JUNIPERUS RECURVA VAR. UNCINATA, THE HOOKED BRANCHLET JUNIPER of sequence data from nrDNA and cpDNA (petN-psbM) of Juniperus indica, J. i. var. caespitosa, J. i. var hybridization. Phytologia 91(3): 361-382 (December, 2009). KEY WORDS: Juniperus indica, J. i. var. caespitosa, J

  4. Laterally oscillated and force-balanced micro vibratory rate gyroscope supported by fish hook shape springs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Y. Park; C. W. Lee; Y. S. Oh; Y. H. Cho

    1997-01-01

    A new concept micro vibratory rate gyroscope supported by fish hook shape springs, where the oscillating position sensing and force balancing take place on the wafer surface, has been developed. The gyroscope consists of: a grid-type planar mass; LT shape position sense electrodes for detecting the Coriolis motion; pairs of force-balancing electrodes to improve the linearity and dynamic range; prominence

  5. THE EFFECT OF HANDLING AND TRANSPORT ON THE CONCENTRATION OF GLUCOSE AND CORTISOL IN BLOOD PLASMA OF COMMON CARP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. SVOBODOVÁ; P. KALÁB; L. DU; B. VYKUSOVÁ

    1999-01-01

    Svobodová Z., P. Kaláb, L. Du‰ek, B. Vykusová, J. Koláfiová, D. Janou‰ková: The Effect of Handling and Transport on the Concentration of Glucose and Cortisol in Blood Plasma of Common Carp. Acta Vet. Brno 1999, 68: 265-274. The aim of this contribution was to assess the degree of stress in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L.) exposed to handling and transport.

  6. Physical and Chemical Changes in Fresh Chilled Muscle Tissue of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Packed in a Modified Atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Ježek; H. Buchtová

    2007-01-01

    Ježek F., H. Buchtová: Physical and Chemical Changes in Fresh Chilled Muscle Tissue of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Packed in a Modified Atmosphere. Acta Vet. Brno 2007, 76: S83-S92. The aim of the study was to monitor the course of physical and chemical changes taking place in stored fresh chilled muscle tissue of carp packed in modified atmosphere (MAP),

  7. Triploid origin of the gibel carp as revealed by 5S rDNA localization and chromosome painting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. P. Zhu; D. M. Ma; J. F. Gui

    2006-01-01

    5S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was isolated and sequenced from the gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio with 162 chromosomes and crucian carp Carassius auratus with 100 chromosomes, and fluorescent probes for chromosome localization were prepared to ascertain the ploidy origin and\\u000a evolutionary relationship between the two species. Using fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), major 5S rDNA signals were localized to the short

  8. The draft genome of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) provides insights into its evolution and vegetarian adaptation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaping; Lu, Ying; Zhang, Yong; Ning, Zemin; Li, Yan; Zhao, Qiang; Lu, Hengyun; Huang, Rong; Xia, Xiaoqin; Feng, Qi; Liang, Xufang; Liu, Kunyan; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Tingting; Huang, Tao; Fan, Danlin; Weng, Qijun; Zhu, Chuanrang; Lu, Yiqi; Li, Wenjun; Wen, Ziruo; Zhou, Congcong; Tian, Qilin; Kang, Xiaojun; Shi, Mijuan; Zhang, Wanting; Jang, Songhun; Du, Fukuan; He, Shan; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; Gui, Bin; He, Huihui; Ning, Zhen; Yang, Cheng; He, Libo; Luo, Lifei; Yang, Rui; Luo, Qiong; Liu, Xiaochun; Li, Shuisheng; Huang, Wen; Xiao, Ling; Lin, Haoran; Han, Bin; Zhu, Zuoyan

    2015-06-01

    The grass carp is an important farmed fish, accounting for ?16% of global freshwater aquaculture, and has a vegetarian diet. Here we report a 0.9-Gb draft genome of a gynogenetic female adult and a 1.07-Gb genome of a wild male adult. Genome annotation identified 27,263 protein-coding gene models in the female genome. A total of 114 scaffolds consisting of 573 Mb are anchored on 24 linkage groups. Divergence between grass carp and zebrafish is estimated to have occurred 49-54 million years ago. We identify a chromosome fusion in grass carp relative to zebrafish and report frequent crossovers between the grass carp X and Y chromosomes. We find that transcriptional activation of the mevalonate pathway and steroid biosynthesis in liver is associated with the grass carp's adaptation from a carnivorous to an herbivorous diet. We believe that the grass carp genome could serve as an initial platform for breeding better-quality fish using a genomic approach. PMID:25938946

  9. Casual hook up sex during the first year of college: Prospective associations with attitudes about sex and love relationships.

    PubMed

    Katz, Jennifer; Schneider, Monica E

    2013-11-01

    This study examined bidirectional relationships among emerging adults' involvement in casual hook up sex and attitudes about sex and love relationships. At the start and end of their first year in college, undergraduates (N = 163) responded to measures of sexual behavior, sexual attitudes, and attitudes about love relationships. In cross-sectional analyses, attitudes about sex and love both were associated with involvement in casual hook up sex. In prospective analyses, initial attitudes about sexual instrumentality uniquely predicted involvement in later hook up sex, even after controlling for past hook up sex. Furthermore, involvement in hook up sex during the first year of college predicted greater sexual permissiveness and comfort with casual genital contact, even after controlling for initial sexual attitudes and hook up behaviors. None of the associations between attitudes and behavior were qualified by gender. Experiences of causal hook up sex appear to have implications primarily for emerging adults' attitudes about sexual interactions rather than their attitudes about love relationships. PMID:23519593

  10. The neuroprotective and antioxidant activities of protein hydrolysates from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) skin.

    PubMed

    Cai, Luyun; Wu, Xiaosa; Lv, Yanfang; Xu, Yongxia; Mi, Geng; Li, Jianrong

    2015-06-01

    To observe the neuroprotective and antioxidant activities of the grass carp protein hydrolysates (GPH) obtained from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) skin by enzymatic hydrolysis. GPH prepared using Protamex, at different (5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 %) degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were investigated. The DPPH radial scavenging, reducing power and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation activities of GPH were significantly improved by a low DH (5 %) compared with those of GPH with a higher DH (p?

  11. Observation on prevalence of ectoparasites in carp fingerlings in two districts of West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sayani; Bandyopadhyay, Probir K

    2010-04-01

    The present study has been carried out to find out the prevalence of ectoparasites of carp fingerlings during different months of the year 2008-2009. Four groups of ectoparasites viz. myxozoan, ciliophoran, monogenean and crustacean were recorded from 400 fingerlings of Rohu (Labeo rohita), Catla (Catla catla), Mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala), Bata (Labeo bata), Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Lata (Channa punctatus) collected from different ponds of Nadia and Hooghly district of West Bengal from June 2008 to May 2009. The highest prevalence (51.66%) of infection has been recorded in ciliophorans and the lowest was in crustacean (17.5%) between the months of December and February. The highest ectoparasitic prevalence (36.85%) was recorded during winter season (December-February) while the lowest prevalence (9.16%) recorded during rainy season (June-August). PMID:21526033

  12. Isolated horizontal cells from carp retina demonstrate dopamine-dependent accumulation of cyclic AMP.

    PubMed Central

    Van Buskirk, R; Dowling, J E

    1981-01-01

    Horizontal cells of the carp retina were separated from other retinal cell types by using enzymatic dissociation and velocity sedimentation at unit gravity. Fractions containing horizontal cells were tested for their ability to accumulate cyclic AMP in the presence of various putative neurotransmitters. Micromolar concentrations of dopamine, when added in the presence of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in these isolated cells. The dopamine-dependent accumulation of cyclic AMP in intact isolated horizontal cells was blocked by nanomolar concentrations of dopamine antagonists such as haloperidol, (+)-butaclamol, and fluphenazine. The results indicate that there is a postsynaptic dopamine receptor on carp horizontal cells that is associated with adenylate cyclase [ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1]. Images PMID:6278491

  13. Identification of an "alcohol dehydrogenase-activating" protease in grass carp hepatopancreas as a chymotrypsin.

    PubMed

    Lau, K K; Chan, E Y; Fong, W P

    1997-12-01

    Previous investigation [Tsui et al. (1996) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1269: 41-46] showed that two active forms of alcohol dehydrogenase can be purified from grass carp. The use of a protease inhibitor and the results of SDS-PAGE analysis of the enzymes suggest that one form (ADH-C) is a proteolytic product of the other (ADH-I). In this study, the protease responsible for the cleavage was purified. The cleavage enzyme had a subunit molecular weight of 28 kDa. An inhibitor study identified it as a serine protease. It exhibited a strong chymotrypsin activity in both esterase and amidase assays with a pH optimum in the range 7.5-8.5. The purified chymotrypsin also cleaved the intact grass carp ADH-I into the two-fragment ADH-C, with an accompanying increase in enzyme activity. A similar effect was not found using horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase. PMID:9442919

  14. Out-of-sample validation for structured expert judgment of Asian carp establishment in Lake Erie.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Roger M; Wittmann, Marion E; Lodge, David M; Rothlisberger, John D; Rutherford, Edward S; Zhang, Hongyan; Mason, Doran M

    2014-10-01

    Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is used to quantify the uncertainty of nonindigenous fish (bighead carp [Hypophthalmichthys nobilis] and silver carp [H. molitrix]) establishment in Lake Erie. The classical model for structured expert judgment model is applied. Forming a weighted combination (called a decision maker) of experts' distributions, with weights derived from performance on a set of calibration variables from the experts' field, exhibits greater statistical accuracy and greater informativeness than simple averaging with equal weights. New methods of cross validation are applied and suggest that performance characteristics relative to equal weighting could be predicted with a small number (1-2) of calibration variables. The performance-based decision maker is somewhat degraded on out-of-sample prediction, but remained superior to the equal weight decision maker in terms of statistical accuracy and informativeness. PMID:25044130

  15. Fluoride-induced apoptosis and expressions of caspase proteins in the kidney of carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianjie; Cao, Jinling; Wang, Jundong; Jia, Ruhui; Xue, Wenjuan; Xie, Lingtian

    2015-07-01

    The study was conducted to investigate oxidative stress, apoptosis, and protein expressions of caspase-3, 8, and 9 in kidney of the carp juveniles exposed to 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 mg L(-1) of fluoride (in the form of NaF) for 90 days. The results showed that dose- and time-dependent decrease of SOD and GSH and dose- and time-dependent increase of MDA were observed in the carp juveniles, which suggested that fluoride induced oxidative damage accompanied with morphological changes and significant apoptosis in fish exposed to fluoride, especially in the higher doses. Fluoride exposure also significantly elevated the protein expressions of caspase-3, 8, and 9. In conclusion, these results indicate that chronic exposure to fluoride causes oxidative stress, damages the kidney structure, and results in renal apoptosis by caspase-dependent pathway. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 769-781, 2015. PMID:24459041

  16. Complete mitochondrial DNA genome of triploid pengze crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong; Liang, Hong-Wei; Zou, Gui-Wei

    2014-09-18

    Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of triploid pengze crucian carp was 16,580?bp in length. The mitochondrial genome contains 22 transfer RNAs, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs and 2 non-coding regions (control region and origin of light-strand replication). All genes were encoded on the heavy strain except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes. The overall base composition is A 31.53%, T 26.23%, G 16.15%, C 26.09%, with an A?+?T bias of 57.76%. The complete mtDNA sequence of the geographic triploid pengze crucian carp was reported in this study for the first time. PMID:25231717

  17. Invasive Species Fact Sheets: Carp, Snail, Aphid, Comb Jelly, Chocolate Vine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource from ATEEC provides a number of fact sheets on invasive species which may be printed out or used as presentation material. The species described here are the big head carp, the giant African snail, the balsam wooly aphid, the comb jelly and the chocolate vine. The lesson plan is available for download as a PDF; users must create a free, quick login with ATEEC to access the materials.

  18. Z .Aquaculture 160 1998 317328 Initiation of carp spermatozoa motility and early

    E-print Network

    Villefranche sur mer

    Z .Aquaculture 160 1998 317­328 Initiation of carp spermatozoa motility and early ATP reduction of 8­9 nmolr108 spermatozoa, an initial velocity of 100­160 mm sy1 and a flagellar Zbeat frequency around 30­50 Hz, 10 s after a 1r2000 dilution in an activating medium 45 mM y1.NaCl, 5 mM KCl, 30 mM Tris

  19. Effect of Probiotics on Growth Performance of Koi Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Dhanaraj; M. A. Haniffa; S. V. Arun Singh; A. Jesu Arockiaraj; C. Muthu Ramakrishanan; S. Seetharaman; R. Arthimanju

    2010-01-01

    A 45-day feeding experiment was conducted to measure the effects of enhancing the diet of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings with lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAD) and\\/or brewer's yeast, Saccharomyces cervisiae (SCD). Fish with an average initial weight of 0.26g were fed one of four diets prepared for this study as follows: Diet 1 = basal diet (control); Diet

  20. Distribution and Cytogenetic Features of Triploid Males of Crucian Carp in Azov Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. I. Abramenko; E. V. Nadtoka; M. A. Makhotkin; O. V. Kravchenko; T. G. Poltavtseva

    2004-01-01

    When studying uni-bisexual crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) populations in the Azov basin in 1995–2000, we found triploid males, which constituted 2.5%, on average, of the total numbers of studied samples. The areas of nuclei of erythrocytes of triploid males were, on average, 1.35 times those in diploid males. At the same optical density of DNA, the sizes of mature

  1. Seasonality of glycogen phosphorylase activity in crucian carp ( Carassius carassius L . )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matti Vornanen; Jaakko Haverinen

    Seasonal changes in the activity of glycogen phosphorylase (GP), a rate-limiting enzyme of glycogen degradation, were examined\\u000a in an anoxia-tolerant fish species, the crucian carp (Carassius carassius L.). In muscle and brain, the activity of GP remained constant throughout the year when tested at 25°C. In contrast, the\\u000a activities of liver and heart GP displayed striking increases in summer. When

  2. Perfluorinated compounds in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) fillets from the Upper Mississippi River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xibiao Ye; Heiko L. Schoenfuss; Nathan D. Jahns; Amy D. Delinsky; Mark J. Strynar; Jerry Varns; Shoji F. Nakayama; Larry Helfant; Andrew B. Lindstrom

    2008-01-01

    Ten different perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluooctane sulfonate (PFOS), were measured in 30 common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fillets collected from three sites on the Upper Mississippi River in Minnesota in an effort to evaluate the potential impact of PFAA emissions in this area. Samples upstream of the city of St. Cloud (reference site) had median PFOS concentrations of 8.1 ng\\/g wet

  3. Identification and expression analysis of two IFN-inducible genes in crucian carp ( Carassius auratus L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Bing Zhang; Jian-Fang Gui

    2004-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) exerts its antiviral effects mainly through activation of a subset of IFN-stimulated genes (ISG), but relatively few of fish ISGs have been isolated and characterized so far. Here, we report two fish ISGs, termed CaIFI58 and CaIFI56, cloned from a subtractive cDNA library constructed with mRNAs obtained from crucian carp (Carassius auratus L.) blastulae embryonic (CAB) cells infected

  4. Transcriptome Analysis to Identify Cold-Responsive Genes in Amur Carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus)

    PubMed Central

    He, XuLing

    2015-01-01

    The adaptation of fish to low temperatures is the result of long-term evolution. Amur carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) survives low temperatures (0-4°C) for six months per year. Therefore, we chose this fish as a model organism to study the mechanisms of cold-adaptive responses using high-throughput sequencing technology. This system provided an excellent model for exploring the relationship between evolutionary genomic changes and environmental adaptations. The Amur carp transcriptome was sequenced using the Illumina platform and was assembled into 163,121 cDNA contigs, with an average read length of 594 bp and an N50 length of 913 bp. A total of 162,339 coding sequences (CDSs) were identified and of 32,730 unique CDSs were annotated. Gene Ontology (GO), EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were performed to classify all CDSs into different functional categories. A large number of cold-responsive genes were detected in different tissues at different temperatures. A total of 9,427 microsatellites were identified and classified, with 1952 identifying in cold-responsive genes. Based on GO enrichment analysis of the cold-induced genes, “protein localization” and “protein transport” were the most highly represented biological processes. “Circadian rhythm,” “protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum,” “endocytosis,” “insulin signaling pathway,” and “lysosome” were the most highly enriched pathways for the genes induced by cold stress. Our data greatly contribute to the common carp (C. carpio) transcriptome resource, and the identification of cold-responsive genes in different tissues at different temperatures will aid in deciphering the genetic basis of ecological and environmental adaptations in this species. Based on our results, the Amur carp has evolved special strategies to survive low temperatures, and these strategies include the system-wide or tissue-specific induction of gene expression during their six-month overwintering period. PMID:26098567

  5. Metabolic Quotient Measured by Free-Water Method in Six Enclosures with Different Silver Carp Densities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takehiko Fukushima; Kazuo Matsushige; Noriko Takamura; Michio Fukushima

    2004-01-01

    Quasi-continuous DO and pH measurements (total 47 days) were conducted during enclosure experiments (6 enclosures; 5 × 5 × 2.5 m), in which a biomass gradient of silver carp was created. After subtracting the air–water exchanges of O2 and CO2, the chemical and biochemical changes in DO (dissolved oxygen) and DIC (dissolved inorganic carbon) were estimated in order to evaluate MQ

  6. Assessment of the sublethal toxicity of organochlorine pesticide endosulfan in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lígia M. Salvo; Afonso C. D. Bainy; Eliana C. Ventura; Maria R. F. Marques; José Roberto M. C. Silva; Cláudio Klemz; Helena C. Silva de Assis

    2012-01-01

    This study is aimed at evaluating the sublethal effects of endosulfan (EDS) in juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio). For this purpose, fish were exposed for 15 days to the technical EDS (95% pure) diluted in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) 0.1% of the total volume in water solution in a semi-static system at sublethal concentration (1 ?g\\/L). Subsequently, the liver somatic index (LSI)

  7. Evaluation of the effects induced by dietary diphenyl diselenide on common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Charlene; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Santi, Adriana; Dias, Glaecir; Pedron, Fábio Araújo; Neto, João Radünz; Salman, Syed Mahammad; Barbosa, Nilda Berenice Vargas; Loro, Vania Lucia

    2014-02-01

    Several diets employed in aquaculture are enriched with selenium (Se), as it is a fundamental element to aquatic vertebrates. Diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)?], which is a synthetic organoselenium compound, has been considered a potential antioxidant agent in different experimental models. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary diphenyl diselenide at concentrations of 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0 mg/kg for 60 days and to determine its optimal supplemental level for carp, Cyprinus carpio. Neither growth retardation nor hepatoxicity was induced by the inclusion of diphenyl diselenide at concentrations ranging from 1.5 to 5.0 mg/kg. In addition, the inclusion of 3.0 mg/kg of diphenyl diselenide stimulated the weight and length of the carp. The supplementation with 1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg of diphenyl diselenide did not produce oxidative damage in the tissues, verified by peroxidation lipid and protein carbonyl assays. However, at 5.0 mg/kg, it caused an increase of the lipid peroxidation in the liver, brain, and muscle, and inhibited the cerebral acetylcholinesterase activity. An increase of the hepatic superoxide dismutase activity and non-protein thiols content in all tissues and ascorbic acid in the liver, gills, and brain was verified in carp fed with the diet containing 3.0 mg/kg of diphenyl diselenide. This diet had advantageous effects for the fish used in experiments. Therefore, this compound could be considered a beneficial dietary supplement for carp nutrition. PMID:23877622

  8. Sexually disrupting effects of nonylphenol and diethylstilbestrol on male silver carp ( Carassius auratus) in aquatic microcosms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lihua Yang; Li Lina; Shaoping Weng; Zhiqin Feng; Tiangang Luan

    2008-01-01

    Based on detected nonylphenol (NP) levels in aquaculture water, this study investigated sexually disrupting effects in mature male silver carp (Carassius auratus) exposed to NP and a positive control diethylstilbestrol (DES). The combined evidences of steroid hormone (17?-estradiol, estrone and testosterone) levels and hispathological pictures showed that NP (?10?g\\/L) and DES could exert estrogenic effects through indirect mechanisms [i.e. increased

  9. Molecular cytogenetic detection of paternal chromosome fragments in allogynogenetic gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Yi; Y. Q. Li; J. D. Liu; L. Zhou; Q. X. Yu; J. F. Gui

    2003-01-01

    In gynogenesis, sperm from related species activates egg and embryonic development, but normally does not contribute genetically\\u000a to the offspring. In gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch, however, gynogenetic offspring often show some phenotypes apparently derived from the heterologous sperm donor. This\\u000a paternal effect of allogynogenesis is outstanding in an artificial clone F produced by cold treatment of clone E

  10. Catecholamine-induced changes in oxygen affinity of carp and trout blood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin Holk; Gunnar Lykkeboe

    1995-01-01

    Carp and trout blood maintained at low constant oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions was ?-stimulated. This activated the Na+H+-exchanger of the red cell membrane, leading to increases in red cell pH (pHi) and cell water content, the latter resulting in dilution of hemoglobin and organic phosphates. The increase in pHi was rapid and maintained throughout the experimental period, the trout

  11. Soybean meal induces intestinal inflammation in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Urán, P A; Gonçalves, A A; Taverne-Thiele, J J; Schrama, J W; Verreth, J A J; Rombout, J H W M

    2008-12-01

    The development of soybean meal (SBM) induced enteritis in the hindgut of the omnivorous common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The developed condition was assessed when carp, continuously fed on animal protein, were transferred to a diet in which 20% of the protein was replaced by SBM. After week 1, most of the inflammation parameters were already present, but at week 3, a strong aggravation of the condition was observed which included a shortening of the mucosal folds, the disappearance of the supranuclear vacuoles, an increased number of goblet cells, a thickened lamina propria and sub-epithelial mucosa with increased numbers of basophilic granulocytes as well as a decreased uptake capacity of enterocytes (impaired endocytosis and microvilli). Contrary to previous observations made with respect to Atlantic salmon, common carp start to recover from the fourth to the fifth week after switching to SBM feeding. At this stage, the supranuclear vacuoles refill and most of the parameters revert to basal levels. During the enteritis process, a real-time quantitative PCR analysis was conducted to measure the expression of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes in the isolated intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL). The pro-inflammatory interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumour necrosis factor alpha1 (TNF-alpha1) genes were up-regulated during the inflammation process while the anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL-10) was down-regulated after an initial up-regulation at week 1. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) expression showed an up-regulation from week 3 onwards despite the high Ct value and the low primer efficiency shown. This study confirms the contribution of IEL (mainly T-like cells) and basophils in the enteritis process. In addition, the results show a clear involvement of up- and down-regulated cytokine genes in both the onset and recovery of the SBM-induced enteritis in the hindgut of carp. PMID:18954997

  12. Molecular analysis of silver crucian carp ( Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch) clones by SCAR markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Zhou; Yang Wang; Jian-Fang Gui

    2001-01-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) molecular markers specific for one, two or three clones have been identified from five gynogenetic clones of silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch) using RAPD markers developed earlier. In this study, three RAPD markers (RA1-PA, RA2-EF and RA4-D) produced by Opj-1, and two RAPD DNA fragments (RA3-PAD and RA5-D) produced by Opj-7, were selected

  13. Size-structured effects of common carp on reproduction of pond-breeding amphibians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janusz Kloskowski

    2009-01-01

    The role of fish in driving amphibian communities has been widely recognized. However, little is known about size-structured\\u000a interactions between amphibian and fish populations. This study compared the taxonomic occurrence and densities of larval\\u000a amphibians between unstocked ponds and ponds stocked with different age cohorts of common carp Cyprinus carpio differing in average body size. The average total densities of

  14. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Concentrates of Carp Oil: Chemical Hydrolysis and Urea Complexation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valéria T. Crexi; Micheli L. Monte; Maurício L. Monte; Luiz A. A. Pinto

    The aims of this study were to compare three treatments in the chemical hydrolysis reaction of bleached oil from carp (Cyprinus carpio) heads and to obtain polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrates by urea complexation. The three treatments were carried out\\u000a with different oil:ethanol molar ratios. In the treatment with a 1:39 molar ratio, a higher yield of free fatty acids was

  15. Comparative metabolism of phenanthridine by carp ( Cyprinus carpio) and midge larvae ( Chironomus riparius)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. J. Bleeker; L. Noor; M. H. S. Kraak; P. de Voogt; W. Admiraal

    2001-01-01

    Abiotic transformation of azaarenes in the environment has been analysed extensively, but metabolism is less well described. To further elucidate preliminary observations of interspecific differences in azaarene metabolism by aquatic organisms, phenanthridine biotransformation by midge larvae and carp was studied. In both experiments, 6(5H)-phenanthridinone (phenanthridone) was found as an important metabolite. The fish were clearly capable of metabolising phenanthridine, but

  16. 77 FR 46125 - Sunoco, Inc., R&M, Refining Division, Marcus Hook, PA; Sunoco, Inc., 10 Industrial Hwy., MS4...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ...TA-W-81,145A] Sunoco, Inc., R&M, Refining Division, Marcus Hook, PA; Sunoco, Inc., 10 Industrial Hwy., MS4 Building G, Lester, PA; Notice of Negative Determination on Reconsideration On April 30, 2012, the...

  17. 77 FR 29362 - Sunoco, Inc., R&M Refining Division, Marcus Hook, PA; Sunoco, Inc., 10 Industrial Hwy, MS4...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ...145; TA-W-81,145A] Sunoco, Inc., R&M Refining Division, Marcus Hook, PA; Sunoco, Inc., 10 Industrial Hwy, MS4 Building G, Lester, PA; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By...

  18. Effect of Hook Removal on Recapture Rates of 27 Species of Angler-Caught Fish in Australia

    E-print Network

    Wilde, Gene

    Effect of Hook Removal on Recapture Rates of 27 Species of Angler-Caught Fish in Australia GENE R, Australia Abstract.--We used data from a cooperative angler tagging program to assess the potential benefit

  19. Carbon nanotube-based nanocarrier loaded with ribavirin against grass carp reovirus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2015-06-01

    Infectious diseases of viral origin cause major aquatic production losses in different parts of the world. Because of formidable barriers for gastrointestinal tract, skin and cell, large amounts of antiviral drugs have limited therapeutic effect. In the current study, functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were selected as a drug carrier to carry antiviral drug for the treatment of viral diseases on fish. The results show that increasing antiviral drug (ribavirin) intake was observed by SWCNTs carrier and therapeutic dosage to kill grass carp reovirus is significantly reduced. At 12d post infection, survival rate and infection rate were 29.7% and 50.4% for naked ribavirin treatment group exposed to the highest concentration (20mg/L); however, survival rate of 96.6% and infection rate of 9.4% were observed in 5mg/L ribavirin-SWCNTs treatment group. In addition, the drug detention time in different organs and tissues (blood, gill, liver, muscle, kidney and intestine) was also significantly extended (about 72h) compared with the same dosage in naked ribavirin treatment group. Moreover, the toxicity of functionalized SWCNTs in grass carp can be minimal, and physiological markers (some antioxidant enzymes activities, apoptotic factors activities and their corresponding genes expression) remained within normal ranges following treatment. Our results indicated that drug delivery with functionalized SWCNTs can improve the antiviral effect on grass carp and has a potential application value to control fish viral diseases in aquaculture. PMID:25796971

  20. Composition, diversity, and origin of the bacterial community in grass carp intestine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shangong; Wang, Guitang; Angert, Esther R; Wang, Weiwei; Li, Wenxiang; Zou, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Gut microbiota has become an integral component of the host, and received increasing attention. However, for many domestic animals, information on the microbiota is insufficient and more effort should be exerted to manage the gastrointestinal bacterial community. Understanding the factors that influence the composition of microbial community in the host alimentary canal is essential to manage or improve the microbial community composition. In the present study, 16S rRNA gene sequence-based comparisons of the bacterial communities in the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) intestinal contents and fish culture-associated environments are performed. The results show that the fish intestinal microbiota harbors many cellulose-decomposing bacteria, including sequences related to Anoxybacillus, Leuconostoc, Clostridium, Actinomyces, and Citrobacter. The most abundant bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the grass carp intestinal content are those related to feed digestion. In addition, the potential pathogens and probiotics are important members of the intestinal microbiota. Further analyses show that grass carp intestine holds a core microbiota composed of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. The comparison analyses reveal that the bacterial community in the intestinal contents is most similar to those from the culture water and sediment. However, feed also plays significant influence on the composition of gut microbiota. PMID:22363439

  1. Protective effect of shrimp carotenoids against ammonia stress in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Rama, Sowmya; Manjabhat, Sachindra N

    2014-09-01

    This study is aimed at evaluating the protective effect of shrimp carotenoids on ammonia stress in common carp. Crude carotenoid extract from shrimp exoskeleton, astaxanthin and astaxanthin ester fractionated from crude extract was fed to the common carp fingerlings at 100 and 200ppm concentration by incorporating carotenoids into feed. Experimental and control fish were then exposed to sublethal dose of ammonia. Serum total antioxidant status (TAS), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase were measured to determine the effect of dietary carotenoid on defense status of fish. Activities of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were measured to determine the protective effect of carotenoids against tissue damage caused by the ammonia stress. TAS, catalase and SOD activity was higher in tissues from fish fed with the diet containing astaxanthin rich and astaxanthin ester rich extract compared to fish fed with control diet. TAS reduced in the tissues considerably after exposure to ammonia. However, TAS was still higher in tissues from fish fed with carotenoid containing diet than in tissues from fish fed with control diet. Eventhough there was an increase in the activities of ALT and AST due to stress by ammonia toxicity in all groups, fish fed with astaxanthin extract had lower activities and also prevented lipid peroxidation in the tissues. In conclusion, shrimp carotenoid increased the resistance of common carp fingerlings to ammonia induced stress. PMID:25011116

  2. Mercury concentrations in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Lake Chapala, Mexico: a lakewide survey.

