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1

Habitat-specific locomotor variation among Chinese hook snout carp (Opsariichthys bidens) along a river.  

PubMed

The Wujiang River is a tributary of the upper Yangtze River that shows great variations in its flow regime and habitat condition. Dams have been built along the Wujiang River and have altered the habitats profoundly enough that they may give rise to reproductive isolation. To test whether the swimming performance and morphology of the Chinese hook snout carp (Opsariichthys bidens), varied among habitats and whether the possible differences had a genetic basis, we measured the steady and unsteady swimming performance, external body shape and genetic distance among fish collected from both the main and tributary streams of the upper, middle and lower reaches along the river. We also measured the routine energy expenditure (RMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR), cost of transport (COT) and calculated the optimal swimming speed. The steady swimming capacity, RMR, MMR and optimal swimming speed were all higher and the COT was lower in the upper reach or tributary streams compared with the lower reach or main stream. However, unsteady swimming performance showed no variation among collecting sites. Flow regimes as suggested by river slope and water velocity were positively correlated with steady swimming performance but not with unsteady swimming performance. Predation stress were significantly related with body morphology and hence energy cost during swimming but not U(crit) value. The fish from only one population (Hao-Kou) showed relatively high genetic differentiation compared with the other populations. Fish from the upper reach or tributary streams exhibited improved steady swimming performance through improved respiratory capacity and lower energy expenditure during swimming at the cost of higher maintenance metabolism. There was no correlation between the steady and unsteady swimming performance at either the population or the individual levels. These results suggest that a trade-off between steady and unsteady swimming does not occur in O. bidens. PMID:22829884

Fu, Shi-Jian; Peng, Zuogang; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Peng, Jiang-Lan; He, Xiao-Ke; Xu, Dandan; Zhang, An-Jie

2012-01-01

2

Comparative analysis of mitochondrial control region in polyploid hybrids of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus) x blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).  

PubMed

The entire sequences of the mitochondrial (mt)DNA control region (CR) and portions of its flanking genes in the red crucian carp (RC) and blunt snout bream (BSB) as well as their polyploid hybrids (3nRB, 4nRB and 5nRB) were determined and subjected to a comparative analysis. The mtDNA-CRs of these five fish species ranged from 923 to 937 bp in length, they had the same flanking gene arrangement as other vertebrates and the pattern of nucleotide substitution bias was also similar to that in other vertebrates. Our data are consistent with the viewpoint of three domains [extended terminal associated sequence (ETAS domain), central conserved sequence block domain and conserved sequence block (CSB) domain] within the mtDNA-CR of mammals. On the basis our comparative analysis of the mtDNA-CRs of these five fish species, we were able to identify the consensus sequences of functional conserved units, including the ETAS, CSB-F, CSB-D, CSB-E, CSB1, CSB2 and CSB3 and putative promoter. The percentage of variable nucleotide positions (41.98%) in the central domain was lower than those in the ETAS and conserved domain (71.70 and 47.12%, respectively), suggesting that the central domain was the most conserved part of the mtDNA-CR. These results provide useful and important information for the further study of mtDNA-CR structure in fish. The sequence similarities of mtDNA-CR among the 3nRB, 4nRB, 5nRB hybrids and their respective female parents were higher than those among the 3nRB, 4nRB, 5nRB hybrids and their respective male parents, providing the direct evidence of stringent maternal inheritance of mtDNA-CR in the 3nRB, 4nRB and 5nRB hybrids. PMID:18815893

Yan, Jinpeng; Liu, Liangguo; Liu, Shaojun; Guo, Xinhong; Liu, Yun

2010-06-01

3

Radiometric age of the snout ice of Nehnar glacier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface ice taken from the snout of the Nehnar glacier (Kashmir) in western Himalaya has been dated using radioisotopes32Si and210Pb to be 500 years. Based on the age distribution of ice and the expected activity of32Si in the fallout, the average rate of glacier movement over a period of the last few centuries is estimated to be about 6

N. Bhandari; D. I. Bhatt; V N Nijampurkar; R K Singh; D. Srivatsava; C P Vohra

1981-01-01

4

Carpe Noctem 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carpe Noctem is a Mid-Size League RoboCup team at the University of Kassel. It is part of the Distributed Autonomous Systems Laboratory of the Distributed Systems Group which is well known for its research contributions on middleware platforms, distributed system management, and software technologies for distributed systems. Carpe Noctem is a team of researchers, students, and robots that collectively aim

P. A. Baer; R. Reichle; K. Baumgart; T. Kleppe; C. Hoppe; S. Triller; D. Saur; J. Wollenhaupt; T. Amma; M. Blumenstein; F. Seute; A. Witsch; K. Geihs

5

Stress analyses of B-52 pylon hooks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASTRAN finite element computer program was used in the two dimensional stress analysis of B-52 carrier aircraft pylon hooks: (1) old rear hook (which failed), (2) new rear hook (improved geometry), (3) new DAST rear hook (derated geometry), and (4) front hook. NASTRAN model meshes were generated by the aid of PATRAN-G computer program. Brittle limit loads for all the four hooks were established. The critical stress level calculated from NASTRAN agrees reasonably well with the values predicted from the fracture mechanics for the failed old rear hook.

Ko, W. L.; Schuster, L. S.

1985-01-01

6

THE INTRAEPIDERMAL INNERVATION OF THE SNOUT SKIN OF THE OPOSSUM  

PubMed Central

The intraepidermal innervation of the snout skin of the opossum has been studied with the light and electron microscope. Numerous large nerve fibers loose their myelin sheath in the superficial dermis and pass into the epidermis. The basement membranes of the epidermis and Schwann cell become continuous at the point of entry of the neurite into the epidermis. Within the epidermis, the neurite is associated with a specialized secretory epidermal cell, termed a Merkel cell. This cell has many secretory granules apposed to the neurite. The Merkel cells are epidermal cells since they have desmosomes between them and adjacent epidermal cells. The neurite in the stratum spinosum is enveloped by Schwann cells in a manner analogous to the Schwann cell investment of unmyelinated neurites. In the upper stratum spinosum the nerve fiber evidences changes which can be interpreted as degenerative. The Merkel cell-neurite complex is interpreted as representing a sensory receptor unit.

Munger, Bryce L.

1965-01-01

7

Macrogeographic genetic variation in broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris).  

PubMed

Broad-snouted caiman's (Caiman latirostris) geographic distribution comprises one of the widest latitudinal ranges among all crocodilians. In this study we analyzed the relationship between geographic distance (along the species latitudinal range) and genetic differentiation using DNA microsatellite loci developed for C. latirostris and Alligator mississippiensis. The results suggest that there is a consistent relationship between geographic distance and genetic differentiation; however, other biogeographical factors seem to be relevant. The Atlantic Chain (Serra do Mar) seems to be an effective geographic barrier, as well as the relatively narrow (< or =1.5 km) sea channel between Cardoso Island and the continent. In addition, coastal populations seem to have been well connected in recent geological time (Pleistocene 16,000 years ago) all along the eastern Brazilian coast. Further studies should focus on the São Francisco River drainage, which is still poorly known for this species. PMID:18661469

Villela, Priscilla Marqui Schmidt; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann; Piña, Carlos Ignacio; Verdade, Luciano M

2008-12-01

8

The Hooked Galaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life is not easy, even for galaxies. Some indeed get so close to their neighbours that they get rather distorted. But such encounters between galaxies have another effect: they spawn new generations of stars, some of which explode. ESO's VLT has obtained a unique vista of a pair of entangled galaxies, in which a star exploded. Because of the importance of exploding stars, and particularly of supernovae of Type Ia [1], for cosmological studies (e.g. relating to claims of an accelerated cosmic expansion and the existence of a new, unknown, constituent of the universe - the so called 'Dark Energy'), they are a preferred target of study for astronomers. Thus, on several occasions, they pointed ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) towards a region of the sky that portrays a trio of amazing galaxies. MCG-01-39-003 (bottom right) is a peculiar spiral galaxy, with a telephone number name, that presents a hook at one side, most probably due to the interaction with its neighbour, the spiral galaxy NGC 5917 (upper right). In fact, further enhancement of the image reveals that matter is pulled off MCG-01-39-003 by NGC 5917. Both these galaxies are located at similar distances, about 87 million light-years away, towards the constellation of Libra (The Balance). ESO PR Photo 22/06 ESO PR Photo 22/06 The Hooked Galaxy and its Companion NGC 5917 (also known as Arp 254 and MCG-01-39-002) is about 750 times fainter than can be seen by the unaided eye and is about 40,000 light-years across. It was discovered in 1835 by William Herschel, who strangely enough, seems to have missed its hooked companion, only 2.5 times fainter. As seen at the bottom left of this exceptional VLT image, a still fainter and nameless, but intricately beautiful, barred spiral galaxy looks from a distance the entangled pair, while many 'island universes' perform a cosmic dance in the background. But this is not the reason why astronomers look at this region. Last year, a star exploded in the vicinity of the hook. The supernova, noted SN 2005cf as it was the 84th found that year, was discovered by astronomers Pugh and Li with the robotic KAIT telescope on 28 May. It appeared to be projected on top of a bridge of matter connecting MCG-01-39-003 with NGC5917. Further analysis with the Whipple Observatory 1.5m Telescope showed this supernova to be of the Ia type and that the material was ejected with velocities up to 15 000 km/s (that is, 54 million kilometres per hour!). Immediately after the discovery, the European Supernova Collaboration (ESC [2]), led by Wolfgang Hillebrandt (MPA-Garching, Germany) started an extensive observing campaign on this object, using a large number of telescopes around the world. There have been several indications about the fact that galaxy encounters and/or galaxy activity phenomena may produce enhanced star formation. As a consequence, the number of supernovae in this kind of system is expected to be larger with respect to isolated galaxies. Normally, this scenario should favour mainly the explosion of young, massive stars. Nevertheless, recent studies have shown that such phenomena could increase the number of stars that eventually explode as Type Ia supernovae. This notwithstanding, the discovery of supernovae in tidal tails connecting interacting galaxies remains quite an exceptional event. For this reason, the discovery of SN2005cf close to the 'tidal bridge' between MCG-01-39-002 and MCG-01-39-003 constitutes a very interesting case. The supernova was followed by the ESC team during its whole evolution, from about ten days before the object reached its peak luminosity until more than a year after the explosion. As the SN becomes fainter and fainter, larger and larger telescopes are needed. One year after the explosion, the object is indeed about 700 times fainter than at maximum. The supernova was observed with the VLT equipped with FORS1 by ESO astronomer Ferdinando Patat, who is also member of the team led by Massimo Turatto (INAF-Padua, Italy), and at a latter stage by the Paranal Science Team, with the aim of studying the very late

2006-06-01

9

Robert Hooke's model of memory.  

PubMed

In 1682 the scientist and inventor Robert Hooke read a lecture to the Royal Society of London, in which he described a mechanistic model of human memory. Yet few psychologists today seem to have heard of Hooke's memory model. The lecture addressed questions of encoding, memory capacity, repetition, retrieval, and forgetting--some of these in a surprisingly modern way. Hooke's model shares several characteristics with the theory of Richard Semon, which came more than 200 years later, but it is more complete. Among the model's interesting properties are that (1) it allows for attention and other top-down influences on encoding; (2) it uses resonance to implement parallel, cue-dependent retrieval; (3) it explains memory for recency; (4) it offers a single-system account of repetition priming; and (5) the power law of forgetting can be derived from the model's assumptions in a straightforward way. PMID:12747488

Hintzman, Douglas L

2003-03-01

10

Shape Memory Hooks Employed in Fasteners  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study shape memory hooks employed in releasable fasteners. The designed fastener in question consists of two identical parts, each one containing an array of hooks made of the shape memory alloy with the pseudoelastic behavior at room temperature. The fastening function consists in interlocking of the hooks of the either part together. The firmness of the connection is tested for various hook geometry and heat treatment of the hooks. A model for the mechanical response of a loaded single shape memory hook is developed and described. Both the model and the experimental data indicate the firmness of the connection increases with increasing hook curvature and hook density. In the study, we also present the fastener manufacture using NiTi wires with a diameter of 150 ?m.

Vokoun, D.; Majtás, D.; Frost, M.; Sedlák, P.; Šittner, P.

2009-08-01

11

A new clade of Asian late Cretaceous long-snouted tyrannosaurids.  

PubMed

The iconic tyrannosaurids were top predators in Asia and North America during the latest Cretaceous, and most species had deep skulls that allowed them to generate extreme bite forces. Two unusual specimens of Alioramus from Mongolia seem to indicate a divergent long-snouted body plan among some derived tyrannosaurids, but the rarity and juvenile nature of these fossils leaves many questions unanswered. Here, we describe a remarkable new species of long-snouted tyrannosaurid from the Maastrichtian of southeastern China, Qianzhousaurus sinensis. Phylogenetic analysis places Qianzhousaurus with both species of Alioramus in a novel longirostrine clade, which was geographically widespread across latest Cretaceous Asia and formed an important component of terrestrial ecosystems during this time. The new specimen is approximately twice the size as both Alioramus individuals, showing that the long-snouted morphology was not a transient juvenile condition of deep-snouted species, but a characteristic of a major tyrannosaurid subgroup. PMID:24807588

Lü, Junchang; Yi, Laiping; Brusatte, Stephen L; Yang, Ling; Li, Hua; Chen, Liu

2014-01-01

12

The snout and palmomental reflexes in HIV disease in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Following earlier observations on the snout (SR) and palmomental(PMR) reflexes in AIDS in Tanzania, a series of 1127 adults, 649 HIV-positive and 478 HIV-negative, from 4 groups at different risk of HIV infection were examined neurologically between 1987 and 1992. The prevalence of SR and PMR was calculated according to HIV status, HIV stage, demographic factors and neurologic findings. In the total series of HIV positives the prevalence ranged from SR 39.3% and PMR 22.6% in asymptomatic HIV disease to SR 87% and PMR 69% in terminal AIDS. In HIV negatives the prevalence of SR was 19.2% and PMR 15.3%, and increased with age. There was no relationship with age in the HIV positives and no gender differences. SR and PMR were also associated with neuropathy, myelopathy and AIDS dementia complex independent of HIV stage. This study shows a strong association between SR and PMR and HIV disease in Africa. The prevalence increased with HIV stage and related neurological disorders. PMID:7572042

Howlett, W P; Nkya, W M; Kvále, G; Nilssen, S

1995-06-01

13

Isotope incorporation in broad-snouted caimans (crocodilians).  

PubMed

The trophic ecology and migration of vertebrate species have been increasingly studied using stable isotope analysis. However, this approach requires knowledge on how dietary isotopic values are reflected in consumers' tissues. To date, this information has only been obtained for a handful of ectotherms; in particular, little is known about crocodilians. In this study, diet-tissue discrimination factors (DTDFs) and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope turnover rates were estimated for plasma, red blood cells (RBCs), and muscle obtained from broad-snouted caimans (Caiman latirostris). Individuals were fed two different control diets for 189 days. DTDFs for ?(15)N (?(15)N) and ?(13)C (?(13)C) ranged from -2.24‰ to 0.39‰ and from -0.52‰ to 1.06‰, respectively. Isotope turnover rates in tissues, expressed as half-lives, ranged from 11 to 71 days, with plasma

Caut, Stephane

2013-06-15

14

Isotope incorporation in broad-snouted caimans (crocodilians)  

PubMed Central

Summary The trophic ecology and migration of vertebrate species have been increasingly studied using stable isotope analysis. However, this approach requires knowledge on how dietary isotopic values are reflected in consumers' tissues. To date, this information has only been obtained for a handful of ectotherms; in particular, little is known about crocodilians. In this study, diet-tissue discrimination factors (DTDFs) and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope turnover rates were estimated for plasma, red blood cells (RBCs), and muscle obtained from broad-snouted caimans (Caiman latirostris). Individuals were fed two different control diets for 189 days. DTDFs for ?15N (?15N) and ?13C (?13C) ranged from ?2.24‰ to 0.39‰ and from ?0.52‰ to 1.06‰, respectively. Isotope turnover rates in tissues, expressed as half-lives, ranged from 11 to 71 days, with plasma

Caut, Stephane

2013-01-01

15

The New Hooked on Books.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This anniversary edition of "Hooked on Books" adds new materials about the general educational context necessary for the success of the approach described in earlier editions. Discussions center on the difficulties of reading instruction, caused by the decreasing importance of reading in a television era; growth in the importance of peer teaching…

Fader, Daniel; And Others

16

Eyelid hook injury - A preventable domestic injury  

PubMed Central

The aim of this report is to describe the presentation and management of eyelid injury resulting from the hook of a rubber string. A seven-year-old boy presented with pain of the right upper eyelid. A rubber string with metal hook ends, snatched his right eye from below. The hook pierced through his upper eyelid from the conjunctival surface and remained in situ. However, there was no globe laceration noted. Removal was performed by reverse-tracking of the hook through the wound. The wound was stitched with 6’0 Vicryl sutures. Healing was excellent with minimal scarring.

Omar, Nazri; Salleh, Rafidah

2009-01-01

17

Survival of foul-hooked largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We conducted a field experiment to determine the survival rate of foul-hooked (hooked external to the oral cavity) largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) caught and released by recreational anglers. Of 42 largemouth bass caught with hard-plastic baits containing three treble hooks, 15 were hooked only within the mouth and 27 had at least one hook penetrating the external surface of the fish (i.e., foul-hooked). There was no difference in survival of mouth-hooked (100%), foul-hooked (100%), or control (100%) largemouth bass.

Pope, K. L.; Wilde, G. R.

2010-01-01

18

Relationship between Religiosity and "Hooking Up" Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: "Hooking up" behaviors, or sexual activities without commitment or emotional attachment, are occurring among college students. Purpose: This study examined the relationship between hooking up and two measures of religiosity. Methods: Data was obtained from students at a mid-southern university (n=459). Results: Most respondents…

Penhollow, Tina; Young, Michael; Bailey, William

2007-01-01

19

A Long-Snouted Predatory Dinosaur from Africa and the Evolution of Spinosaurids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossils discovered in Lower Cretaceous (Aptian) rocks in the Te «ne «re « Desert of central Niger provide new information about spinosaurids, a peculiar group of piscivorous theropod dinosaurs. The remains, which represent a new genus and species, reveal the extreme elongation and transverse compression of the spinosaurid snout. The postcranial bones include blade-shaped vertebral spines that form a low

Paul C. Sereno; Allison L. Beck; Didier B. Dutheil; Boubacar Gado; Hans C. E. Larsson; Gabrielle H. Lyon; Jonathan D. Marcot; Oliver W. M. Rauhut; Rudyard W. Sadleir; Christian A. Sidor; David D. Varricchio; Gregory P. Wilson; Jeffrey A. Wilson

1998-01-01

20

Lactococcosis in Silver Carp.  

PubMed

An adult Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix with a focally extensive skin lesion near the caudal peduncle and mild iridial hemorrhage was submitted to the Aquatic Research and Diagnostic Laboratory (ARDL) in Stoneville, Mississippi, as part of a fish kill investigation. Touch impressions of this musculoskeletal lesion revealed small cocci (?1 ?m) in pairs or chains within an inflammatory milieu. A pure Gram-positive cocci isolate was obtained from the brain, while cultures of the kidney and muscle yielded multiple bacterial colony types, including the Gram-positive cocci seen in the brain. This brain isolate was characterized biochemically and identified as Lactococcus spp. Analysis of the near complete 16S small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) and DNA gyrase subunit B (gyrB) gene sequences revealed the bacterium to be L. lactis subsp. lactis (SSU rDNA: 100% identity, 1,372/1,372 bp; gyrB: 99.7% identity, 1,779/1,785 bp). Comparatively, at the gyrB locus the case isolate shared less than 90% similarity to L. lactis subsp. cremoris (1,599/1,781 bp) and less than 80% homology to L. garvieae (1409/1775 bp). Histopathological examination confirmed a severe meningoencephalitis, a moderate mononuclear myositis, and a mild interstitial nephritis. We believe this represents the first report of a natural infection by L. lactis subsp. lactis in Silver Carp. PMID:24689953

Khoo, Lester H; Austin, Frank W; Quiniou, Sylvie M A; Gaunt, Patricia S; Riecke, Dennis K; Jacobs, Alicia M; Meals, Keith O; Dunn, Arthur W; Griffin, Matt J

2014-03-01

21

Impact of exotic carps in the polyculture with indigenous carps: competition for food.  

PubMed

The fingerlings of indigenous carps such as catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita) and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) with exotic carps such as silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) were cultured together in a fish pond at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, in order to determine the food electivity, dietary overlap and food competition among indigenous major carps and exotic carps. Phytoplankton (Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae), zooplankton (rotifers) were the dominant groups in the cultured pond. Chlorophyceae was dominant in the diet of rohu. Chlorophyceae and rotifers were the preferred food of catla. Mrigal preferred phytoplankton than zooplankton. Rohu showed positive electivity for zooplankton. Silver carp consumed large quantity of phytoplankton and also preferred rotifers. Chlorophyceae was the dominant food group in the diet of bighead. Mirror carp also preferred plant food organisms dominated by Chlorophyceae. Bighead had positive trends towards phytoplankton. Both mrigal and mirror carp had positive electivity towards phytoplankton. The higher level of dietary overlap occurred between rohu and silver carp followed by between rohu and bighead carp and between catla and silver carp. The lowest level of dietary overlaps occurred between rohu and mirror carp. PMID:24191618

Siddiquee, M M R; Rahman, M F; Jahan, N; Jalal, K C A; Amin, S M N; Arshad, A

2012-06-15

22

Development of microsatellite markers for blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala using 5'-anchored PCR.  

PubMed

A rapid method for isolating microsatellite loci in blunt snout bream, based on the 5'-anchored polymerase chain reaction technique, revealed 522 microsatellite loci (consisting of 442 dinucleotide, 4 trinucleotide and 76 tetranucleotide repeats). Of the 25 loci characterized, 10 turned out to be highly polymorphic. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 17 while the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.4899 to 0.9355 in population of selected strain F(7 ) and from 0.5786 to 0.9556 in wild population from Lake Liangzi. These markers are useful as tools for the detection of genetic variation levels in selected strains and wild populations of blunt snout bream for germplasm conservation. PMID:21564809

Tang, Shou-Jie; Li, Si-Fa; Cai, Wan-Qi

2009-05-01

23

A long-snouted predatory dinosaur from africa and the evolution of spinosaurids  

PubMed

Fossils discovered in Lower Cretaceous (Aptian) rocks in the Tenere Desert of central Niger provide new information about spinosaurids, a peculiar group of piscivorous theropod dinosaurs. The remains, which represent a new genus and species, reveal the extreme elongation and transverse compression of the spinosaurid snout. The postcranial bones include blade-shaped vertebral spines that form a low sail over the hips. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the enlarged thumb claw and robust forelimb evolved during the Jurassic, before the elongated snout and other fish-eating adaptations in the skull. The close phylogenetic relationship between the new African spinosaurid and Baryonyx from Europe provides evidence of dispersal across the Tethys seaway during the Early Cretaceous. PMID:9812890

Sereno; Beck; Dutheil; Gado; Larsson; Lyon; Marcot; Rauhut; Sadleir; Sidor; Varricchio; Wilson; Wilson

1998-11-13

24

Asian Carp in the Missouri River: Analysis from Multiple Missouri River Habitat and Fisheries Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, collectively referred to as Asian carps, are invasive species that were either accidentally or intentionally intro...

G. A. Wanner R. A. Klumb

2009-01-01

25

Tube-snouted gymnotiform and mormyriform fishes: convergence of a specialized foraging mode in teleosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

African mormyriform and South American gynmotiform fishes are unique among freshwater fishes in their abilities to generate and perceive an electrical field that aids in orientation, prey detection, and communication. Here we present evidence from comparative ecology and morphology that tube-snouted electric fishes of the generaSternarchorhynchus (Apteronotidae) andCampylomormyrus (Mormyridae) may be unique among fishes in their mode of foraging by

Crispulo Marrero; Kirk O. Winemiller

1993-01-01

26

Variable Spaced Grating (VSG) Snout, Rotator and Rails for use at LLE  

SciTech Connect

The Variable Spaced Grating (VSG) is a spectrometer snout mounted to an X-Ray Framing Camera (XRFC) through the Unimount flange. This equipment already exists and is used at the University of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) facility. The XRFC and the Unimount flange are designed by LLE. The Tilt Rotator fixture that mounts next to the XRFC and the cart rails are designed by LLNL, and are included in this safety note. The other related components, such as the TIM rails and the Unimount flange, are addressed in a separate safety note, EDSN09-500005-AA. The Multipurpose Spectrometer (MSPEC) and VSG are mounted on the TIM Boat through the cart rails that are very similar in design. The tilt rotator combination with the Unimount flange is also a standard mounting procedure. The later mounting system has been included in this safety note. Figure-1 shows the interface components and the VSG snout. Figure-2 shows the VSG assembly mounted on the Unimount flange. The calibration pointer attachment is shown in place of the snout. There are two types of VSG, one made of 6061-T6 aluminum, weighing approximately 3 pounds, and the other made of 304 stainless steel, weighing approximately 5.5 pounds. This safety note examines the VSG steel design. Specific experiments may require orienting the VSG snout in 90 degrees increment with respect to the Unimount flange. This is done by changing the bolts position on the VSG-main body adapter flange to the Unimount adapter plate. There is no hazard involved in handling the VSG during this procedure as it is done outside the target chamber on the cart rail before installing on the TIM. This safety note addresses the mechanical integrity of the VSG structure, the tilt rotating fixture, the cart rails with handle and their connections. Safety Factors are also calculated for the MSPEC in place of the VSG.

Mukherjee, S K; Emig, J A; Griffith, L V; Heeter, R F; House, F A; James, D L; Schneider, M B; Sorce, C M

2010-01-25

27

Morphological variation in head shape of pipefishes and seahorses in relation to snout length and developmental growth.  

PubMed

The feeding apparatus of Syngnathidae, with its elongate tubular snout and tiny, toothless jaws, is highly specialized for performing fast and powerful pivot feeding. In addition, the prolonged syngnathid parental care probably enables the juveniles to be provided with a feeding apparatus that resembles the one in adults, both in morphology and function. In this study, a landmark-based geometric morphometric analysis was carried out on the head of syngnathid representatives in order to (1) examine to what degree pipefish shape variation is different from that of seahorses; (2) determine whether the high level of specialization reduces the amount of intraspecific morphological variation found within the family; and (3) elucidate whether or not important shape changes occur in the seahorse head during postrelease ontogeny. We found that (1) there is a significant shape difference between head shape of pipefish and seahorse: the main differences concern snout length and height, position and orientation of the pectoral fin base, and height of the head and opercular bone. We hypothesize that this might be related to different prey capture kinematics (long snout with little head rotation versus short snout with large head rotation) and to different body postures (in line with the head versus vertical with a tilted head) in pipefishes and seahorses; (2) both pipefishes and seahorses showed an inverse relation between relative snout length and intraspecific variation and although pipefishes show a large diversity in relative snout elongation, they are more constrained in terms of head shape; and (3) the head of juvenile Hippocampus reidi specimens still undergoes gradual shape changes after being expelled from the brood pouch. Ontogenetic changes include lowering of the snout and head but also differences in orientation of the preopercular bone and lowering of the snout tip. PMID:21630324

Leysen, Heleen; Roos, Gert; Adriaens, Dominique

2011-10-01

28

Molecular Characterization of the Flagellar Hook in Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

The structure of the Gram-positive flagellum is poorly understood, and Bacillus subtilis encodes three proteins homologous to the flagellar hook protein from Salmonella enterica. Here we generated a modified B. subtilis hook protein that could be fluorescently stained using a cysteine-reactive dye. We used the fluorescently labeled hook to demonstrate that FlgE is the hook structural protein and that FliK regulated hook length. We further demonstrate that two proteins of unknown function, FlhO and FlhP, and the putative hook cap, FlgD, were required for hook assembly, such that when flhO, flhP, or flgD was mutated, hook protein was secreted into the supernatant. All mutants defective in hook completion resulted in homogeneously reduced ?D-dependent gene expression due to the action of the anti-sigma factor FlgM.

Courtney, Colleen R.; Cozy, Loralyn M.

2012-01-01

29

The Topic Is Sandy Hook: A Program for Gifted and Talented Students at Sandy Hook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Topic Is Sandy Hook" is an experiential 10-week program designed to provide special opportunities and educational experiences for 6th to 10th grade gifted and talented students. Sandy Hook, a natural resource in Monmouth County, New Jersey, is unique in its physical and historical features and provides an exceptionally rich environment in…

Grant, David

30

Comparison of Hybrid Carp and Grass Carp with Respect to Food Preference, Food Consumption and Growth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To compare the grass carp and the hybrid carp in their relative effectiveness in controlling vegetation, it is ideal to raise these fishes under controlled laboratory conditions at similar stocking densities. The objective of this investigation is to comp...

R. V. Kilambi A. Zdinak

1980-01-01

31

Two fault tolerant toggle-hook release  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A coupling device is disclosed which is mechanically two fault tolerant for release. The device comprises a fastener plate and fastener body, each of which is attachable to a different one of a pair of structures to be joined. The fastener plate and body are coupled by an elongate toggle mounted at one end in a socket on the fastener plate for universal pivotal movement thereon. The other end of the toggle is received in an opening in the fastener body and adapted for limited pivotal movement therein. The toggle is adapted to be restrained by three latch hooks arranged in symmetrical equiangular spacing about the axis of the toggle, each hook being mounted on the fastener body for pivotal movement between an unlatching non-contact position with respect to the toggle and a latching position in engagement with a latching surface of the toggle. The device includes releasable lock means for locking each latch hook in its latching position whereby the toggle couples the fastener plate to the fastener body and means for releasing the lock means to unlock each said latch hook from the latch position whereby the unlocking of at least one of the latch hooks from its latching position results in the decoupling of the fastener plate from the fastener body.

Graves, Thomas Joseph (inventor); Brown, Christopher William (inventor)

1991-01-01

32

Complete genomic sequence of a reovirus isolated from grass carp in China.  

PubMed

A reovirus was isolated from sick grass carp in Guangdong, China in 2009, and tentatively named 'grass carp reovirus Guangdong 108 strain' (GCRV-GD108). This reovirus was propagated in grass carp snout fibroblast cell line PSF with no obvious cytopathic effects. Its genome was 24,703bp in length with a 50% G+C content and 11 dsRNA segments encoding 11 proteins instead of 12 proteins. It has been classified as an Aquareovirus (AQRV). Sequence comparisons showed that it possessed only 7 homologous proteins to grass carp reovirus (GCRV) (with 17.6-45.8% identities), but 9 homologous proteins to mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRV) (with 15-46% identities). GCRV-GD108 lacked homology to VP7, NS4&NS5 and NS3 of GCRV, while it had sigma1 and sigma NS homology to MRV. VP2 of GCRV-GD108 shared high amino acid sequence identity (44-47%) with AQRVs, whereas VP5 did not exhibit much identity (24-25%) to AQRVs. Conserved terminal sequences, 5'-GUAAUUU and UUCAUC-3', were found in all of the 11 genomic segments of GCRV-GD108 at the 5' and 3' non-coding regions (NCRs) of the segments. The 5' NCRs of GCRV-GD108 was similar to GCRV, but differed from other species of AQRV or Orthoreoviruses (ORV). Phylogenetic analysis of coat proteins belonging to Reoviridae, VP1-VP6, showed that GCRV-GD108 clustered with AQRVs and grouped with ORVs, suggesting that GCRV-GD108 belonged to the genus Aquareovirus but was distinctive from any known species of AQRV. Morphological and pathological analyses, and genetic characterization of GCRV-GD108 suggested that it may be a new species of AQRV and it was more closely related with ORVs than other AQRVs. In addition, RT-PCR analysis of diseased grass carp samples collected from different regions of China indicated that these viruses displayed high similarities to each other (95.3-99.4%). They also shared high sequence similarities to GCRV-GD108 (96.7-99.4%), indicating that GCRV-GD108 is representative of the prevalence strain in southern China. PMID:22044618

Ye, Xing; Tian, Yuan-yuan; Deng, Guo-cheng; Chi, Yan-yan; Jiang, Xiao-yan

2012-01-01

33

First Report of Spring Viremia of Carp Virus (SVCV) in Wild Common Carp in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spring 2002, an estimated 1,500 common carp Cyprinus carpio in Cedar Lake, northwestern Wisconsin, died over a 6-week period from late April through the first week in June. Three moribund carp were necropsied and had signs consistent with spring viremia of carp (SVC) disease, including petechiae and ecchymotic hemorrhages on the skin, ascites, and edematous kidney and spleen. A

Audrey L. Dikkeboom; Craig Radi; Kathy Toohey-Kurth; Susan Marcquenski; Marty Engel; Andrew E. Goodwin; David M. Stone; Clare Longshaw

2004-01-01

34

Introgressive Hybridization between Bighead Carp and Silver Carp in the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asian carps are classified as either bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis or silver carp H. molitrix by multiple presumptively diagnostic morphological characteristics; however, hybrids pose a dilemma. Fish sharing the morphological characteristics of both species were observed in an Illinois River backwater (Calhoun County, Illinois) approximately 5 mi (8 km) upriver from the confluence with the Mississippi River as well as

James Thomas Lamer; Chad Ryan Dolan; Jessica Lynn Petersen; John Howard Chick; John Michael Epifanio

2010-01-01

35

FRONT ELEVATION; HOOK & LADDER BUILDING ON THE RIGHT, SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

FRONT ELEVATION; HOOK & LADDER BUILDING ON THE RIGHT, SHOWING THE ARCHED OPENING THAT CONNECTS IT TO THE MAIN FIRE STATION BUILDING, VIEW FACING NORTH NORTHWEST - Kakaako Fire Station, Hook & Ladder Building, 620 South Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

36

„Germanofilia” lui P. P. Carp - P. P. Carp’s „Germanophilia” (Romanian version)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the public conscience as well as in specialized literature, P.P. Carp, the conservative political man, appears as one of the most vehement „Germanophiles” in modern Romania, an attitudinal immobility which had supposedly ruined his perception on the course of history. According to the perspective-oriented interpretation, the “Germanophilia” of the Romanian conservative was not based on love but on Calculus.

Silvia BOCANCEA

2011-01-01

37

Inferences of Diplodocoid (Sauropoda: Dinosauria) Feeding Behavior from Snout Shape and Microwear Analyses  

PubMed Central

Background As gigantic herbivores, sauropod dinosaurs were among the most important members of Mesozoic communities. Understanding their ecology is fundamental to developing a complete picture of Jurassic and Cretaceous food webs. One group of sauropods in particular, Diplodocoidea, has long been a source of debate with regard to what and how they ate. Because of their long lineage duration (Late Jurassic-Late Cretaceous) and cosmopolitan distribution, diplodocoids formed important parts of multiple ecosystems. Additionally, fortuitous preservation of a large proportion of cranial elements makes them an ideal clade in which to examine feeding behavior. Methodology/Principal Findings Hypotheses of various browsing behaviors (selective and nonselective browsing at ground-height, mid-height, or in the upper canopy) were examined using snout shape (square vs. round) and dental microwear. The square snouts, large proportion of pits, and fine subparallel scratches in Apatosaurus, Diplodocus, Nigersaurus, and Rebbachisaurus suggest ground-height nonselective browsing; the narrow snouts of Dicraeosaurus, Suuwassea, and Tornieria and the coarse scratches and gouges on the teeth of Dicraeosaurus suggest mid-height selective browsing in those taxa. Comparison with outgroups (Camarasaurus and Brachiosaurus) reinforces the inferences of ground- and mid-height browsing and the existence of both non-selective and selective browsing behaviors in diplodocoids. Conclusions/Significance These results reaffirm previous work suggesting the presence of diverse feeding strategies in sauropods and provide solid evidence for two different feeding behaviors in Diplodocoidea. These feeding behaviors can subsequently be tied to paleoecology, such that non-selective, ground-height behaviors are restricted to open, savanna-type environments. Selective browsing behaviors are known from multiple sauropod clades and were practiced in multiple environments.

Whitlock, John A.

2011-01-01

38

Subchronic toxicity study of GH transgenic carp.  

PubMed

A subchronic toxicity study of GH (growth hormone) transgenic carp was carried out with 60 SD rats aged 4 weeks, weight 115?125 g. Ten male and 10 female rats were allotted into each group. Animals of the three groups (transgenic carp group (GH-TC), parental carp group (PC) and control group) were fed soy- and alfalfa-free diet (SAFD) with 10% GH transgenic carp powder, 10% parental carp powder or 10% common carp powder for 90 consecutive days, respectively. In the end of study, animals were killed by exsanguination via the carotid artery under diethyl ether anesthesia, then weights of heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, thymus, brain, ovaries and uterus/testis were measured. Pathological examination of organs was determined. Endocrine hormones of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroid hormone (T4), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 17?-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P) and testosterone (T) levels were detected by specific ELISA kit. Parameters of blood routine and blood biochemical were measured. The weights of the body and organs of the rats, food intake, blood routine, blood biochemical test and serum hormones showed no significant differences among the GH transgenic carp-treated, parental carp-treated and control groups (P>0.05). Thus, it was concluded that at the dose level of this study, GH transgenic carp showed no subchronic toxicity and endocrine disruption to SD rats. PMID:22889892

Yong, Ling; Liu, Yu-Mei; Jia, Xu-Dong; Li, Ning; Zhang, Wen-Zhong

2012-11-01

39

Hooking Up and Identity Development of Female College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hooking up generally involves casual sex with noncommittal partners. Hooking up is prevalent on college campuses today and can negatively affect the identity development of female students. The authors examined this phenomenon with a feminist developmental perspective, evaluating hooking up in the context of sexual risk taking with physical and…

Kooyman, Leslie; Pierce, Gloria; Zavadil, Amy

2011-01-01

40

Asian Carps of the Genus Hypophthalmichthys (Pisces, Cyprinidae): A Biological Synopsis and Environmental Risk Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introduction; Genus and Species Description and Distinguishing Characteristics (Genus: Hypophthalmichthys, Species: Bighead Carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, Species: Silver Carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Species: Large scale Silver Carp, Hy...

C. M. Housel C. S. Kolar D. C. Chapman D. P. Jennings W. R. Courtenay

2005-01-01

41

Aspects of Embryonic and Larval Development in Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix  

PubMed Central

As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthysnobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river.

George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

2013-01-01

42

Aspects of embryonic and larval development in bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river.

George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

2013-01-01

43

Structure and innervation of the sensory organs on the snout of the star-nosed mole.  

PubMed

The star-nosed mole possesses a conspicuous specialization of its snout in the form of 22 fleshy appendages that fan out from around the nostrils. These appendages are used by the mole to explore its underground environment and are repeatedly brought into contact with objects of interest to the mole. This report describes the structure, innervation, and distribution of the sensory organs on the star of the star-nosed mole and briefly describes the behavioral use of the star. Each of the 22 appendages of the star is covered with a continuous array of Eimer's organs. These sensory receptors are modifications of the epidermal surface that take the form of bulbous papillae. Each Eimer's organ contains a column or stack of epidermal cells accompanied by nerve processes that originate from myelinated fibers in the underlying dermis. These neural processes travel through the cell column and form terminal swellings just below the outer layer of keratinized epidermis. Each Eimer's organ also contains a single Merkel cell-neurite complex within the cell column and a single lamellated corpuscle immediately below the cell column in the connective tissue of the dermis. There are approximately 30,000 Eimer's organs on the snout of this mammal, making this structure perhaps the most sensitive tactile organ yet discovered for its size. The segregation of these organs to individual appendages, not unlike the fingers of primates, affords an intriguing model for the study of somatosensory systems in mammals. PMID:7721982

Catania, K C

1995-01-23

44

Mechanics of snout expansion in suction-feeding seahorses: musculoskeletal force transmission.  

PubMed

Seahorses and other syngnathid fishes rely on a widening of the snout to create the buccal volume increase needed to suck prey into the mouth. This snout widening is caused by abduction of the suspensoria, the long and flat bones outlining the lateral sides of the mouth cavity. However, it remains unknown how seahorses can generate a forceful abduction of the suspensoria. To understand how force is transmitted to the suspensoria via the hyoid and the lower jaw, we performed mathematical simulations with models based on computerized tomography scans of Hippocampus reidi. Our results show that the hinge joint between the left and right hyoid bars, as observed in H. reidi, allows for an efficient force transmission to the suspensorium from a wide range of hyoid angles, including the extremely retracted hyoid orientations observed in vivo for syngnathids. Apart from the hyoid retraction force by the sternohyoideus-hypaxial muscles, force generated in the opposite direction on the hyoid by the mandibulohyoid ligament also has an important contribution to suspensorium abduction torque. Forces on the lower jaw contribute only approximately 10% of the total suspensorium torque. In particular, when dynamical aspects of hyoid retraction are included in the model, a steep increase is shown in suspensorium abduction torque at highly retracted hyoid positions, when the linkages to the lower jaw counteract further hyoid rotation in the sagittal plane. A delayed strain in these linkages allows syngnathids to postpone suction generation until the end of cranial rotation, a fundamental difference from non-syngnathiform fishes. PMID:23038729

Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Leysen, Heleen; Adriaens, Dominique; Aerts, Peter

2013-02-01

45

CULTURAL PROSPECTS OF CHINESE CARPS IN TAMILNADU  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biology of Chinese carps was studied in the plains and uplands of Tamilnadu. Grass carp, when less than I 50 mm, feed on plankton and chopped vegetation. Larger fish feed on sub- merged weeds, but they are of doubtful utility against emergent and marginal plants. Terrestrial shrubs like Tridux can also be fed. Preference for softer varieties was noted.

G. Prabhavathy; A. Sreenivasan

46

Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

2011-01-01

47

Disseminated Mycobacterium intracellulare infection in a broad-snouted caiman Caiman latirostris.  

PubMed

A 10 yr old broad-snouted caiman Caiman latirostris from a small Dutch animal park was presented with long-term variable periods of anorexia and weight loss. Blood chemistry showed slightly elevated uric acid levels and low ionised calcium concentration. Ultrasonographical thickening of the intestinal wall in the region of the duodenum was evident. Pathological changes were a thickening of the wall of 90% of the small intestines, enlarged spleen with multifocal white foci and an enlarged light-brown liver. Histopathological lesions consisted of disseminated granulomas in the intestinal wall, the liver and the spleen. Multinucleated giant cells and epitheloid macrophages were abundant. Ziehl-Neelsen staining showed numerous intralesional acid-fast bacteria. Polymerase chain reaction for Mycobacterium intracellulare was positive. PMID:24270027

Kik, Marja J L

2013-11-25

48

Inactivation of koi-herpesvirus in water using bacteria isolated from carp intestines and carp habitats.  

PubMed

Since its first outbreak in Japan in 2003, koi-herpesvirus (KHV) remains a challenge to the carp Cyprinus carpio L. breeding industry. In this study, inactivation of KHV in water from carp habitats (carp habitat water) was investigated with the aim of developing a model for rapidly inactivating the pathogen in aquaculture effluent. Experiments with live fish showed that, in carp habitat water, KHV lost its infectivity within 3 days. Indications were that inactivation of KHV was caused by the antagonistic activity of bacteria (anti-KHV bacteria) in the water from carp habitats. Carp habitat water and the intestinal contents of carp were therefore screened for anti-KHV bacteria. Of 581 bacterial isolates, 23 showed anti-KHV activity. An effluent treatment model for the disinfection of KHV in aquaculture effluent water using anti-KHV bacteria was developed and evaluated. The model showed a decrease in cumulative mortality and in the number of KHV genome copies in kidney tissue of fish injected with treated effluent compared with a positive control. It is thought that anti-KHV bacteria isolated from the intestinal contents of carp and from carp habitat water can be used to control KHV outbreaks. PMID:24102339

Yoshida, N; Sasaki, R-K; Kasai, H; Yoshimizu, M

2013-12-01

49

Hook-up Sexual Experiences and Problem Behaviors Among Adolescents  

PubMed Central

This study focused on the sexual phenomenon of “hooking-up.” A hook-up is defined as a single sexual encounter that may or may not include sexual intercourse with someone who is a stranger, brief acquaintance, or friend. The aim of this study was to document the prevalence of hook-ups in a sample of 1,011 urban, middle and high school students and to examine the relationship between hooking-up and a variety of problem behaviors, including, alcohol, cigarette, illicit drug use, truancy, and school suspensions. The results revealed that 28% of the sample had engaged in at least one hook-up experience, and this percentage increased with age. Hook-ups were correlated moderately with all problem behaviors examined.

Fortunato, Leanna; Young, Amy M.; Boyd, Carol J.; Fons, Courntey E.

2011-01-01

50

Tracks in the sand: Hooke’s pendulum cum grano salis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of science remembers more than just formal facts about scientific discoveries. These side stories are often inspiring. One of them, the story of an unfulfilled death wish of Jacob Bernoulli regarding spirals, inspired us to look around ourselves. And we saw natural spirals around us, which led to the creation of a Hooke’s pendulum, an artificial creator of Bernoulli’s spira mirabilis. Mathematics helped us to investigate that strange curve and to control this little sandy route to making our predecessor’s wish come true.

Babovi?, Vukota; Babovi?, Miloš

2014-01-01

51

The mystery of the curious Crucian carp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most animals can only live for minutes without oxygen -- just try holding your breath and see how long you can go. But, the crucian carp, which is related to the goldfish, can survive for several days with almost no oxygen.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2004-10-01

52

Hook nozzle arrangement for supporting airfoil vanes  

DOEpatents

A gas turbine engine`s nozzle structure includes a nozzle support ring, a plurality of shroud segments, and a plurality of airfoil vanes. The plurality of shroud segments are distributed around the nozzle support ring. Each airfoil vane is connected to a corresponding shroud segment so that the airfoil vanes are also distributed around the nozzle support ring. Each shroud segment has a hook engaging the nozzle support ring so that the shroud segments and corresponding airfoil vanes are supported by the nozzle support ring. The nozzle support ring, the shroud segments, and the airfoil vanes may be ceramic. 8 figs.

Shaffer, J.E.; Norton, P.F.

1996-02-20

53

Hook nozzle arrangement for supporting airfoil vanes  

DOEpatents

A gas turbine engine's nozzle structure includes a nozzle support ring, a plurality of shroud segments, and a plurality of airfoil vanes. The plurality of shroud segments are distributed around the nozzle support ring. Each airfoil vane is connected to a corresponding shroud segment so that the airfoil vanes are also distributed around the nozzle support ring. Each shroud segment has a hook engaging the nozzle support ring so that the shroud segments and corresponding airfoil vanes are supported by the nozzle support ring. The nozzle support ring, the shroud segments, and the airfoil vanes may be ceramic.

Shaffer, James E. (Maitland, FL); Norton, Paul F. (San Diego, CA)

1996-01-01

54

A remarkable short-snouted horned dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous (late Campanian) of southern Laramidia.  

PubMed

The fossil record of centrosaurine ceratopsids is largely restricted to the northern region of western North America (Alberta, Montana and Alaska). Exceptions consist of single taxa from Utah (Diabloceratops) and China (Sinoceratops), plus otherwise fragmentary remains from the southern Western Interior of North America. Here, we describe a remarkable new taxon, Nasutoceratops titusi n. gen. et sp., from the late Campanian Kaiparowits Formation of Utah, represented by multiple specimens, including a nearly complete skull and partial postcranial skeleton. Autapomorphies include an enlarged narial region, pneumatic nasal ornamentation, abbreviated snout and elongate, rostrolaterally directed supraorbital horncores. The subrectangular parietosquamosal frill is relatively unadorned and broadest in the mid-region. A phylogenetic analysis indicates that Nasutoceratops is the sister taxon to Avaceratops, and that a previously unknown subclade of centrosaurines branched off early in the group's history and persisted for several million years during the late Campanian. As the first well-represented southern centrosaurine comparable in age to the bulk of northern forms, Nasutoceratops provides strong support for the provincialism hypothesis, which posits that Laramidia-the western landmass formed by inundation of the central region of North America by the Western Interior Seaway-hosted at least two coeval dinosaur communities for over a million years of late Campanian time. PMID:23864598

Sampson, Scott D; Lund, Eric K; Loewen, Mark A; Farke, Andrew A; Clayton, Katherine E

2013-09-01

55

Genetic and morphometric variability in Caiman latirostris (broad-snouted caiman), reptilia, Alligatoridae.  

PubMed

Caiman latirostris (broad-snouted caiman) is a crocodilian species from Argentina subject of management plans. The goal of this study was estimating the distribution of genetic variability using RAPD markers and quantitative traits in wild populations of C. latirostris from Santa Fe province, Argentina. We sampled animals from four populations to obtain DNA and morphometric measurements. Eight RAPD primers were used and PCR products were analyzed on 4% polyacrylamide gels stained with silver nitrate. Eleven allometric measurements were obtained in animals within 48 hr after birth. We were able to reveal a relatively high number of variable markers in the studied populations. Our estimates of polymorphism and heterozygosity are higher than recorded values in other crocodilians using isozymes, the studied populations showed low levels of gene flow and some population subdivision. The study of quantitative traits conducted by nested analysis of variance and principal component analysis indicated higher levels of variance among nests within populations than among populations. We found that some head measurements have the highest contribution to morphological differences among populations; this fact could support the role of these traits in reproductive or feeding behavior. Estimated genetic differentiation value (F(ST)) among populations was higher than quantitative trait differentiation value (Q(ST)), suggesting a higher contribution of neutral than adaptive loci to the genetic differentiation among populations. Quantitative traits are probably more related with fitness and the differentiation among populations remained relatively lower. The high heritability estimated for some traits indicates great potential to improve them in management plans. PMID:19195016

Amavet, Patricia; Vilardi, Juan César; Rosso, Esteban; Saidman, Beatriz

2009-04-01

56

A novel hook-related protein family and the characterization of hook-related protein 1.  

