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1

The primary culture of mirror carp snout and caudal fin tissues and the isolation of Koi herpesvirus.  

PubMed

The explosive Koi herpesvirus (KHV) epidemic has caused the deaths of a large number of carp and carp variants and has produced serious economic losses. The mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio var. specularis) exhibits strong environmental adaptability and its primary cells can be used to isolate KHV. This study utilized the tissue explant method to systematically investigate primary cell culture conditions for mirror carp snout and caudal fin tissues. We demonstrated that cells from these two tissue types had strong adaptability, and when cultured in Medium 199 (M199) containing 20% serum at 26 to 30°C, the cells from the snout and caudal fin tissues exhibited the fastest egress and proliferation. Inoculation of these two cell types with KHV-infected fish kidney tissues produced typical cytopathic effects; additionally, identification by electron microscopy, and PCR indicated that KHV could be isolated from both cell types. PMID:23893087

Zhou, Jingxiang; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Xia; Li, Xingwei; Lv, Wenliang; Zhang, Dongming

2013-07-27

2

Comparative analysis and evolutionary significance of the HMG1 gene in crucian carp, blunt snout bream, and their polyploid progeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

The full-length mRNA of the high mobility group protein 1 coding gene (HMG1) was obtained by RACE-PCR from red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.), blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), and their triploid and tetraploid progeny. The sequence contained an open reading frame of 579 nucleotides coding for 193 amino acids. The nucleotide identity of HMG1 was higher between the

Dong Liu; Zhen Liu; Shaojun Liu; Liangguo Liu; Cuiping You; Lin Chen; Huan Zhong; Yun Liu

2009-01-01

3

Comparative analysis of mitochondrial control region in polyploid hybrids of red crucian carp ( Carassius auratus ) × blunt snout bream ( Megalobrama amblycephala )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The entire sequences of the mitochondrial (mt)DNA control region (CR) and portions of its flanking genes in the red crucian\\u000a carp (RC) and blunt snout bream (BSB) as well as their polyploid hybrids (3nRB, 4nRB and 5nRB) were determined and subjected\\u000a to a comparative analysis. The mtDNA-CRs of these five fish species ranged from 923 to 937 bp in length, they

Jinpeng Yan; Liangguo Liu; Shaojun Liu; Xinhong Guo; Yun Liu

2010-01-01

4

Comparative analysis of mitochondrial control region in polyploid hybrids of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus) x blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).  

PubMed

The entire sequences of the mitochondrial (mt)DNA control region (CR) and portions of its flanking genes in the red crucian carp (RC) and blunt snout bream (BSB) as well as their polyploid hybrids (3nRB, 4nRB and 5nRB) were determined and subjected to a comparative analysis. The mtDNA-CRs of these five fish species ranged from 923 to 937 bp in length, they had the same flanking gene arrangement as other vertebrates and the pattern of nucleotide substitution bias was also similar to that in other vertebrates. Our data are consistent with the viewpoint of three domains [extended terminal associated sequence (ETAS domain), central conserved sequence block domain and conserved sequence block (CSB) domain] within the mtDNA-CR of mammals. On the basis our comparative analysis of the mtDNA-CRs of these five fish species, we were able to identify the consensus sequences of functional conserved units, including the ETAS, CSB-F, CSB-D, CSB-E, CSB1, CSB2 and CSB3 and putative promoter. The percentage of variable nucleotide positions (41.98%) in the central domain was lower than those in the ETAS and conserved domain (71.70 and 47.12%, respectively), suggesting that the central domain was the most conserved part of the mtDNA-CR. These results provide useful and important information for the further study of mtDNA-CR structure in fish. The sequence similarities of mtDNA-CR among the 3nRB, 4nRB, 5nRB hybrids and their respective female parents were higher than those among the 3nRB, 4nRB, 5nRB hybrids and their respective male parents, providing the direct evidence of stringent maternal inheritance of mtDNA-CR in the 3nRB, 4nRB and 5nRB hybrids. PMID:18815893

Yan, Jinpeng; Liu, Liangguo; Liu, Shaojun; Guo, Xinhong; Liu, Yun

2008-09-25

5

Induction of Gynogenesis in Japanese Crucian Carp ( Carassius cuvieri)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diploid gynogenesis was induced in Japanese crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri) eggs using UV-irradiated genetically inactive spermatozoa from mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) or blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), with or without cold shock. The optimal radiation dosage was 4200 mJ\\/cm2 and 3600 mJ\\/cm2 for mirror carp and blunt snout bream sperm, respectively. At this dosage and without cold shock, the

Yuan-Dong SUN; Chun ZHANG; Shao-Jun LIU; Min TAO; Chen ZENG; Yun LIU

2006-01-01

6

[The description of Gyrodactylus mulli sp. n. (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) from the Black Sea blunt-snouted mullet Mullus barbatus ponticus].  

PubMed

A new species Gyrodactylus mulli sp. n. is described from the thorax fins of blunt-snouted mullet Mullus barbatus ponticus by the collections of B. E. Bychowsky made in 1947 near Karadag on the Black Sea. Gyrodactylus mulli sp. n. differs from G. alviga Dmitrieva et Gerasev, 2000 (described from blunt-snouted mullet too) in having another morphotype of the marginal hooks. The new species differs from G. proterorhini Ergens, 1967, which has the identical type of the marginal hooks, in having longer membrane of the ventral connective bar, longer point of the anchors, shorter marginal hooks, and lesser size of the cirrus. PMID:16134789

Geracev, P I; Dmitieva, E V

7

Speciation of polyploid Cyprinidae fish of common carp, crucian carp, and silver crucian carp derived from duplicated Hox genes.  

PubMed

Recent studies on comparative genomics have suggested that a round of fish-specific whole genome duplication (3R) in ray-finned fishes might have occurred around 226-316 Mya. Additional genome duplication, specifically in cyprinids, may have occurred more recently after the divergence of the teleosts. The timing of this event, however, is unknown. To address this question, we sequenced four Hox genes from taxa representing the polyploid Cyprinidae fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio, 2n=100), crucian carp (Carassius auratus auratus, 2n=100), and silver crucian carp (C. auratus gibelio, 2n=156), and then compared them with known sequences from the diploid Cyprinidae fish, blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala, 2n=48). Our results showed the presence of two distinct Hox duplicates in the genomes of common and crucian carp. Three distinct Hox sequences, one of them orthologous to a Hox gene in common carp and the other two orthologous to a Hox gene in crucian carp, were isolated in silver crucian carp, indicating a possible hybrid origin of silver crucian carp from crucian and common carp. The gene duplication resulting in the origin of the common ancestor of common and crucian carp likely occurred around 10.9-13.2 Mya. The speciations of common vs. crucian carp and silver crucian vs. crucian carp likely occurred around 8.1-11.4 and 2.3-3.0 Mya, respectively. Finally, nonfunctionalization resulting from point mutations in the coding region is a probable fate for some Hox duplicates. Taken together, these results suggested an evolutionary model for polyploidization in speciation and diversification of polyploid fish. PMID:20700889

Yuan, Jian; He, Zhuzi; Yuan, Xiangnan; Jiang, Xiayun; Sun, Xiaowen; Zou, Shuming

2010-09-15

8

Silver Carp  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Silver carp are a large a troublesome invasive species from Asia found in the great rivers of the central United States. Silver carp have been observed to jump in response to rocks thrown in the water, passing trains, geese taking off from the water, or just when they unexpectedly find themselves in...

2010-03-25

9

Reproduction mode of an artificial allotetraploid carp (Pisces; Cyprinidae).  

PubMed

Mature eggs of allotetraploid carp were activated by inactive sperm or crossed with normal sperms of common carp (Cyprinus carpio), crucian carp (Carassius auratus), Chinese blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), Hemiculter leucisculus and Pseudorasbora parva. Chromosome counts showed that all offspring of these crosses presented a mode number of 200 chromosomes (4n = 200), and their morphological traits are much like maternal. Microsatelite marker and RAPD patterns between allotetraploid maternal and its offspring, reproduced from different paternal species, were identical. Cytological, morphological and molecular evidences suggested that allotetraploid carp female nucleus would not fuse with any male nucleus and its reproduction mode might be gynogenesis and therefore their offspring are retaining their tetraploidy and give origin to clonal individuals. PMID:12627840

Ye, Yuzhen; Zhou, Jianfeng; Wang, Xiaohu; Wu, Qingjiang

2002-01-01

10

Lunar crane hook  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The base and ball hook system is an attachment that is designed to be used on the lunar surface as an improved alternative to the common crane hook and eye system. The design proposed uses an omni-directional ball hook and base to overcome the design problems associated with a conventional crane hook. The base and ball hook is not sensitive to cable twist which would render a robotic lunar crane useless since there is little atmospheric resistance to dampen the motion of an oscillating member. The symmetric characteristics of the ball hook and base eliminates manual placement of the ball hook into the base; commonly associated with the typical hook and eye stem. The major advantage of the base and ball hook system is it's ease of couple and uncouple modes that are advantages during unmanned robotic lunar missions.

Cash, John Wilson, III; Cone, Alan E.; Garolera, Frank J.; German, David; Lindabury, David Peter; Luckado, Marshall Cleveland; Murphey, Craig; Rowell, John Bryan; Wilkinson, Brad

1988-06-01

11

OCT construct with hooks  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. OCT construct with hooks Page 2. OCT construct with hooks Page 3. OCT construct with lateral mass screws Page 4. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

12

Hooke as Geologist  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mr. ROSSITER does well to underline the early date of Hooke's geological work, but he might have gone further. For example, Hooke's observations on petrified wood, read before the Royal Society on June 17, 1663, were published in John Evelyn's ``Sylva'' (1664, pp. 96-7) as well as in ``Micrographia'' (1665), where Hooke also briefly outlined his views on fossils and

W. N. Edwards

1936-01-01

13

Fish cell lines: Establishment and characterization of three new cell lines from grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Three new cell lines were established from tissues of the grass carp,Ctenopharyngodon idella. Derived from the fin, snout, and swim bladder of two apparently healthy diploid fry, these cell lines have been designated\\u000a GCF, GCS-2, and GCSB, respectively. The cells grew at temperatures between 24° and 36° C with optimal growth at 32° C and\\u000a have been subcultured more than

Yuanan Lu; C. N. Lannan; J. S. Rohovec; J. L. Fryer

1990-01-01

14

Quick Acting Hook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The manually maneuvered, normally open hook automatically closes upon contact with an object to be held and is adapted to be manually released and controlled by a lanyard when the load is removed. The use of such a hook is particularly applicable to boat ...

M. O. Miller

1965-01-01

15

Genetic improvement of the herbivorous blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selection experiments with the herbivorous blunt snout bream or Wuchang bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) were started in 1985. Mass selection for size and length\\/depth ratio resulted in a significant increase in growth and better shape, while inbreeding led to a significant decrease in growth. The total selection ratio from fry to mature brooders was about 0.03 per cent per generation. In

S. F. Li; W. Q. Cai

2003-01-01

16

HookFinder: Identifying and Understanding Malware Hooking Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Installing various hooks into the victim system is an important attacking strategy used by malware, including spyware, rootkits, stealth backdoors, and others. In order to evade detection, malware writers are exploring new hooking mechanisms. For example, a stealth kernel backdoor, deepdoor, has been demonstrated to successfully evade all existing hook detectors. Unfortunately, the stat e of the art of malware

Heng Yin; Zhenkai Liang; Dawn Song

2008-01-01

17

[Comparative studies on gene expression of isozymes in 4 types of various ploidy crucian carp during embryogenesis].  

PubMed

Isozyme zymograms of esterase (EST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were analysed by polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis at different developmental stages of embryogenesis in 4 types of various ploidy crucian carp embryos, including haploids, diploids, natural triploids, and multiple tetraploids, and 2 types of haploid and diploid common carp embryos. Haploid embryos of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were produced by treating eggs with UV-irradiated milt from blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). Natural triploid embryos were obtained from the eggs of gynogenetic silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) inseminated with milt from red common carp. Multiple tetraploid embryos were also produced by gynogenesis from eggs of the newly discovered multiple tetraploid females inseminated with milt from red common carp. Gradient gel electrophoresis indicated that the band types and staining intensity of 4 isozymes expressed in haploid embryos of crucian carp and red common carp were similar to that in the correlative diploid embryos. In natural triploid silver crucian carp embryos, the zymograms of MDH and SOD isozymes were identical with that of diploid crucian carp embryos, but the EST and LDH isozymes manifested more new enzyme bands in comparison with diploid embryos. The corresponding expressed products of some bands in the triploid embryos, such as EST5 and EST6, could be observed also in red common carp embryos, which provided evidence for hybrid origin about the gynogenetic fish. The multiple tetraploids incorporated one foreign genome of red common carp, therefore, the effects of genes from the foreign genome could be observed in the multiple tetraploid embryos. Gene expression of the isozymes in the tetraploid embryos was somewhat similar to that in hybrids. Owing to interaction of triploid silver crucian carp genomes and common carp haploid genome, some isozyme bands, such as EST5 and EST6, changed in quantity, and some bands increased, such as s-SOD1, s-SOD2, s-SOD3 and s-SOD4 in the tetraploid embryos. Moreover, the heterogeneity was revealed among embryos developed from gynogenetic eggs of 3 different multiple tetraploid individuals. PMID:12016959

Zhu, L F; Gui, J F

1998-12-01

18

Reflections on Sandy Hook  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author shares his thoughts for district administrators regarding the Sandy Hook Elementary school tragedy. Administrators heard a lot of potential solutions or attempts at solutions. However, these proposals raise lengthy lists of implementation questions and issues that illustrate a lack of understanding of school…

Trump, Kenneth S.

2013-01-01

19

Reflections on Sandy Hook  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author shares his thoughts for district administrators regarding the Sandy Hook Elementary school tragedy. Administrators heard a lot of potential solutions or attempts at solutions. However, these proposals raise lengthy lists of implementation questions and issues that illustrate a lack of understanding of school operations,…

Trump, Kenneth S.

2013-01-01

20

Cranial sexual discrimination in hatchling broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) hatchlings present a consistent sexual dimorphism in their cranium shape and size. Male hatchlings have smaller crania than females. Using multivariate statistical analyses it is possible to discriminate sex in broad- snouted caiman hatchlings by their cranial shape with a reasonable efficiency. The understanding of sexual dimorphism of crocod ilian hatchlings might be possibly improved by

Carlos Piña; Alejandro Larriera; Pablo Siroski; Luciano M. Verdade

2007-01-01

21

Hooke's figurations: a figural drawing attributed to Robert Hooke.  

PubMed

The experimental philosopher Robert Hooke (1635-1703) is known to have apprenticed to the leading painter Peter Lely on his first arrival in London in the late 1640s. Yet the relevance of Hooke's artistic training to his mature draughtsmanship and identity has remained unclear. Shedding light on that larger interpretive problem, this article argues for the attribution to Hooke of a figural drawing now in Tate Britain (T10678). This attributed drawing is especially interesting because it depicts human subjects and bears Hooke's name functioning as an artistic signature, both highly unusual features for his draughtsmanship. From evidence of how this drawing was collected and physically placed alongside images by leading artists in the early eighteenth century, I suggest how it can offer new insight into the reception of Hooke and his graphic work in the early Enlightenment. PMID:20973449

Hunter, Matthew C

2010-09-20

22

An approach to Hooke's law  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usefulness of Hooke's law extends from elementary to very advanced levels of physics. However, in many cases this law is not clearly presented at the school level. Indeed, sometimes it is simply misrepresented (Farrell 1976). When relating Hooke's law for bulk matter to the nature of interatomic forces, textbooks normally use the potential energy curve as a function of

J. Mwanje

1980-01-01

23

Use of Eyeballs for Establishing Ploidy of Asian Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and bighead carp H. nobilis are now established and relatively common in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers. Commercial fishers of Louisiana's large rivers report recurrent catches of grass carp, and the frequency of bighead carp and silver carp catch is increasing. Twelve black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus were recently captured from the Mississippi

Jill A. Jenkins; R. Glenn Thomas

2007-01-01

24

Mechanics of plant fruit hooks.  

PubMed

Hook-like surface structures, observed in some plant species, play an important role in the process of plant growth and seed dispersal. In this study, we developed an elastic model and further used it to investigate the mechanical behaviour of fruit hooks in four plant species, previously measured in an experimental study. Based on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, the force-displacement relationship is derived, and its Young's modulus is obtained. The result agrees well with the experimental data. The model aids in understanding the mechanics of hooks, and could be used in the development of new bioinspired Velcro-like materials. PMID:23365190

Chen, Qiang; Gorb, Stanislav N; Gorb, Elena; Pugno, Nicola

2013-01-30

25

Properties of Carp Photoreceptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mass photoreceptor response of the isolated carp retina was studied after immersing the tissue in aspartate-Ringer solution. Two electro- retinogram components were isolated by differential depth recording: a fast cornea-negative wave, arising in the receptor layer, and a slow, cornea-negative wave arising at some level proximal to the photoreceptors. Only the fast com- ponent was investigated further. In complete

P. WITKOVSKY; J. NELSON; H. RIPPS

26

Pluralistic ignorance and Hooking up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hooking up “—when two people agree to engage in sexual behavior for which there is no future commitment—has become popular on college campuses. In this study we examined the extent to which pluralistic ignorance affects hooking up. One hundred thirty?six female and 128 male college students answered questions regarding their own comfort and their perceived peers'comfort in engaging in a

Tracy A. Lambert; Arnold S. Kahn; Kevin J. Apple

2003-01-01

27

High-jumping Silver Carp  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Silver carp are a large a troublesome invasive species from Asia found in the great rivers of the central United States. Silver carp have been observed to jump in response to rocks thrown in the water, passing trains, geese taking off from the water, or just when they unexpectedly find themselves in...

2010-03-25

28

Molecular characterization of glutathione peroxidase gene from the liver of silver carp, bighead carp and grass carp.  

PubMed

The cDNAs encoding glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were cloned and sequenced from the liver of three Chinese carps with different tolerance to hepatotoxic microcystins, phytoplanktivorous silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), and herbivorous grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). Using genome walker method, a 750 bp 5'-flanking region of the silver carp GPx gene was obtained, and several potential regulatory elements were identified in the promoter region of the GPx gene. The silver carp GPx gene was widely expressed in all tissues examined. Despite phylogenetic analysis, assigning this newly described carp GPx to the group of mammalian GPx2, the carp GPx seems more similar to GPx1 from a physiological point of view. The constitutive expression pattern of the three carp liver GPx gene, shows a positive relationship with their tolerance to microcystins. PMID:18377723

Li, Guang-Zhao; Liang, Xu-Fang; Yao, Wei; Liao, Wan-Qin; Zhu, Wei-Feng

2008-03-31

29

Robert Hooke's model of memory.  

PubMed

In 1682 the scientist and inventor Robert Hooke read a lecture to the Royal Society of London, in which he described a mechanistic model of human memory. Yet few psychologists today seem to have heard of Hooke's memory model. The lecture addressed questions of encoding, memory capacity, repetition, retrieval, and forgetting--some of these in a surprisingly modern way. Hooke's model shares several characteristics with the theory of Richard Semon, which came more than 200 years later, but it is more complete. Among the model's interesting properties are that (1) it allows for attention and other top-down influences on encoding; (2) it uses resonance to implement parallel, cue-dependent retrieval; (3) it explains memory for recency; (4) it offers a single-system account of repetition priming; and (5) the power law of forgetting can be derived from the model's assumptions in a straightforward way. PMID:12747488

Hintzman, Douglas L

2003-03-01

30

21 CFR 868.5420 - Ether hook.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5420 Ether hook. (a) Identification. An ether hook is a device...

2013-04-01

31

Centrosomes: hooked on the nucleus.  

PubMed

A recent study has shown that the Hook protein ZYG-12 of Caenorhabditis elegans is essential for attachment of the centrosome to the nucleus. The results suggest a novel mechanism for the tight coupling between these two organelles, and shed new light on its biological significance. PMID:15062118

Gönczy, Pierre

2004-04-01

32

A new Hooke's law experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this note we propose an alternative approach to the experimental study of Hooke's law that takes into account the variation of the elastic constant as a function of the initial length of the spring. We also present an adequate methodology to develop the analysis of graphics that students will obtain in a laboratory when they follow the new method

Fabio Menezes de Souza Lima; Gustavo Mulim Venceslau; Eliano Dos Reis Nunes

2002-01-01

33

Covariant Formulation of Hooke's Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introducing a four-vector strain and a four-force stress, Hooke's law is written as a four-vector equation. This formulation is shown to clarify seemingly paradoxical results in connection with uniformly accelerated motion, and rotational motion with angular acceleration. (Author/JN)

Gron, O.

1981-01-01

34

A new Hooke's law experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this note we propose an alternative approach to the experimental study of Hooke's law that takes into account the variation of the elastic constant as a function of the initial length of the spring. We also present an adequate methodology to develop the analysis of graphics that students will obtain in a laboratory when they follow the new method suggested here.

Menezes de Souza Lima, Fabio; Venceslau, Gustavo Mulim; Nunes, Eliano Dos Reis

2002-01-01

35

Hooke, Robert (1635-1703)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientist, born in Freshwater, Isle of Wight, England, educated at Christ Church College, Oxford where he met Boyle and was employed by him to construct his air pump, became professor of geometry at Gresham College, London. Discovered Hooke's law of elasticity. Worked on optics, simple harmonic motion and elasticity in strings. Published a monograph called Micrographia, containing beautiful pict...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

36

Some Peculiarities of Newton-Hooke Spacetimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Newton-Hooke spacetimes are the nonrelativistic limit of (anti-)de Sitter spacetimes. We investigate some peculiar facts about the Newton-Hooke spacetimes, among which the "extraordinary Newton-Hooke quantum mechanics" and the "anomalous Newton-Hooke spacetimes" are discussed in detail. Analysis on the Lagrangian/action formalism is performed in the discussion of the Newton-Hooke quantum mechanics, where the path integral point of view plays an important role, and the physically measurable density of probability is clarified.

Tian, Yu

37

Variable Spaced Grating (VSG) Snout, Rotator and Rails for use at LLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Variable Spaced Grating (VSG) is a spectrometer snout mounted to an X-Ray Framing Camera (XRFC) through the Unimount flange. This equipment already exists and is used at the University of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) facility. The XRFC and the Unimount flange are designed by LLE. The Tilt Rotator fixture that mounts next to the XRFC and the

S K Mukherjee; J A Emig; L V Griffith; R F Heeter; F A House; D L James; M B Schneider; C M Sorce

2010-01-01

38

Characterization of allergens isolated from the freshwater fish blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).  

PubMed

Fish are an important source of dietary protein for humans throughout the world. However, they are recognized as one of the most common food allergens and pose a serious health problem in countries where fish consumption is high. Many marine fish allergens have been extensively studied, but relatively little is known about freshwater fish allergens. This study identified two main allergens from blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), a freshwater fish widely consumed in China. Sera from 11 patients with convincing clinical history of blunt snout bream allergy were utilized in IgE immunoblot analysis to identify prominent allergens. Several blunt snout bream proteins revealed specific binding to serum IgE, with the 47 and 41 kDa proteins being the most immunodominant among them. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D SDS-PAGE) enabled resolution of the 47 and 41 kDa proteins into several protein spots with distinct isoelectric points. 2D SDS-PAGE along with IgE immunoblot analysis further confirmed the strong reactivity of these protein spots with the pooled sera from blunt snout bream-sensitive patients. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis of the peptides generated by trypsin digestion of the different spots corresponding to the 47 and 41 kDa proteins indicated that these spots were isoforms of enolase and muscle creatine kinase, respectively. The potential allergenicity of these proteins was further verified by an bioinformatics approach using the full-length and 80 amino acid sliding window FASTA searches, which revealed a significant amino acid sequence homology between blunt snout bream allergens and several known inhaled and crustacean allergens. PMID:21142203

Liu, Rong; Krishnan, Hari B; Xue, Wentong; Liu, Chuyi

2010-12-13

39

Triterpenes from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new friedelane-type triterpenes, tripterfrielanons A (1) and B (2), along with six known triterpenoids, friedelin (3), canophyllal (4), canophyllalic acid (5), 3-oxo-29-hydroxyfriedelane (6), wilforlide A (7), wilforlide B (8), have been isolated from the EtOH extract of the roots of Tripterygiumwilfordii Hook.f. Compounds 4, 5, 6 were isolated for the first time from this plant. The new triterpenes 1

J.-H. Yang; S.-D. Luo; Y.-S. Wang; J.-F. Zhao; H.-B. Zhang; L. LI

2006-01-01

40

CARP: fishing for novel mechanisms of neovascularization.  

PubMed

Gene expression profiling of mouse skin wounds has led to the discovery of numerous target genes that may have therapeutic or diagnostic value. Among these, cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP, ankrd1) expression was markedly and persistently elevated in several cutaneous compartments. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of CARP and its regulation in biological systems. In addition to its role as a nuclear transcription cofactor in many cell types including vascular endothelium, CARP is also a structural component of the sarcomere. CARP transcripts are prominent in cardiogenesis and muscle injury, and they are under complex regulation by cytokines, hypoxia, doxorubicin, and other forms of stress. CARP overexpression in wounds by adenoviral gene transfer leads to a high vascular density, and CARP exerts effects on endothelial behavior. The unusual cellular distribution and actions of CARP make it a novel candidate gene in tissue repair. PMID:17069020

Samaras, Susan E; Shi, Yubin; Davidson, Jeffrey M

2006-09-01

41

Penetrating Ocular Injuries from Fish-hooks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To report four cases of penetrating ocular injuries from fish-hooks. Methods: The case records of four patients who attended the ophthalmology department with ocular fish-hook injuries were reviewed.\\u000a Results: Individuals were male, between the ages of 9 and 67. All cases had anterior segment involvement and the hooks were extracted\\u000a by backing them out through the primary incision. Final

F. Angela Knox; Wing C. Chan; Clara E. McAvoy; Susan E. Johnston; John H. Bryars

2004-01-01

42

Eyelid hook injury - A preventable domestic injury  

PubMed Central

The aim of this report is to describe the presentation and management of eyelid injury resulting from the hook of a rubber string. A seven-year-old boy presented with pain of the right upper eyelid. A rubber string with metal hook ends, snatched his right eye from below. The hook pierced through his upper eyelid from the conjunctival surface and remained in situ. However, there was no globe laceration noted. Removal was performed by reverse-tracking of the hook through the wound. The wound was stitched with 6’0 Vicryl sutures. Healing was excellent with minimal scarring.

Omar, Nazri; Salleh, Rafidah

2009-01-01

43

Development of microsatellite markers for blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala using 5'-anchored PCR.  

PubMed

A rapid method for isolating microsatellite loci in blunt snout bream, based on the 5'-anchored polymerase chain reaction technique, revealed 522 microsatellite loci (consisting of 442 dinucleotide, 4 trinucleotide and 76 tetranucleotide repeats). Of the 25 loci characterized, 10 turned out to be highly polymorphic. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 17 while the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.4899 to 0.9355 in population of selected strain F(7 ) and from 0.5786 to 0.9556 in wild population from Lake Liangzi. These markers are useful as tools for the detection of genetic variation levels in selected strains and wild populations of blunt snout bream for germplasm conservation. PMID:21564809

Tang, Shou-Jie; Li, Si-Fa; Cai, Wan-Qi

2009-02-04

44

Comparison of Hybrid Carp and Grass Carp with Respect to Food Preference, Food Consumption and Growth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To compare the grass carp and the hybrid carp in their relative effectiveness in controlling vegetation, it is ideal to raise these fishes under controlled laboratory conditions at similar stocking densities. The objective of this investigation is to comp...

R. V. Kilambi A. Zdinak

1980-01-01

45

1. OVERALL VIEW OF SANDY HOOK AND RARITAN BAY LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. OVERALL VIEW OF SANDY HOOK AND RARITAN BAY LOOKING NORTH FROM OBSERVATION PLATFORM OF NORTH LIGHT - Sandy Hook at Gateway National Recreation Area, Eastern boundary of Sandy Hook Bay, North of Highlands, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

46

Variable Spaced Grating (VSG) Snout, Rotator and Rails for use at LLE  

SciTech Connect

The Variable Spaced Grating (VSG) is a spectrometer snout mounted to an X-Ray Framing Camera (XRFC) through the Unimount flange. This equipment already exists and is used at the University of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) facility. The XRFC and the Unimount flange are designed by LLE. The Tilt Rotator fixture that mounts next to the XRFC and the cart rails are designed by LLNL, and are included in this safety note. The other related components, such as the TIM rails and the Unimount flange, are addressed in a separate safety note, EDSN09-500005-AA. The Multipurpose Spectrometer (MSPEC) and VSG are mounted on the TIM Boat through the cart rails that are very similar in design. The tilt rotator combination with the Unimount flange is also a standard mounting procedure. The later mounting system has been included in this safety note. Figure-1 shows the interface components and the VSG snout. Figure-2 shows the VSG assembly mounted on the Unimount flange. The calibration pointer attachment is shown in place of the snout. There are two types of VSG, one made of 6061-T6 aluminum, weighing approximately 3 pounds, and the other made of 304 stainless steel, weighing approximately 5.5 pounds. This safety note examines the VSG steel design. Specific experiments may require orienting the VSG snout in 90 degrees increment with respect to the Unimount flange. This is done by changing the bolts position on the VSG-main body adapter flange to the Unimount adapter plate. There is no hazard involved in handling the VSG during this procedure as it is done outside the target chamber on the cart rail before installing on the TIM. This safety note addresses the mechanical integrity of the VSG structure, the tilt rotating fixture, the cart rails with handle and their connections. Safety Factors are also calculated for the MSPEC in place of the VSG.

Mukherjee, S K; Emig, J A; Griffith, L V; Heeter, R F; House, F A; James, D L; Schneider, M B; Sorce, C M

2010-01-25

47

Reproductive condition and occurrence of intersex in bighead carp and silver carp in the Missouri River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the reproductive biology of the exotic bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix in the Missouri River. In order to fill this gap in understanding, herein is described the reproductive condition of these\\u000a Asian carps. Evidence is presented which indicates that bighead and silver carp in the Missouri River have a protracted spawning\\u000a period

D. M. Papoulias; D. Chapman; D. E Tillitt

2006-01-01

48

Introgressive Hybridization between Bighead Carp and Silver Carp in the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asian carps are classified as either bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis or silver carp H. molitrix by multiple presumptively diagnostic morphological characteristics; however, hybrids pose a dilemma. Fish sharing the morphological characteristics of both species were observed in an Illinois River backwater (Calhoun County, Illinois) approximately 5 mi (8 km) upriver from the confluence with the Mississippi River as well as

James Thomas Lamer; Chad Ryan Dolan; Jessica Lynn Petersen; John Howard Chick; John Michael Epifanio

2010-01-01

49

What is hooking up? Examining definitions of hooking up in relation to behavior and normative perceptions.  

PubMed

Research has demonstrated ambiguity about the definition of hooking up among college students. The current research examined whether there were multiple definitions of hooking up among college students and how different definitions might be associated with the participant's own hooking up behavior and normative perceptions of peer hooking up behavior. A random sample (N = 1,468) of undergraduates (56.4% female) completed a Web-based survey composed of measures of drinking and sexual behavior. Open-ended definitions of hooking up were content-coded and analyzed using a mixture model to explore discrete definitions of hooking up among college students. Findings indicated three clusters of student definitions of hooking up: Cluster 1 had the broadest definition, referring to sex in general, not specific sexual acts, and to making out. Cluster 2 placed an emphasis on interpersonal and social aspects. Cluster 3 defined hooking up as sex with notable references to specific sexual acts. Results further indicated that hooking up behavior and normative perceptions differentiated these three groups of definitions. Clinical implications regarding the inconsistency of student definitions of hooking up and how they may impact negative consequences associated with hooking up are discussed. PMID:23057805

Lewis, Melissa A; Atkins, David C; Blayney, Jessica A; Dent, David V; Kaysen, Debra L

2012-10-11

50

An elementary proof of the hook formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hook-length formula is a well known result expressing the number of stan- dard tableaux of shape in terms of the lengths of the hooks in the diagram of . Many proofs of this fact have been given, of varying complexity. We present here an elementary new proof which uses nothing more than the fundamental theorem of algebra. This proof

Jason Bandlow

2008-01-01

51

New means in spinal pedicle hook fixation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pedicle hooks which are used as an anchorage for posterior spinal instrumentation may be subjected to considerable three-dimensional forces. In order to achieve stronger attachment to the implantation site, hooks using screws for additional fixation have been developed. The failure loads and mechanisms of three such devices have been experimentally determined on human thoracic vertebrae: the Universal Spine System (USS)

U. Berlemann; P. Cripton; L.-P. Nolte; K. Lippuner; F. Schläpfer

1995-01-01

52

Survival of foul-hooked largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We conducted a field experiment to determine the survival rate of foul-hooked (hooked external to the oral cavity) largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) caught and released by recreational anglers. Of 42 largemouth bass caught with hard-plastic baits containing three treble hooks, 15 were hooked only within the mouth and 27 had at least one hook penetrating the external surface of the fish (i.e., foul-hooked). There was no difference in survival of mouth-hooked (100%), foul-hooked (100%), or control (100%) largemouth bass.

Pope, K. L.; Wilde, G. R.

2010-01-01

53

Asian Carps of the Genus Hypophthalmichthys (Pisces, Cyprinidae): A Biological Synopsis and Environmental Risk Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introduction; Genus and Species Description and Distinguishing Characteristics (Genus: Hypophthalmichthys, Species: Bighead Carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, Species: Silver Carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Species: Large scale Silver Carp, Hy...

C. M. Housel C. S. Kolar D. C. Chapman D. P. Jennings W. R. Courtenay

2005-01-01

54

Homage to Robert Hooke (1635-1703): new insights from the recently discovered Hooke Folio.  

PubMed

Microorganisms were first observed by Robert Hooke and Antoni van Leeuwenhoek between 1665 and 1678. In 1665, Hooke published Micrographia, which depicted the details of 60 objects as seen in the microscope. One chapter was devoted to the microfungus Mucor, the first microbe observed by the human eye. Leeuwenhoek, despite having no scientific training, became the first to observe protozoa, red blood cells, the sperm cells of animals, and bacteria, which he described in numerous letters to the Royal Society of London. In 1677, Hooke became Secretary of the Royal Society and, in the same year, confirmed some of Leeuwenhoek's discoveries. The discovery in 2006 of more than 650 pages of Hooke's missing records (the "Hooke Folio") allows us to verify the proceedings of Royal Society meetings and promises to be an important new source of Hooke's views on the renaissance of science in the 17th century. PMID:19684374

Gest, Howard

2009-01-01

55

Tethered Detachable Hook for the Spiderman Locomotion (Design of the Hook and Its Launching Winch)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper introduces a newconcept of “tethered detachable hook (TDH)” and its launching winch. TDH system is the device which\\u000a will be mounted on a mobile robot and enhances its traversability over extremely hostile terrain by launching detachable hook\\u000a to nearby objects, producing large traction force by the tether and detaching\\/recovering the hook to the launcher again. In\\u000a this paper

Nobukazu Asano; Hideichi Nakamoto; Tetsuo Hagiwara; Shigeo Hirose

56

Hamate hook nonunion treated with a hook plate: case report and surgical technique.  

PubMed

Despite of its rarity, hamate hook nonunion can cause several complications like tendon rupture or loss of grip strength. Admitted treatments in the literature are excision of the bone fragment or its open reduction and internal fixation. We report a clinical case of a high-level baseball player with hamate hook nonunion treated with an original technique of fixation using a hook plate. PMID:23160549

Taleb, Chihab; Murachowsky, Joel; Ruggiero, Gustavo M

2012-12-01

57

Ingestion of bacteria in suspension Indian major carps (Catla catla, Labeo rohita) and Chinese carps (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Aristichthys nobilis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-species groups of fry of the planktivorous, filter-feeding carps (silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis, rohu Labeo rohita and catla Catla catla) were exposed to the bacterium Chromobacterium violaceum to assess if they could detect or ingest unattached bacteria. The results indicate that planktivorous carp fry are able to ingest unattached bacteria and that the numbers ingested increase

S. M. Rahmatullah; M. C. M. Beveridge

1993-01-01

58

Carp-based aquafeeds and market-driven approaches to controlling invasive Asian carp in the Illinois River  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Incentivizing ‘overfishing’ through the creation of high value markets for rendered carp products such as fish meal (FM) is a promising strategy to reduce the density of silver carp and bighead carp (collectively referred to as Asian carp) in the Illinois River. However, the nutrient content and dig...

59

Applying Hooke's Law to Cancer Detection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore Hooke's law while working in small groups at their lab benches. They collect displacement data for springs with unknown spring constants, k, by adding various masses of known weight. After exploring Hooke's law and answering a series of application questions, students apply their new understanding to explore a tissue of known surface area. Students then use the necessary relationships to depict a cancerous tumor amidst normal tissue by creating a graph in Microsoft Excel.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

60

History of introductions and governmental involvement in promoting the use of grass, silver, and bighead carps  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Numerous natural resource agency and media reports have alleged that Asian carps were introduced into the wild through escapes from commercial fish farms. This presentation chronologically traces the introductions of Asian carps (grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys mol...

61

Feeding habits of the deep-snouted pipefish Syngnathus typhle in a temperate coastal lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feeding habits of Syngnathus typhle were determined based on monthly sampling during experimental fishing in a coastal lagoon (Ria Formosa, South Portugal) from April 2001 to May 2002. The gut contents of 856 individuals were analysed and quantified with numerical and gravimetric methods, as well as with some complementary indices and measures (vacuity, fullness and relative importance). In this study, this species fed mainly on Copepoda, Mysidacea, small caridean grass shrimps (Hippolytidae and Palaemonidae) and small fishes (Gobiidae) and to a lesser degree on other small invertebrates. No significant differences were found between the diets of males and females. However, significant differences in the fullness indexes of both sexes were observed during the reproductive period. Significant differences in the diet among seasons were also verified but no seasonal trends were discovered. Snout length showed a linear increase with growth while mouth area and total length displayed an allometric relation. Mouth shape varied between an ellipse and an almost perfect circle. The increase in mouth area and snout length as S. typhle grows contributed to the observed ontogenic diet shift with specimens smaller than 10 cm feeding almost exclusively on Copepoda, medium sized specimens feeding mainly on Hippolytidae and Mysidacea, while larger specimens preyed on Hippolytidae, Palaemonidae and Gobiidae. Prey size generally increased with size of S. typhle.

Oliveira, Frederico; Erzini, Karim; Gonçalves, Jorge M. S.

2007-03-01

62

Experimental studies on small hooks preceding large hooks in the growth and development of Taenia solium metacestodes.  

PubMed

In the present study, we have determined the growth and development pattern of rostellar hooklets of Taenia solium cysticerci (Zhengzhou and Harbin strains) in three pigs (1 SEM and 2 L-SEM strains) 89-196 days post experimental infection. A total of 3,675 cysticerci were collected from 3 pigs, 3,007 (82%) of 3,675 cysticerci were evaginated by enzyme method. 439 (15%) evaginated cysticerci were carefully examined and measured after dehydration, staining, and mounting on microscopic slides. Among 439 cysticerci, 234 (53%) had pair rostellar hooks, 88 (20%) with unpair hooks, 60 (14%) only small (outer row) hooks, and 57 (13%) no hooks including 34 hooks were completely dropped and 23 no hooks developed. The number ranged from 10 to 17 pairs for pair hooks and 1 to 29 for unpair ones. The length and width of rostallar hooks on the scolex of cysticerci were usually larger in the pig with longer infection time. Moreover, cysticerci with pair and unpair rostellar hooks had only small hooks and no hooks were present on their scolices. However, cysticerci with only large (inner row) hooks were not found. These findings indicate that the growth and development of small hooks precedes that of the large hooks in the formation of the two-row pattern rostellar hook in Cysticercus cellulosae. PMID:11556578

Fan, P C; Chung, W C; Guo, J X; Ma, X Y; Xu, Z J

2001-06-01

63

The Topic Is Sandy Hook: A Program for Gifted and Talented Students at Sandy Hook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Topic Is Sandy Hook" is an experiential 10-week program designed to provide special opportunities and educational experiences for 6th to 10th grade gifted and talented students. Sandy Hook, a natural resource in Monmouth County, New Jersey, is unique in its physical and historical features and provides an exceptionally rich environment in…

Grant, David

64

Homage to Robert Hooke (1635“1703): New Insights from the Recently Discovered Hooke Folio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms were first observed by Robert Hooke and Antoni van Leeuwenhoek between 1665 and 1678. In 1665, Hooke published Micrographia, which depicted the details of 60 objects as seen in the microscope. One chapter was devoted to the microfungus Mucor, the first microbe observed by the human eye. Leeuwenhoek, despite having no scientific training, became the first to observe protozoa,

Howard Gest

2009-01-01

65

Hook2 contributes to aggresome formation  

PubMed Central

Background Aggresomes are pericentrosomal accumulations of misfolded proteins, chaperones and proteasomes. Their positioning near the centrosome, like that of other organelles, requires active, microtubule-dependent transport. Linker proteins that can associate with the motor protein dynein, organelles, and microtubules are thought to contribute to the active maintenance of the juxtanuclear localization of many membrane bound organelles and aggresomes. Hook proteins have been proposed to serve as adaptors for the association of cargos with dynein for transport on microtubules. Hook2 was shown to localize to the centrosome, bind centriolin, and contribute to centrosomal function. Results Here we show that overexpression of hook2 promotes the accumulation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator in aggresomes without altering its biochemical properties or its steady state level. A dominant negatively acting form of hook2 that lacks the centriolin binding C-terminal inhibits aggresome formation. Conclusion We propose that hook2 contributes to the establishment and maintenance of the pericentrosomal localization of aggresomes by promoting the microtubule-based delivery of protein aggregates to pericentriolar aggresomes.

Szebenyi, Gyorgyi; Wigley, W Christian; Hall, Branden; Didier, Aaron; Yu, Michelle; Thomas, Philip; Kramer, Helmut

2007-01-01

66

The mystery of the curious Crucian carp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most animals can only live for minutes without oxygen -- just try holding your breath and see how long you can go. But, the crucian carp, which is related to the goldfish, can survive for several days with almost no oxygen.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2004-10-01

67

Phylogeny of snout butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Libytheinae): combining evidence from the morphology of extant, fossil, and recently extinct taxa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snout butterflies (Nymphalidae: Libytheinae) are morphologically one of the most unusual groups of Lepidoptera. Relationships among libytheines remain uncertain, especially in the placement of the recently extinct Libythea cinyras and two fossils, L. florissanti, and L. vagabunda. The aim of this study is to present the first phylogenetic hypothesis of Libytheinae utilizing all available morphological data from extant and extinct

Akito Y. Kawahara

2009-01-01

68

Possible pathology in the snout and lower jaw of the Chinese Devonian lungfish, Sorbitorhynchus deleaskitus (Osteichthyes: Dipnoi)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The holotype and only known specimen of Sorbitorhynchus deleaskitus, a large Devonian lungfish from Guangxi, China, is abnormal in the structure of the snout and lower jaw. The tooth plates show marked asymmetry and do not occlude when the jaws are placed in normal articulation. There is a large hemispherical depression with sinus tracts in the bone between the lower

Anne Kemp

1995-01-01

69

Intraspecific isotopic niche variation in broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris).  