    PubMed

    Stong, Todd; Alvarado Osuna, Claudia; Shear, Harvey; de Anda Sanchez, José; Ramírez, Gerardo; Díaz Torres, José de Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies, based on limited data, found elevated levels of mercury in carp in Lake Chapala, Mexico. The extent of mercury contamination in carp throughout the Lake has not been determined. In order to obtain reliable information about total mercury concentration in carp (Cyprinus carpio), 262 fish from 27 sites (approximately 10 fish per site) throughout the lake were analyzed. Results were expressed as the mean and median of the results at each site. Only one of the samples exceeded Mexican National Standard (1.0 ppm) for mercury in fish flesh. We discuss these results in comparison to World Health Organization (WHO), US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) criteria; many of our samples exceed these criteria based on Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) or Reference Dose (RfD). ANOVA of four groups of mercury results clustered by distance from the Lerma showed statistically significant differences (P = 0.0071) between the group closest to, versus farthest from, the Lerma River. PMID:24007438

  3. Microspectrophotometric and scanning microphotometric studies of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Schindler, J F; de Vries, U; Lindner, E

    1985-01-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) hemoglobin readily autoxidizes in blood smears. Quantification of Soret-band absorbance in individual erythrocytes by means of scanning cytophotometry therefore requires more elaborate methods of preparation of blood samples. Of the fixatives that have been tested, suspension of whole blood in isotonic salt solutions containing glutaraldehyde was most suitable. Glutaraldehyde-fixed red blood cells are totally resistant to hemolysis. In the course of fixation, hemoglobin is transformed to methemoglobin. Spectrophotometry indicated extensive similarities between glutaraldehyde-fixed carp methemoglobin and human methemoglobin. In aqueous solutions, the intensity of the Soret-peak was pH-dependent. The allosteric modifier organic polyphosphate caused an R----T transition, resulting in increased molar extinctions. Dried preparations showed Soret-spectra that were not influenced from either pH or organic polyphosphate concentration of the aqueous suspensions in which the erythrocytes had been stored. The same was true for slide preparations of cyanomethemoglobin, easily derived from methemoglobin on addition of potassium cyanide. In the absence of oxygen fresh blood cells from carp slowly transform their hemoglobin into deoxyhemoglobin. Spectra of the intermediate stages of deoxygenation, Hb4(O2)3, Hb4(O2)2 and Hb4(O2), as well as mixtures of these intermediates, could be monitored. PMID:3928536

  4. Production, characterization and applications of mouse anti-grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) growth hormone monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Yiu-Kwong Leung, Michael; Kwok-Keung Ho, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Mouse anti-grass carp growth hormone (gcGH) monoclonal antibody (MAb) secretors were produced by PEG-mediated fusion of NS-1 myeloma cells and splenic B-lymphocytes of gcGH hyper-immunized mice. Positive secretors were screened by direct ELISA and cloned by limiting dilution. Three positive secretors, 21D3, 22G5 and 23B3, were obtained in a single fusion trial. Anti-gcGH MAbs were produced by growing hybridomas in the peritoneal cavity of pristane-primed mouse. The three MAbs were isotyped to be IgG2a, IgG2b and IgM, respectively. IgG MAbs were purified from ascitic fluid by Hitrap protein G column and IgM MAb was purified by gel filtration chromatography. The purified MAbs were highly specific and had moderate binding affinity. The MAbs were successfully used for the purification of native gcGH from mature grass carp pituitary extract by one-step immunoaffinity chromatography, for the quantification of gcGH by competitive sandwich ELISA, and for the probing of somatotropes in grass carp pituitary by immunohistochemistry. PMID:16352451

  5. Out-of-sample validation for structured expert judgment of Asian carp establishment in Lake Erie

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Roger M; Wittmann, Marion E; Lodge, David M; Rothlisberger, John D; Rutherford, Edward S; Zhang, Hongyan; Mason, Doran M

    2014-01-01

    Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is used to quantify the uncertainty of nonindigenous fish (bighead carp [Hypophthalmichthys nobilis] and silver carp [H. molitrix]) establishment in Lake Erie. The classical model for structured expert judgment model is applied. Forming a weighted combination (called a decision maker) of experts' distributions, with weights derived from performance on a set of calibration variables from the experts' field, exhibits greater statistical accuracy and greater informativeness than simple averaging with equal weights. New methods of cross validation are applied and suggest that performance characteristics relative to equal weighting could be predicted with a small number (1–2) of calibration variables. The performance-based decision maker is somewhat degraded on out-of-sample prediction, but remained superior to the equal weight decision maker in terms of statistical accuracy and informativeness. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2014;10:522–528. © 2014 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. Key Points Structured expert judgment is applied to quantify uncertainty in Asian carp establishment in Lake Erie Calibration variables from the experts' field are used to enable performance-based combination In sample validation is applied to the combination of expert judgments and to the experts Out-of-sample validation is applied to the performance-based combination method PMID:25044130

  6. Uptake of sediment-bound bioavailable polychlorobiphenyls by benthivorous carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Moermond, Caroline T A; Roozen, Frank C J M; Zwolsman, John J G; Koelmans, Albert A

    2004-09-01

    It is unclear whether accumulation of sediment-bound chemicals in benthivorous fish depends on the degree of sequestration in the sediment like it does for invertebrates. Here, we report on the potential of slow and fast desorbing sediment-bound polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) fractions for accumulation in carp (Cyprinus carpio) in lake enclosures treated with different nutrient doses. Routes of PCB uptake were quantitatively evaluated for 15 PCBs (log Kow range 5.6-7.8) using model analysis. Fast-desorbing PCB fractions in the sediment were defined as the ratio of 6-h Tenax-extractable to (total) Soxhlet-extractable concentrations. These fractions varied between 4 and 22% and did not show a clear trend with log Kow. However, bioaccumulation of PCBs in carp correlated much better with Tenax-extractable concentrations than with total-extractable concentrations. Nutrient additions in the enclosures had a positive effect on PCB accumulation. Model results showthat PCB uptake in carp can be explained from (1) uptake through invertebrate food, (2) uptake from fast-desorbing fractions in ingested sediments, and (3) uptake from water, where PCBs are in partitioning equilibrium with fast-desorbing fractions. The main implication of this research is that fast-desorbing PCB fractions in sediments have great predictive potential for bioaccumulation in benthivorous fish. PMID:15461156

  7. Effects of Cyhalothrin-Based Pesticide on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Richterová, Zuzana; Máchová, Jana; Stará, Alžb?ta; Tumová, Jitka; Velíšek, Josef; Šev?íková, Marie; Svobodová, Zde?ka

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60?g L?1) on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250??g?L?1 (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15??g?L?1 gamma-cyhalothrin). All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50??g?L?1 died soon after hatching; at 25??g?L?1, 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5??g?L?1 showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes. PMID:24860807

  8. Effects of cyhalothrin-based pesticide on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Richterová, Zuzana; Máchová, Jana; Stará, Alžb?ta; Tumová, Jitka; Velíšek, Josef; Sev?íková, Marie; Svobodová, Zde?ka

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60?g L(-1)) on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250? ? g?L(-1) (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15? ? g?L(-1) gamma-cyhalothrin). All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50? ? g?L(-1) died soon after hatching; at 25? ? g?L(-1), 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5? ? g?L(-1) showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes. PMID:24860807

  9. Comparison of intestinal bacterial communities in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, from two different habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Jiajia; Yu, Yuhe; Zhang, Tanglin; Gao, Lei

    2012-09-01

    The intestinal bacteria of vertebrates form a close relationship with their host. External and internal conditions of the host, including its habitat, affect the intestinal bacterial community. Similarly, the intestinal bacterial community can, in turn, influence the host, particularly with respect to disease resistance. We compared the intestinal bacterial communities of grass carp that were collected from farm-ponds or a lake. We conducted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified 16S rRNA genes, from which 66 different operational taxonomic units were identified. Using both the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means clustering and principal component analysis ordination, we found that the intestinal bacterial communities from the two groups of pond fish were clustered together and inset into the clusters of wild fish, except for DF-7, and there was no significant correlation between genetic diversity of grass carp and their intestinal bacterial communities (Mantel one-tailed test, R=0.157, P=0.175). Cetobacterium appeared more frequently in the intestine of grass carp collected from pond. A more thorough understanding of the role played by intestinal microbiota on fish health would be of considerable benefit to the aquaculture industry.

  10. Factors influencing the grass carp gut microbiome and its effect on metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jiajia; Yan, Qingyun; Yu, Yuhe; Zhang, Tanglin

    2014-03-01

    Gut microbiota have attracted extensive attention recently because of their important role in host metabolism, immunity and health maintenance. The present study focused on factors affecting the gut microbiome of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and further explored the potential effect of the gut microbiome on metabolism. Totally, 43.39 Gb of screened metagenomic sequences obtained from 24 gut samples were fully analysed. We detected 1228 phylotypes (116 Archaea and 1112 Bacteria), most of which belonged to the phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Fusobacteria. Totally, 41335 of the detected open reading frames (ORFs) were matched to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways, and carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism was the main matched pathway deduced from the annotated ORFs. Redundancy analysis based on the phylogenetic composition and gene composition of the gut microbiome indicated that gut fullness and feeding (i.e. ryegrass vs. commercial feed, and pond-cultured vs. wild) were significantly related to the gut microbiome. Moreover, many biosynthesis and metabolism pathways of carbohydrates, amino acids and lipids were significantly enhanced by the gut microbiome in ryegrass-fed grass carp. These findings suggest that the metabolic role played by the gut microbiome in grass carp can be affected by feeding. These findings contribute to the field of fish gut microbial ecology and also provide a basis for follow-up functional studies. PMID:24256454

  11. Risk Factors and Consequences of Unwanted Sex Among University StudentsHooking Up, Alcohol, and Stress Response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William F. Flack; Kimberly A. Daubman; Marcia L. Caron; Jenica A. Asadorian; Nicole R. D’Aureli; Shannon N. Gigliotti; Anna T. Hall; Sarah Kiser; Erin R. Stine

    2007-01-01

    This is the first study of unwanted sexual experiences in the collegiate “hooking-up” culture. In a representative sample of 178 students at a small liberal arts university. Twenty-three percent of women and 7% of men surveyed reported one or more experiences of unwanted sexual intercourse. Seventy-eight percent of unwanted vaginal, anal, and oral incidents took place while—“hooking up,”—whereas 78% of

  12. Hooked on the nicotine addiction thesis: a response to DiFranza

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    DiFranza’s rebuttal to our critique of the “Hooked on Nicotine” research program misconstrues our arguments beyond recognition. The grossest misrepresentation of our critique by DiFranza is that we devise (by thwarting science) to rescue “the conventional wisdom” of the “threshold model of nicotine addiction.” In fact, the difference between our positions lies elsewhere: We believe that nicotine is not an addictive drug and that its contribution to the smoking habit is secondary; DiFranza believes that nicotine is so powerfully addictive that novice smokers can lose autonomy over their smoking behavior after one cigarette or even following a single puff. Our review aimed to critically examine the empirical basis of this extreme version of the nicotine “addiction” model. In this brief commentary we illustrate how the commitment to the nicotine “addiction” theory has biased the methodology and the interpretation of the data in “Hooked on Nicotine” research program. PMID:24246023

  13. Entanglement in Hooke's Law Atoms: an Effect of the Dimensionality of the Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko?cik, Przemys?aw; Hassanabadi, Hassan

    2012-02-01

    We study a singlet ground-state of the D-dimensional Hooke's law model for D = 1, 2, 3. We explore an effect of the dimensionality of the space D on the entanglement in the whole range of the repulsive interaction. Among other features, it is found that there exists a critical interaction strength above which for D = 3 the amount of entanglement contained in the singlet ground-state becomes larger than that for D = 2.

  14. Correcting the hooking effect in satellite altimetry data for time series estimation over smaller rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boergens, Eva; Dettmering, Denise; Schwatke, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Since many years the numbers of in-situ gauging stations are declining. Satellite altimetry can be used as a gap-filler even over smaller inland waters like rivers. However, since altimetry measurements are not designed for inland water bodies a special data handling is necessary in order to estimate reliable water level heights over inland waters. We developed a new routine for estimating water level heights over smaller inland waters with satellite altimetry by correcting the hooking effect. The hooking effect occurs when the altimeter is not measuring in nadir before and after passing a water body due to the stronger reflectance of the water than the surrounding land surface. These off-nadir measurements, together with the motion of the satellite, lead to overlong ranges and heights declining in a parabolic shape. The vertex of this parabola is on the water surface. Therefore, by estimating the parabola we are able to determine the water level height without the need of any point over the water body itself. For estimating the parabola we only use selected measurements which are effected by the hooking effect. The applied search approach is based on the RANSAC algorithm (random sample consensus) which is a non-deterministic algorithm especially designed for finding geometric entities in point clouds with many outliers. With the hooking effect correction we are able to retrieve water level height time series from the Mekong River from Envisat and Saral/Altika high frequency data. It is possible to determine reliable time series even if the river has only a width of 500m or less. The expected annual variations are clearly depicted and the comparison of the time series with available in-situ gauging data shows a very good agreement.

  15. Adaptive low power design based on Vxworks kernel scheduler and hook machanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GuiPing Cao; KeZhu Song; JunFeng Yang

    2010-01-01

    Embedded system is always power-sensitive for its time-limited power-providing system. As a popular real time operating system used under embedded system, Vxworks provides a feasible way to achieve low power dissipation with its kernel scheduler and hook mechanism. This paper firstly gived the principle and implemention of the Low-power design under Vxworks, and then verified the feasibility of the design

  16. Hypoglycaemic effect of Clausena anisata (Willd) Hook methanolic root extract in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. O. Ojewole

    2002-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the hypoglycaemic effect of Clausena anisata (Willd) Hook [family: Rutaceae] root methanolic extract in normal (normoglycaemic) and in streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. Young adult, male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) weighing 250–300 g were used. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the group of diabetic ‘test’ rats by intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (STZ, 90 mg\\/kg). In one

  17. Ultrastructure and chemical composition of the proboscis hooks of Acanthocephalus lucii (Müller, 1776) (Acanthocephala: Palaeacanthocephala) using X-ray elemental analysis.

    PubMed

    Brázová, Tímea; Poddubnaya, Larisa G; Miss, Noemí Ramírez; Hanzelová, Vladimíra

    2014-12-01

    The ultrastructure and chemical composition of the proboscis hooks and surrounding tegument of Acanthocephalus lucii (Müller, 1776), a parasite of European perch, Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus, were examined using scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis (EDXA). The blade of middle hooks consists of three layers: an outer homogeneous layer, an inner heterogeneous layer and a central core. TEM observation revealed the presence of hollow tubes, which spaced the central core; fibrous inner hook layer surrounded by an electron-dense margin and the basal tegumental layer filled with electron-dense bodies and outer layer. We found for the first time that the so-called 'epidermal covering' surrounding of the exposed hook blade (outer hook layer) is a modified striped portion of the tegumental layer and there are no special contact sites between these two morphologically different structures, i.e. striped layer of the syncytial tegument and following proper outer hook layer, which is a homogeneous, moderately electron-dense layer of -0.3 ?m in thickness. The hook root is embedded into subtegumental fibrous layer. X-ray microanalysis of both the surface and internal parts of A. lucii hooks demonstrated the presence of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and sulphur. The highest concentration of sulphur was recorded at the tip of hooks, whereas the middle part of the hooks was most rich in calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. The proximal part of the hooks contained lower concentrations of sulphur, calcium and phosphorus. In the proboscis tegument, only two elements, calcium and silicon, were found. The differences observed in the chemical composition of the hook 'epidermal covering' and the proboscis tegument support our ultrastructural findings that the hook tegumental covering is a modified structure compared with that of the general proboscis tegument. PMID:25651697

  18. The impact of the White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla and the Osprey Pandion haliaetus on Estonian Common Carp Cyprinus carpio production: How large is the economic loss?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joosep Tuvia; Ülo Välia

    Protected bird species have been suspected to be a cause of a significant economic loss at Estonian fish farms, but its extent has remained unexplored. We counted the number of White-tailed Eagles and Ospreys, and the quantity of fish they take, and analysed the economic loss in five carp farms in 2001-2004. Each of Estonian four larger carp farms was

  19. Replacement of fish meal by rendered animal protein ingredients with lysine and methionine supplementation to practical diets for gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Menghong Hu; Youji Wang; Qian Wang; Min Zhao; Bangxi Xiong; Xueqiao Qian; Yujiang Zhao; Zhi Luo

    2008-01-01

    The effect of partial replacement of fish meal (FM) by rendered animal protein ingredients: poultry by-product meal (PBM) and meat and bone meal (MBM), alone or in combination, with lysine and methionine supplementation in the practical diets for gibel carp was studied. Eight isonitrogenous (crude protein 37.5%) and isolipidic (crude lipid 7%) diets were formulated to feed juvenile gibel carp

  20. Changes in the fish community of the Ömerli Reservoir (Turkey) following the introduction of non-native gibel carp Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782) and other human impacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Özcan Gaygusuz; Ali Serhan Tarkan; Gürsoy Gaygusuz

    2007-01-01

    Changes in the relative density (catch per unit effort; CPUE) of introduced gibel carp Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782) and native fish species were monitored over four years in the Ömerli Reservoir, a temperate drinking-water reservoir in northwestern Turkey. Following the species' introduction, the CPUE of gibel carp increased significantly with the decrease in CPUE of large- bodied native fish species.

  1. Rapidly rotating second-generation progenitors for the blue hook stars of {\\omega} Cen

    E-print Network

    Tailo, Marco; Vesperini, Enrico; Di Criscienzo, Marcella; Ventura, Paolo; Milone, Antonino; Bellini, Andrea; Dotter, Aaron; Decressin, Thibaut; D'Ercole, Annibale; Caloi, Vittoria; Dolcetta, Roberto Capuzzo

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal Branch stars belong to an advanced stage in the evolution of the oldest stellar galactic population, occurring either as field halo stars or grouped in globular clusters. The discovery of multiple populations in these clusters, that were previously believed to have single populations gave rise to the currently accepted theory that the hottest horizontal branch members (the blue hook stars, which had late helium-core flash ignition, followed by deep mixing) are the progeny of a helium-rich "second generation" of stars. It is not known why such a supposedly rare event (a late flash followed by mixing) is so common that the blue hook of {\\omega} Cen contains \\sim 30% of horizontal branch stars 10 , or why the blue hook luminosity range in this massive cluster cannot be reproduced by models. Here we report that the presence of helium core masses up to \\sim 0.04 solar masses larger than the core mass resulting from evolution is required to solve the luminosity range problem. We model this by taking into...

  2. Rapidly rotating second-generation progenitors for the 'blue hook' stars of ? Centauri.

    PubMed

    Tailo, Marco; D'Antona, Francesca; Vesperini, Enrico; Di Criscienzo, Marcella; Ventura, Paolo; Milone, Antonino P; Bellini, Andrea; Dotter, Aaron; Decressin, Thibaut; D'Ercole, Annibale; Caloi, Vittoria; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, Roberto

    2015-07-16

    Horizontal branch stars belong to an advanced stage in the evolution of the oldest stellar galactic population, occurring either as field halo stars or grouped in globular clusters. The discovery of multiple populations in clusters that were previously believed to have single populations gave rise to the currently accepted theory that the hottest horizontal branch members (the 'blue hook' stars, which had late helium-core flash ignition, followed by deep mixing) are the progeny of a helium-rich 'second generation' of stars. It is not known why such a supposedly rare event (a late flash followed by mixing) is so common that the blue hook of ? Centauri contains approximately 30 per cent of the horizontal branch stars in the cluster, or why the blue hook luminosity range in this massive cluster cannot be reproduced by models. Here we report that the presence of helium core masses up to about 0.04 solar masses larger than the core mass resulting from evolution is required to solve the luminosity range problem. We model this by taking into account the dispersion in rotation rates achieved by the progenitors, whose pre-main-sequence accretion disk suffered an early disruption in the dense environment of the cluster's central regions, where second-generation stars form. Rotation may also account for frequent late-flash-mixing events in massive globular clusters. PMID:26098367

  3. A comparison of complete mitochondrial genomes of silver carp hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp hypophthalmichthys nobilis: Implications for their taxonomic relationship and phylogeny

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, S.-F.; Xu, J.-W.; Yang, Q.-L.; Wang, C.H.; Chen, Q.; Chapman, D.C.; Lu, G.

    2009-01-01

    Based upon morphological characters, Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (or Aristichthys nobilis) have been classified into either the same genus or two distinct genera. Consequently, the taxonomic relationship of the two species at the generic level remains equivocal. This issue is addressed by sequencing complete mitochondrial genomes of H. molitrix and H. nobilis, comparing their mitogenome organization, structure and sequence similarity, and conducting a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of cyprinid species. As with other cyprinid fishes, the mitogenomes of the two species were structurally conserved, containing 37 genes including 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNAs) genes and a putative control region (D-loop). Sequence similarity between the two mitogenomes varied in different genes or regions, being highest in the tRNA genes (98??8%), lowest in the control region (89??4%) and intermediate in the protein-coding genes (94??2%). Analyses of the sequence comparison and phylogeny using concatenated protein sequences support the view that the two species belong to the genus Hypophthalmichthys. Further studies using nuclear markers and involving more closely related species, and the systematic combination of traditional biology and molecular biology are needed in order to confirm this conclusion. ?? 2009 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  4. Molecular cloning of type I collagen cDNA and nutritional regulation of type I collagen mRNA expression in grass carp.

    PubMed

    Yu, E M; Liu, B H; Wang, G J; Yu, D G; Xie, J; Xia, Y; Gong, W B; Wang, H H; Li, Z F; Wei, N

    2014-08-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) are important Chinese freshwater fish, and in China, the faba bean has been used as the sole food source for grass carp to transform them into crisp grass carp. Because of this, crisp grass carp has become an economically important fish because of its increased muscle hardness. To study the nutritional regulation of type I collagen in faba bean-fed grass carp, we isolated type I collagen alpha 2 (COL1A2) on the basis of our isolation of COL1A1. The COL1A2 cDNA was found to be 4899 bp in length and included a 4059-bp coding sequence (CDS) and encoded a polypeptide of 1352 AA. The protein peptide molecular weight was 127.39 kD, and the theoretical isoelectric point was 9.37. The COL1A2 protein possessed five ?-helixes, eight ?-sheets, 16 regions of triple helical repeats, 21 low-complexity regions, 10 function domains and two zinc-binding sites; however, no calcium-binding sites were observed. The mRNA expression of COL1A1 and COL1A2 was assessed in eight tissues (muscle, hepatopancreas, intestine, gills, skin, fin, kidney and spleen) from grass carp and crisp grass carp by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Expression of COL1A1 in the muscle, intestines and skin of crisp grass carp was higher than that in grass carp, and expression of COL1A2 in the muscle, gills, fin and skin of crisp grass carp was higher than that in grass carp. In the muscle of crisp grass carp, expression of COL1A1 and COL1A2 was higher than that in grass carp, which was further confirmed by real-time PCR, and collagen content also was enhanced. These results demonstrated that type I collagen was closely related to the increased muscle hardness of faba bean-fed grass carp. PMID:24127725

  5. Embryonic and Larval Development and Early Behavior in Grass Carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella: Implications for Recruitment in Rivers

    PubMed Central

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2015-01-01

    With recent findings of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in tributaries of the Great Lakes, information on developmental rate and larval behavior is critical to efforts to assess the potential for establishment within the tributaries of that region. In laboratory experiments, grass carp were spawned and eggs and larvae reared at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”, and tracked for developmental rate, egg size, and behavior. Developmental rate was quantified using Yi’s (1988) developmental stages and the cumulative thermal units method. Grass carp had a thermal minimum of 13.5°C for embryonic stages and 13.3°C for larval stages. Egg size was related to temperature and maternal size, with the largest eggs coming from the largest females, and eggs were generally larger in warmer treatments. Young grass carp larvae exhibited upward and downward swimming interspersed with long periods of lying on the bottom. Swimming capacity increased with ontogeny, and larvae were capable of horizontal swimming and position holding with gas bladder emergence. Developmental rates, behavior, and egg attributes can be used in combination with physical parameters of a river to assess the risk that grass carp are capable of reproduction and recruitment in rivers. PMID:25822837

  6. Detection of environmental DNA of Bigheaded Carps in samples collected from selected locations in the St. Croix River and in the Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amberg, Jon J.; McCalla, S. Grace; Miller, Loren; Sorensen, Peter; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of molecular methods, such as the detection of environmental deoxyribonucleic acid (eDNA), have become an increasingly popular tool in surveillance programs that monitor for the presence of invasive species in aquatic systems. One early application of these methods in aquatic systems was surveillance for DNA of Asian carps (specifically bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix) in water samples taken from the Chicago Area Waterway System. The ability to identify DNA of a species in an environmental sample presents a potentially powerful tool because these sensitive analyses can presumably detect the presence of DNA in water even when the species is not abundant or are difficult to catch or monitor with traditional gear. Prior to research presented in this report, an initial eDNA surveillance effort was completed in selected locations in the Upper Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers in 2011 after the capture of a bighead carp in the St. Croix River near Prescott, WI. Data presented in this report were developed to duplicate the 2011 monitoring results from the Upper Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers and to provide critical insight into the technique to inform future work in these locations. We specifically sought to understand the potential confounding effects of other pathways of eDNA movement (e.g., fish-eating birds, watercraft) on the variation in background DNA by collecting water samples from (1) sites within the St. Croix River and the upper Mississippi River where the DNA of silver carp was previously detected, (2) sites considered to be free of Asian carp, and (3) a site known to have a large population of Asian carp. We also sought to establish a baseline Asian carp eDNA signature to which future eDNA sampling efforts could be compared. All samples taken as part of this effort were processed using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) according to procedures outlined in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Quality Assurance Project Plan with minor deviations designed to enhance the rigor of our data. Presence of DNA in PCR-positive samples was confirmed by Sanger sequencing (forward and reverse) and sequences were considered positive only if sequences (forward and reverse) of ?150 base pairs had a match of ?95% to those of published sequences for bighead carp or silver carp. The DNA of bighead carp and silver carp was not detected in environmental samples collected above and below St. Croix Falls Dam on the St. Croix River, above and below the Coon Rapids Dam and below Lock and Dam 1 on the Upper Mississippi River, and from two negative control lakes, Square Lake and Lake Riley. The DNA of silver carp was detected in environmental samples collected below Lock and Dam 19 at Keokuk, Iowa, a reach of the river with high silver carp abundance. The portion (68%) of environmental samples taken below Lock and Dam 19 that were determined to contain the DNA of silver carp was similar to that reported in the scientific literature for other abundant species. The DNA of bighead carp, however, was not detected in environmental samples collected below Lock and Dam 19, a reach of the river known to have bighead carp. Previous reported detections of the DNA of silver carp in samples collected in 2011 were not replicated in this study. Additional analyses are planned for the DNA extracted from the samples collected in 2012. Those analyses may provide additional information regarding the lack of amplification of bighead carp DNA and the lengths of the sequences of silver carp DNA present in samples taken below Lock and Dam 19. These additional analyses may help inform the use of eDNA monitoring in large, complex systems like the Mississippi River.

  7. Efficacy of some anticoccidial drugs for treating coccidial enteritis of the common carp caused by Goussia carpelli (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae).

    PubMed

    Molnár, K; Ostoros, Györgyi

    2007-03-01

    In this study, nine anticoccidial drugs commonly used in poultry were tested for efficacy for the prevention and treatment of Goussia carpelli (Apicomplexa) infection in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). To establish experimental infection with G. carpelli, paratenic host oligochaetes of the genera Tubifex and Limnodrilus were infected with oocysts, and laboratory-cultured parasite-free common carp fingerlings were infected by feeding to them oligochaetes containing sporozoites. The anticoccidial drugs (amprolium, narasin, maduramicin, salinomycin Na, lasalocid Na, diclazuril, robenidine HCl, monensin Na and toltrazuril), mixed in the food of the fish in a dose of 200 mg/kg, were fed for 12 days. Common carp fingerlings fed diclazuril, lasalocid, robenidine HCl or maduramicin and killed on day 14 after exposure were free from infection, while other groups treated with amprolium, toltrazuril, monensin Na, narasin or salinomycin Na harboured oocysts in the mucus and epithelium of the gut. PMID:17385557

  8. Changes in physiochemical properties of water-soluble proteins from crucian carp (Carassius auratus) during heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Kaifeng; Shen, Huixing; Li, Bo; Wang, Hang; Luo, Yongkang

    2014-07-01

    In order to understand physicochemical properties of water-soluble proteins obtained from crucian carp, turbidity, total sulfhydryl content, hydrophobicity and SDS-PAGE of crucian carp water-soluble proteins during heat treatment were investigated. Turbidity remained unchanged up to 44°C and considerably increased from 46°C to 54°C, one peak of increase rate was found at 50°C; total SH content decreased rapidly when heated from 50°C to 55°C; hydrophobicity increased sharply when heated up to 45°C, indicating the conformation of water-soluble proteins from crucian carp began to unfold and expose the buried nonpolar amino acids at temperatures above 45°C; analysis of SDS-PAGE indicating the formation of disulfide linkage of creatine kinase and glyceraldehy-3-phosphate dehydrogenase when the temperature reached 65°C and 80°C, respectively. PMID:24966436

  9. Effect of water hardness and dissolved-solid concentration on hatching success and egg size in bighead carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.; Deters, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis is an Asian species that has been introduced to the United States and is regarded as a highly undesirable invader. Soft water has been said to cause the bursting of Asian carp eggs and thus has been suggested as a factor that would limit the spread of this species. To evaluate this, we subjected fertilized eggs of bighead carp to waters with a wide range of hardness and dissolved-solid concentrations. Hatching rate and egg size were not significantly affected by the different water qualities. These results, combined with the low hardness (28–84 mg/L) of the Yangtze River (the primary natal habitat of Hypophthalmichthys spp.), suggest that managers and those performing risk assessments for the establishment of Hypophthalmichthys spp. should be cautious about treating low hardness and dissolved-solid concentrations as limiting factors.

  10. Tissue-specific Cu bioaccumulation patterns and differences in sensitivity to waterborne Cu in three freshwater fish: rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss), common carp ( Cyprinus carpio), and gibel carp ( Carassius auratus gibelio)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gudrun De Boeck; Wouter Meeus; Wim De Coen; Ronny Blust

    2004-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) were exposed to copper (1–20?M) in softened Antwerp City tap water at pH 7.3 ± 0.1 and with a water hardness of 292.4 ± 8.1mg\\/L CaCO3 (Ca 100.8 ± 3.0mg\\/L; Mg 11.0 ± 0.2mg\\/L). LC50s (96h) were determined and copper accumulation in gills, liver, and kidney

  11. Pharmacokinetics of sulphadimidine in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson) acclimated at two different temperature levels.

    PubMed

    van Ginneken, V J; Nouws, J F; Grondel, J L; Driessens, F; Degen, M

    1991-04-01

    The influence of temperature (10 degrees C and 20 degrees C) on pharmacokinetics and metabolism of sulphadimidine (SDM) in carp and trout was studied. At 20 degrees C a significantly lower level of distribution (Vdarea) and a significantly shorter elimination half-life (T(1/2)beta) was achieved in both species compared to the 10 degrees C level. In carp the body clearance parameter (ClB(SDM)) was significantly higher at 20 degrees C compared to the value at 10 degrees C, whereas for trout this parameter was in the same order of magnitude for both temperatures. N4-acetylsulphadimidine (N4-SDM) was the main metabolite of SDM in both species at the two temperature levels. The relative N4-SDM plasma percentage in carp was significantly higher at 20 degrees C than at 10 degrees C, whereas there was in trout no significant difference. In neither species was the peak plasma concentration of N4-SDM (Cmax(N4-SDM)) significantly different at two temperatures. The corresponding peak time of this metabolite (Tmax(N4-SDM)) was significantly shorter at 20 degrees C compared to 10 degrees C in both carp and trout. In carp at both temperatures, acetylation occurs to a greater extent than hydroxylation. Only the 6-hydroxymethyl-metabolite (SCH2OH) was detected in carp, at a significant different level at the two temperatures. Concentrations of hydroxy metabolites in trout were at the detection level of the HPLC-method (0.02-micrograms/ml). The glucuronide metabolite (SOH-gluc.) was not detected in either species at the two temperatures. PMID:1882494

  12. 26S Proteasome regulation of Ankrd1/CARP in adult rat ventricular myocytes and human microvascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Samaras, Susan E. [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)] [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Chen, Billy [Molecular Medicine Program, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)] [Molecular Medicine Program, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Koch, Stephen R. [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)] [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Sawyer, Douglas B.; Lim, Chee Chew [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)] [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Davidson, Jeffrey M., E-mail: jeff.davidson@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Research Service, Veterans Affairs Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 26S proteasome regulates Ankrd1 levels in cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ankrd1 protein degrades 60-fold faster in endothelial cells than cardiomyocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differential degradation appears related to nuclear vs. sarcolemmal localization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endothelial cell density shows uncoupling of Ankrd1 mRNA and protein levels. -- Abstract: Ankyrin repeat domain 1 protein (Ankrd1), also known as cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP), increases dramatically after tissue injury, and its overexpression improves aspects of wound healing. Reports that Ankrd1/CARP protein stability may affect cardiovascular organization, together with our findings that the protein is crucial to stability of the cardiomyocyte sarcomere and increased in wound healing, led us to compare the contribution of Ankrd1/CARP stability to its abundance. We found that the 26S proteasome is the dominant regulator of Ankrd1/CARP degradation, and that Ankrd1/CARP half-life is significantly longer in cardiomyocytes (h) than endothelial cells (min). In addition, higher endothelial cell density decreased the abundance of the protein without affecting steady state mRNA levels. Taken together, our data and that of others indicate that Ankrd1/CARP is highly regulated at multiple levels of its expression. The striking difference in protein half-life between a muscle and a non-muscle cell type suggests that post-translational proteolysis is correlated with the predominantly structural versus regulatory role of the protein in the two cell types.

  13. Impact of the Gezhouba and Three Gorges Dams on habitat suitability of carps in the Yangtze River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yujun; Wang, Zhaoyin; Yang, Zhifeng

    2010-06-01

    SummaryThe Gezhouba Dam and Three Gorges Project are the two largest hydraulic projects in the middle reach of the Yangtze River. Although these projects have yielded benefits to local communities by providing flood control, water supply, and safe navigation, they also have changed the physical habitat of the Yangtze River. As a consequence, aquatic organisms, including rare species and fishes with economic value, have been affected. The Yangtze River's four major carp species (YFMCS)—black carp ( Mylopharyngodon piceus), grass carp ( Ctenop haryngodon idellus), silver carp ( Hypoph thal michthys molitrix), and big-head carp ( Aristichyths nobilis)—have significant importance to the fresh water fishery in China. According to field surveys, the percentage of the YFMCS in the total catch of fish from Tongting Lake has gradually reduced. The percentages were 22%, 14.1%, 11.84%, and 8.5% in 1963, 1980-1982, 1997, and 2002, respectively. These reductions in species population are mainly attributed to the loss of spawning ground caused by dam construction. Considering the spawning characteristics of the YFMCS, a habitat suitability index model (HSI) has been established. A one-dimensional (1-D) mathematical model was also developed to simulate and predict aspects of the physical habitat situation for the YFMCS. By coupling the habitat suitability curves and the 1-D mathematical model, a HSI model for the YFMCS was established. The HSI model was validated by comparing measured data with predictions from the model. These comparisons show that the computed results agree well with the measured results. The HSI model for the YFMCS is used to suggest a minimum instream flow and suitable daily discharge increase during the reproduction season for the carp species. The minimum discharge needed for the YFMCS in the middle reach of the Yangtze River is 3000 m 3/s. Different daily discharge increases are required for different initial discharges, too small or too large of an increase in daily discharge is not good for carps spawning. Therefore, adjusting reservoir operations to create reasonable water level fluctuations is a key method to improve the habitat suitability of carps spawning sites.