PubMed

The spatial organization of organelles within a cell is dependent on microtubules. Recently, members of the Hook family of proteins have been proposed to function in linking organelles to microtubules. We report the identification of a completely novel protein family, the Hook-related protein (HkRP) family, from which the Hook proteins have diverged. Bioinformatic analysis of the HkRP family revealed several conserved domains, including a unique C-terminal HkRP domain. The central region of each protein is comprised of an extensive coiled-coil domain, and the N-terminus contains a putative microtubule-binding domain. This domain has been shown to bind microtubules in the Hook protein and show that the HkRP1 protein is microtubule-associated. While endogenous HkRP1 has no distinct organelle association, expression of the C-terminal membrane-binding domain suggests a function of the HkRP1 in early endosome. Ultrastructural studies reveal that expression of the C-terminal HkRP1 domain causes an accumulation of internal membranes with an electron-dense coat. Co-localization studies show a concomitant redistribution of the early endosome marker sorting-nexin 1 but not the early endosome antigen-1 (EEA1). The steady-state distribution of the epidermal growth factor receptor is also specifically disrupted by expression of the C-terminal domain. We propose that HkRP1 is involved in the process of tubulation of sorting nexin-1 positive membranes from early endosome subdomains. PMID:15882442

Simpson, Fiona; Martin, Sally; Evans, Timothy M; Kerr, Markus; James, David E; Parton, Robert G; Teasdale, Rohan D; Wicking, Carol

2005-06-01

57

Genetics might determine which smokers get hooked  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have identified genetic risk factors that may accelerate a teen's progression to becoming a lifelong heavy smoker. The team of scientists from the U.S., the U.K., and New Zealand examined earlier studies by other research teams to develop a genetic risk profile for heavy smoking. Then they looked at their own long-term study of 1,000 New Zealanders from birth to age 38 to identify whether individuals at high genetic risk got hooked on cigarettes more quickly as teens and whether, as adults, they had a harder time quitting. Duke University researchers developed a new "genetic risk score" for the study by examining prior genome-wide associations (GWAS) of adult smokers. Duke is home to the Duke Cancer Institute.

58

Evidence for Recombination of Mitochondrial DNA in Triploid Crucian Carp  

PubMed Central

In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of the allotetraploid and triploid crucian carp and compare the complete mtDNA sequences between the triploid crucian carp and its female parent Japanese crucian carp and between the triploid crucian carp and its male parent allotetraploid. Our results indicate that the complete mtDNA nucleotide identity (98%) between the triploid crucian carp and its male parent allotetraploid was higher than that (93%) between the triploid crucian carp and its female parent Japanese crucian carp. Moreover, the presence of a pattern of identity and difference at synonymous sites of mitochondrial genomes between the triploid crucian carp and its parents provides direct evidence that triploid crucian carp possessed the recombination mtDNA fragment (12,759 bp) derived from the paternal fish. These results suggest that mtDNA recombination was derived from the fusion of the maternal and paternal mtDNAs. Compared with the haploid egg with one set of genome from the Japanese crucian carp, the diploid sperm with two sets of genomes from the allotetraploid could more easily make its mtDNA fuse with the mtDNA of the haploid egg. In addition, the triple hybrid nature of the triploid crucian carp probably allowed its better mtDNA recombination. In summary, our results provide the first evidence of mtDNA combination in polyploid fish.

Guo, Xinhong; Liu, Shaojun; Liu, Yun

2006-01-01

59

Feeding frequency affects stress, innate immunity and disease resistance of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of feeding frequency on stress, innate immunity and disease resistance of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala (average weight: 9.92 ± 0.06 g). Fish were randomly assigned to one of six feeding frequencies (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 times/day) following the same ration size for 8 weeks. After the feeding trial, fish were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila and cumulative mortality was recorded for the next 10 days. Daily gain index of fish fed 3-5 times/day was significantly higher than that of the other groups. High feeding frequencies induced significantly elevated plasma levels of both cortisol and lactate. Fish fed 3-4 times/day exhibited relatively low liver catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities as well as malondialdehyde contents, but obtained significantly higher reduced glutathione levels and post-challenged haemato-immunological parameters (include blood leukocyte and erythrocyte counts as well as plasma lysozyme, alternative complement, acid phosphatase and myeloperoxidase activities) compared with that of the other groups. After challenge, the lowest mortality was observed in fish fed 4 times/day. It was significantly lower than that of fish fed 1-3 times/day, but exhibited no statistical difference with that of the other groups. In conclusion, both low and high feeding frequencies could cause oxidative stress of juvenile M. amblycephala, as might consequently lead to the depressed immunity and reduced resistance to A. hydrophila infection. The optimal feeding frequency to enhance growth and boost immunity of this species at juvenile stage is 4 times/day. PMID:24636858

Li, Xiang-Fei; Tian, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Jiang, Guang-Zhen; Liu, Wen-Bin

2014-05-01

60

Fractures of the hook of hamate: radiographic signs  

SciTech Connect

Isolated fractures of the hamulus, formerly considered rare, are being seen more frequently. Many of these injuries are sports related, particularly in golf, tennis, racquetball and baseball players. Failure to make an early diagnosis can result in severe pain and sometimes incapacitating disability. The authors studied the clinical and radiological findings in 12 patients who had fracture of the hook of the hamate. The proposed three radiographic signs of fracture that are readily seen on routine PA projections: absence of the hook of the hamate; sclerosis of the hook; and lack of cortical density, i.e., barely visible outline, of the hamulus.

Norman, A.; Nelson, J.; Green, S.

1985-01-01

61

Physiological changes in carps induced by pollution  

SciTech Connect

Several pollutants like DDT, atrazine, PCP, and others induce changes of cortisol and glucose levels in serum, variations of the amount of liver glycogen and liver function, and exert changes of the activity of gill ATPase and acetylcholinesterase in brain and serum of carps. There is always a biphasic response, an increase of concentration or enzyme activity for a short time, and a decrease or inhibition of the enzymes after a longer exposure to the pollutants. The time scale, the duration of the period of increase and that of decrease, depends on the concentration and the toxicity of the pollutants. The influence of the pollutants in normal fresh water was compared with the effects occurring in carps acclimated to 1.2% salt water. This condition enables one to show that the carps are more sensitive to the pollutants under this condition. All responses are unspecific. Advice for the use of these tests as criteria for water quality are given.

Hanke, W.; Gluth, G.; Bubel, H.; Mueller, R.

1983-04-01

62

Effects of Temperature on Food Consumption, Food Conversion, and Growth of Grass Carp 'Ctenopharyngodon idella'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study was conducted to determine the food consumption and growth of Grass Carp under different temperatures, effects of temperature on food conversion and growth of grass carp, and relationship between grass carp production and increase in nutrient le...

R. V. Kilambi W. R. Robison

1978-01-01

63

Evaluating Asian Carp Colonization Potential and Impact in the Great Lakes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Filter-feeding Asian carp (bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, and silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) threaten to invade Lake Michigan and other Great Lakes through the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal and through introductions via bait use or...

W. Hill

2008-01-01

64

Induced interspecific androgenesis using diploid sperm from allotetraploid hybrids of common carp×red crucian carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, viable diploid androgenetic individuals (AT-ag) (2n=100) have been developed in UV-radiated eggs of goldfish (GF) (Carassius auratus) following fertilization with diploid spermatozoa from male allotetraploid hybrid (AT) F13 (4n=200) of red crucian carp (C. auratus red var.) (?)×common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (?). In the experimental groups, eggs were inactivated by UV-rays, the range of UV-radiation

Yuandong Sun; Chun Zhang; Shaojun Liu; Wei Duan; Yun Liu

2007-01-01

65

The formation of improved tetraploid population of red crucian carp × common carp hybrids by androgenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bisexual fertile diploid androgenetic individuals (A0) (2n=100) were formed by androgenesis. In this way, the diploid spermatozoa from male allotetraploid hybrids (AT) (4n=200) of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (?) ? common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (?) were used to fertilize the UV-treated haploid eggs of goldfish (Carassius auratus), and living androgenetic diploid fish were developed. The A0

Wei Duan; QinBo Qin; Song Chen; ShaoJun Liu; Jing Wang; Chun Zhang; YuanDong Sun; Yun Liu

2007-01-01

66

Microsatellites within genes and ESTs of common carp and their applicability in silver crucian carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-six new microsatellites were identified from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) by screening through genes found in GenBank, EST sequences from a testis cDNA library and a genomic DNA library enriched for CA repeats. Eleven of the twenty-eight microsatellites identified from genes and ESTs were AT repeats, suggesting their high abundance in the genome of common carp. Characterization of the

Gen Hua Yue; Mei Yin Ho; Laszlo Orban; Johannes Komen

2004-01-01

67

29 CFR 1915.113 - Shackles and hooks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Gear and Equipment for Rigging and Materials Handling § 1915.113 Shackles and hooks. The provisions of this section shall apply to ship...

2013-07-01

68

Bohlin transformation: the hidden symmetry that connects Hooke to Newton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hooke's name is familiar to students of mechanics thanks to the law of force that bears his name. Less well-known is the influence his findings had on the founder of mechanics, Isaac Newton. In a lecture given some twenty years ago, W Arnol'd pointed out the outstanding contribution to science made by Hooke, and also noted the controversial issue of the attribution of important discoveries to Newton that were actually inspired by Hooke. It therefore seems ironic that the two most famous force laws, named after Hooke and Newton, are two geometrical aspects of the same law. This relationship, together with other illuminating aspects of Newtonian mechanics, is described in Arnol'd's book and is worth remembering in standard physics courses. In this didactical paper the duality of the two forces is expounded and an account of the more recent contributions to the subject is given.

Saggio, Maria Luisa

2013-01-01

69

De Novo Synthesis of Phytochrome in Pumpkin Hooks 1  

PubMed Central

Phytochrome becomes density labeled in the hook of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seedlings grown in the dark on D2O, indicating that the protein moiety of the pigment is synthesized de novo during development. Red light causes a rapid decline of the total phytochrome level in the hook of etiolated seedlings but upon return to the dark, phytochrome again accumulates. These newly appearing molecules are also synthesized de novo. Newly synthesized phytochrome in both dark-grown and red-irradiated seedlings is in the red-absorbing form. Turnover of the red-absorbing form is indicated by the density labeling of phytochrome during a period when the total phytochrome level in the hook of dark-grown seedlings remains constant. However, it was not possible to determine whether this results from intracellular turnover or turnover of the whole cell population during hook growth.

Quail, P. H.; Schafer, E.; Marme, D.

1973-01-01

70

Development of Curves for Estimating Aircraft Arresting Hook Loads.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Technical Information Memorandum was written to provide AFFTC engineers with a reliable, accurate method for predicting maximum aircraft arresting hook loads based on a knowledge of aircraft weight and groundspeed at the moment of cable engagement. P...

L. W. Jones

1982-01-01

71

Relationship between tornadoes and hook echoes on April 3, 1974  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radar observations of tornado families occurring on April 3, 1974 are discussed. Of the 93 tornadoes included in the sample, 81% were associated with hook-like echoes with appendages at least 40 deg to the south of the echo movement. At least one tornado was associated with 62% of the hook-like echoes observed. All of the tornadoes with intensities of F 4 and F 5 were produced by hook-like echoes; the mean intensity of all tornadoes associated with this type of echo was F 3, while the mean intensity of the remaining tornadoes was F1. The tornadic hook-like echoes moved to the right of the non-tornadic echoes forming a tornado line in advance of the squall line. Some tornadoes were associated with 'spiral' echoes.

Forbes, G. S.

1975-01-01

72

Performance of barbed and barbless hooks in a marine recreational fishery  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used an angling study to examine catch per unit effort (CPUE), bait loss, and total landings by anglers fishing with natural bait on barbed and barbless hooks in a nearshore marine sport fishery located in the Gulf of Mexico near St. Petersburg, Florida. Anglers fished half the day with a barbed hook and half the day with a barbless hook. We also recorded anatomical hook placement, severity of injury or bleeding, and hook extraction times for each landed fish. Bait loss, CPUE, and mean length of catch did not differ between gears, but anglers landed 22% more fish with barbed hooks. Loss of hooked fish was significantly higher with barbless hooks, and efficiency appeared to vary among species. Mean unhooking times were significantly shorter with barbless hooks. Anatomical hook placement did not differ between gears and most fish were hooked in the jaws. Bleeding did not differ between gears because bleeding was influenced strongly by hook placement, but barbless hooks reduced unhooking injuries. In this fishery, barbless hooks probably did not reduce hooking mortality and conferred only slight benefits at the expense of reduced catches.

Schaeffer, Jeffrey S.; Hoffman, Elizabeth M.

2002-01-01

73

(2+1) Newton-Hooke Classical and Quantum Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the Newton-Hooke groups in (2+1)-dimensions. A complete classification of both classical and quantum elementary systems is achieved by explicit computation of coadjoint orbits and unitary irreducible representations of the extended (by central extensions) Newton-Hooke groups. In addition, we show the quantization à la Moyal of a classical system using the Stratonovich-Weyl correspondence. An analysis of the origin of the "exotic" central extension, which only appears in (2+1)-dimensions, is presented.

Arratia, Oscar; Martín, Miguel A.; del Olmo, Mariano A.

2011-07-01

74

Laboratory evaluation of adhesively crimped surgical ball hooks.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the addition of sandblasting and/or dental adhesive on the stability of the crimpable hook when positioned and crimped onto surgical arch wires. Ninety crimpable ball hooks were divided into six test groups: crimp only; apply Panavia 21 and crimp; apply C & B Metabond and crimp; sandblast and crimp; sandblast, apply Panavia 21, and crimp; and sandblast, apply C & B Metabond, and crimp. Each hook was treated according to the criteria of the relevant test group and then crimped to the arch wire. The force required to dislodge each hook from the arch wire was measured. The results demonstrated that sandblasting caused a significant increase in the force required to dislodge the crimped hook. The addition of either Panavia 21 or C & B Metabond adhesives also resulted in a significant increase in the required dislodging force. The force required to dislodge the hook was increased by a factor of 10 where sandblasting and Panavia 21 were applied. The same increase was observed where C & B Metabond was applied, without sandblasting. However, it was concluded that the use of Panavia 21, together with an intraoral sandblasting machine, would be more appropriate in the clinical setting, primarily due to the ease of use associated with Panavia 21. PMID:9743650

Griffin, J T; Ferracane, J L

1998-01-01

75

Transcriptome Analysis and SSR/SNP Markers Information of the Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala)  

PubMed Central

Background Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) is an herbivorous freshwater fish species native to China and has been recognized as a main aquaculture species in the Chinese freshwater polyculture system with high economic value. Right now, only limited EST resources were available for M. amblycephala. Recent advances in large-scale RNA sequencing provide a fast, cost-effective, and reliable approach to generate large expression datasets for functional genomic analysis, which is especially suitable for non-model species with un-sequenced genomes. Methodology and Principal Findings Using 454 pyrosequencing, a total of 1,409,706 high quality reads (total length 577 Mbp) were generated from the normalized cDNA of pooled M. amblycephala individuals. These sequences were assembled into 26,802 contigs and 73,675 singletons. After BLAST searches against the NCBI non-redundant (NR) and UniProt databases with an arbitrary expectation value of E?10, over 40,000 unigenes were functionally annotated and classified using the FunCat functional annotation scheme. A comparative genomics approach revealed a substantial proportion of genes expressed in M. amblycephala tanscriptome to be shared across the genomes of zebrafish, medaka, tetraodon, fugu, stickleback, human, mouse, and chicken, and identified a substantial number of potentially novel M. amblycephala genes. A total number of 4,952 SSRs were found and 116 polymorphic loci have been characterized. A significant number of SNPs (25,697) and indels (23,287) were identified based on specific filter criteria in the M. amblycephala. Conclusions This study is the first comprehensive transcriptome analysis for a fish species belonging to the genus Megalobrama. These large EST resources are expected to be valuable for the development of molecular markers, construction of gene-based linkage map, and large-scale expression analysis of M. amblycephala, as well as comparative genome analysis for the genus Megalobrama fish species. The identified SSR and SNP markers will greatly benefit its breeding program and whole genome association studies.

Liu, Hong; Zeng, Cong; Liu, Xiaolian; Yi, Shaokui; Wang, Weimin

2012-01-01

76

Descriptive and Injunctive Social Norm Overestimation in Hooking Up and Their Role as Predictors of Hook-Up Activity in a College Student Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the presence of norm overestimation in both injunctive and descriptive norms about hooking up. An online survey was completed by 186 college students (127 women). Overestimation was examined for hooking up as a global category, as well as for six specific behaviors. The role of norms in predicting hooking up was also examined using hierarchical multiple regression

Megan Barriger; Carlos J. Vélez-Blasini

2011-01-01

77

Comparative Genomics of Carp Herpesviruses  

PubMed Central

Three alloherpesviruses are known to cause disease in cyprinid fish: cyprinid herpesviruses 1 and 3 (CyHV1 and CyHV3) in common carp and koi and cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV2) in goldfish. We have determined the genome sequences of CyHV1 and CyHV2 and compared them with the published CyHV3 sequence. The CyHV1 and CyHV2 genomes are 291,144 and 290,304 bp, respectively, in size, and thus the CyHV3 genome, at 295,146 bp, remains the largest recorded among the herpesviruses. Each of the three genomes consists of a unique region flanked at each terminus by a sizeable direct repeat. The CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 genomes are predicted to contain 137, 150, and 155 unique, functional protein-coding genes, respectively, of which six, four, and eight, respectively, are duplicated in the terminal repeat. The three viruses share 120 orthologous genes in a largely colinear arrangement, of which up to 55 are also conserved in the other member of the genus Cyprinivirus, anguillid herpesvirus 1. Twelve genes are conserved convincingly in all sequenced alloherpesviruses, and two others are conserved marginally. The reference CyHV3 strain has been reported to contain five fragmented genes that are presumably nonfunctional. The CyHV2 strain has two fragmented genes, and the CyHV1 strain has none. CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 have five, six, and five families of paralogous genes, respectively. One family unique to CyHV1 is related to cellular JUNB, which encodes a transcription factor involved in oncogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the first time that JUNB-related sequences have been reported in a herpesvirus.

Kurobe, Tomofumi; Gatherer, Derek; Cunningham, Charles; Korf, Ian; Fukuda, Hideo; Hedrick, Ronald P.; Waltzek, Thomas B.

2013-01-01

78

Engineering Evaluation of International Low Impact Docking System Latch Hooks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The international Low Impact Docking System (iLIDS) provides a structural arrangement that allows for visiting vehicles to dock with the International Space Station (ISS) (Fig 1). The iLIDS docking units are mechanically joined together by a series of active and passive latch hooks. In order to preserve docking capability at the existing Russian docking interfaces, the iLIDS latch hooks are required to conform to the existing Russian design. The latch hooks are classified as being fail-safe. Since the latch hooks are fail-safe, the hooks are not fracture critical and a fatigue based service life assessment will satisfy the structural integrity requirements. Constant amplitude fatigue testing to failure on four sets of active/passive iLIDS latch hooks was performed at load magnitudes of 10, 11, and 12 kips. Failure analysis of the hook fatigue failures identified multi-site fatigue initiation that was effectively centered about the hook mid-plane (consistent with the 3D model results). The fatigue crack initiation distribution implies that the fatigue damage accumulation effectively results in a very low aspect ratio surface crack (which can be simulated as thru-thickness crack). Fatigue damage progression resulted in numerous close proximity fatigue crack initiation sites. It was not possible to determine if fatigue crack coalescence occurs during cyclic loading or as result of the fast fracture response. The presence of multiple fatigue crack initiation sites on different planes will result in the formation of ratchet marks as the cracks coalesce. Once the stable fatigue crack becomes unstable and the fast fracture advances across the remaining ligament and the plane stress condition at a free-surface will result in failure along a 45 deg. shear plane (slant fracture) and the resulting inclined edge is called a shear lip. The hook thickness on the plane of fatigue crack initiation is 0.787". The distance between the shear lips on this plane was on the order of 0.48" and it was effectively centered about the mid-plane of the section. The numerous ratchet marks between the shear lips on the fracture initiation plane are indicative of multiple fatigue initiation sites within this region. The distribution of the fatigue damage about the centerline of the hook is consistent with the analytical results that demonstrate peak stress/strain response at the mid-plane that decreases in the direction of the hook outer surfaces. Scanning electron microscope images of the failed sections detected fatigue crack striations in close proximity to the free surface of the hook radius. These findings were documented at three locations on the fracture surface : 1) adjacent to the left shear lip, 2) adjacent to the right shear lip, and 3) near the centerline of the section. The features of the titanium fracture surface did not allow for a determination of a critical crack size via identification of the region where the fatigue crack propagation became unstable. The fracture based service life projections where benchmarked with strain-life analyses. The strainrange response in the hook radius was defined via the correlated finite element models and the modified method of universal slopes was incorporated to define the strain-life equation for the titanium alloy. The strain-life assessment confirmed that the fracture based projections were reasonable for the loading range of interest. Based upon the analysis and component level fatigue test data a preliminary service life capability for the iLIDS active and passive hooks of 2 lifetimes is projected (includes a scatter factor of 4).

Martinez, J.; Patin, R.; Figert, J.

2013-01-01

79

Secondary neutron dose measurement for proton eye treatment using an eye snout with a borated neutron absorber  

PubMed Central

Background We measured and assessed ways to reduce the secondary neutron dose from a system for proton eye treatment. Methods Proton beams of 60.30 MeV were delivered through an eye-treatment snout in passive scattering mode. Allyl diglycol carbonate (CR-39) etch detectors were used to measure the neutron dose in the external field at 0.00, 1.64, and 6.00 cm depths in a water phantom. Secondary neutron doses were measured and compared between those with and without a high-hydrogen–boron-containing block. In addition, the neutron energy and vertices distribution were obtained by using a Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation. Results The ratio of the maximum neutron dose equivalent to the proton absorbed dose (H(10)/D) at 2.00 cm from the beam field edge was 8.79?±?1.28 mSv/Gy. The ratio of the neutron dose equivalent to the proton absorbed dose with and without a high hydrogen-boron containing block was 0.63?±?0.06 to 1.15?±?0.13 mSv/Gy at 2.00 cm from the edge of the field at depths of 0.00, 1.64, and 6.00 cm. Conclusions We found that the out-of-field secondary neutron dose in proton eye treatment with an eye snout is relatively small, and it can be further reduced by installing a borated neutron absorbing material.

2013-01-01

80

Occurrence of higher chlorinated benzenes in livers of grass carp and common carp collected from markets of Xinxiang, China.  

PubMed

Five higher chlorinated benzenes (including hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and three isomers of tetrachlorobenzens) were measured in the livers of grass carp and common carp collected from five markets in Xinxiang city, China. HCB and PeCB were detected in all samples. The major component of the higher CBs residue was HCB and significant correlations existed between HCB and PeCB in both grass carp and common carp livers. The ratio range of HCB/PeCB in grass carp and common carp were 3.4-6.2 and 4.9-7.7, respectively, which implied the sources of higher CBs originate mainly from the revolatilization of industrial HCB with a minor impact from PeCB. PMID:24042841

Li, Yong-Fang; Yang, Zhong-Zhi; Fan, Jing; Zhu, Yong

2013-11-01

81

Competitive Interactions between Age-0 Bighead Carp and Paddlefish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis on native planktivores in the USA is unknown. The objectives of this study were to experimentally test for competitive interactions between age-0 bighead carp and age-0 paddlefish Polyodon spathula. Differences among water chemistry variables, invertebrate densities, and relative growth of fish were assessed in mesocosms. Water chemistry variables were similar among treatments throughout the experiment and only exhibited a temporal effect. Zooplankton density declined in mesocosms after fish were introduced. In general, zooplankton densities did not differ among treatments but did differ from the control. The relative growth of paddlefish was negative in the paddlefish and paddlefish-bighead carp treatments. The relative growth of bighead carp was negative in the bighead carp treatment but positive in the paddlefish-bighead carp treatment. Age-0 paddlefish exhibited the greatest decrease in relative growth in mesocosms with bighead carp. Bighead carp exhibited the greatest increase in relative growth in mesocosms with paddlefish. These data suggest that bighead carp have the potential to negatively affect the growth of paddlefish when food resources are limited.

Schrank, S. J.; Guy, C. S.; Fairchild, J. F.

2003-01-01

82

Experimental Hydrodynamics of Turning Maneuvers in Koi Carps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental hydrodynamics of two types of turning maneuvers in koi carps (cyprinus carpio koi) are studied. The flow patterns generated by koi carps during turning are quantified by using digital particle image velocimetry. Based on the velocity fields measured, the momentums in the wake and the impulsive moments exerted on the carps are estimated. On the other hand, turning rates and radii, and moments of inertia of the carps including added mass during turning are obtained by processing the images recorded. Comparisons of the impulsive moments and moments of inertia show good agreements.

Wu, G. H.; Yang, Y.; Zeng, L. J.

83

Eos Interviews Robert Van Hook, Former AGU Interim Executive Director  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Robert Van Hook, who served as AGU's interim executive director since January 2009, led the organization during a transition period that began with the retirement of long-serving executive director A. F. (“Fred”) Spilhaus Jr. Van Hook's tenure concluded on 30 August when Christine McEntee assumed her position as AGU's new executive director (see Eos, 91(17), 153, 156, 2010). During his tenure at AGU, which overlapped with a global economic recession, Van Hook helped to guide the organization through key structural governance changes, strategic planning, and upgrades in technology, human resources, and accounting. He also helped to revitalize public outreach and member services, among many other efforts. Van Hook, president of Transition Management Consulting, recently reflected upon his tenure, the transition period, and the future of AGU. Van Hook credits AGU's strong volunteer leadership—including past presidents Tim Killeen and Tim Grove, current president Mike McPhaden, and president-elect Carol Finn—for courage in moving the organization through a successful transition. “They were the ones who shoved the boat off from the shore. I was lucky enough to be invited into the boat,” he said. He also credits the staff for their resiliency and commitment to supporting AGU's science.

Showstack, Randy

2010-08-01

84

Newton–Hooke-type symmetry of anisotropic oscillators  

SciTech Connect

Rotation-less Newton–Hooke-type symmetry, found recently in the Hill problem, and instrumental for explaining the center-of-mass decomposition, is generalized to an arbitrary anisotropic oscillator in the plane. Conversely, the latter system is shown, by the orbit method, to be the most general one with such a symmetry. Full Newton–Hooke symmetry is recovered in the isotropic case. Star escape from a galaxy is studied as an application. -- Highlights: ? Rotation-less Newton–Hooke (NH) symmetry is generalized to an arbitrary anisotropic oscillator. ? The orbit method is used to find the most general case for rotation-less NH symmetry. ? The NH symmetry is decomposed into Heisenberg algebras based on chiral decomposition.

Zhang, P.M., E-mail: zhpm@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Horvathy, P.A., E-mail: horvathy@lmpt.univ-tours.fr [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Laboratoire de Mathématiques et de Physique Théorique, Université de Tours (France); Andrzejewski, K., E-mail: k-andrzejewski@uni.lodz.pl [Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Lodz (Poland); Gonera, J., E-mail: jgonera@uni.lodz.pl [Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Lodz (Poland); Kosi?ski, P., E-mail: pkosinsk@uni.lodz.pl [Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Lodz (Poland)

2013-06-15

85

The carp-goldfish nucleocytoplasmic hybrid has mitochondria from the carp as the nuclear donor species.  

PubMed

It is widely accepted that mitochondria and its DNA (mtDNA) exhibit strict maternal inheritance, with sperm contributing no or non-detectable mitochondria to the next generation. In fish, nuclear transfer (NT) through the combination of a donor nucleus and an enucleated oocyte can produce fertile nucleocytoplasmic hybrids (NCHs) even between different genera and subfamilies. One of the best studied fish NCHs is CyCa produced by transplanting the nuclei plus cytoplasm from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis) into the oocytes of the wild goldfish (Carassius auratus), which has been propagated by self-mating for three generations. These NCH fish thus provide a unique model to study the origin of mitochondria. Here we report the complete mtDNA sequence of the CyCa hybrid and its parental species carp and goldfish as nuclear donor and cytoplasm host, respectively. Interestingly, the mtDNA of NCH fish CyCa is 99.69% identical to the nuclear donor species carp, and 89.25% identical to the oocyte host species goldfish. Furthermore, an amino acid sequence comparison of 13 mitochondrial proteins reveals that CyCa is 99.68% identical to the carp and 87.68% identical to the goldfish. On an mtDNA-based phylogenetic tree, CyCa is clustered with the carp but separated from the goldfish. A real-time PCR analysis revealed the presence of carp mtDNA but the absence of goldfish mtDNA. These results demonstrate--for the first time to our knowledge--that the mtDNA of a NCH such as CyCa fish may originate from its nuclear donor rather than its oocyte host. PMID:24365595

Hu, Guangfu; Zou, Guiwei; Liu, Xiangjiang; Liang, Hongwei; Li, Zhong; Hu, Shaona

2014-02-25

86

EAARL Coastal Topography - Sandy Hook 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of Gateway National Recreation Area's Sandy Hook Unit in New Jersey, acquired on May 16, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for pre-survey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that represent submerged or first surface topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation from a point cloud of last return elevations.

Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.

2008-01-01

87

Cadmium-binding protein (metallothionein) in carp.  

PubMed Central

When carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to 5 and 30 ppm Cd in the water, the contents of Cd-binding protein, which has low molecular weight, increased in the hepatopancreas, kidney, gills and gastrointestinal tract with the duration of exposure. This Cd-binding protein was purified from hepatopancreas, kidney, gills, and spleen of carp administered 2 mg/kg Cd (as CdCl2), intraperitoneally for 6 days. Two Cd-binding proteins were separated by DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column chromatography. These proteins had Cd-mercaptide bond, high cysteine contents (ca. 29-34%), but no aromatic amino acids or histidine. From these characteristics the Cd-binding proteins were identified as metallothionein. By using antiserum obtained from a rabbit to which carp hepatopancreas MT-II had been administered, immunological characteristics between hepatopancreas MT-I, II and kidney MT-II were studied, and a slight difference in antigenic determinant was observed among them. By immunological staining techniques with horseradish peroxidase, the localization of metallothionein was investigated. In the nontreated group, metallothionein was present in the acinar cells of hepatopancreas and renal convoluted tubules. In the Cd-treated group (2 mg/kg IP daily for 3 days), metallothionein was present in the nuclei, sinusoids, and extracellular space of hepatopancreas, in addition to the acinar cells. Carp were bred in 1 ppm Cd, 5 ppm Zn solution, and tap water for 14 days, following transfer to 15 ppm Cd solution, respectively. The survival ratio was the highest in the Zn group followed by Cd-treated and control groups. The metallothionein contents increased in hepatopancreas and kidney in the order: Zn greater than Cd greater than control group. Images FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6.

Kito, H; Ose, Y; Sato, T

1986-01-01

88

Energy metabolism of carp swimming muscles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electromyography has been used to study the recruitment of red, pink and white muscle fibres of the Mirror carp at different swimming speeds. Locomotion below 0.3–0.5 L\\/S (lengths per second) is achieved primarily by fin movements after which the red myotomal muscle becomes active. Pink muscle fibres are the next type to be recruited at speeds around 1.1–1.5 L\\/S. White

I. A. Johnston; W. Davison; G. Goldspink

1977-01-01

89

Slow PIII component of the carp electroretinogram  

Microsoft Academic Search

The slow PIII component of the electroretinogram (ERG) was studied in the isolated, aspartate-treated carp retina. Although the latter is richly populated with cones, flow PIII appeared to reflect almost exclusively the activity of rods; e.g. the spectral sensitivity of the potential paralleled closely the rod pigment curve, its operating range (i.e. the V-log I curve) was limited to 3

PAUL WITKOVSKY; F. E. DUDEK; HARRIS RIPPS

1975-01-01

90

Habitat Suitability Index Models: Common Carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability (HIS) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.

Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Twomey, Katie

1982-01-01

91

Facts About Invasive Bighead and Silver Carps  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists at the Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC), Columbia, Missouri, carry out basic and applied research on the ecology of invasive fishes in the Missouri and Mississippi river basins. Emphasis is placed on improving understanding of the life cycles of bighead and silver carp to provide information needed to manage these aggressively invasive species. USGS scientists collaborate with Federal and State management agencies and universities, nationally and internationally, to fill critical science information gaps.

Chapman, Duane C.

2010-01-01

92

Intensive Feeding of Grass Carp in Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth and feed consumption were determined for yearling grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) stocked at a rate of 8,000\\/hectare in earthen ponds and fed either a practical-type catfish diet or diets in which dehydrated alfalfa meal comprised either 19 or 38% of the formula. The diets were formulated to be approximately equal in estimated digestible energy (2.9 kcal\\/g) and digestible protein

B. O. Mgbenka; R. T. Lovell

1986-01-01

93

BOOK REVIEW: Robert Hooke and the Royal Society  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many physics students only come across Hooke when they learn his law of stretching springs, which is a pity because it is just one of his contributions to progress in science, and a minor one at that. His, Micrographia, the first great book of microscopical observations, arouses admiration to this day. He was also active in horology, astronomy, geology and surveying, and he took part in biological experiments, transfusing blood between animals. Much of his work was done while he was curator of experiments for the Royal Society, in which he was involved almost from its foundation. This was by no means a full-time occupation, however. After the Great Fire of London, Hooke was appointed one of the three surveyors for the rebuilding of the city. One of the others was Christopher Wren, a lifelong friend. In this role Hooke was responsible for the design of several buildings, including the Monument. Nichols writes about all these activities, as well as Hooke's childhood, his education at Westminster School, the University of Oxford when Hooke was an undergraduate, and the founding of the Royal Society. The book draws on research for a master's degree. Turning a dissertation into a popular book is risky. The author has avoided the pitfall of making it too academic, but the result is not satisfying. Nichols seems overawed by Hooke and his work, frequently seeming to credit Hooke with a far-reaching influence that he did not necessarily have. There may be a case for lauding Hooke as the father of English microscopy, the father of English meteorology, and the founder of English geology and earth sciences, but it needs to be made much more critically, even in a popular work. Hooke was full of good ideas, but he rarely continued long enough to put them into practice. There is no doubt that Hooke proposed using a balance wheel and spring to improve the timekeeping of a watch, for example, but he did not have a watch made to his design until after Christiaan Huygens had independently devised a similar mechanism and published it. Hooke did propose a marine chronometer to solve the (already well understood) problem of finding longitude at sea, but it was John Harrison, decades later, who built a chronometer, and there is not the slightest reason to believe he owed anything to Hooke. The book records Hooke's activities, but is devoid of comment or analysis. The casual cruelty (by modern standards) to the animals used in the blood transfusion experiments passes without remark. The chapter about Oxford University reads almost like entries from a biographical dictionary. The purpose of this and the following chapter on the founding of the Royal Society only becomes apparent at the end, if the reader has not lost interest by then. Expert opinion acknowledges that the popular belief that Wren was primarily responsible for the rebuilding of the City of London undervalues Hooke's work, but Nichols, in his unwavering support for Hooke, glosses over the genuine problems of disentangling their contributions. The disputes between Hooke and Newton are well known, and no-one suggests that Newton was a pleasant person, but the unpleasantness was not all on one side. Historians agree that Hooke was a difficult man. There are no numbered references or notes, a not unusual policy in a popular book, but many sources (most of them secondary) are mentioned in the text. They do not help to make it read well, and the details are incomplete, but so are the details of many of the items listed in the bibliography. An index would be useful, but it is lacking. There are signs in a number of places that the book has not been carefully revised and edited. This ought to be a book to recommend to young students, but it would fail to inspire them. This is a pity, because there is no doubt that Hooke was one of the towering figures of the beginning of the scientific revolution. The fledgling Royal Society might not have survived without the experiments and demonstrations he provided. Historians know this but it deserves to be more widely recognized.

Brown, Neil

2000-01-01

94

The role of HIRA and maternal histones in sperm nucleus decondensation in the gibel carp and color crucian carp.  

PubMed

The histone H3.3 chaperone HIRA is essential for chromatin assembly during male pronucleus formation in Drosophila. However, the role of HIRA during fertilization in vertebrates remains unclear. The gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) is a unique gynogenetic crucian carp (gyno-carp). Heterologous sperm nuclei cannot decondense when incorporated in the egg, thus the eggs produce a clonal lineage of all females by typical gynogenesis. In contrast, after entering the egg, homologous sperm can undergo decondensation and sexual reproduction is activated, which may produce both female and male offspring. Therefore, this fish is a useful model for studying the mechanisms of fertilization. Herein, we first compared HIRA expression during embryogenesis between gyno-carp and the gonochoristic color crucian carp (Carassius auratus; gono-carp). In gono-carp, a dramatic reduction of HIRA protein occurs shortly after fertilization, whereas HIRA protein is consistently expressed during embryogenesis of gyno-carp. Next, we used immunodepletion and an in vitro sperm decondensation system, and found that complete removal of HIRA inhibited sperm decondensation in both of the fish. Immunofluorescence localization showed that in the condensed sperm nuclei of gono-carp incubated in gyno-carp egg extracts, HIRA was detected, but neither the histone H2A variant H2af1o nor acetylated histone H4 was observed. These results suggest that HIRA may be a critical factor required for sperm nucleus decondensation, while the defect in deposition of some maternal histones in the sperm nucleus could be one reason why heterologous sperm cannot decondense in the gibel carp egg. PMID:21337451

Zhao, Zhan-Ke; Li, Wei; Wang, Meng-Yu; Zhou, Li; Wang, Jia-Lin; Wang, Yu-Feng

2011-02-01

95

Molecular cloning and function analysis of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1a in blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).  

PubMed

Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1), a hypoxia-induced protein, is a member of the IGFBP family that regulates vertebrate growth and development. In this study, full-length IGFBP-1a cDNA was cloned from a hypoxia-sensitive Cyprinidae fish species, the blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). IGFBP-1a was expressed in various organs of adult blunt snout bream, including strongly in the liver and weakly in the gonads. Under hypoxia, IGFBP-1a mRNA levels increased sharply in the skin, liver, kidney, spleen, intestine and heart tissues of juvenile blunt snout bream, but recovered to normal levels after 24-hour exposure to normal dissolved oxygen. In blunt snout bream embryos, IGFBP-1a mRNA was expressed at very low levels at both four and eight hours post-fertilization, and strongly at later stages. Embryonic growth and development rates decreased significantly in embryos injected with IGFBP-1a mRNA. The average body length of IGFBP-1a-overexpressed embryos was 82.4% of that of the control group, and somite numbers decreased to 85.2%. These findings suggest that hypoxia-induced IGFBP-1a may inhibit growth in this species under hypoxic conditions. PMID:25017749

Tian, Yu-Mei; Chen, Jie; Tao, Yang; Jiang, Xia-Yun; Zou, Shu-Ming

2014-07-01

96

Genotoxicity of the herbicide formulation Roundup ® (glyphosate) in broad-snouted caiman ( Caiman latirostris) evidenced by the Comet assay and the Micronucleus test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genotoxicity of pesticides is an issue of worldwide concern. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the genotoxic potential of a widely used herbicide formulation, Roundup® (glyphosate), in erythrocytes of broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) after in ovo exposure. Caiman embryos were exposed at early embryonic stage to different sub-lethal concentrations of Roundup® (50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 750,

G. L. Poletta; A. Larriera; E. Kleinsorge; M. D. Mudry

2009-01-01

97

Caiman latirostris (broad-snouted caiman) as a sentinel organism for genotoxic monitoring: Basal values determination of micronucleus and comet assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caiman latirostris is one of the two crocodilian species that inhabit Argentina. In this country, as a consequence of agricultural frontiers expansion during the last years, many areas of the geographic distribution of the broad snouted caiman overlap with regions of intensive agricultural activity. Contaminants released to the environment may induce genetic alterations in wildlife, which could lead to mutations

G. L. Poletta; A. Larriera; E. Kleinsorge; M. D. Mudry

2008-01-01

98

Competitive Interactions between Age0 Bighead Carp and Paddlefish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis on native planktivores in the USA is unknown. The objectives of this study were to experimentally test for competitive interactions between age-0 bighead carp and age-0 paddlefish Polyodon spathula. Differences among water chemistry variables, invertebrate densities, and relative growth of fish were assessed in mesocosms. Water chemistry variables were similar among treatments throughout

Sally J. Schrank; Christopher S. Guy; James F. Fairchild

2003-01-01

99

Feeding Rate of Carp Estimated by a Radioisotopic Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding rate was estimated for yearling carp living in a small lake contaminated with low-level radioactive wastes. The amount of Cs that must be ingested to maintain the equilibrium body burden of the carp was calculated from measured values for body burden, biological elimination rates, and assimilation factors. The radioisotope was ingested by the fish as an integral part

N. R. Kevern

1966-01-01

100

Zooplankton abundance and diversity in Central Florida grass carp ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the Asian grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) upon the zooplankton in three adjacent experimental ponds (0.139 ha each) was studied for one year. The ponds contained nine species of aquatic macrophytes. Grass carp were stocked into Pond 1 (65 per ha) and Pond 2 (611 per ha) three months after the study was started. At the time

Douglas L. Fry; John A. Osborne

1980-01-01

101

Distribution of populations of broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris, Daudin 1802, Alligatoridae) in the São Francisco River basin, Brazil.  

PubMed

We surveyed populations of the broad-snouted caiman, Caiman latirostris, throughout the São Francisco River basin, from Três Marias reservoir, State of Minas Gerais, to the river delta, at the boarder of Sergipe and Alagoas states. We registered the occurrence of crocodilians in 61% of all surveyed localities (n = 64), in which the presence of C. latirostris was confirmed in 44% of the surveyed sites. Caimans occurred in both lentic and lotic habitats, although there was a preference for small dams, oxbow lakes and wetlands. Despite the hunting pressure and human impact on natural habitats, our results indicate that the populations of C. latirostris in the São Francisco basin are not fragmented. PMID:21180900

Filogonio, R; Assis, V B; Passos, L F; Coutinho, M E

2010-11-01

102

75 FR 4265 - Airworthiness Directives; Lifesavings Systems Corp., D-Lok Hook Assembly  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Directives; Lifesavings Systems Corp., D-Lok Hook Assembly AGENCY: Federal Aviation...AD) for the Lifesavings Systems Corp., D-Lok Hook assembly installed on certain...irregularities and discontinuities on certain D-Lok Hooks because of an unapproved...

2010-01-27

103

Mechanism Of Hook And Oscillation Mark Formation In Ultra-Low Carbon Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new mechanism for the formation of hooks and oscillation marks during continuous casting of ultra-low carbon steels is developed, based on: (i) observation of hook characteristics on specially-etched micrographs, (ii) metallographic studies near the line of hook origin using EDX, EPMA, and EBSD, and (iii) computations using separate models of fluid flow, solidification, and thermal stress. The mechanism is

Joydeep SENGUPTA

104

Problem in Two Unknowns: Robert Hooke and a Worm in Newton's Apple.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the place that Robert Hooke has in science history versus the scientific contributions he made. Examines the relationship between Hooke and his contemporary, Isaac Newton, and Hooke's claims that Newton built on his ideas without receiving Newton's recognition. (26 references) (MDH)

Weinstock, Robert

1992-01-01

105

Relationship between meteorological conditions and natural reproduction behavior of the four famous Chinese carps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Known as the four famous carps in China, black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) are commercially important fish species with a high production in China. To reveal the relationships between meteorological\\u000a conditions and the natural spawning behavior of these fishes, we considered six meteorological factors (including wind, rainfall,\\u000a temperature,

Ke Wang; Wengen Liao; Chong Li; Daqing Chen; Shaoping Liu; Xinbin Duan

2010-01-01

106

Grass carp status in the United States: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) were introduced into the United States in 1963 as potential biological control agents for nuisance aquatic weeds. Since that time an oftentimes bitter controversy has raged over its effects on sportfishing, and its possible natural reproduction and naturalization in North America. This review considers the history, ecology, and present status of grass carp in the United States in light of the voluminous scientific research conducted since its importation. Particular attention is given to the role of grass carp in the fisheries management plans of Arkansas. Recent development of a sterile, triploid grass carp hybrid may lead to widespread use of grass carp to control nuisance aquatic weeds in culturally eutrophicated waters of the United States.

Pierce, Barry A.

1983-03-01

107

Asian carp behavior in response to static water gun firing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The potential for invasion of Asian carp into the Great Lakes has ecological and socio-economic implications. If they become established, Asian carp are predicted to alter lake ecosystems and impact commercial and recreational fisheries. The Chicago Sanitary and Shipping Canal is an important biological conduit between the Mississippi River Basin, where invasive Asian carp are abundant, and the Great Lakes. Millions of dollars have been spent to erect an electric barrier defense in the canal to prevent movement of Asian carp into the Great Lakes, but the need for additional fish deterrent technologies to supplement the existing barrier is warranted. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center are examining seismic water gun technology, formerly used in oceanic oil exploration, as a fish deterrent. The goal of the current study is to employ telemetry and sonar monitoring equipment to assess the behavioral response of Asian carp to seismic water guns and the sound energy it generates.

Layhee, Megan J.; Gross, Jackson A.; Parsley, Michael J.; Romine, Jason G.; Glover, David C.; Suski, Cory D.; Wagner, Tristany L.; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Gresswell, Robert E.

2013-01-01

108

In vitro Antioxidant of a Water-Soluble Polysaccharide from Dendrobium fimhriatum Hook.var.oculatum Hook  

PubMed Central

A water-soluble crude polysaccharide (DFHP) obtained from the aqueous extracts of the stem of Dendrobium fimhriatum Hook.var.oculatum Hook through hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation, was found to have an average molecular weight (Mw) of about 209.3 kDa. Monosaccharide analysis revealed that DFHP was composed of mannose, glucose and galactose in a content ratio of 37.52%; 43.16%; 19.32%. The investigation of antioxidant activity in vitro showed that DFHP is a potential antioxidant.

Luo, Aoxue; Fan, Yijun

2011-01-01

109

Zinc Hyperaccumulation and Uptake by Potentilla Griffithii Hook  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of Potentilla griffithii Hook var. velutina Cardot to hypaeraccumulate zinc (Zn) was identified through field survey and hydroponic experiments. Our results showed that P. griffithii could be classified as a new Zn hyperaccumulator. Zn concentrations in the shoots of P. griffithii averaged 6250 mg kg (3870–8530 mg kg) growing in Zn-rich soils. The highest Zn concentration was observed

Rongliang Qiu; Xiaohang Fang; Yetao Tang; Suojun Du; Xiaowen Zeng; Eric Brewer

2006-01-01

110

Modeling of the ``fish-hook'' effect in a classifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of the kinematic model of entrainment of small particles by large ones the abnormally nonmonotonic dependence of the separation curve on the particle size is explained. The influence of the particle density, the classifier length, the split-parameter, and the average size of particles on the depth of the “fish-hook” effect has been investigated.

Dueck, J. G.; Min'kov, L. L.; Pikushchak, E. V.

2007-01-01

111

The dynamics of an imperfect, multigimbal, Hooke's-joint gyroscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the effect of damping and mistuning on the performance of a dynamically-tuned, multigimbal, Hooke's-joint gyroscope. The dynamic stability of the gyro is considered and rotor damping is shown to be a source of instability at rotor speeds in excess of the tuning speed. Using an approximate solution to the governing equations of motion, it is shown that

J. S. Burdess; C. H. J. Fox

1978-01-01

112

Molecular responses differ between sensitive silver carp and tolerant bighead carp and bigmouth buffalo exposed to rotenone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Some species of fish are more tolerant of rotenone, a commonly used non-specific piscicide, than others. This species-specific tolerance to rotenone has been thought to be associated with the uptake and the efficiency at which the chemical is detoxified. However, rotenone stimulates oxidative stress and superoxides, which are also toxic. Understanding the modes in which fish physiologically respond to rotenone is important in developing improved protocols for its application in controlling aquatic nuisance species. Using a molecular approach, we investigated the physiological and molecular mechanisms of rotenone resistance. Species-specific responses were observed when rotenone-sensitive silver, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and both rotenone-resistant bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, and bigmouth buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus, were exposed to rotenone. Rotenone levels in plasma were highest 90 min after exposure in both silver carp and bigmouth buffalo, but bigmouth buffalo tolerated over twice the burden (ng mL-1 g-1) than silver carp. Expression of genes related with detoxification (cyp1a and gst) increased in silver carp, but either decreased or remained the same in bighead carp. Genes linked with oxidative stress in the cytosol (gpx, cat and sod1) and hsp70 increased only in silver carp after a 6-h exposure. Expression of genes associated with oxidative stress in the mitochondria (sod2 and ucp2) differed between silver carp and bighead carp. Expression of sod2 changed minimally in bighead carp, but expression of ucp2 linearly increased to nearly 85-fold of the level prior to exposure. Expression of sod2 and ucp2 did not change until 6 h in silver carp. Use of sod1 and sod2 to combat oxidative stress results in hydrogen peroxide production, while use of ucp2 produces nitric oxide, a chemical known to inhibit apoptosis. We conclude that the mechanism at which a fish handles oxidative stress plays an important role in the tolerance to rotenone.