PubMed

Strategies to minimise intraspecific competition are common in wild animals. For example, individuals may exploit food resources at different levels of the food chain. Analyses of stable isotopes are particularly useful for confirming variations in an intraspecific niche because the chemical composition of animals tends to reflect both the food consumed and the habitats occupied by the species. However, studies using this methodology to investigate neotropical crocodilians are scarce. This study aimed to verify the existence of ontogenetic and sexual niche variation in broad-snouted caiman in a silvicultural landscape in Brazil through the use of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. The isotopic ratios of carbon and nitrogen were determined in claw samples collected from 24 juveniles, 8 adults, and 16 hatchlings of C. latirostris. We identified a discrete ontogenetic variation in the isotopic niche and sexual difference only for juveniles. These results may indicate differences in the exploitation resources and a consequent reduction in competition between age classes. PMID:24117429

Marques, Thiago S; Lara, Neliton R F; Bassetti, Luis A B; Piña, Carlos I; Camargo, Plínio B; Verdade, Luciano M

2013-09-01

70

Kinematics and muscle dynamics of C- and S-starts of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

An analysis is presented of body curvature, acceleration and muscle strain during fast-starts in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). C- and S-starts were filmed at 200 frames s-1 at 23 degreesC. Curvatures and accelerations of mid-body axes were calculated from digitised outlines. Maximum accelerations at 0.3 FL (fork length) from the snout were 54 m s-2 for C-starts and 40 m s-2 for S-starts. The total turning angle was approximately 150 degrees in C-starts. This angle was 70 degrees during escape S-starts, significantly larger than for predatory S-starts in other species. Sarcomere strains of axial muscle fibres were calculated at 0.4 and 0.8 FL. During C-starts, white muscle fibres were exposed to maximum sarcomere strains of up to approximately 16 %, and posterior fibres had similar strains to anterior fibres (red 27 %; white 16 %). During S-starts, however, maximum strains in anterior fibres (red 39 %; white 24 %) were more than twice those in posterior fibres (red 17 %; white 10 %). In a C-start, the fish made a large turning angle directed away from the stimulus by bending its tail strongly and thereby producing a large thrust. A larger anterior peak curvature of the fish during S-starts enabled the carp to control the direction of escape better than during C-starts, but with lower accelerations and smaller turning angles. During cyclic and intermittent swimming, red posterior fibres experienced the largest strains. Interestingly, previous studies have shown these fibres to have the lowest passive stiffness and the largest titin isoform, allowing them to attain large strain amplitudes with relatively low passive tensions. PMID:9914147

Spierts; Leeuwen

1999-01-21

71

Short-Snouted Toothless Ichthyosaur from China Suggests Late Triassic Diversification of Suction Feeding Ichthyosaurs  

PubMed Central

Background Ichthyosaurs were an important group of Mesozoic marine reptiles and existed from the Early Triassic to the early Late Cretaceous. Despite a great diversity in body shapes and feeding adaptations, all share greatly enlarged eyes, an elongated rostrum with numerous conical teeth, and a streamlined body. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on new material from China and the restudy of Shastasaurus pacificus, we here reinterpret the classical large-bodied Late Triassic ichthyosaur genus Shastasaurus to differ greatly from the standard ichthyosaurian body plan, indicating much greater morphological diversity and range of feeding adaptations in ichthyosaurs than previously recognized. Phylogenetic analysis indicates a monophyletic clade consisting of the giant Shonisaurus sikanniensis, Guanlingsaurus liangae, and Shastasaurus pacificus to which the genus name Shastasaurus is applied. Shastasaurus liangae comb. nov. is from the Late Triassic (Carnian) Xiaowa Formation of Guizhou Province, southwestern China. The species combines a diminutive head with an entirely toothless and greatly reduced snout. The species also has by far the highest vertebral count among ichthyosaurs (86 presacral vertebrae and >110 caudal vertebrae), a count that is also very high for tetrapods in general. A reduced toothless snout and a diminutive head is also apparently present in the giant S. sikanniensis and presumably in S. pacificus. Conclusions/Significance In analogy to many modern odontocetes, Shastasaurus is interpreted as a specialized suction feeder on unshelled cephalopods and fish, suggesting a unique but widespread Late Triassic diversification of toothless, suction-feeding ichthyosaurs. Suction feeding has not been hypothesized for any of the other diverse marine reptiles of the Mesozoic before, but in Shastasaurus may be linked to the Late Triassic minimum in atmospheric oxygen.

Sander, P. Martin; Chen, Xiaohong; Cheng, Long; Wang, Xiaofeng

2011-01-01

72

Sandy Hook Sand Slurry Pipeline Project: Biological Assessment, August 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The New Jersey coastline including Sandy Hook has a long history of shoreline stabilization (Gorman 1988, Gares 1981). Shoreline stabilization efforts immediately to the south of Sandy Hook have significantly altered the NPS shoreline since 1900 and creat...

2004-01-01

73

Ontogenetic changes in meristic measurements of silver carp and bighead carp.  

PubMed

The study analyzed 30 exterior meristic characters for 255 silver and bighead carp samples of 1- to 5-year-old collected from the National Primary Breeding Farm at Laojianghe Lake at the Middle Reach of the Yangtze River. Multivariate analysis was performed. In silver carp, the Euclidean distance was the greatest between the 1-year-old group and other age groups. Silver carp individuals were correctly classified at 98.0% accuracy with a discriminant function established by discriminant analysis based on meristic measurements. Similarly, bighead carp had the greatest distance between 1- to 2-year-old group and other age groups. Individuals of bighead carp were correctly classified at 90.7% accuracy by the discrimination function. The data showed that morphological transformation occurred during the life history of silver and bighead carp development. Eighteen meristic measurements showed highly significant differences, while four showed a significant difference between the two silver carp groups. Ten parameters decreased, while twelve measurements increased during development. In bighead carp, fourteen parameters were significantly different, while three parameters were significantly different between the two groups. Twelve parameters were significantly decreased and another five were increased during development. The results suggest allometric growth should be taken into account when identifying species, analyzing population differences and establishing germplasm standards based on morphology. PMID:20545007

Yu, Hong-Xia; Tang, Wen-Qiao; Li, Si-Fa

2010-04-01

74

Hox gene clusters in blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala and comparison with those of zebrafish, fugu and medaka genomes.  

PubMed

Hox genes encode transcription factors that play a key role in specifying the body plan in metazoans and are therefore essential in explaining patterns of evolutionary diversity. While each Hox cluster contains the same genes among the different mammalian species, this does not happen in ray-finned fish, in which both the number and organization of Hox genes and even Hox clusters are variables. Here we reveal the organization of Hox genes loci in blunt snout bream. Forty-nine Hox genes including a pseudogene A9b in total have been found in seven clusters as follows: 8 Hox genes in the Aa cluster; 5 in Ab; 10 in Ba; 4 in Bb; 11 in Ca; 4 in Cb; and 7 in Da. In terms of gene content, clusters organization and sequence similarities of putative amino acids, blunt snout bream is more closely related to zebrafish than to fugu and medaka. In contrast to the situation in fugu and medaka, both blunt snout bream and zebrafish have duplicated HoxC cluster but only a single copy of the HoxD cluster. The result implies that the loss of the second HoxD cluster might be a shared feature of the Ostariophysi, to which zebrafish and blunt snout bream both belong. Phylogenetic analysis bases on the paralogous genes from twin clusters supports the duplication-first model, i.e., four original clusters may have duplicated in an event before the divergence of the blunt snout bream-plus-zebrafish lineage and the fugu-plus-medaka lineage. Additionally, the relationship between the decrease of GC level and the loss of conservation and function of one of the paralogous genes from twin clusters is discussed. PMID:17618068

Zou, Shu-Ming; Jiang, Xia-Yun; He, Zhu-Zi; Yuan, Jian; Yuan, Xiang-Nan; Li, Si-Fa

2007-06-07

75

To Hook Up or Date: Which Gender Benefits?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hooking up on college campuses has become more frequent than dating in heterosexual sexual interaction. Analysis of the relative\\u000a benefits and costs associated with dating and hooking up suggest that women benefit more from dating while men benefit more\\u000a from hooking up. U.S students (150 women, 71 men) at a midsized southeastern university indicated preferences for dating and\\u000a hooking up

Carolyn Bradshaw; Arnold S. Kahn; Bryan K. Saville

2010-01-01

76

A Pedagogy of Sight: Microscopic Vision in Robert Hooke's "Micrographia"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Robert Hooke's "Micrographia" (1665) holds an important place in the history of scientific visual rhetoric. Hooke's accomplishment lies not only in a stunning array of engravings, but also in a "pedagogy of sight"--a rhetorical framework that instructs readers how to view images in accordance with an ideological or epistemic program. Hooke not…

Jack, Jordynn

2009-01-01

77

Cloud Hooks: Security and Privacy Issues in Cloud Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In meteorology, the most destructive extratropical cyclones evolve with the formation of a bent-back front and cloud head separated from the main polar-front, creating a hook that completely encircles a pocket of warm air with colder air. The most damaging winds occur near the tip of the hook. The cloud hook formation provides a useful analogy for cloud computing, in

Wayne A. Jansen

2011-01-01

78

Hooking Up and Identity Development of Female College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Hooking up generally involves casual sex with noncommittal partners. Hooking up is prevalent on college campuses today and can negatively affect the identity development of female students. The authors examined this phenomenon with a feminist developmental perspective, evaluating hooking up in the context of sexual risk taking with physical and…

Kooyman, Leslie; Pierce, Gloria; Zavadil, Amy

2011-01-01

79

Fish-hook injuries: a risk for fishermen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fishing is one of the best known and practiced human activities. However, you should remember that, when casting the hook from the riverbank or grasping it to add bait, fishermen run a real risk of injury if the hook punctures the skin. Briefly we describe a case where a young, 32-year-old fisherman who was reeling the hook back to shore

Francesco Inchingolo; Marco Tatullo; Fabio M Abenavoli; Alessio D Inchingolo; Angelo M Inchingolo; Gianna Dipalma

2010-01-01

80

Carp vitellogenin detection by an optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy biosensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A label-free carp vitellogenin sensor has a strong potential for on-site monitoring on the possible contamination of edible fish with endocrine disruptors as a sum parameter in an inland carp farm. In this study, we performed a sensitive detection for carp vitellogenin with a direct-binding optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy-based immunosensor. Carp vitellogenin bound over the sensor surface quite specifically, judging

Namsoo Kim; Dong-Kyung Kim; Yong-Jin Cho; Dae-Kyung Moon; Woo-Yeon Kim

2008-01-01

81

Antibacterial diterpenoids from Jatropha podagrica Hook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japodagrin (1) and japodagrone (2), two macrocylic diterpenoids possessing lathyrane and jatrophane skeletons, respectively, have been isolated from the root of Jatropha podagrica Hook. Four other diterpenoids (3–6) were also isolated from this plant. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of NMR and HRMS analysis, and by spectral comparisons. The compounds displayed antibacterial activity against some

Olapeju O. Aiyelaagbe; Kayode Adesogan; Olusegun Ekundayo; James B. Gloer

2007-01-01

82

Tissue culture of Ranunculus lyallii Hook. f  

Microsoft Academic Search

A micropropagation method is presented for Ranunculus lyallii Hook. f. Seedling establishment in culture required surface sterilisation of the achene, followed by dissection of the embryo from the other tissues of the seed. This process was necessary both to avoid the persistent presence of the fungus Botrytis cinerea and to overcome physiological dormancy. Seedlings germinated and grew well on an

R. A. Bicknell; R. H. Braun; A. C. Evans; E. R. Morgan

1996-01-01

83

Robert Hooke and the Royal Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many physics students only come across Hooke when they learn his law of stretching springs, which is a pity because it is just one of his contributions to progress in science, and a minor one at that. His, Micrographia, the first great book of microscopical observations, arouses admiration to this day. He was also active in horology, astronomy, geology and

Neil Brown

2000-01-01

84

One-third tubular hook plate.  

PubMed

It is often the case that screws cannot be firmly anchored in small, marginal joint fragments. This is especially relevant in osteoporotic bone. By redesigning the last plate hole of a one-third tubular plate to function as a hook, these bone fragments can be securely grasped and stabilized. Placing two plates on top of one another further improves mechanical strength. PMID:17728987

Heim, Dominik; Niederhauser, Karin

2007-08-01

85

Total reconstitution of Salmonella flagellar filaments from hook and purified flagellin and hook-associated proteins in vitro.  

PubMed

Salmonella flagellar filaments comprise the following distinct parts connected in series: a curved hook composed of a single kind of subunit (hook protein); two short segments made up of hook-associated proteins (HAP1 and HAP3); a long helical filament composed of flagellin; and a cap composed of HAP2. In this study, a procedure was developed to isolate HAPs from the culture medium of a short-flagella mutant. We demonstrate that hook-filament complex can be formed in vitro by sequential addition of HAP1, HAP3 and flagellin to hook fragments. PMID:2810363

Ikeda, T; Asakura, S; Kamiya, R

1989-09-01

86

Evidence for Recombination of Mitochondrial DNA in Triploid Crucian Carp  

PubMed Central

In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of the allotetraploid and triploid crucian carp and compare the complete mtDNA sequences between the triploid crucian carp and its female parent Japanese crucian carp and between the triploid crucian carp and its male parent allotetraploid. Our results indicate that the complete mtDNA nucleotide identity (98%) between the triploid crucian carp and its male parent allotetraploid was higher than that (93%) between the triploid crucian carp and its female parent Japanese crucian carp. Moreover, the presence of a pattern of identity and difference at synonymous sites of mitochondrial genomes between the triploid crucian carp and its parents provides direct evidence that triploid crucian carp possessed the recombination mtDNA fragment (12,759 bp) derived from the paternal fish. These results suggest that mtDNA recombination was derived from the fusion of the maternal and paternal mtDNAs. Compared with the haploid egg with one set of genome from the Japanese crucian carp, the diploid sperm with two sets of genomes from the allotetraploid could more easily make its mtDNA fuse with the mtDNA of the haploid egg. In addition, the triple hybrid nature of the triploid crucian carp probably allowed its better mtDNA recombination. In summary, our results provide the first evidence of mtDNA combination in polyploid fish.

Guo, Xinhong; Liu, Shaojun; Liu, Yun

2006-01-01

87

Physiological changes in carps induced by pollution  

SciTech Connect

Several pollutants like DDT, atrazine, PCP, and others induce changes of cortisol and glucose levels in serum, variations of the amount of liver glycogen and liver function, and exert changes of the activity of gill ATPase and acetylcholinesterase in brain and serum of carps. There is always a biphasic response, an increase of concentration or enzyme activity for a short time, and a decrease or inhibition of the enzymes after a longer exposure to the pollutants. The time scale, the duration of the period of increase and that of decrease, depends on the concentration and the toxicity of the pollutants. The influence of the pollutants in normal fresh water was compared with the effects occurring in carps acclimated to 1.2% salt water. This condition enables one to show that the carps are more sensitive to the pollutants under this condition. All responses are unspecific. Advice for the use of these tests as criteria for water quality are given.

Hanke, W.; Gluth, G.; Bubel, H.; Mueller, R.

1983-04-01

88

Modern state of the blunt-snouted mullet Mullus barbatus ponticus population dwelling in the coastal zone near Sevastopol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of the independent Sevastopol group of the blunt-snouted mullet Mullus barbatus ponticus described by Danilevskii (1939) that differs from the Caucasian one by a smaller length of the head, barbels, and pectoral\\u000a fins has been supported. It was found that, during the maximum anthropogenic impact on the Black Sea ecosystem, the state\\u000a of M. barbatus ponticus deteriorates, which

L. S. Oven; L. P. Salekhova; N. S. Kuz’minova

2009-01-01

89

Lethal fish hook attachment - An unusual occurrence.  

PubMed

A 39-year-old fisherman is reported who was dragged into the water from a boat after he became entangled in fishing line. His death was attributed to salt water drowning. At autopsy the cause of death was confirmed and the mechanism of the lethal event elucidated. Specifically, a large fish hook attached to line was embedded in his right wrist. The hook had passed beneath flexor tendons and had firmly attached him to fishing line that was being dropped from the vessel. There were no other significant injuries or underlying diseases present. This case demonstrates another rare situation in the commercial fishing industry that may result in a victim being dragged from a boat and drowned. PMID:23357398

Byard, Roger W

2012-06-17

90

Is Hooking Up Bad for Young Women?  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Girls can't be guys in matters of the heart, even though they think they can,” says Laura Sessions Stepp, author of Unhooked: HowYoung Women Pursue Sex, Delay Love, and Lose at Both, published in 2007. In her view, “hooking up”—casual sexual activity ranging from kissing to intercourse—places women at risk of “low self-esteem, depression, alcoholism, and eating disorders.” Stepp is

Elizabeth A. Armstrong; Laura Hamilton; Paula England

2010-01-01

91

A Spring, Hooke's Law, and Archimedes' Principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mass on a spring is a simple and inexpensive device that can be used to demonstrate many important physics concepts. Almost all standard introductory physics lab manuals include at least one or two experiments with a spring.1,2 Most of these experiments explore Hooke's law and simple harmonic motion. We would like to suggest another simple ``spring-based'' experiment that we

Irina Struganova

2005-01-01

92

HOOKE'S LAW AND A SIMPLE SPRING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spring constant of a screen-door spring was determined both statically, by measuring its elongation when subjected to loading, and dynamically, by measuring the period of a mass hung from one end and set into vertical oscillation. The resulting values of 218.6 + 0.4 N\\/m and 217.8 + 1.0 N\\/m, respectively, indicate that the spring's behavior follows Hooke's law to

DONALD C. PECKHAM

93

A Spring, Hooke's Law, and Archimedes' Principle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mass on a spring is a simple and inexpensive device that can be used to demonstrate many important physics concepts. Almost all standard introductory physics lab manuals include at least one or two experiments with a spring.1,2 Most of these experiments explore Hooke's law and simple harmonic motion. We would like to suggest another simple ``spring-based'' experiment that we performed for the past two years in an introductory physics lab at Barry University.

Struganova, Irina

2005-11-01

94

[Polymorphism of the cytochrome oxidase b gene (cyt b) in Russian populations of common carp and wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)].  

PubMed

Polymorphism of the mitochondrial cyt b gene was examined in 35 individuals of common carp and wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The fish examined represented two natural populations from Khabarovsk krai (Ac and Am), Volga wild common carp, Don wild common carp, and two common carp breeds, Ropsha (strains BB and MM) common carp and Hungarian common carp. The highest level of nucleotide (pi) and haplotype (h) diversity was detected in two strains of Ropsha common carp (MM, pi = 0.67%, h = 0.7; and BB, pi = 0.21%, h = 0.9) and in one population (Am) of Amur wild common carp (pi = 0.26%; h = 0.6). The second population of Amur wild common carp (Ac) and Hungarian common carp were characterized by lower variation estimates (pi = 0.035%, h = 0.4; and pi = 0.09%, h = 0.7, respectively). Genetic homogeneity was demonstrated for the populations of Volga and Don wild common carp (pi = 0, h = 0). In the sample of the cyt b sequences examined, three lineages were identified. Lineages I and II united all haplotypes of the Am Amur wild common carp along with two haplotypes of Ropsha common carp, strain MM. The third lineage (III) was formed by the haplotypes of three individuals of Ropsha common carp strain MM, all representatives of Ropsha common carp strain BB, Hungarian common carp, Ac Amur wild common carp, and Don and Volga wild common carps. Statistically significant amino acid differences were observed only for the sequences, corresponding to haplotypes of lineage III, and the sum of sequences of lineages I and II. Effectiveness of different types of markers to differentiate the two subspecies of European and Amur wild common carp (C. c. carpio and C. c. haematopterus) is discussed, as well as the issues of the origin and dispersal of Russian common carp and wild common carp breeds. PMID:22567860

Torgunakova, O A; Khrisanfov, V E; Prizenko, V K; Bogeruk, A K; Egorova, T A; Semenova, S K

2012-01-01

95

Characterization and comparative profiling of MiRNA transcriptomes in bighead carp and silver carp.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that are processed from large 'hairpin' precursors and function as post-transcriptional regulators of target genes. Although many individual miRNAs have recently been extensively studied, there has been very little research on miRNA transcriptomes in teleost fishes. By using high throughput sequencing technology, we have identified 167 and 166 conserved miRNAs (belonging to 108 families) in bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), respectively. We compared the expression patterns of conserved miRNAs by means of hierarchical clustering analysis and log2 ratio. Results indicated that there is not a strong correlation between sequence conservation and expression conservation, most of these miRNAs have similar expression patterns. However, high expression differences were also identified for several individual miRNAs. Several miRNA* sequences were also found in our dataset and some of them may have regulatory functions. Two computational strategies were used to identify novel miRNAs from un-annotated data in the two carps. A first strategy based on zebrafish genome, identified 8 and 22 novel miRNAs in bighead carp and silver carp, respectively. We postulate that these miRNAs should also exist in the zebrafish, but the methodologies used have not allowed for their detection. In the second strategy we obtained several carp-specific miRNAs, 31 in bighead carp and 32 in silver carp, which showed low expression. Gain and loss of family members were observed in several miRNA families, which suggests that duplication of animal miRNA genes may occur through evolutionary processes which are similar to the protein-coding genes. PMID:21858165

Chi, Wei; Tong, Chaobo; Gan, Xiaoni; He, Shunping

2011-08-15

96

Characterization and Comparative Profiling of MiRNA Transcriptomes in Bighead Carp and Silver Carp  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that are processed from large ‘hairpin’ precursors and function as post-transcriptional regulators of target genes. Although many individual miRNAs have recently been extensively studied, there has been very little research on miRNA transcriptomes in teleost fishes. By using high throughput sequencing technology, we have identified 167 and 166 conserved miRNAs (belonging to 108 families) in bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), respectively. We compared the expression patterns of conserved miRNAs by means of hierarchical clustering analysis and log2 ratio. Results indicated that there is not a strong correlation between sequence conservation and expression conservation, most of these miRNAs have similar expression patterns. However, high expression differences were also identified for several individual miRNAs. Several miRNA* sequences were also found in our dataset and some of them may have regulatory functions. Two computational strategies were used to identify novel miRNAs from un-annotated data in the two carps. A first strategy based on zebrafish genome, identified 8 and 22 novel miRNAs in bighead carp and silver carp, respectively. We postulate that these miRNAs should also exist in the zebrafish, but the methodologies used have not allowed for their detection. In the second strategy we obtained several carp-specific miRNAs, 31 in bighead carp and 32 in silver carp, which showed low expression. Gain and loss of family members were observed in several miRNA families, which suggests that duplication of animal miRNA genes may occur through evolutionary processes which are similar to the protein-coding genes.

Chi, Wei; Tong, Chaobo; Gan, Xiaoni; He, Shunping

2011-01-01

97

Effects of Temperature on Food Consumption, Food Conversion, and Growth of Grass Carp 'Ctenopharyngodon idella'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study was conducted to determine the food consumption and growth of Grass Carp under different temperatures, effects of temperature on food conversion and growth of grass carp, and relationship between grass carp production and increase in nutrient le...

R. V. Kilambi W. R. Robison

1978-01-01

98

Hook-Up Sexual Experiences and Problem Behaviors among Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study focuses on the sexual phenomenon of "hooking up." A hook-up is defined as a single sexual encounter that may or may not include sexual intercourse with someone who is a stranger, brief acquaintance, or friend. The aim of this study was to document the prevalence of hook-ups in a sample of 1,011 urban middle and high school students and…

Fortunato, Leanna; Young, Amy M.; Boyd, Carol J.; Fons, Courtney E.

2010-01-01

99

Young Adults’ Emotional Reactions After Hooking Up Encounters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hooking up or a sexual encounter ranging from kissing to intercourse that occurs on one occasion and where the partners do\\u000a not necessarily expect future physical encounters or a committed relationship has become common place among college students.\\u000a This study (N = 500) examined gender differences in emotional reactions after hooking up and explored the relationship between specific\\u000a processes in the hooking

Jesse OwenFrank; Frank D. Fincham

2011-01-01

100

Analysis of gangliosides from carp intestinal mucosa.  

PubMed

The gangliosides of carp intestinal mucosa were isolated and analysed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), TLC immunostaining test, and TLC/secondary ion mass spectrometry (TLC/SIMS). Four species of gangliosides, designated as G-1, G-2, G-3 and G-4, were separated on TLC. The TLC/SIMS analysis of the G-1 ganglioside of carp intestinal mucosa revealed a series of [M-H](-)ions from m/z 1061 to m/z 1131 representing the molecular mass range of GM4-like ganglioside with NeuAc. G-2, G-3 and G-4 gangliosides were analysed by the TLC immunostaining test. G-2 ganglioside was recognised by the monoclonal antibody specific for ganglioside GM1 (AGM-1 monoclonal antibody). However, G-3 ganglioside migrating on TLC between GM3 and GM1 ganglioside was not recognised by anti-GM3 monoclonal antibody and by AGM-1 monoclonal antibody. Furthermore, G-4 ganglioside with a similar TLC mobility as GD1a ganglioside did not show the reactivity to the anti-GD1a monoclonal antibody. In addition using the AGM-1 monoclonal antibody, the expression of GM1 ganglioside in the carp intestinal tissue was studied. GM1 ganglioside was detected on the epithelial cell surface of carp intestinal mucosa. PMID:15123316

Irie, Takuya; Watarai, Shinobu; Kushi, Yasunori; Kasama, Takeshi; Kodama, Hiroshi

2004-02-01

101

Why and how CARPE should be personal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the significance of modeling human personalities is analyzed for improving the value proposition of solutions for Capturing, Archiving and Retrieval of Personal Experiences (CARPE). Differences in human personalities have a significant and often an overriding impact on how raw events are linked and organized into threads of experiences. Recommendations and predictions are presented on how existing technologies

Leslie G. Seymour

2005-01-01

102

Asian Carp Control, FY 2012: Strategy Framework.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Great Lakes food web has been significantly degraded in recent decades by aquatic invasive species (AIS). The most acute AIS threat facing the Great Lakes today is movement of carp not native to the United Sates (bighead and silver)collectively known ...

2012-01-01

103

Cadmium-binding protein (metallothionein) in carp  

SciTech Connect

When carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to 5 and 30 ppm Cd in the water, the contents of Cd-binding protein, which has low molecular weight, increased in the hepatopancreas, kidney, gills and gastrointestinal tract with duration of exposure. This Cd-binding protein was purified from hepatopancreas, kidney, gills, and spleen of carp administered 2 mg/kg Cd (as CdCl/sub 2/), intraperitoneally for 6 days. Two Cd-binding proteins were separated by DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column chromatography. These proteins had Cd-mercaptide bond, high cysteine contents (ca. 29-34%), but no aromatic amino acids or histidine. From these characteristics the Cd-binding proteins were identified as metallothionein. By using antiserum obtained from a rabbit to which carp hepatopancreas MT-II had been administered, immunological characteristics between hepatopancreas MT-I, II and kidney MT-II were studied, and a slight difference in antigenic determinant was observed among them. By immunological staining techniques with horseradish peroxidase, the localization of metallothionein was investigated. Carp were bred in 1 ppm Cd, 5 ppm Zn solution, and tap water for 14 days, following transfer to 15 ppm Cd solution, respectively. The survival ratio was the highest in the Zn group followed by Cd-treated and control groups.

Kito, H.; Ose, Y.; Sato, T.

1986-03-01

104

Molecular phylogeography of endangered sharp-snouted pitviper (Deinagkistrodon acutus; Reptilia, Viperidae) in Mainland China.  

PubMed

Using phylogenetic and population genetic approaches, the present study reports the phylogeographic structure of the sharp-snouted pitviper (Deinagkistrodon acutus), a threatened snake species with commercial and medicinal importance in China. The entire mitochondrial ND2 gene (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2) sequences of 86 individuals of D. acutus from 14 localities across its range in China were determined. Based on the results of phylogenetic analyses, distribution of diagnostic sites, haplotype network, and AMOVA hierarchical analysis, an east-west division of the whole D. acutus population could be observed. Geographically, a line formed by a lake, river, and mountain chain (the Poyang Lake, Gan River to the southern end of the Wuyi Mountains), results in vicariance and approximately vertically splits the range into two and the whole population into two main lineages (western and eastern). The bifurcating tree suggested generally west to east dispersal trend. The data fit the isolation by distance (IBD) model well. Star-like clusters in haplotype network, significantly negative values of Fs statistics, and unimodal mismatch distributions all suggest recent demographic expansions in four areas. The results show that isolation, dispersal, bottleneck, and expansion jointly constitute the history of D. acutus. In a haplotype network, the excessive predominance of central haplotypes, few medium-frequency haplotypes, predominance (73.1%) of the singletons among the derived haplotypes, most of which are connected to the central haplotype by only one mutational step, unsymmetrical campanulate unimodal curve of mismatch distributions and leftwards shift of the peaks, all suggest that the whole D. acutus population is a young population with low genetic diversity. Based on the data, the first priority for conservation action should be given to the Huangshan unit. PMID:17643319

Huang, Song; He, Shunping; Peng, Zuogang; Zhao, Kai; Zhao, Ermi

2007-06-09

105

Hook nozzle arrangement for supporting airfoil vanes  

SciTech Connect

A gas turbine engine's nozzle structure includes a nozzle support ring, a plurality of shroud segments, and a plurality of airfoil vanes. The plurality of shroud segments are distributed around the nozzle support ring. Each airfoil vane is connected to a corresponding shroud segment so that the airfoil vanes are also distributed around the nozzle support ring. Each shroud segment has a hook engaging the nozzle support ring so that the shroud segments and corresponding airfoil vanes are supported by the nozzle support ring. The nozzle support ring, the shroud segments, and the airfoil vanes may be ceramic.

Shaffer, James E. (Maitland, FL); Norton, Paul F. (San Diego, CA)

1996-01-01

106

Hook nozzle arrangement for supporting airfoil vanes  

DOEpatents

A gas turbine engine`s nozzle structure includes a nozzle support ring, a plurality of shroud segments, and a plurality of airfoil vanes. The plurality of shroud segments are distributed around the nozzle support ring. Each airfoil vane is connected to a corresponding shroud segment so that the airfoil vanes are also distributed around the nozzle support ring. Each shroud segment has a hook engaging the nozzle support ring so that the shroud segments and corresponding airfoil vanes are supported by the nozzle support ring. The nozzle support ring, the shroud segments, and the airfoil vanes may be ceramic. 8 figs.

Shaffer, J.E.; Norton, P.F.

1996-02-20

107

Occurrence of higher chlorinated benzenes in livers of grass carp and common carp collected from markets of xinxiang, china.  

PubMed

Five higher chlorinated benzenes (including hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and three isomers of tetrachlorobenzens) were measured in the livers of grass carp and common carp collected from five markets in Xinxiang city, China. HCB and PeCB were detected in all samples. The major component of the higher CBs residue was HCB and significant correlations existed between HCB and PeCB in both grass carp and common carp livers. The ratio range of HCB/PeCB in grass carp and common carp were 3.4-6.2 and 4.9-7.7, respectively, which implied the sources of higher CBs originate mainly from the revolatilization of industrial HCB with a minor impact from PeCB. PMID:24042841

Li, Yong-Fang; Yang, Zhong-Zhi; Fan, Jing; Zhu, Yong

2013-09-17

108

Competitive Interactions between Age-0 Bighead Carp and Paddlefish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis on native planktivores in the USA is unknown. The objectives of this study were to experimentally test for competitive interactions between age-0 bighead carp and age-0 paddlefish Polyodon spathula. Differences among water chemistry variables, invertebrate densities, and relative growth of fish were assessed in mesocosms. Water chemistry variables were similar among treatments throughout the experiment and only exhibited a temporal effect. Zooplankton density declined in mesocosms after fish were introduced. In general, zooplankton densities did not differ among treatments but did differ from the control. The relative growth of paddlefish was negative in the paddlefish and paddlefish-bighead carp treatments. The relative growth of bighead carp was negative in the bighead carp treatment but positive in the paddlefish-bighead carp treatment. Age-0 paddlefish exhibited the greatest decrease in relative growth in mesocosms with bighead carp. Bighead carp exhibited the greatest increase in relative growth in mesocosms with paddlefish. These data suggest that bighead carp have the potential to negatively affect the growth of paddlefish when food resources are limited.

Schrank, S. J.; Guy, C. S.; Fairchild, J. F.

2003-01-01

109

Carp vitellogenin detection by an optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy biosensor.  

PubMed

A label-free carp vitellogenin sensor has a strong potential for on-site monitoring on the possible contamination of edible fish with endocrine disruptors as a sum parameter in an inland carp farm. In this study, we performed a sensitive detection for carp vitellogenin with a direct-binding optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy-based immunosensor. Carp vitellogenin bound over the sensor surface quite specifically, judging from the sensor responses according to stepwise antibody immobilization. This was also supported by a negligible sensor response found at bovine serum albumin immobilization. When plotted in double-logarithmic scale for carp vitellogenin concentrations of 0.00675-67.5 nM, a linear relationship was found between analyte concentration and sensor response, together with the limit of detection of 0.00675 nM. The reusability of the immunosensor after the regeneration with 10mM HCl was reasonably good, as presumed from the coefficient of variability of 6.02% for nine repetitive measurements. The model sample prepared by spiking a purified carp vitellogenin into a 10-fold diluted vitellogenin-free carp serum in 9.45 nM showed the response ratio of 96.70% against 9.45 nM of the purified carp vitellogenin. When a female and male carp sera induced with 17beta-estradiol injection were analyzed, biomarker induction was even identifiable at 2000-fold serum dilution. PMID:18534837

Kim, Namsoo; Kim, Dong-Kyung; Cho, Yong-Jin; Moon, Dae-Kyung; Kim, Woo-Yeon

2008-04-26

110

Anharmonic vibrations of an ''ideal'' Hooke's law oscillator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vibrations of a mass connected to fixed supports by two ''ideal'' Hooke's law springs are considered. Although the longitudinal vibrations of this system are always harmonic, the transverse vibrations are, in general, anharmonic even though both springs obey Hooke's law. In fact, it is found that as the supports are brought together, allowing the springs to become slack, the

John Thomchick; J. P. McKelvey

1978-01-01

111

Using CQUAL for Static Analysis of Authorization Hook Placement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Linux Security Modules (LSM) framework is a set of authorization hooks for implementing e xible access control in the Linux kernel. While much effort has been devoted to denin g the module interfaces, little atten- tion has been paid to verifying the correctness of hook placement. This paper presents a novel approach to the vericatio n of LSM authorization

Xiaolan Zhang; Antony Edwards; Trent Jaeger

2002-01-01

112

Hook Anchor Tests in Frozen and Unfrozen Ground.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The findings of an exploratory study of the holding capacity of hook anchors in frozen and unfrozen ground are presented. Testing revealed that hook anchors are capable of being driven and retrieved from frozen silt and that their holding capacity was rea...

A. Kovacs

1975-01-01

113

Transcriptome Analysis and SSR/SNP Markers Information of the Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala)  

PubMed Central

Background Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) is an herbivorous freshwater fish species native to China and has been recognized as a main aquaculture species in the Chinese freshwater polyculture system with high economic value. Right now, only limited EST resources were available for M. amblycephala. Recent advances in large-scale RNA sequencing provide a fast, cost-effective, and reliable approach to generate large expression datasets for functional genomic analysis, which is especially suitable for non-model species with un-sequenced genomes. Methodology and Principal Findings Using 454 pyrosequencing, a total of 1,409,706 high quality reads (total length 577 Mbp) were generated from the normalized cDNA of pooled M. amblycephala individuals. These sequences were assembled into 26,802 contigs and 73,675 singletons. After BLAST searches against the NCBI non-redundant (NR) and UniProt databases with an arbitrary expectation value of E?10, over 40,000 unigenes were functionally annotated and classified using the FunCat functional annotation scheme. A comparative genomics approach revealed a substantial proportion of genes expressed in M. amblycephala tanscriptome to be shared across the genomes of zebrafish, medaka, tetraodon, fugu, stickleback, human, mouse, and chicken, and identified a substantial number of potentially novel M. amblycephala genes. A total number of 4,952 SSRs were found and 116 polymorphic loci have been characterized. A significant number of SNPs (25,697) and indels (23,287) were identified based on specific filter criteria in the M. amblycephala. Conclusions This study is the first comprehensive transcriptome analysis for a fish species belonging to the genus Megalobrama. These large EST resources are expected to be valuable for the development of molecular markers, construction of gene-based linkage map, and large-scale expression analysis of M. amblycephala, as well as comparative genome analysis for the genus Megalobrama fish species. The identified SSR and SNP markers will greatly benefit its breeding program and whole genome association studies.

Liu, Hong; Zeng, Cong; Liu, Xiaolian; Yi, Shaokui; Wang, Weimin

2012-01-01

114

Sixteen polymorphic microsatellites in bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and cross-amplification in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix).  

PubMed

A (GT)(n) enriched partial genomic library of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) was constructed by employing the (fast isolation by AFLP of sequences containing repeats) FIASCO protocol. Sixteen loci exhibited polymorphism with two to seven alleles/locus (mean 3.263) in a test population and the observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.100 to 0.690 (mean 0.392). Eleven of the 16 bighead carp microsatellites were found to be also polymorphic in silver carp. These polymorphic loci should provide sufficient level of genetic diversity to evaluate population structure of bighead carp. PMID:21585862

Cheng, L; Liu, L; Yu, X; Tong, J

2008-05-01

115

Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation  

SciTech Connect

Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance and reducing perturbations induced by this invasive species.

Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.

2011-12-01

116

Use of eyeballs for establishing ploidy of Asian carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and bighead carp H. nobilis are now established and relatively common in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers. Commercial fishers of Louisiana's large rivers report recurrent catches of grass carp, and the frequency of bighead carp and silver carp catch is increasing. Twelve black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus were recently captured from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River system, and 10 were analyzed for ploidy. By using the methods described herein, all 10 fish were determined to be diploid. Such correct identifications of ploidy of feral Asian carp species, as well as other species, would provide science-based information constructive for meeting reporting requirements, tracking fish movements, and forecasting expansion of species distribution. To investigate the postmortem period for sample collection and to lessen demands on field operations for obtaining samples, a laboratory study was performed to determine the length of time for which eyeballs from postmortem black carp could be used for ploidy determinations. Acquiring eyes rather than blood is simpler and quicker and requires no special supplies. An internal DNA reference standard with a documented genome size, including erythrocytes from diploid black carp or Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, was analyzed simultaneously with cells from seven known triploid black carp to assess ploidy through 12 d after extraction. Ploidy determinations were reliable through 8 d postmortem. The field process entails excision of an eyeball, storage in a physiological buffer, and shipment within 8 d at refrigeration temperatures (4??C) to the laboratory for analysis by flow cytometry. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

Jenkins, J. A.; Thomas, R. G.

2007-01-01

117

Energy metabolism of carp swimming muscles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electromyography has been used to study the recruitment of red, pink and white muscle fibres of the Mirror carp at different swimming speeds. Locomotion below 0.3–0.5 L\\/S (lengths per second) is achieved primarily by fin movements after which the red myotomal muscle becomes active. Pink muscle fibres are the next type to be recruited at speeds around 1.1–1.5 L\\/S. White

I. A. Johnston; W. Davison; G. Goldspink

1977-01-01

118

Habitat Suitability Index Models: Common Carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability (HIS) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.

Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Twomey, Katie

1982-01-01

119

Strategic localization of toll-like receptor 4 in the digestive tract of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).  

PubMed

This study was performed to determine the localization strategies of Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) in digestive tract (oesophagus, bulbodium, foregut, midgut and hindgut) of Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) using immunohistochemical staining method. TLR4 positive cells were observed throughout the digestive tract. In the oesophagus, some positive reactions in lamina propria were found around small blood vessels and there were also some positive cells within the stratified squamous epithelium. Lots of positive cells were observed in the muscular layer of the oesophagus. In bulbodium, foregut and hindgut, the expression of TLR4 was mainly restricted to the apical surface of epithelial cells located at the bottom of the mucosal folds and the mesenchymal cells in lamina propria. It was very interesting that epithelial cells in the midgut, but none in other parts, had many TLR4 positive cytoplasmic granular structures which were also periodic acid Schiff positive. These findings suggested that TLR4 was expressed in a compartmentalized manner in the Blunt snout bream (M. amblycephala) digestive tract and provided novel information about the in vivo localization of pattern recognition receptors. PMID:19793093

Zhang, G Y; Wang, Y; Peng, K M; Wang, C; Tian, G; Liu, H Z

2009-09-28

120

Effects of Sodium Fluoride on Carp and Rainbow Trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

The symptoms of acute fluoride intoxication in carp and rainbow trout include lethargy, violent and erratic movement, and death where there is partial or complete muscle contraction. Excessive mucus production associated with an increase in mucous cells in the epithelium of the head region and the gills also occurs. Changes in the electrophoretic pattern of the serum proteins in carp

John M. Neuhold; William F. Sigler

1960-01-01

121

Zooplankton abundance and diversity in Central Florida grass carp ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the Asian grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) upon the zooplankton in three adjacent experimental ponds (0.139 ha each) was studied for one year. The ponds contained nine species of aquatic macrophytes. Grass carp were stocked into Pond 1 (65 per ha) and Pond 2 (611 per ha) three months after the study was started. At the time

Douglas L. Fry; John A. Osborne

1980-01-01

122

Router and Firewall Redundancy with OpenBSD and CARP  

Microsoft Academic Search

As more reliance is placed on computing and networking systems, the need for redundancy increases. The Common Address Redundancy Protocol (CARP) protocol and OpenBSD's pfsync utility provide a means by which to implement redundant routers and firewalls. This paper details how CARP and pfsync work together to provide this redundancy and explores the performance one can expect from the open

Garhan Attebury; Byrav Ramamurthy

2006-01-01

123

Grass Carp as a Potential Control Agent for Cattails.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Replicate ponds were stocked with grass carp in May 1982 and a fence exclosure placed in each pond to assess the effects of this herbivorous fish on the cattail community. Stocking rate of grass carp four individuals oer pond each membership 18-23 cm in t...

C. E. Carney F. DeNoyelles

1986-01-01

124

GRASS CARP AS A POTENTIAL CONTROL AGENT FOR CATTAILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Replicate ponds were stocked with grass carp in May 1982 and a fence exclosure placed in each pond to assess the effects of this herbivorous fish on the cattail community. Stocking rate of grass carp four individuals oer pond each membership 18-23 cm in total length. In August 19...