  14. Mink biomagnification factors for dioxin-like compounds fed Saginaw Bay carp

    SciTech Connect

    Kubiak, T.J. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Arlington, VA (United States). Division of Environmental Contaminants; Tillitt, D.E.; Heaton, S.N. [National Biological Survey, Columbia, MO (United States). National Fisheries Contaminant Research Center; Bursian, S.N.; Giesy, J.P.; Render, J.A.; Aulerich, R.J. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Diets containing 0, 10, 20 and 40% Saginaw Bay carp were fed to ranch mink to assess reproductive effects. All carp diets adversely affected reproduction. The diets and livers of the adult mink at the end of the study were chemically analyzed for planar halogenated hydrocarbons (PHHS) that induce aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH)/ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (EROD). Biomagnification factors (BMFS) from diets to mink livers were calculated. AHH and EROD-active PCB congeners uniformly magnified across diets except for PCB 126, which had higher magnification at lowest carp and control diets. PCB and PCDF congener magnification ranged from incalculable to 60-fold higher and individual PCDDs ranged from incalculable to 165 times the diet. As expected from previous mammalian studies, 2378-TCDD magnified over an order of magnitude more than 2378-TCDF but by 4 to 5-fold less than 23478-PCDF. Based on dioxin equivalents theory and TEFS, PCB 126 ranked first in the liver residues of 2378-TCDD equivalents followed by PCB 105, 23478-PCDF and 2378-TCDD. Magnification factors allow for interpretation of relative exposure risks from certain wild forage species if wild mink liver concentrations are known. Conversely, knowledge of wild mink forage item concentrations allows for calculation of an estimated wild mink liver residue, when the concentration and dietary forage percentage are multiplied by the BMF. Therefore, BMFs can assist in the elucidation of relative risk of a population to these contaminants without necessarily having large numbers of mink samples, especially in habitats such as the Saginaw Bay area where mink and otter populations are presumed to be affected by high PHH contamination.

  15. Development and evaluation of the first high-throughput SNP array for common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) but, as yet, no high-throughput genotyping platform is available for this species. C. carpio is an important aquaculture species that accounts for nearly 14% of freshwater aquaculture production worldwide. We have developed an array for C. carpio with 250,000 SNPs and evaluated its performance using samples from various strains of C. carpio. Results The SNPs used on the array were selected from two resources: the transcribed sequences from RNA-seq data of four strains of C. carpio, and the genome re-sequencing data of five strains of C. carpio. The 250,000 SNPs on the resulting array are distributed evenly across the reference C.carpio genome with an average spacing of 6.6 kb. To evaluate the SNP array, 1,072 C. carpio samples were collected and tested. Of the 250,000 SNPs on the array, 185,150 (74.06%) were found to be polymorphic sites. Genotyping accuracy was checked using genotyping data from a group of full-siblings and their parents, and over 99.8% of the qualified SNPs were found to be reliable. Analysis of the linkage disequilibrium on all samples and on three domestic C.carpio strains revealed that the latter had the longer haplotype blocks. We also evaluated our SNP array on 80 samples from eight species related to C. carpio, with from 53,526 to 71,984 polymorphic SNPs. An identity by state analysis divided all the samples into three clusters; most of the C. carpio strains formed the largest cluster. Conclusions The Carp SNP array described here is the first high-throughput genotyping platform for C. carpio. Our evaluation of this array indicates that it will be valuable for farmed carp and for genetic and population biology studies in C. carpio and related species. PMID:24762296

  16. Metabolic Disposition and Elimination of Cyadox in Pigs, Chickens, Carp, and Rats.

    PubMed

    Lingli, Huang; Ning, Xu; Harnud, Sechenchogt; Yuanhu, Pan; Dongmei, Chen; Yanfei, Tao; Zhenli, Liu; Zonghui, Yuan

    2015-06-10

    The metabolism, distribution, and elimination of cyadox (CYA) is investigated in pigs, chickens, carp, and rats to identify the marker residue and target tissue of CYA in food animals for food safety concerns. Following a single oral gavage of [(3)H]-CYA, the total radioactivity was rapidly excreted, with more than 95% of the dose excreted within 14 days in the four species. Fecal excretion of the total radioactivity was 66.2% and 51.6%, and urinary excretion of the total radioactivity was 28.35% and 44.3% in rats and pigs, respectively. Radioactivity was observed in nearly all of the tissues in the first 6 h after 7 days of consecutive oral dosing. The highest radioactivity and longest persistence were in the livers and kidneys, where the majority of the radioactivity was cleared within 7 days. A total of 15 metabolites were identified in rats, pigs, chickens, and carp, and eight new metabolites were identified for the first time in vivo. No parent drug could be detected in the tissues of rats and pigs. The major metabolites of CYA were Cy1, Cy3, and Cy6 in pigs, Cy1, Cy5, and Cy6 in chickens, Cy1, Cy2, and Cy4 in carp, and Cy1, Cy2, Cy4, and Cy5 in rats. Cy1 was suggested to be the marker residue, and the kidneys were identified as the target tissue of CYA in pigs and chickens. These results provide comprehensive information for the food safety evaluation of CYA in food animals and will improve the understanding of the pharmacology and toxicology of CYA in animals. PMID:25973850

  17. Initial characterization of the FlgE hook high molecular weight complex of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kelly A; Motaleb, Md A; Liu, Jun; Hu, Bo; Caimano, Melissa J; Miller, Michael R; Charon, Nyles W

    2014-01-01

    The spirochete periplasmic flagellum has many unique attributes. One unusual characteristic is the flagellar hook. This structure serves as a universal joint coupling rotation of the membrane-bound motor to the flagellar filament. The hook is comprised of about 120 FlgE monomers, and in most bacteria these structures readily dissociate to monomers (? 50 kDa) when treated with heat and detergent. However, in spirochetes the FlgE monomers form a large mass of over 250 kDa [referred to as a high molecular weight complex (HMWC)] that is stable to these and other denaturing conditions. In this communication, we examined specific aspects with respect to the formation and structure of this complex. We found that the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi synthesized the HMWC throughout the in vitro growth cycle, and also in vivo when implanted in dialysis membrane chambers in rats. The HMWC was stable to formic acid, which supports the concept that the stability of the HMWC is dependent on covalent cross-linking of individual FlgE subunits. Mass spectrometry analysis of the HMWC from both wild type periplasmic flagella and polyhooks from a newly constructed ?fliK mutant indicated that other proteins besides FlgE were not covalently joined to the complex, and that FlgE was the sole component of the complex. In addition, mass spectrometry analysis also indicated that the HMWC was composed of a polymer of the FlgE protein with both the N- and C-terminal regions remaining intact. These initial studies set the stage for a detailed characterization of the HMWC. Covalent cross-linking of FlgE with the accompanying formation of the HMWC we propose strengthens the hook structure for optimal spirochete motility. PMID:24859001

  18. Effects of surgically implanted dummy ultrasonic transmitters on physiological response of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hongwei; Duan, Xinbin; Liu, Shaoping; Chen, Daqing

    2014-10-01

    The study assessed the effects of surgically implanted dummy ultrasonic transmitters on physiological response of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis in April 2011. Before the surgery, 15 blood samples were extracted randomly from 195 bighead carp samples, and then the rest of the fish were divided into three groups: (1) control group, handing but no tagging, (2) sham group, surgical procedure without implantation of transmitter and (3) surgery group, surgical implantation of transmitters. In 3 h, 24 h, 7 days and 14 days after surgery, 15 fish were extracted randomly from the three groups, respectively, for sampling. Then the plasma samples were analyzed, and physiological measures of stress response (cortisol, glucose), tissue damage [alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)] and nutritional status [total protein, globulin, albumin, triglyceride, cholesterol, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)] were compared. The result showed that there was no significant difference between sham and surgery groups in 3 h, 24 h, 7 days and 14 days after surgery. When compared to the control group, there were significant increases in concentrations of plasma cortisol, glucose, ALT, AST, total protein and globulin of sham and surgery groups in 3 h after surgery. After 24 h, the levels of plasma cortisol, ALT, AST, total protein, globulin and ALP were elevated in both sham and surgery groups, whereas the levels of plasma glucose had declined to normal level and plasma albumin, cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly decreased in both sham and surgery groups. After 7 days, the levels of plasma glucose, albumin and cholesterol continued to decline, while the level of plasma ALT, globulin and ALP had declined but still remained higher for sham and surgery groups than control group; however, the plasma total protein level had returned to normal. After 14 days, there was no significant difference between the three groups. The above results showed that surgical implantation of ultrasonic transmitters had indeed caused significantly negative effects on the physiological response of bighead carp. However, all the negative influences on stress response, tissue damage and nutritional status had disappeared in 14 days after surgery, and the presence of transmitters had no significant negative impact. Therefore, the bighead carp should be temporary cultured at least 14 days for the recovery of physiological response and then released into the free water for the ultrasonic telemetry research. PMID:24844600

  19. The biology of free-ranging grass carp in East Texas river and bay systems 

    E-print Network

    Elder, Howard Stanton

    1994-01-01

    Trinity River. To determine if food habits of grass carp in the lower Trinity River include aquatic vegetation present in the Trinity Bay estuary. METHODS The Trinity River enters Trinity Bay near Anahuac, Texas, approximately 200 km east of Houston... was divided into two sections. The upper section was defined as a 12-km portion of the Trinity River north of IH-10 to Moss Bluff, Texas (Liberty County). The lower section was defined as a 5-km portion of the Trinity River and delta region south of IH-10...

  20. Phosphate and phosphatase distribution in sediment depths of rockphosphate treated carp culture system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Sahu; B. B. Jana

    1994-01-01

    Distribution pattern of phosphates (A1-P, Ca-P, Fe-P), available-P, citrate soluble-P and phosphatases (acid and alkaline) was examined in three sediment layers (0–2.5 cm, 2.6–5.0 cm, 5.1–7.5 cm) of carp (Cirrhinus mrigala) culture system fertilized with varying levels (43.66 kg and 87.32 kg P) and frequencies (7, 15 and 30 days) of rock phosphate. Whereas layer differences of phosphate and phosphatases

  1. Spermiation of paddlefish ( Polyodon spathula, Acipenseriformes) stimulated with injection of LHRH analogue and carp pituitary powder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Otomar Linhart; Steve D. Mims; Boris Gomelsky; Anna E. Hiott; William L. Shelton; Jacky Cosson; Marek Rodina; David Gela

    2001-01-01

    The potential of carp pituitary powder (CPP) at one dose, or the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogue, des–Gly10,(d–Ala6)–LH-RH–ethylamide, at three different doses to stimulate spermiation in paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) was tested. Single injections of the LH-RH analogue at 0.2, 0.1, or 0.05 mg·kg–1 increased the number of spermatozoa per kilogram of body weight (kg–1 b.w.) by 4.7, 3.4, and 3.4

  2. Alfaxalone as an intramuscular injectable anesthetic in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kate M; Minter, Larry J; Lewbart, Gregory A; Harms, Craig A; Griffith, Emily H; Posner, Lysa P

    2014-12-01

    Fish are commonly anesthetized with MS-222 (tricaine methanesulfonate), a sodium-channel-blocker used as an immersion anesthetic, but its mechanism of action as a general anesthetic is uncertain. Alfaxalone is a neurosteroid that acts at the GABA(A) receptors. Alfaxalone has been evaluated and was deemed successful as an immersion agent in koi carp. Alfaxalone is an effective intramuscular anesthetic in multiple species. A reliable intramuscular anesthetic in fish would be useful in multiple settings. The purpose of this study was to investigate alfaxalone as an intramuscular injectable anesthetic agent in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio). Eight koi carp were utilized in a crossover design. In each trial, six fish received 1 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, or 10mg/kg of alfaxalone intramuscularly. They were assessed every 15 min for opercular rate and sedation score. The sedation score was based on a visual scale from 0 to 5, 0 indicating no response and 5 indicating absent righting reflex and anesthesia. Anesthetized koi were placed on a fish anesthesia delivery system (FADS). Time to anesthesia/recovery was recorded and heart rate was recorded every 15 min. Anesthesia was achieved in 0/6, 1/6, and 5/6 fish at 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg, respectively. Duration of anesthesia for one fish at 5 mg/kg was 2 hr. At 10 mg/kg, median anesthesia duration was 6.5 (3-10) hr. At 10 mg/kg, prolonged apnea (2-3 hr) was observed in 3/6 fish, 2/3 died under anesthesia, and 1/3 recovered 10 hr post-injection. Median peak sedation scores were 1.5, 2.5, and 5, at 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg, respectively. A dosage of 10 mg/kg alfaxalone resulted in 33% mortality. The duration of anesthesia and opercular rate were unpredictable. Due to variation in response despite consistent conditions, as well as risk of mortality, intramuscular alfaxalone cannot be recommended for anesthesia in koi carp. PMID:25632673

  3. Comparison of Results between Hook Plate Fixation and Ligament Reconstruction for Acute Unstable Acromioclavicular Joint Dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jong Pil; Lee, Byoung-Joo; Nam, Sang Jin; Chung, Seok Won; Jeong, Won-Ju; Min, Woo-Kie

    2015-01-01

    Background In the present study, we aimed to compare clinical and radiographic outcomes between hook plate fixation and coracoclavicular (CC) ligament reconstruction for the treatment of acute unstable acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocation. Methods Forty-two patients who underwent surgery for an unstable acute dislocation of the AC joint were included. We divided them into two groups according to the treatment modality: internal fixation with a hook plate (group I, 24 cases) or CC ligament reconstruction (group II, 18 cases). We evaluated the clinical outcomes using a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and Constant-Murley score, and assessed the radiographic outcomes based on the reduction and loss of CC distance on preoperative, postoperative, and final follow-up plain radiographs. Results The mean VAS scores at the final follow-up were 1.6 ± 1.5 and 1.3 ± 1.3 in groups I and II, respectively, which were not significantly different. The mean Constant-Murley scores were 90.2 ± 9.9 and 89.2 ± 3.5 in groups I and II, respectively, which were also not significantly different. The AC joints were well reduced in both groups, whereas CC distance improved from a mean of 215.7% ± 50.9% preoperatively to 106.1% ± 10.2% at the final follow-up in group I, and from 239.9% ± 59.2% preoperatively to 133.6% ± 36.7% at the final follow-up in group II. The improvement in group I was significantly superior to that in group II (p < 0.001). Furthermore, subluxation was not observed in any case in group I, but was noted in six cases (33%) in group II. Erosions of the acromion undersurface were observed in 9 cases in group I. Conclusions In cases of acute unstable AC joint dislocation, hook plate fixation and CC ligament reconstruction yield comparable satisfactory clinical outcomes. However, radiographic outcomes based on the maintenance of reduction indicate that hook plate fixation is a better treatment option. PMID:25729525

  4. How reflected wave fronts dynamically establish Hooke's law in a spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahy, Stephen; O'Riordan, John; O'Sullivan, Colm; Twomey, Patrick

    2012-03-01

    A simple benchtop experiment in which a moving cart collides with a fixed spring is described. Force-time and force-distance data recorded during the collision display the transit of compression wave fronts through the spring following impact. These data can be used by students to develop a computational model of the dynamics of this simple mass-spring-sensor system using a simple application of the wave equation and thereby develop an intriguing picture of how a spring realizes Hooke's law approximately in this dynamic physical problem.

  5. Chemical constituents from Eucalyptus citriodora Hook leaves and their glucose transporter 4 translocation activities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Ping; Zhou, Qi; Mei, Zhinan; Yang, Guangzhong; Yang, Xinzhou; Feng, Yunjiang

    2014-07-15

    Bioassay-guided phytochemical investigation of the EtOAc fraction from the leaves of a Chinese medicinal herb, Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, resulted in the isolation of a new compound rhodomyrtosone E (1), along with 12 known compounds (2-13). The structure of the new compound was established by 1D and 2D NMR, MS data and X-ray crystallographic analysis. Betulinic acid (2) and corosolic acid (5) increased glucose transporter 4 (GLUT-4) translocation by 2.38 and 1.78-fold, respectively. PMID:24894556

  6. Lateral malleolus hook plate for comminuted Weber A and B fractures: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Zhenhua, Fang; Waizy, Hazibullah; Ming, Xie; Wusheng, Kan

    2013-01-01

    Background: The goal of managing the comminuted fracture of lateral malleolus is to restore length, rotation and alignment which might be more challenging with extensive comminution around the area of the distal tip. The common osteosynthesis techniques such as the one-third tubular plate, tension band wiring, K-wires, screws, or intramedullary nail may be insufficient in cases with a comminuted lateral malleolus. The anatomical hook plate is an alternative implant in such cases. We present our results of the comminuted lateral malleolar fractures (Weber A, B), managed by open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with an anatomical hook plate of lateral malleolus (Königsee Implant Company, Germany). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 20 patients of comminuted fracture of distal lateral malleolus between 2008 and 2010. There were 12 males and 8 females, right side was involved in 18 patients and left in 2. The mean age was 51.9 years (range 18-75 years). The fractures were categorized by Denis-Weber classification type A (n=1), B1 (n=1), B2 (n=13) and B3 (n=5). Nineteen cases were of closed injury and one of open injury (Gustilo Anderson type II). These patients underwent ORIF with a lateral malleolus anatomical hook plate. Followup including radiographs and clinical examinations were performed. The American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle hindfoot scores were documented at followups. Results: The mean followup was 21.4 months (range 16-27 months). The average AOFAS score was 94.3 (range 78-100) points. A stable anatomic reduction and bony union were obtained in all the cases. The average time was 3.1 months (range 2.5-4 months). Four cases had complications like posttraumatic osteoarthritis, hardware impingement and superficial wound infection. Conclusion: A reasonably good stability can be obtained in distal most comminuted fractures of lateral malleolus with a lateral malleolus anatomical hook plate. We believe this method to be a reasonable treatment option for a distal lateral comminuted malleolar fracture when other common fixations are insufficient to fix the fragments. PMID:23960280

  7. Effects of temperature, relative humidity, and scarification method on the germination of Lupinus texensis Hook. seeds 

    E-print Network

    Kaspar, Michael Joseph

    1987-01-01

    EFFECTS OF TEI'IPERA' URE, RELATIVE HUMIDI'I'Y, AND SCARIFI. ATION IV&THOD ON THE GERMINATION OI' Lf;PINUS TEXE1VSIS HOOK. SEEDS A Thesis by MICHAEL JOSEPH KASPAR Submitted to the Graduate College of' Texas Ag:M University in partial... JOSEPH KASPAR Approved as to style and content by: Edward L. cWilliams (Chairman) David Wm. Reed (Member) Dairid L. Morga (Member) David . 'ris e (Member) . Grant Vest. (Head of Department) August 1987 ABSTRACT Effects of Temperature...

  8. Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) disturbs osmotic balance in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)-A potential cause of mortality.

    PubMed

    Negenborn, J; van der Marel, M C; Ganter, M; Steinhagen, D

    2015-06-12

    Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) causes a fatal disease in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and its ornamental koi varieties which seriously affects production and trade of this fish species globally. Up to now, the pathophysiology of this disease remains unclear. Affected individuals develop most prominent lesions in gills, skin and kidney, in tissues which are involved in the osmotic regulation of freshwater teleosts. Therefore, here serum and urine electrolyte levels were examined during the course of an experimental infection of carp with CyHV-3. In infected carp an interstitial nephritis with a progressive deterioration of nephric tubules developed, which was paralleled by elevated electrolyte losses, mainly Na(+) in the urine. The urine/plasma ratio for Na(+) increased from 0.03 in uninfected carp to 0.43-0.83 in carp under CyHV-3 infection, while concentration of divalent ions were not significantly changed. These electrolyte losses could not be compensated since plasma osmolality and Na(+) concentration dropped significantly in CyHV-3 infected carp. This was most probably caused by the progressive deterioration of the branchial epithelium, which in teleosts plays a prominent role in osmoregulation, and which was seen concomitantly with decreasing electrolyte levels in the serum of carp under CyHV-3 infection. Immediately after infection with CyHV-3, by day 2 post exposure, affected carp showed severe anaemia and prominent leucocytosis indicating the development of an acute inflammation, which could intensify the observed hydro-mineral imbalances. The data presented here show that an infection with CyHV-3 induces an acute inflammation and a severe dysfunction of osmoregulation in affected carp or koi, which may lead to death in particular in the case of acute disease progression. PMID:25888311

  9. Investigation of Steven Impact Test Using a Transportation Hook Projectile with Gauged Experiments and 3D Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Vandersall, K S; Murty, S S; Chidester, S K; Forbes, J W; Garcia, F; Greenwood, D W; Tarver, C M

    2003-07-02

    The Steven Impact Test and associated modeling offer valuable practical predictions for evaluating numerous safety scenarios involving low velocity impact of energetic materials by different projectile geometries. One such scenario is the impact of energetic material by a transportation hook during shipping, which offers complexity because of the irregular hook projectile shape. Experiments were performed using gauged Steven Test targets with PBX9404 impacted by a transportation hook projectile to compliment previous non-gauged experiments that established an impact threshold of approximately 69 m/s. Modeling of these experiments was performed with LS-DYNA code using an Ignition and Growth reaction criteria with a friction term. Comparison of the experiment to the model shows reasonable agreement with some details requiring more attention. The experimental results (including carbon resistor gauge records), model calculations, and a discussion of the dominant reaction mechanisms in light of comparisons between experiment and model will be presented.

  10. CORRELATIONS OF NONYLPHENOL-ETHOXYLATES AND NONYLPHENOL WITH BIOMARKERS OF REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION IN CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO) FROM THE CUYAHOGA RIVER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various chemical and biological measures were determined in carp (Cyprinus carpio) sampled from seven sites along the Cuyahoga River, Ohio; from the relatively pristine headwaters to the lower portion heavily polluted from various industrial, urban and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). Levels of n...

  11. A Robotic Sensor Network for Monitoring Carp in Minnesota Lakes Deepak Bhadauria, Volkan Isler, Andrew Studenski and Pratap Tokekar

    E-print Network

    Isler, Ibrahim Volkan

    and transmitters are surgically inserted under their skin before they are introduced back into the lake. These tags to monitor common carp tagged with radio transmitters across Minnesota lakes. We describe the design localizing tagged fish. I. INTRODUCTION A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a network of inexpensive, low

  12. Composition and Use of Common Carp Meal as a Marine Fish Meal Replacement in Yellow Perch Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the use of fish meal derived from a locally abundant, non-native fish species – common carp Cyprinus carpio – with the objective of offsetting the cost of marine fish meal (MFM, ~$1,200/ton) in yellow perch Perca flavescens feed. Biochemical analyses of meals showed that crude protein a...

  13. Effects of eliminating shallow hooks from tuna longline sets on target and non-target species in the Hawaii-based pelagic tuna fishery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Beverly; Daniel Curran; Michael Musyl; Brett Molony

    2009-01-01

    A longline experiment consisting of 45 paired sets (90 sets total) was carried out to evaluate a technique which maintains target catch rates while reducing non-target catch rates. Control sets were compared to experimental sets which eliminates the shallowest hooks (?less than 100m depth). Researchers hypothesized that by eliminating shallow hooks, target catch of deeper dwelling species such as bigeye

  14. Fused lobed anther and hooked stigma affect pollination, fertilization and fruit set in mango

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Varsha; Ansari, Mohammad Wahid; Shukla, Alok; Tuteja, Narendra; Bains, Gurdeep

    2013-01-01

    Mango malformation is the most threaten disease that limits mango production, worldwide. For a long time, due to its complex nature, the cause and causal agents were strongly disputed. Diverse Fusaria, including Fusarium mangiferae, are known to be associated with the disease. There are indications that augmented level of endogenous ethylene in response to various abiotic and biotic stresses alters the morphology of reproductive organs. Here, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of healthy and malformed reproductive organs of mango cv. Baramasi was performed to compare the functional morphology. The SEM study revealed that anthers of hermaphrodite healthy flowers were bilobed with large number of turgid pollen grains whereas malformed flowers showed fused lobed anthers with scanty deformed pollen grains. Furthermore, the stigma of healthy flowers exhibited a broad landing pad as compared to malformed stigma which showed hooked and pointed tip. All these impaired morphology of male and female reproductive organs lead to failure of sexual reproduction. This is the first evidence to show fused lobed anther with impaired pollen grains and hooked stigma with poor stigmatic receptivity are mainly responsible for restricting the pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Here we suggest that abnormal development of anthers and pistils is due to endogenously produced stress ethylene. Further, added load of cyanide, a byproduct of ethylene biosynthesis, may also contribute to the development of necrosis which lead to desiccation of anther and pistil during hypersensitive response of plants. PMID:23299320

  15. A Segunda Lei da Termodinamica na formulacao da Lei de Hooke

    E-print Network

    De Abreu, R

    2002-01-01

    Hooke's Law is analyzed taking the Second Law of Thermodynamics into consideration. It is shown that the energy of a spring isn't always 1/2 k xx - this value is actually the energy of the spring plus the energy of the atmosphere that surrounds it. On a quasi-isentropic aproximation in which the dynamic force is approximately the same as the static force, k is not a constant. Only by considering an ideal spring where k is constant and only on a static regime, can we say the energy is 1/2 k xx. For any dynamic regime of such an ideal spring, the energy of the spring is a function of its temperature and therefore is different from 1/2 k xx. If any given mass is moving attached to an ideal spring, the movement will eventually cease even if such movement occurs in vacuum. The dynamic force is not the static force kx. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is essential in order to formulate Hooke's Law.

  16. A Segunda Lei da Termodinamica na formulacao da Lei de Hooke

    E-print Network

    Rodrigo de Abreu

    2002-10-23

    Hooke's Law is analyzed taking the Second Law of Thermodynamics into consideration. It is shown that the energy of a spring isn't always 1/2 k xx - this value is actually the energy of the spring plus the energy of the atmosphere that surrounds it. On a quasi-isentropic aproximation in which the dynamic force is approximately the same as the static force, k is not a constant. Only by considering an ideal spring where k is constant and only on a static regime, can we say the energy is 1/2 k xx. For any dynamic regime of such an ideal spring, the energy of the spring is a function of its temperature and therefore is different from 1/2 k xx. If any given mass is moving attached to an ideal spring, the movement will eventually cease even if such movement occurs in vacuum. The dynamic force is not the static force kx. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is essential in order to formulate Hooke's Law.

  17. Speculative pragmatism and intimate arrangements: online hook-up devices in gay life.

    PubMed

    Race, Kane

    2015-04-01

    This paper considers how certain functions of online hook-up devices are participating in the emergence of new forms of sexual relation, new distributions of intimacy and new sexual arrangements. Though not without precedent, it argues that online hook-up devices generally act in gay culture as 'framing devices', framing sex as a 'no-strings' encounter via their default application. These frames are variously rejected, reconfigured, re-embedded or confounded by participants; they become subject to various forms of overflowing. Understanding this dynamic, its typical forms of connection and estrangement, is pivotal for grasping the emergence of new forms of sexual community and new sexual publics among gay men - and/or 'un-community', as some have put it. My analysis prompts a series of methodological reflections wrought from the encounter it stages between queer theory and Science and Technology Studies. At a time when marriage and monogamy are increasingly monopolising the public discourse of gay life, digital devices are affording novel ways of arranging sex, intimacy and sexual community, with their own qualities and limitations. PMID:24992161

  18. Removal of an intracoelomic hook via laparotomy in a sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus).

    PubMed

    Lécu, Alexis; Herbert, Renaud; Coulier, Ludwig; Murray, Michael J

    2011-06-01

    A twenty-one-year-old male sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) demonstrated signs of chronic weight loss even though its appetite remained unchanged. In addition, the gradual development of a red, circular lesion on its ventral body was noted. After months without any significant changes, a ventral fistula appeared revealing the tip of a wire exposed within its center. The shark was immobilized via intramuscular remote injection through dartgun with etomidate; removed from its exhibit tank; and clinically examined with radiographic imaging, a cell blood count/serum chemistry evaluation, and the use of a metal detector along the body wall. A metallic hook was identified in the coelom about 10 cm cranial to the external fistula. The shark was transferred to an isolation pool for 1 mo. A second immobilization via immersion in eugenol was conducted in order to perform a celiotomy. The hook was located in a liver lobe and was surgically removed. After a prolonged recovery from anesthesia, the shark was released into its primary tank and recovered uneventfully, although some of the skin sutures sloughed prematurely. PMID:22946403

  19. GOS hook type wells, directional planning, techniques applied and problems encountered

    SciTech Connect

    A/Azim, M.; Fahmy, H.; Salem, A.; Mansour, S.

    1995-10-01

    This paper addresses the various aspects of hook type wells introduced and drilled within GUPCO operations during he last two years. The first well of this category was October-G10, drilled in October 1992 from October ``G`` platform to a target point in the Nubia formation. Several wells of the same type have been drilled through 1993 and 1994. This group includes October-H1, Ramadan 3-57, July 62-69 and SB 374-3. Drilling hook type well profiles has resulted in increased production and more reserve recovery. The driving force behind using this profile was the reservoir requirements where it was required to hit a target within few meters at a certain angle and direction. Torque and drag models have been used to optimize well path planning, resulting in lower torque and drag values. Daily pot appraisal of the drilling operations to monitor hole cleaning effectiveness. Combination of advanced steerable systems and PDC bits enabled GUPCO to drill these wells cost effectively.

  20. Kohn's theorem, Larmor's equivalence principle and the Newton-Hooke group

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, G.W., E-mail: gwg1@amtp.cam.ac.uk [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge University, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 OWA (United Kingdom); Pope, C.N. [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge University, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 OWA (United Kingdom); George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: > We show that non-relativistic electrons moving in a magnetic field with trapping potential admits as relativity group the Newton-Hooke group. > We use this fact to give a group theoretic interpretation of Kohn's theorem and to obtain the spectrum. > We obtain the lightlike lift of the system exhibiting showing it coincides with the Nappi-Witten spacetime. - Abstract: We consider non-relativistic electrons, each of the same charge to mass ratio, moving in an external magnetic field with an interaction potential depending only on the mutual separations, possibly confined by a harmonic trapping potential. We show that the system admits a 'relativity group' which is a one-parameter family of deformations of the standard Galilei group to the Newton-Hooke group which is a Wigner-Inoenue contraction of the de Sitter group. This allows a group-theoretic interpretation of Kohn's theorem and related results. Larmor's theorem is used to show that the one-parameter family of deformations are all isomorphic. We study the 'Eisenhart' or 'lightlike' lift of the system, exhibiting it as a pp-wave. In the planar case, the Eisenhart lift is the Brdicka-Eardley-Nappi-Witten pp-wave solution of Einstein-Maxwell theory, which may also be regarded as a bi-invariant metric on the Cangemi-Jackiw group.

  1. Getting Hooked.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Judith

    1984-01-01

    Computer networks meet the needs for instructional programs, management information systems, and library media services in many schools and universities. In most cases, existing telephone lines can be used; however, dedicated lines should be considered if use is likely to be extensive. Planning for network growth is essential. (MLF)

  2. Toxic effects of malathion in carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio: protective role of lycopene.