Amberg, Jon J.; Schreier, Theresa M.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

2012-01-01

113

Ureteral Stent Retrieval Using the Crochet Hook Technique in Females  

PubMed Central

Introduction We developed a method for ureteral stent removal in female patients that requires no cystoscopy or fluoroscopic guidance using a crochet hook. In addition, we also investigated the success rate, complications and pain associated with this procedure. Methods A total of 40 female patients (56 stents) underwent the removal of ureteral stents. All procedures were carried out with the patients either under anesthesia, conscious sedation, or analgesic suppositories as deemed appropriate for each procedure including Shock Wave Lithotripsy (SWL), Ureteroscopy (URS), Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL), and ureteral stent removal. At the time of these procedures, fluoroscopy and/or cystoscopy were prepared, but they were not used unless we failed to successfully remove the ureteral stent using the crochet hook. In addition, matched controls (comprising 50 stents) which were removed by standard ureteral stent removal using cystoscopy were used for comparison purposes. Results A total of 47 of the 56 stents (83.9%) were successfully removed. In addition, 47 of 52 (90.4%) were successfully removed except for two migrated stents and two heavily encrusted stents which could not be removed using cystoscopy. Ureteral stent removal using the crochet hook technique was unsuccessful in nine patients, including two encrustations and two migrations. Concerning pain, ureteral stent removal using the crochet hook technique showed a lower visual analogue pain scale (VAPS) score than for the standard technique using cystoscopy. Conclusions Ureteral stent removal using a crochet hook is considered to be easy, safe, and cost effective. This technique is also easy to learn and is therefore considered to be suitable for use on an outpatient basis.

Kawahara, Takashi; Ito, Hiroki; Terao, Hideyuki; Yamagishi, Takuya; Ogawa, Takehiko; Uemura, Hiroji; Kubota, Yoshinobu; Matsuzaki, Junichi

2012-01-01

114

[Polymorphism of microsatellite markers in breeds of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) of Russian breeding].  

PubMed

Using five microsatellite loci, genotyping and genetic diversity estimates were obtained for nine samples representing seven common carp breeds most widespread in Russia. For comparison, the samples of Amur wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) and a sample of European Hungarian common carp were used. In the samples examined (n = 148) a total of 78 alleles were revealed. The highest mean allele number per locus (4.3) was identified in Amur wild common carp, while the lowest number was found in Cherepets carps (4.0). In different breeds, the observed heterozygosities varied from 0.819 (Altai carp) to 0.651 (Cherepets scaly carp). Three out of five microsatellite loci (MFW-24, MFW-28, and MFW-19) revealed a high level of population differentiation. In the dendrogram of genetic differences, all breeds clustered into two groups. One of these groups was composed of the two strains of Ropsha common carp, Stavropol common carp, Amur wild common carp, and the two samples of Cherepets common carp. The second cluster included Altai common carp (Cis-Ob' and Chumysh populations), two Angelinskii common carp breeds (mirror and scaly), and Hungarian common carp. The pairs of breeds/populations/strains, having common origin, were differentiated. Specifically, these were two populations of Altai common carp, two strains of Ropsha common carp, as well as the breeds of Angelinskii and Cherepets common carps. The reasons for genetic differentiation of Russian common carp breeds, as well as the concordance of the evolutionary histories of these breeds, some of which originated from the European breeds, while the others contain substantial admixture of the Amur wild common carp, are discussed. PMID:20583601

Ludanny?, R I; Khrisanfova, G G; Prizenko, V K; Bogeruk, A K; Semenova, S K

2010-05-01

115

Common Carp Abundance, Biomass, and Removal from Dewey and Clear Lakes on the Valentine National Wildlife Refuge: Does Trapping and Removing Carp Payoff.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a nonnative invasive nuisance species to North America. Many authors have documented the detrimental affects of common carp invasions on waterfowl habitats (Chamberlain 1948; Robel 1961), game fish habitat (Cahn 1929), and t...

G. A. Wanner M. Lindvall M. A. Kaemingk M. P. Nenneman

2009-01-01

116

"Hook and roll technique" using an articulating hook cautery to provide a critical view during single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy.  

PubMed

We describe a new simple and easy technique called the "Hook and roll technique" (HRT) that uses an articulating hook cautery to provide a critical view during single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC). A 2-cm incision is made at the umbilicus to insert three 5-mm trocars or a multichannel port. After dissection of the serosa of the dorsal and ventral sides of the gall bladder, including Calot's triangle, the angled tip of the hook cautery is inserted between the cystic artery and duct with its tip placed dorsally. The tip is then rotated in a clockwise manner to avoid bile duct injury, allowing the connective tissue between them to be hooked, coagulated and cut. This procedure is repeated several times, followed by dissection between the cystic artery and the liver bed to achieve a critical view. From December 2008 to May 2011, 121 patients underwent SILC using HRT in our hospital without any serious complications. This technique is suitable for SILC, as it is consists of simple procedures that can be performed safely and easily, even by left hand in a cross-over approach, and it allows complete dissection of Calot's triangle to achieve a critical view without using any dissector under dangerous in-line viewing. PMID:23970325

Idani, Hitoshi; Nakano, Kanyu; Asami, Shinya; Kubota, Tetsushi; Komoto, Satoshi; Kurose, Yohei; Kubo, Shinichiro; Nojima, Hiroki; Hioki, Katsuyoshi; Kin, Hitoshi; Takakura, Norihisa

2013-08-01

117

Dynamic infrared imaging analysis of apical hook development in Arabidopsis: the case of brassinosteroids.  

PubMed

Germination of Arabidopsis seeds in darkness induces apical hook development, based on a tightly regulated differential growth coordinated by a multiple hormone cross-talk. Here, we endeavoured to clarify the function of brassinosteroids (BRs) and cross-talk with ethylene in hook development. An automated infrared imaging system was developed to study the kinetics of hook development in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings. To ascertain the photomorphogenic control of hook opening, the system was equipped with an automatic light dimmer. We demonstrate that ethylene and BRs are indispensable for hook formation and maintenance. Ethylene regulation of hook formation functions partly through BRs, with BR feedback inhibition of ethylene action. Conversely, BR-mediated extension of hook maintenance functions partly through ethylene. Furthermore, we revealed that a short light pulse is sufficient to induce rapid hook opening. Our dynamic infrared imaging system allows high-resolution, kinetic imaging of up to 112 seedlings in a single experimental run. At this high throughput, it is ideally suited to rapidly gain insight in pathway networks. We demonstrate that BRs and ethylene cooperatively regulate apical hook development in a phase-dependent manner. Furthermore, we show that light is a predominant regulator of hook opening, inhibiting ethylene- and BR-mediated postponement of hook opening. PMID:24611517

Smet, Dajo; Zádníková, Petra; Vandenbussche, Filip; Benková, Eva; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

2014-06-01

118

The evolutionary history of sharp- and blunt-snouted lenok (Brachymystax lenok (Pallas, 1773)) and its implications for the paleo-hydrological history of Siberia  

PubMed Central

Background Broad-scale phylogeographic studies of freshwater organisms provide not only an invaluable framework for understanding the evolutionary history of species, but also a genetic imprint of the paleo-hydrological dynamics stemming from climatic change. Few such studies have been carried out in Siberia, a vast region over which the extent of Pleistocene glaciation is still disputed. Brachymystax lenok is a salmonid fish distributed throughout Siberia, exhibiting two forms hypothesized to have undergone extensive range expansion, genetic exchange, and multiple speciation. A comprehensive phylogeographic investigation should clarify these hypotheses as well as provide insights on Siberia's paleo-hydrological stability. Results Molecular-sequence (mtDNA) based phylogenetic and morphological analysis of Brachymystax throughout Siberia support that sharp- and blunt-snouted lenok are independent evolutionary lineages, with the majority of their variation distributed among major river basins. Their evolutionary independence was further supported through the analysis of 11 microsatellite loci in three areas of sympatry, which revealed little to no evidence of introgression. Phylogeographic structure reflects climatic limitations, especially for blunt-snouted lenok above 56° N during one or more glacial maxima. Presumed glacial refugia as well as interbasin exchange were not congruent for the two lineages, perhaps reflecting differing dispersal abilities and response to climatic change. Inferred demographic expansions were dated earlier than the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Evidence for repeated trans-basin exchange was especially clear between the Amur and Lena catchments. Divergence of sharp-snouted lenok in the Selenga-Baikal catchment may correspond to the isolation of Lake Baikal in the mid-Pleistocene, while older isolation events are apparent for blunt-snouted lenok in the extreme east and sharp-snouted lenok in the extreme west of their respective distributions. Conclusion Sharp- and blunt-snouted lenok have apparently undergone a long, independent, and demographically dynamic evolutionary history in Siberia, supporting their recognition as two good biological species. Considering the timing and extent of expansions and trans-basin dispersal, it is doubtful that these historical dynamics could have been generated without major rearrangements in the paleo-hydrological network, stemming from the formation and melting of large-scale glacial complexes much older than the LGM.

2008-01-01

119

Anti-stress properties and two HSP70s mRNA expressions of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) fed with all-plant-based diet.  

PubMed

The influence of all-plant-based diet on fingerling blunt snout breams (Megalobrama amblycephala) was tested by examining growth performance, anti-stress properties and related gene expression. Healthy fish were randomly divided into triplicate groups per dietary treatment and fed with different formulated diets. The results showed that both weight gain, specific growth rate and protein efficiency ratio of all-plant-based diet group were significant higher than those of the control (p < 0.05). In contrast, FCR of all-plant-based diet group was significantly lower than that of the control (p < 0.05). Therefore, all-plant-based diets could not affect the growth performance of blunt snout breams. Compared to the control group, the lysozyme levels in serum and mucus, and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase activities in serum and liver decreased significantly (p < 0.05). In contrast, the glutamic-pyruvic transaminase activities in serum and liver increased significantly (p < 0.05). For blunt snout breams fed with all-plant-based diets, the superoxide dismutase activities in mucus, serum and liver as well as catalase activity in serum and liver were decreased significantly (p < 0.05) comparing with that of the control group. But malondialdehyde contents were higher (p < 0.05) in serum and liver than that of control group. The expression of HSC70 mRNA increased significantly (p < 0.05) in blunt snout breams fed with all-plant-based diet, whereas the HSP70 mRNA expression decreased significantly (p < 0.05) when compared with control group. In conclusion, all these results indicated that the application of all-plant-based diet could decrease the anti-stress properties (non-specific immunity, stress resistance and antioxidant ability) and HSP70 mRNA expression in blunt snout breams fingerling. Although all-plant-based diets could not affect the growth performance of blunt snout breams, the application of all-plant-based diet should be discreet in the production practice. PMID:24254296

Deng, Wei; Zhao, Yuhua; Wang, Weimin; Gul, Yasmeen; Cao, Junming; Huang, Yanhua; Sheng, Guangcheng; Ding, Zhujin; Du, Rui

2014-06-01

120

Identification and analysis of the jnk1 gene in polyploid hybrids of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is an important member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase superfamily. The allotetraploid crucian carp is a product of distant hybridization of female red crucian carp with male common carp. It is the first natural case of an allotetraploid with stable genetic characters, including fertility of both female and male animals. In this study, 2 jnk1 cDNAs (including jnk1a and jnk1b) have been cloned from the polyploid crucian carp system, consisting of the allotetraploid crucian carp, the triploid crucian carp, and their original parents (red crucian and common carp). We show that jnk1a and jnk1b represent 2 splice forms arising from the jnk1 gene. On the basis of the genetic structure of jnk1a gene in the polyploid crucian carp system, we demonstrated that the allotetraploid crucian carp is phylogenetically closer to its paternal parent (common carp) than to its maternal parent. We further show a similarity between the triploid crucian carp and its original female parent (red crucian carp). Comparisons of genetic structures indicated that the jnk1b genes of allotetraploid and triploid crucian carp are more similar to those of the original paternal parent rather than the original female parent (red crucian carp). RT-PCR analysis indicated that both the jnk1a and jnk1b genes are widely expressed in fish embryos and in the adult organs, displaying distinct features of embryonic-stage and organ specificity in the polyploid crucian carp system. PMID:24634111

Xiao, Y M; Jiang, M G; Luo, Z W; Zhou, Y H; Wen, S; Wang, M; Zhang, C; Liu, S J

2014-01-01

121

Transscleral intraocular lens fixation with a "homemade" needle and hook.  

PubMed

We describe an ab externo, transscleral, intraocular lens (IOL) fixation technique using a surgeon-fashioned 25-gauge hook, a neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG)-modified 27-gauge needle, and 9-0 polypropylene suture. This is a simple, inexpensive technique for creating small-gauge surgical instruments to accurately and atraumatically pass 9-0 and 10-0 polypropylene sutures through sclera. Holes, through which sutures can be threaded, are "burned" near the tips of 27-gauge or 30-gauge needles with an Nd:YAG laser. Using a fine needle holder, a 25-gauge hook is fashioned from a hypodermic needle. A surgical technique incorporating 2 ab externo incisions and achieving transscleral posterior chamber IOL fixation is discussed. PMID:16564993

Stewart, Michael W; Landers, Maurice B

2006-02-01

122

The Blue Hook Populations of Massive Globular Clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new HST ultraviolet color-magnitude diagrams of 5 massive Galactic globular clusters: NGC 2419, NGC 6273, NGC 6715, NGC 6388, and NGC 6441.  These observations were obtained in order to investigate the "blue hook" phenomenon previously observed in HST ultraviolet images of the globular clusters omega Cen and NGC 2808.  Blue hook stars are a class of hot (approximately 35,000 K) subluminous horizontal branch stars that occupy a region of the HR diagram that is unexplained by canonical stellar evolution theory.  By coupling new stellar evolution models to appropriate non-LTE synthetic spectra, we investigate various theoretical explanations for these stars.  Specifically, we compare the color-magnitude diagrams to stellar models that assume normal evolution at cluster abundances, models with enhanced helium resulting from cluster self-enrichment, and flash-mixed models formed via late helium core flash on the white dwarf cooling curve.

Brown, Thomas M.; Sweigart, A. V.; Lanz, T.; Smith, E.; Landsman, W. B.; Hubeny, I.

2010-01-01

123

On the reliability of hook echoes as tornado indicators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of radar echoes associated with the tornadoes of the 3 April 1974 outbreak was performed to evaluate the usefulness of echo shape as an indicator of tornadic thunderstorms. The hook shape was usually successful in characterizing an echo as tornadic, with a false alarm rate of 16%. Because hook echoes were relatively rare, however, a less restrictive shape called distinctive was more successful at detecting tornadic thunderstorms, identifying 65% of the tornadic echoes. An echo had a distinctive shape if it possessed a marked appendage on its right rear flank or was in the shape of a spiral, comma or line echo wave pattern (LEWP). Characteristics of the distinctive echo are given.

Forbes, G. S.

1981-01-01

124

The effect of exposure to a high-fat diet on microRNA expression in the liver of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).  

PubMed

Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) are susceptible to hepatic steatosis when maintained in modern intensive culture systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in diet-induced hepatic steatosis in this species. MiRNAs, small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level, are involved in diverse biological processes, including lipid metabolism. Deep sequencing of hepatic small RNA libraries from blunt snout bream fed normal-fat and high-fat diets identified 202 (193 known and 9 novel) miRNAs, of which 12 were differentially expressed between the normal-fat and high-fat diet groups. Quantitative stem-loop reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses confirmed the upregulation of miR-30c and miR-30e-3p and the downregulation of miR-145 and miR-15a-5p in high-fat diet-fed fish. Bioinformatics tools were used to predict the targets of these verified miRNAs and to explore potential downstream gene ontology biological process categories and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Six putative lipid metabolism-related target genes (fetuin-B, Cyp7a1, NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex subunit 2, 3-oxoacid CoA transferase 1b, stearoyl-CoA desaturase, and fatty-acid synthase) were identified as having potential important roles in the development of diet-induced hepatic steatosis in blunt snout bream. The results presented here are a foundation for future studies of miRNA-controlled lipid metabolism regulatory networks in blunt snout bream. PMID:24788396

Zhang, Dingdong; Lu, Kangle; Dong, Zaijie; Jiang, Guangzhen; Xu, Weina; Liu, Wenbin

2014-01-01

125

The Effect of Exposure to a High-Fat Diet on MicroRNA Expression in the Liver of Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala)  

PubMed Central

Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) are susceptible to hepatic steatosis when maintained in modern intensive culture systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in diet-induced hepatic steatosis in this species. MiRNAs, small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level, are involved in diverse biological processes, including lipid metabolism. Deep sequencing of hepatic small RNA libraries from blunt snout bream fed normal-fat and high-fat diets identified 202 (193 known and 9 novel) miRNAs, of which 12 were differentially expressed between the normal-fat and high-fat diet groups. Quantitative stem-loop reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses confirmed the upregulation of miR-30c and miR-30e-3p and the downregulation of miR-145 and miR-15a-5p in high-fat diet-fed fish. Bioinformatics tools were used to predict the targets of these verified miRNAs and to explore potential downstream gene ontology biological process categories and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Six putative lipid metabolism-related target genes (fetuin-B, Cyp7a1, NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex subunit 2, 3-oxoacid CoA transferase 1b, stearoyl-CoA desaturase, and fatty-acid synthase) were identified as having potential important roles in the development of diet-induced hepatic steatosis in blunt snout bream. The results presented here are a foundation for future studies of miRNA-controlled lipid metabolism regulatory networks in blunt snout bream.

Zhang, Dingdong; Lu, Kangle; Dong, Zaijie; Jiang, Guangzhen; Xu, Weina; Liu, Wenbin

2014-01-01

126

Studying Hooke's Law by Using a Pogo Stick  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perhaps the pogo stick was little Robert Hooke's favorite childhood toy, consisting of a stiff spring inserted in a tube fixed at the upper end and connected to a moveable rod at the other. Hand grips and a foot rest are connected to the tube. The idea is to jump on it taking advantage of the force provided by the spring when it is compressed.…

Silva, Nicolas

2011-01-01

127

Hooking Up” Among College Students: Demographic and Psychosocial Correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated 832 college students’ experiences with hooking up, a term that refers to a range of physically intimate\\u000a behavior (e.g., passionate kissing, oral sex, and intercourse) that occurs outside of a committed relationship. Specifically,\\u000a we examined how five demographic variables (sex, ethnicity, parental income, parental divorce, and religiosity) and six psychosocial\\u000a factors (e.g., attachment styles, alcohol use, psychological

Jesse J. Owen; Galena K. Rhoades; Scott M. Stanley; Frank D. Fincham

2010-01-01

128

Hook-Up Culture: Setting a New Research Agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summarizing the major findings of literature on hook-up culture, we propose a new research agenda focusing on when and why\\u000a this sexual subculture emerged. We explore a series of hypotheses to explain this sexual paradigm shift, including college\\u000a and university policies, the gender distribution of students, changes in the nature of alcohol use, access to and consumption\\u000a of pornography, the

Caroline Heldman; Lisa Wade

2010-01-01

129

Grass Carp Stocking Rate Model (AMUR/STOCK).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The AMUR/STOCK model is a coupled plant growth and fish feeding and bioenergetics simulation model that evaluates the effectiveness of grass carp stocking rate strategies for controlling nuisance growth of aquatic plants under user-selected site condition...

R. M. Stewart W. A. Boyd

1999-01-01

130

PCBs and other xenobiotics in raw and cooked carp  

SciTech Connect

The effect of cooking on PCBs and DDT compounds was determined in fillets from carp ranging from 3.0 to 4.9 Kg. Cooking methods included were: poaching, roasting, deep fat frying, charbroiling and cooking by microwave. (JMT)

Zabik, M.E.; Merrill, C.; Zabik, M.J.

1982-06-01

131

Cytochemistry of sialoglycoconjugates, lysozyme, and ?-defensin in eccrine glands of porcine snout skin as studied by electron microscopy.  

PubMed

In most mammals except for humanoid primates, eccrine glands are confined to the skin of a series of specific body regions. Sialic acids and antimicrobial substances exhibit various functional properties and serve as a component of nonspecific defense against micro-organisms, respectively. In this study, the distribution of these moieties was studied by electron microscopic histochemical methods. The eccrine glandular acini consisted of two types of dark cells as well as clear cells. The secretory granules and Golgi apparatus of both types of dark cells contained sialic acid residues linked to ?2-6Gal/GalNAc. On the other hand, sialoglycoconjugates with Si?2-3Gal?1-4GlcNAc sequence were confined to those of the Type II dark cells. In addition, lysozyme and ?-defensin were mainly detected in the secretory granules of the Type II dark cells. These secretory products may create a defensive barrier against microbial invasion and play an essential role in preservation of the integrity of porcine snout skin as a sensory organ. PMID:23032992

Fukui, Kousuke; Yasui, Tadashi; Gomi, Hiroshi; Sugiya, Hiroshi; Fujimori, Osamu; Meyer, Wilfried; Tsukise, Azuma

2013-01-01

132

Hooking up and penetrative hookups: correlates that differentiate college men.  

PubMed

One prominent pathway to sexual intimacy among college student populations is hooking up. Past research has largely compared men and women, with limited attention given to how men differ regarding involvement in hookups and their hookup behaviors. This study used a sample of 412 college men to examine the individual, social, relational, and family background correlates of (1) hooking up during a semester and (2) penetrative hookup encounters (e.g., oral sex, intercourse). Overall, 69% reported a hookup during the semester, with 73% of those who hooked up reporting penetrative hookups. Using logistic regression, men were more likely to hookup if they had an extraverted personality, were consuming more alcohol, and had previous hookup experience. They were less likely to hookup if they were more thoughtful about their relationship decisions and if they were in a stable, committed romantic relationship. Men also were more likely to engage in penetrative hookups only if they held more permissive attitudes towards sex and if they had previous penetrative hookup experience. Implications for intervention and research are discussed. PMID:22350126

Olmstead, Spencer B; Pasley, Kay; Fincham, Frank D

2013-05-01

133

Female homogamety in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) determined by gynogenesis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gynogenesis occurred in eggs of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) treated with X-irradiated milt from goldfish (Carassius auratus). Gynogenetic offspring were females, which indicates functional female homogamety in grass carp. Five of these gynogenetic fish were used as an egg source for a second generation of artificially gynogenetic fish. The percentage yield in this second generation was about the same as in the first, which suggests that the tendency to become diploid is not strongly heritable

Stanley, Jon G.

1976-01-01

134

The endocrinology of growth in carp and related species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this review is on various aspects of the endocrine control of growth by the brain neuroendocrine-growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis in carp and other cyprinids, with reference to other species, including mammals, if there are particular gaps in knowledge. The neuroendocrine regulation of GH secretion in goldfish and other carp is multifactorial, with a balance

R. E. Peter; T. A. Marchant

1995-01-01

135

Genetic evolution and diversity of common carp Cyprinus carpio L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of genetic variation and population structure of existing strains of both farmed and wild common carp Cyprinus carpio L. is absolutely necessary for any efficient fish management and\\/or conservation program. To assess genetic diversity in\\u000a common carp populations, a variety of molecular markers were analyzed. Of those, microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA were\\u000a most frequently used in the analysis of

Dimitry A. Chistiakov; Natalia V. Voronova

2009-01-01

136

Grass carp reovirus induces apoptosis and oxidative stress in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) kidney cell line.  

PubMed

Grass carp hemorrhage is an acute contagious disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV). The pathogenesis of GCRV and the relationship between GCRV and the host cells remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relations among apoptosis, intracellular oxidative stress and virus replication in GCRV infected-cells. The results showed that GCRV induced activation of caspase proteases as early as 12h, and reached maximum activities at 24h or 48h post-infection in a grass carp kidney cell line (CIK cells). Meanwhile, the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) also were increased in GCRV-infected CIK cells and showed a statistically significant difference from 24h to 96h post-infection. The infection of GCRV caused the destruction of entire monolayer and the death of host cells. Accompanied by the infection, a severe oxidative stress occurred, which led to extensive loss of antioxidants and formation of lipid peroxidation after 48h post-infection. These data suggested that the apoptosis which was triggered at an early stage (12-24h) in the viral infection cycle, might be independent of virus replication, while the oxidative stress induced by GCRV was mostly related to the virus replication. PMID:24680657

Jia, Rui; Cao, Li-Ping; Du, Jin-Liang; Liu, Ying-Juan; Wang, Jia-Hao; Jeney, Galina; Yin, Guo-Jun

2014-06-24

137

The Influence of Hook Type, Angler Experience, and Fish Size on Injury Rates and the Duration of Capture in an Alaskan Catch-and-Release Rainbow Trout Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to concerns about the high incidence of past hooking injuries in Alagnak River rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, fish were captured with spin- and fly-fishing gear with barbed and barbless circle and “J” hooks to determine gear types contributing to injury. Landing and hook removal times were measured for a portion of fish captured, and the anatomical hooking location, hooking

Julie M. Meka

2004-01-01

138

Hybridization between native barbless carp (Cyprinus pellegrini) and introduced common carp (C. carpio) in Xingyun Lake, China.  

PubMed

Hybridization with introduced fish species is an important threat to native fish species. Here we investigated hybridization between native barbless carp (Cyprinus pellegrini) and introduced common carp (C. carpio) in Xingyun Lake in the Yunnan-Guizhou plateau of China. A total of 203 individuals of Cyprinus from Xingyun Lake were studied by combination of morphological and genetic analyses. Most individuals were strictly intermediate between the two parental species in morphology, strongly suggesting that extensive hybridization has occurred. Bayesian model-based clustering of the genetic data suggests that there are two distinct genetic groups corresponding to barbless and common carp respectively. Many individuals in the two genetic groups showed intermediate morphology, suggesting that both groups actually contain massively introgressed genes. Only two individuals were identified as barbless carp both morphologically and genetically, hinting that this native species is at risk of genetic extinction in Xingyun Lake. PMID:22559965

Tang, Weixing; Chen, Yifeng

2012-05-01

139

Evidence for the evolutionary origin of goldfish derived from the distant crossing of red crucian carp x common carp  

PubMed Central

Background Distant hybridization can generate transgressive hybrid phenotypes that lead to the formation of new populations or species with increased genetic variation. In this study, we produced an experimental hybrid goldfish (EG) by distant crossing of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus)?×?common carp (Cyprinus carpio) followed by gynogenesis. Results We evaluated the phenotype, ploidy level, gonadal structure, and 5S rDNA of the EG. Diploid EG possessed a high level of genetic variation, which was stably inherited. In particular, the EG combined transgressive phenotypes, including a forked tail and shortened caudal peduncle, traits that are present in common goldfish. The EG and common goldfish share a number of morphological and genetic similarities. Conclusions Using the EG, we provide new evidence that goldfish originated from hybridization of red crucian carp × common carp.

2014-01-01

140

Characterization of complete genome sequence of the spring viremia of carp virus isolated from common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The complete genome of spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) strain A-1 isolated from cultured common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in China was sequenced and characterized. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) derived clones were constructed\\u000a and the DNA was sequenced. It showed that the entire genome of SVCV A-1 consists of 11,100 nucleotide base pairs, the predicted\\u000a size of the viral

Y. Teng; H. Liu; J. Q. Lv; W. H. Fan; Q. Y. Zhang; Q. W. Qin

2007-01-01

141

The formation of tetraploid stocks of red crucian carp×common carp hybrids as an effect of interspecific hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

F3–F8 hybrids of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (?)×common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (?) were found to be allotetraploids by examining the numbers and karyotypes of chromosomes, the DNA content of red blood cells, and the mean nuclear erythrocyte volumes. The chromosome numbers of F3–F8 were 4n=200. The chromosome numbers of two types of triploids produced by mating

Shaojun Liu; Yun Liu; Gongjiang Zhou; Xuanjie Zhang; Chen Luo; Hao Feng; Xiaoxiao He; Guihua Zhu; Hui Yang

2001-01-01

142

Food Habits of the Carp, 'Cyprinus carpio' L., in Five Oklahoma Reservoirs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Alimentary tracts were examined of 1010 carp collected by commercial fishermen from four riverine reservoirs, and of 211 adult and 45 young carp from Lake Carl Blackwell, a headwaters reservoir. The major food items were algae, plant fragments, seeds, ent...

R. C. Summerfelt P. E. Mauck G. Mensinger

1970-01-01

143

Serodiagnosis of grass carp reovirus infection in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella by a novel Western blot technique.  

PubMed

Frequent outbreaks of grass carp hemorrhagic disease, caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection, pose as serious threats to the production of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Although various nucleic acids-based diagnostic methods have been shown effective, lack of commercial monoclonal antibody against grass carp IgM has impeded the development of any reliable immunoassays in detection of GCRV infection. The present study describes the preparation and screening of monoclonal antibodies against the constant region of grass carp IgM protein, and the development of a Western blot (WB) protocol for the specific detection of antibodies against outer capsid VP7 protein of GCRV that serves as antibody-capture antigen in the immunoassay. In comparison to a conventional RT-PCR method, validity of the WB is further demonstrated by testing on clinical fish serum samples collected from a grass carp farm in Jiangxi Province during disease pandemic in 2011. In conclusion, the WB technique established in this study could be employed for specific serodiagnosis of GCRV infection. PMID:23942340

He, Yongxing; Jiang, Yousheng; Lu, Liqun

2013-12-01

144

Role of high zinc levels in the stress defense of common carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the link between high zinc levels and the extreme stress tolerance of common carp. Fish under stress showed much\\u000a higher plasma cortisol levels than controls. Stress or cortisol injection induced large changes in zinc levels in the common\\u000a carp but not in grass carp, silver carp or tilapia. The effect of 5 days of anoxia and 4 subsequent days

Tzu-Yung Lin; Yen-Hua Chen; Chien-Lin Liu; Sen-Shyong Jeng

145

Cove culture of marble goby ( Oxyeleotris marmorata Bleeker) and carps in Tri An Reservoir of Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted in the 5.24-ha Truong Dang Cove of Tri An Reservoir of Vietnam during June 2002–May 2003 to describe cove culture of marble goby (Oxyeleotris marmorata Bleeker) with silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) stocked at 960, 470, 470, 470 and 170 fish\\/ha, respectively. After about

Vu Cam Luong; Yang Yi; Chang Kwei Lin

2005-01-01

146

Influence of hook position on phototropic and gravitropic curvature by etiolated hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phototropic and gravitropic curvature by hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana is minimal when the side of the hook with the cotyledons attached is positioned toward the direction of tropistic curvature, and maximal when that side of the hook is positioned away from the direction of tropistic curvature. Based on these data, it is proposed that the position of the hook with attached cotyledons affects curvature and not stimulus perception. A randomly oriented population of plants exhibited considerable heterogeneity in tropistic curvature. This heterogeneity arises at least in part from the dependence of curvature on the position of the hook.

Khurana, J. P.; Best, T. R.; Poff, K. L.

1989-01-01

147

Development and impact of hooks of high droplet concentration on remote southeast Pacific stratocumulus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the southeastern Pacific (SEP), droplet concentration (Nd) in the typically unpolluted marine stratocumulus west of 80° W (> 1000 km offshore) is periodically strongly enhanced in zonally elongated "hook"-shaped features that increase albedo. Here, we examine three hook events using the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem) with 14 km horizontal resolution, satellite data, and aircraft data from the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx). A particularly strong hook yields insights into the development, decay, and radiative impact of these features. Hook development occurs with Nd increasing to polluted levels over the remote ocean primarily due to entrainment of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) from the lower free troposphere (FT). The feature advects northwestward until the FT CCN source is depleted, after which Nd decreases over a few days due to precipitation and dilution. The model suggests that the FT CCN source supplying the hook consists of high concentrations of small accumulation-mode aerosols that contribute a relatively small amount of aerosol mass to the MBL, in agreement with near-coast VOCALS measurements of polluted layers in the FT. The aerosol particles in this hook originate mainly from a pulse of offshore flow that transports Santiago-region (33-35° S) emissions to the remote marine FT. To provide pollution CCN that can sustain hooks, the FT transport of pollution plumes to the remote ocean requires strong, deep offshore flow. Such flow is favored by a trough approaching the South American coast and a southeastward shift of the climatological subtropical high-pressure system. The model simulations show precipitation suppression in the hook and a corresponding increase in liquid water path (LWP) compared with a simulation without anthropogenic sources. LWP also increases as the hook evolves over time due to increasing stability and decreasing subsidence. WRF-Chem suggests that dimethyl sulfide (DMS) significantly influences the aerosol number and size distributions in a hook, but that hooks do not form without FT CCN. The Twomey effect contributes ~ 50-70% of the albedo increase due to the presence of the hook, while secondary aerosol indirect effects and meteorological influences also contribute significantly. The source of hook aerosols is difficult to determine with the available observations alone. The model provides further explanation of the factors influencing hook formation. Two other weaker hooks during VOCALS-REx are not as well simulated but are also associated with FT offshore flow near Santiago. Hooks demonstrate the importance of free-tropospheric transport of aerosols in modulating the droplet concentration in the southeastern Pacific stratocumulus deck, and present a formidable challenge to simulate accurately in large-scale models.

George, R. C.; Wood, R.; Bretherton, C. S.; Painter, G.

2013-07-01

148

Thermal and hydrologic suitability of Lake Erie and its major tributaries for spawning of Asian carps  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (hereafter Asian carps) have expanded throughout the Mississippi River basin and threaten to invade Lakes Michigan and Erie. Adult bighead carp and grass carp have been captured in Lake Erie, but self-sustaining populations probably do not exist. We examined thermal conditions within Lake Erie to determine if Asian carps would mature, and to estimate time of year when fish would reach spawning condition. We also examined whether thermal and hydrologic conditions in the largest tributaries to western and central Lake Erie were suitable for spawning of Asian carps. We used length of undammed river, predicted summer temperatures, and predicted water velocity during flood events to determine whether sufficient lengths of river are available for spawning of Asian carps. Most rivers we examined have at least 100 km of passable river and summer temperatures suitable (> 21 C) for rapid incubation of eggs of Asian carps. Predicted water velocity and temperature were sufficient to ensure that incubating eggs, which drift in the water column, would hatch before reaching Lake Erie for most flood events in most rivers if spawned far enough upstream. The Maumee, Sandusky, and Grand Rivers were predicted to be the most likely to support spawning of Asian carps. The Black, Huron, Portage, and Vermilion Rivers were predicted to be less suitable. The weight of the evidence suggests that the largest western and central Lake Erie tributaries are thermally and hydrologically suitable to support spawning of Asian carps.

Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Chapman, Duane C.; McKenna, James E.

2012-01-01

149

Optimization of hydrogen-peroxide washing of common carp kamaboko using response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum concentration and time for the hydrogen peroxide washing of common carp (Cyrinus carpio) mince to produce acceptable kamaboko. Two key characteristics that commercially acceptable common carp kamaboko should achieve are colour whiteness and a firm texture. Overall, common carp (CC) kamaboko whiteness increased but texture become weaker with the increasing

He Shan; Elisabeth Gorczyca; Stefan Kasapis; Andreas Lopata

2010-01-01

150

Genetic Diversity and Variation of Mitochondrial DNA in Native and Introduced Bighead Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis is native to China but has been introduced to over 70 countries and is established in many large river systems. Genetic diversity and variation in introduced bighead carp have not previously been evaluated, and a systematic comparison among fish from different river systems was unavailable. In this study, 190 bighead carp specimens were sampled from

Si-Fa Li; Qin-Ling Yang; Jia-Wei Xu; Cheng-Hui Wang; Duane C. Chapman; Guoqing Lu

2010-01-01

151

CARP Is a Potential Tumor Suppressor in Gastric Carcinoma and a Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism in CARP Gene Might Increase the Risk of Gastric Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background The caspase-associated recruitment domain-containing protein (CARP) is expressed in almost all tissues. Recently, the tumor-suppressive function of CARP was discovered and attracted increasing attention. This study aimed to investigate the role of CARP in the carcinogenesis of human gastric carcinoma. Methodology/Principal Findings Compared with normal gastric tissue, the downregulation of CARP expression was observed in gastric carcinoma tissue by cDNA array and tissue microarray assay. In vitro, the gastric carcinoma cell line (BGC-823) was stably transfected with pcDNA3.1B-CARP or plus CARP siRNA, and we used MTT, flow cytometry, cell migration on type I collagen, cell-matrix adhesion assay and western blot analysis to investigate the potential anti-tumor effects of CARP. The data showed that overexpressing CARP suppressed the malignancy of gastric carcinoma BGC-823 cell line, including significant increases in apoptosis, as well as obvious decreases in cell proliferation, migration, adhesion ability, and tumor growth. The tumor-suppressive effects of CARP were almost restored by siRNA-directed CARP silence. In addition, overexpression of CARP induced G1 arrest, decreased the expressions of cyclin E and CDK2, and increased the expressions of p27, p53 and p21. In vivo, the tumor-suppressive effect of CARP was also verified. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype of CARP (rs2297882) was located in the Kozak sequence of the CARP gene. The reporter gene assay showed that rs2297882 TT caused an obvious downregulation of activity of CARP gene promoter in BGC-823 cells. Furthermore, the association between rs2297882 and human gastric carcinoma susceptibility was analyzed in 352 cases and 889 controls. It displayed that the TT genotype of rs2297882 in the CARP gene was associated with an increased risk of gastric carcinoma. Conclusions/Significance CARP is a potential tumor suppressor of gastric carcinoma and the rs2297882 C>T phenotype of CARP may serve as a predictor of gastric carcinoma.

Hu, Yu-chang; Gan, Lu; Shi, Yi; Yang, Han-shuo; Wei, Yu-quan

2014-01-01

152

Molecular cloning, tissue distribution and expression analysis of a manganese superoxide dismutase in blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala.  

PubMed

The full-length mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase cDNA of blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala (denoted as MamMnSOD) was identified in liver using homology cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA of MamMnSOD consisted of 986 bp, with an open reading frame encoding 224 amino acids, a 58-bp 5' untranslated region and a 256-bp 3' untranslated region. The deduced amino acid sequences of MamMnSOD showed high sequence homology to mitochondrial MnSODs from crustaceans. Several motifs, including three mitochondrial MnSOD signatures, amino acid residues responsible for coordinating the manganese, and the putative active center, were almost completely conserved in the deduced amino acid sequences of MamMnSOD. The mRNA expression of MamMnSOD in the tissues of heart, liver, spleen, kidney, muscle, intestine, and gill was examined by quantitative real-time PCR; the highest expression was in the liver. Transcription of MamMnSOD was kinetically modulated in response to nitrite stress in liver and gill tissues. The purified recombinant MamMnSOD showed potent antioxidant activity. Polyclonal antibodies generated from the recombinant product of MamMnSOD were used to specifically identify the native protein in liver of M. amblycephala. Collectively, the findings of this study strongly suggested that MamMnSOD combats oxidative stress and cellular damage induced by nitrite, by detoxifying harmful reactive oxygen species in M. amblycephala. PMID:24727153

Sun, Shengming; Zhu, Jian; Jiang, Xiaojun; Li, Bing; Ge, Xianping

2014-06-01

153

The effect of diet on ontogenic development of the digestive tract in juvenile reared long snout seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus.  

PubMed

Ontogenetic development of the digestive tract and associated organs in long snout seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus juveniles was morphologically and histologically examined from the time of release from the male's pouch until 72 h after the first meal. When released from the male's pouch, juvenile seahorses are small adult replicates. This means that unlike other teleost fish larvae, the first developmental phase has already taken place, and juveniles are morphologically prepared and able to feed on live prey immediately following parturition. At this stage, the buccopharynx, oesophagus, and intestine already appear to be fully developed. The intestine is divided into the midgut and hindgut by an intestinal valve, and intestinal villi are visible in the midgut. When fed with DHA-Selco(®) enriched Artemia, H. guttulatus juveniles developed a severe condition of overinflation of the gas bladder. The continuous overinflation of the gas bladder forced air into the gut (48 h after the first meal), resulting in overinflation of both the gut and the gas bladder (72 h after the first meal), and death occurred within 120 h after the first meal. When fed natural copepods, H. guttulatus juveniles continued a normal feeding activity with no signs of intestinal disorders, and the gas bladder and intestine maintained their normal shape. This is the first study to positively associate gas bladder overinflation of juvenile seahorses with nutritionally unbalanced diets, and not to gas supersaturation alone. It is therefore necessary to develop more adequate feed and/or enrichment products to improve the survival of juvenile seahorses in captivity. PMID:24162549

Palma, J; Bureau, D P; Andrade, J P

2014-06-01

154

Isolation of Salmonella spp. from yacare caiman (Caiman yacare) and broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) from the Argentine Chaco.  

PubMed

Presence of Salmonella spp. was evaluated in yacare caiman (Caiman yacare) and broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) from a ranching facility in the Argentine Chaco. Crocodilian ranching programs are based on captive breeding of wild-harvested eggs and release of excess hatchlings into the wild. Samples for bacterial isolation were collected from 102 captive (35 C. yacare and 67 C. latirostris) and seven free-ranging caiman (four C. yacare and three C. latirositris) between 2001 and 2005 and from three artificially incubated C. yacare wild eggs. Two Salmonella spp. of known zoonotic potential, S. infantis and S. nottingham, were isolated from captive caiman in 2001 and 2002, respectively. This is the first report for S. nottingham in reptiles and of S. infantis in caiman. Salmonella spp. prevalence varied significantly between years, with a 77% prevalence peak in 2002. Although the cause of this increase was not confirmed, we found no correlation with the type of enclosure, caiman species, or body weight. Deteriorated physical condition of caiman hatchlings due to dietary changes in 2002 could have influenced Salmonella spp. shedding. However, external sources such as food, water, or enclosures could not be ruled out. Pathogenic Salmonella spp. present a risk for human infection. Inadvertent introduction of Salmonella spp. or other bacteria into the environment when caiman are released could pose a threat to wild caiman populations. Prophylactic measures to detect and decrease Salmonella spp. presence in caiman ranching facilities are recommended to reduce risk to humans and make caiman-ranching a sound conservation strategy for crocodilian species. PMID:21441179

Uhart, Marcela; Ferreyra, Hebe; Mattiello, Rosana; Caffer, María Inés; Terragno, Raquel; Schettino, Adriana; Prado, Walter

2011-04-01

155

Developmental quantitative genetic analysis of body weight and morphological traits in red common carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental genetic analysis was conducted for body weight, total length, standard length and body height in red common carp by a mixed genetic model with additive–dominance effects, based on complete diallel crosses made by Xingguo red common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis), purse red common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis) and Oujiang color common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. color). Unconditional

Cheng-hui Wang; Si-fa Li; Zhi-guo Liu; Song-ping Xiang; Jian Wang; Zeng-yun Pang; Jiang-ping Duan

2006-01-01

156

Transorbital Penetrating Intracranial Injury Caused by Sheppard's Hook  

PubMed Central

Intracranial injury resulting from transorbital penetrating objects is rare in a noncombat setting. As such there is a significant lack of data pertaining to the management of non-projectile traumatic brain injuries due to foreign bodies entering the brain. Intracranial complications can include intracerebral hematoma, cerebral contusion, intraventricular hemorrhage, pneumocephalus, brain stem injury, and carotid cavernous sinus fistula. This is the first report of a transorbital penetrating intracranial injury caused by a Sheppard’s hook, which was managed utilizing a multi-disciplinary, non-operative approach.

Sams, Valerie; Nagarsheth, Khanjan H; Nickloes, Todd A

2010-01-01

157

The complete mitochondrial genome of the Japanese ornamental koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) and its implication for the history of koi.  

PubMed

Complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences were determined for two individuals of Japanese ornamental koi carp. Interestingly, the obtained mitogenomes (16,581 bp) were both completely identical to the recently reported mitogenome of Oujiang color carp from China. Control region (CR) sequences in DNA database demonstrated that more than half (65%) of the koi carp individuals so far reported had partial or complete CR sequences identical to those from Oujiang color carp. These results might suggest that the Japanese koi carp has been originated from Chinese Oujiang color carp, contrary to the belief in Japan that the koi carps have been developed directly from carp stocks in Japan. In any case, the present results emphasize the importance of analyzing Oujiang color carp when studying the origin of koi carp. PMID:23607478

Mabuchi, Kohji; Song, Hayeun

2014-02-01

158

Detection of grass carp reovirus (GCRV) with monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed

Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is a pathogen that causes hemorrhagic disease of grass carp. It is the most serious infectious disease of carp and causes serious losses of fingerlings of grass carp and black carp. In this study, a recombinant VP4, one of the viral core proteins, was constructed with a histidine tag and expressed at a high level in E. coli, and the expressed protein was mainly found in the form of inclusion bodies. The expressed VP4 protein was recognized by an anti-His-tag monoclonal antibody and goat anti-GCRV serum. Four monoclonal antibodies (16B7, 39E12, 13C3 and 14D1) against the recombinant VP4 protein were produced. These MAbs did not react with any of the tested viruses or fish cells lines in the ELISA tests except GCRV. In western blotting analysis, a protein band was observed when the recombinant VP4 protein of GCRV was used as an antigen, but a 68-kDa band was observed when natural capsid proteins of GCRV were used as antigens. Furthermore, a sandwich ELISA was developed for detection of GCRV. The detection limit of the test was 105 TCID50 of GCRV per mL. PMID:24122108

Hongli, Jing; Lifeng, Zhang; Zhenzhen, Fang; Lipu, Xu; Min, Zhang; Na, Wang; Yulin, Jiang; Xiangmei, Lin

2014-04-01

159

Immunological effects of paraquat on common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.  

PubMed

Paraquat (PQ) is a nonselective worldwide used herbicide and it has been demonstrated to be highly toxic to animals and humans. However, relatively little is known about PQ effect on the immune system and histopathology of fish. In the present study, we aimed to determine the lysozyme activities, content of IgM, and complement C3 content in the liver, kidney, and spleen of common carp exposed to 1.596 or 3.192 mg/L of PQ for 7 d. The results showed that lysozyme activity in the liver, kidney, or spleen of common carp was increased at the earlier stages of PQ-exposure (from 1 to 3 d) while decreased at the end of treatment. Moreover, PQ-exposure caused irregular change of IgM content while decreased C3 content. These results suggest that PQ-exposure may disturb the innate immunity of common carp and could result in dysfunction of the specific immunity in common carp. In addition, PQ-exposure also caused remarkable histopathological damages in fish gill, fin, liver, spleen, kidney, and intestine, indicating that PQ has immunotoxicity on common carp. PMID:24486634

Ma, Junguo; Li, Yuanyuan; Niu, Daichun; Li, Yao; Li, Xiaoyu

2014-03-01

160

Abnormal cerebellar development and ataxia in CARP VIII morphant zebrafish.  

PubMed

Congenital ataxia and mental retardation are mainly caused by variations in the genes that affect brain development. Recent reports have shown that mutations in the CA8 gene are associated with mental retardation and ataxia in humans and ataxia in mice. The gene product, carbonic anhydrase-related protein VIII (CARP VIII), is predominantly present in cerebellar Purkinje cells, where it interacts with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1, a calcium channel. In this study, we investigated the effects of the loss of function of CARP VIII during embryonic development in zebrafish using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides against the CA8 gene. Knockdown of CA8 in zebrafish larvae resulted in a curved body axis, pericardial edema and abnormal movement patterns. Histologic examination revealed gross morphologic defects in the cerebellar region and in the muscle. Electron microscopy studies showed increased neuronal cell death in developing larvae injected with CA8 antisense morpholinos. These data suggest a pivotal role for CARP VIII during embryonic development. Furthermore, suppression of CA8 expression leads to defects in motor and coordination functions, mimicking the ataxic human phenotype. This work reveals an evolutionarily conserved function of CARP VIII in brain development and introduces a novel zebrafish model in which to investigate the mechanisms of CARP VIII-related ataxia and mental retardation in humans. PMID:23087022

Aspatwar, Ashok; Tolvanen, Martti E E; Jokitalo, Eija; Parikka, Mataleena; Ortutay, Csaba; Harjula, Sanna-Kaisa E; Rämet, Mika; Vihinen, Mauno; Parkkila, Seppo

2013-02-01

161

N=2 superconformal Newton-Hooke algebra and many-body mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A representation of the conformal Newton-Hooke algebra on a phase space of n particles in arbitrary dimension which interact with one another via a generic conformal potential and experience a universal cosmological repulsion or attraction is constructed. The minimal N=2 superconformal extension of the Newton-Hooke algebra and its dynamical realization in many-body mechanics are studied.