125

Fracture of the hook of the hamate.  

PubMed

We removed the fracture fragment from fifty-nine patients who had an isolated fracture of the hook of the hamate. Preoperatively, all had complained of pain and tenderness on the ulnar side of the palm or on the dorsal ulnar aspect of the wrist. Most fractures were thought to have occurred while the patient was swinging a racquet, golf club, or baseball bat. Some fractures were caused by striking the palm on a solid object, by falling on the palm, or by a crush injury to the hand. Most of the fractures were diagnosed conclusively on a carpal tunnel roentgenogram or on a special oblique roentgenogram of the wrist supinated. We now believe that computed axial tomography is the best imaging technique for demonstrating this fracture. Except for two patients who had a crush injury, all of the patients returned to their regular occupational and athletic pursuits. There were no surgical complications. PMID:2777848

Stark, H H; Chao, E K; Zemel, N P; Rickard, T A; Ashworth, C R

1989-09-01

126

Genetics might determine which smokers get hooked  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have identified genetic risk factors that may accelerate a teen's progression to becoming a lifelong heavy smoker. The team of scientists from the U.S., the U.K., and New Zealand examined earlier studies by other research teams to develop a genetic risk profile for heavy smoking. Then they looked at their own long-term study of 1,000 New Zealanders from birth to age 38 to identify whether individuals at high genetic risk got hooked on cigarettes more quickly as teens and whether, as adults, they had a harder time quitting. Duke University researchers developed a new "genetic risk score" for the study by examining prior genome-wide associations (GWAS) of adult smokers. Duke is home to the Duke Cancer Institute.

127

Structure of plain and complex flagellar hooks of Pseudomonas rhodos.  

PubMed Central

The proximal hooks of plain and complex flagella produced by a strain of Pseudomonas rhodos have been analyzed by electron microscopy and optical diffraction and filtering. Plain flagellar hooks are cone-shaped, 70 nm long, and 13 to 21.5 nm wide, and consist of helically arranged subunits. Complex flagellar hooks are cylinders, 180 to 190 nm long, and 15 to 16 nm wide, and are composed of globular subunits. The structure comprises four small-scale helical rows of subunits intersecting bewteen 10 and 11 large-scale helices of pitch angle 80 degrees. The axial and lateral dimensions of the unit cell, which define the surface lattice, are 4.9 and 4.7 nm, respectively. In addition, a core structure, approximately 5 nm wide, has been demonstrated inside the hook cylinder. Complex flagellar hooks were isolated and purified by gradient centrifugation after acid degradation of the attached filaments. Isolated hook particles have an average sedimentation constant of 130S and consist of a protein of molecular weight 43,000. A model of the complex flagellar hook is presented, and its possible role in flagellar assembly and rotation is discussed. Images

Raska, I; Mayer, F; Edelbluth, C; Schmitt, R

1976-01-01

128

Structure of plain and complex flagellar hooks of Pseudomonas rhodos.  

PubMed

The proximal hooks of plain and complex flagella produced by a strain of Pseudomonas rhodos have been analyzed by electron microscopy and optical diffraction and filtering. Plain flagellar hooks are cone-shaped, 70 nm long, and 13 to 21.5 nm wide, and consist of helically arranged subunits. Complex flagellar hooks are cylinders, 180 to 190 nm long, and 15 to 16 nm wide, and are composed of globular subunits. The structure comprises four small-scale helical rows of subunits intersecting bewteen 10 and 11 large-scale helices of pitch angle 80 degrees. The axial and lateral dimensions of the unit cell, which define the surface lattice, are 4.9 and 4.7 nm, respectively. In addition, a core structure, approximately 5 nm wide, has been demonstrated inside the hook cylinder. Complex flagellar hooks were isolated and purified by gradient centrifugation after acid degradation of the attached filaments. Isolated hook particles have an average sedimentation constant of 130S and consist of a protein of molecular weight 43,000. A model of the complex flagellar hook is presented, and its possible role in flagellar assembly and rotation is discussed. PMID:1245467

Raska, I; Mayer, F; Edelbluth, C; Schmitt, R

1976-02-01

129

Grass carp status in the United States: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) were introduced into the United States in 1963 as potential biological control agents for nuisance aquatic weeds. Since that time an oftentimes bitter controversy has raged over its effects on sportfishing, and its possible natural reproduction and naturalization in North America. This review considers the history, ecology, and present status of grass carp in the United States in light of the voluminous scientific research conducted since its importation. Particular attention is given to the role of grass carp in the fisheries management plans of Arkansas. Recent development of a sterile, triploid grass carp hybrid may lead to widespread use of grass carp to control nuisance aquatic weeds in culturally eutrophicated waters of the United States.

Pierce, Barry A.

1983-03-01

130

Fractures of the hook of hamate: radiographic signs  

SciTech Connect

Isolated fractures of the hamulus, formerly considered rare, are being seen more frequently. Many of these injuries are sports related, particularly in golf, tennis, racquetball and baseball players. Failure to make an early diagnosis can result in severe pain and sometimes incapacitating disability. The authors studied the clinical and radiological findings in 12 patients who had fracture of the hook of the hamate. The proposed three radiographic signs of fracture that are readily seen on routine PA projections: absence of the hook of the hamate; sclerosis of the hook; and lack of cortical density, i.e., barely visible outline, of the hamulus.

Norman, A.; Nelson, J.; Green, S.

1985-01-01

131

Molecular responses differ between sensitive silver carp and tolerant bighead carp and bigmouth buffalo exposed to rotenone.  

PubMed

Some species of fish are more tolerant of rotenone, a commonly used non-specific piscicide, than others. This species-specific tolerance to rotenone has been thought to be associated with the uptake and the efficiency at which the chemical is detoxified. However, rotenone stimulates oxidative stress and superoxides, which are also toxic. Understanding the modes in which fish physiologically respond to rotenone is important in developing improved protocols for its application in controlling aquatic nuisance species. Using a molecular approach, we investigated the physiological and molecular mechanisms of rotenone resistance. Species-specific responses were observed when rotenone-sensitive silver, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and both rotenone-resistant bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, and bigmouth buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus, were exposed to rotenone. Rotenone levels in plasma were highest 90 min after exposure in both silver carp and bigmouth buffalo, but bigmouth buffalo tolerated over twice the burden (ng mL(-1) g(-1)) than silver carp. Expression of genes related with detoxification (cyp1a and gst) increased in silver carp, but either decreased or remained the same in bighead carp. Genes linked with oxidative stress in the cytosol (gpx, cat and sod1) and hsp70 increased only in silver carp after a 6-h exposure. Expression of genes associated with oxidative stress in the mitochondria (sod2 and ucp2) differed between silver carp and bighead carp. Expression of sod2 changed minimally in bighead carp, but expression of ucp2 linearly increased to nearly 85-fold of the level prior to exposure. Expression of sod2 and ucp2 did not change until 6 h in silver carp. Use of sod1 and sod2 to combat oxidative stress results in hydrogen peroxide production, while use of ucp2 produces nitric oxide, a chemical known to inhibit apoptosis. We conclude that the mechanism at which a fish handles oxidative stress plays an important role in the tolerance to rotenone. PMID:22447502

Amberg, Jon J; Schreier, Theresa M; Gaikowski, Mark P

2012-03-25

132

Fish-hook injuries: a risk for fishermen.  

PubMed

Fishing is one of the best known and practiced human activities. However, you should remember that, when casting the hook from the riverbank or grasping it to add bait, fishermen run a real risk of injury if the hook punctures the skin.Briefly we describe a case where a young, 32-year-old fisherman who was reeling the hook back to shore when it hit him in the face and embedded itself in his upper eyelid. Upon examination, the eye was found to be unharmed and the hook was removed through a small incision and the aid of a local anesthetic.In the light of this case report, we think it a good idea to advise our friends and patients who we know to be fishermen to wear some form of eye protection as a precaution. PMID:21156039

Inchingolo, Francesco; Tatullo, Marco; Abenavoli, Fabio M; Inchingolo, Alessio D; Inchingolo, Angelo M; Dipalma, Gianna

2010-12-14

133

Bohlin transformation: the hidden symmetry that connects Hooke to Newton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hooke's name is familiar to students of mechanics thanks to the law of force that bears his name. Less well-known is the influence his findings had on the founder of mechanics, Isaac Newton. In a lecture given some twenty years ago, W Arnol'd pointed out the outstanding contribution to science made by Hooke, and also noted the controversial issue of the attribution of important discoveries to Newton that were actually inspired by Hooke. It therefore seems ironic that the two most famous force laws, named after Hooke and Newton, are two geometrical aspects of the same law. This relationship, together with other illuminating aspects of Newtonian mechanics, is described in Arnol'd's book and is worth remembering in standard physics courses. In this didactical paper the duality of the two forces is expounded and an account of the more recent contributions to the subject is given.

Saggio, Maria Luisa

2013-01-01

134

[Polymorphism of microsatellite markers in breeds of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) of Russian breeding].  

PubMed

Using five microsatellite loci, genotyping and genetic diversity estimates were obtained for nine samples representing seven common carp breeds most widespread in Russia. For comparison, the samples of Amur wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) and a sample of European Hungarian common carp were used. In the samples examined (n = 148) a total of 78 alleles were revealed. The highest mean allele number per locus (4.3) was identified in Amur wild common carp, while the lowest number was found in Cherepets carps (4.0). In different breeds, the observed heterozygosities varied from 0.819 (Altai carp) to 0.651 (Cherepets scaly carp). Three out of five microsatellite loci (MFW-24, MFW-28, and MFW-19) revealed a high level of population differentiation. In the dendrogram of genetic differences, all breeds clustered into two groups. One of these groups was composed of the two strains of Ropsha common carp, Stavropol common carp, Amur wild common carp, and the two samples of Cherepets common carp. The second cluster included Altai common carp (Cis-Ob' and Chumysh populations), two Angelinskii common carp breeds (mirror and scaly), and Hungarian common carp. The pairs of breeds/populations/strains, having common origin, were differentiated. Specifically, these were two populations of Altai common carp, two strains of Ropsha common carp, as well as the breeds of Angelinskii and Cherepets common carps. The reasons for genetic differentiation of Russian common carp breeds, as well as the concordance of the evolutionary histories of these breeds, some of which originated from the European breeds, while the others contain substantial admixture of the Amur wild common carp, are discussed. PMID:20583601

Ludanny?, R I; Khrisanfova, G G; Prizenko, V K; Bogeruk, A K; Semenova, S K

2010-05-01

135

Genotoxicity of the herbicide formulation Roundup ® (glyphosate) in broad-snouted caiman ( Caiman latirostris) evidenced by the Comet assay and the Micronucleus test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genotoxicity of pesticides is an issue of worldwide concern. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the genotoxic potential of a widely used herbicide formulation, Roundup® (glyphosate), in erythrocytes of broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) after in ovo exposure. Caiman embryos were exposed at early embryonic stage to different sub-lethal concentrations of Roundup® (50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 750,

G. L. Poletta; A. Larriera; E. Kleinsorge; M. D. Mudry

2009-01-01

136

Efficacy of 2-phenoxyethanol as an anaesthetic for two size classes of white sea bream, Diplodus sargus L., and sharp snout sea bream, Diplodus puntazzo C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 2-phenoxyethanol as an anaesthetic for two size classes of white sea bream, Diplodus sargus L. (30 and 60 g), and sharp snout sea bream, Diplodus puntazzo C., (15 and 30 g) and establish the minimum concentration producing desirable anaesthetic effects on them. Fish were exposed to concentrations varying from

H. Tsantilas; A. D. Galatos; F. Athanassopoulou; N. N. Prassinos; K. Kousoulaki

2006-01-01

137

Adolescent idiopathic thoracic scoliosis: apical correction with specialized pedicle hooks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-one patients with thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) treated with only a posterior spine fusion using specialized\\u000a pedicle hooks (SPH) (hooks augmented with 3.2-mm screws) at the apex of the curve were reviewed in order to assess the effectiveness\\u000a of this correction method. Inclusion in the study group required a minimum of 2 years’ follow-up and the same strategy of

Vincent Arlet; Patrice Papin; Dante Marchesi; Max Aebi

1999-01-01

138

Newton-Hooke-type symmetry of anisotropic oscillators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rotation-less Newton-Hooke-type symmetry, found recently in the Hill problem, and instrumental for explaining the center-of-mass decomposition, is generalized to an arbitrary anisotropic oscillator in the plane. Conversely, the latter system is shown, by the orbit method, to be the most general one with such a symmetry. Full Newton-Hooke symmetry is recovered in the isotropic case. Star escape from a galaxy is studied as an application.

Zhang, P. M.; Horvathy, P. A.; Andrzejewski, K.; Gonera, J.; Kosi?ski, P.

2013-06-01

139

(2+1) Newton-Hooke Classical and Quantum Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the Newton-Hooke groups in (2+1)-dimensions. A complete classification of both classical and quantum elementary systems is achieved by explicit computation of coadjoint orbits and unitary irreducible representations of the extended (by central extensions) Newton-Hooke groups. In addition, we show the quantization à la Moyal of a classical system using the Stratonovich-Weyl correspondence. An analysis of the origin of the "exotic" central extension, which only appears in (2+1)-dimensions, is presented.

Arratia, Oscar; Martín, Miguel A.; del Olmo, Mariano A.

2011-07-01

140

An AFLP-based approach for the identification of sex-linked markers in blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala (Cyprinidae).  

PubMed

Sex-specific DNA markers are useful for studying sex-determination mechanisms and establishment of monosex populations. Three widely spaced geographical populations (Liangzi, Poyang and Yuni Lakes in China) of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) were screened with AFLPs to search for sex-linked markers. Female and male pools (10 individuals in each pool) from each population were screened using 64 different primer combinations. A total of 4789 genomic fragments were produced, with a mean frequency of 75 bands per primer pair. Three different primer combinations produced putative sex-associated amplifications and were selected for individual screening in the three populations. However, none showed sex specificity when we converted these three markers into sequence characterized amplified region markers and evaluated all the individuals from the three populations. PMID:22576928

Rao, H O; Deng, J C; Wang, W M; Gao, Z-X

2012-04-19

141

Performance of barbed and barbless hooks in a marine recreational fishery  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used an angling study to examine catch per unit effort (CPUE), bait loss, and total landings by anglers fishing with natural bait on barbed and barbless hooks in a nearshore marine sport fishery located in the Gulf of Mexico near St. Petersburg, Florida. Anglers fished half the day with a barbed hook and half the day with a barbless hook. We also recorded anatomical hook placement, severity of injury or bleeding, and hook extraction times for each landed fish. Bait loss, CPUE, and mean length of catch did not differ between gears, but anglers landed 22% more fish with barbed hooks. Loss of hooked fish was significantly higher with barbless hooks, and efficiency appeared to vary among species. Mean unhooking times were significantly shorter with barbless hooks. Anatomical hook placement did not differ between gears and most fish were hooked in the jaws. Bleeding did not differ between gears because bleeding was influenced strongly by hook placement, but barbless hooks reduced unhooking injuries. In this fishery, barbless hooks probably did not reduce hooking mortality and conferred only slight benefits at the expense of reduced catches.

Schaeffer, Jeffrey S.; Hoffman, Elizabeth M.

2002-01-01

142

Historic Resource Study, the Sandy Hook Proving Ground, 1974-1919, Sandy Hook Unit Gateway, National Recreation Area, New Jersey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Historical Report has been prepared to satisfy the research requirements for this facility. All primary manuscript materials in Record Groups 77 and 156 at the National Archives focusing on the Sandy Hook Proving Ground from its establishment until 1...

E. C. Bearss

1983-01-01

143

Descriptive and Injunctive Social Norm Overestimation in Hooking Up and Their Role as Predictors of Hook-Up Activity in a College Student Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the presence of norm overestimation in both injunctive and descriptive norms about hooking up. An online survey was completed by 186 college students (127 women). Overestimation was examined for hooking up as a global category, as well as for six specific behaviors. The role of norms in predicting hooking up was also examined using hierarchical multiple regression

Megan Barriger; Carlos J. Vélez-Blasini

2011-01-01

144

Factors involved in the opening of the hypocotyl hook of cotton and beans.  

PubMed

Conditions influencing the opening of the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) hypocotyl hook were defined. Such hooks were shown to undergo geotropic curvature; orientation of the hook with respect to gravity greatly affected the observed opening. Cotton and bean hooks behaved exactly opposite in regard to the presence of the cotyledons and apical bud. The cotton hook required the cotyledons for opening, but the corresponding tissue slowed or inhibited opening of the bean hook. With cotton, lower hypocotyl and root tissues stimulated hook opening, but with bean, the tissues below the hook section had little effect. Kinetin and gibberellic acid both modified hook opening in light and dark; the former was inhibitory and the latter was stimulatory. Indoleacetic acid, at concentrations above 10(-5) M, caused pronounced hook closing in red light but not in the dark. These effects were generally the same with both plants. In opening of the cotton hook, the cotyledons were not necessary as a light receptor tissue. None of the growth substances tested were able to substitute completely for the cotton cotyledon. Coumarin was a pronounced inhibitor of opening of the cotton hook, and this response was expressed to such a degree as to cause hook closure with bean tissue. Reduced oxygen levels inhibited hook opening in bean. Oxygen was required in processes subsequent to the light reaction, but not for the photochemical process. PMID:16657340

Powell, R D; Morgan, P W

1970-05-01

145

PCBs and other xenobiotics in raw and cooked carp  

SciTech Connect

The effect of cooking on PCBs and DDT compounds was determined in fillets from carp ranging from 3.0 to 4.9 Kg. Cooking methods included were: poaching, roasting, deep fat frying, charbroiling and cooking by microwave. (JMT)

Zabik, M.E.; Merrill, C.; Zabik, M.J.

1982-06-01

146

Spawning of major carps in the lower Halda River, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spawning biology and spawn fishery of three valuable species of Indian major carps,Catla catla, Labeo rohita andCirrhinus mrigala, in the lower Halda River, Bangladesh, were studied in 1978. The major carps spawned only in the Sonairchar oxbow-bend from\\u000a April to June on or near the dates of the full moon and the new moon. The tide was then at its

Chu-fa Tsai; M. Nazrul Islam; Rezaul Karim; K. U. M. Shahidur Rahman

1981-01-01

147

Utilization of fermented silkworm pupae silage in feed for carps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermented silkworm pupae (SWP) silage or untreated fresh SWP pastes were incorporated in carp feed formulations replacing fishmeal. The feed formulations were isonitrogenous (30.2–30.9% protein) and isocaloric (ME=2905–2935 kcal\\/kg). Feeding under a polyculture system consisting of 30% each of catla (Catla catla), mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) and rohu (Labeo rohita) with 10% silver carps (Hypophthalmychthys molitrix) was carried out in ponds

P. V Rangacharyulu; S. S Giri; B. N Paul; K. P Yashoda; R. Jagannatha Rao; N. S Mahendrakar; S. N Mohanty; P. K Mukhopadhyay

2003-01-01

148

Female homogamety in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) determined by gynogenesis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gynogenesis occurred in eggs of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) treated with X-irradiated milt from goldfish (Carassius auratus). Gynogenetic offspring were females, which indicates functional female homogamety in grass carp. Five of these gynogenetic fish were used as an egg source for a second generation of artificially gynogenetic fish. The percentage yield in this second generation was about the same as in the first, which suggests that the tendency to become diploid is not strongly heritable

Stanley, Jon G.

1976-01-01

149

Genetic evolution and diversity of common carp Cyprinus carpio L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of genetic variation and population structure of existing strains of both farmed and wild common carp Cyprinus carpio L. is absolutely necessary for any efficient fish management and\\/or conservation program. To assess genetic diversity in\\u000a common carp populations, a variety of molecular markers were analyzed. Of those, microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA were\\u000a most frequently used in the analysis of

Dimitry A. Chistiakov; Natalia V. Voronova

2009-01-01

150

Development of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) genetic maps using microsatellite and AFLP markers and a pseudo-testcross strategy.  

PubMed

Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) are two of the four most important pond-cultured fish species inhabiting the major river basins of China. In the present study, genetic maps of silver carp and bighead carp were constructed using microsatellite and AFLP markers and a two-way pseudo-testcross strategy. To create the maps, 60 individuals were obtained from a cross of a single bighead carp (female) and a single silver carp (male). The silver carp map consisted of 271 markers (48 microsatellites and 223 AFLPs) that were assembled into 27 linkage groups, of which 22 contained at least four markers. The total length of the silver carp map was 952.2 cM, covering 82.8% of the estimated genome size. The bighead carp map consisted of 153 markers (27 microsatellites and 126 AFLPs) which were organized into 30 linkage groups, of which 19 contained at least four markers. The total length of the bighead carp map was 852.0 cM, covering 70.5% of the estimated genome size. Eighteen microsatellite markers were common to both maps. These maps will contribute to discovery of genes and genetic regions controlling traits in the two species of carp. PMID:17614988

Liao, M; Zhang, L; Yang, G; Zhu, M; Wang, D; Wei, Q; Zou, G; Chen, D

2007-07-05

151

Food Habits of the Carp, 'Cyprinus carpio' L., in Five Oklahoma Reservoirs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Alimentary tracts were examined of 1010 carp collected by commercial fishermen from four riverine reservoirs, and of 211 adult and 45 young carp from Lake Carl Blackwell, a headwaters reservoir. The major food items were algae, plant fragments, seeds, ent...

R. C. Summerfelt P. E. Mauck G. Mensinger

1970-01-01

152

Structural conservation and food habit-related liver expression of uncoupling protein 2 gene in five major Chinese carps.  

PubMed

The full-length cDNA of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) was obtained from liver. The grass carp UCP2 cDNA was determined to be 1152 bp in length with an open reading frame that encodes 310 amino acids. Five introns (Intron 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7) in the translated region, and partial sequence of Intron 2 in the untranslated region of grass carp UCP2 gene were also obtained. Gene structure comparison between grass carp and mammalian (human and mouse) UCP2 gene shows that, the UCP2 gene structure of grass carp is much similar to that of human and mouse. Partial UCP2 cDNA sequences of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and mud carp (Cirrhinus molitorella), were further determined. Together with the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) UCP2 sequence from GenBank (AJ243486), multiple alignment result shows that the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the UCP2 gene, were highly conserved among the five major Chinese carps that belong to four subfamilies. Using beta-actin as control, the ratio UCP2/beta-actin mRNA (%) was determined to be 149.4 +/- 15.6 (common carp), 127.4 +/- 22.1(mud carp), 96.7 +/- 12.7 (silver carp), 94.1 +/- 26.8 (bighead carp) and 63.7 +/- 16.2 (grass carp). The relative liver UCP2 expression of the five major Chinese carps, shows a close relationship with their food habit: benthos and detritus-eating fish (common carp and mud carp) > planktivorious fish (silver carp and bighead carp) > herbivorous fish (grass carp). We suggest that liver UCP2 might be important for Chinese carps to detoxify cyanotoxins and bacteria in debris and plankton food. PMID:16889676

Liao, Wan-Qin; Liang, Xu-Fang; Wang, Lin; Fang, Ling; Lin, Xiaotao; Bai, Junjie; Jian, Qing

2006-07-31

153

BOOK REVIEW: Robert Hooke and the Royal Society  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many physics students only come across Hooke when they learn his law of stretching springs, which is a pity because it is just one of his contributions to progress in science, and a minor one at that. His, Micrographia, the first great book of microscopical observations, arouses admiration to this day. He was also active in horology, astronomy, geology and surveying, and he took part in biological experiments, transfusing blood between animals. Much of his work was done while he was curator of experiments for the Royal Society, in which he was involved almost from its foundation. This was by no means a full-time occupation, however. After the Great Fire of London, Hooke was appointed one of the three surveyors for the rebuilding of the city. One of the others was Christopher Wren, a lifelong friend. In this role Hooke was responsible for the design of several buildings, including the Monument. Nichols writes about all these activities, as well as Hooke's childhood, his education at Westminster School, the University of Oxford when Hooke was an undergraduate, and the founding of the Royal Society. The book draws on research for a master's degree. Turning a dissertation into a popular book is risky. The author has avoided the pitfall of making it too academic, but the result is not satisfying. Nichols seems overawed by Hooke and his work, frequently seeming to credit Hooke with a far-reaching influence that he did not necessarily have. There may be a case for lauding Hooke as the father of English microscopy, the father of English meteorology, and the founder of English geology and earth sciences, but it needs to be made much more critically, even in a popular work. Hooke was full of good ideas, but he rarely continued long enough to put them into practice. There is no doubt that Hooke proposed using a balance wheel and spring to improve the timekeeping of a watch, for example, but he did not have a watch made to his design until after Christiaan Huygens had independently devised a similar mechanism and published it. Hooke did propose a marine chronometer to solve the (already well understood) problem of finding longitude at sea, but it was John Harrison, decades later, who built a chronometer, and there is not the slightest reason to believe he owed anything to Hooke. The book records Hooke's activities, but is devoid of comment or analysis. The casual cruelty (by modern standards) to the animals used in the blood transfusion experiments passes without remark. The chapter about Oxford University reads almost like entries from a biographical dictionary. The purpose of this and the following chapter on the founding of the Royal Society only becomes apparent at the end, if the reader has not lost interest by then. Expert opinion acknowledges that the popular belief that Wren was primarily responsible for the rebuilding of the City of London undervalues Hooke's work, but Nichols, in his unwavering support for Hooke, glosses over the genuine problems of disentangling their contributions. The disputes between Hooke and Newton are well known, and no-one suggests that Newton was a pleasant person, but the unpleasantness was not all on one side. Historians agree that Hooke was a difficult man. There are no numbered references or notes, a not unusual policy in a popular book, but many sources (most of them secondary) are mentioned in the text. They do not help to make it read well, and the details are incomplete, but so are the details of many of the items listed in the bibliography. An index would be useful, but it is lacking. There are signs in a number of places that the book has not been carefully revised and edited. This ought to be a book to recommend to young students, but it would fail to inspire them. This is a pity, because there is no doubt that Hooke was one of the towering figures of the beginning of the scientific revolution. The fledgling Royal Society might not have survived without the experiments and demonstrations he provided. Historians know this but it deserves to be more widely recognized.

Brown, Neil

2000-01-01

154

Effects of dietary protein and lipid levels in practical diets on growth performance and body composition of blunt snout bream ( Megalobrama amblycephala) fingerlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feeding trial including diets with three protein levels (27%, 31% and 35%) and three lipid levels (4%, 7% and 10%) was conducted to investigate the optimum protein and lipid requirements of blunt snout bream fingerlings (average initial weight:1.76±0.04g). Fish were randomly distributed into 27 floating cages (2×1×1m) and fed three times daily (06:30, 11:30 and 16:30h) for 8weeks. Weight

Xiang-fei Li; Wen-bin Liu; Yang-yang Jiang; Hao Zhu; Xian-ping Ge

2010-01-01

155

77 FR 15722 - Southern California Hook and Line Survey; Public Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...California Hook and Line Survey review meeting will be held...California Hook and Line survey design and protocols; (2) examine the analytical methods used to generate rockfish...potential expansion of the survey's geographical range...

2012-03-16

156

33 CFR 80.170 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. 80...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES... Atlantic Coast § 80.170 Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River,...

2013-07-01

157

33 CFR 80.170 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. 80...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES... Atlantic Coast § 80.170 Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River,...

2010-07-01

158

33 CFR 80.170 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. 80...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES... Atlantic Coast § 80.170 Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River,...

2009-07-01

159

Cytochemistry of sialoglycoconjugates, lysozyme, and ?-defensin in eccrine glands of porcine snout skin as studied by electron microscopy.  

PubMed

In most mammals except for humanoid primates, eccrine glands are confined to the skin of a series of specific body regions. Sialic acids and antimicrobial substances exhibit various functional properties and serve as a component of nonspecific defense against micro-organisms, respectively. In this study, the distribution of these moieties was studied by electron microscopic histochemical methods. The eccrine glandular acini consisted of two types of dark cells as well as clear cells. The secretory granules and Golgi apparatus of both types of dark cells contained sialic acid residues linked to ?2-6Gal/GalNAc. On the other hand, sialoglycoconjugates with Si?2-3Gal?1-4GlcNAc sequence were confined to those of the Type II dark cells. In addition, lysozyme and ?-defensin were mainly detected in the secretory granules of the Type II dark cells. These secretory products may create a defensive barrier against microbial invasion and play an essential role in preservation of the integrity of porcine snout skin as a sensory organ. PMID:23032992

Fukui, Kousuke; Yasui, Tadashi; Gomi, Hiroshi; Sugiya, Hiroshi; Fujimori, Osamu; Meyer, Wilfried; Tsukise, Azuma

2012-10-03

160

PERFORMANCE AND NATURE OF GENETICALLY IMPROVED CARP STRAINS IN ASIAN COUNTRIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The WorldFish Center and its research partners have recently made efforts to develop genetically improved carp strains. This paper analyses the comparative performance of the genetically improved carp strains on both average and efficient farms in four carp-dominating Asian countries (Bangladesh, India, Thailand and Vietnam). The results show superior performance of improved strains in terms of body weight and survival

Madan Mohan Dey; Praduman Kumar; Ferdinand J. Paraguas; Chen Oai Li; Nartaya Srichantuk

2010-01-01

161

Genetic Diversity and Variation of Mitochondrial DNA in Native and Introduced Bighead Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis is native to China but has been introduced to over 70 countries and is established in many large river systems. Genetic diversity and variation in introduced bighead carp have not previously been evaluated, and a systematic comparison among fish from different river systems was unavailable. In this study, 190 bighead carp specimens were sampled from

Si-Fa Li; Qin-Ling Yang; Jia-Wei Xu; Cheng-Hui Wang; Duane C. Chapman; Guoqing Lu

2010-01-01

162

CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE USE OF GRASS CARP IN LARGE, OPEN SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grass carp have effectively controlled submergent aquatic macrophytes in large reservoirs when stocked at densities up to 75 fish per vegetated hectare. Large systems pose special concerns relative to decisions on whether to stock grass carp. Multiple use, multiple agency involvement, and interstate jurisdictions complicate decisionmaking. Complex vegetation communities of large systems make results less predictable. Grass carp movements not

Richard L. Noble; Phillip W. Bettoli; Robert K. Betsill

1986-01-01

163

Cloning, expression, and bioinformatics analysis of the sheep CARP gene.  

PubMed

The cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP) is a multifunctional protein that is expressed specifically in mammalian cardiac muscle and plays important roles in stress responses, transcriptional regulation, myofibrillar assembly, and the development of cardiac and skeletal muscle. In this study, the sheep homolog of the CARP gene was cloned and characterized. The coding region of the gene consists of 960 bp and encodes 319 amino acids with molecular weight 36.2 KD. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the gene contains many AU-rich elements that are associated with mRNA stability and a potential regulatory site for miRNA binding. The protein was predicted to contain 14 potential phosphorylation sites and an O-GlcNAc glycosylation site and to be expressed in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. The evolutionary analysis revealed that the sheep CARP exhibited a high level of homology with the mammalian counterparts; however, the protein exhibited an increased evolutionary distance from the chicken, frog, and fish homologs. RT-PCR revealed that in addition to its high mRNA expression level in cardiac muscle, trace amounts of the sheep CARP mRNA were expressed in the skeletal muscle, stomach, and small intestine. However, western blot analysis demonstrated that the CARP protein was expressed only in cardiac muscle. The coding sequence was cloned into the pET30a-TEV-LIC vector, and the soluble CARP-MBP (maltose-binding protein) fusion protein was expressed in a prokaryotic host and purified by affinity chromatography. Our data provide the basis for future studies of the structure and function of sheep CARP. PMID:23475534

Ma, Guoda; Wang, Haiyang; Li, You; Cui, Lili; Cui, Yudong; Li, Qingzhang; Li, Keshen; Zhao, Bin

2013-03-10

164

Short-Term Prospective Study of Hooking Up Among College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hook ups are casual sexual encounters (ranging from kissing to intercourse) between two people with no clear mutual expectation\\u000a of further interactions or a committed relationship. This study utilized a short-term prospective design to examine predictors\\u000a of hooking up in a sample of young adults (N = 394). Hooking up over the past year, positive reactions to prior hook ups, alcohol use,

Jesse OwenFrank; Frank D. Fincham; Jon Moore

2011-01-01

165

In vitro Antioxidant of a Water-Soluble Polysaccharide from Dendrobium fimhriatum Hook.var.oculatum Hook  

PubMed Central

A water-soluble crude polysaccharide (DFHP) obtained from the aqueous extracts of the stem of Dendrobium fimhriatum Hook.var.oculatum Hook through hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation, was found to have an average molecular weight (Mw) of about 209.3 kDa. Monosaccharide analysis revealed that DFHP was composed of mannose, glucose and galactose in a content ratio of 37.52%; 43.16%; 19.32%. The investigation of antioxidant activity in vitro showed that DFHP is a potential antioxidant.

Luo, Aoxue; Fan, Yijun

2011-01-01

166

The Teaching Philosophy of bell hooks: The Classroom as a Site for Passionate Interrogation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses bell hooks' book of 15 short essays, "Teaching To Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom," which gathers hooks's central beliefs about the political purposes of higher education. The paper describes hooks' own lack of models for the kind of classroom she wished to create as a young teacher and her initial…

Lanier, Kirsten Olson

167

The complete mitochondrial genome of the Japanese ornamental koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) and its implication for the history of koi.  

PubMed

Abstract Complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences were determined for two individuals of Japanese ornamental koi carp. Interestingly, the obtained mitogenomes (16,581?bp) were both completely identical to the recently reported mitogenome of Oujiang color carp from China. Control region (CR) sequences in DNA database demonstrated that more than half (65%) of the koi carp individuals so far reported had partial or complete CR sequences identical to those from Oujiang color carp. These results might suggest that the Japanese koi carp has been originated from Chinese Oujiang color carp, contrary to the belief in Japan that the koi carps have been developed directly from carp stocks in Japan. In any case, the present results emphasize the importance of analyzing Oujiang color carp when studying the origin of koi carp. PMID:23607478

Mabuchi, Kohji; Song, Hayeun

2013-04-22

168

Concrete teaching: hooks and props as instructional technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hooks and props are mental or physical images used in the classroom which help students as they learn new topics. Concrete and constructive teaching are essential in introductory programming courses. In this paper we discuss active teaching and some ideas using physical props and images that in our experience have enhanced the teaching and learning process.

Owen L. Astrachan

1998-01-01

169

Ediz Hook Beach Erosion Control, Port Angeles, Washington.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project involves new rock revetment and beach nourishment of about 10,000 feet of the seaward shore of Ediz Hook. Material for the revetment would come from existing quarries in the Puget Sound Area, and beach nourishment material would come from a so...

1972-01-01

170

CAMERA IS ON CATWALK ABOVE MTR. CRANE HOOK LOWERS TOP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CAMERA IS ON CATWALK ABOVE MTR. CRANE HOOK LOWERS TOP PLUG ONTO REACTOR. NOTE PLANK-LIKE BRIDGE (WALKWAY) TO BALCONY AT UPPER RIGHT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 4502. Unknown Photographer, probable date 3/31/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

171

Hooked on Learning at the Minnesota Science Museum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Described is a voluntary museum program where instructors teach science, math, and technology through art. Activities that can be used as "hooks" to get students interested in the program are provided. Topics include privacy and personal space, imaginary worlds, toys, behind the scenes, fads, friendly materials, humor, and the imagination. (KR)|

Neumann, Jane

1991-01-01

172

Minerals and antinutrients in fluted pumpkin ( Telfairia occidentalis Hook f.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were conducted to determine the biochemical composition of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook f.) at different stages of growth. Analyses were carried out at 12 and 50 weeks after planting on stems, leaves and roots, while seeds were analysed 8 and 32 weeks, respectively, after antethesis. Proximate moisture and carbohydrate content decreased in stems, leaves, roots and seeds with

Ekpedeme U Akwaowo; Bassey A Ndon; Ekaete U Etuk

2000-01-01

173

Panel made of expanded foam with hooks or loops  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A panel-forming assembly which is intended to be fixed to a surface of a vehicle or an aircraft, for example the floor of the trunk or a surface of the hatch of the spare-wheel compartment, and comprising, on the one hand, a panel of foam of expanded thermoplastic material, in particular expanded polypropylene or expanded polystyrene, which is constituted of an agglomeration of balls made of thermoplastic material and, on the other hand, hooks and/or loops issuing from the panel and intended to cooperate with loops and/or hooks issuing from the said one surface of a vehicle, characterized in that the assembly comprises an intermediate element (4) comprising a plate (5) from a face of which project the hooks (6) and/or the loops issuing from the panel that cooperate with the loops and/or the hooks (3) issuing from the surface of the vehicle, while from a face opposite the said one face of the plate there projects at least one piece (7) in the form of a fir tree comprising elements in the form of fir-tree branches (9) defining between them intermediate spaces or interstices (d), which piece is inserted into the panel (2).

2013-03-26

174

Anharmonic Vibrations of an "Ideal" Hooke's Law Oscillator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a model describing the vibrations of a mass connected to fixed supports by "ideal" Hooke's law springs which may serve as a starting point in the study of the properties of irons in a crystal undergoing soft mode activated transition. (SL)

Thomchick, John; McKelvey, J. P.

1978-01-01

175

Upscaling of Hooke's Law for Imperfectly Layered Rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider the upscaling of Hooke's law and its parameters on the fine scale, to a similar law with upscaled parameters on a larger scale. It is assumed that the fine scale material properties of the rock are imperfectly layered. In the governing equations, the deviations from perfect layering introduce a small parameter that can be used

Gerard Rijpsma; Wouter Zijl

1998-01-01

176

Studying Hooke's Law by Using a Pogo Stick  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perhaps the pogo stick was little Robert Hooke's favorite childhood toy, consisting of a stiff spring inserted in a tube fixed at the upper end and connected to a moveable rod at the other. Hand grips and a foot rest are connected to the tube. The idea is to jump on it taking advantage of the force provided by the

Nicolás Silva

2011-01-01

177

Simulation of Hooke's Joint on the Analog Computer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A problem is presented that teaches the engineering student or practicing engineer the behavior of Hooke's joint, a widely used mechanism for transmitting rotary power in mechanical equipment. Also provided by this problem is an exercise in analog programing which utilizes nonlinear computer elements. (Author/CS)

Mitchell, Eugene E., Ed.

1980-01-01

178

BOOK REVIEW: Robert Hooke and the Royal Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many physics students only come across Hooke when they learn his law of stretching springs, which is a pity because it is just one of his contributions to progress in science, and a minor one at that. His, Micrographia, the first great book of microscopical observations, arouses admiration to this day. He was also active in horology, astronomy, geology and

Richard Nichols

2000-01-01

179

Abnormal cerebellar development and ataxia in CARP VIII morphant zebrafish.  

PubMed

Congenital ataxia and mental retardation are mainly caused by variations in the genes that affect brain development. Recent reports have shown that mutations in the CA8 gene are associated with mental retardation and ataxia in humans and ataxia in mice. The gene product, carbonic anhydrase-related protein VIII (CARP VIII), is predominantly present in cerebellar Purkinje cells, where it interacts with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1, a calcium channel. In this study, we investigated the effects of the loss of function of CARP VIII during embryonic development in zebrafish using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides against the CA8 gene. Knockdown of CA8 in zebrafish larvae resulted in a curved body axis, pericardial edema and abnormal movement patterns. Histologic examination revealed gross morphologic defects in the cerebellar region and in the muscle. Electron microscopy studies showed increased neuronal cell death in developing larvae injected with CA8 antisense morpholinos. These data suggest a pivotal role for CARP VIII during embryonic development. Furthermore, suppression of CA8 expression leads to defects in motor and coordination functions, mimicking the ataxic human phenotype. This work reveals an evolutionarily conserved function of CARP VIII in brain development and introduces a novel zebrafish model in which to investigate the mechanisms of CARP VIII-related ataxia and mental retardation in humans. PMID:23087022

Aspatwar, Ashok; Tolvanen, Martti E E; Jokitalo, Eija; Parikka, Mataleena; Ortutay, Csaba; Harjula, Sanna-Kaisa E; Rämet, Mika; Vihinen, Mauno; Parkkila, Seppo

2012-10-18

180

Genetic Divergence Between Cyprinus carpio carpio and Cyprinus carpio haematopterus as Assessed by Mitochondrial DNA Analysis, with Emphasis on Origin of European Domestic Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although common carp is the major fish species in Asian and European aquaculture and many domestic varieties have occurred, there is a controversy about the origination of European domestic common carp. Some scientists affirmed that the ancestor of European domestic common carp was Danube River wild common carp, but others considered it might be Asian common carp. For elucidating origination

Jian Feng Zhou; Qing Jiang Wu; Yu Zhen Ye; Jin Gou Tong

2003-01-01

181

Detection of hybridization between Chinese carp species ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Aristichthys nobilis) in hatchery broodstock in Bangladesh, using DNA microsatellite loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybridization between silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) has been reported to occur fairly frequently in commercial aquaculture hatcheries in Bangladesh. The consequences of hybridization for broodstock purity had not previously been investigated. Allelic variation at three microsatellite DNA loci isolated from silver carp routinely distinguished between silver carp and bighead carp. These markers were used in

M. Younus Mia; John B. Taggart; Ann E. Gilmour; Almas A. Gheyas; Topan K. Das; A. H. M. Kohinoor; M. Aminur Rahman; M. Abdus Sattar; M. Gulam Hussain; M. Abdul Mazid; David J. Penman; Brendan J. McAndrew

2005-01-01

182

Socioeconomic characterisation of specialised common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) anglers in Germany, and implications for inland fisheries management and eutrophication control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many freshwater ecosystems suffer from dense common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) stocks. From the ecological point of view, high carp densities are not desirable because of several negative impacts (e.g. bioturbation, competition with other benthivores). A mail and internet survey among specialised carp anglers (SCAs) (n=710) suggests that, in Germany, carp anglers’ catch exceeds commercial carp harvest by up to

Robert Arlinghaus; Thomas Mehner

2003-01-01

183

Beach Restoration on Sandy Hook, Gateway National Recreation Area, from Maintenance Dredging of Ambrose and Sandy Hook Federal Navigation Channels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ambrose Channel and Sandy Hook Channel are the main entrance channels into the Port of New York. Approximately 200 million tons of commerce pass through the Port of New York every year. Ambrose Channel is 2,000 ft wide and is maintained to a depth of 45 f...

J. Zammit W. F. Slezak

1987-01-01

184

Proprieta Termodinamiche Dei Materiali Che Seguono la Legge di Hooke (Thermodynamic Properties of Materials According to Hooke's Law).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The variation of elastic moduli of Hooke materials with temperature is interpreted from a thermodynamic point of view both in the case of compression or tension and in the case of torsion. Correlations are established among the variation of entropy of a t...