    PubMed

    Yonar, Serpil Mi?e

    2013-11-01

    The present study was carried out in order to investigate the potential protective effects of lycopene against malathion-induced toxicity in carp. The fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of malathion (0.5 and 1mgL(-1)) for 14 days, and lycopene (10mgkg(-1) of fish weight) was simultaneously administered. Samples of the blood and tissue (liver, kidneys, and gills) were collected at the end of the experimental period and their haematological profiles [red blood cell (RBC) counts, haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, haematocrit (Ht) levels, and erythrocyte indices, including the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC)], immune responses [white blood cell (WBC) counts, oxidative radical production (nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) activity), total plasma protein (TP) and total immunoglobulin (TI) levels and phagocytic activities (PA)] and oxidant/antioxidant statuses [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations] were analysed. The findings of the present study demonstrated that the exposure of carp to malathion resulted in alterations in the haematological profiles and immune responses, and lead to increased reactive oxygen species formation, resulting in oxidative damage and inhibition of the antioxidant capacities. However, the administration of lycopene prevented malathion-induced toxic effects. PMID:23932509

  3. Evaluations of the nutritional value of Jatropha curcas protein isolate in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Makkar, H P S; Becker, K

    2012-12-01

    Jatropha curcas seeds are rich in oil and protein. The oil is used for biodiesel production. Jatropha seed cake (JSC) obtained after oil extraction is rich in protein; however, it is toxic (phorbol esters content 1.3?mg/g) and consists of 50-60% shells, which are indigestible. The principle of isoelectric precipitation was used to obtain Jatropha protein isolate (JPI) from JSC and it was detoxified (DJPI). Carp (n?=?45, 20.3?±?0.13?g) were randomly distributed into five groups with three replicates and for 12-week fed iso-nitrogenous diets (crude protein 38%): Control [fishmeal (FM)-based protein]; J(50) and J(75) (50% and 75% of FM protein replaced by DJPI); S(50) and S(75) (50% and 75% of FM protein replaced by soy protein isolate). Growth performance and nutrient utilisation parameters were highest in S(75) group and not significantly different to those in J(50) and S(50) groups but were significantly higher than those for all other groups. Similar trend was observed for protein and energy digestibilities of experimental diets, whereas opposite trend was observed for the feed to gain ratio. Activities of intestinal digestive enzymes did not different significantly between the five groups. In conclusion, DJPI is a good quality protein source for carp. PMID:21895778

  4. [Production of a carp-based hamburger-like product by reducing the water activity].

    PubMed

    Santillán, M; Morales, L J

    1992-06-01

    The experimental conditions were determined in order to conserve lean fish by means of combined factors based on Aw and pH reduction as well as the addition of an antifungal. Theoretical Aw was determined in formulas containing fish, sodium chloride, glycerol and sorbitol applying a mathematic model. From the results of the prediction, 4 formulas were prepared experimentally with (Cyprinus carpio). Phosphoric acid was added to the products in order to obtain a 5.5-6.0 pH. The final formulas were packed in plastic bags and stored with a control product (100% carp pulp) at 25 +/- 2 degrees C and 38 +/- 3% R.H. during one month. Aw, water content and pH determinations were carried at weekly intervals. Results indicated a slight but significative (P < 0.025) lowering of Aw, water content and pH. Microbiological analysis showed an increase in MAB count with no growth of pathogens. A control product (100% carp pulp) was deteriorated in a five day period. Sensory evaluation of the products indicated a slight acceptance among an inexperienced panel. PMID:1341858

  5. The Effects of Subchronic Exposure to Terbuthylazine on Early Developmental Stages of Common Carp

    PubMed Central

    Št?pánová, Stanislava; Plhalová, Lucie; Doleželová, Petra; Prokeš, Miroslav; Maršálek, Petr; Škori?, Miša; Svobodová, Zde?ka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of terbuthylazine in surface waters on fish under experimental conditions. Subchronic toxic effects on embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were investigated during a 30-day toxicity test. The exposure to terbuthylazin showed no effect on mortality, but significant differences (P < 0.0001) were revealed on weight and growth parameters at concentrations of 520 and 820??g/L. The inhibition of specific growth rate at concentrations of 520 and 820??g/L was 14% compared to the control group. No significant negative effects on total body length and body weight were observed at lower concentrations (0.9 and 160??g/L). The concentrations 520 and 820??g/L were associated with a delay in development compared to other experimental groups and controls. On the basis of weight and growth rate evaluation and determination of developmental stages, the No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC) of terbuthylazine was estimated at 160??g/L and the Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC) was 520??g/L. According to these results, the reported environmental concentration of terbuthylazine in Czech rivers does not impact growth, development, morphology, or histology of carp embryos and larvae. PMID:22629165

  6. NSAID-manufacturing plant effluent induces geno- and cytotoxicity in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    SanJuan-Reyes, Nely; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; García-Medina, Sandra; Islas-Flores, Hariz; González-González, Edgar David; Cardoso-Vera, Jesús Daniel; Jiménez-Vargas, Juan Manuel

    2015-10-15

    The pharmaceutical industry generates wastewater discharges of varying characteristics and contaminant concentrations depending on the nature of the production process. The main chemicals present in these effluents are solvents, detergents, disinfectants - such as sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) - and pharmaceutical products, all of which are potentially ecotoxic. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the geno- and cytotoxicity induced in the common carp Cyprinus carpio by the effluent emanating from a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-manufacturing plant. Carp were exposed to the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL, 0.1173%) for 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96h, and biomarkers of genotoxicity (comet assay and micronucleus test) and cytotoxicity (caspase-3 activity and TUNEL assay) were evaluated. A significant increase with respect to the control group (p<0.05) occurred with all biomarkers from 24h on. Significant positive correlations were found between NSAID concentrations and biomarkers of geno- and cytotoxicity, as well as among geno- and cytotoxicity biomarkers. In conclusion, exposure to this industrial effluent induces geno- and cytotoxicity in blood of C. carpio. PMID:26026403

  7. Effect of cooking temperatures on protein hydrolysates and sensory quality in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) soup.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinjie; Yao, Yanjia; Ye, Xingqian; Fang, Zhongxiang; Chen, Jianchu; Wu, Dan; Liu, Donghong; Hu, Yaqin

    2013-06-01

    Cooking methods have a significant impact on flavour compounds in fish soup. The effects of cooking temperatures (55, 65, 75, 85, 95, and 100 °C) on sensory properties and protein hydrolysates were studied in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) soup. The results showed that the soup prepared at 85 °C had the best sensory quality in color, flavour, amour, and soup pattern. Cooking temperature had significant influence on the hydrolysis of proteins in the soup showed by SDS-PAGE result. The contents of water soluble nitrogen (WSN) and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) increased with the cooking temperature, but the highest contents of total peptides and total free amino acids (FAA) were obtained at the cooking temperature of 85 °C. The highest contents of umami-taste active amino acid and branched-chain amino acids were also observed in the 85 °C sample. In conclusion, a cooking temperature of 85 °C was preferred for more excellent flavor and higher nutritional value of crucian carp soup. PMID:24425950

  8. The in vitro interference of synthetic progestogens with carp steroidogenic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Denise; Pujol, Sílvia; Aceña, Jaume; Perez, Sandra; Barceló, Damià; Porte, Cinta

    2014-10-01

    Synthetic progestogens represent a class of pharmaceuticals widely used in oral contraceptives and in hormone replacement therapies. They reach the aquatic environment through wastewater effluents; however, environmental concentrations and effects on non-target organisms are poorly known. Given the important role of progestogens regulating fish spawning processes, this study aimed at assessing the in vitro interference of four currently used progestogens-drospirenone (DRO), levonorgestrel (LNG), norethindrone (NOR) and cyproterone acetate (CPA) - with key enzymatic activities involved in the synthesis of active steroids in carp (Cyprinus carpio). The enzymatic pathways investigated were (a) CYP17 (C17,20-lyase) and CYP11? involved in the synthesis of androgens, (b) CYP19 that catalyses the aromatization of androgens to estrogens, and (c) 20?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20?-HSD) responsible for the synthesis of maturation-inducing hormones. All tested progestogens significantly inhibited the synthesis of androgens: DRO (IC50: 3.8 ?M) was the strongest inhibitor of CYP17 followed by CPA (IC50s: 183 ?M). Moreover, NOR (IC50: 0.4 ?M), DRO (IC50: 1.8 ?M) and CPA (IC50s: 87 ?M) inhibited CYP11?. An inhibition by NOR of ovarian CYP19 activity, and by DRO and CPA of 20?-HSD was also observed, but at rather high concentrations (500 ?M). Overall, this study highlights the potential of synthetic progestogens, and particularly DRO and NOR, to interfere with the biosynthesis of androgens in carp gonads. PMID:25087002

  9. [Analysis of genetic structure of mirror carp population and correlation of microsatellite markers and economic traits].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Wei, Zhen-Bang; Sun, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Yan; Lu, Cui-Yun

    2008-03-01

    The genetic structure of one breeding population of mirror carp(Cyprinus carpio L.) was analysed using thirty-five polymorphic microsatellite markers. The effective number of alleles (Ae), observed heterozygosity (Ho), expected heterozygosity (He) and polymorphism information content(PIC) were all determined. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was checked by chi-square test. For each locus, 2-7 alleles were detected, with a total of 118 alleles for 35 loci . The value of Ae, Ho, He and PIC showed that the genetic variation of the population was not high .The average effective number of alleles and the mean polymorphism information content were 2.16 and 0.42, respectively, and the observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.431 and 0.4736 , respectively.The probability value of chi-square test showed that more than half of the thirty-five loci have significantly (Plt;0.01) deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The correlation of genotype of each locus and individual phenotype data was analysed , and 4 loci seemed associated with body weight and body size . When compared with the result of QTL mapping of common carp, HLJ319 locus was consistent with the mapping result approximately, which was significantly correlated with body size . Several significantly deviated loci were also analysed, and the possible cause of the kind of deviation was discussed . PMID:18332007

  10. [The genetic diversity of diploid and triploid crucian carp from six populations in Heilongjiang River System].

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhi-Ying; Shi, Lian-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2008-11-01

    Twelve microsatellite markers from silver crucian carp were used to investigate the genetic structuring of the diploid and triploid crucian carp from six natural populations in Heilongjiang River System. In the six populations, the number of average allele (A) is from 5.8 to 6.8, the number of effective allele (Ne) is from 2.8 to 4.6, the expected heterozygosity value (He) is from 0.5592 to 0.6962 and the average PIC value is from 0.5962 to 0.648, which indicated that the genetic diversity of the populations investigated is rich. According to genetic deviation index (d), deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was found in these populations and all of them showed heterozygosity excess. Kruskal-Wallis test indicated that there was no significant variance in different ploid level and populations. No extra alleles that present with the increase of ploid level were found. The coefficient of gene differentiation between populations(GST)was 0.0398 which indicated low values of genetic differentiation between these populations. Genetic distance was calculated and cluster analysis was also carried out. The results showed that distance between polyploid and diploid in same water was the nearest. Among populations, Songhua River and Ussuri River were the nearest, Xinhuangpao Lake and Moon Bay Lake were nearer, and Shuangfeng reservoir has the largest genetic distance with others. PMID:19073556

  11. Polymorphisms in Myostatin Gene and Associations with Growth Traits in the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yanhong; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou

    2012-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a member of the transforming growth factor-? superfamily that negatively regulates skeletal muscle development and growth. In the present study, partial genomic fragments of MSTN were screened for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in selected common carp individuals from wild populations, and two SNPs in intron 2 (c.371 + 749A > G, c.371 + 781T > C) and two synonymous SNPs in exon 3 (c.42A > G, c.72C > T) were identified. Genotyping by direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products for these four SNPs were performed in 162 individuals from a commercial hatchery population. Association analysis showed that two SNPs in exon 3 were significantly associated with body weight (BW) and condition factor (K), and haplotype analyses revealed that haplotype H7H8 showed better growth performance. Our results demonstrated that some of the SNPs in MSTN may have positive effects on growth traits and suggested that MSTN could be a candidate gene for growth and marker-assisted selection in common carp. PMID:23203105

  12. Polymorphisms in Myostatin Gene and associations with growth traits in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanhong; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou

    2012-01-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a member of the transforming growth factor-? superfamily that negatively regulates skeletal muscle development and growth. In the present study, partial genomic fragments of MSTN were screened for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in selected common carp individuals from wild populations, and two SNPs in intron 2 (c.371 + 749A > G, c.371 + 781T > C) and two synonymous SNPs in exon 3 (c.42A > G, c.72C > T) were identified. Genotyping by direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products for these four SNPs were performed in 162 individuals from a commercial hatchery population. Association analysis showed that two SNPs in exon 3 were significantly associated with body weight (BW) and condition factor (K), and haplotype analyses revealed that haplotype H7H8 showed better growth performance. Our results demonstrated that some of the SNPs in MSTN may have positive effects on growth traits and suggested that MSTN could be a candidate gene for growth and marker-assisted selection in common carp. PMID:23203105

  13. An optical immunosensor for rapid vitellogenin detection in plasma from carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Bulukin, E; Meucci, V; Minunni, M; Pretti, C; Intorre, L; Soldani, G; Mascini, M

    2007-04-30

    Vitellogenin (vtg) has proven to be a sensitive and simple biomarker for assessing exposure of fish to environmental estrogens. The aim of this work was to develop a rapid, in the order of minutes, screening method for the detection of fish vtg. The surface plasmon resonance technique (Biacore Xtrade mark) was coupled with immunodetection for the determination of fish vtg in plasma and mucus from carp (Cyprinus carpio). Monoclonal anti-vtg antibodies were linked on the sensor surface through chemical cross-linking via a capturing antibody. A simple regeneration process allowed the reuse of the sensor surface. Sensor optimisation was carried out using carp vtg. The developed immunosensor was tested with vtg spiked samples and with plasma and mucus from fish exposed to 17beta-estradiol (E2). Vitellogenin could be detected in the ppm range in buffer as well as in plasma and mucus. Good discrimination between control and exposed samples was obtained. The results were compared with ELISA and a correlation coefficient of R(2)=0.85 (n=9) between the two methods indicated that the immunochemical biosensor could be used for the analysis of vtg in fish plasma samples. The assay time was 20min hence allowing for rapid sample screening. PMID:19071687

  14. Divergent functions of fibroblast growth factor receptor-like 1 genes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Lin, Si-Tong; Zheng, Guo-Dong; Sun, Yi-Wen; Chen, Jie; Jiang, Xia-Yun; Zou, Shu-Ming

    2015-09-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor-like 1 (FGFRL1) is a novel FGF receptor (FGFR) lacking an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. FGFRs control the proliferation, differentiation and migration of cells in various tissues. However the functions of FGFRL1 in teleost fish are currently unknown. In this study, we report the identification of two fgfrl1 genes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) that share 56% amino acid sequence identity. Both fgfrl1a and 1b were transcribed throughout embryogenesis, and mRNA levels were particularly high during somitogenesis. Using in situ hybridization, fgfrl1a transcripts were detected in notochord, somites, brain and eye at 14, 24 and 36h post fertilization (hpf). In contrast, fgfrl1b was transcribed mainly in the endoderm at 14hpf, in the gut and proctodeum at 24hpf, and in the lens, pharyngeal arch and proctodeum at 36hpf. In adult fish, fgfrl1a was abundantly expressed in heart, brain and muscle, while fgfrl1b was expressed strongly in eye, muscle and gill. Furthermore, both genes were significantly (p<0.05) up-regulated in muscle and brain during starvation and returned to normal levels rapidly after re-feeding. Exogenous treatment with different doses of human growth hormone down-regulated the expression of both genes in brain and muscle (p<0.05). These results suggest that Fgfrl1a and 1b play divergent roles in regulating growth and development in grass carp. PMID:25981703

  15. Genetic analysis of QTL for eye cross and eye diameter in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using microsatellites and SNPs.

    PubMed

    Jin, S B; Zhang, X F; Lu, J G; Fu, H T; Jia, Z Y; Sun, X W

    2015-01-01

    A group of 107 F1 hybrid common carp was used to construct a linkage map using JoinMap 4.0. A total of 4877 microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers isolated from a genomic library (978 microsatellite and 3899 SNP markers) were assigned to construct the genetic map, which comprised 50 linkage groups. The total length of the linkage map for the common carp was 4775.90 cM with an average distance between markers of 0.98 cM. Ten quantitative trait loci (QTL) were associated with eye diameter, corresponding to 10.5-57.2% of the total phenotypic variation. Twenty QTL were related to eye cross, contributing to 10.8-36.9% of the total phenotypic variation. Two QTL for eye diameter and four QTL for eye cross each accounted for more than 20% of the total phenotypic variation and were considered to be major QTL. One growth factor related to eye diameter was observed on LG10 of the common carp genome, and three growth factors related to eye cross were observed on LG10, LG35, and LG44 of the common carp genome. The significant positive relationship of eye cross and eye diameter with other commercial traits suggests that eye diameter and eye cross can be used to assist in indirect selection for many commercial traits, particularly body weight. Thus, the growth factor for eye cross may also contribute to the growth of body weight, implying that aggregate breeding could have multiple effects. These findings provide information for future genetic studies and breeding of common carp. PMID:25966124

  16. Improved methods for capture, extraction, and quantitative assay of environmental DNA from Asian bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.).

    PubMed

    Turner, Cameron R; Miller, Derryl J; Coyne, Kathryn J; Corush, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Indirect, non-invasive detection of rare aquatic macrofauna using aqueous environmental DNA (eDNA) is a relatively new approach to population and biodiversity monitoring. As such, the sensitivity of monitoring results to different methods of eDNA capture, extraction, and detection is being investigated in many ecosystems and species. One of the first and largest conservation programs with eDNA-based monitoring as a central instrument focuses on Asian bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.), an invasive fish spreading toward the Laurentian Great Lakes. However, the standard eDNA methods of this program have not advanced since their development in 2010. We developed new, quantitative, and more cost-effective methods and tested them against the standard protocols. In laboratory testing, our new quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for bigheaded carp eDNA was one to two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the existing endpoint PCR assays. When applied to eDNA samples from an experimental pond containing bigheaded carp, the qPCR assay produced a detection probability of 94.8% compared to 4.2% for the endpoint PCR assays. Also, the eDNA capture and extraction method we adapted from aquatic microbiology yielded five times more bigheaded carp eDNA from the experimental pond than the standard method, at a per sample cost over forty times lower. Our new, more sensitive assay provides a quantitative tool for eDNA-based monitoring of bigheaded carp, and the higher-yielding eDNA capture and extraction method we describe can be used for eDNA-based monitoring of any aquatic species. PMID:25474207

  17. Purification and molecular cloning of a DNA ADP-ribosylating protein, CARP-1, from the edible clam Meretrix lamarckii.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Tsuyoshi; Matsushima-Hibiya, Yuko; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Enomoto, Shigeki; Matsumoto, Yasuko; Totsuka, Yukari; Watanabe, Masahiko; Sugimura, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Keiji

    2006-09-12

    The cabbage butterflies Pieris rapae and Pieris brassicae have unique enzymes, named pierisin-1 and -2, respectively, that catalyze the ADP-ribosylation of guanine residues of DNA, which has been linked with induction of apoptosis and mutation in mammalian cell lines. In the present study, we identified ADP-ribosylation activity targeting DNA in six kinds of edible clam. Similar to our observations with pierisin-1 and -2, crude extracts from the clams Meretrix lamarckii, Ruditapes philippinarum, and Corbicula japonica incubated with calf thymus DNA and beta-NAD resulted in production of N(2)-(ADP-ribos-1-yl)-2'-deoxyguanosine. The DNA ADP-ribosylating protein in the hard clam M. lamarckii, designated as CARP-1, was purified by column chromatography, and its cDNA was cloned. The cDNA encodes a 182-aa protein with a calculated molecular mass of 20,332. The protein synthesized in vitro from the cDNA in a reticulocyte lysate exhibited the same ADP-ribosylating activity as that of purified CARP-1. Neither the nucleotide nor the deduced amino acid sequence of CARP-1 showed homology with pierisin-1 or -2. However, a glutamic acid residue (E128) at the putative NAD-binding site, conserved in all ADP-ribosyltransferases, was found in CARP-1, and replacement of aspartic acid for this glutamic acid resulted in loss of almost all ADP-ribosylating activity. CARP-1 in the culture medium showed no cytotoxicity against HeLa and TMK-1 cells; however, introduction of this protein by electroporation induced apoptosis in these cells. The finding of clam ADP-ribosylating protein targeting guanine residues in DNA could offer new insights into the biological significance of ADP-ribosylation of DNA. PMID:16945908

  18. Studies of Ribonucleotide Reductase in Crucian Carp—An Oxygen Dependent Enzyme in an Anoxia Tolerant Vertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Sandvik, Guro K.; Tomter, Ane B.; Bergan, Jonas; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Barra, Anne-Laure; Røhr, Åsmund K.; Kolberg, Matthias; Ellefsen, Stian

    2012-01-01

    The enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the conversion of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides, the precursors for DNA. RNR requires a thiyl radical to activate the substrate. In RNR of eukaryotes (class Ia RNR), this radical originates from a tyrosyl radical formed in reaction with oxygen (O2) and a ferrous di-iron center in RNR. The crucian carp (Carassius carassius) is one of very few vertebrates that can tolerate several months completely without oxygen (anoxia), a trait that enables this fish to survive under the ice in small ponds that become anoxic during the winter. Previous studies have found indications of cell division in this fish after 7 days of anoxia. This appears nearly impossible, as DNA synthesis requires the production of new deoxyribonucleotides and therefore active RNR. We have here characterized RNR in crucian carp, to search for adaptations to anoxia. We report the full-length sequences of two paralogs of each of the RNR subunits (R1i, R1ii, R2i, R2ii, p53R2i and p53R2ii), obtained by cloning and sequencing. The mRNA levels of these subunits were measured with quantitative PCR and were generally well maintained in hypoxia and anoxia in heart and brain. We also report maintained or increased mRNA levels of the cell division markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Ki67 in anoxic hearts and brains. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements on in vitro expressed crucian carp R2 and p53R2 proteins gave spectra similar to mammalian RNRs, including previously unpublished human and mouse p53R2 EPR spectra. However, the radicals in crucian carp RNR small subunits, especially in the p53R2ii subunit, were very stable at 0°C. A long half-life of the tyrosyl radical during wintertime anoxia could allow for continued cell division in crucian carp. PMID:22916159

  19. Pushing motion control of n passive off-hooked trailers by a car-like mobile robot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwanghyun Yoo; Woojin Chung

    2010-01-01

    There are two different motions of a trailer system that consists of a car and n passive off-hooked trailers. When a car “pulls” n passive trailers, a trailer system moves forward. A trailer system moves backward when a car “pushes” n passive trailers. Backing up a trailer system is difficult because it is an open loop unstable problem. In this

  20. Circle Hooks for Pacific Longliners: Not a Panacea for Marlin and Shark Bycatch, but Part of the Solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isaac C. Kaplan; Sean P. Cox; James F. Kitchell

    2007-01-01

    Blue marlin Makaira nigricans, striped marlin Tetrapturus audax, and pelagic sharks (e.g., blue shark Prionace glauca) are commonly caught as bycatch by longline fisheries in the central North Pacific Ocean. Recently, concern has increased about depletion of these species. Modifications in longline gear may offer one solution. Here, we test the use of circle hooks, rather than the conventional tuna-style

  1. Using Lindgren–Pitman Hook Timers to Understand the Dynamics of Trotline Catches in a Large River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirk D. Steffensen; Brandon L. Eder; Mark A. Pegg

    2011-01-01

    Trotlines have historically been used by commercial fishers to target ictalurids and have recently been shown to be effective for collecting sturgeons Scaphirhynchus spp. However, little is known about the gear–fish interaction after trotlines are deployed. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine whether trotlines equipped with Lindgren-Pitman (LP) hook timers could withstand harsh riverine conditions and whether

  2. Grass carp in the Great Lakes region: establishment potential, expert perceptions, and re-evaluation of experimental evidence of ecological impact

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wittmann, Marion E.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Howeth, Jennifer G.; Maher, Sean P.; Deines, Andrew M.; Jenkins, Jill A.; Whitledge, Gregory W.; Burbank, Sarah B.; Chadderton, William L.; Mahon, Andrew R.; Tyson, Jeffrey T.; Gantz, Crysta A.; Keller, Reuben P.; Drake, John M.; Lodge, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Intentional introductions of nonindigenous fishes are increasing globally. While benefits of these introductions are easily quantified, assessments to understand the negative impacts to ecosystems are often difficult, incomplete, or absent. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) was originally introduced to the United States as a biocontrol agent, and recent observations of wild, diploid individuals in the Great Lakes basin have spurred interest in re-evaluating its ecological risk. Here, we evaluate the ecological impact of grass carp using expert opinion and a suite of the most up-to-date analytical tools and data (ploidy assessment, eDNA surveillance, species distribution models (SDMs), and meta-analysis). The perceived ecological impact of grass carp by fisheries experts was variable, ranging from unknown to very high. Wild-caught triploid and diploid individuals occurred in multiple Great Lakes waterways, and eDNA surveillance suggests that grass carp are abundant in a major tributary of Lake Michigan. SDMs predicted suitable grass carp climate occurs in all Great Lakes. Meta-analysis showed that grass carp introductions impact both water quality and biota. Novel findings based on updated ecological impact assessment tools indicate that iterative risk assessment of introduced fishes may be warranted.

  3. Coexistence of diploid, triploid and tetraploid crucian carp (Carassius auratus) in natural waters

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Crucian carp (abbreviated CC) belongs to the genus of Carassius within the family of Cyprinidae. It has been one of the most important freshwater species for Chinese aquaculture and is especially abundant in the Dongting water system of Hunan province. CC used to be considered as all diploid forms. However, coexistence of diploid (abbreviated 2nCC), triploid (abbreviated 3nCC) and tetraploid crucian carp (abbreviated 4nCC) population of the Dongting water system was first found by our recently researches. Results We examined the ploidy level and compared biological characteristics in different ploidy CC. In reproductive mode, 2nCC was bisexual generative and 4nCC generated all-female offspring by gynogenesis. However, 3nCC generated progenies in two different ways. 3nCC produced bisexual triploid offspring fertilized with 3nCC spermatozoa, while it produced all-female triploid offspring by gynogenesis when its ova were activated by heterogenous spermatozoa. The complete mitochondrial DNA of three different ploidy fishes was sequenced and analyzed, suggesting no significant differences. Interestingly, microchromosomes were found only in 3nCC, which were concluded to be the result of hybridization. Allogenetic DNA fragments of Sox genes were obtained in 3nCC and 4nCC, which were absent in 2nCC. Phylogenetics analysis based on Sox4 gene indicated 3nCC and 4nCC formed a separate group from 2nCC. Conclusions In summary, this is the first report of the co-existence of three types of different ploidy crucian carps in natural waters in China. It was proved that the coexistence of different ploidy CC was reproductively maintained. We further hypothesized that 3nCC and 4nCC were allopolyploids that resulted from hybridization. The different ploidy CC population we obtained in this study possesses great significance for the study of polyploidization and the evolution of vertebrates. PMID:21276259

  4. Rapid conversion and reversible conjugation of glutathione detoxification of microcystins in bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis).

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Chen, Jun; Xie, Ping; He, Jun; Guo, Xiaochun; Tuo, Xun; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Laiyan

    2014-02-01

    The glutathione and cysteine conjugates of microcystin (MC-GSH and MC-Cys, respectively) are two important metabolites in the detoxification of microcystins (MCs). Although studies have quantitated both conjugates, the reason why the amounts of MC-GSH are much lower than those of MC-Cys in various animal organs remains unknown. In this study, MC-RR-GSH and MC-RR-Cys were respectively i.p. injected into the cyanobacteria-eating bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), to explore the biotransformation and detoxification mechanisms of the two conjugates. The contents of MC-RR, MC-RR-GSH, MC-RR-Cys and MC-RR-N-acetyl-cysteine (MC-RR-Nac, the acetylation product of MC-RR-Cys) in the liver, kidney, intestine and blood of bighead carp in both groups were quantified via liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). In the MC-RR-GSH-treated group, the MC-RR-Cys content in the kidney increased 96.7-fold from 0.25 to 0.5h post-injection, demonstrating that MC-RR-GSH acts as a highly reactive intermediate and is rapidly converted to MC-RR-Cys. The presence of MC-RR in both MC-RR-GSH- and MC-RR-Cys-treated groups indicates, for the first time, that MC conjugation with the thiol of GSH/Cys is a reversible process in vivo. Total MC-RR concentrations dissociated from MC-RR-Cys were lower than those from MC-RR-GSH, suggesting that MC-RR-Cys is more capable of detoxifying MC-RR. MC-RR-Cys was the most effectively excreted form in both the kidney and intestine, as the ratios of MC-RR-Cys to MC-RR reached as high as 15.2, 2.9 in the MC-RR-GSH-treated group and 63.4, 19.1 in the MC-RR-Cys-treated group. Whereas MC-RR-Nac could not be found in all of the samples of the present study. Our results indicate that MC-RR-GSH was rapidly converted to MC-RR-Cys and then excreted, and that both glutathione and cysteine conjugates could release MC-RR. This study quantitatively proves the importance of the GSH detoxification pathway and furthers our understanding of the biochemical mechanism by which bighead carp are resistant to toxic cyanobacteria. PMID:24362245

  5. Philosophy of experiment in early modern England: the case of Bacon, Boyle and Hooke.

    PubMed

    Anstey, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    Serious philosophical reflection on the nature of experiment began in earnest in the seventeenth century. This paper expounds the most influential philosophy of experiment in seventeenth-century England, the Bacon-Boyle-Hooke view of experiment. It is argued that this can only be understood in the context of the new experimental philosophy practised according to the Baconian theory of natural history. The distinctive typology of experiments of this view is discussed, as well as its account of the relation between experiment and theory. This leads into an assessment of other recent discussions of early modern experiment, namely, those of David Gooding, Thomas Kuhn, J.E. Tiles and Peter Dear. PMID:25080642

  6. Concentric ring flywheel with hooked ring carbon fiber separator/torque coupler

    SciTech Connect

    Kuklo, Thomas C. (Oakdale, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A concentric ring flywheel with expandable separators, which function as torque couplers, between the rings to take up the gap formed between adjacent rings due to differential expansion between different radius rings during rotation of the flywheel. The expandable separators or torque couplers include a hook-like section at an upper end which is positioned over an inner ring and a shelf-like or flange section at a lower end onto which the next adjacent outer ring is positioned. As the concentric rings are rotated the gap formed by the differential expansion there between is partially taken up by the expandable separators or torque couplers to maintain torque and centering attachment of the concentric rings.

  7. Catch and release: How do kinetochores hook the right microtubules during mitosis?

    PubMed Central

    Sarangapani, Krishna K.; Asbury, Charles L.

    2014-01-01

    Sport fishermen keep tension on their lines to prevent hooked fish from releasing. A molecular version of this angler’s trick, operating at kinetochores, ensures accuracy during mitosis: The mitotic spindle attaches randomly to chromosomes and then correctly bioriented attachments are stabilized due to the tension exerted on them by opposing microtubules. Incorrect attachments, which lack tension, are unstable and release quickly, allowing another chance for biorientation. Stabilization of molecular interactions by tension also occurs in other physiological contexts such as cell adhesion, motility, hemostasis, and tissue morphogenesis. Here we review models for the stabilization of kinetochore attachments with an eye toward emerging models for other force-activated systems. While attention in the mitosis field has focused mainly on one kinase-based mechanism, multiple mechanisms may act together to stabilize properly bioriented kinetochores and some principles governing other tension-sensitive systems may apply to kinetochores as well. PMID:24631209

  8. Concentric ring flywheel with hooked ring carbon fiber separator/torque coupler

    SciTech Connect

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1999-07-20

    A concentric ring flywheel with expandable separators, which function as torque couplers, between the rings to take up the gap formed between adjacent rings due to differential expansion between different radius rings during rotation of the flywheel. The expandable separators or torque couplers include a hook-like section at an upper end which is positioned over an inner ring and a shelf-like or flange section at a lower end onto which the next adjacent outer ring is positioned. As the concentric rings are rotated the gap formed by the differential expansion there between is partially taken up by the expandable separators or torque couplers to maintain torque and centering attachment of the concentric rings. 2 figs.