Galajinsky, Anton

2009-10-01

162

BAK-14 Retractable Hook-Cable Support System Cold-Weather Tests at Galena, Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The BAK-14 retractable hook-cable support system was designed for use with aircraft arresting systems on Air Force/Civil joint-use airfields. In the raised position, the BAK-14 supports the aircraft arresting-hook cable above the runway surface for engage...

W. Wastallo

1974-01-01

163

33 CFR 80.170 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. 80.170 Section 80.170 Navigation...Coast § 80.170 Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. (a) A line drawn from Shark River Inlet North Breakwater Light 2 to Shark...

2013-07-01

164

Are College Students Replacing Dating and Romantic Relationships with Hooking Up?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed female college students' ("N" = 197) participation in dating, romantic relationships, hooking up behaviors, and the intersection of these activities. Hooking up was prevalent among students ("n" = 78; 39.6%), but dating ("n" = 139; 70.6%) and romantic relationship ("n" = 147; 74.6%)…

Siebenbruner, Jessica

2013-01-01

165

Isomerization kinetics of AT hook decapeptide solution structures.  

PubMed

The mammalian high mobility group protein HMGA2 contains three DNA binding motifs associated with many physiological functions including oncogenesis, obesity, stem cell youth, human height, and human intelligence. In the present paper, trapped ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (TIMS-MS) has been utilized to study the conformational dynamics of the third DNA binding motif using the "AT hook" decapeptide unit (Lys(1)-Arg(2)-Prol(3)-Arg(4)-Gly(5)-Arg(6)-Prol(7)-Arg(8)-Lys(9)-Trp(10), ATHP) as a function of the solvent state. Solvent state distributions were preserved during electrospray ion formation, and multiple IMS bands were identified for the [M + 2H](2+) and for the [M + 3H](3+) charge states. Conformational isomer interconversion rates were measured as a function of the trapping time for the [M + 2H](2+) and [M + 3H](3+) charge states. Candidate structures were proposed for all IMS bands observed. Protonation site, proline residue conformation, and side chain orientations were identified as the main motifs governing the conformational interconversion processes. Conformational dynamics from the solvent state distribution to the gas-phase "de-solvated" state distribution demonstrated that ATHP is "structured", and relative abundances are associated with the relative stability between the proposed conformers. The most stable ATHP [M + 2H](2+) conformation at the "de-solvated" state corresponds to the AT hook motif observed in AT-rich DNA regions. PMID:24364733

Schenk, Emily R; Ridgeway, Mark E; Park, Melvin A; Leng, Fenfei; Fernandez-Lima, Francisco

2014-01-21

166

The Blue Hook Populations of Massive Globular Clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet color-magnitude diagrams of five massive Galactic globular clusters: NGC 2419, NGC 6273, NGC 6715, NGC 6388, and NGC 6441. These observations were obtained to investigate the "blue hook" (BH) phenomenon previously observed in UV images of the globular clusters ? Cen and NGC 2808. Blue hook stars are a class of hot (approximately 35,000 K) subluminous horizontal branch stars that occupy a region of the HR diagram that is unexplained by canonical stellar evolution theory. By coupling new stellar evolution models to appropriate non-LTE synthetic spectra, we investigate various theoretical explanations for these stars. Specifically, we compare our photometry to canonical models at standard cluster abundances, canonical models with enhanced helium (consistent with cluster self-enrichment at early times), and flash-mixed models formed via a late helium-core flash on the white dwarf cooling curve. We find that flash-mixed models are required to explain the faint luminosity of the BH stars, although neither the canonical models nor the flash-mixed models can explain the range of color observed in such stars, especially those in the most metal-rich clusters. Aside from the variation in the color range, no clear trends emerge in the morphology of the BH population with respect to metallicity. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at STScI, and associated with proposal 10815.

Brown, Thomas M.; Sweigart, Allen V.; Lanz, Thierry; Smith, Ed; Landsman, Wayne B.; Hubeny, Ivan

2010-08-01

167

THE BLUE HOOK POPULATIONS OF MASSIVE GLOBULAR CLUSTERS  

SciTech Connect

We present new Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet color-magnitude diagrams of five massive Galactic globular clusters: NGC 2419, NGC 6273, NGC 6715, NGC 6388, and NGC 6441. These observations were obtained to investigate the 'blue hook' (BH) phenomenon previously observed in UV images of the globular clusters {omega} Cen and NGC 2808. Blue hook stars are a class of hot (approximately 35,000 K) subluminous horizontal branch stars that occupy a region of the HR diagram that is unexplained by canonical stellar evolution theory. By coupling new stellar evolution models to appropriate non-LTE synthetic spectra, we investigate various theoretical explanations for these stars. Specifically, we compare our photometry to canonical models at standard cluster abundances, canonical models with enhanced helium (consistent with cluster self-enrichment at early times), and flash-mixed models formed via a late helium-core flash on the white dwarf cooling curve. We find that flash-mixed models are required to explain the faint luminosity of the BH stars, although neither the canonical models nor the flash-mixed models can explain the range of color observed in such stars, especially those in the most metal-rich clusters. Aside from the variation in the color range, no clear trends emerge in the morphology of the BH population with respect to metallicity.

Brown, Thomas M.; Smith, Ed [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sweigart, Allen V. [Code 667, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Lanz, Thierry [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Landsman, Wayne B. [Adnet Systems, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Hubeny, Ivan, E-mail: tbrown@stsci.ed, E-mail: edsmith@stsci.ed, E-mail: allen.v.sweigart@nasa.go, E-mail: lanz@astro.umd.ed, E-mail: wayne.b.landsman@nasa.go, E-mail: hubeny@aegis.as.arizona.ed [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85712 (United States)

2010-08-01

168

Prevalence of Ingested Fish Hooks in Freshwater Turtles from Five Rivers in the Southeastern United States  

PubMed Central

Freshwater turtles may ingest baited fish hooks because many are opportunistic scavengers. Although the ingestion of fish hooks is known to be a source of mortality in multiple vertebrate groups, the prevalence of hook ingestion by freshwater turtles has not been well studied. We trapped turtles from five rivers in the southeastern United States and used radiographs to examine over 600 individuals of four species. Depending on the species, sex, and age class, 0–33% of turtles contained ingested fish hooks. For some species, larger turtles were more likely to contain a fish hook than smaller individuals. Freshwater turtle demography suggests that even small increases in adult mortality may lead to population declines. If our study areas are representative of other aquatic systems that receive fishing pressure, this work likely identifies a potential conflict between a widespread, common recreational activity (i.e., fishing) and an imperiled taxonomic group.

Steen, David A.; Hopkins, Brittney C.; Van Dyke, James U.; Hopkins, William A.

2014-01-01

169

Robert Hooke, inventor of the vacuum pump and the first altitude chamber (1671).  

PubMed

Robert Hooke (1635-1703), an assistant researcher to Robert Boyle (1627-1691), invented the first functional British air pump. Applying it to scientific research, Hooke operated the world's first hypobaric chamber in 1671, using it for self-experimentation. He recorded the first physiological observations in an artificial altitude-equivalent environment up to 2400 m. Though Hooke's experiment showed some methodological insufficiencies, his imaginative experimental techniques were remarkable for their time and were indicative of the lively intellectual atmosphere of the Royal Society and the significant contributions of Hooke, who was a member. Two centuries passed before the French physiologist Paul Bert (1830-1886) conducted his famous laboratory-supported investigations of high altitude physiology. Bert played a decisive role in the discovery of the causes of decompression sickness; a contribution Hooke could not make due to the technical deficiencies of the 17th century. PMID:16909884

Harsch, Viktor

2006-08-01

170

78 FR 23864 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Hook...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Catcher/Processors Using Hook-and-line Gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf...processors (C/Ps) using hook-and-line gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf...apportioned to C/Ps using hook-and-line gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the...

2013-04-23

171

78 FR 25004 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Hook...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Catcher Vessels Using Hook-and-Line Gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf...vessels (CVs) using hook-and-line gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf...apportioned to CVs using hook-and-line gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the...

2013-04-29

172

75 FR 7403 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Hook...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Catcher/Processors Using Hook-and-Line Gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...catcher/processors using hook-and-line gear in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...catcher/processors using hook-and- line gear in the BSAI. DATES: Effective 1200...

2010-02-19

173

77 FR 20571 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Hook...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Vessels Using Hook-and-Line Gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska...using hook-and-line gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska...CVs using hook-and-line gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the GOA. DATES:...

2012-04-05

174

A novel approach for removing the hook effect artefact from Electrical Bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very often in Electrical Bioimpedance (EBI) spectroscopy measurements the presence of stray capacitances creates a measurement artefact commonly known as Hook Effect. Such an artefact creates a hook-alike deviation of the EBI data noticeable when representing the measurement on the impedance plane. Such Hook Effect is noticeable at high frequencies but it also causes a data deviation at lower measurement frequencies. In order to perform any accurate analysis of the EBI spectroscopy data, the influence of the Hook Effect must be removed. An established method to compensate the hook effect is the well known Td compensation, which consists on multiplying the obtained spectrum, Zmeas(?) by a complex exponential in the form of exp[j?Td]. Such a method cannot correct entirely the Hook Effect since the hook-alike deviation occurs a broad frequency range in both magnitude and phase of the measured impedance, and by using a scalar value for Td. First a scalar only modifies the phase of the measured impedance and second, a single value can truly corrects the Hook Effect only at a single frequency. In addition, the process to select a value for the scalar Td by an iterative process with the aim to obtain the best Cole fitting lacks solid scientific grounds. In this work the Td compensation method is revisited and a modified approach for correcting the Hook Effect including a novel method for selecting the correcting values is proposed. The initial validation results confirm that the proposed method entirely corrects the Hook Effect at all frequencies.

Buendia, R.; Seoane, F.; Gil-Pita, R.

2010-04-01

175

Dynamics of carp growth and biosynthetic processes in the liver of the carp reared in containers in heated waste water from thermal power stations  

SciTech Connect

When carp are reared in containers in heated waste water from thermal power stations their growth is most intensive in July - 1st half of August and is dependent on the initial mass of the fish stocked. The rate of biosynthetic processes in the liver of the carp reared in containers is directly correlated with the growth rate of the fish. The rate of biosynthetic processes in the liver of carp yearlings reared in natural water bodies and in containers in warm water is higher than in the liver of carp of 1+ reared under similar conditions.

Evtushenko, N.Y.; Romanenko, V.D.

1980-01-01

176

Genetic divergence between Cyprinus carpio carpio and Cyprinus carpio haematopterus as assessed by mitochondrial DNA analysis, with emphasis on origin of European domestic carp.  

PubMed

Although common carp is the major fish species in Asian and European aquaculture and many domestic varieties have occurred, there is a controversy about the origination of European domestic common carp. Some scientists affirmed that the ancestor of European domestic common carp was Danube River wild common carp, but others considered it might be Asian common carp. For elucidating origination of European domestic common carp, we chose two representative European domestic common carp strains (German mirror carp and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp) and one wild common carp strain of Cyprinus carpio carpio subspecies (Volga River wild common carp) and two Asian common carp strains, the Yangtze River wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) and traditionally domestic Xingguo red common carp, as experimental materials. ND5-ND6 and D-loop segments of mitochondrial DNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed through restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing respectively. The results revealed that HaeIII and DdeI digestion patterns of ND5-ND6 segment and sequences of control region were different between European subspecies C. carpio carpio and Asian subspecies C. carpio haematopterus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that German mirror carp and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp belonged to two subspecies, C. carpio carpio and C. carpio haematopterus, respectively. Therefore, there were different ancestors for domestic carp in Europe: German mirror carp was domesticated from European subspecies C. carpio carpio and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp originated from Asian subspecies C. carpio haematopterus. PMID:12903751

Zhou, Jian Feng; Wu, Qing Jiang; Ye, Yu Zhen; Tong, Jin Gou

2003-09-01

177

Toxicity of trihalomethanes to common carp embryos  

SciTech Connect

Trihalomethanes recently have been identified in real and simulated effluents from power plants where chlorine is used for biofouling control. Toxicity of the four chlorine- or bromine-containing trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) to developing common carp (Cyprinus carpio) embryos was determined under conditions of intermittent (8-hour) toxicant renewal, based on percent hatch as the end point. Nominal median lethal concentrations (LC50) ranged from 161 mg/liter for chloroform to 53 mg/liter for dibromochloromethane. Decay studies conducted under conditions similar to those used for the toxicity studies, but in distilled water, indicated that (1) half-lives of the trihalomethanes ranged from 4.4 to 6.9 hours; (2) decay was due primarily to volatilization; (3) higher relative toxicity of dibromochloromethane probably was due to formation of a degradation product (likely Br/sub 2/). Correction of the nominal LC50 values to time-weighted mean concentrations over the period between toxicant changes gave weighted LC50 values of 97.2, 67.4, 33.5, and 52.3 mg/liter for chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, respectively. In addition, the period of water-hardening of fertilized eggs was not critical for expression of toxicity of dibromochloromethane. Comparison of these and other published data on effluent and toxic concentrations, persistence, and bioaccumulation of water-chlorination products suggests that trihalomethanes are not as environmentally critical as other chlorinated organic compounds or residual chlorine.

Mattice, J.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN); Tsai, S.C.; Burch, M.B.; Beauchamp, J.J.

1981-03-01

178

The evolutionary status of the blue hook stars in ? Centauri  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Core helium burning is the dominant source of energy of extreme horizontal branch stars, as the hydrogen envelope is too small to contribute to the nuclear energy output. The evolution of each mass in the HR diagram occurs along vertical tracks that, when the core helium is consumed, evolve to higher Teff and then to the white dwarf stage. The larger is the mass, the smaller is the Teff of the models, so that the zero age horizontal branch (ZAHB) is `horizontal'. In this paper we show that, if the helium mass fraction (Y) of the envelope is larger than Y ~ 0.5, the shape of the tracks changes completely: the hydrogen burning becomes efficient again also for very small envelope masses, thanks to the higher molecular weight and to the higher temperatures of the hydrogen shell. The larger is Y, the smaller is the envelope mass that provides strong H shell burning. These tracks have a curled shape, are located at a Teff following the approximate relation Teff = 8090 + 32900Y and become more luminous for larger envelope masses. Consequently, the ZAHB of the very high helium models is `vertical' in the HR diagram. Synthetic models based on these tracks nicely reproduce the location and shape of the `blue hook' in the globular cluster ? Cen, best fit by a very high Teff (bluer) sequence with Y = 0.80 and a cooler (redder) one with Y = 0.65. Although these precise values of Y may depend on the colour-Teff conversions, we know that the helium content of the progenitors of the blue hook stars cannot be larger than Y ~ 0.38-0.40, if they are descendants of the cluster blue main sequence. Consequently, this interpretation implies that all these objects must in fact be progeny of the blue main sequence, but they have all suffered further deep mixing, that has largely and uniformly increased their surface helium abundance, during the red giant branch evolution. A late helium flash cannot be the cause of this deep mixing, as the models we propose have hydrogen-rich envelopes much more massive than those required for a late flash. We discuss different models of deep mixing proposed in the literature, and conclude that our interpretation of the blue hook cannot be ruled out, but requires a much deeper investigation before it can be accepted.

D'Antona, Francesca; Caloi, Vittoria; Ventura, Paolo

2010-07-01

179

The description and host-parasite relationships of a new quadrigyrid species (Acanthocephala) from the Persian tooth-carp, Aphanius farsicus (Actinoptreygii: Cyprinodontidae) in Iran.  

PubMed

Acanthogyrus (Acanthosentis) barmeshoori n. sp. (Quadrigyridae) is described from the Persian tooth-carp, Aphanius farsicus Teimori, Esmaeili, and Reichenbacher, 2011 (Cyprinodontidae) in the Maharlu Lake basin, southern Iran. Aphanius farsicus is an endemic freshwater fish found in streams and springs that drain into Maharlu Lake, Shiraz, Iran. The new species is the smallest of all the 44 known species of the subgenus Acanthosentis Verma and Datta, 1929, measuring between 0.26 and 1.68 mm in length. It is further distinguished by having a short cylindrical proboscis with very long anterior hooks widely separated from very small hooks in 2 very close circles posteriorly (hook length ratio about 4:1). It is separated from 4 other species of Acanthosentis with similar proboscis armature but with less-extreme diversification of hook length. The new species is also distinguished in having anterior para-receptacle structures (PRS) and a similar posterior structure like those reported in only 1 other species of Acanthosentis from Japan. Proboscis receptacle is single walled with a large triangular cephalic ganglion. Testes are large, pre-equatorial, and Saefftigen's pouch is prominent. Fourteen to 25 circles of spines cover the anterior 50-70% of the trunk, but a few spines may be present at posterior end of trunk. This is the first species of Acanthosentis where SEM images, showing external morphological details, are provided. From a total of 357 fish specimens examined between July 2006 and June 2007, 173 specimens (48.5%) were infected with individuals of the new species. The prevalence of infection decreased with increasing fish size. The parasite was observed all year, with the highest abundance and intensity in May while the prevalence was highest in February. The prevalence of acanthocephalans decreased with increasing fish size. While most worms were recovered in fish within the length range of 18-29.9 mm, 1 of the longest parasites (1.68 mm long) was found in fish within the range of 30-33.9 mm long. PMID:22994245

Amin, Omar M; Gholami, Zeinab; Akhlaghi, Mostafa; Heckmann, Richard A

2013-04-01

180

Penetrating Fish-Hook Ocular Injury: Management of an Unusual Intraocular Foreign Body  

PubMed Central

Importance. Ocular penetrating fish-hook injuries represent an unusual and very dangerous ocular trauma. We report the management of an unusual case of a simple-single barbed fish-hook accident globe injury successfully treated with surgery. Observations. We described a case report of a caucasian 32-year-old man presented with a scleral perforation of the left eye caused by a fish-hook injury while fishing. The fish-hook penetrated the sclera, passed the trabecular meshwork, and exited into the anterior chamber. He underwent surgery under local anesthesia to remove the intraocular foreign body and to repair the wound. The hook was removed backing through the entrance wound, enlarge the primary scleral laceration. Final visual outcome, one month after trauma, was 0.0 LogMar. Conclusions and Relevance. Our unusual case shows a modified extraction technique of fish-hook from the eye. Although the fish-hook injury represents generally a serious occurrence, in some cases, a prompt and appropriate method of extraction can lead to a good final outcome.

Tortorella, Paolo

2014-01-01

181

Hormone-Solute Interactions in the Lettuce Hypocotyl Hook 12  

PubMed Central

The hypocotyl hook of the lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Grand Rapids) seedling is stimulated to a high degree of curvature through a synergistic interaction of ethylene and gibberellic acid in the light. Presentation of various inorganic salts to the seedlings caused extensive alteration of the hormone-induced curvatures, with ammonium and sulfate being the most stimulatory of curvature, and potassium and carbonate being the most inhibitory of curvature. Experiments using organic buffers indicated that the effect was not a pH response. The abilities of various cations and anions to alter the hormonally regulated curvature is suggested as further evidence of solute alteration of hormonal effectiveness. The interpretation is offered that the solutes may be influencing hormonal effectiveness through salting-in and salting-out effects on macro-molecules such as proteins. Images

Poovaiah, B. W.; Leopold, A. C.

1974-01-01

182

Hooke's Law and the Stiffness of a Plastic Spoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of elastic properties of solids is essential to both physics and engineering. Finding simple, easy-to-visualize examples to demonstrate these concepts is often difficult. In a previous article written by one of us (KAPII), a simple method for determining Youngs modulus using marshmallows was given.1 In this article we will illustrate another method to explore elastic properties of everyday materials. This experiment uses a common plastic spoon exposed to a transverse force in order to determine the stiffness constant, yield point, and rupture point of the plastic spoon. In addition, much like the ``Youngs Modulus of a Marshmallow'' activity, this experiment visually demonstrates Hooke's law, is fun and easy to perform, and leaves a lasting impression on the students.

Pestka, Kenneth A.; Warren, Cori

2012-11-01

183

Induced gynogenesis in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) using irradiated sperm of allotetraploid hybrids.  

PubMed

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) eggs were activated by UV-irradiated diploid sperm of allotetraploid hybrids derived from red crucian carp (?)?×?common carp (?) and then duplicated by cold shock in 4-6°C water for 10-12 min. Different cold shock initiation times resulted in two types of diploid gynogenetic grass carp: meiotic gynogenetic (meiG) and mitotic gynogenetic (mitG). Over a 5-year period, a total of 17,170 meiG and 1,080 mitG fry were produced and 6,862 meiG and 372 mitG grass carp survived. The gynogenetic fish were confirmed by morphological characteristics, chromosome examination, and microsatellite DNA analysis. The morphological traits of the gynogenetic grass carp were similar to those of wild diploid grass carp. Normal gynogenetic fish were identified as diploid with 48 chromosomes by chromosomal metaphases examination, while nonviable abnormal embryos were detected as haploid with 24 chromosomes. Microsatellite DNA analysis indicated that after one generation of gynogenesis, the genetic purity of meiG and mitG grass carp was significantly increased over that of wild grass carp. In addition, both meiG and mitG grass carp groups were 100% female, and 88% of these showed normal ovary development. Thus, the sex determination mechanism in female grass carp was homogamety. The ability to establish pure all-female groups of meiG and mitG grass carp should be a valuable contribution to both fish genetics and grass carp breeding. PMID:21279407

Zhang, Hong; Liu, ShaoJun; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Peng, LiangYue; You, CuiPing; Xiao, Jun; Zhou, Yi; Zhou, GongJian; Luo, KaiKun; Liu, Yun

2011-10-01

184

The formation of improved tetraploid population of red crucian carp x common carp hybrids by androgenesis.  

PubMed

Bisexual fertile diploid androgenetic individuals (A(0)) (2n=100) were formed by androgenesis. In this way, the diploid spermatozoa from male allotetraploid hybrids (AT) (4n=200) of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (female) x common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (male) were used to fertilize the UV-treated haploid eggs of goldfish (Carassius auratus), and living androgenetic diploid fish were developed. The A(0) became sexually mature at the age of 2 years, and they fertilized with each other to form their offspring (A(1)). In this study, we observed the chromosomal number, gonadal structure and appearance of A(1) fish. The results are as follows: (1) In A(1), there were 85% tetraploids (A(1)-4n), 10% triploids (A(1)-3n) and 5% diploids (A(1)-2n), suggesting that diploid A(0) could produce diploid gametes. It was concluded that the formation of diploid gametes generated from diploid A(0) was probably related to the mechanism of pre-meiotic endoreduplication. (2) Among A(1), only A(1)-4n possessed normal ovaries and testes. The mature males of A1-4n produced white semen. Under the electron microscope, the head of diploid sperm generated by A(1)-4n was bigger than that of haploid sperm generated by red crucian carp. In the testes of the A(1)-4n, there were many mature normal spermatozoa with a head bearing plasma membrane and a tail having the typical structure of "9+2" microtubules. Between the head and the tail, there were some mitochondria. The ovaries of A(1)-4n developed well and mainly contained II, III and IV-stage oocytes. The IV-stage oocytes were surrounded by inner and outer follicular cells. The micropyle was observed on the oolemma of follicular cells. There were abundant yolks and plenty of endoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm of IV-stage oocytes. Because A(1)-2n and A(1)-3n were distant crossing diploid hybrids and triploid hybrids respectively, they possessed abnormal gonads, and no mature semen and eggs were observed. (3) Compared with allotetraploids, the A(1)-4n fish not only had advantages such as fast growth rate and strong resistibility but also showed some new good performances such as high ratio of body width to body length, smaller heads and shorter tails. These results indicated that androgenesis could produce bisexual fertile tetraploids and improve the shape of allotetraploid hybrids as well, which will be of great significance in both the cell genetics research and fish breeding. PMID:17901933

Duan, Wei; Qin, QinBo; Chen, Song; Liu, ShaoJun; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chun; Sun, YuanDong; Liu, Yun

2007-12-01

185

Protective Roles of Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella Mx Isoforms against Grass Carp Reovirus  

PubMed Central

Background Myxovirus resistance (Mx) proteins are crucial effectors of the innate antiviral response against a wide range of viruses, mediated by the type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling pathway. However, the antiviral activity of Mx proteins is diverse and complicated in different species. Methodology/Principal Findings In the current study, two novel Mx genes (CiMx1 and CiMx3) were identified in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). CiMx1 and CiMx3 proteins exhibit high sequence identity (92.1%), and low identity with CiMx2 (49.2% and 49.5%, respectively) from the GenBank database. The predicted three-dimensional (3D) structures are distinct among the three isoforms. mRNA instability motifs also display significant differences in the three genes. The spatial and temporal expression profiles of three C. idella Mx genes and the IFN-I gene were investigated by real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) following infection with grass carp reovirus (GCRV) in vivo and in vitro. The results demonstrated that all the four genes were implicated in the anti-GCRV immune response, that mRNA expression of Mx genes might be independent of IFN-I, and that CIK cells are suitable for antiviral studies. By comparing expression patterns following GCRV challenge or poly(I:C) treatment, it was observed that GCRV blocks mRNA expression of the four genes. To determine the functions of Mx genes, three CiMx cDNAs were cloned into expression vectors and utilized for transfection of CIK cells. The protection conferred by each recombinant CiMx protein against GCRV infection was evaluated. Antiviral activity against GCRV was demonstrated by reduced cytopathic effect, lower virus titer and lower levels of expressed viral transcripts. The transcription of IFN-I gene was also monitored. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate all three Mx genes can suppress replication of grass carp reovirus and over-expression of Mx genes mediate feedback inhibition of the IFN-I gene.

Peng, Limin; Yang, Chunrong; Su, Jianguo

2012-01-01

186

Coordinated regulation of apical hook development by gibberellins and ethylene in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings.  

PubMed

Dark-grown Arabidopsis seedlings develop an apical hook when germinating in soil, which protects the cotyledons and apical meristematic tissues when protruding through the soil. Several hormones are reported to distinctly modulate this process. Previous studies have shown that ethylene and gibberellins (GAs) coordinately regulate the hook development, although the underlying molecular mechanism is largely unknown. Here we showed that GA(3) enhanced while paclobutrazol repressed ethylene- and EIN3-overexpression (EIN3ox)-induced hook curvature, and della mutant exhibited exaggerated hook curvature, which required an intact ethylene signaling pathway. Genetic study revealed that GA-enhanced hook development was dependent on HOOKLESS 1 (HLS1), a central regulator mediating the input of the multiple signaling pathways during apical hook development. We further found that GA(3) induced (and DELLA proteins repressed) HLS1 expression in an ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3/EIN3-LIKE 1 (EIN3/EIL1)-dependent manner, whereby EIN3/EIL1 activated HLS1 transcription by directly binding to its promoter. Additionally, DELLA proteins were found to interact with the DNA-binding domains of EIN3/EIL1 and repress EIN3/EIL1-regulated HLS1 expression. Treatment with naphthylphthalamic acid, a polar auxin transport inhibitor, repressed the constitutively exaggerated hook curvature of EIN3ox line and della mutant, supporting that auxin functions downstream of the ethylene and GA pathways in hook development. Taken together, our results identify EIN3/EIL1 as a new class of DELLA-associated transcription factors and demonstrate that GA promotes apical hook formation in cooperation with ethylene partly by inducing the expression of HLS1 via derepression of EIN3/EIL1 functions. PMID:22349459

An, Fengying; Zhang, Xing; Zhu, Ziqiang; Ji, Yusi; He, Wenrong; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Li, Mingzhe; Guo, Hongwei

2012-05-01

187

Coordinated regulation of apical hook development by gibberellins and ethylene in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings  

PubMed Central

Dark-grown Arabidopsis seedlings develop an apical hook when germinating in soil, which protects the cotyledons and apical meristematic tissues when protruding through the soil. Several hormones are reported to distinctly modulate this process. Previous studies have shown that ethylene and gibberellins (GAs) coordinately regulate the hook development, although the underlying molecular mechanism is largely unknown. Here we showed that GA3 enhanced while paclobutrazol repressed ethylene- and EIN3-overexpression (EIN3ox)-induced hook curvature, and della mutant exhibited exaggerated hook curvature, which required an intact ethylene signaling pathway. Genetic study revealed that GA-enhanced hook development was dependent on HOOKLESS 1 (HLS1), a central regulator mediating the input of the multiple signaling pathways during apical hook development. We further found that GA3 induced (and DELLA proteins repressed) HLS1 expression in an ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3/EIN3-LIKE 1 (EIN3/EIL1)-dependent manner, whereby EIN3/EIL1 activated HLS1 transcription by directly binding to its promoter. Additionally, DELLA proteins were found to interact with the DNA-binding domains of EIN3/EIL1 and repress EIN3/EIL1-regulated HLS1 expression. Treatment with naphthylphthalamic acid, a polar auxin transport inhibitor, repressed the constitutively exaggerated hook curvature of EIN3ox line and della mutant, supporting that auxin functions downstream of the ethylene and GA pathways in hook development. Taken together, our results identify EIN3/EIL1 as a new class of DELLA-associated transcription factors and demonstrate that GA promotes apical hook formation in cooperation with ethylene partly by inducing the expression of HLS1 via derepression of EIN3/EIL1 functions.

An, Fengying; Zhang, Xing; Zhu, Ziqiang; Ji, Yusi; He, Wenrong; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Li, Mingzhe; Guo, Hongwei

2012-01-01

188

Use of blunt scalp hooks for abdominal procedure in lumboperitoneal shunt placement: technical note.  

PubMed

In obese patients, we often find difficulty in laparotomy for placing a lumboperitoneal shunt catheter. The authors introduced an easy technique to get a sufficiently wide and shallow operative field through small abdominal incision in obese people. Four blunt scalp hooks and rubber bands, commonly used in craniotomy, were prepared. The fat layer and the rectus abdominis muscle layer were retracted and pulled up using these hooks. Blunt scalp hooks were useful for safe and effective retraction of abdominal wall, which made a sufficient and shallow operative field. PMID:24759096

Kawahara, Takashi; Higashi, Takuichiro; Tokimura, Hiroshi; Arita, Kazunori; Atsuchi, Masamichi; Takasaki, Koji

2014-07-15

189

Crystal Structure of a Complex of DNA with One AT-Hook of HMGA1  

PubMed Central

We present here for the first time the crystal structure of an AT-hook domain. We show the structure of an AT-hook of the ubiquitous nuclear protein HMGA1, combined with the oligonucleotide d(CGAATTAATTCG)2, which has two potential AATT interacting groups. Interaction with only one of them is found. The structure presents analogies and significant differences with previous NMR studies: the AT-hook forms hydrogen bonds between main-chain NH groups and thymines in the minor groove, DNA is bent and the minor groove is widened.

Fonfria-Subiros, Elsa; Acosta-Reyes, Francisco; Saperas, Nuria; Pous, Joan; Subirana, Juan A.; Campos, J. Lourdes

2012-01-01

190

The remarkable vision of Robert Hooke (1635-1703): first observer of the microbial world.  

PubMed

Robert Hooke played important roles in the early development of the Royal Society of London. As Curator of Experiments of the Society, he became a pioneering microscopist, prolific inventor, astronomer, geologist, architect, and an effective surveyor of the City of London following the Great Fire of 1666. Hooke's Micrographia (1665) revealed the microscopic structures of numerous biological and inorganic objects and became an important source of information for later studies. Aside from the body of detailed observations reported and depicted in Micrographia, the Preface is in itself an extraordinary document that exhibits Hooke's fertile mind, philosophical insights, and rare ability to look into the future. PMID:15834198

Gest, Howard

2005-01-01

191

Biological characteristics of an improved triploid crucian carp.  

PubMed

An improved triploid crucian carp (ITCC) was produced by crossing improved tetraploids (G1xAT, male symbol) with improved red crucian carp (IRCC, female symbol), which were obtained by distant crossing and gynogenesis. The biological characteristics of ITCC, including the number and karyotype of chromosomes, gonadad and pituitary structures, phenotype, and growth rate are reported. ITCC possessed 150 chromosomes with the karyotype 33m+51sm+33st+33t. In the breeding season, both ovary-like and testis-like gonads of ITCC were unable to produce normal mature gametes. The ultrastructure of the pituitary of ITCC showed that most of the endocrine granules in gonadotrophic hormone (GTH) cells had not been released, providing endocrinological evidence for the sterility of ITCC. Compared with triploid crucian carp (TCC) produced by mating Japanese crucian carp with allotetraploid hybrids, ITCC not only retained the excellent traits of fast growth rate and sterility, but also acquired improved morphological characteristics, including higher body, shorter tail and smaller head. PMID:19727591

Chen, Song; Wang, Jing; Liu, ShaoJun; Qin, QinBo; Xiao, Jun; Duan, Wei; Luo, KaiKun; Liu, JinHui; Liu, Yun

2009-08-01

192

Synaptic relationships in the plexiform layers of carp retina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synaptic contacts made by carp retinal neurons were studied with electron microscopic techniques. Three kinds of contacts are described: (1) a conventional synapse in which an accumulation of agranular vesicles is found on the presynaptic side along with membrane densification of both pre- and postsynaptic elements; (2) a ribbon synapse in which a presynaptic ribbon surrounded by a halo

Paul Witkovsky; John E. Dowling

1969-01-01

193

Biology of sperm and artificial reproduction in carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, has been cultivated for several thousand years and is produced in large quantities, research on reproduction has been very limited. Traditionally, spawning occurred naturally in situ in rearing ponds. In slightly improved methods large breeding ponds stocked with brood fish were devoted to reproduction with fry collection in autumn, or in small spawning ponds

R. Billard; J. Cosson; G. Perchec; O. Linhart

1995-01-01

194

Food handling and mastication in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of food handling in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and its structures associated with feeding are analyzed. The aim of this study is to explain the relation between the the architecture of the head and its functions in food processing and to determine the specializations for some food types and the consequent restrictions for others. Such

F. A. Sibbing

1984-01-01

195

Hormonal regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis in the carp, Cyprinus carpio  

SciTech Connect

Carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver maintained normal glycogen content and enzyme complement for several days in organ culture. Epinephrine-stimulated glycogenolysis, phosphorylase activation, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner with EC/sub 50/s of 100, 100, and 500 nM, respectively. These actions were blocked by the ..beta..-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, but not by the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. Glycogenolysis and tissue cAMP were uninfluenced by 10/sup -6/ M arginine vasotocin, arginine vasopressin, lysine vasotocin, lysine vasopressin, mesotocin, or oxytocin, but were slightly increased by 10/sup -5/ M isotocin and slightly decreased by 10/sup -6/ M angiotensin II. (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol (ICP), a ..beta..-adrenergic ligand, bound to isolated carp liver membranes with a K/sub D/ of 83 pM. Maximum binding of 45 fmol/mg protein was at 600 pM. Propranolol, isoprenaline, epinephrine, phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and phenoxybenzamine displaced ICP with K/sub D/s of 100 nM, 2, 20, 20, 60, and 200 ..mu..M, respectively. The ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonists, yohimbine and prazosin, showed no specific binding. These data provide evidence that catecholamines act via ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in carp liver and that ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors are not present. Vasoactive peptides play no significant role in regulation of carp liver glycogenolysis.

Janssens, P.A.; Lowrey, P.

1987-04-01

196

Immunization with viral antigens: viral diseases of carp and catfish.  

PubMed

The viral diseases of carp and catfish for which vaccines have been produced are spring viraemia of carp (SVC), grass carp haemorrhage disease (GCHD) and channel catfish virus disease (CCVD). Field trials of a commercially produced injectable vaccine conducted over several years have shown that carp can be protected against SVC. However the supporting data were predominantly qualitative rather than quantitative. Large-scale field trials of an experimental oral attenuated vaccine against SVC virus over a five year period were successful, and no reversion to virulence of the vaccine was recorded. Injectable inactivated and attenuated vaccines against GCHD have predominantly been tested under laboratory conditions, although a small number of field trials have been reported. In such trials of bath and injectable vaccines, survival rates of 50-90% were achieved. In China, commercially available vaccines are being used against GCHD. Only laboratory trials of vaccines against CCVD have been reported. Bath vaccination of eggs of fry with a subunit vaccine and bath immunisation of fingerlings with an attenuated virus vaccine have been successful. Problems with current approaches and areas for research are discussed. PMID:9270851

Dixon, P

1997-01-01

197

The LIM Protein Zyxin Binds CARP-1 and Promotes Apoptosis.  

PubMed

Zyxin is a dual-function LIM domain protein that regulates actin dynamics in response to mechanical stress and shuttles between focal adhesions and the cell nucleus. Here we show that zyxin contributes to UV-induced apoptosis. Exposure of wild-type fibroblasts to UV-C irradiation results in apoptotic cell death, whereas cells harboring a homozygous disruption of the zyxin gene display a statistically significant survival advantage. To gain insight into the molecular mechanism by which zyxin promotes apoptotic signaling, we expressed an affinity-tagged zyxin variant in zyxin-null cells and isolated zyxin-associated proteins from cell lysates under physiological conditions. A 130-kDa protein that was co-isolated with zyxin was identified by microsequence analysis as the Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulator Protein-1 (CARP-1). CARP-1 associates with the LIM region of zyxin. Zyxin lacking the CARP-1 binding region shows reduced proapoptotic activity in response to UV-C irradiation. We demonstrate that CARP-1 is a nuclear protein. Zyxin is modified by phosphorylation in cells exposed to UV-C irradiation, and nuclear accumulation of zyxin is induced by UV-C exposure. These findings highlight a novel mechanism for modulating the apoptotic response to UV irradiation. PMID:20852740

Hervy, Martial; Hoffman, Laura M; Jensen, Christopher C; Smith, Mark; Beckerle, Mary C

2010-05-01

198

Analysis of apical hook formation in Alaska pea with a 3-D clinostat and agravitropic mutant ageotropum  

PubMed Central

The formation of the apical hook in dicotyledonous seedlings is believed to be effected by gravity in the dark. However, this notion is mostly based on experiments with the hook formed on the hypocotyl, and no detailed studies are available with the developmental manners of the hook, particularly of the epicotyl hook. The present study aims at clarifying the dynamics of hook formation including the possible involvement of gravity. Time-course studies with normal Alaska pea (Pisum sativum L., cv. Alaska) and an agravitropic pea mutant, ageotropum, under the 1-g conditions and on a 3-D clinostat revealed that (1) the apical hook of the epicotyl forms by the development of the arc-shaped plumule of the embryo existing in the non-germinated seed. The process of formation consists of two stages: development and partial opening, which are controlled by some intrinsic property of the plumule, but not gravity. Approximately when the epicotyl emerges from the seed coat, the hook is established in both pea varieties. In Alaska the established hook is sustained or enhanced by gravity, resulting in a delay of hook opening compared with on a clinostat, which might give an incorrect idea that gravity causes hook formation. (2) During the hook development and opening processes the original plumular arc holds its orientation unchanged to be an established hook, which, therefore, is at the same side of the epicotyl axis as the cotyledons. This is true for both Alaska and ageotropum under 1-g conditions as well as on the clinostat, supporting finding (1). (3) Application of auxin polar transport inhibitors, hydroxyfluorenecarboxylic acid, naphthylphthalamic acid, and triiodobenzoic acid, suppressed the curvature of hook by equal extents in Alaska as well as ageotropum, suggesting that the hook development involves auxin polar transport probably asymmetrically distributed across the plumular axis by some intrinsic property of the plumule not directly related with gravity action.

Miyamoto, Kensuke; Yamasaki, Takahiro; Uheda, Eiji; Ueda, Junichi

2013-01-01

199

Trypanosomiasis-Induced Th17-Like Immune Responses in Carp  

PubMed Central

Background In mammalian vertebrates, the cytokine interleukin (IL)-12 consists of a heterodimer between p35 and p40 subunits whereas interleukin-23 is formed by a heterodimer between p19 and p40 subunits. During an immune response, the balance between IL-12 and IL-23 can depend on the nature of the pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) recognized by, for example TLR2, leading to a preferential production of IL-23. IL-23 production promotes a Th17-mediated immune response characterized by the production of IL-17A/F and several chemokines, important for neutrophil recruitment and activation. For the cold blooded vertebrate common carp, only the IL-12 subunits have been described so far. Methodology/Principal Findings Common carp is the natural host of two protozoan parasites: Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii. We found that these parasites negatively affect p35 and p40a gene expression in carp. Transfection studies of HEK293 and carp macrophages show that T. carassii-derived PAMPs are agonists of carp TLR2, promoting p19 and p40c gene expression. The two protozoan parasites induce different immune responses as assessed by gene expression and histological studies. During T. carassii infections, in particular, we observed a propensity to induce p19 and p40c gene expression, suggestive of the formation of IL-23. Infections with T. borreli and T. carassii lead to an increase of IFN-?2 gene expression whereas IL-17A/F2 gene expression was only observed during T. carasssii infections. The moderate increase in the number of splenic macrophages during T. borreli infection contrasts the marked increase in the number of splenic neutrophilic granulocytes during T. carassii infection, along with an increased gene expression of metalloproteinase-9 and chemokines. Conclusion/Significance This is the first study that provides evidence for a Th17-like immune response in fish in response to infection with a protozoan parasite.

Ribeiro, Carla M. S.; Pontes, Maria J. S. L.; Bird, Steve; Chadzinska, Magdalena; Scheer, Marleen; Verburg-van Kemenade, B. M. Lidy; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.; Wiegertjes, Geert F.

2010-01-01

200

Regulation of interleukin 1 beta RNA expression in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intron-exon organisation of the carp IL-1? gene consists of 2455bp and comprises seven exons. Three IL-1? RNA transcripts have been found in carp: (1) a fully spliced product; (2) exon 1–7 with introns 5 and 6; and (3) exon 1–7 with intron 5 only. The intron-containing products probably represent partially spliced transcripts. IL-1? mRNA expression in carp was semi-quantitatively

M. Y. Engelsma; R. J. M. Stet; H. Schipper; B. M. L. Verburg-van Kemenade

2001-01-01

201

78 FR 25092 - Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Sussex County, DE; Record of Decision for Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...restore the natural ecology and hydrology of Prime Hook's barrier island and marsh system and provide valuable ecosystem services, such as storm surge protection and flood protection. Compared to the other alternatives, our proposal...

2013-04-29

202

Structural study and geochronology in the Hook Batholith, Central Zambia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pan-African Hook batholith is emplaced N of the Mwembeshi dislocation, a regional scale structure at the contact between Zambezi Belt and Lufilian Arc in Central Zambia. Exposed over 12000 km2 the batholith is composed mainly of fine-grained and coarse-grained porphyritic granites and leucogranites affected by solid-state deformation along high-strain zones. Two main zones of deformation were investigated - the Itezhi-Tezhi Zone (ITZ) in the SW part of the batholith and the Nalusanga Zone (NZ) to the NE. The 2.5 km wide, N-S trending, subvertical ITZ is a medium-grade, pure shear dominated structure, reflecting probably regional scale E-W shortening. In the central part of the zone, augen-gneiss textures developed. Mineral lineations plunging ~40° S are recorded occasionally. The deformed feldspar porphyroclasts show symmetrical tails and rarely sinistral stair-stepping. In the SE part of the Hook batholith the continuation of the ITZ trends E-W. This orientation can be explained by rotation of the original ITZ trend by N-S shortening that also has been recorded in the siliciclastic metasediments S of the contact. S dipping, up to 15 cm wide thrust zones observed in the ITZ area were probably formed during this tectonic event. The 3 km wide NZ is a subvertical to steeply SSW dipping structure, parallel to the NE contact of the batholith, with well-developed foliation and mineral stretching lineations. Field and microstructural analyses defined the NZ as a medium-grade, non-coaxial, sinistral strike-slip shear zone. The transition from weak foliated granite to S-C mylonites and ultramylonites was observed. The sinistral shearing is consistent with E-W shortening in agreement with the tectonic framework of the ITZ. The low grade metasediments to the E of the granite are folded in N to NNW trending structures also implying E-W shortening. Temperature conditions during the deformation in ITZ and NZ inferred from microstructural analyses are about 500°-550°C. The metamorphism in the country rocks E of the batholith is in the lower greenschist facies indicating that deformation along the ITZ and NZ occurred during the cooling of the granite. U-Pb zircon LA-SF-ICP-MS analyses reveal that the coarse-grained and fine-grained granites in the NE part of the batholith have the same age of 549×2 Ma. The age of an undeformed aplite that truncates the NZ's foliation brackets the strike-slip shearing between 549×2 Ma and 541×3 Ma. In the SE margin of the batholith deformed coarse-grained granite is dated at 544×2 Ma and an undeformed granitic vein gave an age of 543×3 Ma, thus relating the fabric formation to the same time interval. To the SW the deformed granite in the ITZ is dated at 533×3 Ma indicating that the E-W shortening was still active at this time. This study reports two deformational stages recorded in the Hook batholith and its country rocks. E-W shortening folded the sediments form the E margin of the granite and formed the solid-state fabric in the batholith. The following N-S shortening cold be related to the final docking of the Zambezi sequence to the Lufilian Arc along the Mwembeshi dislocation.

Naydenov, K.; Lehmann, J.; Saalmann, K.; Milani, L.; Kinnaird, J.; Charlesworth, G.; Frei, D.

2013-12-01

203

The mechanical role of laminar hook protection of pedicle screws at the caudal end vertebra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomechanical studies have shown hooks to be superior to pedicle screws in pull-out, especially in osteoporosis. This study evaluates the possible increase in stiffness of pedicle screws provided by laminar hooks while applying non-destructive forces to a vertebrectomy model assembled with Compact Cotrel Dubousset (CCD) instrumentation. Synthetic vertebrae were employed in a three-level vertebrectomy model. CCD screw-based three-level constructs with

J. Y. Margulies; R. S. Casar; S. A. Caruso; M. G. Neuwirth; T. R. Haher

1997-01-01

204

Mortality of Landlocked Atlantic Salmon Hooked on Four Types of Fishing Gear at the Hatchery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mortality of age II hatchery-reared landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) hooked on four types of fishing gear was evaluated by conducting experiments at the Casco and Grand Lake (Maine) Fish-cultural Stations, in spring 1976-78. An additional experiment to evaluate mortality of fish purposely deep-hooked on worms was conducted in 1978. Of 1221 fish caught on all gear types, only

Kendall Warner

1979-01-01

205

A new mechanism of hook formation during continuous casting of ultra-low-carbon steel slabs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initial stages of solidification near the meniscus during continuous casting of steel slabs involve many complex inter-related\\u000a transient phenomena, which cause periodic oscillation marks (OMs), subsurface hooks, and related surface defects. This article\\u000a presents a detailed mechanism for the formation of curved hooks and their associated OMs, based on a careful analysis of numerous\\u000a specially etched samples from ultra-low-carbon

Joydeep Sengupta; Brian G. Thomas; Ho-Jung Shin; Go-Gi Lee; Seon-Hyo Kim

2006-01-01

206

Physical, mechanical, and barrier properties of carp and mammalian skin gelatin films.  

PubMed

Films of 0.11 to 0.13 mm thickness were prepared using gelatins from the skins of cultured freshwater carp species and mammalian gelatins viz., porcine and bovine skin gelatin. A comparative study was made on the physical, mechanical, and barrier properties of these films. The amino acid composition, gel strength, clarity, and gel setting point of the gelatins were also determined. Carp skin gelatins had a lower imino acid content (19.16% to 20.86%) than mammalian skin gelatins (22.91% to 23.7%). Grass carp gelatin had gel strength of 230.2 B that is comparable to the reported value for bovine skin gelatin (227.2 B). The bloom values of rohu and common carp skin gelatins were 188.6 B and 181.3 B, respectively, which were significantly lower than mammalian gelatins. Mammalian gels have significantly higher (P < 0.05) setting temperatures (23.7 to 24.2 °C) than carp skin gelatins. Tensile strength (TS) was lowest for films from common carp and rohu skin gelatin (490 and 497 kg/cm(2), respectively) and highest for porcine skin gelatin film. The degree of transparency (L*) was significantly higher for films from grass carp, bovine hide, and pork skin gelatin films. Carp skin gelatin films had significantly lower water vapor permeability (WVP) and oxygen permeability (OP) than mammalian skin gelatin films, which indicated that carp skin gelatin based films have superior barrier properties than mammalian skin gelatin films. PMID:21535597

Ninan, George; Joseph, Jose; Abubacker, Zynudheen

2010-01-01

207

Hormonal networks involved in apical hook development in darkness and their response to light.  