G. Pegoraro G. Paolini

1966-01-01

185

[Effect of glyphosate on the energy exchange in carp organs].  

PubMed

The use of glyphosate as a herbicide in agriculture can lead to the presence of its residues and metabolites (aminomethylphosphonic acid) in food for human consumption and pose a threat to health. The effect of these herbicides on the fish organism at the biochemical level has been insufficiently studied. We studied changes in the content of adenine nucleotides, enzyme activity, quantitative indexes of energy metabolism substrates in carp under the action of glyphosate. It has been found that proteins are the major energy substrate under the influence of glyphosate in the liver, brain, white muscle of carp yearlings. Glyphosphate decreases energy metabolism in the brain of carp and increases it in the white muscles. The growth of activity of catabolic enzymes in the liver under the influence of glyphosate can be attributed to the adaptive remodelling of metabolic pathways for homeostasis and enantiostasis in response to herbicides. PMID:23937045

Zhidenko, A A; Bibchuk, E V; Barbukho, E V

186

Modeling the hook depth distribution of pelagic longlining in the equatorial area of Indian Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey was conducted in the equatorial area of Indian Ocean for a better understanding of the dynamics of hook depth distribution of pelagic longline fishery. We determined the relationship between hook depth and vertical shear of current coefficiency, wind speed, hook position code, sine of wind angle, sine of angle of attack and weight of messenger weight. We identified the hook depth models by the analysis of covariance with a general linear model. The results showed that the wind effect on the hook depth can be ignored from October to November in the survey area; the surface current effect on the hook depth can be ignored; the equatorial undercurrent is the key factor for the hook depth in Indian Ocean; and there is a negative correlation between the hook depth and vertical shear of current and angle of attack. It was also found that the deeper the hook was set, the higher hook depth shoaling was. The proposed model improves the accuracy of the prediction of hook depth, which can be used to estimate the vertical distribution of pelagic fish in water column.

Song, Liming; Li, Jie; Gao, Panfeng; Zhou, Ji; Xu, Liuxiong

2012-12-01

187

Molecular cloning and characterization of alpha-class glutathione S-transferase gene from the liver of silver carp, bighead carp, and other major Chinese freshwater fishes.  

PubMed

Two full-length cDNAs encoding glutathione S-transferase (GST) were cloned and sequenced from the hepatopancreas of planktivorous silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis). The silver carp and bighead carp GST cDNA were 920 and 978 bp in length, respectively, and both contained an open reading frame that encoding 223 amino acids. Partial GST cDNA sequences were also obtained from the liver of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), crucian carp (Carassius auratu), mud carp (Cirrhinus molitorella), and tilapia (Oreochromis nilotica). All these GSTs could be classified as alpha-class GSTs on the basis of their amino acid sequence identity with other species. The three-dimensional structure of the silver carp GST was predicted using a computer program, and was found to fit the classical two-domain GST structure. Using the genome walker method, a 875-bp 5'-flanking region of the silver carp GST gene was obtained, and several lipopolysaccharide (LPS) response elements were identified in the promoter region of the phytoplanktivorous fish GST gene, indicating that the GST gene expression of this fish might be regulated by LPS, released from the toxic blue-green algae producing microcystins. To compare the constitutive expression level of the liver GST gene among the six freshwater fishes with completely different tolerance to microcystins, beta-actin was used as control and the ratio GST/beta-actin mRNA (%) was determined as 130.7 +/- 6.6 (grass carp), 103.1 +/- 8.9 (bighead carp), 92.6 +/- 15.0 (crucian carp), 72.3 +/- 7.8 (mud carp), 58.8 +/- 11.5 (silver carp), and 33.6 +/- 13.7 (tilapia). The constitutive expression level of the liver GST gene clearly shows that all the six freshwater fishes had a negative relationship with their tolerance to microcystins: high-resistant fishes (phytoplanktivorous silver carp and tilapia) had the lowest tolerance to microcystins and the high-sensitive fish (herbivorous grass carp) had the highest tolerance to microcystins. Taken together with the reciprocal relationship of constitutive and inducible liver GST expression level in some of the tested fish species to microcystin exposure, a molecular mechanism for different microcystin detoxification abilities of the warm freshwater fishes was discussed. PMID:16788955

Liao, Wan-Qin; Liang, Xu-Fang; Wang, Lin; Lei, La-Mei; Han, Bo-Ping

2006-01-01

188

Central African Regional Program for the Environment (CARPE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Comprised of numerous scientific and advocacy partners, and funded by the US Agency for International Development (USAID), CARPE seeks to help identify and establish conditions and practices which will reduce deforestation and biodiversity loss in the Congo Basin. CARPE arose in response to both local and international concern about the consequences of the current pattern of unsustainable resource use in the region. Main sections at this site include: Briefing Sheet, Partners, Activities, Products, Donor Coordination and related sites. Users can join a discussion group or link to related sites.

1997-01-01

189

Protective Roles of Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella Mx Isoforms against Grass Carp Reovirus  

PubMed Central

Background Myxovirus resistance (Mx) proteins are crucial effectors of the innate antiviral response against a wide range of viruses, mediated by the type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling pathway. However, the antiviral activity of Mx proteins is diverse and complicated in different species. Methodology/Principal Findings In the current study, two novel Mx genes (CiMx1 and CiMx3) were identified in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). CiMx1 and CiMx3 proteins exhibit high sequence identity (92.1%), and low identity with CiMx2 (49.2% and 49.5%, respectively) from the GenBank database. The predicted three-dimensional (3D) structures are distinct among the three isoforms. mRNA instability motifs also display significant differences in the three genes. The spatial and temporal expression profiles of three C. idella Mx genes and the IFN-I gene were investigated by real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) following infection with grass carp reovirus (GCRV) in vivo and in vitro. The results demonstrated that all the four genes were implicated in the anti-GCRV immune response, that mRNA expression of Mx genes might be independent of IFN-I, and that CIK cells are suitable for antiviral studies. By comparing expression patterns following GCRV challenge or poly(I:C) treatment, it was observed that GCRV blocks mRNA expression of the four genes. To determine the functions of Mx genes, three CiMx cDNAs were cloned into expression vectors and utilized for transfection of CIK cells. The protection conferred by each recombinant CiMx protein against GCRV infection was evaluated. Antiviral activity against GCRV was demonstrated by reduced cytopathic effect, lower virus titer and lower levels of expressed viral transcripts. The transcription of IFN-I gene was also monitored. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate all three Mx genes can suppress replication of grass carp reovirus and over-expression of Mx genes mediate feedback inhibition of the IFN-I gene.

Peng, Limin; Yang, Chunrong; Su, Jianguo

2012-01-01

190

Hooke's law correlation in two-electron systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the properties of the Hooke’s law correlation energy (Ec), defined as the correlation energy when two electrons interact via a harmonic potential in a D-dimensional space. More precisely, we investigate the 1S ground-state properties of two model systems: the Moshinsky atom (in which the electrons move in a quadratic potential) and the spherium model (in which they move on the surface of a sphere). A comparison with their Coulombic counterparts is made that highlights the main differences of the Ec in both the weakly and strongly correlated limits. Moreover, we show that the Schrödinger equation of the spherium model is exactly solvable for two values of the dimension (D=1and3) and that the exact wave function is based on Mathieu functions.

Loos, Pierre-François

2010-03-01

191

Dynamical realizations of l-conformal Newton–Hooke group  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of nonlinear realizations and the technique previously developed in [A. Galajinsky, I. Masterov, Nucl. Phys. B 866 (2013) 212, arXiv:1208.1403] are used to construct a dynamical system without higher derivative terms, which holds invariant under the l-conformal Newton–Hooke group. A configuration space of the model involves coordinates, which parametrize a particle moving in d spatial dimensions and a conformal mode, which gives rise to an effective external field. The dynamical system describes a generalized multi-dimensional oscillator, which undergoes accelerated/decelerated motion in an ellipse in accord with evolution of the conformal mode. Higher derivative formulations are discussed as well. It is demonstrated that the multi-dimensional Pais–Uhlenbeck oscillator enjoys the l=32-conformal Newton–Hooke symmetry for a particular choice of its frequencies.

Galajinsky, Anton; Masterov, Ivan

2013-06-01

192

Hook-Up Culture: Setting a New Research Agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summarizing the major findings of literature on hook-up culture, we propose a new research agenda focusing on when and why\\u000a this sexual subculture emerged. We explore a series of hypotheses to explain this sexual paradigm shift, including college\\u000a and university policies, the gender distribution of students, changes in the nature of alcohol use, access to and consumption\\u000a of pornography, the

Caroline Heldman; Lisa Wade

2010-01-01

193

Mortality of Striped Bass Hooked and Released in Salt Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the importance of the recreational fishery for striped bass Morone saxatilis along the eastern coast of the United States, little is known about the survival rates of caught and released striped bass. We predicted long-term (58-d) hooking mortality of striped bass after catch and release in saltwater using a logistic regression model. Experimental fishing was conducted on fish (27–57

Paul J. Diodati; R. Anne Richards

1996-01-01

194

In vitro propagation of Sandersonia aurantiaca Hook using thidiazuron  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reliable in vitro propagation system was developed for the cut flower crop sandersonia (Sandersonia aurantiaca Hook). Explants comprised immature embryos from developing seeds and meristems from sprouting tubers. MS media supplemented\\u000a with a range of thidiazuron (TDZ) concentrations lead to the formation of multiple shoot clusters. To overcome the deleterious\\u000a effect of long-term exposure to TDZ concentrations, a multistage

Simon C. DerolesJohn; John F. Seelye; John Javellana; Andrew C. Mullan

2010-01-01

195

Planktonic fish eggs and larvae of sandy hook estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty species of planktonic fish eggs and larvae were identified from 75 surface plankton tows made at river, bay, and ocean\\u000a locations in the Sandy Hook estuary. A gradual increase in the number of species through the spring to a peak in the summer\\u000a was followed by a decline in the fall and winter. Seventeen species were collected at a

Robert A. Croker

1965-01-01

196

Studying Hooke's Law by Using a Pogo Stick  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perhaps the pogo stick was little Robert Hooke's favorite childhood toy, consisting of a stiff spring inserted in a tube fixed at the upper end and connected to a moveable rod at the other. Hand grips and a foot rest are connected to the tube. The idea is to jump on it taking advantage of the force provided by the spring when it is compressed. Figure 1 shows a schematic of a pogo stick.

Silva, Nicolás

2011-05-01

197

Personality as a Predictor of Hooking Up Among College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hookups—casual sexual encounters that may or may not include intercourse—are common on college campuses. Previous research has suggested that these casual sexual encounters may have serious health-related consequences. Understanding the relationships among multiple predictors of hooking up is important if high-risk prevention programming among college students is to be effective. This study considers each of the Big Five personality traits

Gary Gute; Elaine M. Eshbaugh

2008-01-01

198

Studying Hooke's Law by Using a Pogo Stick  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Perhaps the pogo stick was little Robert Hooke's favorite childhood toy, consisting of a stiff spring inserted in a tube fixed at the upper end and connected to a moveable rod at the other. Hand grips and a foot rest are connected to the tube. The idea is to jump on it taking advantage of the force provided by the spring when it is compressed.…

Silva, Nicolas

2011-01-01

199

Hooke's law correlation in two-electron systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the properties of the Hooke's law correlation energy (E{sub c}), defined as the correlation energy when two electrons interact via a harmonic potential in a D-dimensional space. More precisely, we investigate the ¹S ground-state properties of two model systems: the Moshinsky atom (in which the electrons move in a quadratic potential) and the spherium model (in which they

Loos; Pierre-Francois

2010-01-01

200

A generalization of hooke's law in muscle elasticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental data concerning stress-strain relations of biological substances, including single muscle fibers, are reviewed\\u000a in the literature. A reconsideration of the conclusions reached from these data is made. Thus, the experiments indicate that\\u000a prima facie a linear theory of elasticity such as Hooke's law does not obtain because of the complicated form of the stress-strain\\u000a curves. It is then shown

William H. Gutstein

1956-01-01

201

Augmented Hooke's law based on alternative stress relaxation models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships are presented which are considered to be the most general, linear, constitutive stress–strain relationships\\u000a for a simple, solid material at isothermal conditions. Formally, they are obtained in frequency domain by adding “anelastic”,\\u000a frequency dependent terms to the elastic constants of the material. The resulting, basic, augmented Hooke's law (AHL) is proposed\\u000a as a general framework for comparison of alternative

K. Dovstam

2000-01-01

202

Conformal Galilei groups, Veronese curves and Newton-Hooke spacetimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finite-dimensional nonrelativistic conformal Lie algebras spanned by polynomial vector fields of Galilei spacetime arise if the dynamical exponent is z = 2/N with N = 1, 2, .... Their underlying group structure and matrix representation are constructed (up to a covering) by means of the Veronese map of degree N. Suitable quotients of the conformal Galilei groups provide us with Newton-Hooke nonrelativistic spacetimes with a quantized reduced negative cosmological constant ? = -N.

Duval, C.; Horváthy, P. A.

2011-08-01

203

Hooking Up” Among College Students: Demographic and Psychosocial Correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated 832 college students’ experiences with hooking up, a term that refers to a range of physically intimate\\u000a behavior (e.g., passionate kissing, oral sex, and intercourse) that occurs outside of a committed relationship. Specifically,\\u000a we examined how five demographic variables (sex, ethnicity, parental income, parental divorce, and religiosity) and six psychosocial\\u000a factors (e.g., attachment styles, alcohol use, psychological

Jesse J. Owen; Galena K. Rhoades; Scott M. Stanley; Frank D. Fincham

2010-01-01

204

Analysis of koi herpesvirus latency in wild common carp and ornamental koi in Oregon, USA.  

PubMed

Koi herpesvirus (KHV) infection is associated with high mortalities in both common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi) worldwide. Although acute infection has been reported in both domestic and wild common carp, the status of KHV latent infection is largely unknown in wild common carp. To investigate whether KHV latency is present in wild common carp, the distribution of KHV latent infection was investigated in two geographically distinct populations of wild common carp in Oregon, as well as in koi from an Oregon-based commercial supplier. Latent KHV infection was demonstrated in white blood cells from each of these populations. Although KHV isolated from acute infections has two distinct genetic groups, Asian and European, KHV detected in wild carp has not been genetically characterized. DNA sequences from ORF 25 to 26 that are unique between Asian and European were investigated in this study. KHV from captive koi and some wild common carp were found to have ORF-25-26 sequences similar to KHV-J (Asian), while the majority of KHV DNA detected in wild common carp has similarity to KHV-U/-I (European). In addition, DNA sequences from IL-10, and TNFR were sequenced and compared with no differences found, which suggests immune suppressor genes of KHV are conserved between KHV in wild common carp and koi, and is consistent with KHV-U, -I, -J. PMID:23174162

Xu, Jia-Rong; Bently, Jennifer; Beck, Linda; Reed, Aimee; Miller-Morgan, Tim; Heidel, Jerry R; Kent, Michael L; Rockey, Daniel D; Jin, Ling

2012-11-19

205

Aerobic bacterial microflora of Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) oral cavity and cloaca, originating from parque Zool?gico Arruda C?mara, Para?ba, Brazil  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to isolate and identify the aerobic bacterial microflora from the oral cavity mucosa and cloaca’s samples, collected from Broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris), born and bred in captivity at Parque Zoológico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. The most common bacteria were Staphylococcus sp. (14.74%), Corynebacterium sp. (13.68%), Escherichia coli (13.68%) and Shigella sp.(11.58%), and the less common were Citrobacter sp. (1.05%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (1.05%) and Salmonella sp. (1.05%).This emphasizes the importance of these microorganisms’ participation in infectious processes (sepsis) and injuries caused by crocodilians.

Silva, J.S.A.; Mota, R.A.; Pinheiro Junior, J.W.; Almeida, M.C.S.; Silva, D.R.; Ferreira, D.R.A.; Azevedo, J.C.N.

2009-01-01

206

The effects of flagellar hook compliance on motility of monotrichous bacteria: A modeling study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A crucial structure in the motility of flagellated bacteria is the hook, which connects the flagellum filament to the motor in the cell body. Early mathematical models of swimming bacteria assume that the helically shaped flagellum rotates rigidly about its axis, which coincides with the axis of the cell body. Motivated by evidence that the hook is much more flexible than the rest of the flagellum, we develop a new model that allows a naturally straight hook to bend. Hook dynamics are based on the Kirchhoff rod model, which is combined with a boundary element method for solving viscous interactions between the bacterium and the surrounding fluid. For swimming in unbounded fluid, we find good support for using a rigid model since the hook reaches an equilibrium configuration within several revolutions of the motor. However, for effective swimming, there are constraints on the hook stiffness relative to the scale set by the product of the motor torque with the hook length. When the hook is too flexible, its shape cannot be maintained and large deformations and stresses build up. When the hook is too rigid, the flagellum does not align with the cell body axis and the cell ``wobbles'' with little net forward motion. We also examine the attraction of swimmers to no-slip surfaces and find that the tendency to swim steadily close to a surface can be very sensitive to the combination of the hook rigidity and the precise shape of the cell and flagellum.

Shum, H.; Gaffney, E. A.

2012-06-01

207

Symptomatic lumbar stenosis following fusion using sublaminar hooks. Case report.  

PubMed

A case of postfusion lumbar stenosis caused by the presence of sublaminar hooks is described. The patient was a 52-year-old man who 11 years previously had undergone lumbar fusion with Harrington rod instrumentation for a traumatic L-2 vertebral body fracture. Postoperatively, he developed progressive low-back pain, neurogenic claudication, and significant lower-extremity weakness and atrophy. Upon radiological examination, he was found to have high-grade lumbar stenosis at the level of the caudal sublaminar hooks. The instrumentation was removed and the area of radiological stenosis decompressed. Clinically, both the patient's pain and motor deficits resolved and, on postoperative imaging, the stenosis was relieved. Thus, despite other areas of persisting pathology, it is concluded that the stenosis occurring at the level of the caudal sublaminar hooks contributed to the patient's symptoms. Although not a common cause of postfusion stenosis, the presence of instrumentation in the proximity of neural elements must be considered as an etiology for neurological dysfunction. PMID:8169632

Myseros, J S; Broaddus, W C; Trumble, E R; Adelaar, R S

1994-05-01

208

Fracture of the hook of the hamate in athletes.  

PubMed

During an eight-year period, four tennis players, seven golfers, and nine baseball players were seen with a fracture of the hook of the hamate. Eighteen of these twenty patients were disabled by pain and after the fracture fragment was removed, all eighteen were relieved so that they returned to their athletic pursuits. Two patients were asymptomatic, their old fracture being discovered accidentally when they were treated for other injuries. Nineteen of the twenty patients had been examined before coming under our care, but the correct diagnosis had been made in only two. Conservative treatment, including rest, physical therapy, and injections of steroids into the wrist and hand, had not been beneficial. From the history and findings, we believe that these fractures were caused by a direct blow against the hook of the hamate caused by the handle of the tennis racket, golf club, or bat during a swing, and not by indirect force produced by the ligaments and muscles attached to the hook. The fracture was demonstrated in all twenty patients by a roentgenogram (profile view) of the carpal tunnel. PMID:873952

Stark, H H; Jobe, F W; Boyes, J H; Ashworth, C R

1977-07-01

209

GRASS CARP IN THE UNITED STATES: 1963 TO THE PRESENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

On November 16, 1963, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) at Stuttgart, Arkansas, became the first institution to import grass carp into the United States. This introduction was the result of at least seven years of effort to find an effective biological control for problematic aquatic weed...

210

Hormonal regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis in the carp, Cyprinus carpio  

SciTech Connect

Carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver maintained normal glycogen content and enzyme complement for several days in organ culture. Epinephrine-stimulated glycogenolysis, phosphorylase activation, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner with EC/sub 50/s of 100, 100, and 500 nM, respectively. These actions were blocked by the ..beta..-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, but not by the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. Glycogenolysis and tissue cAMP were uninfluenced by 10/sup -6/ M arginine vasotocin, arginine vasopressin, lysine vasotocin, lysine vasopressin, mesotocin, or oxytocin, but were slightly increased by 10/sup -5/ M isotocin and slightly decreased by 10/sup -6/ M angiotensin II. (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol (ICP), a ..beta..-adrenergic ligand, bound to isolated carp liver membranes with a K/sub D/ of 83 pM. Maximum binding of 45 fmol/mg protein was at 600 pM. Propranolol, isoprenaline, epinephrine, phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and phenoxybenzamine displaced ICP with K/sub D/s of 100 nM, 2, 20, 20, 60, and 200 ..mu..M, respectively. The ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonists, yohimbine and prazosin, showed no specific binding. These data provide evidence that catecholamines act via ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in carp liver and that ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors are not present. Vasoactive peptides play no significant role in regulation of carp liver glycogenolysis.

Janssens, P.A.; Lowrey, P.

1987-04-01

211

The Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) in the Mississippi River  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report collections of the bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845) in the Mississippi River in Missouri and Illinois between 1991 and 1994. In all, we collected 48 specimens ranging from 18 to 790 mm total length. Young-of-the-year fish were caught in 1992 and 1994, which suggests that the species is able to reproduce in the Mississippi River and may

John K. Tucker; Frederick A. Cronin; Robert A. Hrabik; Michael D. Petersen; David P. Herzog

1996-01-01

212

Fasting and Renourishment of Carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.), 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of artificial complete fasting of carp on variations of their content of polysomal and ribosomal RNA, as well as of soluble RNA, was investigated. This effect was ascertained by separately weighing the specimens and their livers, as well as by ...

G. Bouche J. F. Narbonne A. Serfaty

1975-01-01

213

A molecular approach to detect hybridisation between crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and non-indigenous carp species (Carassius spp. and Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. Releases of non-native fish into the wild is an increasing problem posing considerable ecological and genetic threats through direct competition and hybridisation. 2. We employed six microsatellite markers to identify first generation hybrids and backcrosses between native crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and introduced goldfish (C. auratus) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the U.K. We also investigated the

B. H ANFLING; P. B OLTON; M. H ARLEY; G. R. C ARVALHO

214

Plasma biochemical responses of the planktivorous filter-feeding silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp ( Aristichthys nobilis) to prolonged toxic cyanobacterial blooms in natural waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The planktivorous filter-feeding silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) are the attractive candidates for bio-control of plankton communities to eliminate odorous populations of cyanobacteria. However, few studies focused on the health of such fishes in natural water body with vigorous toxic blooms. Blood parameters are useful and sensitive for diagnosis of diseases and monitoring of the physiological

Tong Qiu; Ping Xie; Longgen Guo; Dawen Zhang

2009-01-01

215

Genome-Wide SNP Discovery from Transcriptome of Four Common Carp Strains  

PubMed Central

Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been used as genetic marker for genome-wide association studies in many species. Gene-associated SNPs could offer sufficient coverage in trait related research and further more could themselves be causative SNPs for traits. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquaculture species in the world accounting for nearly 14% of freshwater aquaculture production. There are various strains of common carp with different economic traits, however, the genetic mechanism underlying the different traits have not been elucidated yet. In this project, we identified a large number of gene-associated SNPs from four strains of common carp using next-generation sequencing. Results Transcriptome sequencing of four strains of common carp (mirror carp, purse red carp, Xingguo red carp, Yellow River carp) was performed with Solexa HiSeq2000 platform. De novo assembled transcriptome was used as reference for alignments, and SNP calling was done through BWA and SAMtools. A total of 712,042 Intra-strain SNPs were discovered in four strains, of which 483,276 SNPs for mirror carp, 486,629 SNPs for purse red carp, 478,028 SNPs for Xingguo red carp and 488,281 SNPs for Yellow River carp were discovered, respectively. Besides, 53,893 inter-SNPs were identified. Strain-specific SNPs of four strains were 53,938, 53,866, 48,701, 40,131 in mirror carp, purse red carp, Xingguo red carp and Yellow River carp, respectively. GO and KEGG pathway analysis were done to reveal strain-specific genes affected by strain-specific non-synonymous SNPs. Validation of selected SNPs revealed that 48% percent of SNPs (12 of 25) were tested to be true SNPs. Conclusions Transcriptome analysis of common carp using RNA-Seq is a cost-effective way of generating numerous reads for SNP discovery. After validation of identified SNPs, these data will provide a solid base for SNP array designing and genome-wide association studies.

Xu, Jian; Ji, Peifeng; Zhao, Zixia; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jianxin; Wang, Jian; Li, Jiongtang; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Lan; Liu, Guangzan; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen

2012-01-01

216

Sustainable fishing gear: the case of modified circle hooks in a Costa Rican longline fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our research aims to identify longline fishing gear modifications that can improve fishing selectivity and reduce incidental\\u000a capture of non-target species. Catch rates and anatomical hook locations (AHL) were compared when using a 14\\/0 standard “control”\\u000a circle hook with a 0° offset and an experimental “appendage” hook in a Costa Rican longline fishery. With the appendage, the\\u000a maximum dimension of

Yonat Swimmer; Jenny Suter; Randall Arauz; Keith Bigelow; Andrés López; Ilena Zanela; Alan Bolaños; Jorge Ballestero; Raúl Suárez; John Wang; Christofer Boggs

2011-01-01

217

Seasonal Variation in Condition Factor, Gonadosomatic Index and Processing Yield of Carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Length-weight relationship parameters of carp (Cyprinus carpio) males, females, and combined sexes were calculated. Seasonal variations in condition factor (K), gonadosomatic index (GSI), and processing yield of wild carp are presented. A resting period (October-March) and another one of rapid growth (April-September) were observed in gonads of female carp. Spawning took place in August-September. During the gonadal resting period, high

Aurora Zugarramurdi; María Amelia Parin; Liliana Gadaleta; Guillermo A. Carrizo; Claudia Montecchia; Ricardo L. Boeri; Daniel H. Giannini

2003-01-01

218

Using mitochondrial nucleotide sequences to investigate diversity and genealogical relationships within common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Direct sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop (745 bp) and MTATPase6\\/ MTATPase8 (857 bp) regions was used to investigate genetic variation within common carp and develop a global genealogy of common carp strains. The D-loop region was more variable than the MTATPase6\\/MTATPase8 region, but given the wide distribution of carp the overall levels of sequence divergence were low. Levels

B. T. Thai; C. P. Burridge; T. A. Pham; C. M. Austin

2004-01-01

219

Effect of mixed starter cultures fermentation on the characteristics of silver carp sausages  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the quality and functionality and increase the utilization of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) muscle, three groups of silver carp sausages inoculated with the combinations of Staphylococcus xylosus-12 with Lactobacillus plantarum-15, Pediococcus pentosaceus-ATCC33316, and Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei-1.001, and a batch without any starter (control) were prepared. During the 48 h fermentation at 30°C, silver carp sausages\\u000a inoculated with mixed

Yongjin Hu; Wenshui Xia; Changrong Ge

2007-01-01

220

Characterisation of acid-soluble collagen from skin of silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid-soluble collagen (ASC) from the skin of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) was isolated and some properties of ASC were investigated. SDS–PAGE patterns showed ASC from silver carp skin was type ? collagen. Sulfopropyl-Toyopearl 650(M) column chromatography indicated that ASC from silver carp skin was composed of three kinds of ? chains, ?1, ?2 and ?3. Hydroxyproline and proline content of

Junjie Zhang; Rui Duan; Yuanyong Tian; Kunihiko Konno

2009-01-01

221

Growth Response of Silver Carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val., to Feed Supplementation in Earthen Fish Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver carp is one of the most important fish used in polyculturing the earthen fish ponds in semi-intensive fish farms. Silver carp depends mainly on natural foods, and there is no available data focusing the ability of silver carp to consume the artificial diet. Therefore, a 15-week feeding trial was conducted in eight earthen ponds (0.1 ha each) to investigate

Mohammad H. Ahmad; Mohsen Abdel-Tawwab; Yassir A. E. Khattab

2007-01-01

222

Soluble expression, purification, and stabilization of a pro-apoptotic human protein, CARP.  

PubMed

CARP is a novel pro-apoptotic protein that has been cloned and characterized in our previous report. Previous studies showed that suppression of CARP expression results in cell proliferation in several mammalian cell lines and over-expression of CARP leads to apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in seven tumor cell lines [Liu et al., CARP is a novel caspase recruitment domain containing pro-apoptotic protein, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 293 (2002) 1396]. To obtain soluble and active form of CARP protein for further functional and structural studies, we have expressed CARP in Escherichia coli by using Gateway cloning system. Optimal induction and expression conditions were also studied. Recombinant histidine-tagged CARP was expressed in E. coli when the carp gene was subcloned into a Gateway expression vector pET21-DEST. The partially soluble recombinant CARP protein was purified to near homogeneity by a two-step FPLC procedure, first by Ni2+ affinity chromatography followed by a gel-filtration chromatography, which yielded about 10 mg protein/L culture with at least 95% purity. Two peaks were detected in the analytical gel-filtration chromatograph while only one peak corresponding to monomer of the CARP protein was left after adding 2 mM dithiothreitol (DTT). The polymers observed are likely due to the formation of intermolecular disulfide bridges. These results suggest that adding DTT is a good solution to prevent the formation of disulfide bonds and to stabilize the protein. Successfully growing crystals of the purified CARP protein also proved that we can produce well folded CARP protein in E. coli. PMID:16139514

Chen, Qiang; Hui, Rutai; Sun, Changhong; Gu, Xiaocheng; Luo, Ming; Zheng, Xiaofeng

2005-08-11

223

Development and impact of hooks of high droplet concentration on remote southeast Pacific stratocumulus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the southeastern Pacific (SEP), droplet concentration (Nd) in the typically unpolluted marine stratocumulus west of 80° W (> 1000 km offshore) is periodically strongly enhanced in zonally elongated "hook"-shaped features that increase albedo. Here, we examine three hook events using the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem) with 14 km horizontal resolution, satellite data, and aircraft data from the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx). A particularly strong hook yields insights into the development, decay, and radiative impact of these features. Hook development occurs with Nd increasing to polluted levels over the remote ocean primarily due to entrainment of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) from the lower free troposphere (FT). The feature advects northwestward until the FT CCN source is depleted, after which Nd decreases over a few days due to precipitation and dilution. The model suggests that the FT CCN source supplying the hook consists of high concentrations of small accumulation-mode aerosols that contribute a relatively small amount of aerosol mass to the MBL, in agreement with near-coast VOCALS measurements of polluted layers in the FT. The aerosol particles in this hook originate mainly from a pulse of offshore flow that transports Santiago-region (33-35° S) emissions to the remote marine FT. To provide pollution CCN that can sustain hooks, the FT transport of pollution plumes to the remote ocean requires strong, deep offshore flow. Such flow is favored by a trough approaching the South American coast and a southeastward shift of the climatological subtropical high-pressure system. The model simulations show precipitation suppression in the hook and a corresponding increase in liquid water path (LWP) compared with a simulation without anthropogenic sources. LWP also increases as the hook evolves over time due to increasing stability and decreasing subsidence. WRF-Chem suggests that dimethyl sulfide (DMS) significantly influences the aerosol number and size distributions in a hook, but that hooks do not form without FT CCN. The Twomey effect contributes ~ 50-70% of the albedo increase due to the presence of the hook, while secondary aerosol indirect effects and meteorological influences also contribute significantly. The source of hook aerosols is difficult to determine with the available observations alone. The model provides further explanation of the factors influencing hook formation. Two other weaker hooks during VOCALS-REx are not as well simulated but are also associated with FT offshore flow near Santiago. Hooks demonstrate the importance of free-tropospheric transport of aerosols in modulating the droplet concentration in the southeastern Pacific stratocumulus deck, and present a formidable challenge to simulate accurately in large-scale models.

George, R. C.; Wood, R.; Bretherton, C. S.; Painter, G.

2013-07-01

224

Induced Gynogenesis in Grass Carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus ) Using Irradiated Sperm of Allotetraploid Hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) eggs were activated by UV-irradiated diploid sperm of allotetraploid hybrids derived from red crucian carp (?)?×?common\\u000a carp (?) and then duplicated by cold shock in 4–6°C water for 10–12 min. Different cold shock initiation times resulted in\\u000a two types of diploid gynogenetic grass carp: meiotic gynogenetic (meiG) and mitotic gynogenetic (mitG). Over a 5-year period,\\u000a a total

Hong Zhang; ShaoJun Liu; Chun Zhang; Min Tao; LiangYue Peng; CuiPing You; Jun Xiao; Yi Zhou; GongJian Zhou; KaiKun Luo; Yun Liu

225

Environmental Assessment for Listing Largescale Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) as Injurious Wildlife under the Lacey Act. (Revised 2007).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this environmental assessment, we consider two alternatives for the proposed action to add silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) to the list of injurious wildlife under the Lacey Act: 1) no action; and 2) adding live silver carp, gametes, viable eg...

2007-01-01

226

Environmental Assessment for Listing Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) as Injurious Wildlife under the Lacey Act. (Revised 2007).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We considered two alternatives for the proposed action to list largescale silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys harmandi) as an injurious species under the Lacey Act: 1) no action; and 2) adding live largescale silver carp, gametes, viable eggs and hybrids. Two...

2007-01-01

227

Adolescent idiopathic thoracic scoliosis: apical correction with specialized pedicle hooks.  

PubMed

Forty-one patients with thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) treated with only a posterior spine fusion using specialized pedicle hooks (SPH) (hooks augmented with 3.2-mm screws) at the apex of the curve were reviewed in order to assess the effectiveness of this correction method. Inclusion in the study group required a minimum of 2 years' follow-up and the same strategy of correction where the apical vertebrae (3 or 4 vertebrae on the concave side) were instrumented with SPH. The mean preoperative Cobb angle was corrected from 55 degrees (42 degrees -80 degrees) to 18 degrees (67%) postoperatively and to 23 degrees (58%) at the last follow-up (28-50 months) for a flexibility index of 46%. Apical vertebral translation was corrected to 70% at the last follow-up. Thoracic kyphosis remained unchanged, from 23 degrees to 26 degrees, and the lumbar lordosis went from -53 degrees to -59 degrees. The lumbar curve was corrected from 38 degrees to 18 degrees. Coronal balance improved from 10 to 1 mm; shoulder balance was improved from 15 to 5 mm. The rib hump was improved from an average of 30 mm preoperatively to 15 mm postoperatively, but only to 25 mm at the last follow-up (17% of correction). One case of a spastic bladder was observed postoperatively, which resolved completely after 8 months. Three patients had to have their instrumentation removed because of pain. There was no complication related to the use of the SPH. The authors conclude that apical correction with SPH allows effective scoliosis correction without spinal distraction and does not require supra- or infralaminar hook in the spinal canal. PMID:10483827

Arlet, V; Papin, P; Marchesi, D; Aebi, M

1999-01-01

228

Zooplankton of the Sandy Hook Bay area, N.J  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and abundance of surface zooplankton in the Sandy Hook Bay area were studied biweekly from May 1969 through\\u000a May 1970. This embayment is located within the commercially valuable New York Bight. The volumetric mean of the plankton ranged\\u000a from 0.2–5.3 cc\\/m3, with a survey mea of 1.8 cc\\/m3. A maximum crop of 52,002 organisms\\/m3 was collected in May

L. E. Sage; S. S. Herman

1972-01-01

229

Transorbital Penetrating Intracranial Injury Caused by Sheppard's Hook  

PubMed Central

Intracranial injury resulting from transorbital penetrating objects is rare in a noncombat setting. As such there is a significant lack of data pertaining to the management of non-projectile traumatic brain injuries due to foreign bodies entering the brain. Intracranial complications can include intracerebral hematoma, cerebral contusion, intraventricular hemorrhage, pneumocephalus, brain stem injury, and carotid cavernous sinus fistula. This is the first report of a transorbital penetrating intracranial injury caused by a Sheppard’s hook, which was managed utilizing a multi-disciplinary, non-operative approach.

Sams, Valerie; Nagarsheth, Khanjan H; Nickloes, Todd A

2010-01-01

230

Motion of a polyelectrolyte chain hooked around a post  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The release kinetics of a single DNA molecule hooked around an obstacle in the presence of an electric field is investigated. A kinetic model which includes both electrical and stretching forces is introduced and used both in computer simulation and in the development of a simple analytic argument. These predict two regimes which depend on ?=N/?, where N is the number of chain segments and 1/? is the dimensionless field strength. For short chains, ?<1, the characteristic unhooking time scales as N2, whereas for long chains, ?>~1, it scales as N. Without introducing post friction, the model is able to reproduce recent experimental observations.

Sevick, E. M.; Williams, D. R. M.

1994-11-01

231

Kohn's theorem and Newton-Hooke symmetry for Hill's equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hill’s equations, which first arose in the study of the Earth-Moon-Sun system, admit the two-parameter centrally extended Newton-Hooke symmetry without rotations. This symmetry allows us to extend Kohn’s theorem about the center-of-mass decomposition. Particular light is shed on the problem using Duval’s “Bargmann” framework. The separation of the center-of-mass motion into that of a guiding center and relative motion is derived by a generalized chiral decomposition.

Zhang, P. M.; Gibbons, G. W.; Horvathy, P. A.

2012-02-01

232

BACE inhibitory flavanones from Balanophora involucrata Hook. f.  

PubMed

One new flavanone (S)-5,7,3',5'-tetrahydroxy-flavanone-7-O-(6?-galloyl)-?-D-glucopyranose (1), together with one known flavanone and four known dihydrochalcones were isolated from the ethyl acetate partitions from an alcoholic extract of the whole plant of Balanophora involucrata Hook. f. All of the compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods. Their in vitro BACE inhibitory effects were evaluated. Compounds 1, 2, 4, and 5 were found to be a little more active than the positive control, although all of which are below 50% inhibition at 10?M. PMID:22909424

Tao, Jiayi; Zhao, Jun; Zhao, Ying; Cui, Yanmei; Fang, Weishuo

2012-08-14

233

Carp expresses fast skeletal myosin isoforms with altered motor functions and structural stabilities to compensate for changes in environmental temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1. Myosin and its subfragment-1 (Sl) from carp acclimated to 10°C showed higher actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activity and lower thermostability than their counterparts from carp acclimated to 30°C. Accordingly, filament velocity for the 10°C-acclimated carp myosin was higher at any measuring temperatures from 3 to 23°C than that for the 30°C-acclimated carp myosin.2.2. Three types of cDNA clones encoding myosin heavy

Shugo Watabe; Yasushi Hirayama; Misako Nakaya; Makoto Kakinuma; Kiyoshi Kikuchi; Xiao-Feng Guo; Satoshi Kanoh; Shigeru Chaen; Tatsuo Ooi

1997-01-01

234

Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in north Croatia after the Chernobyl accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carps decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of 137Cs in carps was estimated to be about 1 year for 1987-2002 period and 5 years for 1993-2005 period. The observed 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio in carps has been found to be similar

Z. Franic; G. Marovic

2007-01-01

235

The Role of the FliK Molecular Ruler in Hook-length Control in Salmonella enterica  

PubMed Central

A molecular ruler, FliK, controls the length of the flagellar hook. FliK measures hook length and catalyzes the secretion-substrate specificity switch from rod-hook substrate specificity to late substrate secretion, which includes the filament subunits. Here, we show normal hook-length control and filament assembly in the complete absence of the C-ring thus refuting the previous “cup” model for hook-length control. Mutants of C-ring components, which are reported to produce short hooks, show a reduced rate of hook-basal body assembly thereby allowing for a premature secretion-substrate specificity switch. Unlike fliK null mutants, hook-length control in an autocleavage-defective mutant of flhB, the protein responsible for the switch to late-substrate secretion, is completely abolished. FliK deletion variants that retain the ability to measure hook length are secreted thus demonstrating that FliK directly measures rod-hook length during the secretion process. Finally, we present a unifying model accounting for all published data on hook-length control in which FliK acts as a molecular ruler that takes measurements of rod-hook length while being intermittently secreted during the assembly process of the hook-basal body complex.

Erhardt, Marc; Hirano, Takanori; Su, Yichu; Paul, Koushik; Wee, Daniel H.; Mizuno, Shino; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi; Hughes, Kelly T.

2012-01-01

236

Plasma biochemical responses of the planktivorous filter-feeding silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) to prolonged toxic cyanobacterial blooms in natural waters.  

PubMed

The planktivorous filter-feeding silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) are the attractive candidates for bio-control of plankton communities to eliminate odorous populations of cyanobacteria. However, few studies focused on the health of such fishes in natural water body with vigorous toxic blooms. Blood parameters are useful and sensitive for diagnosis of diseases and monitoring of the physiological status of fish exposed to toxicants. To evaluate the impact of toxic cyanobacterial blooms on the planktivorous fish, 12 serum chemistry variables were investigated in silver carp and bighead carp for 9 months, in a large net cage in Meiliang Bay, a hypereutrophic region of Lake Taihu. The results confirmed adverse effects of cyanobacterial blooms on two phytoplanktivorous fish, which mainly characterized with potential toxicogenomic effects and metabolism disorders in liver, and kidney dysfunction. In addition, cholestasis was intensively implied by distinct elevation of all four related biomarkers (ALP, GGT, DBIL, TBIL) in bighead carp. The combination of LDH, AST activities and DBIL, URIC contents for silver carp, and the combination of ALT, ALP activities and TBIL, DBIL, URIC concentrations for bighead carps were found to most strongly indicate toxic effects from cyanobacterial blooms in such fishes by a multivariate discriminant analysis. PMID:21783964

Qiu, Tong; Xie, Ping; Guo, Longgen; Zhang, Dawen

2008-12-11

237

Survival of monosex grass carp in small ponds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Little information is available on the survival of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in ponds &mdash especially on the survival of fry to large fingerling stage, during the time when the most mortality would be expected. Development of monosex (all female) grass carp at the Fish Farming Experimental Station by the technique of artificial gynogenesis (Stanley et al. 1975) enabled us to observe survival to the large fingersling stage under several stocking densities and pond conditions. These limited observations, made incidentally to other studies, may provide clues for the development of management techniques to reduce mortality. Monosex fry were used in these observations, but there is no reason to suppose that survival of bisexual fry would have been different.

Thomas, A. E.; Carter, R. R.

1977-01-01

238

Immunomodulatory effect of cimetidine in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

The main indication of cimetidine is being H2-receptor antagonist, but studies suggest that cimetidine may also act as a non-specific stimulant of cell-mediated immunity and immunomodulator. In order to determine the immunomodulatory effect of dietary intake of cimetidine in the common carp (100 ± 10 g), subjects were fed diets containing 0 (control), 50, 100 and 200 mg cimetidine kg(-1) of dry diet for a period of 6 weeks. TLC and NBT assays were significantly (P < 0.05) stimulated in cimetidine-supplemented groups displaying the highest value in 200 mg kg(-1) group. A decrease (P < 0.05) in cortisol and ACH50 value was recorded in fish treated with cimetidine. Serum protein, albumin and serum globulin levels were not significantly changed. The findings of the present investigation suggest that the incorporation of cimetidine in the diet of common carp enhances the non-specific immunity. PMID:23703690

Hosseinifard, Seyyed Mehdi; Ahmadpour, Asieh; Mojazi Amiri, Bagher; Razeghi Mansour, Majid; Ebrahimpour, Arezo

2013-05-24

239

Red cell function of carp (Cyprinus carpio) in acute hypoxia.  