  9. Adolescent mass shootings: developmental considerations in light of the Sandy Hook shooting.

    PubMed

    Rice, Timothy R; Hoffman, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent mass shootings are a special subset of mass killings, which continue despite significant preventative public health efforts. It is often held that these individuals have few salient warning signs that could have been identified. This piece proposes that mass shootings committed by adolescent and post-adolescent young males must be understood from a developmental perspective. The hypothesis proposed in this paper is that such killings occur as the result of the adolescent's frustrated effort to progress along normative development. The goal of normative separation from maternal figures by the boy is presented as a potential risk factor when this goal is thwarted. Childhood case material from the perpetrator of a recent adolescent mass shooting, the Sandy Hook shooting, is discussed as an illustration of this hypothesis. Implications for public health measures and for individualized treatment are presented and developed. PMID:25411988

  10. Wnt and EGF pathways act together to induce C. elegans male hook development

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hui; Seah, Adeline; Herman, Michael A.; Ferguson, Edwin L.; Horvitz, H. Robert; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    Comparative studies of vulva development between Caenorhabditis elegans and other nematode species have provided some insight into the evolution of patterning networks. However, molecular genetic details are available only in C. elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. To extend our knowledge on the evolution of patterning networks, we studied the C. elegans male hook competence group (HCG), an equivalence group that has similar developmental origins to the vulval precursor cells (VPCs), which generate the vulva in the hermaphrodite. Similar to VPC fate specification, each HCG cell adopts one of three fates (1°, 2°, 3°), and 2°HCG fate specification is mediated by LIN-12/Notch. We show that 2° HCG specification depends on the presence of a cell with the 1° fate. We also provide evidence that Wnt signaling via the Frizzled-like Wnt receptor LIN-17 act to specify the 1° and 2° HCG fate. A requirement for EGF signaling during 1° fate specification is seen only when LIN-17 activity is compromised. In addition, activation of the EGF pathway decreases dependence on LIN-17 and causes ectopic hook development. Our results suggest that WNT plays a more significant role than EGF signaling in specifying HCG fates, whereas in VPC specification EGF signaling is the major inductive signal. Nonetheless, the overall logic is similar in the VPCs and the HCG: EGF and/or WNT induce a 1° lineage, and LIN-12/NOTCH induces a 2° lineage. Wnt signaling is also required for execution of the 1° and 2°HCG lineages. lin-17 and bar-1/?-catenin are preferentially expressed in the presumptive 1° cell P11.p. The dynamic subcellular localization of BAR-1–GFP in P11.p is concordant with the timing of HCG fate determination. PMID:19154732

  11. Aliphatic and eudesmalolide esters extracted from the roots of Inula racemosa Hook

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Maria; Mir, S.R.; Ali, Abuzar; Yusuf, Mohammad; Ali, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Background: Phytochemical investigation of hydroalcoholic extract of the root of Inula racemosa Hook. Materials and Methods: Open silica gel column chromatographic techniques with different solvent systems was used for isolation of aliphatic and eudesmalolide esters from hydroalcoholic extract of the root of Inula racemosa. The structure elucidation of the compounds was done on the basis of spectral data analysis, chemical reactions and comparision with literature data. Results: Phytochemical investigation of the hydroalcoholic extract of the root of Inula racemosa Hook. f. led to the isolation of (5z, 13z)-n-decanyl-n-docos-5, 13-dienoate, a new fatty acid ester, two new sesquiterpenic ester identified as 15-[(13z, 18?z, 20?z)-n-tricos-13, 18, 20-trienyl]-eudesmal-4 (11), 6, 12 (13)-trien-8,14-olide-15-oate and 15- [(16?z), (21?z)-n- tetracos-16?, 21?- dienyl]-eudesmal-4 (11) 6, 12 (13)-trien-8, 14-olide-15-oate, two new eudesmanolide ester i.e. 15-[(16z)-n-monadec-16?- enyl]-eudesmal-4 (11) 6, 12 (13)-trien-8,14-olide-15-oate and 15-[(16?z)-n-tetracos-16?- enyl]-endesmal-4 (11), 6, 12 (13)-trien-8,14-olide-15-oate along with the known compound n-Hexadecanyl n-docosanoate. Conclusion: Five new phytoconstituents were identified along with one known compound as aliphatic and eudesmalolide esters from the hydroalcoholic extract of the root of Inula racemosa, as mentioned above. PMID:24695458

  12. The Importance of the Hook Region of the Cochlea for Bone-Conduction Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Namkeun; Steele, Charles R.; Puria, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    For the most part, the coiled shape of the cochlea has been shown to have only minor importance for air-conducted hearing. It is hypothesized, however, that this coiled shape may play a more significant role for the bone-conducted (BC) route of hearing, through inertial forces exerted by the middle ear and cochlear fluid, and that this can be tested by comparing the results of applying BC stimuli in a variety of different directions. A three-dimensional finite element model of a human middle ear coupled to the inner ear was formulated. BC excitations were simulated by applying rigid-body vibrations normal to the surface of the basilar membrane (BM) at 0.8 (d1), 5.8 (d2), 15.6 (d3), and 33.1 (d4) mm from the base of the cochlea, such that relative motions of the fluid within the cochlea produced excitations of the BM. The vibrational direction normal to the BM surface at the base of the cochlea (d1) produced the highest BM velocity response across all tested frequencies—higher than an excitation direction normal to the BM surface at the nonbasal locations (d2–d4), even when the stimulus frequency matched the best frequency for each location. The basal part of the human cochlea features a well-developed hook region, colocated with the cochlear vestibule, that features the largest difference in fluid volume between the scala vestibuli (SV) and scala tympani (ST) found in the cochlea. The proximity of the hook region to the oval and round windows, combined with it having the biggest fluid-volume difference between the SV and ST, is thought to result in a maximization of the pressure difference between the SV and ST for BC stimuli normal to the BM in this region, and consequently a maximization of the resulting BM velocity. PMID:24988357

  13. Comparison of trace element concentrations in tissue of common carp and implications for monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, R.M.; DeWeese, L.R.

    1999-01-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected from four sites in the Red River of the North in 1994 were analyzed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn). Concentrations differed among liver, muscle, and whole body. Generally, trace element concentrations were the greatest in livers while concentrations in whole bodies were greater than those in muscle for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, and concentrations in muscle were similar to whole body for As and Se. Concentrations of Cr were lower in liver than either muscle or whole body. Correlations between liver and whole body concentrations were stronger than those between liver and muscle concentrations, but the strongest correlations were between muscle and whole body concentrations. Examination of tissue concentrations by collection sites suggested that, for a general survey, the whole body may be the most effective matrix to analyze.

  14. Kinetics of lymphocyte subpopulations in allogeneic grafted scales of ginbuna crucian carp.

    PubMed

    Shibasaki, Yasuhiro; Matsuura, Yuta; Toda, Hideaki; Imabayashi, Nozomi; Nishino, Tatsuyuki; Uzumaki, Kosuke; Hatanaka, Chihiro; Yabu, Takeshi; Moritomo, Tadaaki; Nakanishi, Teruyuki

    2015-09-01

    In mammals the rejection of allografts is primarily accomplished by cell-mediated immunity including T cells. Recently, considerable studies reveal the existence of helper and cytotoxic T cell subsets in fish. Here we investigate the kinetics of CD4(+) and CD8?(+) T cells along with sIgM(+) cells and phagocytic cells in an allogeneic scale graft model using ginbuna crucian carp for understanding the mechanisms of cell-mediated immune response. The results showed that CD4(+) T cells first infiltrated into allogeneic scales followed by CD8?(+) and sIgM(+) cells, and finally phagocytic cells appeared in the graft. Furthermore, most of the CD8?(+) T cells appeared on the border of the allografted scales at the time of rejection. These results suggest that T cells play crucial roles and work together with other cell types for completion of allograft rejection. PMID:25917429

  15. Effect of relative volume on radio transmitter expulsion in subadult common carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Penne, C.R.; Ahrens, N.L.; Summerfelt, R.C.; Pierce, C.L.

    2007-01-01

    Expulsion of surgically implanted radio transmitters is a problem in some fish telemetry studies. We conducted a 109-d experiment to test the hypothesis that variation in relative volume of transmitters surgically implanted in subadult common carp Cyprinus carpio would affect transmitter expulsion. We also necropsied fish at the end of the experiment to evaluate histological evidence for the mechanism of expulsion. Survival rate was high during our experiment; all control fish and 88% of the fish subjected to the implantation surgery survived. Expulsion rate was low; of the 23 fish that received transmitters and survived the experiment, only two (9%) expelled the transmitters. One of these expulsions occurred through a rupture of the incision and the other occurred via the intestine. Retained transmitters were all encapsulated by tissue, and most exhibited multiple adhesions to the intestine, gonads, and body wall. Adhesions were more numerous in fish that received larger transmitters. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  16. Survival of one- and two-year-old monosex grass carp in small ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, A.E.; Carter, R.R.; Greenland, D.C.

    1979-01-01

    Limited information has become available on the survival of monosex (female) grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) reared in earthen ponds. Monosex fish produced in 1975 (Stanley 1976) were reared 27 months in earthen ponds at the Fish Farming Experimental Station, Stuttgart, Arkansas. Periodic transfers of these fish to different ponds afforded the opportunity to obtain survival information. Thomas and Carter (1977) reported first-year survival percentages of 22.9 to 60.2% (average 34%) for fry stocked in six 0.1-ha ponds in June and July 1975 in a test of different stocking densities and pond conditions. Overall, of 31,887 3-mm fry stocked. 10,035 survived to reach the large fingerling stage (80-250 mm) when they were removed from the ponds in April 1976.

  17. Study the seasonal steroid hormones of common carp in Caspian Sea, Iran.

    PubMed

    Taghizadeh, Vahid; Imanpoor, Mohammad Reza; Mehdinejad, Nooshin

    2013-12-01

    In this investigation, serum steroid hormones such as testosterone (T), 17?-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) in 12 female of the migratory population of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in southeast of Caspian Sea during a year from May 2011 to May 2012 were studied. The results of present study revealed that changes in levels of steroid hormones, (E2) and (T) were closely correlated to ovarian development. There was significant difference in level of 17 ?- estradiol between autumn and winter seasons that the highest of 17-? estradiol level was observed in autumn season. In the case of progesterone hormone, higher levels was recorded in summer season and there was significant difference between summer and spring seasons and lower level of testosterone was observed in spring season. PMID:23687630

  18. Proteolytic characterisation in grass carp sausage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus.

    PubMed

    Nie, Xiaohua; Lin, Shengli; Zhang, Qilin

    2014-02-15

    The proteolysis in grass carp sausages inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum ZY40 and Pediococcus pentosaceus GY23 was investigated. As fermentation progressed, sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins in both sausages were obviously degraded, and the proteolytic process was more intense in sausages inoculated with P. pentosaceus GY23. The increases in ?-amino nitrogen, trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble peptides and free amino acids were also detected in both sausages. The differences in ?-amino nitrogen content and free amino acids concentration were due to the activity of inoculated lactic acid bacteria, while endogenous enzymes contributed to the release of TCA-soluble peptides. Our findings indicate that lactic acid bacteria influence proteolytic characterisation in fermented fish sausage, with strain-dependent activity. PMID:24128554

  19. Mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon derived from carp with high electrocatalytic performance for oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rongfang; Song, Huihui; Li, Hao; Wang, Hui; Mao, Xuefeng; Ji, Shan

    2015-03-01

    In this work, a low-cost and nitrogen-containing carbon material with mesopores and high surface area is synthesized by carbonizing carp with SiO2 nanoparticles as template. It is found that pyridinic-N dominates the N species on the surface of obtained carbon material, which can act as active sites for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The BET surface area of obtained carbon material is 401.7 m2 g-1 and the pore size is ca. 11.1 nm. Due to its high pyridinic-N content and mesoporous architecture, the ORR activity of obtained carbon material in alkaline media is comparable to that of commercial Pt/C catalyst. In addition, it shows a higher methanol tolerance than Pt/C catalyst, making it a potential alternative to Pt-based catalysts.

  20. Biogenic amine accumulation in silver carp sausage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum plus Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Nie, Xiaohua; Zhang, Qilin; Lin, Shengli

    2014-06-15

    The effect of an amine-negative mixed starter culture (Lactobacillus plantarum ZY40 plus Saccharomyces cerevisiae JM19) on biogenic amine accumulation in fermented silver carp sausage was studied. Microbial counts, pH, titratable acid and free amino acids were also determined. Putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine were the main amines formed during sausage fermentation. The contents of putrescine and cadaverine were greatly reduced by the addition of L. plantarum ZY40 plus S. cerevisiae JM19, whereas tyramine accumulation was enhanced as compared to the control batch. Histamine and spermidine were not affected by the mixed starter culture, and their levels varied slightly throughout the fermentation. Besides, no positive correction between pH, free amino acid content and biogenic amine accumulation were found. PMID:24491750

  1. Downstream movement of lampreys and fish in the Carp Lake River, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Applegate, Vernon C.

    1961-01-01

    An inclined-screen trap was installed on the Carp River, Emmett County, Michigan, in the spring of 1948 and has been in almost continuous operation since that time. The major goal of this project--a precise determination of the length of the larval life of sea lamprey--was not attained because of the contamination of the stream above the dam with spawning lampreys. The lampreys and other fishes collected in the trap did, however, provide extensive and valuable biological information. The present report documents much of the information, largely in tabular form, accumulated over the operating seasons, 1948-49 through 1957-58; the amount of detail has been varied according to the importance of the topic under consideration or the amount required to bring out a particular point.

  2. Risk factors for development of internal neoplasms in koi carp Cyprinus carpio koi.

    PubMed

    Ott Knüsel, F; Doherr, M G; Knüsel, R; Wahli, T; Schmidt-Posthaus, H

    2015-06-01

    Fish, like mammals, can be affected by neoplastic proliferations. As yet, there are only a very small number of studies reporting on the occurrence of tumours in koi carp Cyprinus carpio koi and only sporadic reports on the nature of the tumours or on risk factors associated with their development. Between 2008 and 2012, koi with abdominal swelling were examined pathologically: neoplastic lesions were diagnosed and classified histologically. We evaluated possible risk factors for the development of these internal neoplasms in koi carp in Switzerland, using an online 2-part questionnaire sent to fish keepers with koi affected by internal tumours and to fish keepers who had not previously reported any affected koi. Part 1 addressed all participants and focused on general information about koi husbandry and pond technical data; Part 2 addressed participants that had one or several case(s) of koi with internal tumour(s) between 2008 and 2012, and consisted of specific questions about affected koi. A total of 112 internal tumours were reported by the 353 koi keepers participating in the survey. Analysis of the obtained data revealed that tumour occurrence was significantly associated with the location (indoors vs. outdoors) and volume of the pond, frequency of water changes, origin of the koi, number of koi kept in a pond and the use of certain pond disinfectant/medication products. Our results contribute to the identification of possible risk factors, which in turn could help to establish prophylactic measures in order to reduce the occurrence of internal neoplasms in koi. PMID:26036827

  3. Immunostimulatory activities of a decapeptide derived from Alcaligenes faecalis FY-3 to crucian carp.

    PubMed

    Wang, G-X; Li, F-Y; Cui, J; Wang, Y; Liu, Y-T; Han, J; Lei, Y

    2011-07-01

    A strain was isolated from a soil sample collected from Weihe river in Shaanxi province (108°03'E 34°14'N), which was identified as Alcaligenes faecalis by 16S rRNA analysis. A compound M showing potent immune activity was isolated from secondary metabolites of the strain through bioassay-guided isolation techniques. The structure of the compound M was elucidated using FT-IR, EI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra and identified as cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly)5 which was first time reported as a natural product. We evaluated the immune effects of the cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly)5 on the basis of serum lysozyme activity, bacterial agglutination titre assay, superoxide anion production and phagocytic activity assay, and they were found to be significantly increased by cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly)5. The effects of cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly)5 on immune-related gene expression were further investigated. The outcomes of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) proved that the transcribing level of interleukin 6? (IL-6?) and inducible nitric oxide synthase 1? (iNOS-1?) mRNA in the blood leucocytes have been augmented by cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly)5. The challenge experiment showed that crucian carp injected the cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly)5 had significantly (P < 0.05) lower cumulative mortality (13.0%) compared with the control (45.4%) after infection with live Aeromonas hydrophila. These results suggested that cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly)5 is a possible immunostimulant and may strengthen the immune response and protect the heath status of crucian carp against A. hydrophila. PMID:21332568

  4. Uptake and enantioselective elimination of chlordane compounds by common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L.).

    PubMed

    Seemamahannop, Rachadaporn; Berthod, Alain; Maples, Michael; Kapila, Shubhender; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2005-04-01

    An analytical method involving supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) followed by a two-dimensional gas chromatography (2D-GC) analysis was developed to determine the concentration (first GC) and enantiomeric ratio (second GC) of cis- and trans-chlordanes at the ppb (ng/g) level in fish tissue. The SFE method allowed concentration of the compounds of interest, and reduced the number of extraction and sample clean-up manipulations as compared to classical solvent extraction techniques. Four hundred common carp fingerling (Cyprinus carpio, L.) were exposed for three days to water containing 5 ppb (5 ng/g) technical grade chlordane containing about 1 ppb of chlordane isomers. The fish concentrated the pesticides more than 200 times (162 and 312 ng/g of cis- and trans-chlordane, respectively). However, the uptake is not enantioselective. The concentration of the principle constituents and their enantiomeric ratio was followed during a fifty days growth period in chlordane free water. The first order decay of concentration was observed with a half time of about 18 days for both the cis- and trans-chlordane isomers. However it was found that the enantiomeric ratio of the trans-chlordane was significantly altered during this short period of time, decreasing from ER=1 to ER=0.7, while no enantiomeric changes were observed for the cis-chlordane. It seems that the (-)-trans-chlordane is metabolized significantly faster (t(1/2-)=15 days) in the river carp fish than the (+)-trans-enantiomer (t(1/2+)=20 days). PMID:15788172

  5. Chitosan Influences the Expression of P-gp and Metabolism of Norfloxacin in Grass Carp.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kun; Xie, Xinyan; Zhao, Yi-Ni; Li, Yi; Ruan, Jiming; Li, Hao-Ran; Jin, Tianyi; Yang, Xian-Le

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the administration of chitosan (CTS), expression of permeability glycoprotein (P-gp), and the metabolism of norfloxacin (NOR) in Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Fish were administrated with a single dose of either NOR, CTS, 1:5 NOR-CTS or 1:10 NOR-CTS. The P-gp expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and real time-PCR. The concentration of NOR was determined using HPLC. The mRNA and protein expression of P-gp in the fish intestine was significantly enhanced following a single dosage of 40 mg/kg NOR, and peak expression occurred at 3 h after drug administration (P < 0.05). A single dosage of both 1:5 NOR-CTS and 1:10 NOR-CTS reduced the intestinal P-gp expression to levels significantly lower than that from NOR alone (P < 0.05), but significantly higher than that from the control (P < 0.05). Interestingly, CTS alone also led to a slight decrease in P-gp expression. In addition, pharmacokinetic assays revealed a marked increase in area under the curve (AUC) of NOR with 1:5 and 1:10 NOR-CTS, by approximately 1.5-fold and threefold, respectively. Finally, the relative bioavailability of NOR after a single oral dosage of 1:5 and 1:10 NOR-CTS was enhanced to 148.02% and 304.98%, respectively. In this study, we demonstrated that the transmembrane glycoprotein P-gp regulates NOR metabolism in the intestine of Grass Carp, suggesting that NOR may be a direct substrate of P-gp. More importantly, we showed that CTS can inhibit P-gp expression in a dose-dependent manner and improve the relative bioavailability of NOR in this species. Received August 25, 2014; accepted November 12, 2014. PMID:25997556

  6. A comparative study of COI and 16 S rRNA genes for DNA barcoding of cultivable carps in India.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Mausumee; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Sahoo, Lakshman; Das, Paramananda

    2015-02-01

    The 5' region of the mitochondrial DNA gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) is the standard marker for DNA barcoding. However, 16?S rRNA has also been advocated for DNA barcoding in many animal species. Herein, we directly compare the usefulness of COI and 16?S rRNA in discriminating six cultivable carp species: Labeo rohita, Catla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala, Labeo fimbriatus, Labeo bata and Cirrhinus reba from India. Analysis of partial sequences of these two gene fragments from 171 individuals indicated close genetic relationship between Catla catla and Labeo rohita. The results of the present study indicated COI to be more useful than 16?S rRNA for DNA barcoding of Indian carps. PMID:24047160

  7. Fish peptone development using enzymatic hydrolysis of silver carp by-products as a nitrogen source in Staphylococcus aureus media.

    PubMed

    Fallah, Meysam; Bahram, Somayeh; Javadian, Seyed Roholla

    2015-03-01

    Fish peptone was produced using enzymatic hydrolysis of silver carp filleting by-products by alcalase and trypsin. Also, the efficiency of the hydrolysates as a nitrogen source in Staphylococcus aureus medium was compared with commercial TSB. The results indicated that the protein hydrolysate from alcalase and trypsin had high protein content (92.92%, 91.53 respectively), and degree of hydrolysis (4.94%, 4.6% respectively).The results showed that silver carp filleting waste can be an efficient source for fish peptone production as a nitrogen source for S. aureus medium. However, the type of the used proteolytic enzyme considerably affected the performance of the resulting peptone despite the same DH. Fish peptone produced by alcalese performed significantly (P < 0.05) better than commercial TSB as a media for the bacteria while the performance of the trypsin peptone was not as good as the commercial medium. PMID:25838893

  8. Triploid grass carp susceptibility and potential for disease transfer when used to control aquatic vegetation in reservoirs with avian vacuolar myelinopathy.

    PubMed

    Haynie, Rebecca S; Bowerman, William W; Williams, Sarah K; Morrison, John R; Grizzle, John M; Fischer, John M; Wilde, Susan B

    2013-12-01

    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is an often-lethal neurologic disease that affects waterbirds and their avian predators (i.e., bald eagles Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the southern United States. Feeding trials and field surveys provided evidence that AVM is caused by a toxin-producing, undescribed cyanobacterium (UCB), which grows as an epiphyte on the leaves of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Reservoirs with documented AVM epornitics support dense growth of nonnative SAV. Waterbirds ingest the toxin when feeding on aquatic plants with the epiphytic UCB, and secondary intoxication occurs when raptors consume these birds. Vegetation management has been proposed as a means to reduce waterbird exposure to the putative toxin. We fed aquatic vegetation with and without the UCB to triploid Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in laboratory and field trials. Only Grass Carp that ingested aquatic vegetation with the UCB developed lesions in the central nervous system. The lesions (viewed using light microscopy) appeared similar to those in birds diagnosed with AVM. Grass Carp that received aquatic vegetation without the UCB were unaffected. Grass Carp tissues from each treatment were fed to domestic chickens Gallus domesticus (an appropriate laboratory model for AVM) in a laboratory trial; the chickens displayed no neurologic signs, and histology revealed a lack of the diagnostic lesions in brain tissues. Results from our trials suggest that (1) triploid Grass Carp are susceptible to the AVM toxin, although no fish mortalities were documented; and (2) the toxin was not accumulated in Grass Carp tissues, and the risk to piscivorous avifauna is likely low. However, a longer exposure time and analysis of sublethal effects may be prudent to further evaluate the efficacy and risk of using triploid Grass Carp to manage aquatic vegetation in a system with frequent AVM outbreaks. PMID:24341766

  9. Chromaticity of synaptic inputs to H1 horizontal cells in carp retina: analysis by voltage-clamp and spectral adaptation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiro Yamada; John C. Low; Mustafa B. A. Djamgoz

    1992-01-01

    Cone photoreceptor inputs to H1 horizontal cells (H1 HCs) in carp retina were studied by measuring light-modulated currents (IL) to monochromatic stimuli (460, 533, 688 nm) under a voltage-clamp condition. By using double-barrelled micro-electrodes H1 HCs were voltage-clamped whilst perfusing with dopamine to uncouple the cells. The IL of the H1 HCs driven by each cone input was segregated by

  10. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of interferon-? promoter stimulator 1 ( IPS1) gene from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianguo Su; Teng Huang; Chunrong Yang; Rongfang Zhang

    2011-01-01

    IPS-1 (interferon-? promoter stimulator 1), also known as MAVS\\/VISA\\/Cardif, plays a central role in antiviral immunity. In this manuscript, we cloned and characterized IPS-1 from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (designated as CiIPS-1). The CiIPS-1 cDNA is 2412 bp long and consists of a 5? untranslated region (UTR) of 124 bp, a 3? UTR of 497 bp with three cytokine RNA instability motifs (ATTTA)

  11. Vitellogenin Induction and Other Biochemical Responses in Carp, Cyprinus carpio , After Experimental Injection with 17a-Ethynylestradiol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Solé; C. Porte; D. Barceló

    2000-01-01

    Prespawning, adult male and female carp, Cyprinus carpio, were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of 500 7g\\/kg of 17!-ethynylestradiol (EE2). Blood samples were taken and vitellogenin levels were recorded previous to the injection and 8 days afterward. Western blot analysis of plasma VTG showed a marked response in both males (90-fold) and females (67-fold) after EE2 injection. Also, a

  12. Determination of malachite green and leucomalachite green in carp muscle by liquid chromatography with visible and fluorescence detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamila Mitrowska; Andrzej Posyniak; Jan Zmudzki

    2005-01-01

    A liquid chromatography-VIS\\/FLD method for the analysis of malachite green (MG) and its major metabolite, leucomalachite green (LMG) in carp muscle has been described. The method consists in an extraction with acetonitrile-buffer mixture followed by partioning with dichloromethane. Clean up and isolation were performed on SCX solid phase extraction (SPE) column. Chromatographic separation was achieved by using phenyl-hexyl column with

  13. Effects of different dietary wheat starch levels on growth, feed efficiency and digestibility in grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Xia Tian; Yong Jian Liu; Hui Jun Yang; Gui Ying Liang; Jin Niu

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary wheat starch on grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in terms of growth performance, feed efficiency and digestibility. Five isoproteic (23.5%) and isolipidic (5.7%) diets with\\u000a five supplemented levels of wheat starch (D20, D26, D33, D40 and D47 with 20, 26, 33, 40 and 47%, respectively) were fed to\\u000a triplicate groups of

  14. Modulatory effect of visible light on chemiluminescence of stimulated and nonstimulated blood leukocytes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, L)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandro Belotsky; Ramy R. Avtalion; Harry Friedmann; Rachel Lubart

    1998-01-01

    Irradiation of carp blood leukocytes with a non-laser visible light resulted in a significant inhibition of the spontaneous luminol-dependent chemiluminescence in the cells of a part of the fish. Those leukocytes that were sensitive to the visible light, showed a shorter time-to-peak than the non sensitive, following their stimulation with Ca ionophore. Because a shorter time-to-peak correlates with inflammation, it

  15. Effects of Vegetation Control by Grass Carp on Selected Water-Quality Variables in Four Florida Lakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Leslie Jr; Larry E. Nall; Jess M. Van Dyke

    1983-01-01

    Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (50\\/hectare) were introduced into three central-Florida lakes with dense infestations of the aquatic macrophyte hydrilla Hydrilla verticillata; aquatic vegetation and water quality were monitored for 43 months. They also were introduced (61\\/hectare) into a north-Florida reservoir with dense populations of Illinois pondweed Potamogeton illinoensis and Eurasian watermilfoil Myriophyllum spicatum; aquatic vegetation and water quality were monitored

  16. Effects of Chitosan Coatings Enriched with Different Antioxidants on Preservation of Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) during Cold Storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lina Zhang; Yongkang Luo; Sumei Hu; Huixing Shen

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of chitosan composite coatings for maintaining the quality of grass carp portions, indictors of microbiological (total bacteria count, TBC), chemical (pH; total volatile basic nitrogen, TVB-N; 2-thiobarbituric acid, TBA; K-value) and sensory characteristics were analyzed periodically. The results showed that chitosan (1.5%, w\\/v) + acetic acid (1.0%, v\\/v) + tea polyphenol (TP, 0.5%, w\\/v) coating significantly

  17. Morphometric and histopathological parameters of gonadal development in adult common carp from contaminated and reference sites in Lake Mead, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patino, R.; Goodbred, S.L.; Draugelis-Dale, R.; Barry, C.E.; Scott, Foott J.; Wainscott, M.R.; Gross, T.S.; Covay, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that exposure to sublethal concentrations of contaminants alters the gonadal condition of feral common carp Cyprinus carpio. Adult common carp in Lake Mead, Nevada, were collected from a contaminated site (Las Vegas Bay) that receives municipal and industrial effluent and from a reference site (Overton Arm) with a relatively low level of contamination. Fish were sampled seven times over a 1-year period extending over two separate spawning seasons. Morphometric and histopathological parameters of gonadal and germ cell development were determined. In males, the pattern of seasonal changes in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) was similar between the sites and showed no clear association with site-specific seasonal temperature profiles. However, Las Vegas Bay males had consistently lower GSI values and, on one of the sampling dates, a lower proportion of sperm relative to other germ cell stages (determined histologically). Further, Las Vegas Bay males had a higher incidence of gonadal macrophage aggregates, which are putative tissue biomarkers of contaminant exposure in fishes. In females, seasonal GSI profiles, the frequency of fish with postovulatory follicles (an index of spawning activity), and the timing of new follicle recruitment all showed differences between sites, but these differences generally matched differences in water temperature profile. Also, the peak size-frequency of full-grown follicles did not differ between sites, and estimates of fecundity for the second spawning season indicated that females from the reference site unexpectedly produced a lower number of gametes, Overall, site differences in gonadal condition were observed in carp of both sexes but they seemed to be associated with site differences in contaminant levels only in males. The apparent lack of association between contaminant level and gonadal condition in female carp from mildly mesotrophic Lake Mead may indicate a lack of contaminant effects in females or a confounding effect of the higher nutrient loads in the Las Vegas Bay environment.

  18. The in vitro effect of CpG-ODNs on the innate immune response of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asmi Citra Malina A. R. Tassakka; Masahiro Sakai

    2003-01-01

    Unmethylated CpG dinucleotides within bacterial DNA or synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) can activate immune cells. A panel of synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides was evaluated in vitro for their ability to enhance the innate immune response of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). In vitro addition of CpG-ODNs enhanced the phagocytic activity and superoxide anion production of stimulated kidney phagocytes. The CpG-ODNs also induced lymphocyte

  19. Toxicities of p -nitrotoluenes and their effects on blood corpuscles and ovaries in Crusian carps ( Carassius auratus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaoping Kuag; Feng Song

    2006-01-01

    p-nitrotoluene is an important organic intermediate widely used in pesticide, foamed plastics, dyestuff and medicine industries.\\u000a In this paper, Crusian carps (Carassius auratus) were exposed to dilute p-nitrotoluene solutions with different concentrations of 0, 20, 40, 80, 120, 160, 240 and 320 ?g\\/L; the subsequent physiological\\u000a responses to the chemical were observed, and the variation characteristics of blood corpuscles, ovaries

  20. Nutritional Evaluation of Seasonal Changes in Muscle Fatty Acid Composition of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Karamik Lake, Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sait Bulut; Kazim Uysal; Mustafa Cemek; Veli Gok; S. Feyza Ku?; Mehmet Karaçal?

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to determine seasonal changes of nutritional value of common carp in Karam?k Lake by determining the fatty acid composition. The levels of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in 100 g total fatty acid were found to be 28.73, 25.31, and 38.19 g in winter; 29.39, 24.06, and 35.75 g in spring; 31.05, 35.02, and 24.86

  1. Temperature shifts induce adaptive changes in the physical state of carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) erythrocyte plasma membranes in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Indranil Dey; Tibor Farkas

    1992-01-01

    Blood, freshly collected from warm- and cold-acclimated carp, Cyprinus carpio L., was cooled to 5°C for 4h or warmed to 25°C for 4h, respectively, and the fluorescence anisotropy of washed red blood cells was recorded using the fluorescent dye 3-(p-(6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatrienyl) phenyl propionic acid [DPH-PA] (which is restricted to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane) before and after the temperature

  2. Protective effect of zinc on related parameters to bone metabolism in common carp fish ( Cyprinus carpio L.) intoxified with cadmium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedram MalekpouriAli; Ali Asghar Moshtaghie; Mohammad Kazemian; Mehdi Soltani

    2011-01-01

    The short term effects of waterborne cadmium (Cd+2) on the levels of serum parameters related to bone metabolism including calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphorus (Pi) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied. Fish were treated with varying concentrations of Cd+2 (0.22, 1.1 and 2.2 mg l?1) daily for 14 days. The results obtained show that serum Pi and

  3. Diagnostic SNPs reveal widespread introgressive hybridization between introduced bighead and silver carp in the Mississippi River Basin.