PubMed

In darkness, the dicot seedlings produce an apical hook as result of differential cell division and extension at opposite sides of the hypocotyl. This hook protects the apical meristem from mechanical damage during seedling emergence from the soil. In darkness, gibberellins act via the DELLA-PIF (PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORs) pathway, and ethylene acts via the EIN3/EIL1 (ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3/EIN3 like 1)-HLS1 (HOOKLESS 1) pathway to control the asymmetric accumulation of auxin required for apical hook formation and maintenance. These core pathways form a network with multiple points of connection. Light perception by phytochromes and cryptochromes reduces the activity of PIFs and (COP1) CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1-both required for hook formation in darkness-, lowers the levels of gibberellins, and triggers hook opening as a component of the switch between heterotrophic and photoautotrophic development. Apical hook opening is thus a suitable model to study the convergence of endogenous and exogenous signals on the control of cell division and cell growth. PMID:24616725

Mazzella, Maria A; Casal, Jorge J; Muschietti, Jorge P; Fox, Ana R

2014-01-01

208

Trauma scissors vs. the rescue hook, exposing a simulated patient: a pilot study.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the exposure times using trauma scissors vs. the rescue hook on a simulated patient. This was a prospectively randomized, parallel group comparison study with two arms. The control group used trauma scissors (15 cycles), and the intervention group used rescue hooks (15 cycles). The uniform and footwear were standardized for each cycle. Ten participants were trained on each instrument. For each cycle, four participants were randomly chosen, and the use of either instrument was randomized. Each participant was then queried about their preferences for either instrument and why. The rescue hook's mean time of exposure was 24 s with a SD of 7 s and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 20-28 s. The trauma scissors' mean exposure time was 42 s with a SD of 5 s and a 95% CI of 39-45 s. The mean difference was 18 s, with a 95% CI of 13-23 s. On average, the rescue hook was 43% faster. Nine of 10 participants preferred the rescue hook, stating that it was faster, easier, smaller, and more durable. The rescue hook was found to be faster than trauma scissors when exposing a simulated patient, and it was the instrument preferred by the majority of participants. PMID:18155382

Hurtado, Timothy R; Montoya, Chris

2009-04-01

209

Environmental Assessment for Listing Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) as Injurious Wildlife under the Lacey Act. (Revised 2007).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We considered two alternatives for the proposed action to list largescale silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys harmandi) as an injurious species under the Lacey Act: 1) no action; and 2) adding live largescale silver carp, gametes, viable eggs and hybrids. Two...

2007-01-01

210

A Novel zT Meter Based on the Porcupine Method and a Survey on the Size of the Snout Correction Needed for Various Thermoelectric Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the dimensionless figure of merit of different thermoelectric devices are presented and discussed, as obtained with a prototype zT meter which is based on the porcupine method. The instrument's architecture and operation are discussed to support claims made on the accuracy of results. Different types of thermoelectric devices were tested, focusing on the size of the porcupine's snout for each. The latter is probably the major source of uncertainty in Harman methods, but is well measurable with the porcupine method, which therefore allows definition of the correction needed to obtain accurate evaluation of zT. Accuracies much better than 1% in the determination of the dimensionless figure of merit and series resistance are possible in this way. A survey of various devices is reported, and results are shown to indicate that corrections up to the 10% level and more are needed, depending on the configuration.

De Marchi, Andrea; Giaretto, Valter; Caron, Simone; Tona, Andrea

2013-07-01

211

Automation Hooks Architecture Trade Study for Flexible Test Orchestration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe the conclusions of a technology and communities survey supported by concurrent and follow-on proof-of-concept prototyping to evaluate feasibility of defining a durable, versatile, reliable, visible software interface to support strategic modularization of test software development. The objective is that test sets and support software with diverse origins, ages, and abilities can be reliably integrated into test configurations that assemble and tear down and reassemble with scalable complexity in order to conduct both parametric tests and monitored trial runs. The resulting approach is based on integration of three recognized technologies that are currently gaining acceptance within the test industry and when combined provide a simple, open and scalable test orchestration architecture that addresses the objectives of the Automation Hooks task. The technologies are automated discovery using multicast DNS Zero Configuration Networking (zeroconf), commanding and data retrieval using resource-oriented Restful Web Services, and XML data transfer formats based on Automatic Test Markup Language (ATML). This open-source standards-based approach provides direct integration with existing commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) analysis software tools.

Lansdowne, Chatwin A.; Maclean, John R.; Graffagnino, Frank J.; McCartney, Patrick A.

2010-01-01

212

A genetic linkage map of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) And mapping of a locus associated with cold tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetic linkage map has been constructed for the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The segregation of 272 markers, including 105 gene markers, 110 microsatellites, and 57 RAPD markers was studied in a panel with 46 haploid embryos derived from a single hybrid female. The hybrid was produced by crossing a common carp (C. carpio L.) and a Boshi carp

Xiaowen Sun; Liqun Liang

2004-01-01

213

A review of genetic improvement of the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and other cyprinids by crossbreeding, hybridization and selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic research and application have mainly focused on the common carp, while little attention has been given to Chinese and Indian carps. The only exceptions are interspecific and intergeneric hybridization involving the latter species. The common carp is the only species for which distinct varieties exist. Several of these have been used for crossbreeding, and heterosis for growth was shown

Gideon Hulata

1995-01-01

214

Fish Hook Injury: Removal by ''Push Through and Cut Off'' Technique: A Case Report and Brief Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Fishing is a leisure activity for some people around the world. Accidently the fish hook can get hooked in the hand. If the hook is barbed, removal becomes difficult. We report a case of such a injury in the hand and discuss the technique for its removal with a brief review of the literature. Case Presentation: A thirty-two year old male accidently suffered a fishhook injury to his hand. He came to the orthopaedic ward two hours after the incident with pain; the fish hook was hanging from the hand. Unsuccessful attempts to remove it were made by his relatives. A push-through and cut-off technique was used for removal of barbed hook. Discussion: Barbed hooks are to be removed atraumatically with controlled incision over properly anaesthetised skin. Proper wound management and prophylactic antibiotics suitable for treatment of Aeromonas species should be initiated to prevent complications.

Ahmad Khan, Hayat; Kamal, Younis; Lone, Ansar ul Haq

2014-01-01

215

Spring viremia of carp virus in Minnehaha Creek, Minnesota.  

PubMed

Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) causes a highly contagious and serious disease of freshwater cyprinid fishes, generating significant economic and ecological impacts throughout the world. The SVCV is therefore listed as a notifiable pathogen by the International Organization for Animal Health. In June 2011, a significant mortality event of wild common carp Cyprinus carpio occurred in Minnehaha Creek near its confluence with Mississippi River Pool 2 in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Clinical signs of moribund fish included hemorrhagic lesions in the skin, eyes, and internal adipose tissue. The SVCV was isolated from pooled kidney and spleen of the fish. Rhabdovirus particles were seen upon examination of infected cell culture fluid by electron microscopy. The virus was confirmed to be SVCV subtype Ia by reverse transcription PCR and sequencing. This is the first report of SVCV within the state of Minnesota and the ninth documented case in North America. PMID:23072656

Phelps, Nicholas B D; Armién, Aníbal G; Mor, Sunil K; Goyal, Sagar M; Warg, Janet V; Bhagyam, Ranjit; Monahan, Tim

2012-12-01

216

Acute dysphagia after carp fish meal: a case report.  

PubMed

An 80-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with acute dysphagia symptoms of 8 hours' duration. The problem began after a carp fish meal. Prominent symptoms included inability to swallow, mild dyspnea, and cough. Laboratory evaluation and fiber-optic examination of the upper aerodigestive tract was normal except for accumulation of saliva in the hypopharynx. Examination with a flexible esophagoscope revealed a total blockage of the lumen of the lower esophagus due to impaction of carp fish roe (column-like formation). With careful maneuvers and water pressure we were able to relieve the obstruction. No other lesion was detectable and no further interventions were needed. Patient follow-up was uneventful. PMID:16369319

Protopappas, Andreas N; Chatziavramidis, Angelos M

2005-01-01

217

Survival of monosex grass carp in small ponds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Little information is available on the survival of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in ponds &mdash especially on the survival of fry to large fingerling stage, during the time when the most mortality would be expected. Development of monosex (all female) grass carp at the Fish Farming Experimental Station by the technique of artificial gynogenesis (Stanley et al. 1975) enabled us to observe survival to the large fingersling stage under several stocking densities and pond conditions. These limited observations, made incidentally to other studies, may provide clues for the development of management techniques to reduce mortality. Monosex fry were used in these observations, but there is no reason to suppose that survival of bisexual fry would have been different.

Thomas, A. E.; Carter, R. R.

1977-01-01

218

Case report of right hamate hook fracture in a patient with previous fracture history of left hamate hook: is it hamate bipartite?  

PubMed Central

Background Hamate hook fracture is a common fracture in golfers and others who play sports that involve rackets or sticks such as tennis or hockey. This patient had a previous hamate fracture in the opposing wrist along with potential features of hamate bipartite. Case presentation A 19 year old male presented with a complaint of right wrist pain on the ulnar side of the wrist with no apparent mechanism of injury. The pain came on gradually one week before being seen in the office and he reported no prior care for the complaint. His history includes traumatic left hamate hook fracture with surgical excision. Conclusion The patient was found to have marked tenderness over the hamate and with a prior fracture to the other wrist, computed tomography of the wrist was ordered revealing a fracture to the hamate hook in the right wrist. He was referred for surgical evaluation and the hook of the hamate was excised. Post-surgically, the patient was able to return to normal activity within eight weeks. This case is indicative of fracture rather than hamate bipartite. This fracture should be considered in a case of ulnar sided wrist pain where marked tenderness is noted over the hamate, especially after participation in club or racket sports.

Evans, Marion W; Gilbert, Micheal L; Norton, Sandra

2006-01-01

219

Transfection of epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) carp cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variables involved in the transfection of epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells (a representative carp fish cell line) with the genes for ß-galactosidase from E. coli, for luciferases from firefly or renilla, for the G protein of viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus or for green fluorescent protein under the cytomegalovirus, the SV40 or the T7 polymerase promoters have been studied. Fugene was

A. Lopez; M. Fernandez-Alonso; A. Rocha; A. Estepa; J. M. Coll

2001-01-01

220

Essentiality of dietary phospholipids for carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the essentiality of phospholipid (PL) addition to semi-purified diets for first-feeding carp larvae. In Experiment I (25 days), a casein-based diet was supplemented with 0, 2 or 4% of a purified PL source (PL level in source: 98%) and with 0 or 4% of peanut oil (PO). One casein-based diet without

Inge Geurden; João Radünz-Neto; Pierre Bergot

1995-01-01

221

Dietary ascorbic acid needs of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

As some controversy seem to exist regarding the dietary essentiality of ascorbic acid (AA) for larval cyprinids, a study was conducted to determine the dietary AA requirements with first-feeding larvae of common carp. Six semi-purified diets were formulated to contain graded levels (0, 10, 30, 90, 270, 810 mg kg?1) of AA supplied as ascorbyl polyphosphate. Triplicate groups of 250

M.-F Gouillou-Coustans; P Bergot; S. J Kaushik

1998-01-01

222

Comparative susceptibility of carp fingerlings to Lernaea cyprinacea infection.  

PubMed

Study was conducted to find out the comparative susceptibility of fingerlings of seven species of carps (Labeo fimbriatus, L. rohita, L. calbasu, Catla catla, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cyprinus carpio and Hypophthamichthys molitrix) grown under both mono and polyculture to Lernaea cyprinacea infection. Under monoculture, C. carpio, L. rohita and L. calbasu, did not acquire Lernaea infection and were thus considered resistant, whereas C. idella, H. molitrix, C. catla and L. fimbriatus were susceptible. Even challenge with higher infective doses of copepodids under monoculture did not result in infection in the resistant fish species. The resistance of L. rohita and C. carpio to Lernaea infection under monoculture was not sustained when these two fish species were maintained in polyculture along with susceptible fish species. Labeo calbasu, even under polyculture, however, did not acquire Lernaea infection indicating that this fish species is the most resistant and least preferred host for this parasite. Similarly, C. carpio, L. rohita and L. calbasu when grown together in polyculture and exposed to a higher infective dose (120 copepodids/fish) also did not develop the infection. The possible reasons for differences in susceptibility shown by these carp species in monoculture and the loss of resistance by rohu and common carp while in polyculture with susceptible species are discussed. The ability of resistant fish species to prevent establishment of anchor worms on them under monoculture can be utilized to control this parasitic infection commonly encountered in culture ponds. PMID:21255932

Hemaprasanth; Singh, Ravinder; Raghavendra, A; Sridhar, N; Raghunath, M R; Eknath, A E

2011-05-31

223

Analysis of three-dimensional kinematics of carp tail fin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a test based on the wavelet transform for instantaneous three dimensional (3D) Carp tail fin profile measurements and analysis the kinematics of Carp tail fin method was proposed to understand the function of the tail fin. This experiment method is used in cruising carp. Projecting a moiré fringes onto a tail fin, the deformed fringe pattern containing 3D information was produced and varied with the movement of tail fin. The time-sequence deformed fringe pattern images were captured by a high speed camera. By wavelet transform profilometry, the tail fin movements were really reconstructed. On this basis, the kinematics parameter of tail fin was analyses. Experimental results indicate that the 3D profile of tail fin was varied during the tail-beat cycle. Analysis of tail kinematics suggests that, at a swimming speed 0.5Ls-1, the tail beat frequency is 1.42Hz and the dorsal lobe of the tail undergoes a 15.6% greater lateral excursion than does the ventral lobe. The timing of maximal lateral excursion was different at different location of tail fin.

Jiang, Ming; Zhang, Shu; He, Xiaoyuan

2009-12-01

224

Nitrogen and Phosphorus Balance of Grass Carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Fed Elodea, Egeria densa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The herbivorous grass carp fed winter elodea exhibited a negative nitrogen balance in metabolism, suggesting that food having a higher protein content would be required for normal growth. About a third of the phosphorus contained in food was retained; hence, a combination of aquatic plants and grass carp might afford an effective biological method for removing phosphorus from water. Water

Jon G. Stanley

1974-01-01

225

Massive production of all-female diploids and triploids in the crucian carp.  

PubMed

In many species of aquaculture importance, all-female and sterile populations possess superior productivity due to faster growth and a relatively homogenous size of individuals. However, the production of all-female and sterile fish in a large scale for aquaculture is a challenge in practice, because treatments necessary for gynogenesis induction usually cause massive embryonic and larval mortality, and the number of induced gynogens is too small for their direct use in aquaculture. Here we report the massive production of all-female triploid crucian carp by combining artificial gynogenesis, sex reversal and diploid-tetraploid hybridization. Previously, we have obtained an allotetraploid carp population (4n = 200) by hybridization between red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var; ?) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio; ?). We induced all-female diploid gynogens of the Japanese crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri; 2n = 100). We also generated male diploid gynogens of the same species treated gynogenetic fry with 17-?-methyltestosterone, leading to the production of sex-revered gynogenetic males. Finally, these males were used to cross with the female diploid Japanese crucian carp gynogens and the allotetraploid females, resulting in the production of fertile all-female diploid Japanese crucian carp (2n=100) and sterile all-female triploid hybrids (3n = 150), respectively. Therefore, diploid crucian carp gynogenetic females and sex-reversed male together with an allotetraploid line provide an opportunity to produce all-female triploid populations in a large scale to meet demands in aquaculture industry. PMID:21547066

Luo, KaiKun; Xiao, Jun; Liu, ShaoJun; Wang, Jing; He, WeiGuo; Hu, Jie; Qin, QinBo; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Liu, Yun

2011-01-01

226

First evidence of endocrine disruption in feral carp from the Ebro River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feral carps (Cyprinus carpio) were collected in spring 2001 from five sites along the lower course of Ebro River (Spain) with the aim of investigating the existence of endocrine-disrupting effects. Several findings (low gonadosomatic index (GSI), plasmatic vitellogenin (VTG), depressed levels of testosterone, and histological alterations in gonads) detected in male carps downstream of Zaragoza's sewage treatment plant (STP) strongly

Ramón Lavado; Rémi Thibaut; Demetrio Raldúa; Rebeca Mart??n; Cinta Porte

2004-01-01

227

Hexabromocyclododecanes in crucian carp and sediment from the major rivers in Korea.  

PubMed

The concentration of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) was measured in crucian carp muscles and eggs and in surrounding sediments collected from the 3 major rivers in Korea. HBCDs were detected in all carp and sediment samples, indicating widespread contamination of this area by HBCD flame retardants. The ?HBCD (sum of ?-, ?-, and ?-HBCDs) concentrations ranged from 0.19 to 13 ng g(-1)dry wt in sediments, 1.7 to 7.2 ng g(-1)lipid wt in carp eggs, and 4.8 to 6.6 ng g(-1)lipid wt in the muscle of carp. The ?-diastereomer predominated in the crucian carp and ?-diastereomer predominated in sediments, accounting for 76% and 77% to the ?HBCD, respectively. The ?HBCD concentrations in carp and sediment samples collected along the rivers were higher than those in samples collected from an isolated pond, suggesting that the rivers are likely contaminated by HBCDs from the upstream or the environment surrounding the rivers. The diastereomer ratios in carp were different from those in commercial mixtures due to the enrichment of ?-diastereomer in carp. The origin of this transition, however, is yet not known, since various transformation processes can lead to a change from the diastereomer ratio in commercial mixtures to that observed in the environment. PMID:24290101

Jeong, Gi Ho; Hwang, Na Rae; Hwang, Eun-Hye; Lee, Byoung-Cheun; Yoon, Junheon

2014-02-01

228

Polymorphism of transferrin in carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.): Genetic determination, isolation, and partial characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven transferrin variants (A, B, C, D, E, F, and G) have been found in carp sera (Cyprinus carpio L.). Genetic analysis involves five variants and agrees with the hypothesis of simple codominant autosomal inheritance at one transferrin (Tf) locus in spite of the fact that the carp is a tetraploid in relation to other species of the same family.

M. Valenta; A. Stratil; V. Slechtovfi; L. Kfilal; V. Šlechta

1976-01-01

229

Systemic priming of alloreactive cytotoxic cells in carp, following anal administration of allogeneic cell antigens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we confirmed that cellular immune responses, especially specific cell-mediated cytotoxicity, could be induced in systemic carp leucocytes, following anal administration of antigens. Effector cells isolated from systemic lymphoid tissues (head kidney, spleen and peripheral blood) of carp that were immunised anally with allogeneic cells (EPC or KG cell line) efficiently lysed immunogenic target cells. The lytic

Atsushi Sato; Tomonori Somamoto; Hiroyuki Yokooka; Nobuaki Okamoto

2005-01-01

230

Temperature acclimation in crucian carp, Carassius carassius L., morphometric analyses of muscle fibre ultrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carp show a partial compensation in metabolic rate and activity following temperature acclimation. In the present study crucian carp, Carassius carassius, were acclimated for eight weeks to either 2. Cor 28. C. The effects of temperature acclimation on muscle fibre ultrastructure has been investigated. The fractional volume (%) of each fibre type occupied by mitochondria and myofibrils was determined using

I. A. Johnston; B. Maitland

1980-01-01

231

Pathological and Biochemical Characterization of Microcystin-Induced Hepatopancreas and Kidney Damage in Carp ( Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass occurrences of cyanobacteria, due to their inherent capacity for toxin production, specifically of microcystins (MC), have been associated with fish kills worldwide. The uptake of MC-LR and the sequence of pathological and associated biochemical changes was investigated in carp (Cyprinus carpio) in vivo over 72 h. Carp were gavaged with a single sublethal bolus dose of toxic Microcystis aeruginosa

W. J. Fischer; D. R. Dietrich

2000-01-01

232

Spatial variability in the response of lower trophic levels after carp exclusion from a freshwater marsh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large common carp (Cyprinus carpio >30 cm) wereexcluded from a turbid, eutrophic coastal marsh of Lake Ontario with theconstruction of a fishway at the outlet. The marsh was sampledintensively for 2 seasons prior to (1993, 1994) and following (1997,1998) carp exclusion to study changes in water quality and shifts incommunity structure of phytoplankton and zooplankton. Samples werecollected from May to

Vanessa L. Lougheed; Patricia Chow-Fraser

2001-01-01

233

Carp Exclusion, Food-web Interactions, and the Restoration of Cootes Paradise Marsh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carp were excluded from Cootes Paradise Marsh (Lake Ontario) in 1997 in order to improve water clarity and promote submerged plant growth. On average, turbidity at open water and vegetated areas was reduced by 40 and 60 percent, respectively, following carp exclusion. However, responses by plants and other trophic levels have been both spatially and temporally variable due in part

Vanessa L. Lougheed; Tys Theÿsmeÿer; Tyler Smith; Patricia Chow-Fraser

2004-01-01

234

Origin and domestication of the wild carp, Cyprinus carpio: from Roman gourmets to the swimming flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleogeographical, morphological, ecological, physiological, linguistic, archeological and historical evidence is used to explain the origin and history of the domestication of the wild carp. The wild ancestor of the common carp originated in the Black, Caspian and Aral sea drainages and dispersed east into Siberia and China and west as far as the Danube River. It is represented today by

Eugene K. Balon

1995-01-01

235

Cryopreservation of Sperm in Common Carp Cyprinus carpio: Sperm Motility and Hatching Success of Embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, fish sperm cryopreservation methods were elaborated upon for ex situ conservation of nine strains of Bohemian common carp. Common carp sperm were diluted in Kurokura medium and chilled to 4°C and dimethyl sulfoxide was added. Cryotubes of sperm with media were then cooled from +4 to ?9°C at a rate of 4°C min?1 and then from ?9

Otomar Linhart; Marek Rodina; Jacky Cosson

2000-01-01

236

Genetic differences between the Chinese and European races of the common carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth rate of 12 groups of common carp was measured at five experimental environments. Three of the 12 tested groups were strains of the domesticated European race of the common carp, one group was a representative of the Big-Belly Chinese race, and the remaining eight groups were F1 crossbreds among the European strains and between the European and the Chinese

Rom Moav; G Hulata; G Wohlfarth

1975-01-01

237

Nutrient requirements, supply and utilization in the context of carp culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practical diets for common carp are often formulated with little concern for the biological and environmental consequences of poor digestive or metabolic utilization of dietary ingredients. Considerable variability in the optimal protein levels (25–50%) in the diets of common carp has been reported. However, critical analysis of the available data shows little difference in the protein needs between this species

S. J. Kaushik

1995-01-01

238

Genetic variability of German and foreign common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to describe their genetic variability the polymorphisms of 8 enzymatic systems representing 23 gene loci were studied in 11 German and 5 foreign common carp lines using horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. The highest variability measured by the mean number of alleles per locus and the percentage of polymorphic loci was observed in Vietnamese wild carp (1.9 and 50%,

Klaus Kohlmann; Petra Kersten

1999-01-01

239

The Lake Wingra Carp-Free Enclosure and its Effect on an Aquatic Macrophyte, Lemna minor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various people and organizations have spent time and energy into trying to find out if the carp in Lake Wingra are having a negative impact on the other forms of life within the ecosystem. In order to try and answer this question an enclosure was created to remove the carp from a small section of the water. For our experiment

D. Patterson; Jessa Underwood

240

Neuronal Architecture of On and Off Pathways to Ganglion Cells in Carp Retina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion cells of carp retina, stained intracellularly with Procion yellow, can be divided into types a and b, according to the destination of terminals and dendritic trees in the inner plexiform layer (sublamina a and b, respectively). Type a cells showed hyperpolarizing, or off, responses and type b cells depolarizing, or on, responses. Carp thus resembles cat

Edward V. Famiglietti Jr.; Akimichi Kaneko; Masao Tachibana

1977-01-01

241

QSAR study of the toxicity of benzoic acids to Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna and carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicities of benzoic acids to Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna and carp were measured. The results showed that the toxicity to V. fischeri and Daphnia decreased in the order of bromo>chloro>fluoro?aminobenzoic acids. The toxicity of substituted benzoic acids to carp and Daphnia was much lower than that to V. fischeri. The results also showed that the toxicity of benzoic acids

Y. H. Zhao; G. D. Ji; M. T. D. Cronin; J. C. Dearden

1998-01-01

242

Phenotypic plasticity in the spawning traits of bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) in novel ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1.?Bigheaded carp, including both silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead (H. nobilis) carp, are successful invasive fishes that threaten global freshwater biodiversity. High phenotypic plasticity probably contributes to their success in novel ecosystems, although evidence of plasticity in several spawning traits has hitherto been largely anecdotal or speculative. 2.?We collected drifting eggs from a Midwestern U.S.A. river from June to September 2011 and from April to June 2012 to investigate the spawning traits of bigheaded carp in novel ecosystems. 3.?Unlike reports from the native range, the presence of drifting bigheaded carp eggs was not related to changes in hydrological regime or mean daily water temperature. Bigheaded carp also exhibited protracted spawning, since we found drifting eggs throughout the summer and as late as 1 September 2011. Finally, we detected bigheaded carp eggs in a river reach where the channel is c. 30 m wide with a catchment area of 4579 km2, the smallest stream in which spawning has yet been documented. 4.?Taken with previous observations of spawning traits that depart from those observed within the native ranges of both bighead and silver carp, our findings provide direct evidence that bigheaded carp exhibit plastic spawning traits in novel ecosystems that may facilitate invasion and establishment in a wider range of river conditions than previously envisaged.

Coulter, Alison A.; Keller, Doug; Amberg, Jon J.; Bailey, Elizabeth J.; Goforth, Reuben R.

2013-01-01

243

Predation on Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) by Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the gut contents of 31 common carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected at Mississippi River Mile 217 in August 1995 for evidence of predation on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). We found between 1 and 407 zebra mussel beaks in 83.9% of the fish we examined. For all fish examined, common carp contained 118.2 beaks per fish or about 59 zebra

John K. Tucker; Frederick A. Cronin; Dirk W. Soergel; Charles H. Theiling

1996-01-01

244

Massive Production of All-female Diploids and Triploids in the Crucian Carp  

PubMed Central

In many species of aquaculture importance, all-female and sterile populations possess superior productivity due to faster growth and a relatively homogenous size of individuals. However, the production of all-female and sterile fish in a large scale for aquaculture is a challenge in practice, because treatments necessary for gynogenesis induction usually cause massive embryonic and larval mortality, and the number of induced gynogens is too small for their direct use in aquaculture. Here we report the massive production of all-female triploid crucian carp by combining artificial gynogenesis, sex reversal and diploid-tetraploid hybridization. Previously, we have obtained an allotetraploid carp population (4n = 200) by hybridization between red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var; ?) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio; ?). We induced all-female diploid gynogens of the Japanese crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri; 2n = 100). We also generated male diploid gynogens of the same species treated gynogenetic fry with 17-?-methyltestosterone, leading to the production of sex-revered gynogenetic males. Finally, these males were used to cross with the female diploid Japanese crucian carp gynogens and the allotetraploid females, resulting in the production of fertile all-female diploid Japanese crucian carp (2n=100) and sterile all-female triploid hybrids (3n = 150), respectively. Therefore, diploid crucian carp gynogenetic females and sex-reversed male together with an allotetraploid line provide an opportunity to produce all-female triploid populations in a large scale to meet demands in aquaculture industry.

Luo, KaiKun; Xiao, Jun; Liu, ShaoJun; Wang, Jing; He, WeiGuo; Hu, Jie; Qin, QinBo; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Liu, Yun

2011-01-01

245

Closeup of QF-106 release hook for Eclipse program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

View of the release hook on the QF-106 that allowed the pilot to release the tow rope extending from the C-141A tow plane in the Eclipse project. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

1997-01-01

246

Oral vaccination of BacFish-vp6 against grass carp reovirus evoking antibody response in grass carp.  

PubMed

To obtain a vaccine and evaluate its immune efficacy as an oral vaccine against Grass Carp Reovirus (GCRV), a donor vector pFastBac-FA-VP6-ph-VP6 containing two GCRV vp6 genes, one driven by the Megalobrama amblycephala ?-actin promoter and another one controlled by baculovirus polyhedrin promoter was constructed to generate the recombinant baculovirus BacFish-vp6. From the hemolymph of 5th instar silkworm inoculated with BacFish-vp6, a 53 kDa recombinant VP6 protein could be detected. And the infected pupae collected at 120 h post-inoculation with BacFish-vp6 were used to make freeze-dried powder as an oral vaccine. When the grass carps were orally administrated with feed containing 1%, 5% and 10% of the freeze-dried powder, their specific antibody against VP6 could be detected. Further studies showed that vp6 has been transcripted in the grass carp kidney (CIK) cells infected with BacFish-vp6 and the different tissues of orally vaccinated fish. All the results suggested the powder of the silkworm pupae infected with BacFish-vp6 could possibly be used as an orally administered vaccine. PMID:23202374

Xue, Renyu; Liu, Lin; Cao, Guangli; Xu, Shiying; Li, Jinghui; Zou, Yong; Chen, Hui; Gong, Chengliang

2013-01-01

247

Identification of the structural gene for the hook subunit protein of Escherichia coli flagella.  

PubMed Central

Previous studies showed that the structural gene for the flagellar hook subunit protein (molecular weight 42,000) was one of a group of flagellar genes located on the Escherichia coli genome near pyrC. Several lines of evidence indicate that the flaK gene is the structural gene for the hook subunit protein. Fla+ strains that were insensitive to chi infection could be isolated as revertants of an FlaK- amber mutant strain but from no other Fla- strain. The hook subunit proteins isolated from such chi-sensitive revertants of the FlaK- strain were shown to be antigenically and electrophoretically different from the hook protein isolated from the wild-type strain. Thus, reversion of a mutation in the flaK gene resulted in alteration of the structure of the hook protein. Furthermore, in programming experiments with hybrid lambda containing flagellar genes, lambdafla with flaK genetic activity programmed the synthesis of a 42,000-molecular weight protein, whereas lambdafla without flaK genetic activity did not. Images

Komeda, Y; Silverman, M; Simon, M

1978-01-01

248

No evidence of sperm conjugate formation in an Australian mouse bearing sperm with three hooks.  

PubMed

Sperm conjugation occurs when two or more sperm physically unite for motility or transport through the female reproductive tract. In many muroid rodent species, sperm conjugates have been shown to form by a single, conspicuous apical hook located on the sperm head. These sperm "trains" have been reported to be highly variable in size and, despite all the heads pointing in roughly the same direction, exhibit a relatively disordered arrangement. In some species, sperm "trains" have been shown to enhance sperm swimming speed, and thus have been suggested to be advantageous in sperm competition. Here, we assessed the behavior of sperm in the sandy inland mouse (Pseudomys hermannsburgensis), a muroid rodent that bears sperm with three apical hooks. First, we accrued genetic evidence of multiple paternity within "wild" litters to unequivocally show that sperm competition does occur in this species. Following this we utilized both in vitro and in vivo methodologies to determine whether sandy inland mouse sperm conjugate to form motile trains. Our observations of in vitro preparations of active sperm revealed that sandy inland mouse sperm exhibit rapid, progressive motility as individual cells only. Similarly, histological sections of the reproductive tracts of mated females revealed no in vivo evidence of sperm conjugate formation. We conclude that the unique, three-hooked morphology of the sandy inland mouse sperm does not facilitate the formation of motile conjugates, and discuss our findings in relation to the different hypotheses for the evolution of the muroid rodent hook/s. PMID:23919134

Firman, Renée C; Bentley, Blair; Bowman, Faye; Marchant, Fernando García-Solís; Parthenay, Jahmila; Sawyer, Jessica; Stewart, Tom; O'Shea, James E

2013-07-01

249

Microtubule-dependent endosomal sorting of clathrin-independent cargo by Hook1  

PubMed Central

Many plasma membrane (PM) proteins enter cells nonselectively through clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE). Here, we present evidence that cytoplasmic sequences in three CIE cargo proteins—CD44, CD98, and CD147—were responsible for the rapid sorting of these proteins into endosomal tubules away from endosomes associated with early endosomal antigen 1 (EEA1). We found that Hook1, a microtubule- and cargo-tethering protein, recognized the cytoplasmic tail of CD147 to help sort it and CD98 into Rab22a-dependent tubules associated with recycling. Depletion of Hook1 from cells altered trafficking of CD44, CD98, and CD147 toward EEA1 compartments and impaired the recycling of CD98 back to the PM. In contrast, another CIE cargo protein, major histocompatibility complex class I, which normally traffics to EEA1 compartments, was not affected by depletion of Hook1. Loss of Hook1 also led to an inhibition of cell spreading, implicating a role for Hook1 sorting of specific CIE cargo proteins away from bulk membrane and back to the PM.

Maldonado-Baez, Lymarie; Cole, Nelson B.; Kramer, Helmut

2013-01-01

250

Microtubule-dependent endosomal sorting of clathrin-independent cargo by Hook1.  

PubMed

Many plasma membrane (PM) proteins enter cells nonselectively through clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE). Here, we present evidence that cytoplasmic sequences in three CIE cargo proteins-CD44, CD98, and CD147-were responsible for the rapid sorting of these proteins into endosomal tubules away from endosomes associated with early endosomal antigen 1 (EEA1). We found that Hook1, a microtubule- and cargo-tethering protein, recognized the cytoplasmic tail of CD147 to help sort it and CD98 into Rab22a-dependent tubules associated with recycling. Depletion of Hook1 from cells altered trafficking of CD44, CD98, and CD147 toward EEA1 compartments and impaired the recycling of CD98 back to the PM. In contrast, another CIE cargo protein, major histocompatibility complex class I, which normally traffics to EEA1 compartments, was not affected by depletion of Hook1. Loss of Hook1 also led to an inhibition of cell spreading, implicating a role for Hook1 sorting of specific CIE cargo proteins away from bulk membrane and back to the PM. PMID:23589492

Maldonado-Báez, Lymarie; Cole, Nelson B; Krämer, Helmut; Donaldson, Julie G

2013-04-15

251

Arthroscopic evaluation for omalgia patients undergoing the clavicular hook plate fixation of distal clavicle fractures  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study is to investigate the anatomic changes in the shoulder joints responsible for omalgia after the clavicular hook plate fixation under arthroscope. Methods Arthroscopic examination was carried out for 12 omalgia patients who underwent clavicular hook plate fixation due to distal clavicle fractures. Functional outcome of shoulder was measured by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score before and after the withdrawal of the fixation plate. Results The rotator cuff compression by the clavicular hook was arthroscopically observed in 11 of the 12 cases. The JOA scores of the shoulder were significantly improved at 1 month after the withdrawal of the fixation plate (pain, 28?±?2.4 vs. 15?±?5.2; function, 19.2?±?1.0 vs. 11.7?±?1.9; range of movements, 26.8?±?2.6 vs. 14.8?±?3.4) compared with before. Conclusions The impingement of the hook to the rotator cuff may be the main cause for the omalgia. The appropriate hook and plate that fit to the curve of the clavicle as well as the acromion are necessary to decrease the severity of omalgia.

2014-01-01

252

Formation and biological characterization of three new types of improved crucian carp.  

PubMed

The improved tetraploids (G(1)xAT) were obtained by distant crossing and gynogenesis and the high-body individuals accounted for 2% among G(1)xAT. After mating with each other, the high-body individuals produced three kinds of bisexual fertile diploid fishes: high-body red crucian carp, high-body fork-like-tails goldfish and gray common carp. The high-body red crucian carp mating with each other formed three types of improved crucian carp (ICC) including improved red crucian carp (IRCC), improved color crucian carp (ICCC) and improved gray crucian carp (IGCC). The phenotypes, chromosome numbers, gonadal structure and fertility of the three kinds of ICC and their offspring were observed. All the three kinds of ICC possessed some improved phenotypes such as higher body, smaller head and shorter tail. The ratios of the body height to body length of IRCC, ICCC and IGCC were 0.54, 0.51 and 0.54, respectively. All of them were obviously higher than that of red crucian carp 0.41 (P<0.01). Three kinds of ICC had the same chromosome number as red crucian carp with 100 chromosomes. All the ICC possessed normal gonads producing mature eggs or sperm, which was important for the production of an improved diploid population. Compared with red crucian carp, all the ICC had stronger fertility such as higher gametes production, higher fertilization rate and higher hatchery rate. Three types of improved diploid fish population were generated from the three kinds of ICC by self-crossing, respectively. The ICC can serve as ornamental fish and edible fish. They are also ideal parents to produce triploids by mating with tetraploids. The new ICC plays an important role in biological evolution and fish genetic breeding. PMID:18488175

Wang, Jing; Qin, QinBo; Chen, Song; Liu, ShaoJun; Duan, Wei; Liu, JinHui; Zhang, Chun; Luo, KaiKun; Xiao, Jun; Liu, Yun

2008-06-01

253

Age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of adult bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, in the lower Missouri River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bighead carp were introduced into Arkansas in 1973 to improve water clarity in production ponds. Bighead carp subsequently escaped aquaculture facilities in the early 1980's and dispersed into the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. The first documentation of bighead carp reproduction in the Mississippi River system was in 1989. The population has increased in the Missouri River as is evident in their increased proportion in the commercial harvest since 1990. The effect of this exotic planktivore on native ecosystems of the U.S. has not been examined. Basic biological data on bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis in the Missouri River are needed to predict potential ecological problems and provide a foundation for manipulative studies. The objectives of this study were to assess age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of bighead carp in the Missouri River. Adult bighead carp in our sample varied from age 3 to age 7 and length varied from 475 to 1050 mm. There was a large variation in length at age, and overall bighead carp exhibited fast growth. For example, mean back-calculated length at age 3 was 556 mm. The sample was dominated by bighead carp from the 1994 year class. There was no difference in gonad development (i.e., gonadal somatic index, egg diameter) between winter and spring samples. Length of male bighead carp and GSI were not significantly correlated; however, females exhibited a positive linear relationship between length and GSI. In each ovary, egg diameter frequencies exhibited a bimodal distribution, indicating protracted spawning. Mean fecundity was 226 213, with a maximum fecundity of 769 964. Bighead carp in the Missouri River have similar life history characteristics to Asian and European populations. They have become well established in the Missouri River and it is likely that dispersal and population density will increase.

Schrank, S. J.; Guy, C. S.

2002-01-01

254

Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of black carp (Mylopharyngdon piceus Richardson) and allogynogenetic crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio female x Cyprinus carpio male) fed different carbohydrate diets.  

PubMed

Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of black carp (Mylopharyngdon piceus Richardson) (4.6±0.3 g) and allogynogenetic crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio ?×Cyprinus carpio ?) (5.7±0.5 g) were examined when fish fed two types of carbohydrate (dextrin and glucose) at two levels (20 and 40%) each. The diets were isonitrogenous (40% dry matter) and isocaloric at 18.5 kJ g(?1) (dry matter) by adjusting the oil content to 10.1 and 1.5%, respectively. In black carp, the interactions between the carbohydrate type and level were found in oxygen consumption at 3 and 6 h and in ammonia excretion at 6 h after feeding. At 20% carbohydrate, no significant difference was observed between dextrin and glucose in oxygen consumption. However, at 40% carbohydrate, oxygen consumption in fish fed glucose was significantly higher than that in fish fed dextrin at 3 and 6 h after feeding. Within the dextrin diets, no significant differences in both oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion were detected between the two carbohydrate levels. Within the glucose diets, however, fish fed 40% glucose showed significantly higher oxygen consumption than those fed 20% glucose at 3 and 6 h after feeding. Ammonia excretion in black carp fed 40% glucose was higher than that in black carp fed 40% dextrin at 6 h and also found higher than those in the other three treatments at 24 h after feeding. The postprandial oxygen consumption and the ammonia excretion in crucian carp fed 40% glucose were the highest, but no significant differences were observed. Our data indicate that the escalation of glucose to 40% in a fish diet results in high oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion in black carp, suggesting that the efficiency of glucose as an energy source for this fish is compromised by the high metabolic expenditure after feeding. Crucian carp, on the other hand, have a better ability to cope with dietary carbohydrates. PMID:20390347

Cai, Chun Fang; Ye, Yuan Tu; Chen, Li Qiao; Qin, Jian Guang; Wang, Yong Ling

2010-12-01

255

A Set of Polymorphic Trinucleotide and Tetranucleotide Microsatellite Markers for Silver Crucian Carp ( Carassius auratus gibelio ) and Cross-Amplification in Crucian Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch), as a gynogenetic fish, is a promising model for the study of the evolutionary genetics of vertebrates. We have developed\\u000a 59 polymorphic trinucleotide and tetranucleotide markers for the silver crucian carp through the biotin capture method and\\u000a radioactive-labeling hybridization. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 12 in the population, and the

X. H. Zheng; C. Y. Lu; Y. Y. Zhao; C. Lee; D. C. Cao; Y. M. Chang; L. Q. Liang; X. W. Sun

2010-01-01

256

Toward a more complete understanding of reactions to hooking up among college women.  

PubMed

Hooking up, a relatively common behavior among young adults, refers to a casual sexual encounter, ranging from kissing to sexual intercourse, without an expectation of ongoing physical encounters or relational commitment. Reactions to hooking up have examined psychosocial outcomes as a proxy for specific reactions. The present study examined the reactions of 190 college women, with a specific focus on the effect of hooking up on their social/peer network, their sexual/romantic sense of self, and their academic performance. Results demonstrated large positive effects for sexual/romantic reactions and social/academic engagement reactions in comparison with negative personal reactions. In addition, higher ratings of anxious attachment, loneliness, and relational/intimacy sex motives were related to less positive reactions, highlighting the importance of attachment and motivations behind hookup experiences. Implications for educational practice and future research are offered. PMID:23905685

Owen, Jesse; Quirk, Kelley; Fincham, Frank

2014-01-01

257

Rab11 facilitates cross-talk between autophagy and endosomal pathway through regulation of Hook localization  

PubMed Central

During autophagy, double-membrane autophagosomes deliver sequestered cytoplasmic content to late endosomes and lysosomes for degradation. The molecular mechanism of autophagosome maturation is still poorly characterized. The small GTPase Rab11 regulates endosomal traffic and is thought to function at the level of recycling endosomes. We show that loss of Rab11 leads to accumulation of autophagosomes and late endosomes in Drosophila melanogaster. Rab11 translocates from recycling endosomes to autophagosomes in response to autophagy induction and physically interacts with Hook, a negative regulator of endosome maturation. Hook anchors endosomes to microtubules, and we show that Rab11 facilitates the fusion of endosomes and autophagosomes by removing Hook from mature late endosomes and inhibiting its homodimerization. Thus induction of autophagy appears to promote autophagic flux by increased convergence with the endosomal pathway.

Szatmari, Zsuzsanna; Kis, Viktor; Lippai, Monika; Hegedus, Krisztina; Farago, Tamas; Lorincz, Peter; Tanaka, Tsubasa; Juhasz, Gabor; Sass, Miklos

2014-01-01

258

A modified technique of laparoscopic ovarian drilling for polycystic ovary syndrome using the monopolar hook electrode.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to review our experience with a modified technique of laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) using a monopolar hook electrode. We retrospectively included 38 clomiphene-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome undergoing LOD. A laparoscopic monopolar hook electrode was used to make three to six incisions in the ovarian capsule. It resulted in a rate of spontaneous ovulation of 75.8%, an overall one-year pregnancy rate of 80.6% and a subsequent live birth rate of 67.7%. We consider our LOD technique using the monopolar hook electrode practicable. Whether it leads to a more extensive destruction of the ovarian capsule and thereby of the ovarian reserve remains open. PMID:21446991

Ott, Johannes; Mayerhofer, Klaus; Aust, Stefanie; Nouri, Kazem; Huber, Johannes C; Kurz, Christine

2011-05-01

259

Clavicular hook plate may induce subacromial shoulder impingement and rotator cuff lesion - dynamic sonographic evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Clavicular hook plates are effective fixation devices for distal clavicle fractures and severe acromioclavicular joint dislocations. However, increasing number of studies has revealed that subacromial portion of the hook may induce acromial bony erosion, shoulder impingement, or even rotator cuff damage. By sonographic evaluation, we thus intended to determine whether the presence of hook plate may induce subacromial shoulder impingement and its relationship relative to surrounding subacromial structures. Methods We prospectively followed 40 patients with either distal clavicle fracture or acromioclavicular joint dislocation that had surgery using the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) clavicular hook plate. All patients were evaluated by monthly clinical and radiographic examinations. Static and dynamic musculoskeletal sonography examinations were performed at final follow-up before implant removal. Clinical results for pain, shoulder function, and range of motion were evaluated using Constant-Murley and Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) scores. Results Clinically, 15 out of 40 patients (37.5%) presented with subacromial impingement syndrome and their functional scores were poorer than the non-impinged patients. Among them, six patients were noted to have rotator cuff lesion. Acromial erosion caused by hook pressure developed in 20 patients (50%). Conclusions We demonstrated by musculoskeletal sonography that clavicular hook plate caused subacromial shoulder impingement and rotator cuff lesion. The data also suggest an association between hardware-induced impingement and poorer functional scores. To our knowledge, the only solution is removal of the implant after bony consolidation/ligamentous healing has taken place. Thus, we advocate the removal of the implant as soon as bony union and/or ligamentous healing is achieved.

2014-01-01

260

Comparative fixed gear studies in the Cyclades (Aegean Sea): size selectivity of small-hook longlines and monofilament gill nets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fishing trials with monofilament gill nets and longlines using small hooks were carried out at the same fishing grounds in Cyclades (Aegean Sea) over 1 year. Four sizes of MUSTAD brand, round bent, flatted sea hooks (Quality 2316 DT, numbers 15, 13, 12 and 11) and four mesh sizes of 22, 24, 26 and 28mm nominal bar length monofilament gill

Konstantinos I. Stergiou; Karim Erzini

2002-01-01

261

Investigation of Steven Impact Test Using a Transportation Hook Projectile with Gauged Experiments and 3D Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Steven Impact Test and associated modeling offer valuable practical predictions for evaluating numerous safety scenarios involving low velocity impact of energetic materials by different projectile geometries. One such scenario is the impact of energetic material by a transportation hook during shipping, which offers complexity because of the irregular hook projectile shape. Experiments were performed using gauged Steven Test targets

Kevin S. Vandersall; Susarla S. Murty; Steven K. Chidester; Jerry W. Forbes; Frank Garcia; Daniel W. Greenwood; Craig M. Tarver

2004-01-01

262

Investigation of Steven Impact Test Using a Transportation Hook Projectile with Gauged Experiments and 3D Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Steven Impact Test and associated modeling offer valuable practical predictions for evaluating numerous safety scenarios involving low velocity impact of energetic materials by different projectile geometries. One such scenario is the impact of energetic material by a transportation hook during shipping, which offers complexity because of the irregular hook projectile shape. Experiments were performed using gauged Steven Test targets

K S Vandersall; S S Murty; S K Chidester; J W Forbes; F Garcia; D W Greenwood; C M Tarver

2003-01-01

263

33 CFR 334.102 - Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel, restricted area...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel... § 334.102 Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel...enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Weapons Station Earle, and/or other...

2013-07-01

264

Analysis of Hook Formation Mechanism in Ultra Low Carbon Steel using CON1D Heat Flow - Solidification Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsurface hook formation at the meniscus during the continuous casting of steel slabs is an important cause of surface defects, owing to their easy entrapment of mold flux and inclusion-laden gas bubbles. This work investigates the fundamentals of meniscus solidification and how hooks form by a combination of advanced computational models and plant measurements. From experimental results, the pitch deviation

Ho-Jung Shin; Brian G. Thomas; Go-Gi Lee; Chang-Hyun Lee

2004-01-01

265

Subsurface macro-inclusions and solidified hook character in aluminum-killed deep-drawing steel slabs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsurface macro-inclusions and hooks are detrimental to the surface quality of deep-drawing steel sheets. However, little is known about the relationship between macro-inclusions and hooks. Thus, in this work, two ultralow carbon (ULC) steel slabs and two low carbon (LC) aluminum-killed steel slabs were sampled to study the relationship between hooks and subsurface macro-inclusions, which were detected on the cross-sections of steel samples with an area of 56058 mm2 using an automated scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy system. Results show that subsurface inclusions larger than 200 ?m were almost entrapped by hook structures, whereas the location of other inclusions smaller than 200 ?m had no obvious dependence on the location of solidified hooks. Furthermore, the number density (ND) of subsurface inclusions larger than 200 ?m decreased from 0.02 to 0 cm-2 in ULC steel as the mean hook depth decreased from 1.57 to 1.01 mm. Similar trends were also observed in LC steel. In addition, the detected inclusions larger than 200 ?m were concentrated in the region near the slab center (3/8 width-5/8 width), where hook depths were also larger than those at any other locations. Therefore, minimizing the hook depth is an effective way to reduce inclusion-induced sliver defects in deep-drawing steels.

Deng, Xiao-xuan; Li, Lin-ping; Wang, Xin-hua; Ji, Yun-qing; Ji, Chen-xi; Zhu, Guo-sen

2014-06-01

266

Biomechanical comparison of different combinations of hook and screw in one spine motion unit - an experiment in porcine model  

PubMed Central

Background The biomechanical performance of the hooks and screws in spinal posterior instrumentation is not well-characterized. Screw-bone interface failure at the uppermost and lowermost vertebrae is not uncommon. Some have advocated for the use of supplement hooks to prevent screw loosening. However, studies describing methods for combined hook and screw systems that fully address the benefits of these systems are lacking. Thus, the choice of which implant to use in a given case is often based solely on a surgeon’s experience instead of on the biomechanical features and advantages of each device. Methods We conducted a biomechanical comparison of devices instrumented with different combinations of hooks and screws. Thirty-six fresh low thoracic porcine spines were assigned to three groups (12 per group) according to the configuration used for of fixation: (1) pedicle screw; (2) lamina hook and (3) combination of pedicle screw and lamina hook. Axial pullout tests backward on transverse plane in the direction normal to the rods were performed using a material testing machine and a specially designed grip with self-aligned function. Results The pullout force for the pedicle screws group was significantly greater than for the hooks and the combination (p?hooks and the combination (p?>?0.05). Conclusions Pedicle screws achieve the maximal pullout strength for spinal posterior instrumentation.