PubMed

The red cell function of carp, subjected to acute hypoxia, was studied. During hypoxic exposure red cell water content, sodium and chloride concentration and pH increased, whereas plasma sodium and chloride concentrations decreased. Treatment of the animals with a beta-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, before the onset of hypoxia, largely inhibited the increase in red cell water content, diminished the changes in red cell pH and prevented the changes in red cell and plasma sodium concentration. The red cell chloride concentration increased also in propranolol-treated animals thus illustrating the effect of the deoxygenation of haemoglobin on the ion concentrations of red cells. These data indicate that adrenergic activation of sodium/proton exchange across red cell membrane plays a role in the acute responses of carp to hypoxia. PMID:2822469

Nikinmaa, M; Cech, J J; Ryhänen, E L; Salama, A

1987-01-01

240

Spring viremia of carp virus in Minnehaha Creek, Minnesota.  

PubMed

Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) causes a highly contagious and serious disease of freshwater cyprinid fishes, generating significant economic and ecological impacts throughout the world. The SVCV is therefore listed as a notifiable pathogen by the International Organization for Animal Health. In June 2011, a significant mortality event of wild common carp Cyprinus carpio occurred in Minnehaha Creek near its confluence with Mississippi River Pool 2 in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Clinical signs of moribund fish included hemorrhagic lesions in the skin, eyes, and internal adipose tissue. The SVCV was isolated from pooled kidney and spleen of the fish. Rhabdovirus particles were seen upon examination of infected cell culture fluid by electron microscopy. The virus was confirmed to be SVCV subtype Ia by reverse transcription PCR and sequencing. This is the first report of SVCV within the state of Minnesota and the ninth documented case in North America. PMID:23072656

Phelps, Nicholas B D; Armién, Aníbal G; Mor, Sunil K; Goyal, Sagar M; Warg, Janet V; Bhagyam, Ranjit; Monahan, Tim

2012-12-01

241

Feeding behaviour of silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val. and its impact on the food web in Lake Kinneret, Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val. have been stocked in Lake Kinneret, Israel, since 1969. From 1972 to 1981, 11 × 106 fingerlings were introduced into the lake. Total silver carp catch however was only 642 during this period, resulting in a progressive increase in the silver carp population.

P. Spataru; M. Gophen

1985-01-01

242

Common Carp Distribution, Movements, and Habitat Use in a River Impounded by Multiple Low-Head Dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common carp Cyprinus carpio is an introduced species that is abundant in many impounded rivers. We assessed habitat conditions and common carp abundance in three flowing sites and three impounded sites of the Fox River, Illinois, to examine factors that influence the success of common carp in these systems. Radiotelemetry was used to determine long-term movement and habitat use

Steven E. Butler; David H. Wahl

2010-01-01

243

CpG oligodeoxynucleotides activate grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus) macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mice and humans, B cells, antigen-presenting cells including monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells and natural killer cells can be stimulated directly or indirectly by the bacterial DNA and oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing the CpG motifs (CpG DNA). Using head kidney macrophages of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) as an in vitro model, we investigated the effects of several CpG-ODNs on fish

Zhen Meng; Jianzhong Shao; Lixin Xiang

2003-01-01

244

The Political and Economic Implications of the Asian Carp Invasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Asian carp will kill jobs and ruin our way of life.”1 Such is the sentiment expressed by Michigan Attorney General Mike Cox and many other politicians and interest groups in the Great Lakes Region. The invasion of non-native species into the Great Lakes is a public policy problem that has the ability to severely damage the region’s environment and economy.

Thomas Just

2011-01-01

245

THE BLUE HOOK POPULATIONS OF MASSIVE GLOBULAR CLUSTERS  

SciTech Connect

We present new Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet color-magnitude diagrams of five massive Galactic globular clusters: NGC 2419, NGC 6273, NGC 6715, NGC 6388, and NGC 6441. These observations were obtained to investigate the 'blue hook' (BH) phenomenon previously observed in UV images of the globular clusters {omega} Cen and NGC 2808. Blue hook stars are a class of hot (approximately 35,000 K) subluminous horizontal branch stars that occupy a region of the HR diagram that is unexplained by canonical stellar evolution theory. By coupling new stellar evolution models to appropriate non-LTE synthetic spectra, we investigate various theoretical explanations for these stars. Specifically, we compare our photometry to canonical models at standard cluster abundances, canonical models with enhanced helium (consistent with cluster self-enrichment at early times), and flash-mixed models formed via a late helium-core flash on the white dwarf cooling curve. We find that flash-mixed models are required to explain the faint luminosity of the BH stars, although neither the canonical models nor the flash-mixed models can explain the range of color observed in such stars, especially those in the most metal-rich clusters. Aside from the variation in the color range, no clear trends emerge in the morphology of the BH population with respect to metallicity.

Brown, Thomas M.; Smith, Ed [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sweigart, Allen V. [Code 667, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Lanz, Thierry [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Landsman, Wayne B. [Adnet Systems, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Hubeny, Ivan, E-mail: tbrown@stsci.ed, E-mail: edsmith@stsci.ed, E-mail: allen.v.sweigart@nasa.go, E-mail: lanz@astro.umd.ed, E-mail: wayne.b.landsman@nasa.go, E-mail: hubeny@aegis.as.arizona.ed [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85712 (United States)

2010-08-01

246

Thorn and hook ontogeny in Artabotrys hexapetalus (Annonaceae).  

PubMed

Artabotrys hexapetalus is widely planted in the tropics and is known as "climbing ylang-ylang," an ornamental liana or woody climber. New natural sprouts, or water shoots, and those induced by the damage of Hurricane Andrew (24 August 1992) were collected and fixed in formalin/acidic acid/alcohol. Seeds from these plants were planted and grown in a greenhouse where seedling morphology was observed and young material collected and fixed. The development of lateral plagiotropic and orthotropic shoots was studied using both epi-illumination light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A series of buds develops in the axils of leaves on the orthotropic shoot. At the lateral margins of the axillary shelf, plagiotropic shoots form that will develop into either vegetative shoots, or thorns, or sympodial shoots that bear hooks and flowers. In between the two marginal buds, a series of median vertical buds develop that either remain dormant or grow out as renewal orthotropic shoots. Previous work that suggested that the plagiotropic shoot buds were displaced out of the median vertical series of supernumerary buds is not supported. The sympodial development of plagiotropic branches as inflorescence hooks is documented. PMID:11080105

Posluszny, U; Fisher, J B

2000-11-01

247

The validation of a generalized Hooke's law for coronary arteries.  

PubMed

The exponential form of constitutive model is widely used in biomechanical studies of blood vessels. There are two main issues, however, with this model: 1) the curve fits of experimental data are not always satisfactory, and 2) the material parameters may be oversensitive. A new type of strain measure in a generalized Hooke's law for blood vessels was recently proposed by our group to address these issues. The new model has one nonlinear parameter and six linear parameters. In this study, the stress-strain equation is validated by fitting the model to experimental data of porcine coronary arteries. Material constants of left anterior descending artery and right coronary artery for the Hooke's law were computed with a separable nonlinear least-squares method with an excellent goodness of fit. A parameter sensitivity analysis shows that the stability of material constants is improved compared with the exponential model and a biphasic model. A boundary value problem was solved to demonstrate that the model prediction can match the measured arterial deformation under experimental loading conditions. The validated constitutive relation will serve as a basis for the solution of various boundary value problems of cardiovascular biomechanics. PMID:17933971

Wang, Chong; Zhang, Wei; Kassab, Ghassan S

2007-10-12

248

46 CFR 7.35 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Cape May, NJ.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sandy Hook, NJ to Cape May, NJ. 7.35 Section 7.35 Shipping...PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.35 Sandy Hook, NJ to Cape May, NJ. (a) A line drawn from...

2012-10-01

249

46 CFR 7.35 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Cape May, NJ.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sandy Hook, NJ to Cape May, NJ. 7.35 Section 7.35 Shipping...PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.35 Sandy Hook, NJ to Cape May, NJ. (a) A line drawn from...

2010-10-01

250

46 CFR 7.35 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Cape May, NJ.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sandy Hook, NJ to Cape May, NJ. 7.35 Section 7.35 Shipping...PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.35 Sandy Hook, NJ to Cape May, NJ. (a) A line drawn from...

2011-10-01

251

33 CFR 165.130 - Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey-security zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey-security zone. 165.130 Section...Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.130 Sandy Hook Bay, New Jerseyâsecurity zone. (a) Naval...

2010-07-01

252

33 CFR 165.130 - Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey-security zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 2 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey-security zone. 165.130 Section...Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.130 Sandy Hook Bay, New Jerseyâsecurity zone. (a) Naval...

2009-07-01

253

46 CFR 7.35 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Cape May, NJ.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Shipping 1 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Sandy Hook, NJ to Cape May, NJ. 7.35 Section 7.35 Shipping...PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.35 Sandy Hook, NJ to Cape May, NJ. (a) A line drawn from...

2009-10-01

254

Automation Hooks Architecture for Flexible Test Orchestration - concept development and validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Automation Hooks Architecture Trade Study for Flexible Test Orchestration sought a standardized data- driven alternative to conventional automated test programming interfaces. The study recommended composing the interface using multicast DNS (mDNS\\/SD) service discovery, Representational State Transfer (Restful) Web Services, and Automatic Test Markup Language (ATML). We describe additional efforts to rapidly mature the Automation Hooks Architecture candidate interface definition

Chatwin A. Lansdowne; John R. Maclean; Christopher E. Winton; Patrick A. McCartney

2011-01-01

255

Building Prior Knowledge and Vocabulary in Science in the Intermediate Grades: Creating Hooks for Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Vocabulary knowledge is a salient factor influencing success both in and out of school. The specialized vocabulary knowledge in science represents the concept-laden hooks on which learning is hung and enables students to build prior knowledge through the expansion of these conceptual hooks. We have identified four levels of learners--struggling…

Rupley, William H.; Slough, Scott

2010-01-01

256

N=2 superconformal Newton-Hooke algebra and many-body mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A representation of the conformal Newton-Hooke algebra on a phase space of n particles in arbitrary dimension which interact with one another via a generic conformal potential and experience a universal cosmological repulsion or attraction is constructed. The minimal N=2 superconformal extension of the Newton-Hooke algebra and its dynamical realization in many-body mechanics are studied.

Galajinsky, Anton

2009-10-01

257

Augmented Hooke's law in frequency domain. A three dimensional, material damping formulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An isothermal, fully three-dimensional material damping modelling technique, to some extent alternative to classic viscoelasticity, is proposed. The method is formulated in the frequency domain as an augmented Hooke's law (AHL) with a constitutive matrix in which material damping is introduced by adding frequency dependent, complex valued terms to the classical material modulus matrix of Hooke's generalized law. The derivations

K. Dovstam

1995-01-01

258

Newton-Hooke algebras, nonrelativistic branes, and generalized pp-wave metrics  

SciTech Connect

The Newton-Hooke algebras in d dimensions are constructed as contractions of dS(AdS) algebras. Nonrelativistic brane actions are WZ terms of these Newton-Hooke algebras. The NH algebras appear also as subalgebras of multitemporal relativistic conformal algebras, SO(d+1,p+2). We construct generalizations of pp-wave metrics from these algebras.

Brugues, Jan; Gomis, Joaquim; Kamimura, Kiyoshi [Departament ECM, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Departament ECM, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, CER for Astrophysics, Particle Physics and Cosmology, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECS) Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile); Department of Physics, Toho University, Funabashi 274-8510 (Japan)

2006-04-15

259

"Individualized Science" Field Test Findings and Recommendations, the Hooke Unit. Appendix A.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This informal report contains the findings and recommendations resulting from the field test of the Hooke Unit of the "Individualized Science" program. Data were collected from three schools. Because of an unusual number of weaknesses ranging from formal inconsistencies to manipulative deficiencies, it was concluded that the Hooke Unit is somewhat…

Loue, William E., III

260

Investigation of the Influence of Hook Abrasion and Wire Materials on the Useful Service Life of Deck Pendants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of deck pendant damage due to arresting-hook abrasion on various wire materials was investigated during this project. The arresting hook-deck pendant interface was studied to determine contact loads, geometrical relationships, relative velociti...

M. Dodson P. T. Gibson G. A. Clark H. A. Cress

1970-01-01

261

Adaptation of intestinal morphology in the temperature-acclimated carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of temperature and photoperiod acclimation upon the morphology of carp intestinal mucosa have been studied using morphometric techniques. Carp intestine showed an absence of anatomical regionalisation. There was a gradual reduction in the dimensions of villi along the tract. The decrease in the dimensions of the villi was greatest in the anterior half. Temperature acclimation had no effect

Jonathan A. C. Lee; Andrew R. Cossins

1988-01-01

262

Demonstration of hematopoietic stem cells in ginbuna carp ( Carassius auratus langsdorfii) kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model system of ginbuna carp (clonal triploid fish, Carassius auratus langsdorfii) and ginbuna-goldfish hybrids (tetraploid fish, having three sets of chromosomes from a triploid clone and a haploid set of chromosomes from goldfish) was employed to demonstrate the presence of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in kidney hematopoietic tissues. Kidney hematopoietic cells were obtained from ginbuna carp (S3n, donor) and

Isao Kobayashi; Mayuko Sekiya; Tadaaki Moritomo; Mituru Ototake; Teruyuki Nakanishi

2006-01-01

263

Tales of two fish: the dichotomous biology of crucian carp (Carassius carassius (L.)) in northern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crucian carp, a common Eurasian cyprinid fish, shows striking dichotomies in several aspects of its physiology and ecology, at both the individual and population levels. These dichotomies consistently reflect the communities and ecosystems in which they occur, contrasting crucian carp that occur in \\

Ismo J. Holopainen; William M. Tonn; Cynthia A. Paszkowski

1997-01-01

264

Life History and Ecology of Carp, 'Cyprinus carpio' Linnaeus, in Elephant Butte Lake, New Mexico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies of life history and ecology of carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, were conducted from June 1964 through August 1969, in Elephant Butte Lake, New Mexico. Carp are the least abundant and constitute the smallest management problem of three rough-fish sp...

C. Sanchez

1970-01-01

265

Cryopreservation of Sperm in Common Carp Cyprinus carpio: Sperm Motility and Hatching Success of Embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, fish sperm cryopreservation methods were elaborated upon for ex situ conservation of nine strains of Bohemian common carp. Common carp sperm were diluted in Kurokura medium and chilled to 4°C and dimethyl sulfoxide was added. Cryotubes of sperm with media were then cooled from +4 to ?9°C at a rate of 4°C min?1 and then from ?9

Otomar Linhart; Marek Rodina; Jacky Cosson

2000-01-01

266

Characterization of Common Carp Transcriptome: Sequencing, De Novo Assembly, Annotation and Comparative Genomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCommon carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquaculture species of Cyprinidae with an annual global production of 3.4 million tons, accounting for nearly 14% of the freshwater aquaculture production in the world. Due to the economical and ecological importance of common carp, genomic data are eagerly needed for genetic improvement purpose. However, there is still no sufficient

Peifeng Ji; Guiming Liu; Jian Xu; Xumin Wang; Jiongtang Li; Zixia Zhao; Xiaofeng Zhang; Yan Zhang; Peng Xu; Xiaowen Sun

2012-01-01

267

The Lake Wingra Carp-Free Enclosure and its Effect on an Aquatic Macrophyte, Lemna minor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various people and organizations have spent time and energy into trying to find out if the carp in Lake Wingra are having a negative impact on the other forms of life within the ecosystem. In order to try and answer this question an enclosure was created to remove the carp from a small section of the water. For our experiment

D. Patterson; Jessa Underwood

268

Identification of grass carp haemorrhage virus as a new genogroup of aquareovirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three aquareovirus strains isolated from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), geoduck clams (Pan- ope abrupta) and herring (Clupea harengus )i n North America and Asia were examined by RNA-RNA blot hybridization to determine their genogroup. The isolates from clams and herring were identified as members of genogroup A, but the isolate from grass carp did not hybridize to any of the

Aymara A. C. Rangel; Daniel D. Rockemann; Frank M. Hetrick; Siba K. Samal

1999-01-01

269

MANAGEMENT OF AQUATIC PLANTS IN MULTI-USE LAKES WITH GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODONIDELLA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent hatchery advances producing sterile triploid grass carp and the relaxing of state and federal restrictions on their distribution are expected to result in widespread use of these fish for aquatic plant management in North America. This large Asian cyprinid is a voracious herbivore and must be used properly to avoid major reductions in desirable aquatic vegetation. Grass carp exhibit

Andrew J. Leslie Jr; Jess M. Van Dyke; Rue S. Hestand III; Boyd Z. Thompson

1987-01-01

270

Efficiency of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) in controlling Submerged Water Weeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE Asiatic grass carp is a herbivorous fish which is being bred and extensively cultured for food in Russia and eastern Europe. In Britain where freshwater fish are seldom eaten, apart from eels and salmonids, grass carp are arousing interest because of the possibility of using them as a supplement, or in some situations as an alternative, to present methods

B. Stott; T. O. ROBSON

1970-01-01

271

Origin and domestication of the wild carp, Cyprinus carpio: from Roman gourmets to the swimming flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleogeographical, morphological, ecological, physiological, linguistic, archeological and historical evidence is used to explain the origin and history of the domestication of the wild carp. The wild ancestor of the common carp originated in the Black, Caspian and Aral sea drainages and dispersed east into Siberia and China and west as far as the Danube River. It is represented today by

Eugene K. Balon

1995-01-01

272

Absorption of ascorbic acid and ascorbic sulfate and ascorbate metabolism in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascorbate metabolism was analyzed in fasted common carp and carp offered diets lacking ascorbic acid or supplemented with ascorbic acid (AA) or ascorbic sulfate (AS). Ascorbic acid and ascorbic sulfate were analyzed in the contents collected from various parts of the digestive tract. The major site of the dietary ascorbate absorption was located in the first 20% of the anterior

K. Dabrowski

1990-01-01

273

Effectiveness of an Electrical Barrier and Lake Drawdown for Reducing Common Carp and Bigmouth Buffalo Abundances  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overabundance of common carp Cvprinus carpio and bigmouth buffalo Ictiobus cyprinellus in North and South Heron lakes, Minnesota, has hindered production of food plants for waterfowl. These shallow (maximum depth, 1.5 m), turbid lakes are partially drawn down each winter. Common carp were radio-tracked in both lakes during the winters of' 1991 and 1992 to monitor their movements and

Donovan D. Verrill; Charles R. Berry JR

1995-01-01

274

Functional properties of proteins recovered from silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) by isoelectric solubilization\\/precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isoelectric solubilization\\/precipitation at acidic and basic pH ranges was applied to whole gutted silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) in order to recover muscle proteins. Thermal denaturation (Tonset, Tmax, and ?H), viscoelasticity (G?), and texture properties (shear stress) of proteins recovered from carp as affected by functional additives (beef plasma protein, potato starch, exogenous transglutaminase, polyphosphate, and titanium dioxide) were determined and

Latif Taskaya; Yi-Chen Chen; Jacek Jaczynski

2009-01-01

275

The contribution of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) to the biological control of Netofa reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

When silver carp were introduced into the Netofa reservoirs at an initial density of 300–4500 fish per hectare in order to control phytoplankton and zooplankton, there was a significant reduction of algae, zooplankton, and suspended organic matter; the silver carp prevents the growth of blue-green algae.

H. Leventer; B. Teltsch

1990-01-01

276

High fry production rates using post-thaw silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) spermatozoa under farming conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) is not endemic to Cuba, and egg fertilization is totally artificial; males produce spermatozoa only between March and October. Cryopreservation of silver carp spermatozoa would reduce the number of males needed, minimize handling stress through less frequent stripping, and facilitate artificial propagation when eggs are available. The effects on motility and fry production from eggs fertilized

Bárbaro Alvarez; Roberto Fuentes; Rafael Pimentel; Zoila Abad; Edenaida Cabrera; Eulogio Pimentel; Amilcar Arenal

2003-01-01

277

Organophosphate Effects on Antioxidant System of Carp ( Cyprinus carpio) and Catfish ( Ictalurus nebulosus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the organophosphate insecticide Dichlorvos on antioxidant enzymes and other oxidative and redox parameters of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and catfish (Ictalurus nebulosus) were studied. Changes in superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and in the case of carp acetylcholinesterase activities were studied in tissue homogenates. Other parameters studied: changes of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and the amounts of

Do Quy Hai; Sz. Ilona Varga; B Matkovics

1997-01-01

278

First year growth and survival of common carp in two glacial lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cohorts of common carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, were monitored from hatch through the next spring in two South Dakota, USA lakes to identify factors affecting year-class strength. Hatching occurred over 37- and 47-day periods in the two lakes. Common carp that hatched earlier achieved greater total lengths at the end of the first growing season (Brant Lake: r = )0.84,

Q. E. PHELPS; B. D. S. GRAEB; D. W. WILLIS

2008-01-01

279

Sox genes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) with their implications for genome duplication and evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sox gene family is found in a broad range of animal taxa and encodes important gene regulatory proteins involved in a variety of developmental processes. We have obtained clones representing the HMG boxes of twelve Sox genes from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), one of the four major domestic carps in China. The cloned Sox genes belong to group B1,

Lei Zhong; Xiaomu Yu; Jingou Tong

2006-01-01

280

Spatial variability in the response of lower trophic levels after carp exclusion from a freshwater marsh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large common carp (Cyprinus carpio >30 cm) were excluded from a turbid, eutrophic coastal marsh of Lake Ontario with the construction of a fishway at the outlet. The marsh was sampled intensively for 2 seasons prior to (1993, 1994) and following (1997, 1998) carp exclusion to study changes in water quality and shifts in community structure of phytoplankton and zooplankton.

Vanessa L. Lougheed; Patricia Chow-Fraser

2001-01-01

281

Spatial variability in the response of lower trophic levels after carp exclusion from a freshwater marsh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large common carp (Cyprinus carpio >30 cm) wereexcluded from a turbid, eutrophic coastal marsh of Lake Ontario with theconstruction of a fishway at the outlet. The marsh was sampledintensively for 2 seasons prior to (1993, 1994) and following (1997,1998) carp exclusion to study changes in water quality and shifts incommunity structure of phytoplankton and zooplankton. Samples werecollected from May to

Vanessa L. Lougheed; Patricia Chow-Fraser

2001-01-01

282

Seasonal Distribution, Aggregation, and Habitat Selection of Common Carp in Clear Lake, Iowa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common carp Cyprinus carpio is widely distributed and frequently considered a nuisance species outside its native range. Common carp are abundant in Clear Lake, Iowa, where their presence is both a symptom of degradation and an impediment to improving water quality and the sport fishery. We used radiotelemetry to quantify seasonal distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection of adult and

Christopher R. Penne; Clay L. Pierce

2008-01-01

283

QSAR study of the toxicity of benzoic acids to Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna and carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicities of benzoic acids to Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna and carp were measured. The results showed that the toxicity to V. fischeri and Daphnia decreased in the order of bromo>chloro>fluoro?aminobenzoic acids. The toxicity of substituted benzoic acids to carp and Daphnia was much lower than that to V. fischeri. The results also showed that the toxicity of benzoic acids

Y. H. Zhao; G. D. Ji; M. T. D. Cronin; J. C. Dearden

1998-01-01

284

Oral vaccination of BacFish-vp6 against grass carp reovirus evoking antibody response in grass carp.  

PubMed

To obtain a vaccine and evaluate its immune efficacy as an oral vaccine against Grass Carp Reovirus (GCRV), a donor vector pFastBac-FA-VP6-ph-VP6 containing two GCRV vp6 genes, one driven by the Megalobrama amblycephala ?-actin promoter and another one controlled by baculovirus polyhedrin promoter was constructed to generate the recombinant baculovirus BacFish-vp6. From the hemolymph of 5th instar silkworm inoculated with BacFish-vp6, a 53 kDa recombinant VP6 protein could be detected. And the infected pupae collected at 120 h post-inoculation with BacFish-vp6 were used to make freeze-dried powder as an oral vaccine. When the grass carps were orally administrated with feed containing 1%, 5% and 10% of the freeze-dried powder, their specific antibody against VP6 could be detected. Further studies showed that vp6 has been transcripted in the grass carp kidney (CIK) cells infected with BacFish-vp6 and the different tissues of orally vaccinated fish. All the results suggested the powder of the silkworm pupae infected with BacFish-vp6 could possibly be used as an orally administered vaccine. PMID:23202374

Xue, Renyu; Liu, Lin; Cao, Guangli; Xu, Shiying; Li, Jinghui; Zou, Yong; Chen, Hui; Gong, Chengliang

2012-11-29

285

Sink rate of baited hooks during deployment of a pelagic longline from a New Zealand fishing vessel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sink rate of baited hooks during the deployment of a pelagic longline was determined using time depth recorders. This study was undertaken to determine how long baited hooks are within the known diving ranges of seabirds. During the vessel's normal fishing operations the unweighted baited hooks reached a mean depth of 5.57 m, 30 s after being deployed. The

Simon Anderson; Brian Mcardle

2002-01-01

286

Morphological changes of silver and bighead carp in the Yangtze River over the past 50 years.  

PubMed

Multivariate analysis was adopted to analyze 30 morphometrical characteristics of 121 one-year-old juvenile silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) bred during the 1950s ("the former population") and 2008 ("the current population") and collected from the middle reach of the Yangtze River. The average discriminant accuracies of the former and current silver and bighead carp population were 94.2% and 98.0%, respectively. Discriminant analysis also revealed that significant differences in morphology occurred between the former and current populations of both carp in overall characteristics. One-way analysis of variance indicated that between former and current populations, silver carp showed highly significant differences (P<0.01) in twelve of their characteristics and significant differences (P<0.05) in eight of their characteristics, while bighead carp showed highly significant differences (P<0.01) in eight of their characteristics and significant differences (P<0.05) in eight of their characteristics. Six head morphology variables of the current silver and bighead carp were significantly or highly significantly larger than the former populations; fourteen characteristics of silver carp and ten characteristics of bighead carp of the current populations, mainly reflecting truck and tail morphology, were significantly or very significantly smaller than the former populations. Our results indicate that silver and bighead carp have developed a larger head and smaller truck and tail during the last 50 years. Due to such morphological changes, it seems apparent that the heads of these fish species need to be considered in regards to human diets, particularly in relation to economic and nutritious value. PMID:21174356

Yu, Hong-Xia; Tang, Wen-Qiao; Li, Si-Fa

2010-12-01

287

Molecular and Cellular Characterization of an AT-Hook Protein from Leishmania  

PubMed Central

AT-rich DNA, and the proteins that bind it (AT-hook proteins), modulate chromosome structure and function in most eukaryotes. Unlike other trypanosomatids, the genome of Leishmania species is unusually GC-rich, and the regulation of Leishmania chromosome structure, replication, partitioning is not fully understood. Because AT-hook proteins modulate these functions in other eukaryotes, we examined whether AT-hook proteins are encoded in the Leishmania genome, to test their potential functions. Several Leishmania ORFs predicted to be AT-hook proteins were identified using in silico approaches based on sequences shared between eukaryotic AT-hook proteins. We have used biochemical, molecular and cellular techniques to characterize the L. amazonensis ortholog of the L. major protein LmjF06.0720, a potential AT-hook protein that is highly conserved in Leishmania species. Using a novel fusion between the AT-hook domain encoded by LmjF06.0720 and a herpesviral protein, we have demonstrated that LmjF06.0720 functions as an AT-hook protein in mammalian cells. Further, as observed for mammalian and viral AT-hook proteins, the AT-hook domains of LmjF06.0720 bind specific regions of condensed mammalian metaphase chromosomes, and support the licensed replication of DNA in mammalian cells. LmjF06.0720 is nuclear in Leishmania, and this localization is disrupted upon exposure to drugs that displace AT-hook proteins from AT-rich DNA. Coincidentally, these drugs dramatically alter the cellular physiology of Leishmania promastigotes. Finally, we have devised a novel peptido-mimetic agent derived from the sequence of LmjF06.0720 that blocks the proliferation of Leishmania promastigotes, and lowers amastigote parasitic burden in infected macrophages. Our results indicate that AT-hook proteins are critical for the normal biology of Leishmania. In addition, we have described a simple technique to examine the function of Leishmania chromatin-binding proteins in a eukaryotic context amenable to studying chromosome structure and function. Lastly, we demonstrate the therapeutic potential of compounds directed against AT-hook proteins in Leishmania.

Kelly, Ben L.; Singh, Gyanendra; Aiyar, Ashok

2011-01-01

288

Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of black carp ( Mylopharyngdon piceus Richardson) and allogynogenetic crucian carp ( Carassius auratus gibelio ? ×  Cyprinus carpio ?) fed different carbohydrate diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of black carp (Mylopharyngdon piceus Richardson) (4.6 ± 0.3 g) and allogynogenetic crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio ? × Cyprinus carpio ?) (5.7 ± 0.5 g) were examined when fish fed two types of carbohydrate (dextrin and glucose) at two levels (20 and 40%) each.\\u000a The diets were isonitrogenous (40% dry matter) and isocaloric at 18.5 kJ g?1 (dry matter) by adjusting the oil content

Chun Fang Cai; Yuan Tu Ye; Li Qiao Chen; Jian Guang Qin; Yong Ling Wang

2010-01-01

289

The anisotropic Hooke's law for cancellous bone and wood.  

PubMed

A method of data analysis for a set of elastic constant measurements is applied to data bases for wood and cancellous bone. For these materials the identification of the type of elastic symmetry is complicated by the variable composition of the material. The data analysis method permits the identification of the type of elastic symmetry to be accomplished independent of the examination of the variable composition. This method of analysis may be applied to any set of elastic constant measurements, but is illustrated here by application to hardwoods and softwoods, and to an extraordinary data base of cancellous bone elastic constants. The solid volume fraction or bulk density is the compositional variable for the elastic constants of these natural materials. The final results are the solid volume fraction dependent orthotropic Hooke's law for cancellous bone and a bulk density dependent one for hardwoods and softwoods. PMID:11543211

Yang, G; Kabel, J; van Rietbergen, B; Odgaard, A; Huiskes, R; Cowin, S C

290

Near-Origin Structure of the Hooke's Atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hooke's atoms with two or more than two electrons give rise to an interesting quantum mechanical model with valuable practical applications. In this work, we study the electronic properties near the origin of the harmonic potential. It is seen that the spherically averaged density, ?¯, exhibits an interesting character — it has only even order terms in its small r expansion. The spherical average of the Hartree potential, v¯H, and the spherical average of the Kohn—Sham exchange-correlation potential, v¯xc, are also shown to have the same property — all odd order terms in their expansions vanish. Furthermore, the analysis and results extend also to the case of two-dimensional models. While only models interacting via. the Coulomb potential are primarily considered in the article, the results also extend to models interacting via. other potentials (viz. Van der Waals potential).

Wang, Xue-Mei

2012-12-01

291

Hooke's law correlation in two-electron systems  

SciTech Connect

We study the properties of the Hooke's law correlation energy (E{sub c}), defined as the correlation energy when two electrons interact via a harmonic potential in a D-dimensional space. More precisely, we investigate the {sup 1}S ground-state properties of two model systems: the Moshinsky atom (in which the electrons move in a quadratic potential) and the spherium model (in which they move on the surface of a sphere). A comparison with their Coulombic counterparts is made that highlights the main differences of the E{sub c} in both the weakly and strongly correlated limits. Moreover, we show that the Schroedinger equation of the spherium model is exactly solvable for two values of the dimension (D=1 and 3) and that the exact wave function is based on Mathieu functions.

Loos, Pierre-Francois [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200 (Australia)

2010-03-15

292

Efficiency of voluntary opening hand and hook prosthetic devices: 24 years of development?  

PubMed

Quantitative data on the mechanical performance of upper-limb prostheses are very important in prostheses development and selection. The primary goal of this study was to objectively evaluate the mechanical performance of adult-size voluntary opening (VO) prosthetic terminal devices and select the best tested device. A second goal was to see whether VO devices have improved in the last two decades. Nine devices (four hooks and five hands) were quantitatively tested (Hosmer model 5XA hook, Hosmer Sierra 2 Load VO hook, RSL Steeper Carbon Gripper, Otto Bock model 10A60 hook, Becker Imperial hand, Hosmer Sierra VO hand, Hosmer Soft VO hand, RSL Steeper VO hand, Otto Bock VO hand). We measured the pinch forces, activation forces, cable displacements, mass, and opening span and calculated the work and hysteresis. We compared the results with data from 1987. Hooks required lower activation forces and delivered higher pinch forces than hands. The activation forces of several devices were very high. The pinch forces of all tested hands were too low. The Hosmer model 5XA hook with three bands was the best tested hook. The Hosmer Sierra VO hand was the best tested hand. We found no improvements in VO devices compared with the data from 1987. PMID:22773256

Smit, Gerwin; Bongers, Raoul M; Van der Sluis, Corry K; Plettenburg, Dick H

2012-01-01

293

Design of spinous process hooks for flexible fixation of the lumbar spine.  

PubMed

A prototype flexible fixation system for the lumbar spine was subjected to tensile testing to failure and cyclic tensile testing in order to determine any regions of weakness. The system consisted of a spinous process hook and two laminar hooks made of stainless steel (316L). Each laminar hook was attached to the spinous process hook by a loop of polyester braid secured by a crimped metal sleeve. In five tensile tests, the system failed by irreversible deformation of the spinous process hook at 2.5 +/- 0.3 kN (mean +/- standard deviation). In three cyclic tests, in which the applied tension varied sinusoidally between 0.04 and 0.4 kN at a frequency of 5 Hz, failure occurred after less than 400,000 loading cycles. This occurred as a result of fatigue crack initiation and propagation in the spinous process hook. A finite element model showed a stress concentration in the region where the crack occurred, which raised the applied stress above the tensile fatigue strength of this stainless steel. The spinous process hook was redesigned for manufacture in a titanium alloy (Ti-6AI-4V ELI) to minimize artefacts in magnetic resonance imaging. Further finite element models showed no unacceptable stress concentrations. PMID:11109855

Leahy, J C; Mathias, K J; Heaton, A; Shepherd, D E; Hukins, D W; Deans, W F; Brian, M W; Wardlaw, D

2000-01-01

294

Correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using thoracic pedicle screw fixation versus hook constructs.  

PubMed

This retrospective study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness and cost of thoracic pedicle screws versus laminar and pedicle hooks in patients undergoing surgical correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Immediate preoperative and 6-week postoperative radiographs were examined in 25 consecutive cases of children with AIS who were divided into two groups, those with thoracic pedicle screw constructs and those with thoracic hook constructs. Endpoints collected included radiographic measures, complications, surgical time, implant cost, and quality-of-life measures. Ten children underwent spinal fusion using thoracic pedicle screw fixation and 15 underwent thoracic constructs composed of hooks. Similar sex and age distribution were noted in both groups, and among the 20 girls and 5 boys the average age was 14.5. The mean preoperative Cobb angle was 53.5 degrees for the screw group and 52.5 degrees for the hook group. Correction averaged 70.2% for the screw group and 68.1% for the hook group. There were no significant differences between the two patient groups in terms of percentage of or absolute curve change after surgery. The apical vertebral translation, end vertebral tilt angle, and coronal balance did not differ significantly between the two patient groups. Comparison of operative time and quality of life revealed no significant differences. Screw constructs were significantly more expensive than hook constructs. The correction obtained from thoracic pedicle screw fixation is comparable to traditional hook constructs in AIS. Surgery using either construct effectively corrects AIS. PMID:15958886

Storer, Stephen K; Vitale, Michael G; Hyman, Joshua E; Lee, Francis Y; Choe, Julie C; Roye, David P

295

Crystal Structure of a Complex of DNA with One AT-Hook of HMGA1  

PubMed Central

We present here for the first time the crystal structure of an AT-hook domain. We show the structure of an AT-hook of the ubiquitous nuclear protein HMGA1, combined with the oligonucleotide d(CGAATTAATTCG)2, which has two potential AATT interacting groups. Interaction with only one of them is found. The structure presents analogies and significant differences with previous NMR studies: the AT-hook forms hydrogen bonds between main-chain NH groups and thymines in the minor groove, DNA is bent and the minor groove is widened.

Fonfria-Subiros, Elsa; Acosta-Reyes, Francisco; Saperas, Nuria; Pous, Joan; Subirana, Juan A.; Campos, J. Lourdes

2012-01-01

296

Molecular cloning of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) T-bet and GATA-3, and their expression profiles with IFN-? in response to grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection.  

PubMed

Both T-bet and GATA-3, Th1/Th2 lineage-specific transcription factors, play important roles in the development of T cells and Th1/Th2 differentiation. In this study, T-bet and GATA-3 genes were cloned from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The putative primary structure of the polypeptide deduced from the cDNA sequence of grass carp T-bet contained 608 aa, which possessed a T-box DNA binding domain. The putative primary structure of the polypeptide deduced from the cDNA sequence of grass carp GATA-3 contained 396 aa, which possessed two consensus zinc finger domains (C-X(2)-C-X(17)-C-X(2)-C). The YxKxHxxxRP motif, KRRLSA and LMEKs/n sequences were also conserved in this GATA-3. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that grass carp T-bet and GATA-3 group with their known counterparts with zebrafish T-bet and GATA-3 as the closest neighbor, respectively. RT-qPCR results showed that grass carp T-bet gene was highly expressed in head kidney, followed by spleen, and low expressed in gill, liver, kidney, and intestine, while GATA-3 gene was highly expressed in intestine, followed by spleen, and low expressed in gill, liver, kidney, and head kidney. Grass carp is one of the "four important domestic fish" in China and often infected by grass carp reovirus (GCRV). As yet, there is no evidence that T-bet and GATA-3 (Th1/Th2 subsets) are involved in anti-virus immune of teleost fish. In this study, by RT-qPCR, we analyzed the expression dynamics of grass carp T-bet and GATA-3 genes with IFN-? gene in response to GCRV infection for the first time. The expression dynamics showed that three genes might be crucially modulated by in vivo GCRV infection: (1) GCRV mainly induced a T-bet expression profile comparing to the GATA-3 expression, while the higher expression profiles of IFN-? correlated with the up-regulation of T-bet; (2) T-bet/IFN-? and GATA-3 expression changes suggest that in GCRV-infected grass carp, the common immune state of head kidney further heightens, whereas the common physiological state of intestine transforms to an anti-virus immune state. From this finding, we realize that GCRV mainly induces a Th1 response, and Th1 cell-mediated recognition mechanisms play very important roles in anti-virus cellular immune of grass carp. PMID:23108805

Wang, Lu; Shang, Na; Feng, Hong; Guo, Qionglin; Dai, Heping

2012-10-30

297

Assessing impacts of introduced aquatic species: Grass carp in large systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduced species have created environmental benefits and unanticipated disasters so a priori assessments of species introductions are needed for environmental management. A checklist for assessing impacts of introduced species was developed from studies of introduced species and recommendations for planning introductions. Sterile, triploid grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella) are just beginning to be used as a biocontrol agent for the management of aquatic vegetation in open waterways. Potential impacts of grass carp in open systems were identified by reviewing grass carp biology relative to the impact assessment checklist. The potential consequences of introduced grass carp were reviewed for one case study. The case study demonstrated that conclusions about potential impacts and monitoring needs can be made despite incomplete information and uncertainty. Indicators of environmental impact and vulnerability of host systems were grouped into six categories: population control, hybridization, diseases and parasites, habitat alterations, biological effects, and management issues. Triploid grass carp can significantly alter habitat and biological resources through the secondary effects of reductions in aquatic vegetation. Potential impacts and significant uncertainties involve fish dispersions from plant control areas, inability to control vegetation loss, loss of diverse plant communities and their dependent species, and conflicts with human use of the water resource. Adequate knowledge existed to assess most potential consequences of releasing large numbers of triploid grass carp in Guntersville Reservoir, Alabama. However, the assessment of potential impacts indicated that moderate, incremental stockings combined with monitoring of vegetation and biological resources are necessary to control the effects of grass carp and achieve desirable, intermediate plant densities.

Bain, Mark B.

1993-03-01

298

Effects of triploid grass carp on aquatic plants, water quality, and public satisfaction in Washington State  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigated effects of triploid grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella on aquatic macrophyte communities, water quality, and public satisfaction for 98 lakes and ponds in Washington State stocked with grass carp between 1990 and 1995. Grass carp had few noticeable effects on macrophyte communities until 19 months following stocking. After 19 months, submersed macrophytes were either completely eradicated (39% of the lakes) or not controlled (42% of the lakes) in most lakes. Intermediate control of submersed macrophytes occurred in 18% of lakes at a median stocking rate of 24 fish per vegetated surface acre. Most of the landowners interviewed (83%) were satisfied with the results of introducing grass carp. For sites where all submersed macrophytes were eradicated, average turbidity was higher (11 nephelometric turbidity units, NTU) than at sites where macrophytes were controlled to intermediate levels (4 NTU) or unaffected by grass carp grazing (5 NTU). Chlorophyll a was not significantly different between levels of macrophyte control; therefore, we concluded that most of this turbidity was abiotic and not algal. Triploid grass carp were a popular control option and effectively grazed most submersed macrophytes in Washington State. However, calculating stocking rates based on landowner estimates of aquatic plant coverage rarely resulted in intermediate levels of aquatic plant control. Additionally, the effects of particular stocking rates varied considerably. We recommend against using grass carp in Washington lakes where eradication of submersed vegetation cannot be tolerated.

Bonar, S. A.; Bolding, B.; Divens, M.

2002-01-01

299

Microcystin kinetics (bioaccumulation and elimination) and biochemical responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) exposed to toxic cyanobacterial blooms.  