    PubMed

    Lamer, James T; Ruebush, Blake C; Arbieva, Zarema H; McClelland, Michael A; Epifanio, John M; Sass, Greg G

    2015-08-01

    Hybridization among conspecifics in native and introduced habitats has important implications for biological invasions in new ecosystems. Bighead (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix) are genetically isolated and occur in sympatry within their native range. Following their introduction to North America, however, introgressant hybrids have been reported throughout their expanded range within the Mississippi River Basin (MRB). The extent of introgression, both spatially and generationally, is largely unknown. Therefore, we examined mixed-species populations from across the MRB to characterize the extent of interspecific gene flow. We assayed 2798 individuals from nine locations with a suite of species-diagnostic SNPs (57 nuclear and one mitochondrial). Forty-four per cent (n = 1244) of individuals displayed hybrid genotypes. Moreover, the composition of hybrid genotypes varied among locations and represented complex hybrid swarms with multiple generations of gene flow. Introgressive hybrids were identified from all locations, were bidirectional and followed a bimodal distribution consisting primarily of parental or parental-like genotypes and phenotypes. All described hybrid categories were present among individuals from 1999 to 2008, with parents and later-generation backcrosses representing the largest proportion of individuals among years. Our mitochondrial SNP (COII), tested on a subset of 730 individuals, revealed a silver carp maternal bias in 13 of 21 (62%) F1 hybrids, in all silver carp backcrosses, and maintained throughout many of the bighead carp backcrosses. The application of this suite of diagnostic markers and the spatial coverage permits a deeper examination of the complexity in hybrid swarms between two invasive, introduced species. PMID:26096550

  4. Seasonal fluctuation of Myxobolus gibelioi (myxosporea) plasmodia in the gills of the farmed allogynogenetic gibel carp in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guitang Wang; Weijian Yao; Xiaoning Gong; Jianguo Wang; Pin Nie

    2003-01-01

    The seasonal fluctuation of the plasmodia ofMyxobolus gibelioi Wu et Wang, 1982 in the gill filaments of the allogynogenetic gibel carpCarassius auratus gibelio (Bloch) in a fish pond in Hubei Province of China was investigated from August 1999 to July 2000. A total of 445 fish was\\u000a examined; the overall prevalence of the plasmodium infection in the fish was 64.94%

  5. [Population genetic variation and structure analysis on five populations of mirror carp Cyprinus carpio L. using microsatellites].

    PubMed

    Quan, Ying-Chun; Li, Da-Yu; Cao, Ding-Chen; Sun, Xiao-Wen; Liang, Li-Qun

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, population genetic variability and genetic structure of five populations of an important cultivation species, mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were analyzed using 30 microsatellite loci. The observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosity values, polymorphic information content (PIC) and number of effective alleles (Ae) were all determined. The genetic similarity coefficient and Nei's standard genetic distance were computed based on the allele frequencies. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was checked by chi2 test. Genetic differentiation and hierarchical partition of genetic diversity were evaluated by FST and Nm. A dendrogram was constructed based on UPGMA methods using PHYLIP software package supported by a bootstrap value of 91.0%. Totally 7,083 fragments were procured. Their lengths were from 102 bp to 446 bp. For each locus, 1-16 alleles were amplified, adding up to 356 alleles in all the 5 populations. We found the genetic variability level was relatively high in all five populations, as shown by Ae = 1.07-2.30, He= 0.70-0.78 and PIC=0.69-0.75, respectively. The genetic similarity coefficients were all above 0.52, indicating their close genetic relationships. The UPGMA phylogenetic tree showed mirror carps sampled from Donggang, Fengcheng and Liaozhong were clustered into one group and the other two populations, both collected from Songpu, were grouped together. There were obvious relations between genetic distances and geographical distributions of the five populations. No fragments were amplified from some loci of EST-SSRs, which may suggest the loss of these loci in mirror carp genome or sequence divergence at the primer binding sites. These null alleles may result from selection because functional genes are under more selection pressure than non-encoding loci. Overall, population genetic variation is high for each of the five mirror carp, and the differentiations are also significant among populations. PMID:17138540

  6. A genetic linkage map and comparative genome analysis of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L . ) using microsatellites and SNPs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xianhu Zheng; Youyi Kuang; Xiaofeng Zhang; Cuiyun Lu; Dingchen Cao; Chao Li; Xiaowen Sun

    A genetic linkage map is a powerful research tool for mapping traits of interest and is essential to understanding genome\\u000a evolution. The aim of this study is to provide an expanded genetic linkage map of common carp to effectively carry out quantitative\\u000a trait loci analysis and conduct comparative mapping analysis between lineages. Here, we constructed a genetic linkage map\\u000a of

  7. Detoxifying effect of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on hematological parameters of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Vinodhini, Rajamanickam

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on common carp exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of combined heavy metals (5 ppm) under laboratory conditions. The fish were treated with Nelumbo nucifera (500 mg/kg bwt) and Aegle marmelos (500 mg/kgbwt) for 30 days as a dietary supplement. The blood biochemical parameters of the fish were evaluated by analyzing the level of red blood cells (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration, glucose, cholesterol, iron and copper. The findings of the present investigation showed significant increase in hemoglobin (p<0.001), RBC (p<0.01) and PCV (p<0.01) of herbal drug-treated groups compared with metal-exposed fish. Conversely, glucose and cholesterol level in blood of common carp showed significant reduction compared with heavy-metal-exposed groups. All the values measured in Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos treated fish were restored comparably to control fish. Our results confirmed that Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos provide a detoxification mechanism for heavy metals in common carp. PMID:21331178

  8. Biomarker responses in caged carp (Cyprinuscarpio) and native collected fish (Leporinus obtusidens) in the Río de la Plata Estuary, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Scarcia, Paola; Calamante, Gabriela; de la Torre, Fernando

    2014-08-01

    Punta Lara is located in the Río de la Plata estuary near industrial areas contaminated mainly by organic pollutants. In this work, the responses and status of hepatic biomarkers were studied in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio) by means of a 21-day field exposure in cages and collection of juvenile native fish (Leporinus obtusidens) at Punta Lara. The analyzed hepatic biomarkers were: enzymatic activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation level using the thiobarbituric acid reaction (TBARS), and CYP1A protein expression, condition factor (CF) and liver somatic (LSI) index. Taking into account oxidative stress responses, SOD activity was increased in both species, while CAT was increased in C. carpio and decreased in L. obtusidens; TBARS levels indicated that oxidative damage was possibly exerted only in L. obtusidens. Biotransformation responses mediated by CYP1A were observed in both species, while GST activity was induced mainly in carps. Considering morphometric indices, CF and LSI were significantly increased in carps while CF decreased in native species. The anthropogenic pollution detected in this study in Punta Lara was associated with differences in biomarkers on both fish species, although a different pattern of response was observed. PMID:23125150

  9. Modulation of biochemical indices in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) under the influence of toxic cyanobacterial biomass in diet.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Radovan; Palíková, Miroslava; Navrátil, Stanislav; Mareš, Jan

    2014-12-01

    Cyanobacteria are producers of potent and environmentally abundant microcystins, representing an emerging global health issue. In the present study, we investigated the impact of cyanobacterial biomass on biochemical indices of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., average weight of 246 ± 73 g) under laboratory conditions. The fish were fed a diet containing cyanobacterial biomass with microcystins in high concentration (0.4 mg/kg of fish weight and day) for 28 days. Statistical evaluation of the influence of the cyanobacterial biomass in food on the biochemical indices of the juvenile carp showed only minor differences. The activity of aspartate aminotransferase value and the urea concentration were significantly reduced compared to control group. The biochemical parameters of fish blood plasma significantly rose during the experiment in the control group as well as in the experimental group. This state was probably influenced by the environmental conditions and the fish diet. A significant rising value was established in calcium creatinine, total protein, phosphorus, lactate, urea and natrium. The present study demonstrates that the oral exposure of toxic cyanobacterial biomass has a minor influence on the biochemical indices of common carp and that the effect of other factors, e.g., nutrition is more visible. PMID:24972534

  10. [Correlation analysis of microsatellite DNA markers with body weight, length and height of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Feng; Zhang, Yan; Lu, Cui-Yun; Cao, Ding-Chen; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2008-05-01

    Forty-seven microsatellite markers were selected to analyze the genomic DNA of 92 progenies derived from the recombinant inbred lines (RIL) of common carp, which came from the cross between Barbless carp and Hebao-cold tolerance red carp. The results showed that a total of 162 different alleles were found, and the number of alleles in each locus was 2 to 6. The DNA fragment length was 100 bp to 444 bp, and the number of mean valid alleles was 1.3069 to 4.2288. The value of heterozygosity was 0.2361 to 0.7677, and the mean polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.5368. A GLM procedure was used to analyze the effects of these 47 microsatellites on body weight, length and height. Results uncovered HLJ695, HLJ716, HLJ739, HLJ759, HLJ774 and K16 had a significant impact on body weight, length and height, and HLJ776 had a significant impact on height. In addition, the genotypes of these correlative loci were determined. PMID:18487152

  11. Effect of subacute exposure to silver nanoparticle on some hematological and plasma biochemical indices in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix).

    PubMed

    Shaluei, F; Hedayati, A; Jahanbakhshi, A; Kolangi, H; Fotovat, M

    2013-12-01

    The use of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) is rapidly increasing, but there are limited data on their effects on the aquatic environment. The present study aimed to determine the acute toxicity and evaluate the effect of subacute concentrations of Ag-NPs (Nanocid®: average particle size of 61 nm) on hematological and plasma biochemical indices of silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, after 3, 7 and 14 days. The 24-, 48-, 72- and 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50) values of Nanocid for silver carp were estimated at 0.810, 0.648, 0.383 and 0.202 mg/L, respectively; 20% and 10% of the 96-h LC50 values (0.04 and 0.02 mg/L) were selected for subacute study. Red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin (Hb) count and hematocrit (Hct) level were significantly reduced at both concentrations tested (p < 0.05). White blood cell (WBC), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), cortisol and glucose levels in Nanocid-treated groups were significantly higher than the controlled group at experimental periods (p < 0.05). In conclusion, Ag-NPs intoxication resulted in erythrocyte reduction, hematological disturbances, leucocytosis and stress response in silver carp and offered a simple tool to evaluate toxicity-derived alterations. PMID:23632006

  12. Effects and bioaccumulation of 17?-estradiol and 17?-ethynylestradiol following long-term exposure in crucian carp.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bin; Sun, Wenwen; Li, Xiaoman; Liu, Jingliang; Li, Qiang; Wang, Renmin; Pan, Xuejun

    2015-02-01

    Bioaccumulation and effects of 17?-estradiol (E2) and 17?-ethynylestradiol (EE2) were assessed by crucian carp (Carassius auratus) following single and binary mixture exposures in flow-through exposure system for 16 months. In comparison with water control (DWC) and solvent control (SC), a significant reduction in body weight, body length and gonadosomatic index (GSI), and increase in hepatosomatic index (HSI) and plasma vitellogenin (VTG) levels were observed, in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of E2 and EE2 in fish muscle ranged from 3.2 to 40 and from 64 to 123, respectively. Crucian carp were found to be more sensitive to EE2 than E2. The bioaccumulation and toxicological effects in binary mixture exposed fish (mixture of E2 and EE2) were more significant than exposure of individual compound. Crucian carp is sensitive to E2 and EE2 in long-term laboratory exposure experiments and can be used as a potential model species for investigating the toxicity of hormones. PMID:25463868

  13. Acute and subchronic effects on immune responses of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after exposure to deoxynivalenol (DON) in feed.

    PubMed

    Pietsch, Constanze; Katzenback, Barbara A; Garcia-Garcia, Erick; Schulz, Carsten; Belosevic, Miodrag; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) has been shown to regularly occur at relevant concentrations in feed designed for aquaculture use, but little is known about the consequences of its presence on the organisms that consume the DON-contaminated feed. Previous studies indicated a down-regulation of pro-inflammatory responses in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after 4 weeks of feeding DON. The present study examined the time course of innate immune responses of carp to orally administered DON. Changes in mRNA levels of immune genes in different organs (head kidney, trunk kidney, spleen, liver, and intestine) were observed indicating immune-modulating properties of DON. The immune-modulatory effects during the acute phase of DON exposure were characterized by the activation of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and enzymes in carp. The subchronic responses to DON were characterized by activation of arginases culminating in increased arginase activity in head kidney leukocytes after 26 days of DON treatment. These results suggest profound effects of this mycotoxin on fish in aquaculture. PMID:25989849

  14. Effects of pharmaceuticals on the expression of genes involved in detoxification in a carp primary hepatocyte model.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Jenna; Lange, Anke; Winter, Matthew J; Tyler, Charles R

    2012-06-01

    Fish in many surface freshwaters are exposed to a range of pharmaceuticals via wastewater treatment works effluent discharges. In mammals the pregnane X receptor (PXR) plays a key role in the regulation of a suite of genes involved in drug biotransformation, but information on the role of this response pathway in fish is limited. Here we investigated the effects of exposure of carp (Cyprinus carpio) primary hepatocytes to the human PXR agonist rifampicin (RIF) on expression of target genes involved in phase I (cyp2k, cyp3a) and phase II (gst?, gst?) drug metabolism and drug transporters mdr1 and mrp2. RIF induced expression of all target genes measured and the PXR antagonist ketoconazole (KET) inhibited responses of cyp2k and cyp3a. Exposure of the primary carp hepatocytes to the pharmaceuticals ibuprofen (IBU), clotrimazole (CTZ), clofibric acid (CFA) and propranolol (PRP), found responses to IBU and CFA, but not CTZ or PRP. This is in contrast with mammals, where CTZ is a potent PXR-agonist. Collectively our data indicate potential PXR involvement in regulating selected genes involved in drug metabolism in fish, but suggest some divergence in the regulation pathways with those in mammals. The carp primary hepatocyte model serves as a useful system for screening for responses in these target genes involved in drug metabolism. PMID:22559005

  15. [On the validity of the genus Otidilepis Yamaguti, 1959 (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae) and the classification of the rostellar hooks of its type species, O. tetraciS (Cholodkowsky, 1906)].

    PubMed

    Galkin, A K

    2014-01-01

    The type material on Otidilepis tetracis (Cholodkowsky, 1906), the type species of the genus Otidilepis Yamaguti, 1959 is reinvestigated. The validity of the genus Otidilepis is confirmed. It is clearly distinguished from the genus Hispaniolepis Lopez Neyra, 1942 by the form and dimensions of the rostellar hooks as well as by the proportions of the attachment organs of the scolex (diameter of suckers: width of the rostellum). "Orthodiorchoid" type based on the hooks of D. acuminata (Clerc, 1902), type species of the genus Diorchis Clerc, 1903, is introduced. The former "diorchoid" type, based on the hooks of D. americana Ransom, 1909, is renamed in "americanoid". Rostellar hooks of O. tetracis belong to the americanoid type. PMID:25936169

  16. Carpe Diem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegfried, Sheila M.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a spur-of-the-moment curriculum development activity involving primary-school students researching the "real" Leonardo, Donatello, Raphael, and Michelangelo behind the names of the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles. Notes that the products of the research were shared during a classroom pizza party. (RS)

  17. A Novel Soluble Immune-Type Receptor (SITR) in Teleost Fish: Carp SITR Is Involved in the Nitric Oxide-Mediated Response to a Protozoan Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Carla M. S.; Bird, Steve; Raes, Geert; Ghassabeh, Gholamreza H.; Schijns, Virgil E. J. C.; Pontes, Maria J. S. L.; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.; Wiegertjes, Geert F.

    2011-01-01

    Background The innate immune system relies upon a wide range of germ-line encoded receptors including a large number of immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) receptors. Different Ig-like immune receptor families have been reported in mammals, birds, amphibians and fish. Most innate immune receptors of the IgSF are type I transmembrane proteins containing one or more extracellular Ig-like domains and their regulation of effector functions is mediated intracellularly by distinct stimulatory or inhibitory pathways. Methodology/Principal Findings Carp SITR was found in a substracted cDNA repertoire from carp macrophages, enriched for genes up-regulated in response to the protozoan parasite Trypanoplasma borreli. Carp SITR is a type I protein with two extracellular Ig domains in a unique organisation of a N-proximal V/C2 (or I-) type and a C-proximal V-type Ig domain, devoid of a transmembrane domain or any intracytoplasmic signalling motif. The carp SITR C-proximal V-type Ig domain, in particular, has a close sequence similarity and conserved structural characteristics to the mammalian CD300 molecules. By generating an anti-SITR antibody we could show that SITR protein expression was restricted to cells of the myeloid lineage. Carp SITR is abundantly expressed in macrophages and is secreted upon in vitro stimulation with the protozoan parasite T. borreli. Secretion of SITR protein during in vivo T. borreli infection suggests a role for this IgSF receptor in the host response to this protozoan parasite. Overexpression of carp SITR in mouse macrophages and knock-down of SITR protein expression in carp macrophages, using morpholino antisense technology, provided evidence for the involvement of carp SITR in the parasite-induced NO production. Conclusion/Significance We report the structural and functional characterization of a novel soluble immune-type receptor (SITR) in a teleost fish and propose a role for carp SITR in the NO-mediated response to a protozoan parasite. PMID:21305002

  18. Catch-and-Release Mortality of Spotted Seatrout in Texas: Effects of Tournaments, Seasonality, and Anatomical Hooking Location

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason T. James; Gregory W. Stunz; David A. McKee; Robert R. Vega

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess initial and delayed mortality of spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus captured during live-release tournaments. Additionally, we examined spotted seatrout mortality as a function of season and anatomical hooking location. We assessed tournament-related mortality at 10 live-release fishing tournaments held in four Texas bays—Galveston, Matagorda, Aransas, and Upper Laguna Madre—from February 2004 to April

  19. Preparation and properties of flours and protein concentrates from raw, fermented and germinated fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook) seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunday Y. Giami; Isaac Isichei

    1999-01-01

    In vitro protein digestibility, chemical composition and selected functional properties of flours and protein concentrates prepared from raw, fermented and germinated fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook) seeds were studied. Protein concentrates prepared by an alkaline extraction process had increased crude protein contents (61.5–70.8%) compared to flour samples (46.4–52.7%). The yields of protein concentrates ranged from 24.5% to 29.4% while values

  20. Navigation study on improvements to existing federal navigation channels Arthur Kill Channel, Howland Hook Marine Terminal, Staten Island, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-06-01

    Improvements to the Arthur Kill Channel from the confluence of the Kill Van Kull Channel, the Arthur Kill Channel, and Newark Bay, along the Arthur Kill to the vicinity of Howland Hook Marine Terminal on Staten Island, New York are proposed. In addition, the study area was extended south from Howland Hook Terminal for approximately one mile in order to serve two oil terminals. The recommended improvements would include deepening to various depths down to 45 feet mean low water (MLW), widening the channel for unrestricted two-way traffic, and the creation of a turning basin. Specifically, a 41-foot MLW deep channel would be dredged in the previously authorized 35-foot MLW project in the Arthur Kill Channel from its confluence with the Newark Bay and Kill Van Kull channels to the Howland Hook Marine Terminal for a distance of approximately 2.1 miles. Also recommended are selected widenings and realignments of the channel at a depth of 41 feet in the interest of navigational safety. Additionally, a 40-foot MLW channel is proposed in the previously authorized 35-foot MLW project in the Arthur Kill Channel from the Howland Hook Marine Terminal to the Exxon Bayway and Gulfport facilities for a distance of approximately one mile. The channel would be selectively realigned to a 40-foot depth for navigational safety. No final determination has been made regarding the disposal of dredged material due to the uncertainty of available upland sites at this time. The turning basin would lie in the Kill Van Kull Channel at Bergen Point, where vessels turn from Kill Van Kull into Arthur Kill and Newark Bay. Total cost of the recommended plan is $49.4 million; the benefit-cost ratio is 4.35. The plan would take 4 years for completion and would have a projected life of 50 years.

  1. Successful removal of a Gunther tulip vena cava filter with wall-embedded hook and migration during a retrieval attempt.

    PubMed

    Yamagami, Takuji; Yoshimatsu, Rika; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2013-01-01

    Retrieval of a Gunther tulip vena cava filter implanted in a patient with inferior vena cava and right common iliac vein thrombosis was attempted by the standard method. Because the filter was tilted, the hook became attached to the vena cava wall and could not be snared. During attempts at removal by an alternative method, the filter migrated toward the right atrium. However, it was finally successfully removed. PMID:23986855

  2. Larvicidal activities of Knema attenuata (Hook. f. & Thomson) Warb. (Myristicaceae) extracts against Aedes albopictus Skuse and Anopheles stephensi Liston

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vinayachandra; R. Shwetha; K. R. Chandrashekar

    In recent years, uses of environment friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin have received renewed\\u000a attention as agents for vector control. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of aril and kernel extracts\\u000a of Knema attenuata (Hook. f. & Thomson) Warb. (Myristicaceae) on larvae of Aedes albopictus Skuse and Anopheles stephensi Liston under laboratory conditions. The

  3. Effects of salt concentration on biogenic amine formation and quality changes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fillets stored at 4 and 20 °C.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hang; Luo, Yongkang; Yin, Xiaofei; Wu, Hua; Bao, Yulong; Hong, Hui

    2014-05-01

    The effects of different salt concentrations on the quality changes of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fillets were evaluated in terms of biogenic amines, adenosine triphosphate and its related compounds, sensory attributes, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), and total viable counts during 4 and 20 °C storage. Grass carp fillets were brined in solutions of 2% NaCl (T1) and 10% NaCl (T2), and unsalted carp fillets were used as controls (CK). T1 and T2 showed higher sensory scores than CK. According to the TVB-N values, CK, T1, and T2 could maintain the freshness of carp for approximately 9, 12, and 27 days, respectively, when stored at 4 °C. The higher salt concentration had better inhibitory effect on the accumulation of some biogenic amines, such as tryptamine (TRM), 2-phenylethylamine (PHE), putrescine (PUT), and cadaverine (CAD). TVB-N of untreated grass carp fillets showed a significant (P < 0.05) correlation with TRM, PHE, PUT, and CAD during storage. PUT and CAD showed a significant (P < 0.05) correlation with TVB-N for T2 at 20 °C and T1 at 4 °C. PMID:24780335

  4. Effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharide supplementation on the growth performance, haemato-immunological parameters, gut microbiota and stress resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry.

    PubMed

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Soleimani, Narges; Ringø, Einar

    2014-10-28

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) (0, 1, 2 and 3%) supplementation on the growth performance, haemato-immunological parameters, cultivable autochthonous (non-adherent) intestinal microbiota and stress resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry (3·23 (SEM 0·14) g). These parameters were measured after feeding the carp fry with the experimental diets for 7 weeks. Dietary FOS supplementation had no significant effects on the growth performance and food intake of carp fry compared with the control treatment. It also had no significant effects on the following haematological parameters: erythrocyte count; leucocyte counts (WBC); haematocrit; Hb; mean corpuscular volume; mean corpuscular Hb content; mean corpuscular Hb concentration. However, WBC and respiratory burst activity were significantly affected by dietary FOS supplementation. Evaluation of the cultivable autochthonous intestinal microbiota revealed a significant increase in the levels of total viable heterotrophic aerobic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria in fish fed diets supplemented with 2 and 3% FOS. Furthermore, dietary FOS supplementation significantly increased the survival rate and stress resistance of carp fry compared with the control treatment. These results encourage conducting further research on the administration of FOS and other prebiotics in carp fry studies. PMID:25313574

  5. Kohn condition and exotic Newton-Hooke symmetry in the non-commutative Landau problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, P.-M.; Horvathy, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    N “exotic” [alias non-commutative] particles with masses ma, charges ea and non-commutative parameters ?a, moving in a uniform magnetic field B, separate into center-of-mass and internal motions if Kohn's condition ea /ma =const is supplemented with ea?a =const. Then the center-of-mass behaves as a single exotic particle carrying the total mass and charge of the system, M and e, and a suitably defined non-commutative parameter ?. For vanishing electric field off the critical case e?B ? 1, the particles perform the usual cyclotronic motion with modified but equal frequency. The system is symmetric under suitable time-dependent translations which span a (4 + 2)-parameter centrally-extended subgroup of the “exotic” [i.e., two-parameter centrally-extended] Newton-Hooke group. In the critical case B =Bc =(e?) - 1 the system is frozen into a static “crystal” configuration. Adding a constant electric field, all particles perform, collectively, a cyclotronic motion combined with a drift perpendicular to the electric field when e?B ? 1. For B =Bc the cyclotronic motion is eliminated and all particles move, collectively, following the Hall law. Our time-dependent symmetries are reduced to the (2 + 1)-parameter Heisenberg group of centrally-extended translations.

  6. Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in an epiphytic ant-plant, Myrmecodia beccarii Hook.f. (Rubiaceae).

    PubMed

    Tsen, Edward W J; Holtum, Joseph A M

    2012-09-01

    This study demonstrates unequivocally the presence of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in a species of the Rubiaceae, the fourth largest angiosperm plant family. The tropical Australian endemic epiphytic ant-plant, Myrmecodia beccarii Hook.f., exhibits net CO(2) uptake in the dark and a concomitant accumulation of titratable acidity in plants in the field and in cultivation. Plants growing near Cardwell, in a north Queensland coastal seasonally dry forest of Melaleuca viridiflora Sol. ex Gaertn., accumulated ~50 % of their 24 h carbon gain in the dark during the warm wet season. During the transition from the wet season to the dry season, 24 h carbon gain was reduced whilst the proportion of carbon accumulated during the dark increased. By mid dry season many plants exhibited zero net carbon uptake over 24 h, but CO(2) uptake in the dark was observed in some plants following localised rainfall. In a shade-house experiment, droughted plants in which CO(2) uptake in the light was absent and dark CO(2) uptake was reduced, were able to return to relatively high rates of CO(2) uptake in the light and dark within 12 h of rewatering. PMID:22442054

  7. Kohn's Theorem, Larmor's Equivalence Principle and the Newton-Hooke Group

    E-print Network

    G. W. Gibbons; C. N. Pope

    2010-11-10

    We consider non-relativistic electrons, each of the same charge to mass ratio, moving in an external magnetic field with an interaction potential depending only on the mutual separations, possibly confined by a harmonic trapping potential. We show that the system admits a "relativity group" which is a one-parameter family of deformations of the standard Galilei group to the Newton-Hooke group which is a Wigner-Inonu contraction of the de Sitter group. This allows a group-theoretic interpretation of Kohn's theorem and related results. Larmor's Theorem is used to show that the one-parameter family of deformations are all isomorphic. We study the "Eisenhart" or "lightlike" lift of the system, exhibiting it as a pp-wave. In the planar case, the Eisenhart lift is the Brdicka-Eardley-Nappi-Witten pp-wave solution of Einstein-Maxwell theory, which may also be regarded as a bi-invariant metric on the Cangemi-Jackiw group.

  8. Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Hibiscus schizopetalus (Mast) Hook in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Zahid, Hina; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Shareef, Huma; Khursheed, Raheela; Huma, Ambreen; Hasan, S M Farid

    2014-01-01

    The antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of Hibiscus schizopetalus (Mast) Hook (Malvaceae) flower and leaves extracts were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The hypoglycemic activity of both the extracts (100mg/kg, body weight) was tested in fasting normal rat, glucose loaded rats. Observation on body weight was also recorded. The extracts showed a significant (p<0.001) reduction in blood glucose level in normal fasting rats. In glucose tolerance test, significant (p<0.01) decreased observed in all glucose loaded animals. While in alloxan induced diabetic rats, the percent blood glucose reduction was 59.94% and 45.14% in extracts treated groups. The results obtained were compared with the reference standard drug Tolbutamide (100mg/kg, body weight). The diabetic rats showed sign of decreased in their body weight during the treatment period. Cholesterol and triglycerides levels were significantly decreased (p<0.001) by HFE. The results obtained demonstrated the potential hypoglycemic activity of methanolic extracts of H. schizopetalus. There is need of bioassay-directed assay of the active principles responsible for the anti-diabetic activity. The methanolic extracts showed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, steroids, terpenes, saponins and glycosides. PMID:24374457

  9. Control performance evaluation of railway vehicle MR suspension using fuzzy sky-ground hook control algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, S. H.; Choi, S. B.; Lee, G. S.; Yoo, W. H.

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents control performance evaluation of railway vehicle featured by semi-active suspension system using magnetorheological (MR) fluid damper. In order to achieve this goal, a nine degree of freedom of railway vehicle model, which includes car body and bogie, is established. The wheel-set data is loaded from measured value of railway vehicle. The MR damper system is incorporated with the governing equation of motion of the railway vehicle model which includes secondary suspension. To illustrate the effectiveness of the controlled MR dampers on suspension system of railway vehicle, the control law using the sky-ground hook controller is adopted. This controller takes into account for both vibration control of car body and increasing stability of bogie by adopting a weighting parameter between two performance requirements. The parameters appropriately determined by employing a fuzzy algorithm associated with two fuzzy variables: the lateral speed of the car body and the lateral performance of the bogie. Computer simulation results of control performances such as vibration control and stability analysis are presented in time and frequency domains.

  10. Characterizations of two grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella HMGB2 genes and potential roles in innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Rao, Youliang; Su, Jianguo; Yang, Chunrong; Peng, Limin; Feng, Xiaoli; Li, Qingmei

    2013-10-01

    High-mobility group box 2 (HMGB2) protein is a chromatin-associated nonhistone protein, involved in transcriptional regulation and nucleic-acid-mediated innate immune responses in mammalian. However, the function of piscine HMGB2 in innate immune responses is still unknown. In the present study, two HMGB2 homologue genes (CiHMGB2a, CiHMGB2b) were identified and characterized in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Both CiHMGB2a and CiHMGB2b genes encode proteins with 213 amino acids, sharing 71.4% identities and containing two basic HMG boxes and an acidic tail. The deduced protein sequences showed the most identities to HMGB2a (93%) and HMGB2b (86.4%) of zebrafish (Danio rerio), respectively. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that CiHMGB2a and CiHMGB2b were constitutively expressed in all the 15 tested tissues. Post grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection, mRNA levels of CiHMGB2a and CiHMGB2b were strongly up-regulated in spleen and head kidney and mildly modulated in C. idella kidney (CIK) cells. Meanwhile, mRNA expressions of CiHMGB2a and CiHMGB2b were significantly regulated by viral pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) polyinosinic-polycytidylic potassium salt (poly(I:C)) and bacterial PAMPs lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN) challenge in CIK cells. In CiHMGB2a and CiHMGB2b over-expression cells, expressions of CiHMGB2a and CiHMGB2b facilitated each other; transcription levels of CiTRIF, CiMyD88, CiIPS-1 and CiMx1 were remarkably enhanced, whereas CiIFN-I was inhibited, compared with those in cells transfected with pCMV (control plasmid); after GCRV challenge, all those tested genes were up-regulated with divergent expression profiles. Antiviral activities of CiHMGB2a and CiHMGB2b were manifested by the delayed appearance of cytopathic effect (CPE) and inhibition of GCRV yield. All those results demonstrate that CiHMGB2a and CiHMGB2b not only mediate antiviral immune responses but also involve in responding to viral/bacterial PAMPs challenge, which provides novel insights into the essential role of HMGB2 in innate immunity. PMID:23756189

  11. Mechanisms of Neuroblastoma Cell Growth Inhibition by CARP-1 Functional Mimetics

    PubMed Central

    Muthu, Magesh; Cheriyan, Vino T.; Munie, Sara; Levi, Edi; Frank, John; Ashour, Abdelkader E.; Singh, Mandip; Rishi, Arun K.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroblastomas (NBs) are a clinically heterogeneous group of extra cranial pediatric tumors. Patients with high-risk, metastatic NBs have a long-term survival rate of below 40%, and are often resistant to current therapeutic modalities. Due to toxic side effects associated with radiation and chemotherapies, development of new agents is warranted to overcome resistance and effectively treat this disease in clinic. CARP-1 functional mimetics (CFMs) are an emerging class of small molecule compounds that inhibit growth of diverse cancer cell types. Here we investigated NB inhibitory potential of CFMs and the molecular mechanisms involved. CFM-1, -4, and -5 inhibited NB cell growth, in vitro, independent of their p53 and MYCN status. CFM-4 and -5 induced apoptosis in NB cells in part by activating pro-apoptotic stress-activated kinases (SAPKs) p38 and JNK, stimulating CARP-1 expression and cleavage of PARP1, while promoting loss of the oncogenes C and N-myc as well as mitotic cyclin B1. Treatments of NB cells with CFM-4 or -5 also resulted in loss of Inhibitory ?B (I?B) ? and ? proteins. Micro-RNA profiling revealed upregulation of XIAP-targeting miR513a-3p in CFM-4-treated NB, mesothelioma, and breast cancer cells. Moreover, exposure of NB and breast cancer cells to CFM-4 or -5 resulted in diminished expression of anti-apoptotic XIAP1, cIAP1, and Survivin proteins. Expression of anti-miR513a-5p or miR513a-5p mimic, however, interfered with or enhanced, respectively, the breast cancer cell growth inhibition by CFM-4. CFMs also impacted biological properties of the NB cells by blocking their abilities to migrate, form colonies in suspension, and invade through the matrix-coated membranes. Our studies indicate anti-NB properties of CFM-4 and 5, and suggest that these CFMs and/or their future analogs have potential as anti-NB agents. PMID:25033461

  12. Vitellogenin induction and reduced serum testosterone concentrations in feral male carp (Cyprinus carpio) captured near a major metropolitan sewage treatment plant.