2014-01-01

267

Anterior cruciate ligament rupture secondary to a 'heel hook': a dangerous martial arts technique.  

PubMed

The 'heel hook' is a type of knee lock used in some forms of martial arts to stress the knee and cause opponent to concede defeat. While the knee is in a flexed and valgus disposition, an internal rotation force is applied to the tibia. Reports are lacking on serious knee trauma as a result of this technique. We report the case of a 32-year-old Mixed Martial Arts exponent who sustained complete anterior cruciate ligament rupture and an medial collateral ligament injury from the use of a 'heel hook'. PMID:19629437

Baker, Joseph F; Devitt, Brian M; Moran, Ray

2010-01-01

268

Automation Hooks Architecture for Flexible Test Orchestration - Concept Development and Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Automation Hooks Architecture Trade Study for Flexible Test Orchestration sought a standardized data-driven alternative to conventional automated test programming interfaces. The study recommended composing the interface using multicast DNS (mDNS/SD) service discovery, Representational State Transfer (Restful) Web Services, and Automatic Test Markup Language (ATML). We describe additional efforts to rapidly mature the Automation Hooks Architecture candidate interface definition by validating it in a broad spectrum of applications. These activities have allowed us to further refine our concepts and provide observations directed toward objectives of economy, scalability, versatility, performance, severability, maintainability, scriptability and others.

Lansdowne, C. A.; Maclean, John R.; Winton, Chris; McCartney, Pat

2011-01-01

269

Visitor and Community Survey Results for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge: Completion Report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Executive Summary This study was commissioned by the Northeast Region of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in support of the Comprehensive Conservation Planning at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge (Prime Hook NWR or Refuge). The National Wildlife Refuge Improvement Act of 1997 (Public Law 105-57, USC668dd) mandates a Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) for every refuge in the system. A refuge CCP outlines goals, objectives, and management strategies for all refuge programs over the next 15 years, while providing opportunities for compatible, wildlife-dependent public uses. The plan evaluates refuge wildlife, habitat, land protection, and visitor service priorities during the planning process.

Sexton, Natalie R.; Stewart, Susan C.; Koontz, Lynne; Ponds, Phadrea; Walters, Katherine D.

2007-01-01

270

Effects of triploid grass carp on aquatic plants, water quality, and public satisfaction in Washington State  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigated effects of triploid grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella on aquatic macrophyte communities, water quality, and public satisfaction for 98 lakes and ponds in Washington State stocked with grass carp between 1990 and 1995. Grass carp had few noticeable effects on macrophyte communities until 19 months following stocking. After 19 months, submersed macrophytes were either completely eradicated (39% of the lakes) or not controlled (42% of the lakes) in most lakes. Intermediate control of submersed macrophytes occurred in 18% of lakes at a median stocking rate of 24 fish per vegetated surface acre. Most of the landowners interviewed (83%) were satisfied with the results of introducing grass carp. For sites where all submersed macrophytes were eradicated, average turbidity was higher (11 nephelometric turbidity units, NTU) than at sites where macrophytes were controlled to intermediate levels (4 NTU) or unaffected by grass carp grazing (5 NTU). Chlorophyll a was not significantly different between levels of macrophyte control; therefore, we concluded that most of this turbidity was abiotic and not algal. Triploid grass carp were a popular control option and effectively grazed most submersed macrophytes in Washington State. However, calculating stocking rates based on landowner estimates of aquatic plant coverage rarely resulted in intermediate levels of aquatic plant control. Additionally, the effects of particular stocking rates varied considerably. We recommend against using grass carp in Washington lakes where eradication of submersed vegetation cannot be tolerated.

Bonar, S. A.; Bolding, B.; Divens, M.

2002-01-01

271

Assessing impacts of introduced aquatic species: Grass carp in large systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduced species have created environmental benefits and unanticipated disasters so a priori assessments of species introductions are needed for environmental management. A checklist for assessing impacts of introduced species was developed from studies of introduced species and recommendations for planning introductions. Sterile, triploid grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella) are just beginning to be used as a biocontrol agent for the management of aquatic vegetation in open waterways. Potential impacts of grass carp in open systems were identified by reviewing grass carp biology relative to the impact assessment checklist. The potential consequences of introduced grass carp were reviewed for one case study. The case study demonstrated that conclusions about potential impacts and monitoring needs can be made despite incomplete information and uncertainty. Indicators of environmental impact and vulnerability of host systems were grouped into six categories: population control, hybridization, diseases and parasites, habitat alterations, biological effects, and management issues. Triploid grass carp can significantly alter habitat and biological resources through the secondary effects of reductions in aquatic vegetation. Potential impacts and significant uncertainties involve fish dispersions from plant control areas, inability to control vegetation loss, loss of diverse plant communities and their dependent species, and conflicts with human use of the water resource. Adequate knowledge existed to assess most potential consequences of releasing large numbers of triploid grass carp in Guntersville Reservoir, Alabama. However, the assessment of potential impacts indicated that moderate, incremental stockings combined with monitoring of vegetation and biological resources are necessary to control the effects of grass carp and achieve desirable, intermediate plant densities.

Bain, Mark B.

1993-03-01

272

Effects of growth hormone over-expression on reproduction in the common carp Cyprinus carpio L.  

PubMed

To study the complex interaction between growth and reproduction we have established lines of transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio) carrying a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) growth hormone (GH) transgene. The GH-transgenic fish showed delayed gonadal development compared with non-transgenic common carp. To gain a better understanding of the phenomenon, we studied body growth, gonad development, changes of reproduction related genes and hormones of GH-transgenic common carp for 2years. Over-expression of GH elevated peripheral gh transcription, serum GH levels, and inhibited endogenous GH expression in the pituitary. Hormone analyses indicated that GH-transgenic common carp had reduced pituitary and serum level of luteinizing hormone (LH). Among the tested genes, pituitary lh? was inhibited in GH-transgenic fish. Further analyses in vitro showed that GH inhibited lh? expression. Localization of ghr with LH indicates the possibility of direct regulation of GH on gonadotrophs. We also found that GH-transgenic common carp had reduced pituitary sensitivity to stimulation by co-treatments with a salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and a dopamine antagonist. Together these results suggest that the main cause of delayed reproductive development in GH transgenic common carp is reduced LH production and release. PMID:24184869

Cao, Mengxi; Chen, Ji; Peng, Wei; Wang, Yaping; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; Trudeau, Vance L; Zhu, Zuoyan; Hu, Wei

2014-01-01

273

Molecular cloning of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) T-bet and GATA-3, and their expression profiles with IFN-? in response to grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection.  

PubMed

Both T-bet and GATA-3, Th1/Th2 lineage-specific transcription factors, play important roles in the development of T cells and Th1/Th2 differentiation. In this study, T-bet and GATA-3 genes were cloned from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The putative primary structure of the polypeptide deduced from the cDNA sequence of grass carp T-bet contained 608 aa, which possessed a T-box DNA binding domain. The putative primary structure of the polypeptide deduced from the cDNA sequence of grass carp GATA-3 contained 396 aa, which possessed two consensus zinc finger domains (C-X(2)-C-X(17)-C-X(2)-C). The YxKxHxxxRP motif, KRRLSA and LMEKs/n sequences were also conserved in this GATA-3. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that grass carp T-bet and GATA-3 group with their known counterparts with zebrafish T-bet and GATA-3 as the closest neighbor, respectively. RT-qPCR results showed that grass carp T-bet gene was highly expressed in head kidney, followed by spleen, and low expressed in gill, liver, kidney, and intestine, while GATA-3 gene was highly expressed in intestine, followed by spleen, and low expressed in gill, liver, kidney, and head kidney. Grass carp is one of the "four important domestic fish" in China and often infected by grass carp reovirus (GCRV). As yet, there is no evidence that T-bet and GATA-3 (Th1/Th2 subsets) are involved in anti-virus immune of teleost fish. In this study, by RT-qPCR, we analyzed the expression dynamics of grass carp T-bet and GATA-3 genes with IFN-? gene in response to GCRV infection for the first time. The expression dynamics showed that three genes might be crucially modulated by in vivo GCRV infection: (1) GCRV mainly induced a T-bet expression profile comparing to the GATA-3 expression, while the higher expression profiles of IFN-? correlated with the up-regulation of T-bet; (2) T-bet/IFN-? and GATA-3 expression changes suggest that in GCRV-infected grass carp, the common immune state of head kidney further heightens, whereas the common physiological state of intestine transforms to an anti-virus immune state. From this finding, we realize that GCRV mainly induces a Th1 response, and Th1 cell-mediated recognition mechanisms play very important roles in anti-virus cellular immune of grass carp. PMID:23108805

Wang, Lu; Shang, Na; Feng, Hong; Guo, Qionglin; Dai, Heping

2013-08-01

274

Hooking Mortality by Anatomical Location and Its Use in Estimating Mortality of Spring Chinook Salmon Caught and Released in a River Sport Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimated the hooking mortality of spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were caught and released to determine whether selective fishing on hatchery Chinook salmon would reduce harvest mortality of wild fish in a sport fishery in the lower Willamette River, Oregon. Hooking mortality in the fishery was estimated from hooking mortality rates for each of five anatomical locations (jaw,

Robert B. Lindsay; R. Kirk Schroeder; Kenneth R. Kenaston; Robert N. Toman; Mary A. Buckman

2004-01-01

275

Descriptive and injunctive social norm overestimation in hooking up and their role as predictors of hook-up activity in a college student sample.  

PubMed

This study examined the presence of norm overestimation in both injunctive and descriptive norms about hooking up. An online survey was completed by 186 college students (127 women). Overestimation was examined for hooking up as a global category, as well as for six specific behaviors. The role of norms in predicting hooking up was also examined using hierarchical multiple regression analyses. The predictive role of sensation-seeking, sociosexual orientation, self-esteem, and alcohol drinking status was also examined. Injunctive norm overestimation was present for less intimate behaviors (kissing and non-genital touching); only women showed overestimation for more intimate behaviors (genital touching, receiving oral sex, giving oral sex, and intercourse). Descriptive norms were overestimated across the board. Injunctive norms were poor predictors of behavior. Descriptive norms were good predictors only for less intimate behaviors, a pattern similar to that observed for drinking status. Ultimately, participants' level of personal comfort was the best predictor of participation in the most intimate behaviors, including oral sex and sexual intercourse. PMID:21919644

Barriger, Megan; Vélez-Blasini, Carlos J

2013-01-01

276

Identical sequences but different expression patterns of Hira gene in gynogenetic and gonochoristic crucian carps.  

PubMed

Hir/Hira (histone regulation) genes were first identified in yeast as negative regulators of histone gene expression. It has been confirmed that HIRA is a conserved family of proteins present in various animals and plants. In this paper, the cDNAs of the Hira homolog named CagHira and CaHira were isolated from gynogenetic gibel carp (gyno-carp) and gonochoristic color crucian carp (gono-carp) respectively. The full-length CagHira is 3,860 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) of 3,033 bp that encodes 1,011 amino acids, while the full-length CaHira is 3,748 bp in length and also has an ORF of 3,033 bp. The deduced amino acid sequences of both Hira homologs contain seven WD domains and show high identity with other HIRA family members. RT-PCR analyses revealed strong expression of Hira in the ovaries, whereas no expression was detected in the testes of either of the fishes. Hira transcription was not detected in the liver of gyno-carp, but a high level of Hira mRNA was observed in gono-carp. The temporal expression pattern showed that the Hira mRNA is consistently expressed during all embryonic development stages in gyno-carp. However, the abundance of CaHira mRNA significantly decreased (P < 0.05) shortly after fertilization and then increased again and remained stable from gastrula till hatching. The varying spatiotemporal expression patterns of Hira genes in gyno-carp and gono-carp may be associated with the differing reproductive modes used by these two closely related fishes. Our results suggest that Hira may play a role not only in the decondensation of sperm nucleus and the formation of pronucleus during fertilization, but also in gastrulation and the subsequent development of embryos. PMID:18649035

Du, X Z; Zhou, L; Zhao, H B; Wang, Y F; Gui, J F

2008-06-01

277

Runtime verification of authorization hook placement for the linux security modules framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present runtime tools to assist the Linux community in verifying the correctness of the Linux Security Modules (LSM) framework. The LSM framework consists of a set of authorization hooks inserted into the Linux kernel to enable additional authorizations to be performed (e.g., for mandatory access control). When compared to system call interposition, authorization within the kernel has both security

Antony Edwards; Trent Jaeger; Xiaolan Zhang

2002-01-01

278

Latitude Hooks and Azimuth Kings: How To Build and Use 18 Traditional Navigational Tools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains directions for building and using 18 different traditional navigational tools. Each of the devices discussed has at one time or another been used for the practical business of navigation. Devices featured in this book include the Latitude Hook, Kamal, Astrolabe, Quadrant, Astronomical Ring, Sundial, Nocturnal, Cross Staff,…

Fisher, Dennis

279

Removal of non-palpable Implanon® with the aid of a hook-wire marker.  

PubMed

The original inserter of the contraceptive implant, Implanon®, resulted in very deep insertion in some cases, sometimes in close proximity to neurovascular structures. This occasionally resulted in removal complications. We successfully adopted a hook-wire marker method used in breast tumor surgery to safely and simply remove these deep-lying, non-palpable implants. PMID:23769014

Nouri, Kazem; Pinker-Domenig, Katia; Ott, Johannes; Fraser, Ian; Egarter, Christian

2013-10-01

280

46 CFR 7.35 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Cape May, NJ.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.35 Sandy Hook, NJ to Cape May, NJ. (a) A line drawn from Shark River Inlet North Breakwater Light â2â to Shark River Inlet South Breakwater Light â1â. (b) A line drawn from Manasquan Inlet North...

2013-10-01

281

Hooking Mortality and Behavior of Striped Bass Following Catch and Release Angling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns over the use of minimum-size regulations to increase the average weight of harvested striped bass Morone saxatilis in Tims Ford Reservoir, Tennessee, prompted this study of hooking mortality. To estimate mortality and examine behavior, striped bass longer than 508 mm total length were caught with conventional angling gear, tagged externally with ultrasonic transmitters equipped with floats, and released back

Phillip W. Bettoli; Randall S. Osborne

1998-01-01

282

Risk Factors and Consequences of Unwanted Sex among University Students: Hooked up, Alcohol, and Stress Response  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first study of unwanted sexual experiences in the collegiate "hooking-up" culture. In a representative sample of 178 students at a small liberal arts university. Twenty-three percent of women and 7% of men surveyed reported one or more experiences of unwanted sexual intercourse. Seventy-eight percent of unwanted vaginal, anal, and oral…

Flack, William F., Jr.; Daubman, Kimberly A.; Caron, Marcia L.; Asadorian, Jenica A.; D'Aureli, Nicole R.; Gigliotti, Shannon N.; Hall, Anna T.; Kiser, Sarah; Stine, Erin R.

2007-01-01

283

A double standard for "Hooking Up": How far have we come toward gender equality?  

PubMed

While sexual attitudes have liberalized in the past half century, research is mixed as to whether attitudes have become less gendered over time. Recent studies on college students' sexual and romantic relationships suggest that a sexual double standard continues to organize sexuality on many campuses. Data from the Online College Social Life Survey shed light on students' evaluation of casual sex, or "hooking up." In addition to exploring gendered attitudinal patterns, we use gender structure theory to explore how individual characteristics and normative expectations of campus group affiliations shape attitudes. While three quarters of students do not hold different standards for men and women's hooking up, attitudes are more conservative than liberal, with almost half of students losing respect for men and women who hook up "a lot." However, men are more likely to hold a traditional double standard, while women are more likely to espouse egalitarian conservative attitudes. Individual characteristics, including age, religion, race, social class and sexual orientation are frequently related to sexual attitudes, as are number of hook ups, fraternity/sorority affiliation and varsity athletic participation. PMID:23859725

Allison, Rachel; Risman, Barbara J

2013-09-01

284

Scour downstream of J-Hook vanes in straight horizontal channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

J-Hook vanes are grade control structures used to stabilize the riverbed. This paper aims to investigate the behaviour of J-Hook vanes as a grade-control structure in straight rivers. Scour downstream of J-Hook vane structures like other grade-control structures depends on the shape of the structure and the river hydraulic conditions. The purpose of this study is classifying the scour geometry and predicting the main scour parameters such as the scour depth, length, width, and the ridge height and length downstream of the J-Hook vanes in straight rivers. Experiments were carried out in a horizontal channel. For each length of the structure, three heights in different hydraulic conditions, including densimetric Froude numbers, water drops, and opening ratios, were tested. Results show that the densimetric Froude number, the drop height, and the height of the structure are the key parameters to form and classify the scour. Equations have been derived using dimensional analysis and experimental data to predict the maximum scour depth, the maximum length of the scour, the maximum scour width, and the maximum height and length of the dune. All the experiments were conducted in clear water conditions.

Pagliara, Stefano; Kurdistani, Sahameddin M.; Santucci, Italo

2013-10-01

285

Evaluation of the BAK-14 Retractable Hook-Cable Support System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Civil/Air Force joint-user airfields require an arresting system for high-performance military aircraft and yet an unobstructed runway for civil aircraft. For this reason, the BAK-14 retractable hook-cable support system was developed. The primary test ob...

J. Schaible

1974-01-01

286

Numerical simulation of VLF risers, fallers, and hooks observed in Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The VLF database from Halley station, Antarctica, has been searched, and prominent examples of discrete emissions are presented. Risers, fallers, quasi-constant tones, and upward and downward hooks are all common. Also observed are risers and fallers triggered from the tops of hiss bands. A one-dimensional Vlasov VHS code has been used to simulate the main types of events observed. Using

A. J. Smith; D. Nunn

1998-01-01

287

Assessing College Students' Autonomy over Smoking with the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective, Participants, and Methods: In this study, the authors explored the psychometric properties of the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC) among 300 college students who were current smokers. The HONC is a 10-item survey instrument designed to measure diminished autonomy over smoking, a key aspect of dependence. Autonomy is diminished when…

Wellman, Robert; McMillen, Robert; DiFranza, Joseph

2008-01-01

288

Symposium of Hope: Recovery and Resiliency after the Sandy Hook Tragedy. Crisis Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On February 27 and 28, 2013, The Symposium of Hope: Recovery and Resilience after the Sandy Hook Tragedy, was held in Danbury, Connecticut. The event was hosted by the United Way of Western Connecticut and Western Connecticut State University. Frank J. Zenere, school psychologist and crisis team member in the Division of Student Services of the…

Zenere, Frank J.

2013-01-01

289

Photosynthetic responses of Halophila ovalis (R. Br.) Hook. f. to osmotic stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorophyll fluorescence was used to monitor the onset, development and recovery from hyper- and hypo-osmotic stress effects of the seagrass, Halophila ovalis (R. Br.) Hook. f. H. ovalis was able to tolerate rapid transfer from normal (35 ppt) seawater to salinities of 25% to 150% seawater without significant photosynthetic stress symptoms. Exposure to fresh water caused acute stress: within 24

Peter J Ralph

1998-01-01

290

Hooking-up: a unique feature of China Public Accounting Firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explains why, following China‘s implementation of a market economy, public accounting firms were required to affiliate (hook-up) with existing government or educational institutions until 1993 when partnerships and limited liability firms were also allowed. Describes the rules relating to independent accounting firms and changes which should foster their development but reports that, in fact, most firms are still affiliated. Discusses

Xinmin Dai; Amy H. Lau; Ji-liang Yang

2000-01-01

291

Hook-and-Line Fishing Study at Cordell Bank, California, 1986-1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hook-and-line landings at the marine bank, Cordell Bank, California, were identified and quantified from 1986-1991. A total of 45 charter cruises were conducted in which an average 11.5 anglers expended 3.9 hours fishing. The mean vessel catch per trip wa...

M. B. Eldridge

1994-01-01

292

Uncarinic acids: Phospholipase C?1 inhibitors from hooks of Uncaria rhynchophylla  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the CHCl3 extract from hooks of Uncaria rhynchophylla led to the isolation of two triterpene esters, namely uncarinic acids A (1) and B (2). Their structures were established by spectroscopic and chemical methods. These compounds inhibited phospholipase C?1 with IC50 values of 35.66 and 44.55 ?M, respectively.

Ji Suk Lee; Mi Young Yang; Hosup Yeo; Jinwoong Kim; Hyun Sun Lee; Jong Seog Ahn

1999-01-01

293

Structural abnormalities of common carp Cyprinus carpio spermatozoa.  

PubMed

Spermatozoa of common carp Cyprinus carpio are typically consist of a primitive head without acrosome, a midpiece with several mitochondria, a centriolar complex (proximal and distal centriole), and one flagellum. During an evaluation of the motility of common carp spermatozoa, we found spermatozoa with more than one flagellum and/or "double head" in three different individuals. This may be related to abnormal spermatogenesis. Ultrastructure and physiological parameters of spermatozoa were examined using light microscopy (dark field with stroboscopic illumination), transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and flow cytometry. The recorded pictures and videos were evaluated using Olympus MicroImage software. All spermatozoa with more than one flagellum had a larger head and shorter flagella. They occasionally demonstrated several cytoplasmic channels separating the flagella from the midpiece. Each flagellum was based upon its own centriolar complex, with the connection of the flagellum to the head always at a constant angle. The flagella always consisted of nine peripheral pairs and one central doublet of microtubules. Sperm exhibited a relative DNA content similar to that found in sperm from normal males, with higher coefficients of variation. Although similar abnormalities have been found in livestock, where they were described as a defect in spermiogenesis, no comparable results have been reported in fish. The frequency at which these abnormalities occurs, the fertilization ability of males with defects in spermiogenesis, the influence of these abnormalities on progeny in terms of ploidy level, and the occurrence of deformities warrant further investigation. PMID:18998229

Psenicka, Martin; Rodina, Marek; Flajshans, Martin; Kaspar, Vojtech; Linhart, Otomar

2009-11-01

294

Presence of bound substrate in lactate dehydrogenase from carp liver.  

PubMed

While attempting to purify UDP-galactose 4-epimerase from carp liver extract at pH 8.0, it was observed that the preparation even after dialysis could reduce NAD to NADH, interfering epimerase assay. The NAD reduction activity and the epimerase were co-eluted in a series of chromatographic steps. Mass spectrometric analysis of semi-purified fraction revealed that carp liver lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) contained bound lactate which was converted to pyruvate in the presence of NAD. The enzyme-bound lactate and the association with epimerase stabilized LDH from trypsin digestion and thermal inactivation at 45 degrees C by factors of 2.7 and 4.2 respectively, as compared to substrate-free LDH. LDH and epimerase do not belong to any one pathway, but are the rate-limiting enzymes of two different pathways of carbohydrate metabolism. Typically, strongly associated enzymes work in combination, such as two enzymes of the same metabolic pathway. In that background, co-purification of LDH and epimerase as reloaded in this study was an unusual phenomenon. PMID:22803333

Banerjee, Nupur; Bhattacharyya, Debasish

2012-06-01

295

Evidence of Grass Carp ('Ctenopharyngodon idella') Reproduction in the Illinois and Upper Mississippi Rivers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an exotic species which was imported into the United States in 1963 to control aquatic vegetation. Individuals escaped from ponds and subsequently spread into streams in the Mississippi river basin. We have been col...

P. T. Raibley D. Blodgett R. E. Sparks

1995-01-01

296

Effects of Salinity on Food Consumption and Growth of Grass Carp.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The herbivorous food habits combined with high rates of food consumption, fast growth and high palatability, and adaptability to environmental fluctuations make the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) an ideal fish for aquatic weed control and commercial...

R. V. Kilambi

1979-01-01

297

76 FR 15857 - Injurious Wildlife Species; Listing the Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) as Injurious Fish  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...injurious or potentially injurious to the health and welfare of human beings, to the interests of agriculture, forestry, or horticulture, or to the welfare and survival of the wildlife or wildlife resources of the United States. The Asian Carp Prevention...

2011-03-22

298

Bighead Carp ('Hypophthalmichthys nobilis') in the Mississippi River. Long Term Resource Monitoring Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors report collections of the bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845), in the Mississippi River in Missouri and Illinois between 1991 and 1994. In all, the authors collected 48 specimens ranging from 18 to 790 mm total length. ...

J. K. Tucker F. A. Cronin R. A. Hrabik M. D. Petersen D. P. Herzog

1997-01-01

299

Predictability of PCBs in carp harvested in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron  

SciTech Connect

Samples of carp flesh were analyzed for PCBs, dieldrin, and DDT using a gas chromatograph equipped with a Ni/sup 63/ electron capture detector. Of 211 carp obtained commercially from Saginaw Bay, none exceeded the current tolerance of 5 ppm PCBs in edible fillet. Prediction equations were calculated which accounted for 68-90 percent of PCB in many groups. The carp from 2 to 4 kg were less predictable as to their level of PCBs as were female carp or those caught in the fall. The percentage fat was an important component of these prediction equations. Length of fish correlated better for fish 4 to 5.5 kg. Correlations were highest for spring and summer catches and for males. Thus size alone could be a reasonably good predictor of PCBs caught during the spring and summer but is less so the rest of the year.

Zabik, M.E.; Merrill, C.; Zabik, M.J.

1982-05-01

300

Assessment of microcystin concentration in carp and catfish: a case study from lakshmikund pond, varanasi, India.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to analyse microcystin concentrations in Lakshmikund pond, Varanasi, India, as well as in carp and catfish of the pond. The concentrations of microcystin were found well above the WHO guidelines (1 µg/L) both for the dissolved and particulate fractions of bloom samples. The microcystin concentrations in different organs of carp and catfish were in the following sequence; liver > gut > kidney > gall bladder > gills > muscles and gut > liver > kidney > gall bladder > gills > muscles, respectively. The bioaccumulation of microcystin in carp and catfish was negatively correlated with body weight, and showed species specificity. The higher bioaccumulation of microcystin in muscles of catfish (>tenfold) over carp indicates a possible threat to human beings on consumption of catfish. Therefore, to avoid animal and human intoxication, routine analyses of microcystin in pond water as well as fishes are strongly recommended. PMID:24771133

Singh, Shweta; Asthana, Ravi Kumar

2014-06-01

301

Effects of temperature change on cortisol release by common carp Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

Common carp Cyprinus carpio, stressed by fish handling practices, responded with a decrease in cortisol secretion when temperature was lowered from 20 to 14° C within 3·5?h compared to those kept at 20° C. PMID:24665879

Jaxion-Harm, J; Ladich, F

2014-04-01

302

[Comparative analysis of variability of three mitochondrial genes of cytochrome oxidase complex (cox1, cox2, and cox3) in wild and domestic carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)].  

PubMed

For the first time, we studied the polymorphism of three mitochondrial genes of the cytochrome oxidase complex (cox1, cox2, and cox3) in natural populations of wild carp living in the Volga, Amur, and Don River Basins, as well as in European Hungarian carp and two pedigree lines of Ropsha carp of domestic breeding. The highest level of nucleotide and haplotype diversity in the studied samples was detected for the cox1 gene (pi = 0.61, h = 100%). Two lines of the Ropsha carp (pi = 0.61, h = 100%) and the Far East population of Amur wild carp from Shershikh strait (Am: pi = 0.20, h = 70%) were the most polymorphic for three genes. The second sample of Amur wild carp from the Amur River (Ac), as well as the samples of Volga and Don wild carp and Hungarian carp had lower values of variability. The presence of two main genealogical lines of the wild carp and carp was demonstrated based on the total sequence of three genes, as well as the corresponding amino acid sequences in the studied area. One of these lines (line I) is typical of the sample of Amur wild carp (Am) and three members of the Ropsha carp. Line II is developed by sequences of Volga, Don, and Amur wild carp (Ac), as well as European Hungarian carp and seven other members of the Ropsha carp. Three to four sublines, which differ in nucleotide and amino acid substitutions, were found within the lines. Possible reasons for the origin of genomic variability in wild carp, as well as in European and Russian breeds of carp, are discussed. PMID:23516901

Torgunakova, O A; Egorova, T A; Semenova, S K

2012-12-01

303

Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 is Expressed in Osteoblasts and Regulated by PTH  

PubMed Central

Bone mass is dependent on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and life-span of osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. Intermittent administration of PTH increases bone mass but the mechanism of action are complex and incompletely understood. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including cell growth and differentiation factors. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism, we investigated involvement of CARP-1 in PTH signaling in osteoblasts. Immunostaining studies revealed presence of CARP-1 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while a minimal to absent levels were noted in the chondrocytes of femora from 10-12-week old mice. Treatment of 7-day differentiated MC3T3-E1 clone-4 (MC-4) mouse osteoblastic cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts with PTH for 30 min to 5 hr followed by Western blot analysis showed 2-3 fold down-regulation of CARP-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the respective vehicle treated control cells. H-89, a Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, suppressed PTH action on CARP-1 protein expression indicating PKA-dependent mechanism. PMA, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonist, mimicked PTH action, and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203×, partially blocked PTH-dependent downregulation of CARP-1, implying involvement of PKC. U0126, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Kinase (MEK) inhibitor, failed to interfere with CARP-1 suppression by PTH. In contrast, SB203580, p38 inhibitor, attenuated PTH down-regulation of CARP-1 suggesting that PTH utilized an Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase (ERK)-independent but p38 dependent pathway to regulate CARP-1 protein expression in osteoblasts. Immunofluorescence staining of differentiated osteoblasts further revealed nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of CARP-1 protein following PTH treatment. Collectively, our studies identified CARP-1 for the first time in osteoblasts and suggest its potential role in PTH signaling and bone anabolic action.

Sharma, Sonali; Mahalingam, Chandrika D; Das, Varsha; Jamal, Shazia; Levi, Edi; Rishi, Arun K; Datta, Nabanita S

2013-01-01

304

Association of Mitochondrial Dysfunction with Oxidative Stress and Immune Suppression in Blunt Snout Bream Megalobrama amblycephala Fed a High-Fat Diet.  

PubMed

Abstract High-fat diets may have favorable effects on growth, partly based on protein sparing, but high-fat diets often lead to fatty liver (excessive fat deposition in the liver), which may be deleterious to fish growth and health. The goal of this study was therefore to investigate possible adverse effects and how they develop. Juvenile Blunt Snout Bream Megalobrama amblycephala (initial weight ± SE = 17.70 ± 0.10 g) were fed two diets (5% fat [control] or 15% fat). After 8 weeks, fish that were fed the 15% fat diet showed a high rate of mortality and poor growth. The histological results clearly showed that the high fat intake resulted in fat and glycogen accumulation and structural alterations of the hepatocytes, mitochondria, and nuclei. In the high-fat group, impairments of the mitochondria included mitochondrial swelling and the loss of cristae and matrix. Fish that were given the 15% fat diet exhibited low succinate dehydrogenase and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activities and increased cytochrome-c release from the mitochondria. Expression of genes for complex I and III subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory chain were down-regulated in fish that received the high-fat diet. Increases in malondialdehyde level and the ratio of oxidized glutathione to reduced glutathione suggested oxidative stress in the livers of fish from the high-fat diet group. Moreover, the lower leukocyte count, lysozyme and alternative complement activities, and globulin level in fish that received the high-fat diet indicated suppressive immune responses. Overall, the intake of excessive fat impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics and physiological functions. The dysfunction of the mitochondria subsequently mediated oxidative stress and hepatocyte apoptosis, which in turn led to the reduced efficacy of the immune system. Received July 15, 2013; accepted January 30, 2014. PMID:24895864

Lu, Kang-Le; Xu, Wei-Na; Liu, Wen-Bin; Wang, Li-Na; Zhang, Chun-Nuan; Li, Xiang-Fei

2014-06-01

305

Caiman latirostris (broad-snouted caiman) as a sentinel organism for genotoxic monitoring: basal values determination of micronucleus and comet assay.  

PubMed

Caiman latirostris is one of the two crocodilian species that inhabit Argentina. In this country, as a consequence of agricultural frontiers expansion during the last years, many areas of the geographic distribution of the broad snouted caiman overlap with regions of intensive agricultural activity. Contaminants released to the environment may induce genetic alterations in wildlife, which could lead to mutations and/or carcinogenesis. Up to the moment, no studies had been made concerning the possibbility to apply biomarkers of genotoxic evaluation in C. latirostris. The aim of this study was to adapt two widely used genotoxic techniques, the comet assay and the micronucleus test, for their application in C. latirostris and to determine the baseline values in this species, in order to establish its suitability as a sentinel organism for future genotoxic monitoring of environmental pollutants. A total of 41 juvenile caimans of 4 months old (FMO) and 10 months old (TMO) were used. Genotoxic techniques were applied on peripheral blood erythrocytes introducing the necessary modifications required by the material, which are presented here. Our results show that baseline values of DNA damage are quite stable among juvenile caimans (MN: FMO animals 0.87+/-0.74 and TMO animals 1.04+/-0.92; DI: FMO animals 103.40+/-3.36 and TMO animals 120.08+/-11.33), being independent of the nest of origin, sex and size of the animals and confirm the potential value of both short term tests as accurate screening tools for the evaluation of genotoxic agents in C. latirostris. This is the first reference to the application of genotoxic techniques on C. latirostris and the second in crocodilians. Data provided here will be useful for future studies involving the biomonitoring of natural regions where C. latirostris occurs, employing this species as a sentinel organism for genotoxic assessment of environmental pollutants. PMID:18203654

Poletta, G L; Larriera, A; Kleinsorge, E; Mudry, M D

2008-02-29

306

Identification and Profiling of MicroRNAs from Skeletal Muscle of the Common Carp  

PubMed Central

The common carp is one of the most important cultivated species in the world of freshwater aquaculture. The cultivation of this species is particularly productive due to its high skeletal muscle mass; however, the molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle development in the common carp remain unknown. It has been shown that a class of non-coding ?22 nucleotide RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in vertebrate development. They regulate gene expression through sequence-specific interactions with the 3? untranslated regions (UTRs) of target mRNAs and thereby cause translational repression or mRNA destabilization. Intriguingly, the role of miRNAs in the skeletal muscle development of the common carp remains unknown. In this study, a small-RNA cDNA library was constructed from the skeletal muscle of the common carp, and Solexa sequencing technology was used to perform high throughput sequencing of the library. Subsequent bioinformatics analysis identified 188 conserved miRNAs and 7 novel miRNAs in the carp skeletal muscle. The miRNA expression profiling showed that, miR-1, miR-133a-3p, and miR-206 were specifically expressed in muscle-containing organs, and that miR-1, miR-21, miR-26a, miR-27a, miR-133a-3p, miR-206, miR-214 and miR-222 were differentially expressed in the process of skeletal muscle development of the common carp. This study provides a first identification and profiling of miRNAs related to the muscle biology of the common carp. Their identification could provide clues leading towards a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of carp skeletal muscle development.

Li, Yunchao; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Liang, Yang; Sun, Xiaowen; Teng, Chun-Bo

2012-01-01

307

A consensus linkage map of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) based on microsatellites and SNPs  

PubMed Central

Background Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) belongs to the family Cyprinidae which includes more than 2000 fish species. It is one of the most important freshwater food fish species in world aquaculture. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping traits of interest and is often the first step towards understanding genome evolution. The aim of this study is to construct a first generation genetic map of grass carp using microsatellites and SNPs to generate a new resource for mapping QTL for economically important traits and to conduct a comparative mapping analysis to shed new insights into the evolution of fish genomes. Results We constructed a first generation linkage map of grass carp with a mapping panel containing two F1 families including 192 progenies. Sixteen SNPs in genes and 263 microsatellite markers were mapped to twenty-four linkage groups (LGs). The number of LGs was corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of grass carp. The sex-specific map was 1149.4 and 888.8 cM long in females and males respectively whereas the sex-averaged map spanned 1176.1 cM. The average resolution of the map was 4.2 cM/locus. BLAST searches of sequences of mapped markers of grass carp against the whole genome sequence of zebrafish revealed substantial macrosynteny relationship and extensive colinearity of markers between grass carp and zebrafish. Conclusions The linkage map of grass carp presented here is the first linkage map of a food fish species based on co-dominant markers in the family Cyprinidae. This map provides a valuable resource for mapping phenotypic variations and serves as a reference to approach comparative genomics and understand the evolution of fish genomes and could be complementary to grass carp genome sequencing project.

2010-01-01

308

Purification and Characterization of ? 1 Proteinase Inhibitor from Carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) Serum  

Microsoft Academic Search

?1-Proteinase inhibitor was purified to homogeneity from carp serum with an increase in specific inhibitory activity of 17-fold\\u000a and a 3% recovery rate. The inhibitor was estimated to have molecular weight of 55,000 under reducing and nonreducing conditions,\\u000a indicating its composition of a single polypeptide. The inhibitor immunologically crossreacted faintly with carp muscular\\u000a serine proteinase inhibitor but had no crossreactivity

Futoshi Aranishi

1999-01-01

309

Genotoxicity of crude extracts of cyanobacteria from Taihu Lake on carp ( Cyprinus carpio )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genotoxicity of crude cyanobacteria extracts (CBE) from blooms in Taihu Lake, China toward common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was measured. The primary extracellular product was determined by HPLC to be Microcystin-LR (MC-LR, L for leucine and R\\u000a for arginine) with an average concentration of 2.4 × 102 ?g MC g?1 dry weight of cyanobacteria. Acute toxicity to carp, expressed as the 72-h LC50, was 53 mg, dw

Qin WuMei; Mei Li; Xiangyu Gao; John P. Giesy; Yibin Cui; Liuyan Yang; Zhiming Kong

2011-01-01

310

The complete nucleotide sequence and gene organization of carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) mitochondrial genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete sequence of the carp mitochondrial genome of 16,575 base pairs has been determined. The carp mitochondrial genome encodes the same set of genes (13 proteins, 2 rRNAs, and 22 tRNAs) as do other vertebrate mitochondrial DNAs. Comparison of this teleostean mitochondrial genome with those of other vertebrates reveals a similar gene order and compact genomic organization. The codon

Yea-sha Chang; Fore-lien Huang; Tung-bin Lo

1994-01-01

311

Occurrence of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda, Bothriocephallidea) in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in the Changjiang River drainage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bothriocephalus acheilognathi is a potentially serious pathogen in wild or cultured fish in worldwide distribution. We examined 58-farmed grass carp from Nanchang in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River drainage, from which 20.7% were found to harbor the parasite with an infection intensity of 36.9±54.7. The parasites were identified based on morphology and rDNA ITS sequence analysis. The present report represents the first record of the parasite in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in the river drainage.

Xi, Bingwen; Wang, Guitang; Xie, Jun

2011-05-01

312

Body composition of transgenic common carp, Cyprinus carpio, containing rainbow trout growth hormone gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

F1 transgenic common carp, Cyprinus carpio, containing rainbow trout growth hormone gene, pRSVrtGH1 cDNA were compared to non-transgenic full-siblings for body composition. Percent protein was higher (P < 0.05), for transgenic individuals than for controls (19.5 vs. 18.1). Percent fat was lower (P < 0.05) for transgenic common carp (3.3), than for non-transgenic controls, (3.8). Transgenic individuals had lower (P

N. Chatakondi; R. T. Lovell; P. L. Duncan; M. Hayat; T. T. Chen; D. A. Powers; J. D. Weete; K. Cummins; R. A. Dunham

1995-01-01

313

THE INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON MUSCLE VELOCITY AND SUSTAINED PERFORMANCE IN SWIMMING CARP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The aim of this study was to evaluate how fish locomote at different muscle temperatures. Sarcomere length excursion and muscle shortening velocity, V, were determined from high-speed motion pictures of carp, Cyprinus carpio (11-14cm), swimming steadily at various sustained speeds at 10, 15 and 20°C. In the middle and posterior regions of the carp, sarcomeres of the lateral red

LAWRENCE C. ROME; ROEL P. FUNKE

1990-01-01

314

Stimulation of catalase activity in carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) ovarian follicles by gonadotropin in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in catalase activity in carp (Cyprinus carpio) ovarian follicles at different developmental stages were investigated. The effect of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on catalase activity and estradiol secretion by carp ovarian follicles was studied to establish a developmental role of catalase in folliculogenesis in fish ovary. The follicular homogenates from large follicles showed higher (9.45  0.64 units\\/mg protein) catalase-specific activity than the

Rahul Behl

2006-01-01

315

Multimarker approach analysis in common carp Cyprinus carpio sampled from three freshwater sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to assess the response of a multimarker approach in common carp Cyprinus carpio sampled from three Tunisian dam lakes selected according to different environmental and ecological characteristics. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was analyzed in carp liver and used as a phase II detoxification enzyme, hepatic metallothionein\\u000a content (MTs) was used as a metallic stress indicator,

Sofiene Tlili; Jamel Jebali; Mohamed Banni; Zohra Haouas; Ammar Mlayah; Ahmed Noureddine Helal; Hamadi Boussetta

2010-01-01

316

Rheological Characteristics and Microstructure of Common Carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) Surimi and Kamaboko Gel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common carp is cheap and prolific in Australian waters and is regarded as an aquatic environmental pest. In order to add value\\u000a to this fish species, surimi and kamaboko was prepared from common carp and its rheological and microstructure characteristics\\u000a were compared with those produced from Alaska pollock and threadfin bream. Temperature sweep tests were run under 100-Pa stress\\u000a and

Ali Jafarpour; Elisabeth M. Gorczyca

2009-01-01

317

Transcriptome analysis reveals the time of the fourth round of genome duplication in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

PubMed Central

Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is thought to have undergone one extra round of genome duplication compared to zebrafish. Transcriptome analysis has been used to study the existence and timing of genome duplication in species for which genome sequences are incomplete. Large-scale transcriptome data for the common carp genome should help reveal the timing of the additional duplication event. Results We have sequenced the transcriptome of common carp using 454 pyrosequencing. After assembling the 454 contigs and the published common carp sequences together, we obtained 49,669 contigs and identified genes using homology searches and an ab initio method. We identified 4,651 orthologous pairs between common carp and zebrafish and found 129,984 paralogous pairs within the common carp. An estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that common carp and zebrafish diverged 120 million years ago (MYA). We identified one round of genome duplication in common carp and estimated that it had occurred 5.6 to 11.3 MYA. In zebrafish, no genome duplication event after speciation was observed, suggesting that, compared to zebrafish, common carp had undergone an additional genome duplication event. We annotated the common carp contigs with Gene Ontology terms and KEGG pathways. Compared with zebrafish gene annotations, we found that a set of biological processes and pathways were enriched in common carp. Conclusions The assembled contigs helped us to estimate the time of the fourth-round of genome duplication in common carp. The resource that we have built as part of this study will help advance functional genomics and genome annotation studies in the future.

2012-01-01

318

Demasculinisation of sexually mature male common carp, Cyprinus carpio, exposed to 4- tert-pentylphenol during spermatogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexually mature male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed for a 3-month period to sublethal concentrations of 4-tert-pentylphenol (TPP) and to 17?-estradiol (E2) during spermatogenesis. This was part of a broad research programme investigating the effects of TPP on the life stages of the carp which might prove susceptible to endocrine disruption. Exposure of adult male carp to the pseudo-estrogen

Sylvia Gimeno; Hans Komen; Susan Jobling; John Sumpter; Tim Bowmer

1998-01-01

319

Genomic insight into the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) genome by sequencing analysis of BAC-end sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Common carp is one of the most important aquaculture teleost fish in the world. Common carp and other closely related Cyprinidae\\u000a species provide over 30% aquaculture production in the world. However, common carp genomic resources are still relatively\\u000a underdeveloped. BAC end sequences (BES) are important resources for genome research on BAC-anchored genetic marker development,\\u000a linkage map and physical map integration,

Peng Xu; Jiongtang Li; Yan Li; Runzi Cui; Jintu Wang; Jian Wang; Yan Zhang; Zixia Zhao; Xiaowen Sun

2011-01-01

320

Complete Genome Sequence of a Reovirus Isolated from Grass Carp, Indicating Different Genotypes of GCRV in China  

PubMed Central

A widespread grass carp hemorrhagic disease (GCHD) caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) has been known in China since 1983. A virulent reovirus strain, HZ08, was isolated from diseased grass carp in Zhejiang Province, China. We sequenced and analyzed the complete genome of strain HZ08 and compared it with published GCRV genome sequences, contributing to the evidence of several genotypes of GCRV in China.

Wang, Qing; Zeng, Weiwei; Liu, Chun; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Yingying; Shi, Cunbin

2012-01-01

321

Comparison of the Exomes of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Zebrafish (Danio rerio)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Research on common carp, Cyprinus carpio, is beneficial for zebrafish research because of resources available owing to its large body size, such as the availability of sufficient organ material for transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Here we describe the shot gun sequencing of a clonal double-haploid common carp line. The assembly consists of 511891 scaffolds with an N50 of 17?kb, predicting a total genome size of 1.4–1.5?Gb. A detailed analysis of the ten largest scaffolds indicates that the carp genome has a considerably lower repeat coverage than zebrafish, whilst the average intron size is significantly smaller, making it comparable to the fugu genome. The quality of the scaffolding was confirmed by comparisons with RNA deep sequencing data sets and a manual analysis for synteny with the zebrafish, especially the Hox gene clusters. In the ten largest scaffolds analyzed, the synteny of genes is almost complete. Comparisons of predicted exons of common carp with those of the zebrafish revealed only few genes specific for either zebrafish or carp, most of these being of unknown function. This supports the hypothesis of an additional genome duplication event in the carp evolutionary history, which—due to a higher degree of compactness—did not result in a genome larger than that of zebrafish.

Henkel, Christiaan V.; Dirks, Ron P.; Jansen, Hans J.; Forlenza, Maria; Wiegertjes, Geert F.; Howe, Kerstin; van den Thillart, Guido E.E.J.M.

2012-01-01

322

Sensitivity of adult, embryonic, and larval carp Cyprinus carpio to copper  

SciTech Connect

The copper sensitivity of adult, embryonic, and larval stages of carp Cyprinus carpio was determined using flow-through bioassay methods. Carp adults, embryos, and larvae were exposed continuously to copper concentrations that ranged from those producing an immediate effect to those producing none. Carp embryos were obtained after we induced adults to spawn. Exposure of embryos began at 4 to 6, 8 to 10, and 20 to 24 h after fertilization and continued until hatching. Exposure of larvae began 6 to 8 h after hatching and continued until yolk sac absorption. From the family of curves of cumulative mortality versus duration of exposure, median lethal times were determined and used to construct comparative toxicity curves. The 24-h LC50s show the order of acute copper sensitivity of carp life-history stages, measured in micrograms per liter, as; larvae (180 ..mu..g/L) > embryos (240 ..mu..g/L) > adults (540 ..mu..g/L). Estimated incipient lethal concentrations give the order of subacute copper sensitivity of carp life-history stages as: larvae (110 ..mu..g/L) > adult (120 ..mu..g/L) > embryo (230 ..mu..g/L). The sensitivity of carp embryos to copper changed as embryogenesis progressed; for example, embryos were approximately twice as sensitive before as after blastopore closure. 70 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

Harrison, F.L.; Rice, D.W. Jr.

1981-03-01

323

Development of an antimycin-impregnated bait for controlling common carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The common carp Cyprinus carpio is a major problem for fisheries and wildlife managers because its feeding behavior causes degradation of valuable fish and waterfowl habitat. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an antimycin-impregnated bait for control of common carp. The toxic bait contained fish meal, a binder, antimycin, and water. The ingredients were mixed together and made into pellets. This bait was force-fed to common carp or administered in a pond environment, where fish voluntarily fed on the bait. The lowest lethal dose in the forcefeeding study was 0.346 mg antimycin/kg of fish and doses that exceeded 0.811 mg antimycin/kg were toxic to all fish. On three occasions, adult common carp held in 0.004-ha concrete ponds were offered 10 g of toxic bait containing 5.0, 7.5, and 10 mg antimycin/g of bait and the mean mortalities 96 h later were 21, 35, and 51%, respectively. Three tests were conducted in 0.04-ha earthen ponds each containing 100 adult common carp; these fish were offered 50 g of the toxic bait that contained 10 mg antimycin/g, and the mean mortalities (96 h) were 19, 32, and 74%. Toxic baits should be used in conjunction with other management techniques, and only when common carp are congregated and actively feeding, and when few nontarget bottom- feeding species are present.

Rach, J. J.; Luoma, J. A.; Marking, L. L.

1994-01-01

324

Spatial and interspecific patterns in persistent contaminant loads in bighead and silver carp from the Illinois River.  

PubMed

We measured concentrations of selected organohalogens, fluorinated compounds and mercury in whole, ground silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead (H. nobilis) carp from the Illinois River, Illinois, in 2010 and 2011 to characterize spatial and interspecific patterns of contaminant burdens. Silver carp, which had greater lipid content, tended to have greater concentrations of lipophilic compounds. Concentrations of organohalogens were generally greater in carp from the upper reaches of the river. The halogenated compounds were associated with length and lipid content in silver carp. Bighead carp had greater mercury concentrations than did silver carp; total mercury concentrations were negatively associated with lipid content of bighead carp. Perfluorinated compounds, comprised predominantly of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, did not vary by species or river reach. Chlordanes and polychlorinated biphenyls were of potential concern with regard to the use of these carp as animal feed additives. Our results indicated that, even though they occupy a lower trophic level than many similarly-sized fish, these carp may accumulate measureable concentrations of organic contaminants. PMID:23887862

Levengood, Jeffrey M; Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy; Sass, Gregory G; Epifanio, John M

2013-09-01

325

A set of polymorphic trinucleotide and tetranucleotide microsatellite markers for silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and cross-amplification in crucian carp.  