PubMed

Two species of common edible fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), were exposed to a Microcystis spp.-dominated natural cyanobacterial water bloom for two months (concentrations of cyanobacterial toxin microcystin, 182-539 microg/g biomass dry wt). Toxins accumulated up to 1.4 to 29 ng/g fresh weight and 3.3 to 19 ng/g in the muscle of silver carp and common carp, respectively, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent immunoassay. Concentrations an order of magnitude higher were detected in hepatopancreas (up to 226 ng/g in silver carp), with a peak after the initial four weeks. Calculated bioconcentration factors ranged from 0.6 to 1.7 for muscle and from 7.3 to 13.3 for hepatopancreas. Microcystins were completely eliminated within one to two weeks from both muscle and hepatopancreas after the transfer of fish with accumulated toxins to clean water. Mean estimated elimination half-lives ranged from 0.7 d in silver carp muscle to 8.4 d in common carp liver. The present study also showed significant modulations of several biochemical markers in hepatopancreas of fish exposed to cyanobacteria. Levels of glutathione and catalytic activities of glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase were induced in both species, indicating oxidative stress and enhanced detoxification processes. Calculation of hazard indexes using conservative U.S. Environmental Protection Agency methodology indicated rather low risks of microcystins accumulated in edible fish, but several uncertainties should be explored. PMID:18020691

Adamovský, Ondrej; Kopp, Radovan; Hilscherová, Klára; Babica, Pavel; Palíková, Miroslava; Pasková, Veronika; Navrátil, Stanislav; Marsálek, Blahoslav; Bláha, Ludek

2007-12-01

300

Dietary carbohydrate/lipid ratios affect stress, oxidative status and non-specific immune responses of fingerling blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary carbohydrate/lipid (CHO:L) ratios on stress, liver oxidative status and non-specific immune responses of fingerling blunt snout bream. Fish were fed six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing various CHO:L ratios for 10 weeks. After the feeding trial, fish were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila and survival rate was recorded for the next 10 days. The lowest plasma cortisol, lactate, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were all observed in fish fed a CHO:L ratio of 5.64. They were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of fish offered the lowest CHO:L ratio, but showed little difference (P > 0.05) with those of fish fed the highest CHO:L ratio. This also held true for liver catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities, whereas the opposite was true for liver reduced glutathione contents, plasma lysozyme and alternative complement (ACH50) activities. Contrary to leucocyte counts, plasma glucose levels, liver malondialdehyde contents, blood haemoglobin contents and erythrocyte numbers all increased significantly (P < 0.05) with decreasing dietary CHO:L ratios. The highest plasma total protein and globulin content both observed in fish fed a CHO:L ratio of 2.45 was significantly (P < 0.01) higher than that of fish offered the lowest CHO:L ratio, but showed no statistical difference (P > 0.05) with that of the other groups. After challenge, fish fed the lowest CHO:L ratio obtained significantly (P < 0.05) low survival rate. However, survival rate showed little difference (P > 0.05) as dietary CHO:L ratios ranged from 3.67 to 24.20. The results of this study indicated that high dietary lipid may cause metabolic stress of fingerling blunt snout bream, as might consequently lead to the elevated liver oxidation rates, impaired liver function, depressed immunity and reduced resistance to A. hydrophila infection of this species, whereas the opposite was true for carbohydrate enriched diets. PMID:22617792

Li, Xiang-Fei; Liu, Wen-Bin; Lu, Kang-Le; Xu, Wei-Na; Wang, Ying

2012-05-14

301

Reconstruction and Consolidation of Sandy Hook Station/Group Complex, New Jersey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reconstruction of the Coast Guard station and group complex at Sandy Hook, New Jersey is proposed. Any adverse environmental effects will be minor and caused primarily by the machinery movements necessary to demolish or erect structures. Minor damage to t...

1971-01-01

302

50 CFR 660.716 - Surface hook-and-line fishery. [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Surface hook-and-line fishery. [Reserved] 660.716 Section 660.716 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...

2011-10-01

303

50 CFR 660.716 - Surface hook-and-line fishery. [Reserved  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Surface hook-and-line fishery. [Reserved] 660.716 Section 660.716 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...

2012-10-01

304

Talk about "hooking up": the influence of college student social networks on nonrelationship sex.  

PubMed

This research considers how communication within college student social networks may encourage high-risk sexual relationships. Students (n?=?274) described sexual scripts for hooking up and reported on peer communication, sexual behavior, and sexual attitudes. Students described varied hookup scripts, expressed ambivalent attitudes, and reported moderate participation in hookups overall. However, the most common hookup script, suggesting high-risk sexual activity (i.e., unplanned, inebriated sex), was featured in most accounts of students who themselves participated in hookups. Students overestimated how often others were hooking up, and these estimates were especially inflated by students who frequently talked about hooking up with friends. Among students with strong ties to peers, frequent peer communication about sex predicted participation in hookups and favorable attitudes about hooking up. Peer approval also predicted hookup behavior and attitudes. PMID:21851267

Holman, Amanda; Sillars, Alan

2011-08-18

305

Test systems and methods for extended off-hook conditions on a subscriber line  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Test systems and methods are disclosed for determining the cause of an extended off-hook condition on a subscriber line. A test system as described herein measures a first resistance of the subscriber line based on a first current, and also measures a second resistance of the subscriber line based on a second current. The test system then determines the difference between the first and second resistance measurements. If the difference between the first and second resistance measurements is greater than a threshold value, such as 20 Ohms or more, then the test system determines that the extended off-hook condition is the result of an off-hook telephone on the subscriber line. If the difference is less than the threshold value, then the test system determines that the extended off-hook condition is the result of a short circuit on the subscriber line.

Anderson; Keith C. (Aurora, IL); Navarro; Robert W. (Glen Ellyn, IL); Rivera-Colon; Ramfis (Aurora, IL)

2013-05-28

306

76 FR 26751 - Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Sussex County, DE; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...natural environment and a food source for a variety...migratory birds as important food sources. Prime Hook...Society, Center for Food Safety, and Public Employees...farming and the planting of genetically modified organisms until the...

2011-05-09

307

Maintenance of Bay Ridge and Red Hook Channels, New York. Navigation Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Maintenance dredging is proposed of the existing Federal channel in Bay Ridge and Red Hook, New York, to its authorized project dimensions with spoil disposal in the approved dumping grounds in the New York Bight. Environmental impacts include a continued...

1972-01-01

308

Equivalent-Network Representations of the Generalized Hooke's Law for Isotropic Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is shown that the generalized Hooke's law - the constitutive relation for all solid materials that behave mechanically in a linear fashion - defines the topology of equivalent networks analogous to such solids insofar as mechanical behavior is concerne...

A. J. Rudgers

1988-01-01

309

Spectra of Disc Area Operator for Twisted Acceleration-Enlarged Newton-Hooke Spacetimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time-dependent spectra of disc area operator for twisted acceleration-enlarged Newton-Hooke spacetimes are derived. It is demonstrated that the corresponding area quanta are expanding or oscillating in time.

Daszkiewicz, Marcin

310

Fractures of the hook of the hamate--a failure of clinical diagnosis.  

PubMed

Two cases of a fracture of the hook of the hamate are described in which the diagnosis was clinically missed even though a fracture of the hook was considered. In one patient, the clinical diagnosis was thought to be ulnar wrist instability, and in the other, a pisiotriquetral injury. In one case, the diagnosis was confirmed only by a computerized tomography scan even though lateral tomograms were negative. PMID:3968388

Polivy, K D; Millender, L H; Newberg, A; Phillips, C A

1985-01-01

311

Structural organization and assembly of flagellar hook protein from Salmonella typhimurium.  

PubMed

The terminal regions of monomeric hook protein from Salmonella typhimurium are known to be highly mobile and exposed to the solvent. Although hook protein exhibits an unusual far-UV circular dichroism spectrum, resembling that of random coil structures, our calorimetric experiments clearly demonstrate that the molecule has a compact ordered core. The compact part probably consists of three domains as suggested by deconvolution analysis of the calorimetric melting profiles. Secondary structure prediction, together with the analysis of far-UV circular dichroism spectra, has shown that the domains of monomeric hook protein contain beta-sheeted structures without significant alpha-helical content. The polymerization of hook protein is accompanied by the stabilization of its disordered terminal regions into a predominantly alpha-helical domain. Evaluation of circular dichroism data suggests that about 45 terminal residues are involved in helical segments. Coiled-coil prediction indicates that whereas the whole carboxy-terminal helical region of hook protein has a strong bundle-forming potential, there is only a single short amino-terminal segment exhibiting weak coiled-coil forming tendencies. The formation of alpha-helical bundles is commonly believed to be a key event during the polymerization of the axial structure of bacterial flagella. To clarify the role of helical bundle formation in hook assembly, proteolytic fragments of hook protein with truncations of various lengths in their carboxy-terminal disordered regions were generated, and their polymerization behavior was investigated. We found that even fragments completely lacking the main helix-forming carboxy-terminal regions can polymerize into filaments in vitro under appropriately high salt concentrations. Our results suggest that, although helical bundle formation may occur during self-assembly, governing precise subunit packing and playing an important role in the stabilization of hook filaments, it is not the principal interaction mainly responsible for the development of their filamentous structure. PMID:7658470

Vonderviszt, F; Závodszky, P; Ishimura, M; Uedaira, H; Namba, K

1995-08-25

312

Four-dimensional Hooke's law can encompass linear elasticity and inertia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question is examined, whether the formally straightforward extension of Hooke's time-honoured stress-strain relation to the four dimensions of special and of general relativity can make physical sense. The four-dimensional Hooke's law is found able to account for the inertia of matter; in the flat space, slow motion approximation the field equations for the ``displacement'' four-vector field can encompass both

S. Antoci; L. Mihich

1999-01-01

313

Structure of a calcium-binding carp myogen.  

PubMed

The amino-acid sequence and three-dimensional structure of a calcium-binding protein prepared from carp muscle has been determined. This protein, designated carp-muscle calcium-binding protein B, is one of three closely related parvalbumins found in this tissue. The electron density map, calculated by heavyatom substitution crystallographic methods to 2.0-A resolution, reveals the orientation of most of the amino-acid side chains. The calcium coordination site consists of one glutamic- and three aspartic-acid carboxyl groups in a tetrahedral arrangement. The core of this spherical molecule is remarkably hydrophobic, with 8 of its 10 phenylalanine side chains packed in an approximate herringbone pattern. 52 of the 108 residues are in six alpha-helixes; there is no beta-pleated sheet. The acetylated amino-terminal alanine appears not to be accessible to solvent. All of the heavy-atom derivatives are bound at the sole cysteine. The properties of this protein suggest a relationship to troponin A of mammalian tissue. PMID:4501574

Nockolds, C E; Kretsinger, R H; Coffee, C J; Bradshaw, R A

1972-03-01

314

Asymmetric Responsiveness to Ethylene Mediates Cell Elongation in the Apical Hook of Peas  

PubMed Central

Abstract The apical hook of dark-grown dicotyledonous seedlings is a protective structure resulting from an inhibition of cell elongation on the inner portion of the hook. This differential growth response is mediated by ethylene. Expression of the gene encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO), the terminal enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis, is induced by ethylene via a positive feedback loop. Therefore, the ACO transcript can serve as a molecular marker for both ethylene formation and ethylene responsiveness. We examined the distribution of ACO mRNA of pea, Ps-ACO1, and of ACO enzyme activity in the apical hook of etiolated pea seedlings. In situ hybridization showed that cells on the inner, concave side of pea hooks accumulated more Ps-ACO1 mRNA than did cells on the outer, convex side. The distribution of ACO enzyme activity followed the same pattern. A direct correlation was observed between the cellular distribution of Ps-ACO1 mRNA, ACO enzyme activity, and the inhibition of cell elongation. Pea seedlings treated with a saturating concentration of ethylene still accumulated higher levels of the Ps-ACO1 transcript on the inner side of the apical hook, demonstrating an increased responsiveness to ethylene in this tissue. These results indicate that an asymmetrically distributed component of the ethylene signal transduction pathway mediates hook formation. Based on existing genetic evidence, we propose that this component is downstream from the serine/threonine protein kinase CTR1.

Peck, S. C.; Pawlowski, K.; Kende, H.

1998-01-01

315

Flagellar Hook Flexibility Is Essential for Bundle Formation in Swimming Escherichia coli Cells  

PubMed Central

Swimming Escherichia coli cells are propelled by the rotary motion of their flagellar filaments. In the normal swimming pattern, filaments positioned randomly over the cell form a bundle at the posterior pole. It has long been assumed that the hook functions as a universal joint, transmitting rotation on the motor axis through up to ?90° to the filament in the bundle. Structural models of the hook have revealed how its flexibility is expected to arise from dynamic changes in the distance between monomers in the helical lattice. In particular, each of the 11 protofilaments that comprise the hook is predicted to cycle between short and long forms, corresponding to the inside and outside of the curved hook, once each revolution of the motor when the hook is acting as a universal joint. To test this, we genetically modified the hook so that it could be stiffened by binding streptavidin to biotinylated monomers, impeding their motion relative to each other. We found that impeding the action of the universal joint resulted in atypical swimming behavior as a consequence of disrupted bundle formation, in agreement with the universal joint model.

Brown, Mostyn T.; Steel, Bradley C.; Silvestrin, Claudio; Wilkinson, David A.; Delalez, Nicolas J.; Lumb, Craig N.; Obara, Boguslaw; Berry, Richard M.

2012-01-01

316

Mechanics and Newton-Cartan-like gravity on the Newton-Hooke space-time  

SciTech Connect

We focus on the dynamical aspects on Newton-Hooke space-time NH{sub +} mainly from the viewpoint of geometric contraction of the de Sitter spacetime with Beltrami metric. (The term spacetime is used to denote a space with non-degenerate metric, while the term space-time is used to denote a space with degenerate metric.) We first discuss the Newton-Hooke classical mechanics, especially the continuous medium mechanics, in this framework. Then, we establish a consistent theory of gravity on the Newton-Hooke space-time as a kind of Newton-Cartan-like theory, parallel to the Newton's gravity in the Galilei space-time. Finally, we give the Newton-Hooke invariant Schroedinger equation from the geometric contraction, where we can relate the conservative probability in some sense to the mass density in the Newton-Hooke continuous medium mechanics. Similar consideration may apply to the Newton-Hooke space-time NH{sub -} contracted from anti-de Sitter spacetime.

Tian Yu [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing 100080 (China); Guo Hanying [CCAST (World Laboratory), P.O. Box 8730, Beijing 100080 (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing 100080 (China); Huang Chaoguang [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918-4, Beijing 100049 (China); Xu Zhan [Physics Department, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhou Bin [Physics Department, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Interdisciplinary Center of Theoretical Studies, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)

2005-02-15

317

Evaluation in vitro of the tensile strength of crimpable hooks used for stabilization in orthognathic surgery.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the tensile strength of crimpable hooks used for arch stabilization in orthognatic surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Ninety stainless steel wire (0.019" × 0.026") segments, each measuring 6 cm long, were used and attached to crimpable hooks of different commercial brands. Six groups were formed (n = 10) denominated as follows: control, in which the wire segments were perpendicularly welded by spot welding machine; and the hooks groups M (Morelli), MS (Morelli with weld), TP (TP Ortho), TPS (TP with weld), TPTg (TP-tungsten), TPTgS (TP-tungsten with weld), AO (American Orthodontics), and AOS (American Orthodontics with weld). The test specimen topography was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy before and after the tensile strength tests. After obtaining the results, the analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis multiple-comparison tests were applied. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the AOS ball hooks and those from TPS required a greater amount of force to be displaced along the rectangular arch. The hooks in group M were significantly easier to displace, followed by those from AO. CONCLUSIONS: The best ball hooks for clinical application are those from AOS and TPS. PMID:21664150

Andrade Gomes, Nascimento Leonard Euller; Melo, Pithon Matheus; Lacerda, Santos Rogério; D'Albuquerque, Medeiros Paulo Jose

2011-06-01

318

Genomic insight into the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) genome by sequencing analysis of BAC-end sequences  

PubMed Central

Background Common carp is one of the most important aquaculture teleost fish in the world. Common carp and other closely related Cyprinidae species provide over 30% aquaculture production in the world. However, common carp genomic resources are still relatively underdeveloped. BAC end sequences (BES) are important resources for genome research on BAC-anchored genetic marker development, linkage map and physical map integration, and whole genome sequence assembling and scaffolding. Result To develop such valuable resources in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), a total of 40,224 BAC clones were sequenced on both ends, generating 65,720 clean BES with an average read length of 647 bp after sequence processing, representing 42,522,168 bp or 2.5% of common carp genome. The first survey of common carp genome was conducted with various bioinformatics tools. The common carp genome contains over 17.3% of repetitive elements with GC content of 36.8% and 518 transposon ORFs. To identify and develop BAC-anchored microsatellite markers, a total of 13,581 microsatellites were detected from 10,355 BES. The coding region of 7,127 genes were recognized from 9,443 BES on 7,453 BACs, with 1,990 BACs have genes on both ends. To evaluate the similarity to the genome of closely related zebrafish, BES of common carp were aligned against zebrafish genome. A total of 39,335 BES of common carp have conserved homologs on zebrafish genome which demonstrated the high similarity between zebrafish and common carp genomes, indicating the feasibility of comparative mapping between zebrafish and common carp once we have physical map of common carp. Conclusion BAC end sequences are great resources for the first genome wide survey of common carp. The repetitive DNA was estimated to be approximate 28% of common carp genome, indicating the higher complexity of the genome. Comparative analysis had mapped around 40,000 BES to zebrafish genome and established over 3,100 microsyntenies, covering over 50% of the zebrafish genome. BES of common carp are tremendous tools for comparative mapping between the two closely related species, zebrafish and common carp, which should facilitate both structural and functional genome analysis in common carp.

2011-01-01

319

Purification and characterization of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase from common carp liver.  

PubMed

1. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) liver Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) was purified and characterized. 2. Its molecular weight, isoelectric point, electrophoretic mobility, amino acid pattern and some other characteristics were determined. PMID:2591201

Víg, E; Gabrielak, T; Leyko, W; Nemcsók, J; Matkovics, B

1989-01-01

320

Evidence of Grass Carp ('Ctenopharyngodon idella') Reproduction in the Illinois and Upper Mississippi Rivers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an exotic species which was imported into the United States in 1963 to control aquatic vegetation. Individuals escaped from ponds and subsequently spread into streams in the Mississippi river basin. We have been col...

P. T. Raibley D. Blodgett R. E. Sparks

1995-01-01

321

Production of Reproductively Limited Grass Carp for Biological Control of Aquatic Weeds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The need for a biological aquatic weed control is increasingly evident as the cost-effectiveness and environmental concerns make chemical treatment less desirable. The grass carp, a native fish of Southeast Asia is an effective consumer of aquatic macroph...

W. L. Shelton G. L. Jensen

1979-01-01

322

Life History, Ecology, and Management of the Carp, 'Cyprinus carpio' Linnaeus, in Elephant Butte Lake.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of eight years of investigations of carp in Elephant Butte Lake are combined into this monographic report which includes ecological life history, population ecology, and management methods and techniques. Classification, taxonomy, and range of the...

D. B. Jester

1974-01-01

323

[Effectiveness and characteristics of treating algae-laden raw water by stocking silver carp].  

PubMed

To reduce the negative effect of algae on conventional water treatment, a full-scale research of removing algae from algae-laden raw water by stocking filter-feeding silver carp was processed. After the pretreatment in a presedimentation tank with silver carp, the concentration of phytoplankton, the biomass of cyanobacteria and Microsystis flos-aquae in algae-laden raw water with Microsystis flos-aquae its dominant species decreased 61.8%, 76.1% and 78.2% respectively. This effective decrease of algae load on conventional process created favorable conditions for water treatment. Analysis indicates that food habit of silver carp and algae size are two causes of different removal efficiency between cyanobacteria and green algae. The results show that biomanipulation of silver carp is applicable for treating algae-laden raw water in which colonial cyanobacteria is dominant. PMID:18649519

Fan, Zhen-Qiang; Cui, Fu-Yi; Ma, Hua; He, Wen-Jie; Yin, Pei-Jun

2008-03-01

324

Effects of Salinity on Food Consumption and Growth of Grass Carp.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The herbivorous food habits combined with high rates of food consumption, fast growth and high palatability, and adaptability to environmental fluctuations make the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) an ideal fish for aquatic weed control and commercial...

R. V. Kilambi

1979-01-01

325

Sequence of the growth hormone (GH) gene from the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and evolution of GH genes in vertebrates.  

PubMed

The silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) growth hormone (GH) gene was isolated and sequenced following amplification from genomic DNA by the polymerase chain reaction. The gene spans a region of approx. 2.5 kb nucleotides (nt) and consists of five exons. The sequence predicts a polypeptide of 210 amino acids (aa) including a putative signal peptide of 22 hydrophobic aa residues. The arrangement of exons and introns is identical to the GH genes of common carp, grass carp, and very similar to mammals and birds, but quite different from that for the GH genes of tilapia and salmonids. The silver carp GH gene shares a high homology at the nt and aa levels with those of grass carp (95.3% nt, 99.5% aa) and of common carp (81% nt, 95.7% aa). PMID:8373806

Hong, Y; Schartl, M

1993-09-23

326

Cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory protein (CARP)-1 is expressed in osteoblasts and regulated by PTH.  

PubMed

Bone mass is dependent on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and life-span of osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. Intermittent administration of PTH increases bone mass but the mechanism of action are complex and incompletely understood. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including cell growth and differentiation factors. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism, we investigated involvement of CARP-1 in PTH signaling in osteoblasts. Immunostaining studies revealed presence of CARP-1 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while a minimal to absent levels were noted in the chondrocytes of femora from 10 to 12-week old mice. Treatment of 7-day differentiated MC3T3-E1 clone-4 (MC-4) mouse osteoblastic cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts with PTH for 30min to 5h followed by Western blot analysis showed 2- to 3-fold down-regulation of CARP-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the respective vehicle treated control cells. H-89, a Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, suppressed PTH action on CARP-1 protein expression indicating PKA-dependent mechanism. PMA, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonist, mimicked PTH action, and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, partially blocked PTH-dependent downregulation of CARP-1, implying involvement of PKC. U0126, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Kinase (MEK) inhibitor, failed to interfere with CARP-1 suppression by PTH. In contrast, SB203580, p38 inhibitor, attenuated PTH down-regulation of CARP-1 suggesting that PTH utilized an Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase (ERK)-independent but p38 dependent pathway to regulate CARP-1 protein expression in osteoblasts. Immunofluorescence staining of differentiated osteoblasts further revealed nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of CARP-1 protein following PTH treatment. Collectively, our studies identified CARP-1 for the first time in osteoblasts and suggest its potential role in PTH signaling and bone anabolic action. PMID:23764399

Sharma, Sonali; Mahalingam, Chandrika D; Das, Varsha; Jamal, Shazia; Levi, Edi; Rishi, Arun K; Datta, Nabanita S

2013-06-11

327

Concentration Effects of Selected Insecticides on Brain Acetylcholinesterase in the Common Carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The differential inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (C) is followed by the distinct duration of exposure effect on common carp AChE. Hence, in the present study in vivo exposure period effect and in vitro concentration–response of chlorfenvinphos, chlorpyrifos diazinon, and carbofuran were investigated on Cyprinus carpio L. AChE. Individuals of 1-year-old carp were exposed for 96

Korami Dembélé; Eric Haubruge; Charles Gaspar

2000-01-01

328

Biochemical changes and sensory assessment on tissues of carp ( Cyprinus carpio , Linnaeus 1758) during sale conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, some biochemical changes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) tissues were investigated. Studies have been carried out on carp which have regional economical importance.\\u000a Storage temperature and time are the most important factors that affect the quality of fish during sales. It was observed\\u000a that the temperature varied between 9 and 12°C in sale conditions. In addition,

Ayhan Duran; Zeliha Selamoglu Talas

2009-01-01

329

Generation of the first BAC-based physical map of the common carp genome  

PubMed Central

Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), a member of Cyprinidae, is the third most important aquaculture species in the world with an annual global production of 3.4 million metric tons, accounting for nearly 14% of the all freshwater aquaculture production in the world. Apparently genomic resources are needed for this species in order to study its performance and production traits. In spite of much progress, no physical maps have been available for common carp. The objective of this project was to generate a BAC-based physical map using fluorescent restriction fingerprinting. Result The first generation of common carp physical map was constructed using four- color High Information Content Fingerprinting (HICF). A total of 72,158 BAC clones were analyzed that generated 67,493 valid fingerprints (5.5 × genome coverage). These BAC clones were assembled into 3,696 contigs with the average length of 476 kb and a N50 length of 688 kb, representing approximately 1.76 Gb of the common carp genome. The largest contig contained 171 BAC clones with the physical length of 3.12 Mb. There are 761 contigs longer than the N50, and these contigs should be the most useful resource for future integrations with linkage map and whole genome sequence assembly. The common carp physical map is available at http://genomics.cafs.ac.cn/fpc/WebAGCoL/Carp/WebFPC/. Conclusion The reported common carp physical map is the first physical map of the common carp genome. It should be a valuable genome resource facilitating whole genome sequence assembly and characterization of position-based genes important for aquaculture traits.

2011-01-01

330

A consensus linkage map of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) based on microsatellites and SNPs  

PubMed Central

Background Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) belongs to the family Cyprinidae which includes more than 2000 fish species. It is one of the most important freshwater food fish species in world aquaculture. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping traits of interest and is often the first step towards understanding genome evolution. The aim of this study is to construct a first generation genetic map of grass carp using microsatellites and SNPs to generate a new resource for mapping QTL for economically important traits and to conduct a comparative mapping analysis to shed new insights into the evolution of fish genomes. Results We constructed a first generation linkage map of grass carp with a mapping panel containing two F1 families including 192 progenies. Sixteen SNPs in genes and 263 microsatellite markers were mapped to twenty-four linkage groups (LGs). The number of LGs was corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of grass carp. The sex-specific map was 1149.4 and 888.8 cM long in females and males respectively whereas the sex-averaged map spanned 1176.1 cM. The average resolution of the map was 4.2 cM/locus. BLAST searches of sequences of mapped markers of grass carp against the whole genome sequence of zebrafish revealed substantial macrosynteny relationship and extensive colinearity of markers between grass carp and zebrafish. Conclusions The linkage map of grass carp presented here is the first linkage map of a food fish species based on co-dominant markers in the family Cyprinidae. This map provides a valuable resource for mapping phenotypic variations and serves as a reference to approach comparative genomics and understand the evolution of fish genomes and could be complementary to grass carp genome sequencing project.

2010-01-01

331

Ca2+ signals during early lymphocyte activation in carp Cyprinus carpio L  

Microsoft Academic Search

To measure cellular responses and the involvement of increased cytosolic Ca2 levels ([Ca2 ]i), peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) of carp were loaded with the fluorescent intracellular Ca2 indicators Fluo-3 and Fura-2. Responses of lymphocytes to T-cell mitogen (phytohaemagglutinin, PHA), to B-cell mitogen (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) and to immunoglobulin (Ig) cross-linking with a monoclonal antibody to carp Ig were measured using flow

B. M. L. Verburg-van Kemenade; J. P. J. Saeij; G. Flik; P. H. G. M. Willems

1998-01-01

332

Distribution of macrophages during fish development: an immunohistochemical study in carp ( Cyprinus carpio , L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monoclonal antibody against carp macrophages (WCL15) has been utilised in flow cytometry, immuno-histochemistry and immuno-electron microscopy to assess the distribution of monocytes\\/macrophages in developing carp lymphoid tissues. In suspensions of living cells WCL15 reacted strongly with cytoplasm and plasmic membrane of macrophages. It also cross-reacted with a subpopulation of thrombocytes, but this reaction could be neglected by double immunostaining

N. Romano; S. Picchietti; J. J. Taverne-Thiele; N. Taverne; L. Abelli; L. Mastrolia; B. M. L. Verburg-van Kemenade; J. H. W. M. Rombout

1998-01-01

333

Feeding at different plankton densities alters invasive bighead carp ( Hypophthalmichthys nobilis ) growth and zooplankton species composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive Asian carps Hypophthalmichthys spp. are an ecological threat to non-native aquatic ecosystems throughout the world, and are poised to enter the Laurentian\\u000a Great Lakes. Little is known about how these filter-feeding planktivores grow and impact zooplankton communities in mesotrophic\\u000a to oligotrophic systems like the Great Lakes. Our purpose was to determine how different plankton densities affect bighead\\u000a carp H.

Sandra L. Cooke; Walter R. Hill; Kevin P. Meyer

2009-01-01

334

Identification and Profiling of MicroRNAs from Skeletal Muscle of the Common Carp  

PubMed Central

The common carp is one of the most important cultivated species in the world of freshwater aquaculture. The cultivation of this species is particularly productive due to its high skeletal muscle mass; however, the molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle development in the common carp remain unknown. It has been shown that a class of non-coding ?22 nucleotide RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in vertebrate development. They regulate gene expression through sequence-specific interactions with the 3? untranslated regions (UTRs) of target mRNAs and thereby cause translational repression or mRNA destabilization. Intriguingly, the role of miRNAs in the skeletal muscle development of the common carp remains unknown. In this study, a small-RNA cDNA library was constructed from the skeletal muscle of the common carp, and Solexa sequencing technology was used to perform high throughput sequencing of the library. Subsequent bioinformatics analysis identified 188 conserved miRNAs and 7 novel miRNAs in the carp skeletal muscle. The miRNA expression profiling showed that, miR-1, miR-133a-3p, and miR-206 were specifically expressed in muscle-containing organs, and that miR-1, miR-21, miR-26a, miR-27a, miR-133a-3p, miR-206, miR-214 and miR-222 were differentially expressed in the process of skeletal muscle development of the common carp. This study provides a first identification and profiling of miRNAs related to the muscle biology of the common carp. Their identification could provide clues leading towards a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of carp skeletal muscle development.

Li, Yunchao; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Liang, Yang; Sun, Xiaowen; Teng, Chun-Bo

2012-01-01

335

Construction and Characterization of Two Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Libraries of Grass Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library is an important tool in genomic research. We constructed two libraries from\\u000a the genomic DNA of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) as a crucial part of the grass carp genome project. The libraries were constructed in the EcoRI and HindIII sites of the vector CopyControl pCC1BAC. The EcoRI library comprised 53,000 positive clones, and approximately 99.94%

Songhun Jang; Hang Liu; Jianguo Su; Feng Dong; Feng Xiong; Lanjie Liao; Yaping Wang; Zuoyan Zhu

2010-01-01

336

Genotoxicity of crude extracts of cyanobacteria from Taihu Lake on carp ( Cyprinus carpio )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genotoxicity of crude cyanobacteria extracts (CBE) from blooms in Taihu Lake, China toward common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was measured. The primary extracellular product was determined by HPLC to be Microcystin-LR (MC-LR, L for leucine and R\\u000a for arginine) with an average concentration of 2.4 × 102 ?g MC g?1 dry weight of cyanobacteria. Acute toxicity to carp, expressed as the 72-h LC50, was 53 mg, dw

Qin WuMei; Mei Li; Xiangyu Gao; John P. Giesy; Yibin Cui; Liuyan Yang; Zhiming Kong

2011-01-01

337

[Comparative analysis of variability of three mitochondrial genes of cytochrome oxidase complex (cox1, cox2, and cox3) in wild and domestic carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)].  

PubMed

For the first time, we studied the polymorphism of three mitochondrial genes of the cytochrome oxidase complex (cox1, cox2, and cox3) in natural populations of wild carp living in the Volga, Amur, and Don River Basins, as well as in European Hungarian carp and two pedigree lines of Ropsha carp of domestic breeding. The highest level of nucleotide and haplotype diversity in the studied samples was detected for the cox1 gene (pi = 0.61, h = 100%). Two lines of the Ropsha carp (pi = 0.61, h = 100%) and the Far East population of Amur wild carp from Shershikh strait (Am: pi = 0.20, h = 70%) were the most polymorphic for three genes. The second sample of Amur wild carp from the Amur River (Ac), as well as the samples of Volga and Don wild carp and Hungarian carp had lower values of variability. The presence of two main genealogical lines of the wild carp and carp was demonstrated based on the total sequence of three genes, as well as the corresponding amino acid sequences in the studied area. One of these lines (line I) is typical of the sample of Amur wild carp (Am) and three members of the Ropsha carp. Line II is developed by sequences of Volga, Don, and Amur wild carp (Ac), as well as European Hungarian carp and seven other members of the Ropsha carp. Three to four sublines, which differ in nucleotide and amino acid substitutions, were found within the lines. Possible reasons for the origin of genomic variability in wild carp, as well as in European and Russian breeds of carp, are discussed. PMID:23516901

Torgunakova, O A; Egorova, T A; Semenova, S K

2012-12-01

338

Effectiveness of a Plastic Mesh Substrate Cover for Reducing the Effects of Common Carp on Aquatic Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great deal of effort has been directed at eliminating or controlling common carp Cyprinus carpio populations, but these efforts have had limited success. We assessed the effectiveness of an alternative approach, using plastic-mesh substrate covers, to reduce environmental effects of common carp, Multiple trophic levels were monitored in 0.06-ha enclosures in experimental ponds that contained either common carp with

Joseph J. Parkos III; Victor J. Santucci Jr; David H. Wahl

2006-01-01

339

Differences in some properties of lactate dehydrogenase from muscles of the carp Cyprinus carpio and trout Salmo gairdneri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some catalytic and kinetic properties of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isolated from trout and carp skeletal muscles were compared.\\u000a The specific activity of LDH in the carp muscle was lower by about one third than the activity in the trout muscle. Temperature\\u000a and pH optima for LDH isolated from the carp muscle were higher than those for the trout muscle LDH.

A. Tylicki; D. Masztaleruk; S. Strumilo

2006-01-01

340

Effects of flow regulation on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) recruitment in the Murray–Darling Basin, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carp biomass density and the numbers of 'sub-adult' (juvenile, plus young-of-the-year) carp were used to indicate net recruit- ment (hereafter 'recruitment') to carp populations in 'regulated' and 'unregulated' lowland rivers (<300 m altitude) and 'slope' rivers (300-700 m) of the Murray-Darling Basin, southeastern Australia. Most recruitment occurred at lower-altitude reaches, during October-March (water temperature 95% confidence limits ¼ 16-32? C).

P. D. Driver; J. H. Harris; G. P. Closs; T. B. Koen

2005-01-01

341

Complete genome sequence of a reovirus isolated from grass carp, indicating different genotypes of GCRV in China.  

PubMed

A widespread grass carp hemorrhagic disease (GCHD) caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) has been known in China since 1983. A virulent reovirus strain, HZ08, was isolated from diseased grass carp in Zhejiang Province, China. We sequenced and analyzed the complete genome of strain HZ08 and compared it with published GCRV genome sequences, contributing to the evidence of several genotypes of GCRV in China. PMID:23087123

Wang, Qing; Zeng, Weiwei; Liu, Chun; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Yingying; Shi, Cunbin; Wu, Shuqin

2012-11-01

342

Introduction of the human lactoferrin gene into grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus) to increase resistance against GCH virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haemorrhage can be an epidemic and fatal condition in grass carp. It is known now that the Grass Carp Haemorrhage Virus (GCHV) triggers haemorrhage. Human lactoferrin (hLF) plays an important role in the non-specific immune system, making some organisms more resistant to some viruses. Sperm of grass carp was mixed with linearized pCAhLFc, which is a DNA construct containing an

Jiayu Zhong; Yaping Wang; Zuoyan Zhu

2002-01-01

343

Complete Genome Sequence of a Reovirus Isolated from Grass Carp, Indicating Different Genotypes of GCRV in China  

PubMed Central

A widespread grass carp hemorrhagic disease (GCHD) caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) has been known in China since 1983. A virulent reovirus strain, HZ08, was isolated from diseased grass carp in Zhejiang Province, China. We sequenced and analyzed the complete genome of strain HZ08 and compared it with published GCRV genome sequences, contributing to the evidence of several genotypes of GCRV in China.

Wang, Qing; Zeng, Weiwei; Liu, Chun; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Yingying; Shi, Cunbin

2012-01-01

344

Diet overlap among two Asian carp and three native fishes in backwater lakes on the Illinois and Mississippi rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bighead and silver carp are well established in the Mississippi River basin following their accidental introduction in the\\u000a 1980s. Referred to collectively as Asian carp, these species are filter feeders consuming phytoplankton and zooplankton. We\\u000a examined diet overlap and electivity of Asian carp and three native filter feeding fishes, bigmouth buffalo, gizzard shad,\\u000a and paddlefish, in backwater lakes of the

Schuyler J. Sampson; John H. Chick; Mark A. Pegg

2009-01-01

345

Transcriptome analysis reveals the time of the fourth round of genome duplication in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

PubMed Central

Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is thought to have undergone one extra round of genome duplication compared to zebrafish. Transcriptome analysis has been used to study the existence and timing of genome duplication in species for which genome sequences are incomplete. Large-scale transcriptome data for the common carp genome should help reveal the timing of the additional duplication event. Results We have sequenced the transcriptome of common carp using 454 pyrosequencing. After assembling the 454 contigs and the published common carp sequences together, we obtained 49,669 contigs and identified genes using homology searches and an ab initio method. We identified 4,651 orthologous pairs between common carp and zebrafish and found 129,984 paralogous pairs within the common carp. An estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that common carp and zebrafish diverged 120 million years ago (MYA). We identified one round of genome duplication in common carp and estimated that it had occurred 5.6 to 11.3 MYA. In zebrafish, no genome duplication event after speciation was observed, suggesting that, compared to zebrafish, common carp had undergone an additional genome duplication event. We annotated the common carp contigs with Gene Ontology terms and KEGG pathways. Compared with zebrafish gene annotations, we found that a set of biological processes and pathways were enriched in common carp. Conclusions The assembled contigs helped us to estimate the time of the fourth-round of genome duplication in common carp. The resource that we have built as part of this study will help advance functional genomics and genome annotation studies in the future.

2012-01-01

346

Establishment of kinetic models based on electrical conductivity and freshness indictors for the forecasting of crucian carp ( Carassius carassius) freshness  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study quality changes in cold chain circulation, kinetic models were developed to predict the freshness of crucian carp at different temperatures during storage. Electrical conductivity (EC) and freshness indictors (Total volatile basic nitrogen, Total aerobic count and K-value) at 270, 273, 277, 282 and 288K were accessed to investigate the relation between the crucian carp’s freshness and storage condition

Lei Yao; Yongkang Luo; Yunyun Sun; Huixing Shen

2011-01-01

347

Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp in North Croatia after the Chernobyl accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carp decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of 137Cs was estimated to be about 1 year during 1987–2002 and 5 years during 1993–2005.The observed 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio in carp was found to be similar to the ratio observed in other

Zdenko Frani?; Gordana Marovi?

2007-01-01

348

Grass carp transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1): Molecular cloning, tissue distribution and immunobiological activity in teleost peripheral blood lymphocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) is a potent regulatory cytokine with pleiotropic effects on the immune system. To examine the role of TGF-?1 in fish immunity, the full-length cDNA of grass carp TGF-?1 was isolated from grass carp spleen. The open reading frame of grass carp TGF-?1, 1134bp in length, encodes a 377 amino acid protein. Tissue distribution study by RT-PCR

Mu Yang; Hong Zhou

2008-01-01

349

Development of an antimycin-impregnated bait for controlling common carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The common carp Cyprinus carpio is a major problem for fisheries and wildlife managers because its feeding behavior causes degradation of valuable fish and waterfowl habitat. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an antimycin-impregnated bait for control of common carp. The toxic bait contained fish meal, a binder, antimycin, and water. The ingredients were mixed together and made into pellets. This bait was force-fed to common carp or administered in a pond environment, where fish voluntarily fed on the bait. The lowest lethal dose in the forcefeeding study was 0.346 mg antimycin/kg of fish and doses that exceeded 0.811 mg antimycin/kg were toxic to all fish. On three occasions, adult common carp held in 0.004-ha concrete ponds were offered 10 g of toxic bait containing 5.0, 7.5, and 10 mg antimycin/g of bait and the mean mortalities 96 h later were 21, 35, and 51%, respectively. Three tests were conducted in 0.04-ha earthen ponds each containing 100 adult common carp; these fish were offered 50 g of the toxic bait that contained 10 mg antimycin/g, and the mean mortalities (96 h) were 19, 32, and 74%. Toxic baits should be used in conjunction with other management techniques, and only when common carp are congregated and actively feeding, and when few nontarget bottom- feeding species are present.

Rach, J. J.; Luoma, J. A.; Marking, L. L.

1994-01-01

350

Comparison of the exomes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and zebrafish (Danio rerio).  

PubMed

Research on common carp, Cyprinus carpio, is beneficial for zebrafish research because of resources available owing to its large body size, such as the availability of sufficient organ material for transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Here we describe the shot gun sequencing of a clonal double-haploid common carp line. The assembly consists of 511891 scaffolds with an N50 of 17?kb, predicting a total genome size of 1.4-1.5?Gb. A detailed analysis of the ten largest scaffolds indicates that the carp genome has a considerably lower repeat coverage than zebrafish, whilst the average intron size is significantly smaller, making it comparable to the fugu genome. The quality of the scaffolding was confirmed by comparisons with RNA deep sequencing data sets and a manual analysis for synteny with the zebrafish, especially the Hox gene clusters. In the ten largest scaffolds analyzed, the synteny of genes is almost complete. Comparisons of predicted exons of common carp with those of the zebrafish revealed only few genes specific for either zebrafish or carp, most of these being of unknown function. This supports the hypothesis of an additional genome duplication event in the carp evolutionary history, which--due to a higher degree of compactness--did not result in a genome larger than that of zebrafish. PMID:22715948

Henkel, Christiaan V; Dirks, Ron P; Jansen, Hans J; Forlenza, Maria; Wiegertjes, Geert F; Howe, Kerstin; van den Thillart, Guido E E J M; Spaink, Herman P

2012-06-01

351

Phenotypic plasticity in gut length in the planktivorous filter-feeding silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix).  

PubMed

Phenotypic plasticity widely exists in the external morphology of animals as well as the internal traits of organs. In the present study, we studied the gut length plasticity of planktivorous filter-feeding silver carp under different food resources in large-net cage experiments in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu in 2004 and 2005. There was a significant difference in stocking density between these 2 years. Under a low stocking density and abundant food resources, silver carp increased their energy intake by feeding on more zooplankton. Meanwhile, silver carp adjusted their gut length to match the digestive requirements of food when exposed to different food resources. In the main growth seasons (from April to October), silver carp significantly increased their relative gut length when feeding on more phytoplankton in 2005 (p < 0.01, 9.23 +/- 1.80 in 2004 and 10.77 +/- 2.05 in 2005, respectively). There was a nearly significant negative correlation between zooplankton proportion in the diet and the relative gut length when silver carp were stocked in a high density (p = 0.112). It appears that silver carp might have evolved plasticity to change their gut length rapidly to facilitate efficient utilization of food resources. Such resource polymorphisms in the gut may be a good indication of temporal adaptation to resource conditions. Our work provided field evidence for understanding the functional basis of resource polymorphisms and the evolution of phenotypic plasticity in planktivorous filter-feeding fish. PMID:18301818

Ke, Zhixin; Ping, Xie; Guo, Longgen

2008-02-19

352

Comparison of the Exomes of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Zebrafish (Danio rerio)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Research on common carp, Cyprinus carpio, is beneficial for zebrafish research because of resources available owing to its large body size, such as the availability of sufficient organ material for transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Here we describe the shot gun sequencing of a clonal double-haploid common carp line. The assembly consists of 511891 scaffolds with an N50 of 17?kb, predicting a total genome size of 1.4–1.5?Gb. A detailed analysis of the ten largest scaffolds indicates that the carp genome has a considerably lower repeat coverage than zebrafish, whilst the average intron size is significantly smaller, making it comparable to the fugu genome. The quality of the scaffolding was confirmed by comparisons with RNA deep sequencing data sets and a manual analysis for synteny with the zebrafish, especially the Hox gene clusters. In the ten largest scaffolds analyzed, the synteny of genes is almost complete. Comparisons of predicted exons of common carp with those of the zebrafish revealed only few genes specific for either zebrafish or carp, most of these being of unknown function. This supports the hypothesis of an additional genome duplication event in the carp evolutionary history, which—due to a higher degree of compactness—did not result in a genome larger than that of zebrafish.