    PubMed Central

    Folmar, L C; Denslow, N D; Rao, V; Chow, M; Crain, D A; Enblom, J; Marcino, J; Guillette, L J

    1996-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals can potentially alter the reproductive physiology of fishes. To test this hypothesis, serum was collected from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at five riverine locations in Minnesota. Male fish collected from an effluent channel below the St. Paul metropolitan sewage treatment plant had significantly elevated serum egg protein (vitellogenin) concentrations and significantly decreased serum testosterone concentrations compared to male carp collected from the St. Croix River, classified as a National Wild and Scenic River. Carp collected from the Minnesota River, which receives significant agricultural runoff, also exhibited depressed serum testosterone concentrations, but no serum vitellogenin was apparent. These data suggest that North American rivers are receiving estrogenic chemicals that are biologically active, as has been reported in Great Britain. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. A Figure 2. B PMID:8930552

  13. Hydraulic and water-quality data collection for the investigation of Great Lakes tributaries for Asian carp spawning and egg-transport suitability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, P. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    If the invasive Asian carps (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) migrate to the Great Lakes, in spite of the efforts to stop their advancement, these species will require the fast-flowing water of the Great Lakes tributaries for spawning and recruitment in order to establish a growing population. Two Lake Michigan tributaries (the Milwaukee and St. Joseph Rivers) and two Lake Erie tributaries (the Maumee and Sandusky Rivers) were investigated to determine if these tributaries possess the hydraulic and water-quality characteristics to allow successful spawning of Asian carps. To examine this issue, standard U.S. Geological Survey sampling protocols and instrumentation for discharge and water-quality measurements were used, together with differential global positioning system data for georeferencing. Non-standard data-processing techniques, combined with detailed laboratory analysis of Asian carp egg characteristics, allowed an assessment of the transport capabilities of each of these four tributaries. This assessment is based solely on analysis of observed data and did not utilize the collected data for detailed transport modeling. All four tributaries exhibited potential settling zones for Asian carp eggs both within the estuaries and river mouths and within the lower 100 kilometers (km) of the river. Dams played a leading role in defining these settling zones, with the exception of dams on the Sandusky River. The impoundments created by many of the larger dams on these rivers acted to sufficiently decelerate the flows and allowed the shear velocity to drop below the settling velocity for Asian carp eggs, which would allow the eggs to fall out of suspension and settle on the bottom where it is thought the eggs would perish. While three rivers exhibited these settling zones upstream of the larger dams, not all settling zones are likely to have such effects on egg transport. The Milwaukee River exhibited only a short settling zone upstream of the Grafton Dam, whereas the St. Joseph and Maumee Rivers both had extensive settling zones (>5 km) behind major dams. These longer settling zones are likely to capture more eggs than shorter settling reaches. All four rivers exhibited settling zones at their river mouths, with the Lake Erie tributaries having much larger settling zones extending more than 10 km up the tributaries. While hydraulic data from all four rivers indicated settling of eggs is possible in some locations, all four rivers also exhibited sufficient temperatures, water-quality characteristics, turbulence, and transport times outside of settling zones for successful suspension and development of Asian carp eggs to the hatching stage before the threat of settlement. These observed data indicate that these four Great Lakes tributaries have sufficient hydraulic and water-quality characteristics to support successful spawning and recruitment of Asian carps. The data indicate that with the right temperature and flow conditions, river reaches as short as 25 km may allow Asian carp eggs sufficient time to develop to hatching. Additionally, examining the relation between critical shear velocity and mean velocity, egg settling appears to take place at mean velocities in the range of 15–25 centimeters per second, a much lower value than is generally cited in the literature. A first-order estimate of the minimum transport velocity for Asian carp eggs in a river can be obtained by using mean flow depth and river substrate data, and curves were constructed to show this relation. These findings would expand the number of possible tributaries suitable for Asian carp spawning and contribute to the understanding of how hydraulic and water-quality information can be used to screen additional rivers in the future.

  14. [Composition of leucocytes of the head kidney of the crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) as affected by invasion of cestode Digramma interrupta (Cestoda; Pseudophyllidea)].

    PubMed

    Kutyrev, I A; Pronin, N M; Dugarov, Zh N

    2011-01-01

    The composition of leucocytes of the head kidney is studied in the crucian carps (Carassius auratus) either contaminated or uncontaminated with Digramma interrupta. The composition of leucocytes in the pronephros of the crucian carp from Lake Baikal basin has a lymphoid character. Compared to the crucian carp from the European part of Russia, in the fish from Baikal the granulocytopoetic processes are more pronounced. This is proved by the high content of young forms of granulocytes. In the fish infected with digramma, the immune suppression of proliferation of blasts and young forms of eosinophils was revealed. On the other hand, the inflammatory and humoral specific immune reactions are enhanced. Partial suppression of the immune response of C. auratus to invasion by D. interrupta facilitates development of the parasite. PMID:22292296

  15. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons to study the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The microbes in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are of high importance for the health of the host. In this study, Roche 454 pyrosequencing was applied to a pooled set of different 16S rRNA gene amplicons obtained from GI content of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to make an inventory of the diversity of the microbiota in the GI tract. Compared to other studies, our culture-independent investigation reveals an impressive diversity of the microbial flora of the carp GI tract. The major group of obtained sequences belonged to the phylum Fusobacteria. Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes and Gammaproteobacteria were other well represented groups of micro-organisms. Verrucomicrobiae, Clostridia and Bacilli (the latter two belonging to the phylum Firmicutes) had fewer representatives among the analyzed sequences. Many of these bacteria might be of high physiological relevance for carp as these groups have been implicated in vitamin production, nitrogen cycling and (cellulose) fermentation. PMID:22093413

  16. Local and systemic adaptive immune responses toward viral infection via gills in ginbuna crucian carp.

    PubMed

    Somamoto, Tomonori; Miura, Yuhei; Nakanishi, Teruyuki; Nakao, Miki

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies on fish immunity highlighted the significance of gills as mucosal immune tissues. To understand potential of gills as vaccination sites for inducing adaptive systemic immunity, we investigated virus-specific cell-mediated and humoral immune responses following a "per-gill infection method", which directly exposes virus only to gills. The viral load in crucian carp hematopoietic necrosis virus (CHNV)-infected gills decreased after peaking at a particular time point. Furthermore, the viral titers in the gills following the secondary infection were lower than that after the primary infection, indicating that local adaptive immunity helped the elimination of virus. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that IFN-? in gills and perforin in kidney were increased after the gill infection. CD8(+) cells in kidney leukocytes increased after the secondary infection, whereas IgM(+) cells decreased. These results suggest that IFN-? and CTL contribute in controlling CHNV-replication in gills and kidney. Gill infection could induce specific cell-mediated cytotoxicity of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and secretion of CHNV-specific IgM in serum, indicating that local priming of the gill site can generate adaptive systemic immunity. Thus, the gills could be prospective antigen-sensitization sites for mucosal vaccination. PMID:25936589

  17. Proteomic analysis of extracellular medium of cryopreserved carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) semen.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Mariola A; Arnold, Georg J; Fröhlich, Thomas; Otte, Kathrin A; Dietrich, Grzegorz J; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    During freezing and thawing, spermatozoa are exposed to physical and chemical stressors that result in adverse changes in sperm structures and physiological functions. The present study provides, for the first time, a comprehensive description of protein changes in the extracellular medium of cryopreserved semen. Using 2D-DIGE and a combination of protein fractionation by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, 183 proteins released from sperm to an extracellular medium were identified. The majority of released proteins were involved in metabolism and energy production. Moreover, proteins associated with a response to stress, apoptosis, small GTPase mediated signal transduction, transcription, translation, protein folding and turnover, reproduction and DNA repair were identified. The dominant group of released proteins was related to cytoplasm. Moreover, specific proteins associated with the membrane, mitochondria and nucleus were identified. The identification of a high number of proteins released from sperm provides new insight into the mechanism of cryodamage to the particular sperm structure and to specific metabolic pathways, which were affected by cryopreservation. The availability of a catalog of carp sperm proteins altered by cryopreservation provides a crucial tool for the development of novel potential biomarkers of cryoinjuries and for the improvement of a long-term sperm preservation procedure. PMID:26125334

  18. Exposure to tebuconazol in rice field and laboratory conditions induces oxidative stress in carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Toni, Cândida; Loro, Vania Lucia; Santi, Adriana; de Menezes, Charlene Cavalheiro; Cattaneo, Roberta; Clasen, Bárbara Estevão; Zanella, Renato

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides can have an effect on the biochemical and physiological functions of living organisms. The changes seen in fish and their response to pesticides can be used as an example for vertebrate toxicity. In this study, carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to different concentrations of tebuconazol fungicide, by rice field (31.95 ?g/L) and laboratory (33.47 and 36.23 ?g/L) conditional testing, during a 7 day period. Parameters such thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels (TBARS), protein carbonyl, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities were studied, using the liver, brain and white muscle of the fish. The field experiment showed that the TBARS levels were increased in all the analyzed tissues. Similarly, the protein carbonyl of the liver and the brain AChE activity increased after 7 days. The laboratory experiment demonstrated that the TBARS levels in the liver were increased in both of the concentration tests. TBARS levels in the muscle increased only by the lowest test concentration. On the other hand, the protein carbonyl was increased only by the highest concentration. The results indicate that the tebuconazol exposure from the field and laboratory conditions directly affected the health of the fish, showing the occurrence of oxidative stress. PMID:20888428

  19. Antiparasitic effect of cynatratoside-C from Cynanchum atratum against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis on grass carp.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yao-Wu; Zhang, Qi-Zhong; Xu, De-Hai; Liang, Jing-Han; Wang, Bin

    2014-07-23

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich), a fish ectoparasite, comprises an important challenge in the aquaculture industry. In this study, a steroidal glycoside, cynatratoside-C, isolated from Cynanchum atratum roots by bioassay-guided fractionation was used to treat I. multifiliis. The cynatratoside-C at 0.25 mg/L demonstrated a 100% mortality of I. multifiliis in vitro after 5 h exposure. The 5 h median effective concentration (EC50) of cynatratoside-C to nonencysted tomonts was 0.083 mg/L. In addition, cynatratoside-C at concentrations of 0.125 and 0.06 mg/L could completely terminate the reproduction of encysted tomonts. The cynatratoside-C at 2 mg/L could cure the infected grass carp within 48 h. The exact mechanism of cynatratoside-C for killing I. multifiliis is unknown, but it manifests itself microscopically through loss of membrane integrity of nonencysted tomonts or through releasing immature theronts from encysted tomonts. The immature theronts finally died before infecting fish. On the basis of these results, cynatratoside-C could be used as a natural anti-I. multifiliis agent. PMID:24980562

  20. Some quality aspects of fish patties prepared from an Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Ham.).

    PubMed

    Sehgal, H S; Shahi, Meenakshi; Sehgal, G K; Thind, S S

    2008-05-01

    Six different types of fish patties were prepared from de-boned meat of three weight groups (250 500 g, 501-750 g, and 751-1,000 g) of an Indian major carp, Labeo rohita, using two extenders (boiled potato and corn flour). The weight of the fish and the type of the extender affected the nutritional quality of the patties. Cooking lowered the crude protein but increased the total lipid, total soluble sugars, and contents of the patties. Cooking yield increased with an increase in the weight of the fish. Similarly, the use of corn flour as the extender resulted in a higher cooking yield and higher fat retention capacity than boiled potato. The type of extender had no effect on the water-holding capacity of the patties. The weight of the fish and the extender had no significant effect on appearance, colour, flavour, taste, and the overall acceptability of the product. However, the patties prepared from 250-500 g and 501-750 g weight groups with corn flour as the extender had a significantly higher score for their texture. The total plate count suggested that the patties were safe (from microbiological point of view) up to a storage period of 80 days. PMID:17852491

  1. Perfluorinated compounds in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fillets from the Upper Mississippi River.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xibiao; Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Jahns, Nathan D; Delinsky, Amy D; Strynar, Mark J; Varns, Jerry; Nakayama, Shoji F; Helfant, Larry; Lindstrom, Andrew B

    2008-10-01

    Ten different perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluooctane sulfonate (PFOS), were measured in 30 common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fillets collected from three sites on the Upper Mississippi River in Minnesota in an effort to evaluate the potential impact of PFAA emissions in this area. Samples upstream of the city of St. Cloud (reference site) had median PFOS concentrations of 8.1 ng/g wet weight (ng/g wet wt), but median levels increased significantly downstream in the Minneapolis-St. Paul urban area, with concentrations from the Pig's Eye Lake site at 26 ng/g wet wt (p = 0.0015) and the Spring Lake site at 40 ng/g wet wt (p = 0.0004). This latter PFOS concentration is within the advisory range for limiting fish consumption to one meal a week according to the Minnesota Department of Health. Other PFAAs were also found to increase significantly between the reference site and the Minneapolis-St. Paul area, but maximal concentrations remained below 2.0 ng/g wet wt. This study demonstrates the bioaccumulation of PFAAs in a ubiquitous fish species in a major urban area known to have historical inputs of various PFAA compounds. The full extent of this contamination and the potential for accumulation in other species remain to be evaluated. PMID:18439677

  2. Biological uptake and depuration of sulfadiazine and sulfamethoxazole in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongxia; Liu, Sisi; Chen, Jingwen; Jiang, Jingqiu; Xie, Qing; Quan, Xie

    2015-02-01

    Sulfonamides, a class of the most commonly used antibiotics, are being increasingly released into the aquatic environment and have recently caused considerable concerns. However, knowledge on their fate and ecotoxicological effects upon aquatic organisms is not understood yet. This work investigated mainly the bioconcentration kinetics (uptake/depuration) of sulfadiazine (SDZ) and sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) by exposure in different concentrations under semi-static conditions for 48 d. The uptake rate (k1), growth-corrected depuration rate (k 2g), and biological half-lives (t1/2) of two sulfonamides in liver and muscle were determined and they were 0.135-9.84 L kg(-1)d(-1), 0.0361-0.838 d(-1), 8.3-19.2d, respectively. With exposure concentrations increasing, the uptake rates in liver and muscle decreased obviously but the depuration rates were not closely related with the exposure concentrations. SDZ exhibited higher uptake but lower excretion rates in almost all the liver and muscle than SMZ, resulting in both higher BCFs and half-lives for SDZ. The growth-corrected bioconcentration factors (BCF kg) were measured to be 1.65-165.73 L kg(-1)ww and their averages were in good consistency with the values predicted by previous models within one log unit. The work presented here was the first to model bioconcentration of SMZ and SDZ from water by laboratory-exposed fish. PMID:25462302

  3. Toxicity of Citrate-Capped Silver Nanoparticles in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byoungcheun; Duong, Cuong Ngoc; Cho, Jaegu; Lee, Jaewoo; Kim, Kyungtae; Seo, Youngrok; Kim, Pilje; Choi, Kyunghee; Yoon, Junheon

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were used as a model to investigate acute toxicity and oxidative stress caused by silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs). The fish were exposed to different concentrations of Ag-NPs for 48 h and 96 h. After exposure, antioxidant enzyme levels were measured, including glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxidase dismutase, and catalase (CAT). Other biochemical parameters and histological abnormalities in different tissues (i.e., the liver, gills, and brain) were also examined. The results showed that Ag-NPs agglomerated in freshwater used during the exposure experiments, with particle size remaining <100?nm. Ag-NPs had no lethal effect on fish after 4 days of exposure. Biochemical analysis showed that enzymatic activities in the brain of the fish exposed to 200??g/L of Ag-NPs were significantly reduced. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded in the liver and gills. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded for CAT in the liver and GST in the gills of the fish. However, the recovery rate of fish exposed to 200??g/L of Ag-NPs was slower than when lower particle concentrations were used. Other biochemical indices showed no significant difference, except for NH3 and blood urea nitrogen concentrations in fish exposed to 50??g/L of Ag-NPs. This study provides new evidence about the effects of nanoparticles on aquatic organisms. PMID:23093839

  4. Experimental susceptibility of Caspian white fish, Rutilus frisii kutum to Spring viraemia of carp virus.

    PubMed

    Zamani, H; Ghasemi, M; Hosseini, S M; Haghighi Karsidani, S

    2014-01-01

    Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) is a fish of the family Cyprinidae, which is commercially harvested from the Caspian Sea. Experimental infection with Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) was conducted in order to examine susceptibility of caspian White Fish and clinical impacts of infection. Fingerling fish were injected intra-peritoneally or waterborne-exposed with SVCV and were monitored daily for 7 weeks. Dead fish and those survived at the end of experimental period were collected for virus isolation and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis. Epithelioma papulosum cyprini cell line was used to re-isolate the virus and indirect fluorescent antibody test was conducted to identify the isolated virus. Infection trials showed that SVCV was highly pathogenic for the Caspian White Fish with mortality rate ranging from 75 to 85 %, depending on the viral challenge model. SVCV genome was detected from dead and apparently healthy fish tissues of both virus exposure models, which showed Caspian White Fish not only can be regarded as a susceptible host, but also serve as a vector of the virus. PMID:24426310

  5. Caspian White Fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) as a host for Spring Viraemia of Carp Virus.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, M; Zamani, H; Hosseini, S M; Haghighi Karsidani, S; Bergmann, S M

    2014-06-01

    Rutilus frisii kutum is a fish of the Cyprinidae Family which is native in Caspian Sea and commercially cultured in Iran. This study was conducted to investigate susceptibility of Caspian White Fish to Spring Viraemia of Carp Virus (SVCV) infection and to evaluate influence of different challenge routes on virulence of the virus. Fingerlings were infected by immersion, intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injection, cohabitation and orally. Dead and surviving fish were collected for histological examination as well as for virus re-isolation by cell culture, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerization Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT) analysis. The results indicated that immersion was the best infectious route of transmission with the highest mortality, whereas oral transmission showed the lowest mortality. The virus was also re-isolated from dead fish and identified by IFAT. In addition, histopathological changes including branchial, hepatic and splenic necrosis as well as glomerulonephritis and necrosis in kidney were observed in diseased fish tissues but not in the survivors. RT-PCR on samples obtained from surviving fish tissues detected viral genome in the fish surviving from immersion, i.p. injection and cohabitation challenges but not in the fish infected orally. In conclusion, Caspian White Fish are susceptible to infection by SVCV and virulence of the virus could be influenced by route of transmission. In addition, SVCV could persist in surviving fish, which may serve as reservoirs of the virus, transmitting infection to healthy fish population. PMID:24685241

  6. Experimental Infection of Koi Carp with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus type IVb.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, Emily R; Labuda, Sandra L; Groocock, Geoffrey H; Getchell, Rodman G; Bowser, Paul R

    2013-03-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) type IVb has a wide host range that includes at least three cyprinid species: Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas, Emerald Shiner Notropis atherinoides, and Bluntnose Minnow P. notatus. To date, VHSV IVb has only been found in wild fish. However, the possibility of infection in culture facilities remains. Koi Carp Cyprinus carpio are a major ornamental aquaculture species in the United States; however, their potential to become infected with VHSV IVb has not yet been examined. In this study, we exposed Koi to 3 × 10(6) PFU VHSV Great Lakes isolate MI03 by intraperitoneal injection. While we observed low mortality (0-5%), VHSV was isolated in cell culture from the majority of fish up to 28 d postexposure (DPE) and was detected by a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay up to 90 DPE, when the trial was terminated. The results of this study strongly suggest that Koi are at risk for VHSV infection, although their susceptibility by intraperitoneal injection appears to be low. This study also provides more evidence of the sensitivity of qRT-PCR for detection of VHSV IVb. PMID:23289973

  7. DNA vaccine protects ornamental koi (Cyprinus carpio koi) against North American spring viremia of carp virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmenegger, E.J.; Kurath, G.

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) in the United States constitutes a potentially serious alien pathogen threat to susceptible fish stocks in North America. A DNA vaccine with an SVCV glycoprotein (G) gene from a North American isolate was constructed. In order to test the vaccine a challenge model utilizing a specific pathogen-free domestic koi stock and a cold water stress treatment was also developed. We have conducted four trial studies demonstrating that the pSGnc DNA vaccine provided protection in vaccinated fish against challenge at low, moderate, and high virus doses of the homologous virus. The protection was significant (p < 0.05) as compared to fish receiving a mock vaccine construct containing a luciferase reporter gene and to non-vaccinated controls in fish ranging in age from 3 to 14 months. In all trials, the SVCV-G DNA immunized fish were challenged 28-days post-vaccination (546 degree-days) and experienced low mortalities varying from 10 to 50% with relative percent survivals ranging from 50 to 88%. The non-vaccinated controls and mock construct vaccinated fish encountered high cumulative percent mortalities ranging from 70 to 100%. This is the first report of a SVCV DNA vaccine being tested successfully in koi. These experiments prove that the SVCV DNA (pSGnc) vaccine can elicit specific reproducible protection and validates its potential use as a prophylactic vaccine in koi and other vulnerable North American fish stocks.

  8. A bioenergetic model to estimate feed requirement of gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhigang Zhou; Shouqi Xie; Wu Lei; Xiaoming Zhu; Yunxia Yang

    2005-01-01

    The feeding chart for gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio was established by energetic modeling.Several sub-models were used as follows:Body energy content:E(kJ\\/fish)=exp?(1.476+1.128×ln?W(g));Fish growth:SGRe(%\\/d)=exp?(?6.320+0.667×T?0.011×T2?0.025×T×ln?W)?0.25;Feces lost:FE(kJ\\/d)=0.077×C(kJ\\/d);Non-feces excretion (nitrogenous excretion):UE+ZE(kJ\\/d)=0.052×C(kJ\\/d);Maintenance energy:HEm(kJ\\/d)=exp?(?0.830+0.021×T?(°C)+0.670×ln?W?(g))×24×13.54\\/1000;Heat increment:Hi?E(kJ\\/d)=exp?(?6.243+0.698×ln?W(g)+1.941*ln?T(°C)).Where the E, SGRe, FE, (UE+ZE), HEm, HiE, W, and T were energy content in fish body, specific growth rate in energy, feces excretion in energy, energy loss in nitrogenous excretion, energy used

  9. Gut Microbiota Contributes to the Growth of Fast-Growing Transgenic Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Shouqi; Hu, Wei; Yu, Yuhe; Hu, Zihua

    2013-01-01

    Gut microbiota has shown tight and coordinated connection with various functions of its host such as metabolism, immunity, energy utilization, and health maintenance. To gain insight into whether gut microbes affect the metabolism of fish, we employed fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to study the connections between its large body feature and gut microbes. Metagenome-based fingerprinting and high-throughput sequencing on bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicated that fish gut was dominated by Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, which displayed significant differences between transgenic fish and wild-type controls. Analyses to study the association of gut microbes with the fish metabolism discovered three major phyla having significant relationships with the host metabolic factors. Biochemical and histological analyses indicated transgenic fish had increased carbohydrate but decreased lipid metabolisms. Additionally, transgenic fish has a significantly lower Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio than that of wild-type controls, which is similar to mammals between obese and lean individuals. These findings suggest that gut microbiotas are associated with the growth of fast growing transgenic fish, and the relative abundance of Firmicutes over Bacteroidetes could be one of the factors contributing to its fast growth. Since the large body size of transgenic fish displays a proportional body growth, which is unlike obesity in human, the results together with the findings from others also suggest that the link between obesity and gut microbiota is likely more complex than a simple Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio change. PMID:23741344

  10. Morphological and molecular characterization of actinosporeans infecting oligochaete Branchiura sowerbyi from Chinese carp ponds.

    PubMed

    Xi, Bing-Wen; Zhou, Zhi-Gang; Xie, Jun; Pan, Liang-Kun; Yang, Ya-Lin; Ge, Xian-Ping

    2015-06-01

    We surveyed the actinosporean stages of fish myxosporeans at fish farms in Jiangsu Province, China, from 2011 to 2014. During the surveys, we identified 7 actinosporean types from 4 collective groups: echinactinomyxon (1 type), triactinomyxon (1 type), aurantiactinomyxon (1 type), and neoactinomyxum (4 types), released by the oligochaete Branchiura sowerbyi. The morphological characteristics and DNA sequences of these types are described here. Based on 18S rDNA sequence analysis, the actinosporean of echinactinomyxon type CZ with 4 branches at the end of the caudal processes was identified as Myxobolus wulii, and the neoactinomyxum type JD was identified as Thelohanellus wangi Yuan, Xi, Wang, Xie, Zhang, 2015 (JX458816), a recently nominated species from the gills of allogynogenetic gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio. In addition, actinosporeans of aurantiactinomyxon type JD, neoactinomyxum type CZ-1, neoactinomyxum type CZ-2, and neoactinomyxum type CZ-3 showed high genetic similarity to T. wuhanensis (96.3-96.5%), T. nikolskii (98.0-99.1%), T. wuhanensis (97.8-98.9%), and T. hovorkai (98.7-98.9%), respectively. Phylogenetic analyses showed that these actinosporeans were robustly clustered in the Thelohanellus spp. clade. PMID:26036829

  11. An improved RT-PCR assay for rapid and sensitive detection of grass carp reovirus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lanlan; Luo, Qing; Fang, Qin; Wang, Yaping

    2010-10-01

    An improved simple, rapid and sensitive method for detecting grass carp reovirus (GCRV) based on RT-PCR was developed by combining an advanced RNA extraction technique and targeting segment 10 as a template. The results indicate that highly efficient RT-PCR amplification of GCRV genome segments can be obtained using column-extracted RNA as a template, which is suitable not only for full-length gene amplification up to a size of 1.5 kb, but also for partial genome detection. Moreover, by targeting the highly divergent segment 10, the sensitivity of RT-PCR detection is improved significantly; as little as 1.0 fg of the 515 bp S10 dsRNA can be detected by one-step RT-PCR amplification. Furthermore, this method exhibits good reproducibility and specificity, and no amplicons were observed when RNA fragments other than those from GCRV were used as templates. The entire detection process can be completed within 4-5h from RNA extraction, much faster than methods reported previously. Overall, the improved detection technique may be applied for rapid diagnosis of GCRV or other dsRNA viruses. PMID:20599564

  12. Chronic Exposure to Tributyltin Induces Brain Functional Damage in Juvenile Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Shi, Ze-Chao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Tributyltin (TBT) on brain function and neurotoxicity of freshwater teleost. The effects of long-term exposure to TBT on antioxidant related indices (MDA, malondialdehyde; SOD, superoxide dismutase; CAT, catalase; GR, glutathione reductase; GPx, glutathione peroxidase), Na+-K+-ATPase and neurological parameters (AChE, acetylcholinesterase; MAO, monoamine oxidase; NO, nitric oxide) in the brain of common carp were evaluated. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of TBT (75 ng/L, 0.75 ?g/L and 7.5 ?g/L) for 15, 30, and 60 days. Based on the results, a low level and short-term TBT-induced stress could not induce the notable responses of the fish brain, but long-term exposure (more than 15 days) to TBT could lead to obvious physiological-biochemical responses (based on the measured parameters). The results also strongly indicated that neurotoxicity of TBT to fish. Thus, the measured physiological responses in fish brain could provide useful information to better understand the mechanisms of TBT-induced bio-toxicity. PMID:25879203

  13. Ground-water contamination from lead shot at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Sussex County, Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soeder, Daniel J.; Miller, Cherie V.

    2003-01-01

    Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge is located in southeastern Delaware in coastal lowlands along the margin of Delaware Bay. For 37 years, the Broadkiln Sportsman?s Club adjacent to the refuge operated a trap-shooting range, with the clay-target launchers oriented so that the expended lead shot from the range dropped into forested wetland areas on the refuge property. Investigators have estimated that up to 58,000 shotgun pellets per square foot are present in locations on the refuge where the lead shot fell to the ground. As part of the environmental risk assessment for the site, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigated the potential for lead contamination in ground water. Results from two sampling rounds in 19 shallow wells indicate that elevated levels of dissolved lead are present in ground water at the site. The lead and associated metals, such as antimony and arsenic (common shotgun pellet alloys), are being transported along shallow ground-water flowpaths toward an open-water slough in the forested wetland adjacent to the downrange target area. Water samples from wells located along the bank of the slough contained dissolved lead concentrations higher than 400 micrograms per liter, and as high as 1 milligram per liter. In contrast, a natural background concentration of lead from ground water in a well upgradient from the site is about 1 microgram per liter. Two water samples collected several months apart from the slough directly downgradient of the shooting range contained 24 and 212 micrograms per liter of lead, respectively. The data indicate that lead from a concentrated deposit of shotgun pellets on the refuge has been mobilized through a combination of acidic water conditions and a very sandy, shallow, unconfined aquifer, and is moving along ground-water flowpaths toward the surface-water drainage. Data from this study will be used to help delineate the lead plume, and determine the fate and transport of lead from the source area.

  14. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of interferon-? promoter stimulator 1 (IPS-1) gene from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    PubMed

    Su, Jianguo; Huang, Teng; Yang, Chunrong; Zhang, Rongfang

    2011-01-01

    IPS-1 (interferon-? promoter stimulator 1), also known as MAVS/VISA/Cardif, plays a central role in antiviral immunity. In this manuscript, we cloned and characterized IPS-1 from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (designated as CiIPS-1). The CiIPS-1 cDNA is 2412 bp long and consists of a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 124 bp, a 3' UTR of 497 bp with three cytokine RNA instability motifs (ATTTA) and a polyadenylation signal (AATAAA), and an open reading frame (ORF) of 1791 bp encoding a polypeptide of 596 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 64.1 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 4.79. Structural analysis showed that the CiIPS-1 protein contained an N-terminal CARD (caspase activation and recruitment domain), a central proline-rich domain, a putative TRAF2-binding motif and a C-terminal transmembrane domain. Similarity analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of the CiIPS-1 by MatGAT software revealed that the CiIPS-1 shared 27.8-76.4% identity and 47.4-85.2% similarity with other known piscine IPS-1 sequences. The CiIPS-1 mRNA was constitutively expressed in the examined tissues, higher in spleen, and was induced by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) injection by semi-quantitative RT-PCR assay. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that the CiIPS-1 mRNA expression was rapidly and significantly up-regulated in vivo and in vitro after GCRV infection, and the CiIPS-1 transcripts were also significantly enhanced in vitro post the synthetic double stranded RNA polyinosinic-polycytidylic potassium salt (poly(I:C)) stimulation. These results indicated that CiIPS-1 was an inducible acute-phase protein and involved in the immune reaction to GCRV in grass carp. PMID:21078397

  15. Immunological and histopathological responses of the kidney of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) sublethally exposed to glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junguo; Bu, Yanzhen; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide frequently used world widely in agricultural and non-agricultural areas to control unwanted plants. Health risk of chronic and subchronic exposure of glyphosate on animals and humans has received increasing attention in recent years. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of glyphosate on the immunoglobulin M (IgM), complement C3 (C3), and lysozyme (LYZ) in the kidney of common carp exposed to 52.08 or 104.15mgL(-1) of glyphosate for 168h. The results showed that the transcriptions of IgM, C3, or LYZ were altered due to glyphosate-exposure, for example, IgM and C3 initially increased at 24h later it decreased (except for a increase of C3 in higher dose group at 24h) while the expression of G-type LYZ were not affected at 24h, then increased at 72h, but decreased at the end of test, however C-type LYZ expression was initially up-regulated (24-72h) but down-regulated at the end of exposure (168h). However, glyphosate-exposure generally decreased the contents of IgM and C3 or inhibited LYZ activity in the kidney of common carp. In addition, glyphosate-exposure also caused remarkable histopathological damage, mainly including vacuolization of the renal parenchyma and intumescence of the renal tubule in fish kidney. The results of this study indicate that glyphosate causes immunotoxicity on common carp via suppressing the expressions of IgM, C3, and LYZ and also via damaging the fish kidney. PMID:25434756

  16. Combined effects of different food rations and sublethal copper exposure on growth and energy metabolism in common carp.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Shodja; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2008-02-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were fed two different rations, 0.5% body weight (low ration; LR) and 5% body weight (high ration; HR), throughout acclimation, sublethal (64 microg/L) Cu exposure for 28 days, and a subsequent 2-week recovery period. Growth, liver water content, and liver energy stores were assessed during this period. Growth rates were elevated in HR fish compared to LR fish, as was the hepatic lipid content. This was associated with a higher water content in the livers of LR fish. Liver glycogen levels were similar in both feeding treatments and remained relatively stable during Cu exposure. Cu exposure caused a significant reduction in growth in both HR and LR fish. Reduction in growth coincided with significant changes in liver and blood composition. Liver lipid levels dropped significantly during the first days of the exposure in both feeding treatments, and the difference between LR and HR lipid levels disappeared during Cu exposure. During the first week of Cu exposure, the difference in liver water content disappeared as well, with a significant reduction of the water levels in the LR fish. A rise of hepatic protein was observed after 2 and 4 weeks of Cu exposure in the LR carp and after 4 weeks of exposure in the HR fish. Cu exposure led to pronounced increases in plasma ammonia concentrations in HR carp. Growth and energy stores recuperated during the 2-week recovery period in both feeding treatments. The observed changes during Cu exposure are probably related to physiological disturbances like hypoxia and stress, as well as an inhibition of ammonia excretion. PMID:17721796

  17. Genetic analysis of invasive Asian Black Carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) in the Mississippi River Basin: evidence for multiple introductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, Margaret E.; Nico, Leo G.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive Asian Black Carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) have been present in USA aquaculture facilities since the 1980s and wild Black Carp have been found in the Mississippi River Basin since the early 1990s. This study characterizes the genetic diversity and relatedness of the Basin’s Black Carp and clarifies the introduction history. Analyses focused on three mitochondrial markers (control region, cytochrome-b, and 16S) and seven nuclear microsatellite markers (nDNA), using aquaculture and wild-caught samples collected in the upper and lower Mississippi Basin. Of the three mitochondrial haplotypes, two were shared between the aquaculture and wild populations, while a third was only present in upper Mississippi wild-caught specimens. Due to the presence of diploid and triploid fish, microsatellite markers were scored as pseudodominant and revealed low polymorphism (NA = 4.6, NA Ave = 1.5). Nuclear Bayesian clustering analyses identified two genetically distinct groups and four subclusters, each primarily composed of a unique haplotype. Samples from three aquaculture farms were assigned to group 1, while a fourth farm included samples from both groups 1 and 2. Wild-caught fish from the upper Basin were predominantly group 1, whereas wild samples from the lower Mississippi were assigned to both genetic groups. The presence of divergent haplotypes and distinct nDNA groups, along with geographic distribution patterns, indicate that wild populations in the basin likely resulted from multiple introductions. Genetic similarities between wild and captive populations support claims that aquaculture is the introduction source, but a shortage of samples and a history of repeated transfers among facilities obscure the precise pathway.