PubMed

Silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch), as a gynogenetic fish, is a promising model for the study of the evolutionary genetics of vertebrates. We have developed 59 polymorphic trinucleotide and tetranucleotide markers for the silver crucian carp through the biotin capture method and radioactive-labeling hybridization. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 12 in the population, and the average proportion of heterozygotes (including tri- and diallelic) at polymorphic loci was 76.8%. In addition, these loci were successfully applied to a close relative, the crucian carp (Carassius auratus), by cross-amplification, as shown by the range of alleles (2-19), observed heterozygosity (0.1765-0.9706), expected heterozygosity (0.2392-0.9421), and polymorphism information content (0.2186-0.9236). PMID:20503069

Zheng, X H; Lu, C Y; Zhao, Y Y; Lee, C; Cao, D C; Chang, Y M; Liang, L Q; Sun, X W

2010-08-01

326

Brain growth patterns in four European cyprinid fish species (Cyprinidae, Teleostei): roach (Rutilus rutilus), bream (Abramis brama), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and sabre carp (Pelecus cultratus).  

PubMed

This study compares brain growth in 4 species of cyprinids, each distinctly different in adult brain morphology: roach have generalized brains; bream are characterized by well-developed visual, octavolateralis and gustatory brain regions; common carp show chemosensory (gustatory)-dominated brains, and sabre carp octavolateralis-dominated brains. The growth patterns of 16 regions relative to total brain volume were investigated by computer-aided quantitative histology to illustrate internal brain allometries. In all species the tectum opticum decreases in relative size during growth, whereas the corpus cerebelli increases. In bream and common carp, primary taste centers steadily increase in relative size during growth. In most if not all fish, the brain attains no definite final morphology. Lifelong, growth-related shifts in relative sizes of primary sensory regions may reflect lifelong shifting sensory capabilities. PMID:2379081

Brandstätter, R; Kotrschal, K

1990-01-01

327

Public health assessment for east tenth street (FMC Corporation-Marcus Hook Plant), Marcus Hook, Delaware County, Pennsylvania, Region 3. Cerclis No. PAD987323458. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Earth 10th Street Site, a former rayon/cellophane manufacturing facility, lies about 1/3 mile northwest of the Delaware River in Marcus Hook, Delaware County, Pennyslvania. As a result of past industrial activities at the site, on-site groundwater and soils are contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and metals. On-site soils are also contaminated with asbestos and several on-site buildings contain asbestos which can become friable and airborne. Overall, the site is identified as an indeterminate public health hazard.

NONE

1996-03-29

328

Interaction of Carp Growth Hormone-Releasing Factor and Somatostatin on in vitro Release of Growth Hormone in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible antagonism between somatostatin (SS) and Carp growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) on growth hormone (GH) secretion was examined by radioimmunoassay in a dispersed rainbow trout pituitary cell culture system. SS (3 nM) significantly antagonized Carp GRF(l-29; 1 nM, 10 nM)-induced GH secretion. The slope of the dose-response curve for Carp GRF(1–29) with SS was statistically different from that of carp

Dasan Luo; Brian A. McKeown

1991-01-01

329

Comparative study of carp otolith hardness: lapillus and asteriscus.  

PubMed

Otoliths are calcium carbonate biominerals in the inner ear of vertebrates; they play a role in balance, movement, and sound perception. Two types of otoliths in freshwater carp are investigated using nano- and micro-indentation: asteriscus and lapillus. The hardness, modulus, and creep of asteriscus (vaterite crystals) and lapillus (aragonite crystals) are compared. The hardness and modulus of lapillus are higher than those of asteriscus both in nano- and micro-testing, which is attributed to the different crystal polymorphs. Both materials exhibit a certain degree of creep, which indicates some time dependence of the mechanical behavior and is attributed to the organic components. The nano-indentation hardnesses are higher than micro-hardnesses for both otoliths, a direct result of the scale dependence of strength; fewer flaws are encountered by the nano than by the microindenter. PMID:23498208

Ren, Dongni; Meyers, Marc André; Zhou, Bo; Feng, Qingling

2013-05-01

330

[Raman and FTIR characteristics of otolith of ornamental carp].  

PubMed

Otolith is a typical natural biomineral as functional deposit existing in teleost's ears, which is mainly composed of calcium carbonate and organic matter. There is a pair of lapillus, sagitta and asteriscus in fish's inner ear, respectively. The authors compare the asteriscus and lapillus in cultured ornamental carp using FTIR and Raman. The result shows that the mineral phase in lapillus is aragonite, while the mineral phase in asteriscus is vaterite. The pure aragonite and vaterite existing respectively in otolith are of importance as being used as sample to study aragonite/vaterite biomineralization mechanism. Compared with inorganic induced aragonite and vaterite using FTIR and Raman, the authors found that the spectra of aragonite in lapillus are between those of inorganic induced aragonite and other bio induced aragonite; while the spectra of vaterite in asteriscus are similar to those of other bio induced vaterite. It is possible that unstable vaterite was stabilized through the organic effects in biomineralization process. PMID:20038039

Gao, Yong-Hua; Li, Zhuo; Qiao, Li; Ren, Dong-Ni; Feng, Qing-Ling

2009-10-01

331

77 FR 11776 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Hook...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher/processors (C/Ps) using hook-and-line gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the A season allowance of the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to C/Ps using hook-and-line gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the...

2012-02-28

332

Microstructure near corners of continuous-cast steel slabs showing three-dimensional frozen meniscus and hooks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frozen meniscus features near the slab corners in continuous-cast ultra-low-carbon steel samples were investigated using special etching reagents and optical microscopy. The three-dimensional (3D) continuous shapes of hook defects along the oscillation marks around the slab corners were constructed from a set of micrographs taken at different vertical sections. The hook depth variation was traced around the slab perimeter. The

Go-Gi Lee; Brian G. Thomas; Seon-Hyo Kim; Ho-Jung Shin; Seung-Kwan Baek; Choon-Haeng Choi; Dong-Su Kim; Sung-Jong Yu

2007-01-01

333

Physiological and biochemical investigations on egg stickiness in common carp.  

PubMed

The properties and behaviour of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, eggs in water and in ovarian fluids were studied at different temperature, pH, and with divalent cation concentrations. The biochemical composition of zona radiata externa (ZRE) was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively on amino acids, carbohydrates, uronic acid and sialic acids using chemical assays; on proteins using electrophoresis. Comparative biochemical studies were performed on the chub, Leuciscus cephalus, the vimba, Vimba vimba and the bleak, Chalcalburnus chalcoides. Eggs of common carp became sticky within seconds after mixing with water. Egg stickiness was not affected by water pH in a range of 6-9, by water temperatures between 4 and 30 degrees C, by divalent cations in concentrations < or =20 mmol/l, and by sodium chloride concentrations < or =50 mmol/l. Our investigations indicated that specific proteins of the cyprinid ovarian fluid are controlling (inhibiting) the initiation of egg stickiness: egg stickiness did not develop as long as the eggs were incubated in ovarian fluid. When however the ovarian fluid proteins were removed from the ovarian fluid by heat treatment, eggs developed stickiness within seconds, like they do in water. Biochemically, the ZRE consisted of nine types of proteins whereby four of them were glycoproteins. Glucose, fructose, galactose, and uronic acids were the major carbohydrates. Treatment of the egg membrane with invertase or amyloglucosidase did not affect the egg stickiness. Treatment with protease prevented stickiness. From these results and from additional histochemical results, we conclude that glycoproteins are likely to be the molecules responsible for stickiness. PMID:18938050

Mansour, N; Lahnsteiner, F; Patzner, R A

2009-08-01

334

Isolation of carp genes encoding major histocompatibility complex antigens.  

PubMed Central

In the evolution of the adaptive immune system unique to vertebrates, teleost fish occupy the critical position. This is the most primitive class of lower vertebrates in which the capacity for acute allograft rejections can be demonstrated, thus suggesting the presence of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens and, therefore, T cells. Here, we report the identification of two putative MHC-antigen-encoding sequences in the carp Cyprinus carpio. One, identified as TLAI alpha-1, had reasonable homology to MHC class I heavy chains of mammalian and avian species, while the other, identified as TLAII beta-1, was homologous to MHC class II beta chain of the aforementioned higher vertebrates. For these isolations of fish MHC genes, we have identified two highly conserved amino acid sequence blocks surrounding two cysteine residues in the second domain of MHC class II beta chains as well as the third domain of class I heavy chains of humans, mice, and chickens. Two kinds of mixed oligonucleotide probes corresponding to these two regions were synthesized. The carp genomic DNA was subjected to amplification by polymerase chain reaction using the above two synthetic DNA fragments as primers. Subsequently, two different DNA sequences sandwiched by these primers were isolated from the amplified products. Their use as secondary probes led to the identification of TLAI alpha-1 and TLAII beta-1. We also discuss the applicability of the above approach for isolation from lower vertebrates of other genes belonging to the immunoglobulin super-family as well as the evolutionary origin of vertebrate MHC antigens. Images

Hashimoto, K; Nakanishi, T; Kurosawa, Y

1990-01-01

335

Reduction of superior-lateral intact mandibular condyle dislocation with bone traction hook  

PubMed Central

Lateral and superior-lateral dislocations of the intact condyle are a rare complication, following traumatic insult to the mandible. We report an unusual case of a 54-year-old male patient who experienced both types of dislocations of the intact condyles with symphysis fracture following a road-traffic accident. Under general anesthesia, conventional manipulation was unsuccessful in relocating the condyles into the glenoid fossa. After applying a percutaneous traction force, using a bone traction hook placed at the sigmoid notch, the displaced intact mandibular condyles were repositioned, and the symphyseal fracture was finally reduced and fixed. The mouth opening was within normal limits, and favorable occlusion was confirmed one month postoperatively. To our knowledge, this is the first case of dislocation of both intact condyles--associated with symphysis fracture--being reduced with bone traction hook.

Kim, Bong Chul; Kang Samayoa, Sara Rebeca

2013-01-01

336

Results using the AO hook plate for dislocations of the acromioclavicular joint.  

PubMed

The AO Hook plate has been used for stabilization of acromioclavicular joint dislocations. We present our experience of this newly introduced device in a general hospital, since there are not many papers in the literature reporting on this. A total of 16 patients were treated with the AO Hook plate between November 2001 and November 2003 at Princess Alexandra Hospital in Harlow, UK. For functional assessment 6 months after removal of the plate, the constant score and the pain visual analogue score were used. The pain visual analogue score ranged from 0 to 6 (mean: 0.87) and the constant score ranged from 78 to 100 (mean: 96.4). In one instance, a patient developed instability after removal of the plate. The use of this device results in excellent functional outcome for the treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocations. PMID:18803467

Koukakis, Athanasios; Manouras, Andreas; Apostolou, Constantinos D; Lagoudianakis, Emmanuel; Papadima, Artemisia; Triantafillou, Christos; Korres, Dimitrios; Allen, Paul W; Amini, Alexander

2008-09-01

337

Predictions on the effect of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) exclusion on water quality, zooplankton, and submergent macrophytes in a Great Lakes wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a study to examine the relationship between common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) exclusion, water quality, zooplankton, and submergent macrophytes. Twelve 50-m 2 in situ experimental enclosures were installed in degraded Cootes Paradise Marsh during the carp spawning period in 1995. Enclosures were stocked with two or three carp of similar size, ranging from 13 to 59 cm and

Vanessa L. Lougheed; Barb Crosbie; Patricia Chow-Fraser

1998-01-01

338

Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 is Expressed inOsteoblasts and Regulated by PTH  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •CARP-1 is identified for the first time in bone cells. •PTH downregulates CARP-1 expression in differentiated osteoblasts. •PTH displaces CARP-1 from nucleus to the cytoplasm in differentiated osteoblasts. •Downregulation of CARP-1 by PTH involves PKA, PKC and P-p38 MAPK pathways. -- Abstract: Bone mass is dependent on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and life-span of osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. Intermittent administration of PTH increases bone mass but the mechanism of action are complex and incompletely understood. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including cell growth and differentiation factors. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism, we investigated involvement of CARP-1 in PTH signaling in osteoblasts. Immunostaining studies revealed presence of CARP-1 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while a minimal to absent levels were noted in the chondrocytes of femora from 10 to 12-week old mice. Treatment of 7-day differentiated MC3T3-E1 clone-4 (MC-4) mouse osteoblastic cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts with PTH for 30 min to 5 h followed by Western blot analysis showed 2- to 3-fold down-regulation of CARP-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the respective vehicle treated control cells. H-89, a Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, suppressed PTH action on CARP-1 protein expression indicating PKA-dependent mechanism. PMA, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonist, mimicked PTH action, and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, partially blocked PTH-dependent downregulation of CARP-1, implying involvement of PKC. U0126, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Kinase (MEK) inhibitor, failed to interfere with CARP-1 suppression by PTH. In contrast, SB203580, p38 inhibitor, attenuated PTH down-regulation of CARP-1 suggesting that PTH utilized an Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase (ERK)-independent but p38 dependent pathway to regulate CARP-1 protein expression in osteoblasts. Immunofluorescence staining of differentiated osteoblasts further revealed nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of CARP-1 protein following PTH treatment. Collectively, our studies identified CARP-1 for the first time in osteoblasts and suggest its potential role in PTH signaling and bone anabolic action.

Sharma, Sonali; Mahalingam, Chandrika D.; Das, Varsha [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)] [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Jamal, Shazia [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)] [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Levi, Edi [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States) [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Rishi, Arun K. [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States) [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); VA Medical Center, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Datta, Nabanita S., E-mail: ndatta@med.wayne.edu [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Cardiovascular Research Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)

2013-07-12

339

Hook selectivity of the pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) in the Pantanal, the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.  

PubMed

The Pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus is the most captured fish species in the Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul State, and since 1994, its maximum sustainable yield had already been exceeded. Its capture is carried out only by hooks, as mesh gears are forbidden either for professional or for recreational fishing. The aim of this study was to determine selectivity for different hook sizes used in P. mesopotamicus fishing and to verify which sizes capture only adults. Data were collected in the rivers Miranda, Aquidauana, and Vermelho, in January, March, and April 2002. Six longlines with eight hook sizes were used and we adopted the hook opening as a measure related to selectivity. Different hooks captured individuals of the same length and their medians were similar, evidencing the great overlap among sizes. Regression results showed no significant relationship between ln[c2(l)/c1(l)] and total length of captured individuals. In addition, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test also did not detect significant differences in the size of captured fish. Several hypotheses, such as the selectivity models, shape of selection curves, scarcity of large fishes, and behavior are used in order to explain the absence of hook selectivity for this species. Size of recruitment for this gear was 28 cm of total length, when individuals are still immature. PMID:17876446

Peixer, J; Petrere, M

2007-05-01

340

Stabilization of acute, complete acromioclavicular joint dislocations with a new C hook implant.  

PubMed

Although coracoclavicular fixation is currently popular for type III acromioclavicular (AC) dislocations, a surgical gold standard is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the preliminary outcome of surgical treatment of complete AC dislocations with a new nitinol C hook implant. When the implant is cooled (<5 degrees C), it softens enough to be easily inserted under the coracoid process with a hole drilled in the clavicle. Cooling is induced with ice water. When the implant reaches body temperature, it hardens and anatomic reduction is achieved. Patients with acute type III AC dislocations were prospectively evaluated. The AC ligament was reinserted with the use of a bone anchor, and the position of the joint was restored by fixing it with a new C hook. Clinical and radiographic control checkups were carried out at 3, 8, and 12 weeks and 2 years postoperatively. Certain patient-related variables, functional status, symptom severity, and patient satisfaction were assessed. By 12 weeks, all patients had achieved full functional status. Radiographs showed accurate anatomic reduction. Overall subjective satisfaction was very good in all cases. No complications or implant failures occurred. On the basis of this pilot study, the new C hook implant provides secure anatomic reduction with very good functional recovery and patient satisfaction. The main benefit of the implant is the ease of insertion. It preserves the articular surfaces and allows slight movement of the AC joint during abduction of the arm. The C hook implant is a new surgical concept with potentially better patient recovery. PMID:14564264

Ryhänen, Jorma; Niemelä, Erkki; Kaarela, Outi; Raatikainen, Timo

2003-01-01

341

Hooking Mortality of Lake-dwelling Landlocked Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate hooking mortality of lake-angled landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), angled and net-trapped (control) fish were held for 5 days after capture in each spring and fall for 4 yr. Angled fish suffered a significantly greater mortality than controls in both spring (P < 0.001) and fall (P < 0.05). Mortality of fall-angled salmon was significantly less than that

Kendall Warner

1978-01-01

342

Multi-Glycoside of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f. Ameliorates Prolonged Mesangial Lesions in Experimental Progressive Glomerulonephritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Multi-glycoside from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f. (GTW) is used for treatment of progressive glomerulonephritis (GN) in China. We have previously reported the beneficial effects of GTW on acute GN induced by an anti-Thy-1.1 monoclonal antibody (mAb). In the present study, the effect and potential mechanisms of GTW on the chronic irreversible model of GN were investigated. Methods: Progressive GN

Yigang Wan; Wei Sun; Huilan Zhang; Qiaojing Yan; Ping Chen; Chenhui Dou; Haiming Yang; Ming Ge

2010-01-01

343

Reaching out, hooking up: Lavender netlife in a New Zealand study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Internet has changed the way people manage information and, to some extent, the way people manage their identities. Using\\u000a data from a New Zealand study, this article examines the use of the Internet for constructing lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB)\\u000a communities (reaching out) and the extent to which LGB people use the Internet to facilitate sexual contact (hooking up).

Mark Henrickson

2007-01-01

344

Hook formation and mechanical properties in AZ31 friction stir spot welds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hook formation and the failure load properties of AZ31 friction stir spot welds are investigated in friction stir spot welds made between wrought and heat-treated AZ31 sheets having widely different average grain sizes.Tool shoulder penetration into the surface of the upper sheet and pin penetration into the lower sheet during the dwell period provides the driving force for the displacement

Y. H. Yin; N. Sun; T. H. North; S. S. Hu

2010-01-01

345

Isolation and characterization of proteolytic enzymes from the latex of Synadenium grantii Hook, ‘f’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two fractions showing proteolytic enzymes have been obtained from the latex of Synadenium grantii Hook, ‘f’, using gel-filtration and anion-exchange chromatographic techniques. Both these proteases have the same molecular mass of 76±2 kDa each. They exhibit maximal activity at pH 7.0 and at a temperature of 60°C. They display stability over a pH range from 5–10 and are also highly

Mrinalini Menon; P. J Vithayathil; S. M Raju; C. S Ramadoss

2002-01-01

346

Hook spectroscopy as an atomic number density diagnostic applied to laser-ablated copper plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Hook spectroscopy has been used to determine the absolute number density of ground state copper atoms in laser-ablated plasma plumes. An ablation laser power flux of {approximately} 1.5 GW/cm{sup 2} is applied to a solid copper target in a background gas, producing a plasma plume suitable for studying homogeneous copper vapor condensation. Density is measured at post-ablation time delays ranging from 10 {mu}s to 3 ms with 25 torr of argon as the background gas. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLEF) images containing relative density information are used in conjunction with the hook spectra to resolve spatially the absolute density within the plume. Copper atom densities thus measured ranged from 1.9 {times} 10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}3} at a delay of 10 {mu}s to 2.7 {times} 10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus}3} at 3 ms delay in 25 torr of argon The decrease in density is due to the condensation of copper vapor to form fine particulate. As a combustion diagnostic, the hook method may prove extremely useful for the determination of metal impurity density in coal fired flames as well as a single -- shot OH density and temperature diagnostic.

Zerkle, D.K.; Sappey, A.D.; Gamble, T.K.

1993-11-01

347

Mouse sperm acquire a new structure on the apical hook during epididymal maturation.  

PubMed

Spermatozoa emerging from the testis undergo a maturation process in the epididymis during which they change morphologically, biochemically and physiologically to gain motility and the ability to fertilize ova. We examined mouse epididymal sperm with immunostaining and transmission electron microscopy (EM) and identified a previously unknown structure on the apical hook. The structure has a coiled configuration around 11 nm in thickness and is present at the tip of each corner of the triangular-rod shaped perforatorium. Surveying sperm isolated from various regions of the epididymis indicated that mouse sperm acquire the hook rim (HR) structure during its passage through the proximal two-thirds of the caput epididymidis. The structure withstands vigorous sonication and harsh chemical treatments and remains intact after the acrosome reaction. Its location and sturdiness suggest a function in protecting the apical hook from mechanical wear during fertilization. Our EM images of epididymal sperm also revealed additional novel structures as well as lateral asymmetry of the sperm head, indicating that mouse sperm head has a structure more complex than previously recognized. PMID:23728587

Lin, Yi-Wen; Hsu, Tzu-Han; Yen, Pauline H

2013-07-01

348

Mouse sperm acquire a new structure on the apical hook during epididymal maturation  

PubMed Central

Spermatozoa emerging from the testis undergo a maturation process in the epididymis during which they change morphologically, biochemically and physiologically to gain motility and the ability to fertilize ova. We examined mouse epididymal sperm with immunostaining and transmission electron microscopy (EM) and identified a previously unknown structure on the apical hook. The structure has a coiled configuration around 11 nm in thickness and is present at the tip of each corner of the triangular-rod shaped perforatorium. Surveying sperm isolated from various regions of the epididymis indicated that mouse sperm acquire the hook rim (HR) structure during its passage through the proximal two-thirds of the caput epididymidis. The structure withstands vigorous sonication and harsh chemical treatments and remains intact after the acrosome reaction. Its location and sturdiness suggest a function in protecting the apical hook from mechanical wear during fertilization. Our EM images of epididymal sperm also revealed additional novel structures as well as lateral asymmetry of the sperm head, indicating that mouse sperm head has a structure more complex than previously recognized.

Lin, Yi-Wen; Hsu, Tzu-Han; Yen, Pauline H

2013-01-01

349

Transcriptome analysis of head kidney in grass carp and discovery of immune-related genes  

PubMed Central

Background Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is one of the most economically important freshwater fish, but its production is often affected by diseases that cause serious economic losses. To date, no good breeding varieties have been obtained using the oriented cultivation technique. The ability to identify disease resistance genes in grass carp is important to cultivate disease-resistant varieties of grass carp. Results In this study, we constructed a non-normalized cDNA library of head kidney in grass carp, and, after clustering and assembly, we obtained 3,027 high-quality unigenes. Solexa sequencing was used to generate sequence tags from the transcriptomes of the head kidney in grass carp before and after grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection. After processing, we obtained 22,144 tags that were differentially expressed by more than 2-fold between the uninfected and infected groups. 679 of the differentially expressed tags (3.1%) mapped to 483 of the unigenes (16.0%). The up-regulated and down-regulated unigenes were annotated using gene ontology terms; 16 were annotated as immune-related and 42 were of unknown function having no matches to any of the sequences in the databases that were used in the similarity searches. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed four unknown unigenes that showed significant responses to the viral infection. Based on domain structure predictions, one of these sequences was found to encode a protein that contained two transmembrane domains and, therefore, may be a transmembrane protein. Here, we proposed that this novel unigene may encode a virus receptor or a protein that mediates the immune signalling pathway at the cell surface. Conclusion This study enriches the molecular basis data of grass carp and further confirms that, based on fish tissue-specific EST databases, transcriptome analysis is an effective route to discover novel functional genes.

2012-01-01

350

Effects of water hardness on size and hatching success of silver carp eggs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eggs of silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix absorb water after release from the female, causing them to become turgid and to increase substantially in size. The volume of water that diffuses within an egg is most likely determined by (1) the difference in ionic concentration between the egg and the water that surrounds it and (2) the elasticity of the egg membrane. Prior observations suggest that silver carp eggs may swell and burst in soft waters. If water hardness affects silver carp reproductive success in nonnative ecosystems, this abiotic factor could limit silver carp distribution or abundance. In this study, we tested the effect of water hardness on silver carp egg enlargement and hatching success. Groups of newly fertilized silver carp eggs were placed in water at one of five nominal water hardness levels (50, 100, 150, 200, or 250 mg/L as CaCO3) for 1 h to harden (absorb water after fertilization). Egg groups were then placed in separate incubation vessels housed in two recirculation systems that were supplied with either soft (50 mg/L as CaCO3) or hard (250 mg/L as CaCO3) water to evaluate hatching success. Tests were terminated within 24 h after viable eggs had hatched. Eggs that were initially placed in 50-mg/L water to harden were larger (i.e., swelled more) and had a greater probability of hatch than eggs hardened in other water hardness levels. Unlike the effect of water hardness during egg hardening, the water hardness during incubation appeared to have no effect on egg hatching success. Our research suggests that water hardness may not be a limiting factor in the reproduction, recruitment, and range expansion of silver carp in North America.

Rach, Jeff J.; Sass, Greg G.; Luoma, James A.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

2010-01-01

351

Passing of northern pike and common carp through experimental barriers designed for use in wetland restoration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Restoration plans for Metzger Marsh, a coastal wetland on the south shore of western Lake Erie, incorporated a fish-control system designed to restrict access to the wetland by large common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ingress fish passageways in the structure contain slots into which experimental grates of varying size and shape can be placed to selectively allow entry and transfer of other large fish species while minimizing the number of common carp to be handled. We tested different sizes and shapes of grates in experimental tanks in the laboratory to determine the best design for testing in the field. We also tested northern pike (Esox lucius) because lack of access to wetland spawning habitat has greatly reduced their populations in western Lake Erie. Based on our results, vertical bar grates were chosen for installation because common carp were able to pass through circular grates smaller than body height by compressing their soft abdomens; they passed through rectangular grates on the diagonal. Vertical bar grates with 5-cm spacing that were installed across much of the control structure should limit access of common carp larger than 34 cm total length (TL) and northern pike larger than 70 cm. Vertical bar grates selected for initial field trials in the fish passageway had spacings of 5.8 and 6.6 cm, which increased access by common carp to 40 and 47 cm TL and by northern pike to 76 and 81 cm, respectively. The percentage of potential common carp biomass (fish seeking entry) that must be handled in lift baskets in the passageway increased from 0.9 to 4.8 to 15.4 with each increase in spacing between bars. Further increases in spacing would greatly increase the number of common carp that would have to be handled. The results of field testing should be useful in designing selective fish-control systems for other wetland restoration sites adjacent to large water bodies.

French, John R. P., III; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

1999-01-01

352

Preferential feeding on high quality diets decreases methyl mercury of farm-raised common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

This study on aquaculture ponds investigated how diet sources affect methyl mercury (MeHg) bioaccumulation of the worldwide key diet fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio). We tested how MeHg concentrations of one and two year-old pond-raised carp changed with different food quality: a) zooplankton (natural pond diet), b) cereals enriched with vegetable oil (VO ponds), and c) compound feeds enriched with marine fish oils (FO ponds). It was hypothesized that carp preferentially feed on supplementary diets with the highest biochemical quality (FO diet over VO diets over zooplankton). Although MeHg concentrations were highest in zooplankton of FO ponds, MeHg concentrations of carp were clearly lower in FO ponds (17–32 ng g? 1 dry weight) compared to the reference (40–46 ng g? 1 dry weight) and VO ponds (55–86 ng g? 1 dry weight). Stable isotope mixing models (?13C, ?15N) indicated selective feeding of carp on high quality FO diets that caused MeHg concentrations of carp to decrease with increasing dietary proportions of supplementary FO feeds. Results demonstrate that carp selectively feed on diets of highest biochemical quality and strongly suggest that high diet quality can reduce MeHg bioaccumulation in farm-raised carp.

Schultz, Sebastian; Vallant, Birgit; Kainz, Martin J.

2012-01-01

353

Genetic diversity and population structure inferred from the partially duplicated genome of domesticated carp, Cyprinus carpio L.  

PubMed Central

Genetic relationships among eight populations of domesticated carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), a species with a partially duplicated genome, were studied using 12 microsatellites and 505 AFLP bands. The populations included three aquacultured carp strains and five ornamental carp (koi) variants. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) was used as an outgroup. AFLP-based gene diversity varied from 5% (grass carp) to 32% (koi) and reflected the reasonably well understood histories and breeding practices of the populations. A large fraction of the molecular variance was due to differences between aquacultured and ornamental carps. Further analyses based on microsatellite data, including cluster analysis and neighbor-joining trees, supported the genetic distinctiveness of aquacultured and ornamental carps, despite the recent divergence of the two groups. In contrast to what was observed for AFLP-based diversity, the frequency of heterozygotes based on microsatellites was comparable among all populations. This discrepancy can potentially be explained by duplication of some loci in Cyprinus carpio L., and a model that shows how duplication can increase heterozygosity estimates for microsatellites but not for AFLP loci is discussed. Our analyses in carp can help in understanding the consequences of genotyping duplicated loci and in interpreting discrepancies between dominant and co-dominant markers in species with recent genome duplication.

David, Lior; Rosenberg, Noah A; Lavi, Uri; Feldman, Marcus W; Hillel, Jossi

2007-01-01

354

Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.  

PubMed

In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided. PMID:23472178

Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Lodge, David M; Hunter, Margaret E; Nico, Leo G

2013-01-01

355

Preferential feeding on high quality diets decreases methyl mercury of farm-raised common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

This study on aquaculture ponds investigated how diet sources affect methyl mercury (MeHg) bioaccumulation of the worldwide key diet fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio). We tested how MeHg concentrations of one and two year-old pond-raised carp changed with different food quality: a) zooplankton (natural pond diet), b) cereals enriched with vegetable oil (VO ponds), and c) compound feeds enriched with marine fish oils (FO ponds). It was hypothesized that carp preferentially feed on supplementary diets with the highest biochemical quality (FO diet over VO diets over zooplankton). Although MeHg concentrations were highest in zooplankton of FO ponds, MeHg concentrations of carp were clearly lower in FO ponds (17-32 ng g(- 1) dry weight) compared to the reference (40-46 ng g(- 1) dry weight) and VO ponds (55-86 ng g(- 1) dry weight). Stable isotope mixing models (?(13)C, ?(15)N) indicated selective feeding of carp on high quality FO diets that caused MeHg concentrations of carp to decrease with increasing dietary proportions of supplementary FO feeds. Results demonstrate that carp selectively feed on diets of highest biochemical quality and strongly suggest that high diet quality can reduce MeHg bioaccumulation in farm-raised carp. PMID:23564978

Schultz, Sebastian; Vallant, Birgit; Kainz, Martin J

2012-03-29

356

Asian Carp Marketing Summit held at Lewis and Clark Community College, Grafton, IL, September 20-21, 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In fall 2010, Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant (IISG) organized an Asian Carp Marketing Summit (ACMS) to explore the idea of using commercial markets (and their concomitant harvesting) to control wild populations of Asian carp. To accomplish this, IISG and the ...

K. TePas M. Peterson P. Charlebois S. Parks

2010-01-01

357

CARP, a Myostatin-downregulated Gene in CFM Cells, Is a Novel Essential Positive Regulator of Myogenesis  

PubMed Central

Myostatin, a member of the TGF-? superfamily, has been shown to act as a negative regulator of myogenesis. Although its role in myogenesis has been clearly documented through genetic analysis, few gene cascades that respond to myostatin signaling and regulate myogenesis have been characterized, especially in avian species. In a previous study, we screened for such genes in chicken fetal myoblasts (CFMs) using the differential display PCR method and found that cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP) was downregulated by myostatin and specifically expressed in chicken skeletal muscle. However, little is known about the potential functions of CARP in chicken skeletal myogenesis. In this study, the expression patterns of chicken CARP and the possible function of this gene in skeletal muscle growth were characterized. Our data showed that CARP was predominantly expressed in postnatal skeletal muscle, and its expression increased during myogenic differentiation in CFM cells. When CARP was overexpressed, CFM cell growth was enhanced by accelerating the cell cycle at the G1 to S phase transition and increasing cyclin D1 expression. CARP knockdown had the opposite effect: while myoblasts underwent differentiation, knockdown of CARP expression induced extensive cell death, suppressed the formation of myotubes, and markedly decreased the expression of differentiation-related genes such as myosin heavy chain (MHC), myoD, and caveolin-3. Our findings indicate that CARP may play a key role in the myostatin signaling cascade that governs chicken skeletal myogenesis through promoting proliferation and avoiding apoptosis during CFM cell differentiation.

Ma, Guoda; Wang, Haiyang; Gu, Xuefeng; Li, Wen; Zhang, Xingli; Cui, Lili; Li, You; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Bin; Li, Keshen

2014-01-01

358

Effects of sodium alginate on the non-specific defence system of the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carp which receive intraperitoneal injections of sodium alginate show a high survival rate after being challenged withEdwardsiella tarda. In order to elucidate the immunoenhancement by sodium alginate, its effects on the non-specific defence system of carp were investigated. Sodium alginate had little influence either on the activity of the alternative complement pathway or on the phagocytic and respiratory burst activities

KAZUHIRO FUJIKI; TOMOKI YANO

1997-01-01

359

Heritability estimates for growth-related traits using microsatellite parentage assignment in juvenile common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common carp is one of the leading species in world aquaculture, but selective breeding for growth rate has not been actively pursued in this species after unsuccessful selection experiments. We estimated heritability for growth-related traits at 8 weeks of age in Hungarian Synthetic Mirror carp at Vodnany (Czech Republic). Parentage assignment with eight microsatellite markers was used in a full

Marc Vandeputte; Martin Kocour; Stéphane Mauger; Mathilde Dupont-Nivet; Daphné De Guerry; Marek Rodina; David Gela; Dominique Vallod; Bernard Chevassus; Otomar Linhart

2004-01-01

360

CARPSIM: stochastic simulation modelling of wild carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) population dynamics, with applications to pest control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) is an important pest fish species in Australasia and North America. Carp are widely implicated in freshwater aquatic resource degradation and both the resource management and broader communities are currently seeking effective control measures. We developed CARPSIM, a simple age-based model to simulate the effects of a range of management scenarios. The model simulates change

Paul Brown; Terence I Walker

2004-01-01

361

Carp (Cyprinus carpio) vitellogenin: characterization of yolk proteins, development of immunoassays and use as biomarker of exposure to environmental estrogens.  

PubMed

The precursor protein of egg yolk, vitellogenin (Vg), is cleaved into three major components (lipovitellin, phosvitin and beta'-component) at the time of incorporation by growing oocytes. We purified three yolk proteins (YP1, YP2 and YP3) from ovaries of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) by a combined method of ammonium sulfate precipitation and column chromatography. Biochemical analyses of the purified proteins of this species suggest that YP1, YP2 and YP3 are lipovitellin, beta'-component and phosvitin, respectively. A specific antiserum against purified carp YP1 (lipovitellin) was used to develop a single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) technique and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for carp Vg. By SRID and ELISA, we measured the circulating carp Vg level to be in the ranges of 12.5-400 microg/ml and 2.0-1000 ng/ml, respectively, which cover a wide range of Vg levels. From 1997-1998, male and female carp were captured at points of effluent discharge from a sewage treatment plant connected to the Tama River, where estrogenic compounds were later detected, and the presence of Vg in their circulation was examined. Vg was detected in both male and female carp at the mg/ml level, suggesting that estrogens such as estrone and estradiol were sufficiently high to induce Vg in male carp inhabiting this area. The result of this study supports the use of carp Vg as a biomarker of fish exposure to environmental estrogens. PMID:17585296

Hara, Akihiko; Hirano, Kaori; Shimizu, Munetaka; Fukada, Haruhisa; Fujita, Toshiaki; Ito, Fuminari; Takada, Hideshige; Nakamura, Masaru; Iguchi, Taisen

2007-01-01

362

Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided.

Mahon, Andrew R.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L.; Chadderton, W. Lindsay; Lodge, David M.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Nico, Leo G.

2013-01-01

363

What can numerical computation do for the history of science? (a study of an orbit drawn by Newton in a letter to Hooke)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a letter to Robert Hooke, Isaac Newton drew the orbit of a mass moving under a constant attracting central force. The drawing of the orbit may indicate how and when Newton developed dynamic categories. Some historians claim that Newton used a method contrived by Hooke; others that he used some method of curvature. We prove that Hooke’s method is a second-order symplectic area-preserving algorithm, and the method of curvature is a first-order algorithm without special features; then we integrate the Hamiltonian equations. Integration by the method of curvature can also be done, exploring the geometric properties of curves. We compare three methods: Hooke’s method, the method of curvature and a first-order method. A fourth-order algorithm sets a standard of comparison. We analyze which of these methods best explains Newton’s drawing.

Cardozo Dias, Penha Maria; Stuchi, T. J.

2013-11-01

364

What can Numerical Computation do for the History of Science? (Study of an Orbit Drawn by Newton on a Letter to Hooke)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): On a letter to Robert Hooke, Isaac Newton drew the orbit of a mass moving under a constant attracting central force. How he drew the orbit may indicate how and when he developed dynamic categories. Some historians claim that Newton used a method contrived by Hooke; others that he used some method of curvature. We prove geometrically: Hooke’s method is a second order symplectic area preserving algorithm, and the method of curvature is a first order algorithm without special features; then we integrate the hamiltonian equations. Integration by the method of curvature can also be done exploring geometric properties of curves. We compare three methods: Hooke’s method, the method of curvature and a first order method. A fourth order algorithm sets a standard of comparison. We analyze which of these methods best explains Newton’s drawing.

Stuchi, Teresa; Cardozo Dias, P.

2013-05-01

365

Comparative genomics in cyprinids: common carp ESTs help the annotation of the zebrafish genome  

PubMed Central

Background Automatic annotation of sequenced eukaryotic genomes integrates a combination of methodologies such as ab-initio methods and alignment of homologous genes and/or proteins. For example, annotation of the zebrafish genome within Ensembl relies heavily on available cDNA and protein sequences from two distantly related fish species and other vertebrates that have diverged several hundred million years ago. The scarcity of genomic information from other cyprinids provides the impetus to leverage EST collections to understand gene structures in this diverse teleost group. Results We have generated 6,050 ESTs from the differentiating testis of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and clustered them with 9,303 non-gonadal ESTs from CarpBase as well as 1,317 ESTs and 652 common carp mRNAs from GenBank. Over 28% of the resulting 8,663 unique transcripts are exclusively testis-derived ESTs. Moreover, 974 of these transcripts did not match any sequence in the zebrafish or fathead minnow EST collection. A total of 1,843 unique common carp sequences could be stringently mapped to the zebrafish genome (version 5), of which 1,752 matched coding sequences of zebrafish genes with or without potential splice variants. We show that 91 common carp transcripts map to intergenic and intronic regions on the zebrafish genome assembly and regions annotated with non-teleost sequences. Interestingly, an additional 42 common carp transcripts indicate the potential presence of new splicing variants not found in zebrafish databases so far. The fact that common carp transcripts help the identification or confirmation of these coding regions in zebrafish exemplifies the usefulness of sequences from closely related species for the annotation of model genomes. We also demonstrate that 5' UTR sequences of common carp and zebrafish orthologs share a significant level of similarity based on preservation of motif arrangements for as many as 10 ab-initio motifs. Conclusion Our data show that there is sufficient homology between the transcribed sequences of common carp and zebrafish to warrant an even deeper cyprinid transcriptome comparison. On the other hand, the comparative analysis illustrates the value in utilizing partially sequenced transcriptomes to understand gene structure in this diverse teleost group. We highlight the need for integrated resources to leverage the wealth of fragmented genomic data.

Christoffels, Alan; Bartfai, Richard; Srinivasan, Hamsa; Komen, Hans; Orban, Laszlo

2006-01-01

366

Renal accumulation and effects of intraperitoneal injection of extracted microcystins in omnivorous crucian carp (Carassius auratus).  

PubMed

An acute toxicological experiment was designed to characterize the sequence of renal ultrastructural changes with accumulated MCs in crucian carp injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with extracted microcystins (mainly MC-RR and -LR) at two doses, 50 and 200 ?g MC-LReq. kg?¹ body weight. Quantitative and qualitative determinations of MCs in the kidney were conducted by HPLC and LC-MS, respectively. MC-RR content in kidney of crucian carp showed a time dose-dependent increase within 48 h post-injection, followed by a sharp decline afterward, while no MC-LR in kidney was detectable throughout the experiment. Ultrastructural changes in the kidney of crucian carp progressed with increasing accumulated MCs and exposure times within 48 h post-injection, whereas renal ultrastructural recovery of crucian carp in the 50 ?g MC-LReq. kg?¹ dose group was evident at 168 h post-injection. Our ultrastructural observation suggests that the membranous structure is the main action site of MCs in the kidney, among which mitochondria damage in the tubules is clearly an early, and presumably a critically important effect of MCs. The increases in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CR) in both dose groups further revealed severe impairment occurred in the kidney of crucian carp. PMID:23608020

Li, Li; Xie, Ping; Lei, Hehua; Zhang, Xuezhen

2013-08-01

367

Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of coagulation factor VII gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).  

PubMed

Coagulation factor VII has been studied in several species but, to date, not in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a commercially important freshwater fish found in China. In this study, the full-length cDNA of grass carp coagulation factor VII (GcCFVII) was cloned using a RACE-Ready cDNA Kit, grass carp were challenged with a hemorrhagic virus, and temporal expression profiles of GcCFVII in the thymus, gills, liver, spleen, and head kidney were examined at 0 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h, and 138 h using fluorescence quantitative PCR. The results showed the 1480 bp GcCFVII to contain three conservative motifs: Gla, EGF-CA, and Tryp-SPc, similar to other species. Phylogenetic analysis showed the evolution of GcCFVII gene to be consistent with the evolution of the species. After viral challenge, GcCFVII expression in five tissues of grass carp showed different patterns of fluctuation. These results provide a solid basis for further investigation of GcCFVII and its relationship with grass carp hemorrhage. PMID:23727283

Liu, Qiaolin; Xu, Baohong; Xiao, Tiaoyi; Su, Jianming; Zhong, Lei

2013-08-01

368

Tissue-Specific Fatty Acids Response to Different Diets in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA) to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively) in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue) of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO) with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption. PMID:24733499

Böhm, Markus; Schultz, Sebastian; Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Kainz, Martin J

2014-01-01

369

Tissue-Specific Fatty Acids Response to Different Diets in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA) to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively) in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue) of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO) with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption.

Bohm, Markus; Schultz, Sebastian; Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Kainz, Martin J.

2014-01-01

370

Microsatellite genetic diversity and differentiation of native and introduced grass carp populations in three continents.  

PubMed

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater species native to China, has been introduced to about 100 countries/regions and poses both biological and environmental challenges to the receiving ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation in grass carp from three introduced river systems (Mississippi River Basin in US, Danube River in Hungary, and Tone River in Japan) as well as its native ranges (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur Rivers) in China using 21 novel microsatellite loci. The allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, and within-population gene diversity were found to be lower in the introduced populations than in the native populations, presumably due to the small founder population size of the former. Significant genetic differentiation was found between all pairwise populations from different rivers. Both principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed obvious genetic distinction between the native and introduced populations. Interestingly, genetic bottlenecks were detected in the Hungarian and Japanese grass carp populations, but not in the North American population, suggesting that the Mississippi River Basin grass carp has experienced rapid population expansion with potential genetic diversification during the half-century since its introduction. Consequently, the combined forces of the founder effect, introduction history, and rapid population expansion help explaining the observed patterns of genetic diversity within and among both native and introduced populations of the grass carp. PMID:22740170

Chen, Qin; Wang, Chenghui; Lu, Guoqing; Zhao, Jinliang; Chapman, Duane C; Zsigmond, Jeney; Li, Sifa

2012-06-01

371

Re-engineering, Austempering, and Selective Laser Hardening of a 4340 Latch Body used in the Cargo Hook of a CH47 Military Helicopter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The latch body is a safety critical 4340 steel part that is currently used in the cargo hook of a CH-47 military helicopter. Approximately 5x2x2 inches in dimension, this safety critical part is nestled within the cargo hook assembly and facilitates the operation of the load beam (hook) during its payload cycles. This paper mainly focuses on the methodology and

Winston Sequeira; Mike Jensen; Eric Peterson; Steve Thieman

372

The auxin influx carriers AUX1 and LAX3 are involved in auxin-ethylene interactions during apical hook development in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings.  

PubMed

Dark-grown dicotyledonous seedlings form a hook-like structure at the top of the hypocotyl, which is controlled by the hormones auxin and ethylene. Hook formation is dependent on an auxin signal gradient, whereas hook exaggeration is part of the triple response provoked by ethylene in dark-grown Arabidopsis seedlings. Several other hormones and light are also known to be involved in hook development, but the molecular mechanisms that lead to the initial installation of an auxin gradient are still poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to unravel the cross-talk between auxin and ethylene in the apical hook. Auxin measurements, the expression pattern of the auxin reporter DR5::GUS and the localization of auxin biosynthesis enzymes and influx carriers collectively indicate the necessity for auxin biosynthesis and efficient auxin translocation from the cotyledons and meristem into the hypocotyl in order to support proper hook development. Auxin accumulation in the meristem and cotyledons and in the hypocotyl is increased approximately 2-fold upon treatment with ethylene. In addition, a strong ethylene signal leads to enhanced auxin biosynthesis at the inner side of the hook. Finally, mutant analysis demonstrates that the auxin influx carrier LAX3 is indispensable for proper hook formation, whereas the auxin influx carrier AUX1 is involved in the hook exaggeration phenotype induced by ethylene. PMID:20110325

Vandenbussche, Filip; Petrásek, Jan; Zádníková, Petra; Hoyerová, Klára; Pesek, Bedrich; Raz, Vered; Swarup, Ranjan; Bennett, Malcolm; Zazímalová, Eva; Benková, Eva; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

2010-02-01

373

The complete mitochondrial genome of the Oujiang color carp, Cyprinus carpio var. color (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae).  

PubMed

The complete mitochondrial genome of Oujiang color carp was determined to be 16,581 bp in length accurately using the next generation sequencing technology and bioinformatics tools. The complete mitochondrial genome of Oujiang color carp shows typical circular molecule structure of vertebrate's mitochondrial genome, which consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 control region. The whole genome base composition was estimated to be 31.89% A, 27.53% C, 15.76% G, and 24.82% T with A/T bias of 56.71%. The complete mitochondrial genome of Oujiang color carp provides the basis for genetic breeding and conservation studies. PMID:22920435

Wang, Baosen; Ji, Peifeng; Wang, Jian; Sun, Jinsheng; Wang, Chenghui; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen

2013-02-01

374

Autoradiographic localization of gonadotrophin receptors in ovaries of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

SciTech Connect

Binding sites for carp gonadotrophin have been located in carp ovaries using (/sup 125/I)labeled gonadotrophin and autoradiography. The radioactive gonadotrophin was displaced from tissue by unlabeled gonadotrophin or carp hypophysial homogenate in a dose-dependent fashion. No binding of gonadotrophin was found in previtellogenic oocytes but binding appeared with the first indications of vitellogenesis. In the smaller vitellogenic oocytes binding was uniformly distributed in the follicular envelope, but in the largest oocytes binding was restricted to the interstitial tissue. In these more mature oocytes gonadotrophin was also found within the oocyte and appeared to migrate toward the nucleus. The relationship between binding location, steroidogenesis, and oocyte maturation is discussed. We found no evidence for specific binding of (/sup 125/I)thyroxine under comparable conditions.

Bieniarz, K.; Kime, D.E.

1986-10-01

375

First evidence of grass carp recruitment in the Great Lakes Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We use aging techniques, ploidy analysis, and otolith microchemistry to assess whether four grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella captured from the Sandusky River, Ohio were the result of natural reproduction within the Lake Erie Basin. All four fish were of age 1 +. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that these fish were not aquaculture-reared and that they were most likely the result of successful reproduction in the Sandusky River. First, at least two of the fish were diploid; diploid grass carp cannot legally be released in the Great Lakes Basin. Second, strontium:calcium (Sr:Ca) ratios were elevated in all four grass carp from the Sandusky River, with elevated Sr:Ca ratios throughout the otolith transect, compared to grass carp from Missouri and Arkansas ponds. This reflects the high Sr:Ca ratio of the Sandusky River, and indicates that these fish lived in a high-strontium environment throughout their entire lives. Third, Sandusky River fish were higher in Sr:Ca ratio variability than fish from ponds, reflecting the high but spatially and temporally variable strontium concentrations of southwestern Lake Erie tributaries, and not the stable environment of pond aquaculture. Fourth, Sr:Ca ratios in the grass carp from the Sandusky River were lower in their 2011 growth increment (a high water year) than the 2012 growth increment (a low water year), reflecting the observed inverse relationship between discharge and strontium concentration in these rivers. We conclude that these four grass carp captured from the Sandusky River are most likely the result of natural reproduction within the Lake Erie Basin.