Henkel, Christiaan V.; Dirks, Ron P.; Jansen, Hans J.; Forlenza, Maria; Wiegertjes, Geert F.; Howe, Kerstin; van den Thillart, Guido E.E.J.M.

2012-01-01

353

PCB and PBDE levels in wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from eastern Lake Erie.  

PubMed

Male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from eastern Lake Erie, which is greatly effected by urbanization, agriculture, and industry, were analyzed for PCB and PBDE concentrations in plasma, muscle, and liver to evaluate exposure to these chemicals through habitat interactions. Additional male carp from two nearby relatively clean lakes (Bear Lake and Hemlock Lake, NY) were also sampled as controls. While PCBs were detected in muscle, liver, and plasma of Lake Erie carp, the largest concentrations were found in muscle, which also had the most number of congeners. The dominant congeners were PCB 138 and PCB 153. Concentrations of PCB 153 in the muscle were correlated with fish length, total weight, and age. Therefore, larger (and generally older) carp had the highest concentrations of PCB 153. In contrast, PBDEs were found only in muscle with the predominant congener being PBDE 47. The total PCB concentrations in muscle of male carp from eastern Lake Erie (ranging from nd to 15,000 ng g(-1) lipid) were 100-fold higher than the total PBDE observed (1.5-100 ng g(-1) lipid), indicating a higher level of contamination of PCBs in Lake Erie. The high PCB levels in carp points to PCB resistance to metabolic degradation. PMID:20609460

Pérez-Fuentetaja, Alicia; Lupton, Sara; Clapsadl, Mark; Samara, Fatin; Gatto, Louis; Biniakewitz, Robert; Aga, Diana S

2010-07-06

354

Case report of right hamate hook fracture in a patient with previous fracture history of left hamate hook: is it hamate bipartite?  

PubMed Central

Background Hamate hook fracture is a common fracture in golfers and others who play sports that involve rackets or sticks such as tennis or hockey. This patient had a previous hamate fracture in the opposing wrist along with potential features of hamate bipartite. Case presentation A 19 year old male presented with a complaint of right wrist pain on the ulnar side of the wrist with no apparent mechanism of injury. The pain came on gradually one week before being seen in the office and he reported no prior care for the complaint. His history includes traumatic left hamate hook fracture with surgical excision. Conclusion The patient was found to have marked tenderness over the hamate and with a prior fracture to the other wrist, computed tomography of the wrist was ordered revealing a fracture to the hamate hook in the right wrist. He was referred for surgical evaluation and the hook of the hamate was excised. Post-surgically, the patient was able to return to normal activity within eight weeks. This case is indicative of fracture rather than hamate bipartite. This fracture should be considered in a case of ulnar sided wrist pain where marked tenderness is noted over the hamate, especially after participation in club or racket sports.

Evans, Marion W; Gilbert, Micheal L; Norton, Sandra

2006-01-01

355

CARP, a Cardiac Ankyrin Repeat Protein, Is Up-Regulated during Wound Healing and Induces Angiogenesis in Experimental Granulation Tissue  

PubMed Central

Cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP) was identified by subtractive hybridization as one of a group of genes that are rapidly modulated by acute wounding of mouse skin. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that CARP was strongly induced during the first day after wounding (157.1-fold), and the high level persisted for up to 14 days. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization revealed that CARP was expressed in skeletal muscle, vessel wall, hair follicle, inflammatory cells, and epidermis in the wound area. To examine the effects of CARP on wound healing, we developed an adenoviral CARP vector to treat subcutaneously implanted sponges in either rats or Flk-1LacZ knock-in mice. Four days after infection, CARP-infected sponges in rats showed a remarkable increase in the vascular component in granulation tissue as compared to Ad-LacZ controls. This result was confirmed by CD34 immunostaining. By 7 days post-infection of sponge implants in Flk-1LacZ knock-in mice, granulation tissue showed many more LacZ-positive cells in Ad-CARP-infected sponges than in virus controls. Ad-CARP treatment also induced neovascularization and increased blood perfusion in rabbit excisional wounds in and ischemic rat wounds. These findings indicate that CARP could play a unique role in therapeutic angiogenesis during wound healing.

Shi, Yubin; Reitmaier, Birgit; Regenbogen, Johannes; Slowey, R. Michael; Opalenik, Susan R.; Wolf, Eckhard; Goppelt, Andreas; Davidson, Jeffrey M.

2005-01-01

356

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Red Hook\\/Bay Ridge project areas, New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the Red HookIBay Ridge project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from these two areas to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Sediment samples were collected from the Red Hook\\/Bay Ridge project areas. Tests and analyses were conducted. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Red Hook\\/Bay Ridge project areas

M. R. Pinza; E. S. Barrows; A. B. Borde

1996-01-01

357

The M-T Hook Structure Is Critical for Design of HIV-1 Fusion Inhibitors*  

PubMed Central

CP621-652 is a potent HIV-1 fusion inhibitor peptide derived from the C-terminal heptad repeat of gp41. We recently identified that its N-terminal residues Met-626 and Thr-627 adopt a unique hook-like structure (termed M-T hook) thus stabilizing the interaction of the inhibitor with the deep pocket on the N-terminal heptad repeat. In this study, we further demonstrated that the M-T hook structure is a key determinant of CP621-652 in terms of its thermostability and anti-HIV activity. To directly define the structure and function of the M-T hook, we generated the peptide MT-C34 by incorporating Met-626 and Thr-627 into the N terminus of the C-terminal heptad repeat-derived peptide C34. The high resolution crystal structure (1.9 ?) of MT-C34 complexed by an N-terminal heptad repeat-derived peptide reveals that the M-T hook conformation is well preserved at the N-terminal extreme of the inhibitor. Strikingly, addition of two hook residues could dramatically enhance the binding affinity and thermostability of 6-helix bundle core. Compared with C34, MT-C34 exhibited significantly increased activity to inhibit HIV-1 envelope-mediated cell fusion (6.6-fold), virus entry (4.5-fold), and replication (6-fold). Mechanistically, MT-C34 had a 10.5-fold higher increase than C34 in blocking 6-helix bundle formation. We further showed that MT-C34 possessed higher potency against T20 (Enfuvirtide, Fuzeon)-resistant HIV-1 variants. Therefore, this study provides convincing data for our proposed concept that the M-T hook structure is critical for designing HIV-1 fusion inhibitors.

Chong, Huihui; Yao, Xue; Sun, Jianping; Qiu, Zonglin; Zhang, Meng; Waltersperger, Sandro; Wang, Meitian; Cui, Sheng; He, Yuxian

2012-01-01

358

High mobility group AT-hook 2 is overexpressed in hepatoblastoma.  

PubMed

Hepatoblastoma is the most frequent malignant hepatic tumor in children. Expression of high mobility group AT-hook 2, an architectural nuclear factor and marker for hepatic progenitor cells, has not been studied in detail in hepatocellular neoplasms. Immunohistochemical stains using antibodies against high mobility group AT-hook 2, ?-catenin, glypican-3, p53, and Ki-67 were performed in 15 hepatoblastomas, 15 fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinomas, 34 hepatocellular carcinomas (12, ?30 years old; 22, >30 years old), and 22 hepatic adenomas. High mobility group AT-hook 2 was expressed in all 15 hepatoblastomas, including all fetal and embryonal components, significantly higher than in 41.7% (5/12) of hepatocellular carcinomas of 30 years or younger (P = .001) and in 9% (2/22) of hepatocellular carcinomas of older than 30 years (P < .001). Aberrant ?-catenin expression was detected in 80% (12/15) of hepatoblastomas, 41.6% (5/12) of hepatocellular carcinomas of 30 years or younger, and 18.2% (4/22) of hepatocellular carcinomas of older than 30 years. All 15 fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinomas and 22 hepatic adenomas were negative for high mobility group AT-hook 2 or ?-catenin. High mobility group AT-hook 2 and ?-catenin expression correlated positively (P = .017; ? = 0.522) in 34 hepatocellular carcinomas. ?-Catenin and glypican-3 exhibited a distinct spatial distribution within hepatoblastomas; glypican-3 was more frequently expressed in fetal components (P = .007), whereas ?-catenin tended to be more frequently expressed in embryonal components (P = .062). In conclusion, high mobility group AT-hook 2 is expressed in all hepatoblastomas and could be used as a sensitive marker in their diagnosis. High mobility group AT-hook 2 was also expressed in a subset of hepatocellular carcinomas in association with ?-catenin expression; this might represent a subtype of hepatocellular carcinoma with hepatic progenitor cell differentiation. PMID:23134771

Lee, Chung-Ta; Zhang, Lizhi; Mounajjed, Taofic; Wu, Tsung-Teh

2012-11-05

359

Identification of amacrine and ganglion cells in the carp retina.  

PubMed Central

1. Amacrine and ganglion cells in the carp retina were identified from such criteria as photoresponses, intracellular dye staining, responses to optic nerve stimulation and behaviour to a synapse blocking agent. 2. Responses of ganglion cells were accompanied by spike discharges., either facilitated or suppressed by photic stimulation. The cells were also invaded by antidromic impulses, which survived after chemical synapses had been blocked by application of atomized CoCl2 solution. In subsequent histology of the Procion-stained neurones, the cell bodies were found in the ganglion cell layer and the axons were often traced. 3. Amacrine cells were subdivided into two types. The first type gave rise to transient depolarizations at both on- and offsets of spot and annulus illuminations, usually being associated with spike discharges of which the amplitudes varied in different cells. In histology, the cell bodies of this type were situated in the inner nuclear layer and dendrites ramified in two or more discrete sublayers of the inner plexiform layer (the stratified amacrine cell of Cajal). 4. The second type of amacrine cells produced sustained responses during illumination, being associated with no spike but with small oscillatory wavelets. The cell bodies were situated in the inner nuclear layer and the dendrites ramified in a single sublayer of the inner plexiform layer (the monolayered amacrine cell). 5. An attempt was made to see the effect of activation of centrifugal fibres on amacrine cells, but almost all of about 200 cells examined did not respond to optic nerve stimulation. Only two cells produced, with long latency, a small post-synaptic depolarization which disappeared after chemical synapses in the retina had been blocked. It is considered that the physiological role of the centrifugal system is insignificant in the carp retina. Images Plate 2 Plate 3 Plate 4 Plate 1

Murakami, M; Shimoda, Y

1977-01-01

360

Physiological and biochemical investigations on egg stickiness in common carp.  

PubMed

The properties and behaviour of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, eggs in water and in ovarian fluids were studied at different temperature, pH, and with divalent cation concentrations. The biochemical composition of zona radiata externa (ZRE) was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively on amino acids, carbohydrates, uronic acid and sialic acids using chemical assays; on proteins using electrophoresis. Comparative biochemical studies were performed on the chub, Leuciscus cephalus, the vimba, Vimba vimba and the bleak, Chalcalburnus chalcoides. Eggs of common carp became sticky within seconds after mixing with water. Egg stickiness was not affected by water pH in a range of 6-9, by water temperatures between 4 and 30 degrees C, by divalent cations in concentrations < or =20 mmol/l, and by sodium chloride concentrations < or =50 mmol/l. Our investigations indicated that specific proteins of the cyprinid ovarian fluid are controlling (inhibiting) the initiation of egg stickiness: egg stickiness did not develop as long as the eggs were incubated in ovarian fluid. When however the ovarian fluid proteins were removed from the ovarian fluid by heat treatment, eggs developed stickiness within seconds, like they do in water. Biochemically, the ZRE consisted of nine types of proteins whereby four of them were glycoproteins. Glucose, fructose, galactose, and uronic acids were the major carbohydrates. Treatment of the egg membrane with invertase or amyloglucosidase did not affect the egg stickiness. Treatment with protease prevented stickiness. From these results and from additional histochemical results, we conclude that glycoproteins are likely to be the molecules responsible for stickiness. PMID:18938050

Mansour, N; Lahnsteiner, F; Patzner, R A

2008-09-12

361

Structure, organization and expression of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) SLP-76 gene.  

PubMed

SLP-76 is an important member of the SLP-76 family of adapters, and it plays a key role in TCR signaling and T cell function. Partial cDNA sequence of SLP-76 of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) was isolated from thymus cDNA library by the method of suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Subsequently, the full length cDNA of carp SLP-76 was obtained by means of 3' RACE and 5' RACE, respectively. The full length cDNA of carp SLP-76 was 2007 bp, consisting of a 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 285 bp, a 3'-terminal UTR of 240 bp, and an open reading frame of 1482 bp. Sequence comparison showed that the deduced amino acid sequence of carp SLP-76 had an overall similarity of 34-73% to that of other species homologues, and it was composed of an NH2-terminal domain, a central proline-rich domain, and a C-terminal SH2 domain. Amino acid sequence analysis indicated the existence of a Gads binding site R-X-X-K, a 10-aa-long sequence which binds to the SH3 domain of LCK in vitro, and three conserved tyrosine-containing sequence in the NH2-terminal domain. Then we used PCR to obtain a genomic DNA which covers the entire coding region of carp SLP-76. In the 9.2k-long genomic sequence, twenty one exons and twenty introns were identified. RT-PCR results showed that carp SLP-76 was expressed predominantly in hematopoietic tissues, and was upregulated in thymus tissue of four-month carp compared to one-year old carp. RT-PCR and virtual northern hybridization results showed that carp SLP-76 was also upregulated in thymus tissue of GH transgenic carp at the age of four-months. These results suggest that the expression level of SLP-76 gene may be related to thymocyte development in teleosts. PMID:18353678

Huang, Rong; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Wei; Wang, Ya-Ping; Guo, Qiong-Lin

2007-11-05

362

Effects of the “all-fish” GH (growth hormone) transgene expression on resistance to Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infections in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken on the susceptibility of the F4 generation of “all-fish” growth hormone transgenic carp, Cyprinus carpio L., against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infections. When 1-year old, transgenic carp, with non-transgenic carp and non-manipulated carp (controls) were split into three batches, and experimental infections were performed throughout the 3-month period. All 72 fish were successfully infected. It was shown that

Fei Ling; Qing Luo; Jian-Guo Wang; Ya-Ping Wang; Wen-Bo Wang; Xiao-Ning Gong

2009-01-01

363

No evidence of sperm conjugate formation in an Australian mouse bearing sperm with three hooks  

PubMed Central

Sperm conjugation occurs when two or more sperm physically unite for motility or transport through the female reproductive tract. In many muroid rodent species, sperm conjugates have been shown to form by a single, conspicuous apical hook located on the sperm head. These sperm “trains” have been reported to be highly variable in size and, despite all the heads pointing in roughly the same direction, exhibit a relatively disordered arrangement. In some species, sperm “trains” have been shown to enhance sperm swimming speed, and thus have been suggested to be advantageous in sperm competition. Here, we assessed the behavior of sperm in the sandy inland mouse (Pseudomys hermannsburgensis), a muroid rodent that bears sperm with three apical hooks. First, we accrued genetic evidence of multiple paternity within “wild” litters to unequivocally show that sperm competition does occur in this species. Following this we utilized both in vitro and in vivo methodologies to determine whether sandy inland mouse sperm conjugate to form motile trains. Our observations of in vitro preparations of active sperm revealed that sandy inland mouse sperm exhibit rapid, progressive motility as individual cells only. Similarly, histological sections of the reproductive tracts of mated females revealed no in vivo evidence of sperm conjugate formation. We conclude that the unique, three-hooked morphology of the sandy inland mouse sperm does not facilitate the formation of motile conjugates, and discuss our findings in relation to the different hypotheses for the evolution of the muroid rodent hook/s.

Firman, Renee C; Bentley, Blair; Bowman, Faye; Marchant, Fernando Garcia-Solis; Parthenay, Jahmila; Sawyer, Jessica; Stewart, Tom; O'Shea, James E

2013-01-01

364

No evidence of sperm conjugate formation in an Australian mouse bearing sperm with three hooks.  

PubMed

Sperm conjugation occurs when two or more sperm physically unite for motility or transport through the female reproductive tract. In many muroid rodent species, sperm conjugates have been shown to form by a single, conspicuous apical hook located on the sperm head. These sperm "trains" have been reported to be highly variable in size and, despite all the heads pointing in roughly the same direction, exhibit a relatively disordered arrangement. In some species, sperm "trains" have been shown to enhance sperm swimming speed, and thus have been suggested to be advantageous in sperm competition. Here, we assessed the behavior of sperm in the sandy inland mouse (Pseudomys hermannsburgensis), a muroid rodent that bears sperm with three apical hooks. First, we accrued genetic evidence of multiple paternity within "wild" litters to unequivocally show that sperm competition does occur in this species. Following this we utilized both in vitro and in vivo methodologies to determine whether sandy inland mouse sperm conjugate to form motile trains. Our observations of in vitro preparations of active sperm revealed that sandy inland mouse sperm exhibit rapid, progressive motility as individual cells only. Similarly, histological sections of the reproductive tracts of mated females revealed no in vivo evidence of sperm conjugate formation. We conclude that the unique, three-hooked morphology of the sandy inland mouse sperm does not facilitate the formation of motile conjugates, and discuss our findings in relation to the different hypotheses for the evolution of the muroid rodent hook/s. PMID:23919134

Firman, Renée C; Bentley, Blair; Bowman, Faye; Marchant, Fernando García-Solís; Parthenay, Jahmila; Sawyer, Jessica; Stewart, Tom; O'Shea, James E

2013-05-20

365

Microtubule-dependent endosomal sorting of clathrin-independent cargo by Hook1  

PubMed Central

Many plasma membrane (PM) proteins enter cells nonselectively through clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE). Here, we present evidence that cytoplasmic sequences in three CIE cargo proteins—CD44, CD98, and CD147—were responsible for the rapid sorting of these proteins into endosomal tubules away from endosomes associated with early endosomal antigen 1 (EEA1). We found that Hook1, a microtubule- and cargo-tethering protein, recognized the cytoplasmic tail of CD147 to help sort it and CD98 into Rab22a-dependent tubules associated with recycling. Depletion of Hook1 from cells altered trafficking of CD44, CD98, and CD147 toward EEA1 compartments and impaired the recycling of CD98 back to the PM. In contrast, another CIE cargo protein, major histocompatibility complex class I, which normally traffics to EEA1 compartments, was not affected by depletion of Hook1. Loss of Hook1 also led to an inhibition of cell spreading, implicating a role for Hook1 sorting of specific CIE cargo proteins away from bulk membrane and back to the PM.

Maldonado-Baez, Lymarie; Cole, Nelson B.; Kramer, Helmut

2013-01-01

366

The history and evolution of surgical instruments. VII. Spring forceps (tweezers), hooks and simple retractors.  

PubMed Central

Instruments manufactured by bending a basic metal strip or rod, either about its middle to create spring forceps (tweezers), or towards one extremity to create hooks and retractors are related structures. Spring forceps depend on tension mediated at the bend (hoop) or fixed end which is transmitted as dynamic 'spring' to the jaws, whereas the bend of hooks and retractors remains fixed and static. If such instruments refine the digital postures of pinch, pincer and retraction during surgery, they have not supplanted these manual actions entirely. After a brief historical introduction, the structure, modifications, functions and controls of spring forceps are analysed. Importantly, this instrument enjoys both right and left-handed functions, some of which are ancient, some transient as haemostats and needle-holders, and some, including left-handed dissection, surprisingly recent. Hooks are sharp or blunt and, among other functions, pre-date the left-handed spring forceps for dissection; in general hooks function as retractors. Hand-held retractors are enlarged blunt hooks, the wide retracting contact surface reducing trauma to wound margins and viscera. The physical effort of employing these retractors deep in body cavities is abated by applying them autostatically around a square or circular frame. Images Figure 1

Kirkup, J.

1996-01-01

367

Gap compression/extension mechanism of bacterial flagellar hook as the molecular universal joint.  

PubMed

Bacterial flagellar hook acts as a molecular universal joint, transmitting torque produced by the flagellar basal body, a rotary motor, to the flagellar filament. The hook forms polymorphic supercoil structures and can be considered as an assembly of 11 circularly arranged protofilaments. We investigated the molecular mechanism of the universal joint function of the hook by a approximately two-million-atom molecular dynamics simulation. On the inner side of the supercoil, protein subunits are highly packed along the protofilament and no gaps remain for further compression, whereas subunits are slightly separated and are hydrogen bonded through one layer of water molecules on the outer side. As for the intersubunit interactions between protofilaments, subunits are packed along the 6-start helix in a left-handed supercoil whereas they are highly packed along the 5-start helix in a right-handed supercoil. We conclude that the supercoiled structures of the hook in the left- and right-handed forms make maximal use of the gaps between subunits, which we call "gap compression/extension mechanism". Mutual sliding of subunits at the subunit interface accompanying rearrangements of intersubunit hydrogen bonds is interpreted as a mechanism to allow continuous structural change of the hook during flagellar rotation at low energy cost. PMID:17142059

Furuta, Tadaomi; Samatey, Fadel A; Matsunami, Hideyuki; Imada, Katsumi; Namba, Keiichi; Kitao, Akio

2006-10-20

368

The flowerpiercers' hook: an experimental test of an evolutionary trade-off.  

PubMed

The evolution of features that enhance an organism's performance in one activity can adversely affect its performance in another. We used an experimental approach to document a trade-off associated with the evolution of the long hook at the tip of the bill of birds belonging to the genus Diglossa (flowerpiercers). In Diglossa, the more derived flower-robbing nectarivorous species have maxillae (upper jaws) that terminate in enlarged curved hooks. The ancestral frugivorous species have maxillae with relatively small hooks. We mimicked bill evolution by clipping the terminal bill hook of nectarivorous Cinnamon-bellied Flowerpiercers (Diglossa baritula) to resemble the frugivorous condition. We found that birds with experimentally shortened bills ingested fruit more efficiently, but had a reduced ability to rob flowers. Birds with intact bills, by contrast, were good flower robbers but poor frugivores. The evolution of a hooked bill endowed flowerpiercers with the ability to efficiently pierce flowers and extract nectar, but hindered their efficiency to feed on fruit. PMID:12590760

Schondube, Jorge E; Martinez del Rio, Carlos

2003-01-22

369

Asymptotic Structure in the Classically Forbidden Region of the Hooke's Atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two-electron Hooke's atom — a quantum mechanical system with two electrons bound in a harmonic potential — is well known for its exact analytical properties at certain oscillator strengths. The Hooke's atoms with more than two electrons offer more scope for valuable practical applications. In this work, we study the asymptotic structure of these Hooke's atoms in the classically forbidden region. The leading-order term of the long-range expression for the KS exchange-correlation potential vxc(r) is shown to be ?1/r. The second and third higher order terms are also exactly obtained. Various components of vxc(r) are also studied. It is shown that the leading term of O(1/r) in vxc(r) is due to the pure Pauli correlation, while the leading contribution of the Coulomb correlation is of O(1/r3). Neither of them makes contribution to the term of O(1/r2), which is shown to be solely due to the kinetic correlation effect. Results for the two-electron Hooke's atom were obtained before in the literature. Our results reduce to those of the two-electron Hooke's atom as a special case.

Wang, Xue-Mei

2013-05-01

370

The flowerpiercers' hook: an experimental test of an evolutionary trade-off.  

PubMed Central

The evolution of features that enhance an organism's performance in one activity can adversely affect its performance in another. We used an experimental approach to document a trade-off associated with the evolution of the long hook at the tip of the bill of birds belonging to the genus Diglossa (flowerpiercers). In Diglossa, the more derived flower-robbing nectarivorous species have maxillae (upper jaws) that terminate in enlarged curved hooks. The ancestral frugivorous species have maxillae with relatively small hooks. We mimicked bill evolution by clipping the terminal bill hook of nectarivorous Cinnamon-bellied Flowerpiercers (Diglossa baritula) to resemble the frugivorous condition. We found that birds with experimentally shortened bills ingested fruit more efficiently, but had a reduced ability to rob flowers. Birds with intact bills, by contrast, were good flower robbers but poor frugivores. The evolution of a hooked bill endowed flowerpiercers with the ability to efficiently pierce flowers and extract nectar, but hindered their efficiency to feed on fruit.

Schondube, Jorge E; Martinez del Rio, Carlos

2003-01-01

371

Microtubule-dependent endosomal sorting of clathrin-independent cargo by Hook1.  

PubMed

Many plasma membrane (PM) proteins enter cells nonselectively through clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE). Here, we present evidence that cytoplasmic sequences in three CIE cargo proteins-CD44, CD98, and CD147-were responsible for the rapid sorting of these proteins into endosomal tubules away from endosomes associated with early endosomal antigen 1 (EEA1). We found that Hook1, a microtubule- and cargo-tethering protein, recognized the cytoplasmic tail of CD147 to help sort it and CD98 into Rab22a-dependent tubules associated with recycling. Depletion of Hook1 from cells altered trafficking of CD44, CD98, and CD147 toward EEA1 compartments and impaired the recycling of CD98 back to the PM. In contrast, another CIE cargo protein, major histocompatibility complex class I, which normally traffics to EEA1 compartments, was not affected by depletion of Hook1. Loss of Hook1 also led to an inhibition of cell spreading, implicating a role for Hook1 sorting of specific CIE cargo proteins away from bulk membrane and back to the PM. PMID:23589492

Maldonado-Báez, Lymarie; Cole, Nelson B; Krämer, Helmut; Donaldson, Julie G

2013-04-15

372

Allelic discrimination, three-dimensional analysis and gene expression of multiple transferrin alleles of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

We cloned and sequenced four different transferrin (Tf) alleles (C, D, F and G) of European common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio L.) and studied allelic diversity with respect to differences in sequence, constitutive transcription and three-dimensional structure. Most of the disulfide bonds were conserved between human and carp Tf, and modeling confirmed the overall conservation of the three-dimensional structure of carp Tf. While the iron-binding sites in the C-lobe of carp Tf were completely conserved, in the N-lobe the majority of iron-coordinating residues were not conserved. This may have a serious impact on the ability of carp Tf to bind iron with both the C- and N-lobe. In contrast to human Tf, we could not detect potential N-glycosylation sites in carp Tf, which does not seem to be a glycoprotein. Comparison of the cDNA of the four Tf alleles of carp indicated 21 polymorphic sites of which 13 resulted in non-synonymous changes. Allelic diversity did not seem to influence the overall conservation of carp Tf. Neither the iron binding sites nor the receptor binding of carp Tf seemed influenced by allelic diversity. Possibly, interaction with pathogen-associated receptors for Tf could be influenced by allelic diversity. Basal gene expression of Tf alleles D and G was especially high in carp liver. Although we could detect a higher transcription level of allele D than of Tf allele G in head kidney, thymus and spleen, the differences seem minor with respect to the very high transcription level in liver. Preliminary results with Tf-typed serum suggest a difference in the ability of Tf alleles D and G to modulate LPS-induced NO production in carp macrophages. PMID:18824109

Jurecka, Patrycja; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Westphal, Adrie H; Forlenza, Maria; Arts, Joop A J; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Wiegertjes, Geert F

2008-09-12

373

A Tale of Four "Carp": Invasion Potential and Ecological Niche Modeling  

PubMed Central

Background Invasive species are a serious problem in ecosystems, but are difficult to eradicate once established. Predictive methods can be key in determining which areas are of concern regarding invasion by such species to prevent establishment [1]. We assessed the geographic potential of four Eurasian cyprinid fishes (common carp, tench, grass carp, black carp) as invaders in North America via ecological niche modeling (ENM). These “carp” represent four stages of invasion of the continent (a long-established invader with a wide distribution, a long-established invader with a limited distribution, a spreading invader whose distribution is expanding, and a newly introduced potential invader that is not yet established), and as such illustrate the progressive reduction of distributional disequilibrium over the history of species' invasions. Methodology/Principal Findings We used ENM to estimate the potential distributional area for each species in North America using models based on native range distribution data. Environmental data layers for native and introduced ranges were imported from state, national, and international climate and environmental databases. Models were evaluated using independent validation data on native and invaded areas. We calculated omission error for the independent validation data for each species: all native range tests were highly successful (all omission values <7%); invaded-range predictions were predictive for common and grass carp (omission values 8.8 and 19.8%, respectively). Model omission was high for introduced tench populations (54.7%), but the model correctly identified some areas where the species has been successful; distributional predictions for black carp show that large portions of eastern North America are at risk. Conclusions/Significance ENMs predicted potential ranges of carp species accurately even in regions where the species have not been present until recently. ENM can forecast species' potential geographic ranges with reasonable precision and within the short screening time required by proposed U.S. invasive species legislation.

DeVaney, Shannon C.; McNyset, Kristina M.; Williams, Justin B.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Wiley, Edward O.

2009-01-01

374

Effects of gustatory stimulants upon the olfactory epithelium of the bullfrog and the carp.  

PubMed

Effects of various gustatory stimulants upon the olfactory spithelia were examined in the olfactory bulb of the bullfrog and the carp. 1. The olfactory epithelia of the two animals responded to the salty, bitter- and acid-tasting substances, but not to the sweet ones. 2. The olfactory epithelium of the bullfrog responded immediately to sodium solutions of high concentrations (the "initial response"), but the response to those of low concentrations showed long latency (the "delayed response"). In the carp, the "initial response" was found, while the "delayed response" was not in most cases. A "negative" delayed response was found only infrequently. 3. Responses only to high alkali or acid solutions were found in the two animals. 4. When 0.05 M NaCl was added to HCl solutions, an enhancing effect was found in the bullfrog, while a reducing effect occurred in the carp. On the contrary, when 0.05 M NaCl was added to NaOH solutions, an enhancing effect occurred in the carp, while no consistent result was founding the bullfrog. 5. Many amino acids were effective stimuli in the bullfrog, but only betaine and 1-aspartic acid were found effective in the carp. 6. Changes in temperatures beyond 35 degrees C or under 10 degrees C elicited responses. Mechanical stimuli were effective in the carp, but not in the bullfrog. 7. The "water response" was found in the bullfrog, but not in the carp. 8. Sensitivities of the olfactory epithelia of the two animals were compared and discussed. PMID:308564

Takagi, S F; Iino, M; Yarita, H

1978-01-01

375

Hook3 interacts with PCM1 to regulate pericentriolar material assembly and the timing of neurogenesis  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Centrosome functions are important in multiple brain developmental processes. Proper functioning of the centrosome relies on assembly of protein components into the pericentriolar material. This dynamic assembly is mediated by the trafficking of pericentriolar satellites, which are comprised of centrosomal proteins. Here we demonstrate that trafficking of pericentriolar satellites requires the interaction between Hook3 and Pericentriolar Material 1 (PCM1). Hook3, previously shown to link the centrosome and the nucleus in C. elegans, is recruited to pericentriolar satellites through interaction with PCM1, a protein associated with schizophrenia. Disruption of the Hook3-PCM1 interaction in vivo impairs interkinetic nuclear migration, a featured behavior of embryonic neural progenitors. This in turn leads to overproduction of neurons and premature depletion of the neural progenitor pool in the developing neocortex. These results underscore the importance of centrosomal assembly in neurogenesis, and provide potential insights into the etiology of brain developmental diseases related to the centrosome dysfunction.

Ge, Xuecai; Frank, Christopher L.; de Anda, Froylan Calderon; Tsai, Li-Huei

2010-01-01

376

Selective Breeding of Carp and Intensification of Fish Breeding in Ponds (Selektsiya Karpa I Voprosy Intensifikatsii Prudovogo Rybovodstva).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume contains articles on various problems of pond pisciculture. The first section is devoted to the genetics and selection of carp. The primary aim of this collection is to state the theoretic principles of carp selection. Several articles deal wi...

V. S. Kirpichnikov

1966-01-01

377

Preferential feeding on high quality diets decreases methyl mercury of farm-raised common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

This study on aquaculture ponds investigated how diet sources affect methyl mercury (MeHg) bioaccumulation of the worldwide key diet fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio). We tested how MeHg concentrations of one and two year-old pond-raised carp changed with different food quality: a) zooplankton (natural pond diet), b) cereals enriched with vegetable oil (VO ponds), and c) compound feeds enriched with marine fish oils (FO ponds). It was hypothesized that carp preferentially feed on supplementary diets with the highest biochemical quality (FO diet over VO diets over zooplankton). Although MeHg concentrations were highest in zooplankton of FO ponds, MeHg concentrations of carp were clearly lower in FO ponds (17–32 ng g? 1 dry weight) compared to the reference (40–46 ng g? 1 dry weight) and VO ponds (55–86 ng g? 1 dry weight). Stable isotope mixing models (?13C, ?15N) indicated selective feeding of carp on high quality FO diets that caused MeHg concentrations of carp to decrease with increasing dietary proportions of supplementary FO feeds. Results demonstrate that carp selectively feed on diets of highest biochemical quality and strongly suggest that high diet quality can reduce MeHg bioaccumulation in farm-raised carp.

Schultz, Sebastian; Vallant, Birgit; Kainz, Martin J.

2012-01-01

378

Response of zooplankton to the reduction and elimination of submerged vegetation by grass carp and herbicide in four Florida lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zooplankton populations were monitored monthly for a three year period in four Florida lakes. Each lake received an aquatic vegetation control program using grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) and herbicide, either alone or in combination. All aquatic vegetation was eliminated in the three lakes with grass carp; it was severely reduced and exhibited qualitative shifts in the lake treated with

David I. Richard; James W. Small; John A. Osborne

1985-01-01

379

Identification of immune genes in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in response to infection of the parasitic copepod Sinergasilus major  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parasitic copepod Sinergasilus major is an important pathogen of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. To understand the immune response of grass carp to the copepod infection, suppression subtractive hybridization method was employed to characterize genes up-regulation during the copepod infection in liver and gills of the fish. One hundred and twenty-two dot blot positive clones from infected subtracted library were

M. X. Chang; P. Nie; G. Y. Liu; Y. Song; Q. Gao

2005-01-01

380

Anaesthetic properties of Propiscin (Etomidaat) and 2-phenoxyethanol in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), neural and behavioural measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to evaluate the anaesthetic effects of Propiscin (2% etomidate) and 2-phenoxyethanol on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) by observing neural and behavioural measures. When exposed to the anaesthetic agent, the carp lost equilibrium after approximately 90 s of exposure. They did not breathe and the controls did not respond to tail pinch or prick

Bert Lambooij; Maciek Pilarczyk; Henrik Bialowas; Henny Reimert; G. Andre; Vis van de J. W

2009-01-01

381

Gel properties of surimi from silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) as affected by heat treatment and soy protein isolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of setting conditions and soy protein isolate (SPI) on textural properties of surimi produced from silver carp were investigated. Effects of setting temperature, setting time and protein concentration on the gel strength were evaluated and compared utilizing response surface methodology. Models for breaking force and breaking distance of silver carp surimi were established. The total protein content was

Yongkang Luo; Huixing Shen; Daodong Pan; Guanhao Bu

2008-01-01

382

Oxidative Stress Biomarkers are Modulated in Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val.) Exposed to Microcystin-Producing Cyanobacterial Water Bloom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bláha L., R. Kopp, K. ·imková, J. Mare‰: Oxidative Stress Biomarkers are Modulated in Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val.) Exposed to Microcystin-Producing Cyanobacterial Water Bloom. Acta Vet Brno 2004, 73: 477-482. In the present paper we evaluated the effects of natural toxic cyanobacterial water bloom on oxidative stress biomarkers in silver carp. Modulations of reduced gluthatione (GSH), an important cellular

L. BLÁHA; R. KOPP; J. MARE

383

Effects of Primary Exposure to Environmental and Natural Estrogens on Vitellogenin Production in Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Hepatocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitellogenin (vtg) is a precursor of the yolk proteins lipovitelline and phosvitin and is synthesized as a consequence of estrogen-depen- dent gene expression in female and male hepatocytes of egg-laying vertebrates. Freshly isolated carp hepatocytes of a genetically uni- form strain of adult male carp (Cyprinus carpio) were used to inves- tigate the effects of primary exposure to estrogenic compounds

T. Rouhani Rankouhi; I. van Holsteijn; R. Letcher; J. P. Giesy; M. van den Berg

2002-01-01

384

Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.  

PubMed

In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided. PMID:23472178

Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Lodge, David M; Hunter, Margaret E; Nico, Leo G

2013-03-05

385

Comparative genomics in cyprinids: common carp ESTs help the annotation of the zebrafish genome  

PubMed Central

Background Automatic annotation of sequenced eukaryotic genomes integrates a combination of methodologies such as ab-initio methods and alignment of homologous genes and/or proteins. For example, annotation of the zebrafish genome within Ensembl relies heavily on available cDNA and protein sequences from two distantly related fish species and other vertebrates that have diverged several hundred million years ago. The scarcity of genomic information from other cyprinids provides the impetus to leverage EST collections to understand gene structures in this diverse teleost group. Results We have generated 6,050 ESTs from the differentiating testis of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and clustered them with 9,303 non-gonadal ESTs from CarpBase as well as 1,317 ESTs and 652 common carp mRNAs from GenBank. Over 28% of the resulting 8,663 unique transcripts are exclusively testis-derived ESTs. Moreover, 974 of these transcripts did not match any sequence in the zebrafish or fathead minnow EST collection. A total of 1,843 unique common carp sequences could be stringently mapped to the zebrafish genome (version 5), of which 1,752 matched coding sequences of zebrafish genes with or without potential splice variants. We show that 91 common carp transcripts map to intergenic and intronic regions on the zebrafish genome assembly and regions annotated with non-teleost sequences. Interestingly, an additional 42 common carp transcripts indicate the potential presence of new splicing variants not found in zebrafish databases so far. The fact that common carp transcripts help the identification or confirmation of these coding regions in zebrafish exemplifies the usefulness of sequences from closely related species for the annotation of model genomes. We also demonstrate that 5' UTR sequences of common carp and zebrafish orthologs share a significant level of similarity based on preservation of motif arrangements for as many as 10 ab-initio motifs. Conclusion Our data show that there is sufficient homology between the transcribed sequences of common carp and zebrafish to warrant an even deeper cyprinid transcriptome comparison. On the other hand, the comparative analysis illustrates the value in utilizing partially sequenced transcriptomes to understand gene structure in this diverse teleost group. We highlight the need for integrated resources to leverage the wealth of fragmented genomic data.

Christoffels, Alan; Bartfai, Richard; Srinivasan, Hamsa; Komen, Hans; Orban, Laszlo

2006-01-01

386

Visitor and Community Survey Results for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge: Completion Report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Executive Summary This study was commissioned by the Northeast Region of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in support of the Comprehensive Conservation Planning at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge (Prime Hook NWR or Refuge). The National Wildlife Refuge Improvement Act of 1997 (Public Law 105-57, USC668dd) mandates a Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) for every refuge in the system. A refuge CCP outlines goals, objectives, and management strategies for all refuge programs over the next 15 years, while providing opportunities for compatible, wildlife-dependent public uses. The plan evaluates refuge wildlife, habitat, land protection, and visitor service priorities during the planning process.

Sexton, Natalie R.; Stewart, Susan C.; Koontz, Lynne; Ponds, Phadrea; Walters, Katherine D.

2007-01-01

387

(2 + 1)D exotic Newton-Hooke symmetry, duality and projective phase  

SciTech Connect

A particle system with a (2 + 1)D exotic Newton-Hooke symmetry is constructed by the method of nonlinear realization. It has three essentially different phases depending on the values of the two central charges. The subcritical and supercritical phases (describing 2D isotropic ordinary and exotic oscillators) are separated by the critical phase (one-mode oscillator), and are related by a duality transformation. In the flat limit, the system transforms into a free Galilean exotic particle on the noncommutative plane. The wave equations carrying projective representations of the exotic Newton-Hooke symmetry are constructed.

Alvarez, Pedro D. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Casilla 307, Santiago 2 (Chile)]. E-mail: pd.alvarez.n@gmail.com; Gomis, Joaquim [Deparment ECM, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, E-08028 (Spain)]. E-mail: gomis@ecm.ub.es; Kamimura, Kiyoshi [Department of Physics, Toho University, Funabashi 274-8510 (Japan)]. E-mail: kamimura@ph.sci.toho.u.ac.jp; Plyushchay, Mikhail S. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Casilla 307, Santiago 2 (Chile)]. E-mail: mplyushc@lauca.usach.cl

2007-07-15

388

The function of statolith-hair and free-hook-hair receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Single statolith-hair and free-hook-hair receptors were studied in isolated parts of the statocyst of the crabScylla serrata.2.Upon deflection of single hairs the responses of the statolith-hair and free-hook-hair receptors are essentially similar. The receptors have a phasic-tonic response pattern (Figs. 5B and 12), a fan-shaped directionality (Figs. 3, 8B and 11), and their stimulus-response plots saturate (Figs. 6 and 13).3.Statolith

C. Janse

1980-01-01

389

Historic Resource Study, the Sandy Hook Defenses, 1857-1948, Gateway National Recreation Area, New York and New Jersey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This historic resource study (a) provides management with a documented history of the Sandy Hook Defenses from 1857 to 1948; (b) evaluates the significance of the Sandy Hook Defenses to the United States during these years; (c) identifies and evaluates st...

E. C. Bearss

1983-01-01

390

33 CFR 334.102 - Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel, restricted area...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal...DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.102 Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and...

2010-07-01

391

33 CFR 334.102 - Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel, Restricted Area...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 3 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal...DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.102 Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and...

2009-07-01

392

The hooked element in the pes of turtles (Testudines): a global approach to exploring primary and secondary homology.  