  18. Effect of water salinity on total protein and electrophoretic pattern of serum proteins of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    PubMed

    Peyghan, Rahim; Khadjeh, Gholam Hosain; Enayati, Ala

    2014-01-01

    In this study the effects of water salinity on serum total protein and its components in grass carp were investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of salinity tolerance of fish on total serum protein level and its components as an indicator of liver and kidney activity. One hundred and twenty grass carp were divided into four groups, randomly. The first three groups were reared in concentration of 4, 8 and 12 g L(-1) of salt solution, respectively, and the fourth group was reared in freshwater and served as control. After 3 weeks, blood samples were collected and after harvesting the blood serum, serum total protein and protein components were measured with Biuret and electrophoresis methods, respectively. Results showed that mean value of serum total protein in the control and three salinities groups were 2.75, 3.28, 2.90 and 3.13 g dL(-1), respectively. Five fractions of serum protein were electrophoretically observed as: albumin (Alb), alpha-1 globulin (?1-glu), alpha-2 globulin (?2-glu), beta globulin (?-glu) and gamma globulin (?-glu). There were not any significant differences between the average mean of serum total protein of experimental and control groups (p > 0.05). However, Alb, ?1-glu and ?-glu levels in the experimental groups were significantly higher than in the control group (p < 0.05). The average of ?2-glu and ?-glu revealed no significant difference between the experimental groups (p > 0.05). In conclusion, our results showed that increasing water salinity could have a significant effect on Alb, ?1-glu and ?-glu levels but not on total serum protein in grass carp. PMID:25568723

  19. Gill lesions in the major carp, Labeo rohita exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of tannery effluent.

    PubMed

    Dhanapakiam, P; Sampoorani, V; Kavitha, M; Ramasamy, V K; Chandrakala, A; Aruna, K C

    2004-07-01

    The major carp, Labeo rohita were exposed to (0.873%) lethal and sublethal (0.073%) concentrations of tannery effluent for 24h and 40 days respectively under static bioassay condition. The surface architecture of gill revealed severe damages such as : fusion and clumping in the middle and distal parts of the primary lamellae, swelling and deterioration of the cells. The interlamellar space was filled either with hyperplastic epithelial or mucous cells. Secondary lamellae lost their identity and appeared finger like in structure in the lethal concentration and necrosis was observed in the primary and secondary epithelium. Swelling of primary and secondary epithelial cells was evident in sublethal concentration. PMID:15847345

  20. Proteomic identification, characterization and expression analysis of Ctenopharyngodon idella VDAC1 upregulated by grass carp reovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaobao; Wang, Tu; Xu, Dan; Lu, Liqun

    2014-03-01

    Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) located in the mitochondrial outer membrane are mitochondrial porins that play central roles in regulating cell life and death. In this present report, the VDAC protein 1 from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (designated as CiVDAC1) was found to be upregulated by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection through two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and protein analysis of infected C. idella kidney (CIK) cells. The full-length cDNA of CiVDAC1 was 995 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 852 bp that encodes a putative 283-amino acid protein. Phylogenic analysis revealed that the complete ORF of CiVDAC1 demonstrated high identity with well characterized mammalian homologs. The deduced CiVDAC1 protein contains an ?-helix at the amino terminal, 19 membrane-spanning ?-strands, and one eukaryotic mitochondrial porin signature motif. Tissue tropism analysis indicated that CiVDAC1 is abundant in muscle, heart, skin, swim bladder, trunk kidney and spleen. Transcriptional expression profiles indicated that the CiVDAC1 gene was upregulated upon viral challenge in a manner similar to the Mx2 gene, which is a marker gene used to indicate activation of innate antiviral immunity. Similar expression patterns of the CiVDAC1 gene were observed in CIK cells stimulated with poly (I:C), as well as grass carp kidney tissue challenged with GCRV in vivo. CiVDAC1 silencing in CIK cells had no impact on progeny virus production, but over-expression of CiVDAC1 in vivo showed strongly protect against challenge with live virus. To interpret the role of other VDAC proteins in viral pathogenesis, CiVDAC2 was characterized and showed to respond positively to GCRV challenge, which suggested that CiVDAC2 might functionally complement CiVDAC1 in C. idella. The present data did demonstrate that CiVDAC1 might be mediated grass carp antiviral immune response. PMID:24434647

  1. Tensile and shear strength measurements on brazed "T" joints used in construction of intra- and intermaxillary hooks.

    PubMed

    Davies, E H; Kuhn, A T; Oleschenko, S V

    1982-10-01

    Silver-brazed "T" joints, representing the first stage in the construction of intermaxillary hooks were fabricated under rigorously controlled conditions. Their tensile and shear strengths were then measured using specially developed test jigs. It was found that the braze joint itself was stronger than the component wires (under tensile load) while in shear mode, fracture occurred in one of a number of well-defined ways. The effect of prolonged heating was investigated using microhardness measurements and recommendations are made for the optimum brazing conditions. PMID:6958322

  2. 5?-Terminal Sequences of Spring Viremia of Carp Virus RNA Synthesized In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Kailash C.; Bishop, David H. L.; Roy, Polly

    1979-01-01

    Sequence analyses have been undertaken on the 5? termini of the RNA species synthesized in vitro at 22°C by Spring viremia of carp virion (SVCV)-associated transcriptase by using virus grown in mammalian BHK-21 cells. SVCV product RNA was synthesized in the absence or presence of low (0.56 ?M) or high (0.8 mM) concentrations of added S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM). Two major sequences obtained in the absence (or in low concentrations) of SAM have been shown to be GpppAp and GpppAmpAp(C). A minor sequence detected when a low concentration of [3H]SAM was added to reaction mixtures was 7mGpppAmpAp. Larger quantities of the 7mGpppAmpAp(C) sequence, in addition to the GpppAmpAp(C) sequence, were obtained when high concentrations of SAM were used, and under these conditions no GpppAp sequences were detected. It has further been shown that with low concentrations of [3H]SAM the principle in vitro methylation of adenosine in SVCV product RNA occurred at the 2?-O-ribose position; no methylation at the N6-adenosine position and no internal product RNA methylation were detected. Comparison of the SVCV results to the published data on the 5?-terminal structures of the in vitro or in vivo mRNA species of vesicular stomatitis virus Indiana and vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey suggests that the 5? sequences of transcript RNA of different rhabdoviruses may have been conserved. PMID:16789178

  3. Enhanced grass carp reovirus resistance of Mx-transgenic rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).

    PubMed

    Su, Jianguo; Yang, Chunrong; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping; Jang, Songhun; Liao, Lanjie

    2009-06-01

    In the interferon-induced antiviral mechanisms, the Mx pathway is one of the most powerful. Mx proteins have direct antiviral activity and inhibit a wide range of viruses by blocking an early stage of the viral genome replication cycle. However, antiviral activity of piscine Mx remains unclear in vivo. In the present study, an Mx-like gene was cloned, characterized and gene-transferred in rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus, and its antiviral activity was confirmed in vivo. The full length of the rare minnow Mx-like cDNA is 2241 bp in length and encodes a polypeptide of 625 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 70.928 kDa and a predicted isoelectric point of 7.33. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence indicated that the mature peptide contains an amino-terminal tripartite GTP-binding motif, a dynamin family signature sequence, a GTPase effector domain and two carboxy-terminal leucine zipper motifs, and is the most similar to the crucian carp (Carassius auratus) Mx3 sequence with an identity of 89%. Both P0 and F1 generations of Mx-transgenic rare minnow demonstrated very significantly high survival rate to GCRV infection (P<0.01). The mRNA expression of Mx gene was consistent with survival rate in F1 generation. The virus yield was also concurrent with survival time using electron microscope technology. Rare minnow has Mx gene(s) of its own but introducing more Mx gene improves their resistance to GCRV. Mx-transgenic rare minnow might contribute to control the GCRV diseases. PMID:19138747

  4. Fish gut microbiota analysis differentiates physiology and behavior of invasive Asian carp and indigenous American fish.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lin; Amberg, Jon; Chapman, Duane; Gaikowski, Mark; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2014-03-01

    Gut microbiota of invasive Asian silver carp (SVCP) and indigenous planktivorous gizzard shad (GZSD) in Mississippi river basin were compared using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Analysis of more than 440?000 quality-filtered sequences obtained from the foregut and hindgut of GZSD and SVCP revealed high microbial diversity in these samples. GZSD hindgut (GZSD_H) samples (n=23) with >7000 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) exhibited the highest alpha-diversity indices followed by SVCP foregut (n=15), GZSD foregut (n=9) and SVCP hindgut (SVCP_H) (n=24). UniFrac distance-based non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that the microbiota of GZSD_H and SVCP_H were clearly separated into two clusters: samples in the GZSD cluster were observed to vary by sampling location and samples in the SVCP cluster by sampling date. NMDS further revealed distinct microbial community between foregut to hindgut for individual GZSD and SVCP. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were detected as the predominant phyla regardless of fish or gut type. The high abundance of Cyanobacteria observed was possibly supported by their role as the fish's major food source. Furthermore, unique and shared OTUs and OTUs in each gut type were identified, three OTUs from the order Bacteroidales, the genus Bacillariophyta and the genus Clostridium were found significantly more abundant in GZSD_H (14.9-22.8%) than in SVCP_H (0.13-4.1%) samples. These differences were presumably caused by the differences in the type of food sources including bacteria ingested, the gut morphology and digestion, and the physiological behavior between GZSD and SVCP. PMID:24132079

  5. [Distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in wild crucian carp and exposure estimation of dietary intake].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Xia; Wang, Chun-Yan; Liu, Li-Li; Zhou, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Yang-Cheng; Lin, Kuang-Fei

    2014-08-01

    The concentration and distribution of PBDEs in liver, heart, brain, egg and muscle tissues of market farmed fish and wild river fish (crucian carp) from Taizhou, which is a large e-waste recycling site in China, were quantitatively measured using gas chromatography -negative chemical ion tandem mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS). The dietary intake of PBDEs via the consumption of fish by the population of this region was also estimated. The results showed that the concentrations of PBDEs in the muscle of river fish samples near the e-waste recycling site were significantly higher than those in the market farmed fish without obviously polluted sources of PBDEs. The distribution of PBDEs in various tissues was not even, and the highest and lowest mean concentrations of total PBDEs ( sigma PBDEs) were 18.82 ng x g(-1) and 1.97 ng x g(-1) (wet weight), in heart and egg tissues, respectively. A similar PBDE congener profiles in different tissues of farmed fish were found. Among PBDE congeners, BDE-47 was predominant in various tissues accounting for above 50% of the total PBDEs, and followed by BDE-183 (about 20%), BDE-99 and BDE-153. While different profiles of PBDEs in muscle tissues between wild fish in river and market farmed fish were observed, that BDE-47, -153 and -99 were dominant for the former type. These facts suggested primitive e-waste recycling behavior to be a pollution source of high levels of PBDEs in wild fish. The average estimated daily intake of PBDEs via river fish consumption by local residents near the e-waste recycling site in Taizhou was approximately 29.0 ng, slightly higher than that in other regions. PMID:25338396

  6. Subnanometer-resolution structures of the grass carp reovirus core and virion.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lingpeng; Fang, Qin; Shah, Sanket; Atanasov, Ivo C; Zhou, Z Hong

    2008-09-26

    Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is a member of the Aquareovirus genus of the family Reoviridae, a large family of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses infecting plants, insects, fishes and mammals. We report the first subnanometer-resolution three-dimensional structures of both GCRV core and virion by cryoelectron microscopy. These structures have allowed the delineation of interactions among the over 1000 molecules in this enormous macromolecular machine and a detailed comparison with other dsRNA viruses at the secondary-structure level. The GCRV core structure shows that the inner proteins have strong structural similarities with those of orthoreoviruses even at the level of secondary-structure elements, indicating that the structures involved in viral dsRNA interaction and transcription are highly conserved. In contrast, the level of similarity in structures decreases in the proteins situated in the outer layers of the virion. The proteins involved in host recognition and attachment exhibit the least similarities to other members of Reoviridae. Furthermore, in GCRV, the RNA-translocating turrets are in an open state and lack a counterpart for the sigma1 protein situated on top of the close turrets observed in mammalian orthoreovirus. Interestingly, the distribution and the organization of GCRV core proteins resemble those of the cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus, a cypovirus and the structurally simplest member of the Reoviridae family. Our results suggest that GCRV occupies a unique structure niche between the simpler cypoviruses and the considerably more complex mammalian orthoreovirus, thus providing an important model for understanding the structural and functional conservation and diversity of this enormous family of dsRNA viruses. PMID:18625243

  7. Screening and analysis on the protein interaction of the protein VP7 in grass carp reovirus.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiuying; Xie, Jiguo; Li, Jie; Shuanghu, Cai; Wu, Zaohe; Jian, Jichang

    2015-06-01

    Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) has caused serious economic losses for several decades in China. The protein VP7 is one of the important structural proteins in GCRV. Recent studies indicated that the protein VP7 had the commendable antigenicity and immunogenicity. The protein VP7 cooperated with VP5 could change the conformation of the cell membrane and facilitate entry of GCRV into host cells. We speculated that the protein VP7 should play an important role in the pathogenesis of GCRV. In order to explore the function of the protein VP7, the bait protein expression plasmid pGBKT7-vp7 and the cDNA library of CIK cells were constructed. By yeast two-hybrid system, after multiple screening with the high screening rate medium, rotary verification, sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, the interactions of the protein VP7 with ribosomal protein S20 (RPS20) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit b (eIF3b) in CIK cells were identified. RPS20 played the important roles in the generation of influenza B virus and a variety of diseases. eIF3b was relative to the infection of some viruses. This study suggested that the protein VP7 played the role in viral replication and most likely interacted with host proteins by RPS20 and eIF3b. The interaction mechanisms of the protein VP7 with RPS20 and eIF3b, and the subsequent effector mechanisms needed to be further studied. The corresponding protein interaction of the protein VP7 was not acquired in bioinformatics. The protein VP7 and its untranslated region may have the unknown special function. This study laid the foundation for deeply exploring the function of the protein VP7 in GCRV and had the important scientific significance for exploring the pathogenic mechanism of GCRV. PMID:25860999

  8. Interaction of silicon-based quantum dots with gibel carp liver: oxidative and structural modifications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) interaction with living organisms is of central interest due to their various biological and medical applications. One of the most important mechanisms proposed for various silicon nanoparticle-mediated toxicity is oxidative stress. We investigated the basic processes of cellular damage by oxidative stress and tissue injury following QD accumulation in the gibel carp liver after intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of 2 mg/kg body weight Si/SiO2 QDs after 1, 3, and 7 days from their administration. QDs gradual accumulation was highlighted by fluorescence microscopy, and subsequent histological changes in the hepatic tissue were noted. After 1 and 3 days, QD-treated fish showed an increased number of macrophage clusters and fibrosis, while hepatocyte basophilia and isolated hepatolytic microlesions were observed only after substantial QDs accumulation in the liver parenchyma, at 7 days after IP injection. Induction of oxidative stress in fish liver was revealed by the formation of malondialdehyde and advanced oxidation protein products, as well as a decrease in protein thiol groups and reduced glutathione levels. The liver enzymatic antioxidant defense was modulated to maintain the redox status in response to the changes initiated by Si/SiO2 QDs. So, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were upregulated starting from the first day after injection, while the activity of superoxide dismutase increased only after 7 days. The oxidative damage that still occurred may impair the activity of more sensitive enzymes. A significant inhibition in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione-S-transferase activity was noted, while glutathione reductase remained unaltered. Taking into account that the reduced glutathione level had a deep decline and the level of lipid peroxidation products remained highly increased in the time interval we studied, it appears that the liver antioxidant defense of Carassius gibelio does not counteract the oxidative stress induced 7 days after silicon-based QDs exposure in an efficient manner. PMID:23718202

  9. Alternative techniques for producing a quality surimi and kamaboko from common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Jafarpour, A; Gorczyca, E M

    2008-11-01

    The demand for surimi and kamaboko is increasing in the world at the same time as the supply of the fish traditionally used has declined. In an effort to increase the range and hence supply of fish used, factors increasing the quality of surimi and kamaboko from common carp were investigated. The best surimi and kamaboko characteristics were produced by a modified conventional method (MCM) rather than traditional method (TM), alkaline-aided method (AAM), and pH modified method (PMM). MCM processing used centrifugation instead of decanting and filtering to optimize dewatering and remove the sarcoplasmic proteins (Sp-P). The temperature sweep test, at the end of sol-gel transition stage (at 75 degrees C), showed significantly (P < 0.05) greater G' for the kamaboko from MCM than that from other methods tested. Furthermore, the greatest and the least gel strengths were obtained with MCM and TM kamaboko, respectively. The protein recovery was about 67%, 74%, 87%, and 92% for TM, AAM, MCM, and PMM, respectively. TM and MCM resulted in the removal of Sp-P as determined by SDS-PAGE. The superiority of MCM kamaboko gel characteristics was supported by scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of the gel, which showed a significantly (P < 0.05) greater number of polygonal structures than for the TM kamaboko, which had the fewest and largest polygonal structures. The pH-shifting methods improved the textural quality of the resultant kamaboko compared with TM. However, a simple modification (centrifugation compared with decanting) by MCM in the surimi process can further improve the quality of the surimi and kamaboko gels. Furthermore, because it removed Sp-P and still preserved gel strength, it suggests that Sp-P are not required for gel strength. PMID:19021796

  10. Deltamethrin multifactorial activity toward carp larva mobility related to calcium, humic acids, and pH.

    PubMed

    Ghillebaert, F; Prodorutti, D; Chaillou, C; Roubaud, P

    1996-12-01

    The toxicity of pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin was assessed by the "escaping capability" of carp larvae out of a trap. Mobility was tested after 1, 4, and 12 hr exposure to eight deltamethrin concentrations in standard water and after 24 hr exposure to seven deltamethrin concentrations in 18 media derived from the combinations of pH levels of 6.9, 7.8, 9.0, calcium concentrations of 2 . 10(-4) and 2 . 10(-2) M, and humic acid concentrations on 0, 5 and 100 mg/liter. In standard water, a 1-hr exposure at 4 microg/liter deltamethrin increased the mobility, while a 4-hr 32 microg/liter exposure decreased it. After 24 hr without deltamethrin, mobility was reduced at pH 6.9 and 7.8 and 2 . 10(-4) M calcium. It was also reduced in 100 mg/liter humic acids, especially when the former pH and calcium conditions were used. Humic acid effects could partly result from a calcium concentration reduction in water, and darkness due to humic acid coloration could play a minor role. Increasing humic acid concentration, calcium concentration, and pH reduced deltamethrin activity. In 0 or 5 mg/liter humic acids the No Observed Effect Concentration was 1 microg/liter, and in 100 mg/liter humic acid it was 2 microg/liter. Compared to previous results on deltamethrin-induced lethality, the escape test appeared less reproducible, but was 2 or 4 times more sensitive. PMID:9007004

  11. Examination of the early infection stages of koi herpesvirus (KHV) in experimentally infected carp, Cyprinus carpio L. using in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, S J; Thompson, K D; Adams, A; Kempter, J; Bergmann, S M

    2015-05-01

    Koi herpesvirus (KHV) causes a highly infectious disease afflicting common carp and koi, Cyprinus carpio L. Various molecular and antibody-based detection methods have been used to elucidate the rapid attachment and dissemination of the virus throughout carp tissues, facilitating ongoing development of effective diagnostic approaches. In situ hybridization (ISH) was used here to determine the target tissues of KHV during very early infection, after infecting carp with a highly virulent KHV isolate. Analysis of paraffin-embedded tissues (i.e. gills, skin, spleen, kidney, gut, liver and brain) during the first 8 h and following 10 days post-infection (hpi; dpi) revealed positive signals in skin mucus, gills and gut sections after only 1 hpi. Respiratory epithelial cells were positive as early as 2 hpi. Viral DNA was also detected within blood vessels of various tissues early in the infection. Notable increases in signal abundance were observed in the gills and kidney between 5 and 10 dpi, and viral DNA was detected in all tissues except brain. This study suggests that the gills and gut play an important role in the early pathogenesis of this Alloherpesvirus, in addition to skin, and demonstrates ISH as a useful diagnostic tool for confirmation of acutely infected carp. PMID:24925228

  12. Construction and characterization of the BAC library for common carp Cyprinus carpio L. and establishment of microsynteny with zebrafish Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Xu, Peng; Zhao, Zixia; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Yan; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2011-08-01

    A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of common carp Cyprinus carpio L. was constructed as a part of ongoing common carp genome project, which is aiming assembly of common carp genome. The library, containing a total of 92,160 BAC clones with an average insert size of 141 kb, was constructed into the restriction site of Hind III on BAC vector CopyControl pCC1BAC, covering 7.7 X haploid genome equivalents. Three dimension pools and superpools of the BAC library were established and 23 positive clones of 14 targets were identified from one-fifth of the BAC library. Pilot project of BAC end sequencing was conducted on 2,688 BAC ends from 1,344 clones and harvested 2,522 high-quality Q20 sequences with average length of 677 bp. The sequencing success rate was 93.8% and pair-end success rate was 92.3%. A total of 212 microsyntenies had been established between common carp and zebrafish genomes as a trial for genome-wide comparative genomics in these two closely related species. PMID:21088980

  13. COMPARISON OF CARP PITUITARY EXTRACT, CATFISH PITUITARY EXTRACT, OR LHRHA FOR INDUCED SPAWNING OF CHANNEL CATFISH FEMALES TO PRODUCE CHANNEL CATFISH X BLUE CATFISH HYBRID FRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish x blue catfish hybrids have improved growth, disease resistance, and meat yield compared to channel catfish. However, production of hybrid fry requires hormone induced spawning of female channel catfish. Objectives of this study were to compare efficacy of carp pituitary extract, c...

  14. Integrated biological control of water hyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes by a novel combination of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844), and the weevil, Neochetina spp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, Ayyaru; Rajkumar, Mayalagu; Sun, Jun; Parida, Ajay; Venmathi Maran, Balu Alagar

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cyprinidae) and weevils Neochetina spp. (Curculionidae) to control the aquatic weed, water hyacinth, is investigated in a square net cage (happas) setting at a farm in Cuddalore District, South India. This novel combination of insects and fish is found to be superior to individual treatments for controlling the weed growth within 110 d. The biomass of the weed, number of plants, percentage of flowered plants and chlorophyll contents were studied. The weed biomass is reduced from 5 kg (day 1) to 0.33 kg (day 110) when exposed to grass carp and weevils. The number of plants is reduced to 0.75 in grass carp and weevil exposed happas, while it is 741.5 in the control. The mean number of leaves per plant is also reduced. In addition, the chlorophyll a and b are significantly reduced in happas exposed to the combination of fish and insects when compared to the other treatments. Based on the results of this study, we consider the combined use of grass carp and weevils to be more efficient and sustainable for managing water hyacinths than the use of these organisms individually.

  15. Cloning, molecular characterization, and expression analysis of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT?) gene from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    PubMed

    Guo, Ting; Leng, Xiang-Jun; Wu, Xiao-Feng; Li, Jia-Le; Gao, Jian-Zhong; Li, Xiao-Qin; Gan, Tian; Wei, Jing

    2013-11-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT?) binds to Janus kinase 2 (JAK?) to initiate the JAK?/STAT? signal transduction pathway, which plays an important role in cancer cell proliferation, immune regulation, reproduction, lipid metabolism, and other physiological processes of the organism. In this study, the cDNA sequence of the STAT? gene from grass carp was cloned using RACE (rapid-amplification of cDNA ends). Twelve characteristics of the STAT? gene and its encoded protein sequence were predicted and analyzed using bioinformatics methods; these features included the general physical and chemical properties, the hydrophobicity, the secondary structure and the three-dimensional structure of the protein. Quantitative real-time PCR was employed to detect grass carp STAT? expression pattern in different tissues. The results showed that the full-length STAT? gene from grass carp is 2739-bp long and contains a 216-bp 5'UTR, a 300-bp 3'UTR, and a 2223-bp open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a 740-amino acid peptide. The deduced protein exhibited 99%?94% homology to the STAT? protein of zebra?sh (Danio rerio), medaka (Oryzias latipes), turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), white-spotted char (Salvelinus leucomaenis), mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and green pufferfish (Tetraodon ?uviatilis). The deduced grass carp STAT? protein contains a protein interaction domain, an alpha domain, a DNA binding domain, and an SH2 domain. The STAT? protein of grass carp is a hydrophilic and non-secretory protein, and its molecular mass and isoeletronic point were found to be 98,5412.1 Da and 6.39, respectively. The structural elements of STAT? included ?-helixes, ?-sheets, and loops. The grass carp STAT? is expressed in all of the six tissues tested, which were the liver, spleen, gill, muscle, heart, and brain. The highest expression level was found in the liver (P < 0.05), whereas a significantly lower expression level was found in the spleen, gills, brain, and muscle (P < 0.05), and the lowest expression level was found in the heart (P < 0.05). This study provides a basis for further structural and functional exploration of the STAT? from grass carp, including its deduced protein and its signal transduction function. PMID:24055509

  16. Inhibition of spring viraemia of carp virus replication in an Epithelioma papulosum cyprini cell line by RNAi

    PubMed Central

    Gotesman, M; Soliman, H; Besch, R; El-Matbouli, M

    2015-01-01

    Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) is an aetiological agent of a serious disease affecting carp farms in Europe and is a member of the Rhabdoviridae family of viruses. The genome of SVCV codes for five proteins: nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), glycoprotein (G) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L). RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is a powerful tool to inhibit gene transcription and is used to study genes important for viral replication. In previous studies regarding another member of Rhabdoviridae, siRNA inhibition of the rabies virus nucleoprotein gene provided in vitro and in vivo protection against rabies. In this study, synthetic siRNA molecules were designed to target SVCV-N and SVCV-P transcripts to inhibit SVCV replication and were tested in an epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cell line. Inhibition of gene transcription was measured by real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). The efficacy of using siRNA for inhibition of viral replication was analysed by RT-qPCR measurement of a reporter gene (glycoprotein) expression and by virus endpoint titration. Inhibition of nucleoprotein and phosphoprotein gene expression by siRNA reduced SVCV replication. However, use of tandem siRNAs that target phosphoprotein and nucleoprotein worked best at reducing SVCV replication. PMID:24460815

  17. Characterization of Foxp3 gene from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus): a rapamycin-inducible transcription factor in teleost immune system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mu; Wei, He; Zhao, Taiqiang; Wang, Xinyan; Zhang, Anying; Zhou, Hong

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we cloned grass carp foxp3 (gcfoxp3) gene including 5' flanking region and determined its expression profiles in vivo under immunosuppressive conditions. Sequence analysis revealed that the promoter of gcfoxp3 contains AP-1, AML-1/Runx1, NF-?b and GATA-3 binding sites, which positively or negatively regulate mammalian foxp3 expression. In addition, the intron II of gcfoxp3 contains some putative binding sites including AP-1, NFAT, Smad3, RAR, CREB/ATF and FOXO1, which are corresponding to their locations in the proximal intronic enhancers of human foxp3. In an in vivo model of grass carp, an immunosuppressive agent rapamycin was showed to stimulate gcfoxp3 mRNA expression in thymus, gill, head kidney and spleen after bacterial challenge. Moreover, rapamycin increased gcFoxp3 protein levels with an additive manner in the infected fish. These findings support the involvement of fish Foxp3 in immune response and highlight a possible signaling pathway that regulates teleost Foxp3 expression. PMID:22613483

  18. 2,4-dichlorophenol induces apoptosis in primary hepatocytes of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) through mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Xiaoning; Qiu, Qian; An, Zhen; Qi, Yongmei; Huang, Dejun; Zhang, Yingmei

    2013-09-15

    2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), a major type of chlorophenols, has been widely used to produce some herbicides and pharmaceuticals, yet due to its incomplete degradation and bioaccumulation characteristics, it is toxic to aquatic organisms. Apoptosis is one of the most severe outcomes of cell poisoning and injury. So far, the potential molecular mechanism of 2,4-DCP-induced apoptosis has not been reported. This study showed that 2,4-DCP significantly induced apoptosis in primary hepatocytes of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). 2,4-DCP exposure upregulated mRNA of caspase-3, reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, while protection of mitochondria with acetyl-l-carnitine hydrochloride (ALC) rescued 2,4-DCP-induced apoptosis, restored the ??m and reduced the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Taken together, this is the first study that has identified that 2,4-DCP exposure induced apoptosis through the mitochondria-dependent pathway in primary hepatocytes of grass carp. PMID:23774520

  19. Using Structured Expert Judgment to Assess Invasive Species Prevention: Asian Carp and the Mississippi—Great Lakes Hydrologic Connection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Recently, authors have theorized that invasive species prevention is more cost-effective than control in protecting ecosystem services. However, quantification of the effectiveness of prevention is rare because experiments at field scales are expensive or infeasible. We therefore used structured expert judgment to quantify the efficacy of 17 proposed strategies to prevent Asian carp invasion of the Laurentian Great Lakes via the hydrologic connection between the Mississippi and Great Lakes watersheds. Performance-weighted expert estimates indicated that hydrologic separation would prevent 99% (95,100; median, 5th and 95th percentiles) of Asian carp access, while electric and acoustic-bubble-strobe barriers would prevent 92% (85,95) and 92% (75,95), respectively. For all other strategies, estimated effectiveness was lower, with greater uncertainty. When potential invasions by other taxa are considered, the effectiveness of hydrologic separation increases relative to strategies that are effective primarily for fishes. These results could help guide invasive species management in many waterways globally. PMID:24467555

  20. Effect of chronic exposure to prometryne on oxidative stress and antioxidant response in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Stara, Alzbeta; Kristan, Jiri; Zuskova, Eliska; Velisek, Josef

    2013-01-01

    The effects of the triazine herbicide prometryne, commonly present in surface and ground waters, on oxidative stress and antioxidant status of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were investigated. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of prometryne (0.51, 8, and 80?g/l) for 14, 30, and 60 days. Activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR), as well as levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) were assessed in brain, gill, intestine, liver, and muscle. After 14 days exposure, decreased GR activity in brain was observed for all prometryne-exposed groups compared with the controls. Changes were observed in SOD activity in brain and gill after 30 days in all exposure groups. Changes in CAT activity were observed only at the highest concentration (80?g/l) in liver and intestine after 60 days. The observed effects on carp antioxidant systems may be a defense against oxidative damage. The study demonstrated changes in antioxidant parameters and the importance of evaluating the potential long-term risk to fish of prometryne, at environmentally realistic concentrations (0.51?g/l). The results suggest that antioxidant responses may have potential as biomarkers for monitoring residual triazine herbicides in aquatic environments. PMID:24238285