Chapman, Duane C.; Davis, J. Jeremiah; Jenkins, Jill A.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Miner, Jeffrey G.; Farver, John; Jackson, P. Ryan

2013-01-01

376

Cloning and preliminary functional studies of the JAM-A gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).  

PubMed

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is a very important aquaculture species in China and other South-East Asian countries; however, disease outbreaks in this species are frequent, resulting in huge economic losses. Grass carp hemorrhage caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is one of the most serious diseases. Junction adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) is the mammalian receptor for reovirus, and has been well studied. However, the JAM-A gene in grass carp has not been studied so far. In this study, we cloned and elucidated the structure of the JAM-A gene in grass carp (GcJAM-A) and then studied its functions during grass carp hemorrhage. GcJAM-A is composed of 10 exons and 9 introns, and its full-length cDNA is 1833 bp long, with an 888 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a 295 amino acid protein. The GcJAM-A protein is predicted to contain a typical transmembrane domain. Maternal expression pattern of GcJAM-A is observed during early embryogenesis, while zygote expression occurs at 8 h after hatching. GcJAM-A is expressed strongly in the gill, liver, intestine and kidney, while it is expressed poorly in the blood, brain, spleen and head kidney. Moreover, lower expression is observed in the gill, liver, intestine, brain, spleen and kidney of 30-month-old individuals, compared with 6-month-old. In a GcJAM-A-knockdown cell line (CIK) infected with GCRV, the expression of genes involved in the interferon and apoptosis pathways was significantly inhibited. These results suggest that GcJAM-A could be a receptor for GCRV. We have therefore managed to characterize the GcJAM-A gene and provide evidence for its role as a receptor for GCRV. PMID:23542603

Du, Fukuan; Su, Jianguo; Huang, Rong; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

2013-06-01

377

Clinical and Radiological Results of Fixation of Acromioclavicular Joint Dislocation by Hook Plates Retained for More Than Five Months  

PubMed Central

Background: Hook plates are used to treat acromioclavicular joint dislocations. Our study took into consideration the patients’ outcome following treatment with clavicular hook plates retained for more than five months. Objectives: Our aim was to assess the response to treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocation by clavicular hook plate when retained for more than five months. Patients and Methods: We treated 24 patients who had acromioclavicular joint dislocation with a clavicular hook plate between 2008 and 2012 at our hospital. We did not repair the coracoclavicular ligament. In all patients, the plate remained more than five months because they did not come back at the recommended time for removal of their plates. The follow-up period ranged from five to thirty three months with a mean of nineteen months. Results: The main complication was osteolysis that was seen in two patients. The mean constant score was 94.5 ± 8.77 out of 100 with a range between 70 and 100. Conclusions: Our study showed that the use of clavicular hook plates was a good treatment option for acromioclavicular joint dislocation. However, scores were lower in case of prolonged presence of plates.

Jafary, Dawood; Keihan Shokouh, Hassan; Najd Mazhar, Farid; Shariat Zadeh, Human; Mochtary, Tahmineh

2014-01-01

378

Meanest foundations and nobler superstructures: Hooke, Newton and the "compounding of the celestiall motions of the planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book is a historical-epistemological study of one the most consequential idea of early modern celestial mechanics: Robert Hooke's proposal to "compoun[d] the celestial motions of the planets of a direct motion by the tangent & an attractive motion towards a central body," a proposal which Isaac Newton adopted and realized in his Principia. Hooke's Programme was revolutionary both cosmologically and mathematically. It presented "the celestial motions," the proverbial symbol of stability and immutability, as a process of continuous change, and prescribed only parameters of rectilinear motions and rectilinear attractions for calculating their closed curved orbits. Yet the traces of Hooke's construction of his Programme for the heavens lead through his investigations in such earthly disciplines as microscopy, practical optics and horology, and the mathematical tools developed by Newton to accomplish it appear no less local and goal-oriented than Hooke's lenses and springs. This transgression of the boundaries between the theoretical, experimental and technological realms is reminiscent of Hooke's own free excursions in and out of the circles occupied by gentlemen-philosophers, university mathematicians, instrument makers, technicians and servants. It presents an opportunity to examine the social and epistemological distinctions, relations and hierarchies between those realms and their inhabitants, and compels a critical assessment of the philosophical categories they embody.

Gal, Ofer

379

Characterization of Common Carp Transcriptome: Sequencing, De Novo Assembly, Annotation and Comparative Genomics  

PubMed Central

Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquaculture species of Cyprinidae with an annual global production of 3.4 million tons, accounting for nearly 14% of the freshwater aquaculture production in the world. Due to the economical and ecological importance of common carp, genomic data are eagerly needed for genetic improvement purpose. However, there is still no sufficient transcriptome data available. The objective of the project is to sequence transcriptome deeply and provide well-assembled transcriptome sequences to common carp research community. Result Transcriptome sequencing of common carp was performed using Roche 454 platform. A total of 1,418,591 clean ESTs were collected and assembled into 36,811 cDNA contigs, with average length of 888 bp and N50 length of 1,002 bp. Annotation was performed and a total of 19,165 unique proteins were identified from assembled contigs. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were performed and classified all contigs into functional categories for understanding gene functions and regulation pathways. Open Reading Frames (ORFs) were detected from 29,869 (81.1%) contigs with an average ORF length of 763 bp. From these contigs, 9,625 full-length cDNAs were identified with sequence length from 201 bp to 9,956 bp. Comparative analysis revealed that 27,693(75.2%) contigs have significant similarity to zebrafish Refseq proteins, and 24,371(66.2%), 24,501(66.5%) and 25,025(70.0%) to teraodon, medaka and three-spined stickleback refseq proteins. A total of 2,064 microsatellites were initially identified from 1,730 contigs, and 1,639 unique sequences had sufficient flanking sequences on both sides for primer design. Conclusion The transcriptome of common carp had been deep sequenced, de novo assembled and characterized, providing the valuable resource for better understanding of common carp genome. The transcriptome data will facilitate future functional studies on common carp genome, and gradually apply in breeding programs of common carp, as well as closely related other Cyprinids.

Ji, Peifeng; Liu, Guiming; Xu, Jian; Wang, Xumin; Li, Jiongtang; Zhao, Zixia; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen

2012-01-01

380

Intensity of parasitic infestation in silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix.  

PubMed

Silver carp, Hypopthalmichthys molitrix is one of the most economically valuable fish species in Bangladesh. However, its production is often hindered by parasite-induced mortality. The present study reports the intensity of parasitic infestation in 216 specimens of H. molitrix collected from different fish markets in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh. Nine different parasite species (Trichodina pediculatus, Dactylogyrus vastator, Ichthyophthirius multifilis, Gyrodactylus elegans, Lernaea sp., Apiosoma sp., Myxobolus rohitae, Camallanus ophiocephali, and Pallisentis ophiocephali) were recovered from the gill, skin, stomach, and intestine of host fish. The highest level of infection was observed for host skin, while lower levels were observed for host gill, stomach, and intestine. The results also revealed that the intensity of parasite infection in different organs of H. molitrix varied with the season. In particular, the highest levels of infection were recorded during the winter period (November-February), when fish are most susceptible to parasites. The findings of the study will help in the management and conservation of H. molitrix. PMID:23225858

Alam, M M; Khan, M A; Hussain, M A; Moumita, D; Mazlan, A G; Simon, K D

2012-12-01

381

Intrachain diffusion in a protein loop fragment from carp parvalbumin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During protein folding a polypeptide chain has to form specific intrachain interactions starting from an ensemble of unfolded conformation. Thus, intrachain diffusion in unfolded polypeptide chains can be regarded as an elementary step in protein folding, which should determine the dynamics of the early stages in the folding process. We have previously applied exothermic triplet-triplet energy transfer from xanthone to naphthalene to determine rate constants for intrachain end-to-end contact formation in unstructured homo-polypeptide chains. Here we show that the method can be applied to determine absolute rate constants for intrachain diffusion in natural loop sequences, if they are free of methionine, tryptophan and tyrosine. We measured the rate of loop formation in an 18 amino acid polypeptide chain corresponding to a natural loop sequence from carp muscle ?-parvalbumin (residues 85-102). Contact formation shows single exponential kinetics with a time constant ( ?=1/ k) of 53 ± 3 ns at 22.5 °C in water. Comparison with the results on homo-polypeptide chains shows that this value agrees well with rates obtained earlier for a polyserine chain of the same length.

Krieger, Florian; Fierz, Beat; Axthelm, Fabian; Joder, Karin; Meyer, Dominique; Kiefhaber, Thomas

2004-12-01

382

Chemical characteristics of Delaware River water, Trenton, New Jersey, to Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This progress report gives the results of an investigation of the quality of water in the Delaware River from Trenton, N. J. to Marcus Hook, Pa., for the period August 1949 to December 1952. The Delaware River is the principal source of water for the many industries and municipal water supplies along this reach of the river and both industries and municipalities use it for the disposal of their wastes. Consequently, a study of the quality of the water and variations in the quality caused by changes in streamflow, tidal effects, pollution and other factors is important to the many users. In both New Jersey and Pennsylvania steps are being taken to abate pollution, thus it is of more than passing interest to measure the effects of waste treatment on the quality of the Delaware River water. At average or higher rates of streamflow the mineral content of the water increases slightly from Trenton to Marcus Hook. There is little variation in the concentration of dissolved minerals from bank to bank or from top to bottom of the river. At times of protracted low rates of flow the effect of ocean water mixing with the river water may be noted as far upstream as Philadelphia. At such times the salinity is often greater near the bottom of the river than near the top. The increase in chloride concentration upstream from Philadelphia is small compared to the rapid increase downstream from Philadelphia. Temperatures of offshore water vary with the season, but on a given day are substantially uniform throughout the reach of the river from Trenton to Marcus Hook. The water contains less dissolved oxygen as it flows downstream indicating that oxygen is being consumed by oxidizable matter. From Philadelphia downstream there are periods, especially in late summer, when the dissolved oxygen is barely sufficient to meet the oxygen demands of the pollution load.

Durfor, Charles N.; Keighton, W. B.

1954-01-01

383

Initial characterization of the FlgE hook high molecular weight complex of Borrelia burgdorferi.  

PubMed

The spirochete periplasmic flagellum has many unique attributes. One unusual characteristic is the flagellar hook. This structure serves as a universal joint coupling rotation of the membrane-bound motor to the flagellar filament. The hook is comprised of about 120 FlgE monomers, and in most bacteria these structures readily dissociate to monomers (? 50 kDa) when treated with heat and detergent. However, in spirochetes the FlgE monomers form a large mass of over 250 kDa [referred to as a high molecular weight complex (HMWC)] that is stable to these and other denaturing conditions. In this communication, we examined specific aspects with respect to the formation and structure of this complex. We found that the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi synthesized the HMWC throughout the in vitro growth cycle, and also in vivo when implanted in dialysis membrane chambers in rats. The HMWC was stable to formic acid, which supports the concept that the stability of the HMWC is dependent on covalent cross-linking of individual FlgE subunits. Mass spectrometry analysis of the HMWC from both wild type periplasmic flagella and polyhooks from a newly constructed ?fliK mutant indicated that other proteins besides FlgE were not covalently joined to the complex, and that FlgE was the sole component of the complex. In addition, mass spectrometry analysis also indicated that the HMWC was composed of a polymer of the FlgE protein with both the N- and C-terminal regions remaining intact. These initial studies set the stage for a detailed characterization of the HMWC. Covalent cross-linking of FlgE with the accompanying formation of the HMWC we propose strengthens the hook structure for optimal spirochete motility. PMID:24859001

Miller, Kelly A; Motaleb, Md A; Liu, Jun; Hu, Bo; Caimano, Melissa J; Miller, Michael R; Charon, Nyles W

2014-01-01

384

Initial Characterization of the FlgE Hook High Molecular Weight Complex of Borrelia burgdorferi  

PubMed Central

The spirochete periplasmic flagellum has many unique attributes. One unusual characteristic is the flagellar hook. This structure serves as a universal joint coupling rotation of the membrane-bound motor to the flagellar filament. The hook is comprised of about 120 FlgE monomers, and in most bacteria these structures readily dissociate to monomers (? 50 kDa) when treated with heat and detergent. However, in spirochetes the FlgE monomers form a large mass of over 250 kDa [referred to as a high molecular weight complex (HMWC)] that is stable to these and other denaturing conditions. In this communication, we examined specific aspects with respect to the formation and structure of this complex. We found that the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi synthesized the HMWC throughout the in vitro growth cycle, and also in vivo when implanted in dialysis membrane chambers in rats. The HMWC was stable to formic acid, which supports the concept that the stability of the HMWC is dependent on covalent cross-linking of individual FlgE subunits. Mass spectrometry analysis of the HMWC from both wild type periplasmic flagella and polyhooks from a newly constructed ?fliK mutant indicated that other proteins besides FlgE were not covalently joined to the complex, and that FlgE was the sole component of the complex. In addition, mass spectrometry analysis also indicated that the HMWC was composed of a polymer of the FlgE protein with both the N- and C-terminal regions remaining intact. These initial studies set the stage for a detailed characterization of the HMWC. Covalent cross-linking of FlgE with the accompanying formation of the HMWC we propose strengthens the hook structure for optimal spirochete motility.

Miller, Kelly A.; Motaleb, Md. A.; Liu, Jun; Hu, Bo; Caimano, Melissa J.; Miller, Michael R.; Charon, Nyles W.

2014-01-01

385

Rad50 Zinc Hook Is Important for the Mre11 Complex to Bind Chromosomal DNA Double-stranded Breaks and Initiate Various DNA Damage Responses*  

PubMed Central

The Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex plays critical roles in checkpoint activation and double-stranded break (DSB) repair. The Rad50 zinc hook domain mediates zinc-dependent intercomplex associations of MRN, which is important for DNA tethering. Studies in yeast suggest that the Rad50 zinc hook domain is essential for MRN functions, but its role in mammalian cells is not clear. We demonstrated that the human Rad50 hook mutants are severely defective in various DNA damage responses including ATM (Ataxia telangiectasia mutated) activation, homologous recombination, sensitivity to IR, and activation of the ATR pathway. By using live cell imaging, we observed that the Rad50 hook mutants fail to be recruited to chromosomal DSBs, suggesting a novel mechanism underlying the severe defects observed for the Rad50 hook mutants. In vitro analysis showed that Zn2+ promotes wild type but not the hook mutant of MR to bind double-stranded DNA. In vivo, the Rad50 hook mutants are defective in being recruited to chromosomal DSBs in both H2AX-proficient and -deficient cells, suggesting that the Rad50 hook mutants are impaired in direct binding to chromosomal DSB ends. We propose that the Rad50 zinc hook domain is important for the initial binding of MRN to DSBs, leading to ATM activation to phosphorylate H2AX, which recruits more MRN to the DSB-flanking chromosomal regions. Our studies reveal a critical role for the Rad50 zinc hook domain in establishing and maintaining MRN recruitment to chromosomal DSBs and suggest an important mechanism of how the Rad50 zinc hook domain contributes to DNA repair and checkpoint activation.

He, Jing; Shi, Linda Z.; Truong, Lan N.; Lu, Chi-Sheng; Razavian, Niema; Li, Yongjiang; Negrete, Alejandro; Shiloach, Joseph; Berns, Michael W.; Wu, Xiaohua

2012-01-01

386

Rad50 zinc hook is important for the Mre11 complex to bind chromosomal DNA double-stranded breaks and initiate various DNA damage responses.  

PubMed

The Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex plays critical roles in checkpoint activation and double-stranded break (DSB) repair. The Rad50 zinc hook domain mediates zinc-dependent intercomplex associations of MRN, which is important for DNA tethering. Studies in yeast suggest that the Rad50 zinc hook domain is essential for MRN functions, but its role in mammalian cells is not clear. We demonstrated that the human Rad50 hook mutants are severely defective in various DNA damage responses including ATM (Ataxia telangiectasia mutated) activation, homologous recombination, sensitivity to IR, and activation of the ATR pathway. By using live cell imaging, we observed that the Rad50 hook mutants fail to be recruited to chromosomal DSBs, suggesting a novel mechanism underlying the severe defects observed for the Rad50 hook mutants. In vitro analysis showed that Zn(2+) promotes wild type but not the hook mutant of MR to bind double-stranded DNA. In vivo, the Rad50 hook mutants are defective in being recruited to chromosomal DSBs in both H2AX-proficient and -deficient cells, suggesting that the Rad50 hook mutants are impaired in direct binding to chromosomal DSB ends. We propose that the Rad50 zinc hook domain is important for the initial binding of MRN to DSBs, leading to ATM activation to phosphorylate H2AX, which recruits more MRN to the DSB-flanking chromosomal regions. Our studies reveal a critical role for the Rad50 zinc hook domain in establishing and maintaining MRN recruitment to chromosomal DSBs and suggest an important mechanism of how the Rad50 zinc hook domain contributes to DNA repair and checkpoint activation. PMID:22833675

He, Jing; Shi, Linda Z; Truong, Lan N; Lu, Chi-Sheng; Razavian, Niema; Li, Yongjiang; Negrete, Alejandro; Shiloach, Joseph; Berns, Michael W; Wu, Xiaohua

2012-09-14

387

Delaware River water quality Bristol to Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania, August 1949 to December 1963  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the 14-year period from August 1949 to July 1963, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Philadelphia, collected samples of river water once each month in the 43-mile reach of the Delaware River from Bristol to Marcus Hook, Pa., and daily at Trenton, 10 miles upstream from Bristol. This part of the Delaware is an estuary into which salt water is brought by tides; fresh water flows into the estuary at Trenton, NJ, and farther downstream from the Schuylkill River and other tributaries of the Delaware. In March, April, and May, when fresh-water flow is high, the average concentration of dissolved solids in the water at Bristol was 76 ppm (parts per million), and at Marcus Hook 112 PPM In August and September, streamflow is lower, and the average concentration of dissolved solids increased to 117 PPM at Bristol and 804 PPM at Marcus Hook. Major salinity invasions of the Delaware River occurred in 1949, 1953, 1954, 1957, and 1963. In each of these years the fresh-water flow into the tidal river at Trenton was low during the period from July to October. The greatest dissolved-solids concentrations in these monthly samples were 160 PPM at Bristol and 4,000 PPM at Marcus Hook. At times the dissolved-oxygen concentration of the river water has become dangerously low, especially in that reach of the river between Wharton Street and League Island. At the Benjamin Franklin Bridge, one-third of the samples of river water were less than 30 percent saturated with oxygen; however, no trend, either for better or for worse, was apparent during the 14-year period. It is useful now to summarize these monthly analyses for the period 1949-63 even though a much more detailed description of water quality in this reach of the estuary will soon become available through the use of recording instrumental conditions. This compendium of water-quality data is useful as an explicit statement of water quality during the 14-year study period and is valuable for directing attention to water-quality problems for selecting instrument sites, and for making comparative studies with the more detailed information which is already being obtained with the aid of recording instruments.

Keighton, W. B.

1965-01-01

388

Flavonol galactoside caffeiate ester and homoisoflavones from Caesalpinia millettii HOOK. et ARN.  

PubMed

Chemical examination of the stems of Caesalpinia millettii HOOK. et ARN. led to the isolation of new flavonol glycoside caffeiate ester (1) and homoisoflavone (2), along with four known homoisoflavones: eucomin (3), bonducellin (4), 8-methoxybonducellin (5) and intricatinol (6). The structures of 1 and 2 were established to be tamarixetin 3-O-(6''-O-E-caffeoyl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (1) and (Z)-7-hydroxy-8-methoxy-3-(4-methoxybenzyl) chroman-4-one (2) on the basis of detailed analyses of physical, chemical, and spectral data. Compounds 3-6 were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:17409566

Chen, Ping; Yang, Jun-Shan

2007-04-01

389

Lateral malleolus hook plate for comminuted Weber A and B fractures: A retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Background: The goal of managing the comminuted fracture of lateral malleolus is to restore length, rotation and alignment which might be more challenging with extensive comminution around the area of the distal tip. The common osteosynthesis techniques such as the one-third tubular plate, tension band wiring, K-wires, screws, or intramedullary nail may be insufficient in cases with a comminuted lateral malleolus. The anatomical hook plate is an alternative implant in such cases. We present our results of the comminuted lateral malleolar fractures (Weber A, B), managed by open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with an anatomical hook plate of lateral malleolus (Königsee Implant Company, Germany). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 20 patients of comminuted fracture of distal lateral malleolus between 2008 and 2010. There were 12 males and 8 females, right side was involved in 18 patients and left in 2. The mean age was 51.9 years (range 18-75 years). The fractures were categorized by Denis-Weber classification type A (n=1), B1 (n=1), B2 (n=13) and B3 (n=5). Nineteen cases were of closed injury and one of open injury (Gustilo Anderson type II). These patients underwent ORIF with a lateral malleolus anatomical hook plate. Followup including radiographs and clinical examinations were performed. The American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle hindfoot scores were documented at followups. Results: The mean followup was 21.4 months (range 16-27 months). The average AOFAS score was 94.3 (range 78-100) points. A stable anatomic reduction and bony union were obtained in all the cases. The average time was 3.1 months (range 2.5-4 months). Four cases had complications like posttraumatic osteoarthritis, hardware impingement and superficial wound infection. Conclusion: A reasonably good stability can be obtained in distal most comminuted fractures of lateral malleolus with a lateral malleolus anatomical hook plate. We believe this method to be a reasonable treatment option for a distal lateral comminuted malleolar fracture when other common fixations are insufficient to fix the fragments.

Zhenhua, Fang; Waizy, Hazibullah; Ming, Xie; Wusheng, Kan

2013-01-01

390

How reflected wave fronts dynamically establish Hooke's law in a spring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple benchtop experiment in which a moving cart collides with a fixed spring is described. Force-time and force-distance data recorded during the collision display the transit of compression wave fronts through the spring following impact. These data can be used by students to develop a computational model of the dynamics of this simple mass-spring-sensor system using a simple application of the wave equation and thereby develop an intriguing picture of how a spring realizes Hooke's law approximately in this dynamic physical problem.

Fahy, Stephen; O'Riordan, John; O'Sullivan, Colm; Twomey, Patrick

2012-03-01

391

Chemical constituents from Eucalyptus citriodora Hook leaves and their glucose transporter 4 translocation activities.  

PubMed

Bioassay-guided phytochemical investigation of the EtOAc fraction from the leaves of a Chinese medicinal herb, Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, resulted in the isolation of a new compound rhodomyrtosone E (1), along with 12 known compounds (2-13). The structure of the new compound was established by 1D and 2D NMR, MS data and X-ray crystallographic analysis. Betulinic acid (2) and corosolic acid (5) increased glucose transporter 4 (GLUT-4) translocation by 2.38 and 1.78-fold, respectively. PMID:24894556

Wang, Chao; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Ping; Zhou, Qi; Mei, Zhinan; Yang, Guangzhong; Yang, Xinzhou; Feng, Yunjiang

2014-07-15

392

Resistance of genetically different common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., families against experimental bacterial challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the differences in disease resistance against artificial infection with Aeromonas hydrophila between genetically different common carp families. Four strains differing in their origin and breeding history were selected from the live gene bank of common carp maintained at the Research Institute for Fisheries, Aquaculture and Irrigation (HAKI, Szarvas, Hungary) to establish families with wide genetic background: Szarvas 15 (15), an inbred mirror line; Tata (T) scaly noble carp; Duna (D), a Hungarian wild carp and Amur (A), an East Asian wild carp. A diallele mating structure was used to allow the assessment of genetic variation within and between the tested 96 families for a variety of traits. The existing technologies of fertilization and incubation of carp eggs, as well as larval and fingerling rearing had been modified because of the large number of baseline populations. Two challenge trials of the 96 families of carp with Aeromonas hydrophila were done. The 10 most resistant and 10 most susceptible families to A. hydrophila were identified from these two challenges. The crosses that produced the most resistant families were mainly those having parents from Tata and Szarvas 15 domesticated strains, while the most susceptible families were from the wild strains Duna and Amur. PMID:21118271

Jeney, G; Ardó, L; Rónyai, A; Bercsényi, M; Jeney, Z

2011-01-01

393

Investigation of Steven Impact Test Using a Transportation Hook Projectile with Gauged Experiments and 3D Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Steven Impact Test and associated modeling offer valuable practical predictions for evaluating numerous safety scenarios involving low velocity impact of energetic materials by different projectile geometries. One such scenario is the impact of energetic material by a transportation hook during shipping, which offers complexity because of the irregular hook projectile shape. Experiments were performed using gauged Steven Test targets with PBX9404 impacted by a transportation hook projectile to compliment previous non-gauged experiments that established an impact threshold of approximately 69 m/s. Modeling of these experiments was performed with LS-DYNA code using an Ignition and Growth reaction criteria with a friction term. Comparison of the experiment to the model shows reasonable agreement with some details requiring more attention. The experimental results (including carbon resistor gauge records), model calculations, and a discussion of the dominant reaction mechanisms in light of comparisons between experiment and model will be presented.

Vandersall, Kevin S.; Murty, Susarla S.; Chidester, Steven K.; Forbes, Jerry W.; Garcia, Frank; Greenwood, Daniel W.; Tarver, Craig M.

2004-07-01

394

[Surgical technique of displacement and retraction of the heart with a pigtail shaped hook and Tentacles Heart Positioner].  

PubMed

We describe a novel heart retracting system with Tentacles Heart Positioner (Sumitomo Bakelite, Tokyo) during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB). The heart retracting system is composed of a pigtail shaped hook attached to a flexible Universal Stabilizer Arm (Estech, Minneapolis). After Tentacles suction device is applied on the surface of the heart, the retracting system is fixed on the sternal retracter so that the hook can hang and support the retracting tubes of the sucker. By regulating the shape of the Universal Stabilizer Arm and the position of the hook, the retracting system can lift the heart sufficiently and maintain the optimal position of the heart during OPCAB procedure. Together with Tentacles Heart Positioner, the heart retracting system provides excellent exposure of target coronary arteries with minimal effect on hemodynamics. PMID:17642215

Shimamura, Yoshiei; Mochizuki, Y; Yamada, Y; Eda, K; Shibasaki, I; Inoue, Y; Miyoshi, S

2007-07-01

395

Differential regulation of MHCII genes by PRMT6, via an AT-hook motif of RFX5.  

PubMed

Major histocompatibility complexes class II are responsible for the antigen presentation that shapes the repertoire of the adaptive immune responses. All members of the MHCII family of genes are controlled by the same set of conserved transcription factors and promoter elements, resulting in coordinated transcription. We report the role of a previously unidentified AT-hook motif of the MHCII regulatory factor RFX5, and show that this is involved in regulating the transcription of the HLA-DQ, but not HLA-DR, MHCII isotype. Furthermore, PRMT6, an arginine methyltransferase known to methylate AT-hook motifs, downregulates the expression of HLA-DQ, but not HLA-DR, in an AT-hook-dependent manner. This can provide a fine-tuning mechanism for isotype-specific transcriptional regulation, where a post-translational modification modulates the relative levels of the MHCII isotypes. PMID:23911394

Stavride, Phoebe; Arampatzi, Panagiota; Papamatheakis, Joseph

2013-12-01

396

A consensus linkage map provides insights on genome character and evolution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) is cultured worldwide and is a major contributor to the world's aquaculture production. The common carp has a complex tetraploidized genome, which may historically experience additional whole genome duplication than most other Cyprinids. Fine maps for female and male carp were constructed using a mapping panel containing one F1 family with 190 progeny. A total of 1,025 polymorphic markers were used to construct genetic maps. For the female map, 559 microsatellite markers in 50 linkage groups cover 3,468 cM of the genome. For the male map, 383 markers in 49 linkage groups cover 1,811 cM of the genome. The consensus map was constructed by integrating the new map with two published linkage maps, containing 732 markers and spanning 3,278 cM in 50 linkage groups. The number of consensus linkage groups corresponds to the number of common carp chromosomes. A significant difference on sex recombinant rate was observed that the ratio of female and male recombination rates was 4.2:1. Comparative analysis was performed between linkage map of common carp and genome of zebrafish (Danio rerio), which revealed clear 2:1 relationship of common carp linkage groups and zebrafish chromosomes. The results provided evidence that common carp did experienced a specific whole genome duplication event comparing with most other Cyprinids. The consensus linkage map provides an important tool for genetic and genome study of common carp and facilitates genetic selection and breeding for common carp industry. PMID:23073608

Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Xianhu; Kuang, Youyi; Zhao, Zixia; Zhao, Lan; Li, Chao; Jiang, Li; Cao, Dingchen; Lu, Cuiyun; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen

2013-06-01

397

Two kinds of modification theory of light: Some new observations on the Newton-Hooke controversy of 1672 concerning the nature of light  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has not been sufficiently emphasized that there existed two kinds of modification theory of colours, Aristotle's modification theory and Descartes-Hook's modification theory. This seems to have caused some confusion in the interpretation of the optical controversy between Newton and Hooke in 1672. The aim of the present paper is to prove that these two kinds of modification theory really

Hideto Nakajima

1984-01-01

398

77 FR 13510 - Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 50 Feet (15.2 Meters) Length Overall Using Hook-and-Line...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Cod by Catcher Vessels Less Than 50 Feet (15.2 Meters) Length Overall Using Hook-and-Line...catcher vessels (CVs) less than 50 feet (15.2 meters (m)) in length overall (LOA...catch apportioned to CVs less than 50 feet (15.2 m) LOA using hook-and-line...

2012-03-07

399

Hook Benefit Evaluation on the Increase of Urban Construction Land and the Decrease of Rural Construction Land in the Suburbs of Chongqing City, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the socio-economic statistical data and the land use data of Jingguan Town in the year 2008, hook benefit evaluation index system suitable for the actual situation of research region is determined, based on the systematic analyses of the basic data of current status and the related information of hook in research region. Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method is adopted

Ke Wang; De-ti Xie; Chun-fang Huang; San Wang

2011-01-01

400

Temperature effect on antibody production and immunological memory, in carp (Cyprinus carpio) immunized against bovine serum albumin (BSA)  

PubMed Central

A group of carp were immunized with bovine serum albumin. The fish, kept at low temperature (12°) after initially being kept at high temperature (25°) for a short period following the first antigen stimulation, showed a rising titre of antibody. In contrast no circulating antibody was found in carp kept at 12°. This rising titre occurred whether they were transferred to low temperature before or after appearance of first circulating antibodies. The anamnestic response which occurred in carp kept at high temperature may also take place, under certain conditions, at low temperature.

Avtalion, R. R.

1969-01-01

401

Studies on mosquito larvicidal properties of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook (family-Myrtaceae).  

PubMed

Hexane extract obtained from leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook was tested against larvae of Anopheles stephensi Liston, Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti Linn to assess its toxicity and growth inhibiting activity. The results showed better activity of hexane extract against larvae of An. stephensi Liston as compared to the larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus Say and Ae. aegypti Linn. The LC50 values against IVth instar larvae of three species were 69.86, 81.12 & 91.76 ppm respectively after 24 hours and 26.7, 29.9 & 38.8 ppm respectively after 72 hours. At lowest concentration viz. 10 ppm, 73% larvae of An. stephensi Liston failed to emergence as adult mosquito while in Cx. quinquefasciatus Say and Ae. aegypti Linn only 10 & 6% larvae failed to emerge. Further observations showed some morphological abnormalities in same pupae which could not moult normally. These results clearly indicated growth inhibition effect of the hexane extract of Eucalyptus against mosquito larvae, particularly Anopheles species. Thus Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, which is commonly found in Northern India, has a great potential for the development of an eco-friendly herbal insecticidal product for control of mosquito breeding. PMID:18697593

Singh, R K; Dhiman, R C; Mittal, P K

2007-12-01

402

The unique structure of archaeal 'hami', highly complex cell appendages with nano-grappling hooks.  

PubMed

Proteinaceous, hair-like appendages known as fimbriae or pili commonly extend from the surface of prokaryotic cells and serve important functions such as cell adhesion, biofilm formation, motility and DNA transfer. Here we show that a novel group of archaea from cold, sulphidic springs has developed cell surface appendages of an unexpectedly high complexity with a well-defined base-to-top organization. It represents a new class of filamentous cell appendages, for which the term 'hamus' is proposed. Each archaeal cell is surrounded by a halo of about 100 hami, which mediate strong adhesion of the cells to surfaces of different chemical composition. The hami are mainly composed of 120 kDa subunits and remained stable in a broad temperature and pH range (0-70 degrees C; 0.5-11.5). Electron microscopy and cryo-electron tomography revealed that the hamus filament possesses a helical basic structure. At periodic distances, three prickles emanate from the filament, giving it the character of industrially produced barbwire. At its distal end the hami carry a tripartite, barbed grappling hook (60 nm in diameter). The architecture of this molecular hook is reminiscent of man-made fishhooks, grapples and anchors. It appears that nature has developed a perfect mechanical nano-tool in the course of biological evolution, which also might prove useful in the field of nanobiotechnology. PMID:15813730

Moissl, Christine; Rachel, Reinhard; Briegel, Ariane; Engelhardt, Harald; Huber, Robert

2005-04-01

403

A 15 nucleotide deletion mutation in coding region of the RIG-I lowers grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) resistance to grass carp reovirus.  

PubMed

RIG-I (Retinoic acid-inducible gene I) is a pivotal receptor that detects numerous RNA and DNA viruses and plays crucial roles in the induction of type I interferons. In the present study, a deletion mutation in CiRIG-I (Ctenopharyngodon idella RIG-I) coding region was detected, its association with resistance/susceptibility to grass carp reovirus (GCRV) was examined, and possible mechanism was analyzed. A 15-bp deletion mutation was found, and the mutation results in a deletion of five amino acids. To investigate the genotypes and alleles, the relevant PCR products were electrophoresed on 2.5% agarose gel. Three genotypes and two alleles were discovered. The general allele was named as A and the deletion mutation allele was named as B. The deletion mutation cancels a predicted phosphorylation site and changes the secondary structure and the probability of peroxisomal targeting signal 1 in CiRIG-I. To explore the correlation between these genotypes and the resistance of grass carp to GCRV, a challenge experiment was carried out. The cumulative mortality in genotype AA (40.70%) and AB (52.73%) was significantly lower than that in genotype BB (71.43%) (P = 0.032). The result demonstrated that genotype AA and AB were resistant to GCRV, while genotype BB was susceptible. The 15-bp deletion mutation lowers the resistance of grass carp to GCRV. This result might provide a potential genetic marker for further investigation of selective breeding of resistant grass carp to GCRV. PMID:22626563

Wan, Quanyuan; Su, Jianguo; Wang, Lan; Chen, Lijun; Chen, Xiaohui

2012-08-01

404

Identification and expression analysis of genes involved in early ovary development in diploid gynogenetic hybrids of red crucian carp x common carp.  

PubMed

Diploid eggs of allotetraploid hybrids (red crucian carp female symbol x common carp male symbol), when activated by UV-irradiated sperm of scatter scale carp, can develop into diploid progenies without chromosome duplication treatment. Diploid progenies produce diploid eggs, which develop into diploid population by the same way. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying the production of diploid eggs by the diploid fish, we constructed a forward suppression subtractive hybridization complementary DNA (cDNA) library. The cDNAs from the ovary in proliferation phase were employed as the "tester," and those in growth phase were used as the "driver." Seventy-three cDNA clones that are specifically expressed in proliferation phase were detected by dot-blot hybridization. Sequencing analyses revealed that several of these cDNAs have high homologies to the known sequences in the NCBI database. Their encoded proteins include the protein preventing mitosis catastrophe (PMC), the signal recognition particle 9, the ATP-binding cassette transporter, the glucanase-xylanase fusion protein, and others. These genes were confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The expression profile of the PMC gene at different time points was analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that the expression of this suppression subtractive hybridization-identified gene changed during the time course, corresponding with the cellular phenomenon in the ovary development. Our studies provide insights into the molecular mechanism underlying the ovary development of diploid gynogenetic fish. PMID:19609611

Liu, Dong; Liu, Shaojun; You, Cuiping; Chen, Lin; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Liangguo; Wang, Jing; Liu, Yun

2010-04-01

405

Location and timing of Asian carp spawning in the Lower Missouri River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We sampled for eggs of Asian carps, (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella) in 12 sites on the Lower Missouri River and in six tributaries from the months of May through July 2005 and May through June 2006 to examine the spatial and temporal dynamics of spawning activity. We categorized eggs into thirty developmental stages, but usually they could not be identified to species. We estimated spawning times and locations based on developmental stage, temperature dependent rate of development and water velocity. Spawning rate was higher in the daytime between 05:00 and 21:00 h than at night. Spawning was not limited to a few sites, as has been reported for the Yangtze River, where these fishes are native, but more eggs were spawned in areas of high sinuosity. We employ a sediment transport model to estimate vertical egg concentration profiles and total egg fluxes during spawning periods on the Missouri River. We did not identify substantial spawning activity within tributaries or at tributary confluences examined in this study.

Deters, Joseph E.; Chapman, Duane C.; McElroy, Brandon

2013-01-01

406

Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance in a Chronic Bacterial Infection of Koi Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty bacterial isolates were obtained from 20 common carp Cyprinus carpio of the strain known as koi during a 2-month disease outbreak. Thirteen were identified as Aeromonas hydrophila, 11 as A. sobria, 2 as A. caviae, 2 as Shewanella putrifaciens, and 1 each as Citrobacter freundii and Pseudomonas spp. Each isolate was tested for resistance to 13 antimicrobial compounds using

P. W. Taylor

2003-01-01

407

Transcriptome Analysis of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) by Paired-End RNA Sequencing  

PubMed Central

The silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) is among the most intensively pond-cultured fish species and is used in the wild to counteract water bloom in China. However, little genomic information is available for this species, especially regarding its ability to grow rapidly in water, even water contaminated with high concentrations of poisonous microcystin. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of the 17.10 million short-read sequences produced by the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. Using an improved multiple k-mer contig assembly method coupled with further scaffolding, 85 759 sequences were obtained. There were 23 044 sequences annotated with 3423 gene ontology terms for 104 196 term occurrences and the three corresponding organizing principles. A total of 38 200 assembled sequences were involved in 218 predicted Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes metabolic pathways. We also recovered 41 of 44 genes involved in the biosynthesis of glutathione. Of these, five genes were identified as experienced positive selection between silver carp and zebrafish, as determined by the likelihood ratio test. This report is the first annotated review of the silver carp transcriptome. These data will be of interest to researchers investigating the evolution and biological processes of the silver carp. This work also provides an archive for future studies of recent speciation and evolution of Cyprinidae fishes and can be used in comparative studies of other fishes.

Fu, Beide; He, Shunping

2012-01-01

408

Does Age (Really) Matter? A Response to Manning, Carroll, and Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

,Direct correspondence to Lee Epstein, Edward Mallinckrodt Distinguished University Professor of Political Science and Professor of Law, Washington University, Campus Box 1063, St. Louis, MO 63130 hepstein@artsci. wustl. edui. Andrew D. Martin is Assistant Professor of Political Science at Washington University in St. Louis. We thank Robert Carp, Kenneth Manning, and Bruce Carroll for supplying us with their data. We

Lee Epstein; Andrew D. Martin

2004-01-01

409

Cloning, characterization and expression of the LECT2 gene in grass carp.  

PubMed

An expressed sequence tag of grass carp leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2) gene was screened from an established intestinal cDNA library. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends gave rise to a full-length LECT2 cDNA (gcLECT2) with a complete open-reading frame of 474 bp, encoding 158 amino acids about 17.9 kDa. Homology search and sequence alignment showed that this deduced protein sequence shared a high identity with LECT2 from other vertebrates. Western blotting indicated immunological cross-reactivity occurs between grass carp and human LECT2 protein. This gcLECT2 genomic sequence is 1,868 bp in size, which consists of five exons and four introns. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that gcLECT2 gene is ubiquitously expressed in different tissues of healthy grass carp including brain, gut, liver, spleen, kidney, muscle and heart, while the expression levels were significantly increased in liver and spleen followed by Aeromonas salmonicida infection. 992 bp 5'-flanking region sequence was cloned and analyzed, where one CAAT box and one GC island were found. Our results showed that the LECT2 is suggested to be most possibly involved in the grass carp's immune response. PMID:23129417

Yuan, Tian; Li, Chuang; Gu, Ji-Rui; Fu, Yue-Jun; Xu, Heng

2013-08-01

410

Effects of atrazine and chlorpyrifos on cytochrome P450 in common carp liver.  

PubMed

Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF), widely used in agriculture, have resulted in a series of toxicological and environmental problems. We investigated the activities of the biotransformation enzymes ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (PROD), total cytochrome P450 (CYP), CYP1A mRNA level and level of tissue ATR, CPF, and their metabolites in the liver of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after a 40-d exposure to CPF and ATR, alone or in combination, and a 20-d recovery. In the present study, juvenile common carp was exposed to ATR (at concentrations of 4.28, 42.8 and 428 ?g L(-1)), CPF (1.16, 11.6 and 116 ?g L(-1)), and ATR/CPF mixture (at concentrations of 1.13, 11.3 and 113 ?g L(-1)). A general increasing trend for the activity of the biotransformation enzymes (EROD and PROD), CYP and CYP1A mRNA level was observed in the liver of common carp exposed to ATR, CPF and the ATR/CPF mixture. In addition, ATR, CPF, and their metabolites demonstrated a high accumulation in the liver. These results demonstrated that the CYP system in fish could be used as a biomarkers in evaluating the impact of ATR and CPF exposure on the common carp. PMID:24530164

Xing, Houjuan; Zhang, Ziwei; Yao, Haidong; Liu, Tao; Wang, Liangliang; Xu, Shiwen; Li, Shu

2014-06-01

411

EFFECTS OF VAGAL SENSORY INPUT ON THE BREATHING RHYTHM OF THE CARP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Electrical stimulation of an epibranchial vagal ganglion, which innervates the gill region, had a marked influence on the respiratory rhythm of the carp Cyprinus carpio. Vagal input could initiate ventilation in fish displaying intermittent respiration. In fish breathing steadily, vagal stimuli could reset the respiratory rhythm by modifying the existing breathing cycle. An increase of stimulus intensity evoked a

B. L. ROBERTS

1991-01-01

412

Selective breeding for stress response in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using androgenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the thesis was to explore the genetic background of stress response in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and produce homozygous and heterozygous isogenic strains with divergent stress responses. As stressor a rapid temperature decrease (= cold shock) was used. As a preparatory step, a number of experiments were carried out to 1) investigate the validity of

M. Tanck

2000-01-01

413

Proceedings of the Grass Carp Symposium Held at Gainesville, Florida on March 7-9,1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A symposium was held in Gainesville on March 7-9, 1994, to discuss the effects of stocking grass carp for aquatic plant control. The purpose of the workshop was to provide information related to the concern for habitat protection and the suitability of us...

1994-01-01

414

Fat absorption by the enterocytes of the carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the carp, the absorption of fat from the food occurs at the level of the enterocytes of the proximal region of the intestine. The absorbed fat gives rise to the presence of two forms of inclusions: lipid particles and lipid droplets. These two forms, whose precise significance is unknown, definitely play different roles in fat absorption. Only lipid particles

J. Noaillac-Depeyre; N. Gas

1974-01-01

415

Rulemaking to List Black Carp Under Lacey Act. Economic Analysis.(Rebvised 2007).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service published a final rule to add live black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) to the list of injurious wildlife under the Lacey Act. An injurious wildlife listing will prohibit the importation and interstate transport of all bl...

2007-01-01

416

POTENTIAL OF CARP TO BIOACTIVATE BENZO[A]PYRENE TO METABOLITES THAT BIND TO DNA  

EPA Science Inventory

We have investigated the formation of DNA adducts in starved, fed, and 5,6-benzoflavone-pretreated carp following i.p. administration of benzo(a)pyrene. 32p-postlabeling analysis of the liver DNAs showed the presence of one predominant (>92%) adduct in all three groups. ochromato...

417

Toxicity of crude oil to the metabolism of freshwater minor carp, Puntius sophore  

SciTech Connect

The effects of crude oil on the rate of metabolism in freshwater fishes have been little investigated. In the present investigation, the respiration rate in vitro and overall QO/sub 2/ in vivo of a freshwater minor carp Puntius sophore has been measured after exposing the fish to the lethal and sublethal doses of crude oil extracts for varying periods.

Prasad, M.S.

1987-08-01

418

BIOAVAILABILITY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS FROM CONTAMINATED WISCONSIN RIVER SEDIMENT TO CARP  

EPA Science Inventory

The bioavailability of 2,3,7,8-TCDD from sediment to freshwater fish was studied in laboratory exposures. Carp (10g) exposed to Wisconsin River sediment (39pg/g) for 55 days accumulated 7.5 pg/g. Maintaining exposured fish in clean water for an additional 205 days resulted in dep...

419

Comparison of three plant substrates for enhancing carp growth through bacterial biofilm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three plant substrates, sugarcane bagasse, paddy straw and dried Eichhornea, were compared for enhancing fish growth through bacterial biofilm development. The substrates were suspended in water supplemented with cowdung and urea. For comparison, control cisterns applied with only cowdung and urea were maintained. The cisterns were stocked with common carp (Cyprirrus carpio) and rohu (Labeo rohita) fingerlings at 10?000 ha?1.

M. R Ramesh; K. M Shankar; C. V Mohan; T. J Varghese

1999-01-01

420

Predation on Zebra Mussels ('Dreissena polymorpha') by Common Carp ('Cyprinus carpio'). Long Term Resource Monitoring Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors examined the gut contents of 31 common carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected at Mississippi River Mile 217 in August 1995 for evidence of predation on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). They found between 1 and 407 zebra mussel beaks in 83.9% of...

J. K. Tucker F. A. Cronin D. W. Soergel C. H. Theiling

1997-01-01

421

MONTHLY VARIATION IN SPERM MOTILITY IN COMMON CARP ASSESSED USING COMPUTER-ASSISTED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA)  

EPA Science Inventory

Sperm motility variables from the milt of the common carp Cyprinus carpio were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system across several months (March-August 1992) known to encompass the natural spawning period. Two-year-old pond-raised males obtained each mo...

422

Artificial Diets for Common Carp: Effect of the Addition of Enzyme Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment on feeding the larvae of carp (Cyprinus carpio) with an artificial diet is described, and 3 previous years of study are briefly summarized. When extracts offish digestive enzymes from hepatopancreas and intestine were added to the diet processed by freeze-drying, growth and survival of the larvae were better than in our previous experiments, but not as good as

Henryka Dabrowska; Czeslaw Grudniewski; Konrad Dabrowski

1979-01-01

423

Chronic toxicity of nonylphenol and ethinylestradiol: haematological and histopathological effects in juvenile Common carp ( Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent ecotoxicological research, there is an increasing concern about alkylphenolic industrial chemicals, such as nonylphenol (NP), because of their estrogenic properties. Data on the general fish toxicity of these wide spread aquatic pollutants are scarce. In order to evaluate sublethal toxic effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of NP, juvenile Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to NP concentrations ranging

J. Schwaiger; O. H Spieser; C. Bauer; H. Ferling; U. Mallow; W. Kalbfus; R. D. Negele

2000-01-01

424

Biology and host response to Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infection in common carp.  

PubMed

Viruses from the family Alloherpesviridae form an aquatic clade of herpesviruses infecting fish and amphibia. Diseases caused by these herpesviruses are of increasing importance because of the high morbidity and mortality associated with the infection, and the difficulties in diagnosing latently infected carriers. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) induces a severe disease and mortality in common carp and thus greatly affects carp aquaculture and trade. This review summarises advancements in the understanding of the infection process and the current knowledge on immune responses of carp to CyHV-3. A focus is laid on host genetics and immunity responsible for resistance/survival from the disease and on the viral mechanisms accountable for evasion of carp immune responses. As current knowledge of immune responses to CyHV-3 is still limited, perspectives for future studies are outlined. Analysing CyHV-3 fish-host interactions will be useful and thought-provoking for a basic understanding of fish immune responses. PMID:23981329

Adamek, Miko?aj; Steinhagen, Dieter; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Hikima, Jun-ichi; Jung, Tae-Sung; Aoki, Takashi

2014-04-01

425

Genetic analysis of two common carp broodstocks by RAPD and microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The whole broodstock of two Hungarian common carp farms—80 and 196 individuals—was analyzed by using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay and microsatellite analysis. Ten polymorphic RAPD markers and four microsatellites were selected to genotype both of the stocks. As expected, microsatellite analysis revealed more detailed information on genetic diversities than RAPD assay. Results obtained with both types of DNA

Richárd Bártfai; Sándor Egedi; Gen Hua Yue; Balázs Kovács; Béla Urbányi; Gizella Tamás; László Horváth; László Orbán

2003-01-01

426

Estimation of essential fatty acid requirements of common carp larvae using semi?purified artificial diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two trials were conducted with duplicate groups of (first feeding) carp larvae fed artificial dry diets based on casein and dextrin over 21 or 25 days. One control diet based on yeast was also tested. Survival, growth and fatty acid profiles of larvae were studied.In trial 1, (n?3) fatty acid requirement was estimated using diets supplemented or not with methyl