PubMed

The hooked element in the pes of turtles was historically identified by most palaeontologists and embryologists as a modified fifth metatarsal, and often used as evidence to unite turtles with other reptiles with a hooked element. Some recent embryological studies, however, revealed that this element might represent an enlarged fifth distal tarsal. We herein provide extensive new myological and developmental observations on the hooked element of turtles, and re-evaluate its primary and secondary homology using all available lines of evidence. Digital count and timing of development are uninformative. However, extensive myological, embryological and topological data are consistent with the hypothesis that the hooked element of turtles represents a fusion of the fifth distal tarsal with the fifth metatarsal, but that the fifth distal tarsal dominates the hooked element in pleurodiran turtles, whereas the fifth metatarsal dominates the hooked element of cryptodiran turtles. The term 'ansulate bone' is proposed to refer to hooked elements that result from the fusion of these two bones. The available phylogenetic and fossil data are currently insufficient to clarify the secondary homology of hooked elements within Reptilia. PMID:24102560

Joyce, Walter G; Werneburg, Ingmar; Lyson, Tyler R

2013-09-15

393

Feasibility of an implantable capsule for limiting lifespan of grass carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an herbivorous cyprinid stocked to control undesirable aquatic vegetation. However, stocking grass carp presents several problems including complete eradication of submersed aquatic vegetation, dispersal out of the target area, adverse effects on fish communities, and damage to waterfowl habitat and native vegetation. The purpose of this research was to consider the feasibility of an implantable capsule for limiting the lifespan of grass carp. Stainless steel dowel pins were inserted into 49 fish to identify the most appropriate site to implant the capsule. The throat region along the body's longitudinal axis was identified as the most suitable location because it resulted in minimal loss over an 8-month holding period. Rotenone solutions were injected into the ventral surface between the pelvic fins to determine the lethal dosage to 95% of the population (LD 95). The LD95 for grass carp increased curvilin-early with fish weight. Four polymers that merit further evaluation in constructing the capsule are poly[bis(p-carboxyphenoxy) propane anhydride], poly[bis(p- carboxyphenoxy) hexane anhydride], poly-1-lactide, and poly(??-caprolactone) . Implants are commonly used to deliver pharmaceutical products in medical and veterinarian applications, and have been used in fish. Developing a bioerodible capsule could increase the safety and flexibility of stocking grass carp for control of aquatic plants, and may also be applicable for management of other exotic species.

Thomas, R. M.; Miranda, L. E.; Kirk, J. P.

2006-01-01

394

[An investigation of metazoan parasites of common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in Lake Eber, Afyon, Turkey.].  

PubMed

In this study, metazoan parasites of the following fish species were investigated in Lake Eber (Afyon) from July 2002-2003. At the end of this research, 2 species of Monogenea (Gyrodactylus elegans, Dactylogyrus extensus) were found on the gills and fins of the fishes; 1 species of Digenea (Posthodiplostomum cuticola), on skin and fins; 1 species of Cestoda (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) in the intestines; and 1 species of Arthropoda (Argulus foliaceus), the skin, gills and fins of fish. The distribution of these parasites in various fish species are given below: The distribution of these parasites are as follows: 3456 Gyrodactylus elegans in 51 specimens of common carp (67.1% prevalence, 67.75+/-162.52 parasite/fish); 2980 Dactylogyrus extensus (73.6%, 53.21+/-52.95) in 56 specimens of common carp; 55 Posthodiplostomum cuticola (18.4%, 3.93+/-5.42) in 14 specimens of common carp; 1240 Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (43.4%, 37.55+/-53.98) in 33 specimens of common carp and 6 Argulus foliaceus (6.5%, 1.20+/-0.44); in 5 specimens of common carp. PMID:17160824

Oztürk, M O?uz

2005-01-01

395

Microsatellite genetic diversity and differentiation of native and introduced grass carp populations in three continents  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater species native to China, has been introduced to about 100 countries/regions and poses both biological and environmental challenges to the receiving ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation in grass carp from three introduced river systems (Mississippi River Basin in US, Danube River in Hungary, and Tone River in Japan) as well as its native ranges (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur Rivers) in China using 21 novel microsatellite loci. The allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, and within-population gene diversity were found to be lower in the introduced populations than in the native populations, presumably due to the small founder population size of the former. Significant genetic differentiation was found between all pairwise populations from different rivers. Both principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed obvious genetic distinction between the native and introduced populations. Interestingly, genetic bottlenecks were detected in the Hungarian and Japanese grass carp populations, but not in the North American population, suggesting that the Mississippi River Basin grass carp has experienced rapid population expansion with potential genetic diversification during the half-century since its introduction. Consequently, the combined forces of the founder effect, introduction history, and rapid population expansion help explaining the observed patterns of genetic diversity within and among both native and introduced populations of the grass carp.

Chapman, Duane C.; Chen, Qin;Wang, Chenghui; Zhao, Jinlian ;Lu, Guoqing; Zsigmond, Jeney; Li, Sifa

2012-01-01

396

Microsatellite genetic diversity and differentiation of native and introduced grass carp populations in three continents.  

PubMed

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater species native to China, has been introduced to about 100 countries/regions and poses both biological and environmental challenges to the receiving ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation in grass carp from three introduced river systems (Mississippi River Basin in US, Danube River in Hungary, and Tone River in Japan) as well as its native ranges (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur Rivers) in China using 21 novel microsatellite loci. The allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, and within-population gene diversity were found to be lower in the introduced populations than in the native populations, presumably due to the small founder population size of the former. Significant genetic differentiation was found between all pairwise populations from different rivers. Both principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed obvious genetic distinction between the native and introduced populations. Interestingly, genetic bottlenecks were detected in the Hungarian and Japanese grass carp populations, but not in the North American population, suggesting that the Mississippi River Basin grass carp has experienced rapid population expansion with potential genetic diversification during the half-century since its introduction. Consequently, the combined forces of the founder effect, introduction history, and rapid population expansion help explaining the observed patterns of genetic diversity within and among both native and introduced populations of the grass carp. PMID:22740170

Chen, Qin; Wang, Chenghui; Lu, Guoqing; Zhao, Jinliang; Chapman, Duane C; Zsigmond, Jeney; Li, Sifa

2012-06-28

397

Black carp growth hormone gene transgenic allotetraploid hybrids of Carassius auratus red var. (?)×Cyprinus carpio (?).  

PubMed

Ecological safety is a major consideration in the commercialization of transgenic fish. Development of sterile transgenic triploid fish through hybridization of transgenic tetraploid fish and transgenic diploid fish is a feasible way to solve this problem. The "all-fish" transgene, pbcAbcGHc, containing the black carp ?-actin gene promoter and the open reading frame (ORF) of the black carp growth hormone (GH) gene was constructed and introduced into fertilized eggs of allotetraploid fish through microinjection. Contrast cultivation results showed that the growth rate of 150 day-old P(0) black carp GH gene transgenic allotetraploid fish was much higher than that of controls. Sixty 150 day-old transgenic allotetraploid fish were assayed by PCR for transgene integration and 90% of fish were positive for the transgene. The transgene was detected in 13 of 20 sperm samples from male transgenic allotetraploid fish. RT-PCR detected transcription of the exogenous black carp GH gene in the muscle, liver, kidney and ovaries of the largest transgenic allotetraploid fish. This study has developed P(0) black carp GH gene transgenic allotetraploid fish with a highly increased growth rate, which provides a solid foundation for the establishment of a pure line of transgenic allotetraploid fish and for the large scale production of sterile transgenic triploid fish. PMID:21809038

Feng, Hao; Fu, Yongming; Luo, Jian; Wu, Hui; Liu, Yun; Liu, Shaojun

2011-08-01

398

Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of coagulation factor VII gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).  

PubMed

Coagulation factor VII has been studied in several species but, to date, not in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a commercially important freshwater fish found in China. In this study, the full-length cDNA of grass carp coagulation factor VII (GcCFVII) was cloned using a RACE-Ready cDNA Kit, grass carp were challenged with a hemorrhagic virus, and temporal expression profiles of GcCFVII in the thymus, gills, liver, spleen, and head kidney were examined at 0 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h, and 138 h using fluorescence quantitative PCR. The results showed the 1480 bp GcCFVII to contain three conservative motifs: Gla, EGF-CA, and Tryp-SPc, similar to other species. Phylogenetic analysis showed the evolution of GcCFVII gene to be consistent with the evolution of the species. After viral challenge, GcCFVII expression in five tissues of grass carp showed different patterns of fluctuation. These results provide a solid basis for further investigation of GcCFVII and its relationship with grass carp hemorrhage. PMID:23727283

Liu, Qiaolin; Xu, Baohong; Xiao, Tiaoyi; Su, Jianming; Zhong, Lei

2013-05-28

399

[Percutaneous management of osseous avulsions of extensor tendons and lateral ligaments of the fingers with the hooked wire].  

PubMed

A new method of percutaneous treatment of some fractures of the fingers is being described. With the use of a magnification table, fitted onto the X-ray intensifier, evulsion fractures of extensor tendons or collateral ligaments can be reduced and fixed by means of a K-wire. After insertion, the end of the wire is being bent in the shape of a hook ("wire hook"), into which a pull-out wire is inserted. By anchoring the wire-hook at the opposite side of the finger under tension, the fragment is held in position by the hook. After four weeks the wire-hook is cut below its anchorage and can easily be removed by the pull-out wire. Technique and results of 85 patients are being presented. PMID:3750560

Ender, H G; Hintringer, W

1986-06-01

400

Studies on resistance characteristic and cDNA sequence conservation of transferrin from crucian carp, Carassius auratus.  

PubMed

Transferrin (Tf) is a kind of non-heme beta-globulin with two iron ions (Fe(3+))-binding sites. To prove Tf's physiological functions, Fe(3+)-proteins, serum iron contents, and total iron-binding capabilities were tested for Tfs of crucian carps (Carassius auratus) and sliver carps (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). The above results demonstrated that sliver carps shared 1/3 Tf alleles with crucian carps; Tf of crucian carps had stronger Fe(3+)-binding ability and transportation ability in plasma than that of sliver carps. In addition, the results of oxygen consumption experiments indicated that crucian carps had the higher oxygen utility rate than sliver carps. For acute hypoxia exposure assay, normoxic gas mixture, hypoxic gas mixture A, and hypoxic gas mixture B were used to induce oxygen-regulated gene expression of crucian carps in acute hypoxia. The results of quantitative real-time PCR revealed that mRNA levels of Tf gene, Tfr gene and ATPase gene were down-regulated in acute hypoxia but mRNA level of LDHa gene was up-regulated in acute hypoxia. The results of crucian carp Tf-cDNA sequence analysis showed that cDNA regions of two Fe(3+)-binding sites were T(747)-T(1026) and T(1737)-A(1884) based on the principle of bioinformatics. The sequence conservation of two Fe(3+)-binding sites was higher than that of the other five regions, which were confirmed according to the subregion model of Tf-cDNA sequence. PMID:17646932

Long, Hua; Yu, Qi-Xing

2007-07-24

401

Erudituncus N. GEN. (Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae) With a Redescription of E. Musteli (Yamaguti, 1952) N. Comb. and Comments on its Hook Homologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of type and new material of Platybothrium musteli Yamaguti, 1952, resulted in the erection of a new genus, Erudituncus, the new combination Erudituncus musteli (Yamaguti, 1952), and the redescription of the newly combined species. This species exhibits novel hook morphology. Each bothridium bears 2 pairs of hooks, the axial pair comprising 1 medial and 1 lateral bipronged hook and

Claire J. Healy; Tomás Scholz; J. N. Caira

2001-01-01

402

Autoradiographic localization of gonadotrophin receptors in ovaries of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

SciTech Connect

Binding sites for carp gonadotrophin have been located in carp ovaries using (/sup 125/I)labeled gonadotrophin and autoradiography. The radioactive gonadotrophin was displaced from tissue by unlabeled gonadotrophin or carp hypophysial homogenate in a dose-dependent fashion. No binding of gonadotrophin was found in previtellogenic oocytes but binding appeared with the first indications of vitellogenesis. In the smaller vitellogenic oocytes binding was uniformly distributed in the follicular envelope, but in the largest oocytes binding was restricted to the interstitial tissue. In these more mature oocytes gonadotrophin was also found within the oocyte and appeared to migrate toward the nucleus. The relationship between binding location, steroidogenesis, and oocyte maturation is discussed. We found no evidence for specific binding of (/sup 125/I)thyroxine under comparable conditions.

Bieniarz, K.; Kime, D.E.

1986-10-01

403

Mortalities induced by the copepod Sinergasilus polycolpus in farmed silver and bighead carp in a reservoir.  

PubMed

The frequency distributions of the parasitic copepod Sinergasilus polycolpus were examined in silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis during a disease outbreak of the 2 species of fish in a reservoir in China. The mean abundance of the copepod was positively related with host length and age, and the overdispersion of the copepod in both silver and bighead carp was fitted well with negative binomial distribution. Although parasite-induced host mortality was observed, a peaked age-parasite abundance curve was not detected in the present parasite-host system. It is also proposed that this peaked age-abundance curve is unlikely to be observed in its natural host populations. PMID:12033711

Wang, Gui T; Li, Wen X; Yao, Wei J; Nie, P

2002-04-01

404

Cloning and preliminary functional studies of the JAM-A gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).  

PubMed

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is a very important aquaculture species in China and other South-East Asian countries; however, disease outbreaks in this species are frequent, resulting in huge economic losses. Grass carp hemorrhage caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is one of the most serious diseases. Junction adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) is the mammalian receptor for reovirus, and has been well studied. However, the JAM-A gene in grass carp has not been studied so far. In this study, we cloned and elucidated the structure of the JAM-A gene in grass carp (GcJAM-A) and then studied its functions during grass carp hemorrhage. GcJAM-A is composed of 10 exons and 9 introns, and its full-length cDNA is 1833 bp long, with an 888 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a 295 amino acid protein. The GcJAM-A protein is predicted to contain a typical transmembrane domain. Maternal expression pattern of GcJAM-A is observed during early embryogenesis, while zygote expression occurs at 8 h after hatching. GcJAM-A is expressed strongly in the gill, liver, intestine and kidney, while it is expressed poorly in the blood, brain, spleen and head kidney. Moreover, lower expression is observed in the gill, liver, intestine, brain, spleen and kidney of 30-month-old individuals, compared with 6-month-old. In a GcJAM-A-knockdown cell line (CIK) infected with GCRV, the expression of genes involved in the interferon and apoptosis pathways was significantly inhibited. These results suggest that GcJAM-A could be a receptor for GCRV. We have therefore managed to characterize the GcJAM-A gene and provide evidence for its role as a receptor for GCRV. PMID:23542603

Du, Fukuan; Su, Jianguo; Huang, Rong; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

2013-03-27

405

Binational ecological risk assessment of bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) for the Great Lakes Basin.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bigheaded carps (Bighead and Silver carps) are considered a potential threat to the Great Lakes basin. A binational ecological risk assessment was conducted to provide scientifically defensible advice for managers and decision-makers in Canada and the United States. This risk assessment looked at the likelihood of arrival, survival, establishment, and spread of bigheaded carps to obtain an overall probability of introduction. Arrival routes assessed were physical connections and human-mediated releases. The risk assessment ranked physical connections (specifically the Chicago Area Waterway System) as the most likely route for arrival into the Great Lakes basin. Results of the risk assessment show that there is enough food and habitat for bigheaded carp survival in the Great Lakes, especially in Lake Erie and productive embayments in the other lakes. Analyses of tributaries around the Canadian Great Lakes and the American waters of Lake Erie indicate that there are many suitable tributaries for bigheaded carp spawning. Should bigheaded carps establish in the Great Lakes, their spread would not likely be limited and several ecological consequences can be expected to occur. These consequences include competition for planktonic food leading to reduced growth rates, recruitment and abundance of planktivores. Subsequently this would lead to reduced stocks of piscivores and abundance of fishes with pelagic, early life stages. Overall risk is highest for lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie, followed by Lake Ontario then Lake Superior. To avoid the trajectory of the invasion process and prevent or minimize anticipated consequences, it is important to continue to focus efforts on reducing the probability of introduction of these species at either the arrival, survival, establishment, or spread stage (depending on location).

Cudmore, B.; Mandrak, N. E.; Dettmers, J.; Chapman, D. C.; Kolar, C. S.

2012-01-01

406

Gene structure, recombinant expression and functional characterization of grass carp leptin.  

PubMed

Leptin is an important hormone for the regulation of food intake, energy expenditure and reproduction in mammals, but information regarding its role in teleosts remains scant. In the present study, the gene structures of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) leptins were characterized. Recombinant grass carp leptin (rgc-LEP) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified, and identified by mass spectrometric analysis. A strong anorexic effect on food intake was observed in grass carp on the first day after intraperitoneal (IP) injection of rgc-LEP, but not during the following days. Body weight of the leptin group (LEP group) and the pair-fed group (PF group) showed no difference throughout the experimental period. The acute and chronic effects on the expression of key genes correlating to food intake, energy expenditure, lipid metabolism and digestion were further characterized by real-time PCR. Accordingly, the mRNA levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY), Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) were significantly reduced whereas the mRNA levels of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), bile salt-activated lipase (BSAL) and fatty acid elongase (ELO) were significantly elevated on the first day after injection. No effect on the expression of these genes (except LPL) was observed on day 13. In contrast to the down-regulation by exogenous leptin in mammals, the mRNA level of grass carp leptin was elevated 5.76-fold on the first day after rgc-LEP treatment. Our results suggest that leptin has an acute effect on the regulation of food intake, energy expenditure and lipid metabolism in grass carp, but the effect can be rapidly counteracted through mechanisms that are currently unknown. PMID:19857495

Li, Guan-Gui; Liang, Xu-Fang; Xie, Qiuling; Li, Guangzhao; Yu, Ying; Lai, Kaaseng

2009-10-24

407

Phytodegradation of the triphenylmethane dye Malachite Green mediated by cell suspension cultures of Blumea malcolmii Hook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell cultures of Blumea malcolmii Hook., developed in the laboratory, rapidly decolorized textile industry effluent along with a variety of dyes with diverse structural properties. Most rapid decolorization was observed in case of Malachite Green (93.41% decolorization within 24h). The cells were capable of tolerating and degrading high concentrations of the dye, thus making them remarkable systems for phytoremediation studies.

Anuradha N. Kagalkar; Mital U. Jadhav; Vishwas A. Bapat; Sanjay P. Govindwar

2011-01-01

408

LCP distal ulna hook plate as alternative fixation for fifth metatarsal base fracture.  

PubMed

Intramedullary screw fixation is the most common treatment for fifth metatarsal base fractures. Screw application does not achieve accurate reduction in fracture with small fragments, osteoporotic bone, or Lawrence zone 1 fractures, however. On the basis of similar anatomical architectures between the distal ulna and the fifth metatarsal base, the purpose of this study was to assess the results of a locking compression plate (LCP) distal ulna hook plate in stabilizing displaced zone 1 or 2 fifth metatarsal base fractures. Nineteen patients with Lawrence zone 1 (n = 12) or 2 (n = 7) fractures of the fifth metatarsal base were treated surgically with an LCP distal ulna hook plate. The patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically, and functional outcomes were graded by using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) midfoot scoring system. Radiographic bony union was obtained in all patients, at an average of 7.4 weeks. The mean AOFAS midfoot score improved from 26 (range, 0-45) preoperatively to 94 (range, 72-100) points at the final follow-up. There were three patients with post-traumatic cubometatarsal arthrosis and one patient with sural nerve neuropraxia. In our experience, the distal ulna hook plate achieves a high rate of bony consolidation and anatomically suitable fixation in zone 1 or 2 fifth metatarsal base fractures. We also suggest that the LCP distal ulna hook plate should be considered as an alternative treatment in multifragmentary, osteoporotic, and tuberosity avulsion (zone 1) fifth metatarsal base fractures. PMID:23412193

Lee, Sang Ki; Park, Ju Sang; Choy, Won Sik

2012-08-22

409

Assessing College Students' Autonomy over Smoking with the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective, Participants, and Methods: In this study, the authors explored the psychometric properties of the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC) among 300 college students who were current smokers. The HONC is a 10-item survey instrument designed to measure diminished autonomy over smoking, a key aspect of dependence. Autonomy is diminished when…

Wellman, Robert; McMillen, Robert; DiFranza, Joseph

2008-01-01

410

Latitude Hooks and Azimuth Kings: How To Build and Use 18 Traditional Navigational Tools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains directions for building and using 18 different traditional navigational tools. Each of the devices discussed has at one time or another been used for the practical business of navigation. Devices featured in this book include the Latitude Hook, Kamal, Astrolabe, Quadrant, Astronomical Ring, Sundial, Nocturnal, Cross Staff,…

Fisher, Dennis

411

Stabilization of acute, complete acromioclavicular joint dislocations with a new C hook implant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although coracoclavicular fixation is currently popular for type III acromioclavicular (AC) dislocations, a surgical gold standard is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the preliminary outcome of surgical treatment of complete AC dislocations with a new nitinol C hook implant. When the implant is cooled (

Jorma Ryhänen; Erkki Niemelä; Outi Kaarela; Timo Raatikainen

2003-01-01

412

Guardian Park: A History 1970-2003. Sandy Hook, Gateway National Recreation Area, National Park Service.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Guardian Park, located on Sandy Hook, New Jersey at the entrance to Fort Hancock, was the last monument added to Fort Hancock by the U.S. Army. It is named for the Nike Air Defense Missiles, which were the last 'guardians' of the New York Metropolitan Are...

E. Biddinger

2003-01-01

413

Sediment management at Sandy Hook, NJ: An interaction of science and public policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A century of human manipulation of sediment transport and sediment supply at Sandy Hook spit has generated an evolving suite of geomorphological responses and shoreline management approaches at this public coastal resource. Eventually a major erosion problem was created in a portion of the Gateway National Recreation Area knows as the “Critical Zone”, a location immediately downdrift of the end

Norbert P. Psuty; Jeffrey P. Pace

2009-01-01

414

Removal of non-palpable Implanon® with the aid of a hook-wire marker.  

PubMed

The original inserter of the contraceptive implant, Implanon®, resulted in very deep insertion in some cases, sometimes in close proximity to neurovascular structures. This occasionally resulted in removal complications. We successfully adopted a hook-wire marker method used in breast tumor surgery to safely and simply remove these deep-lying, non-palpable implants. PMID:23769014

Nouri, Kazem; Pinker-Domenig, Katia; Ott, Johannes; Fraser, Ian; Egarter, Christian

2013-05-15

415

A double standard for "Hooking Up": How far have we come toward gender equality?  

PubMed

While sexual attitudes have liberalized in the past half century, research is mixed as to whether attitudes have become less gendered over time. Recent studies on college students' sexual and romantic relationships suggest that a sexual double standard continues to organize sexuality on many campuses. Data from the Online College Social Life Survey shed light on students' evaluation of casual sex, or "hooking up." In addition to exploring gendered attitudinal patterns, we use gender structure theory to explore how individual characteristics and normative expectations of campus group affiliations shape attitudes. While three quarters of students do not hold different standards for men and women's hooking up, attitudes are more conservative than liberal, with almost half of students losing respect for men and women who hook up "a lot." However, men are more likely to hold a traditional double standard, while women are more likely to espouse egalitarian conservative attitudes. Individual characteristics, including age, religion, race, social class and sexual orientation are frequently related to sexual attitudes, as are number of hook ups, fraternity/sorority affiliation and varsity athletic participation. PMID:23859725

Allison, Rachel; Risman, Barbara J

2013-05-03

416

Hypovolemic shock and mortality after ingestion of Tripterygium wilfordii hook F.: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TWHF) is a kind of Chinese herbal medicine used for 2000 years. It was applied externally for treatment of arthritis and inflammatory tissue swelling in early years. Recently, this drug has been found to have immunosuppressive effects which could successfully induce remission of some autoimmune disorders without obvious adverse effects. Although there are side effects of

Wen-Chien Chou; Chau-Chung Wu; Pan-Chyr Yang; Yuan-Teh Lee

1995-01-01

417

Hooke and Jeeves based multilevel coordinate search to globally solving nonsmooth problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a derivative-free multilevel coordinate search (MCS) approach, that relies on the Hooke and Jeeves local search, for globally solving bound constrained optimization problems. Numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithm is effective in solving benchmark problems, when compared with the well-known solvers MCS and DIRECT.

Costa, M. Fernanda P.; Rocha, Ana Maria A. C.; Fernandes, Edite M. G. P.

2013-10-01

418

Scour downstream of J-Hook vanes in straight horizontal channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

J-Hook vanes are grade control structures used to stabilize the riverbed. This paper aims to investigate the behaviour of J-Hook vanes as a grade-control structure in straight rivers. Scour downstream of J-Hook vane structures like other grade-control structures depends on the shape of the structure and the river hydraulic conditions. The purpose of this study is classifying the scour geometry and predicting the main scour parameters such as the scour depth, length, width, and the ridge height and length downstream of the J-Hook vanes in straight rivers. Experiments were carried out in a horizontal channel. For each length of the structure, three heights in different hydraulic conditions, including densimetric Froude numbers, water drops, and opening ratios, were tested. Results show that the densimetric Froude number, the drop height, and the height of the structure are the key parameters to form and classify the scour. Equations have been derived using dimensional analysis and experimental data to predict the maximum scour depth, the maximum length of the scour, the maximum scour width, and the maximum height and length of the dune. All the experiments were conducted in clear water conditions.

Pagliara, Stefano; Kurdistani, Sahameddin M.; Santucci, Italo

2013-10-01

419

78 FR 25092 - Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Sussex County, DE; Record of Decision for Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...final CCP and environmental impact statement (EIS), which we...for both the biological and human environment. Alternative B...also best restore the natural ecology and hydrology of Prime Hook's...long-term benefits to neighboring human communities; and provide...

2013-04-29

420

Risk Factors and Consequences of Unwanted Sex among University Students: Hooked up, Alcohol, and Stress Response  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is the first study of unwanted sexual experiences in the collegiate "hooking-up" culture. In a representative sample of 178 students at a small liberal arts university. Twenty-three percent of women and 7% of men surveyed reported one or more experiences of unwanted sexual intercourse. Seventy-eight percent of unwanted vaginal, anal, and…

Flack, William F., Jr.; Daubman, Kimberly A.; Caron, Marcia L.; Asadorian, Jenica A.; D'Aureli, Nicole R.; Gigliotti, Shannon N.; Hall, Anna T.; Kiser, Sarah; Stine, Erin R.

2007-01-01

421

The Drosophila Sox Gene, fish-hook, Is Required for Postembryonic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Drosophila, the fish-hook (fish) gene encodes a Sox protein essential for embryonic segmentation and nervous system organization. In this study we examined potential functional roles of fish in postembryonic developmental processes, including those involved in adult appendage development. We show here that Fish protein is expressed in discrete patterns in the larval eye-antennal and leg imaginal discs, the central

Ashim Mukherjee; Xiaoliang Shan; Mousumi Mutsuddi; Yue Ma; John R Nambu

2000-01-01

422

Remarks on l-conformal extension of the Newton-Hooke algebra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The l-conformal extension of the Newton-Hooke algebra proposed in [J. Negro, M.A. del Olmo, A. Rodriguez-Marco, J. Math. Phys. 38 (1997) 3810] is formulated in the basis in which the flat space limit is unambiguous. Admissible central charges are specified. The infinite-dimensional Virasoro-Kac-Moody type extension is given.

Galajinsky, Anton; Masterov, Ivan

2011-08-01

423

Maintenance of Bay Ridge and Red Hook Channels, New York. Navigation Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The statement describes maintenance dredging of existing Federal channel in Bay Ridge and Red Hook, New York, to its authorized project dimensions. The work would be performed by hopper dredge with spoil disposal in the approved dumping grounds in the New...

1973-01-01

424

33 CFR 165.130 - Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey-security zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...130 Sandy Hook Bay, New Jerseyâsecurity zone...point. (b) Terminal Channel. The waters within the following boundaries...this section (Terminal Channel) instead of the rule...navigate outside the Terminal Channel, is approaching...Depot Piers at Leonardo, New Jersey....

2013-07-01

425

Induction motor electromagnetic design optimization: Hooke Jeeves method versus genetic algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of two optimal design methods, Hooke Jeeves and, respectively, genetic algorithms, are compared in terms of performance and computation time effort in an exercise design of induction machine for air conditioning drives in automotive applications. Both methods use a global cost function that could be balanced, between initial active material cost or their total weight and motor efficiency,

Lucian Tutelea; Ion Boldea

2010-01-01

426

76 FR 11961 - Safety Zone, Dredging Operations; Delaware River, Marcus Hook, PA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Dredging Operations; Delaware River, Marcus Hook, PA AGENCY: Coast...temporary safety zone on the waters of the Delaware River while the Dredge Pullen conducts...berth draft in this portion of the Delaware River. The dredging action will...

2011-03-04

427

Assessing supply and demand chain leagility according to Hooke's law for a single-agent scenario  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper supposes and presents an approach for evaluating the degree of leagility of supply and demand chains. Therefore the authors are modeling the supply and demand chain, using the cognitions and outcomes of Robert Hooke's law of elasticity, upon the similarities between springs and supply or demand chain echelons, basically founded on the mutual ability to connect, to adapt,

E. Muller; N. Nikoghosyan; A. Rutsch; C.-A. Schumann

2009-01-01

428

Research on Resilient Supply Chain on the Basis of Hooke's Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper focused on enterprise and industry level to analyze the resilience of supply chain and point out the resilience analysis thought based on Hooke's law. The analysis result is that the supply chain resilience at industry level is much better than enterprise level. The order of supply chain resilience at enterprise level is: cross expansion type, vertical expansion type,

Cheng Guoping; Zhu Xinqiu

2010-01-01

429

On the periodic orbits of perturbed Hooke Hamiltonian systems with three degrees of freedom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study periodic orbits of Hamiltonian differential systems with three degrees of freedom using the averaging theory. We have chosen the classical integrable Hamiltonian system with the Hooke potential and we study periodic orbits which bifurcate from the periodic orbits of the integrable system perturbed with a non-autonomous potential.

Llibre, Jaume; Mello, Luis Fernando

2012-05-01

430

IR Spectroscopy or Hooke's Law at the Molecular Level - A Joint Freshman Physics-Chemistry Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a laboratory activity appropriate for the college freshman studying general chemistry and general physics concurrently. The activity described is intended to unify for the student the topics of IR spectroscopy and Hooke's Law. This is accomplished by first working with springs and masses and then by acquiring and comparing the IR spectra of chloroform and chloroform-d. Using

Jeffrey T. Burke

1997-01-01

431

A 2ª Lei da Termodinâmica na formulação da Lei de Hooke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hooke's Law is analyzed taking the Second Law of Thermodynamics into consideration. It is shown that the energy of a spring isn't always ? k x2 - this value is actually the energy of the spring plus the energy of the atmosphere that surrounds it. On a quasi-isentropic aproximation in which the dynamic force is approximately the same as the

Rodrigo de Abreu

432

76 FR 36143 - Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Kent County, DE; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...other appropriate Federal laws and regulations, and our policies...procedures for compliance with those laws and regulations. Bombay Hook...diversity of birds. Popular attractions within the refuge include a...with State fish and wildlife laws and regulations. In...

2011-06-21

433

[Structure of scolex hooks and genosystematics of Triaenophorus nodulosus (Cestoda: pseudophyllidea) from the Baikal lake].  

PubMed

Data on a hook morphology (in plerocercoid and mature helminths) and gene systematics of Triaenophorus nodulosus from the Baikal Lake are presented for the first time. Sequence analysis of rDNA fragments (5'-end portion of 18S rDNA) yelded 562 nucleotid positions. PMID:11548588

Rusinek, O T; Kuznedelov, K D

434

Hooking up in Young Adulthood: A Review of Factors Influencing the Sexual Behavior of College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Hooking up, or casual "no strings attached" sexual encounters, has become the normative heterosexual relationship on college campuses. This phenomenon has only recently received public attention. Many citizens have become alarmed that this trend is indicative of moral decline in our culture, a reflection of our hypersexualized media, and a…

Stinson, Rebecca D.

2010-01-01

435

Laterally oscillated and force-balanced micro vibratory rate gyroscope supported by fish hook shape springs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new concept micro vibratory rate gyroscope supported by fish hook shape springs, where the oscillating position sensing and force balancing take place on the wafer surface, has been developed. The gyroscope consists of: a grid-type planar mass; LT shape position sense electrodes for detecting the Coriolis motion; pairs of force-balancing electrodes to improve the linearity and dynamic range; prominence

K. Y. Park; C. W. Lee; Y. S. Oh; Y. H. Cho

1997-01-01

436

Effects of clove oil anaesthesia on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to investigate acute toxicity of clove oil for common carp and, using values of haematological and biochemical profiles of blood and histological tissue examinations, to assess the effects of the fish exposure to that anaesthetic. Acute toxicity values of clove oil for carp were found 10 minLC50 74.3 mg\\/l; 10minLC0.1 51.6 mg\\/l; 10minLC99.9 110.1

J. VELISEK; Z. SVOBODOVA; V. PIACKOVA; L. GROCH; L. NEPEJCHALOVA

437

Variability of the magnetic moment of carbon monoxide hemoglobin from carp.  

PubMed Central

Deionized carp carbon monoxide hemoglobin in distilled water or in bis(2-hydroxyethyl)imino-tris(hydroxymethyl)methane or Tris buffer exhibits a slight but significant paramagnetism. This is most clearly demonstrated by the decrease in this paramagnetism that is caused by the addition of inositol hexaphosphate to this protein in the former buffer at pH 6.3-6.4. No such effect is seen when inositol hexaphosphate is added to carp cyanomethemoglobin, demonstrating that the change observed with carbon monoxide derivative is not due to a modification in the diamagnetic properties of the protein.

Cerdonio, M; Morante, S; Vitale, S; De Young, A; Noble, R W

1980-01-01

438

Characterization of Common Carp Transcriptome: Sequencing, De Novo Assembly, Annotation and Comparative Genomics  

PubMed Central

Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquaculture species of Cyprinidae with an annual global production of 3.4 million tons, accounting for nearly 14% of the freshwater aquaculture production in the world. Due to the economical and ecological importance of common carp, genomic data are eagerly needed for genetic improvement purpose. However, there is still no sufficient transcriptome data available. The objective of the project is to sequence transcriptome deeply and provide well-assembled transcriptome sequences to common carp research community. Result Transcriptome sequencing of common carp was performed using Roche 454 platform. A total of 1,418,591 clean ESTs were collected and assembled into 36,811 cDNA contigs, with average length of 888 bp and N50 length of 1,002 bp. Annotation was performed and a total of 19,165 unique proteins were identified from assembled contigs. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were performed and classified all contigs into functional categories for understanding gene functions and regulation pathways. Open Reading Frames (ORFs) were detected from 29,869 (81.1%) contigs with an average ORF length of 763 bp. From these contigs, 9,625 full-length cDNAs were identified with sequence length from 201 bp to 9,956 bp. Comparative analysis revealed that 27,693(75.2%) contigs have significant similarity to zebrafish Refseq proteins, and 24,371(66.2%), 24,501(66.5%) and 25,025(70.0%) to teraodon, medaka and three-spined stickleback refseq proteins. A total of 2,064 microsatellites were initially identified from 1,730 contigs, and 1,639 unique sequences had sufficient flanking sequences on both sides for primer design. Conclusion The transcriptome of common carp had been deep sequenced, de novo assembled and characterized, providing the valuable resource for better understanding of common carp genome. The transcriptome data will facilitate future functional studies on common carp genome, and gradually apply in breeding programs of common carp, as well as closely related other Cyprinids.

Ji, Peifeng; Liu, Guiming; Xu, Jian; Wang, Xumin; Li, Jiongtang; Zhao, Zixia; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen

2012-01-01

439

Myosin heavy chain genes expressed in juvenile and adult silver carp Hypopthalmichthys molitrix: novel fast-type myosin heavy chain genes of silver carp.  

PubMed

Silver carp Hypopthalmichthys molitrix is eurythermal temperate fish, whose muscle is considered to express several types of myosin heavy chain (MYH) genes at different stages of its growth and to adjust to the environmental temperature. In this study, MYH genes expressed in the muscles of juvenile and adult silver carp were investigated. Five types of MYH cDNA clone were isolated from silver carp (H. molitrix) by RACE strategy using a set of fast-type MYH specific primers, and termed scMYH(F1), scMYH(F2), scMYH(F3), scMYH(F4) and scMYH(F5) in the order of their abundance in cDNA libraries constructed from fast skeletal muscles of adult silver carp. scMYH(F1), scMYH(F3) and scMYH(F5) showed high nucleotide sequence identities of 96, 98 and 96% to gcMYH(F30), gcMYH(F10) and gcMYH(FI), respectively, that encode MYHs predominantly expressed in fast skeletal muscle of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) acclimated to 30, 10 and 20 degrees C, respectively. scMYH(F2) and scMYH(F4) showed a high identity to A4-type MYH from rock cod (Notothenia coriiceps) slow skeletal muscle. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that scMYH(F1) and scMYH(F5) were monophyletic with fish adult fast-type MYHs, whereas scMYH(F2) and scMYH(F4) formed a cluster with fish slow-like fast-type MYH, and scMYH(F3) did with fish embryonic fast-type MYHs. Interestingly, juvenile silver carp predominantly expressed scMYH(F3) irrespective of acclimation temperatures at 10, 18 or 26 degrees C. The comparison among scMYH(F1), scMYH(F2) and scMYH(F3) in the deduced amino acid sequence revealed that the putative binding sites for ATP, actin, and essential and regulatory light chains in myosin subfragment-1 (S1) have high identities with each other (81-100%). However, their loop-1 and loop-2 regions in S1 were highly variable, suggesting their different functions. The deduced amino acid sequences of myosin subfragment-2 and L-meromyosin showed high identities of 90-91% and 86-90%, respectively, among the above three scMYHs. PMID:19100315

Fukushima, Hideto; Ikeda, Daisuke; Tao, Yan; Watabe, Shugo

2008-12-03

440

Antigenic analysis of grass carp reovirus using single-chain variable fragment antibody against IgM from Ctenopharyngodon idella.  

PubMed

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an important species of freshwater aquaculture fish in China. However, grass carp reovirus (GCRV) can cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in yearling populations. Until now, a strategy to define the antigenic capacity of the virus's structural proteins for preparing an effective vaccine has not been available. In this study, some single-chain variable fragment antibodies (scFv), which could specifically recognize grass carp IgM, were selected from a constructed mouse naïve antibody phage display cDNA library. The identified scFv C1B3 clone was shown to possess relatively higher specific binding activity to grass carp IgM. Furthermore, ELISA analysis indicated that the IgM level in serum from virus-infected grass carp was more than two times higher than that of the control group at 5-7 days post infection. Moreover, Western blot analysis demonstrated that the outer capsid protein VP7 has a specific immuno-binding-reaction with the serum IgM from virus-infected grass carp. Our results suggest that VP7 can induce a stronger immune response in grass carp than the other GCRV structural proteins, which implies that VP7 protein could be used as a preferred immunogen for vaccine design. PMID:23314868

Chen, CongLin; Sun, XiaoYun; Liao, LanJie; Luo, ShaoXiang; Li, ZhouQuan; Zhang, XiaoHua; Wang, YaPing; Guo, QionLin; Fang, Qin; Dai, HePing

2013-01-12

441

Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp in North Croatia after the Chernobyl accident.  

PubMed

Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carp decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of (137)Cs was estimated to be about 1 year during 1987-2002 and 5 years during 1993-2005. The observed (134)Cs:(137)Cs activity ratio in carp was found to be similar to the ratio observed in other environmental samples. The concentration factor for carp (wet weight) was estimated to be 128+/-74 Lkg(-1), which is in reasonable agreement with model prediction based on K(+) concentrations in water. Estimated annual effective dose received by adult members of the Croatian population due to consumption of carp contaminated with (134)Cs and (137)Cs are small: per capita dose from this source during 1987-2005 was estimated to be 0.5+/-0.2 microSv. Due to minor freshwater fish consumption in Croatia and low radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp, it can be concluded that carp consumption was not a critical pathway for the transfer of radiocaesium from fallout to humans after the Chernobyl accident. PMID:17343962

Frani?, Zdenko; Marovi?, Gordana

2007-03-06

442

A Dense Genetic Linkage Map for Common Carp and Its Integration with a BAC-Based Physical Map  

PubMed Central

Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquaculture species with an annual global production of 3.4 million metric tons. It is also an important ornamental species as well as an important model species for aquaculture research. To improve the economically important traits of this fish, a number of genomic resources and genetic tools have been developed, including several genetic maps and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based physical map. However, integrated genetic and physical maps are not available to study quantitative trait loci (QTL) and assist with fine mapping, positional cloning and whole genome sequencing and assembly. The objective of this study was to integrate the currently available BAC-based physical and genetic maps. Results The genetic map was updated with 592 novel markers, including 312 BAC-anchored microsatellites and 130 SNP markers, and contained 1,209 genetic markers on 50 linkage groups, spanning 3,565.9 cM in the common carp genome. An integrated genetic and physical map of the common carp genome was then constructed, which was composed of 463 physical map contigs and 88 single BACs. Combined lengths of the contigs and single BACs covered a physical length of 498.75 Mb, or around 30% of the common carp genome. Comparative analysis between common carp and zebrafish genomes was performed based on the integrated map, providing more insights into the common carp specific whole genome duplication and segmental rearrangements in the genome. Conclusion We integrated a BAC-based physical map to a genetic linkage map of common carp by anchoring BAC-associated genetic markers. The density of the genetic linkage map was significantly increased. The integrated map provides a tool for both genetic and genomic studies of common carp, which will help us to understand the genomic architecture of common carp and facilitate fine mapping and positional cloning of economically important traits for genetic improvement and modification.

Ji, Peifeng; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Zixia; Hou, Guangyuan; Huo, Linhe; Liu, Guiming; Li, Chao; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen

2013-01-01

443

Isolation and analysis of a novel grass carp toll-like receptor 4 (tlr4) gene cluster involved in the response to grass carp reovirus.  

PubMed

The mammalian response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is mainly mediated by Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4). Fish and mammalian TLR4 vary; fish TLR4 ligands are unknown. Isolation of fish tlr4 genes is difficult due to their complex genomic structure. Three bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones containing grass carp tlr4 were obtained. Four tlr4 genes, with a varied genomic structure and different protein domains were subsequently isolated by constructing a subcloned library and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The four tlr4 genes were expressed during development from 12h post-fertilization, in all healthy adult fish tissues tested, and significantly increased in grass carp reovirus (GCRV)-infected liver and muscle, suggesting the tlr4 genes play a role in GCRV infection. This study effectively separated each gene in the tlr4 gene cluster, implies that grass carp TLR4 proteins have different ligand recognition specificities to mammalian TLRs, and provides information on the functional evolution of TLRs. PMID:22721904

Huang, Rong; Dong, Feng; Jang, Songhun; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

2012-06-18

444

Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), sport fishes, and water quality: Ecological thresholds in agriculturally eutrophic lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined fish populations, limnological conditions, lake basin morphology and watershed characteristics to evaluate patterns in population characteristics of ecologically important fish species in relation to environmental conditions in agriculturally eutrophic lake systems. Fish populations and environmental characteristics were sampled from 129 Iowa lakes using standard techniques from 2001–2006. Lakes with high catch rates of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) had

Zachary J. Jackson; Michael C. Quist; John A. Downing; Joseph G. Larscheid

2010-01-01

445

Creating an Optimal Environment for Fish in Space - A Study Involving KOI CARP in Microgravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the course of two ESA parabolic flight campaigns, koi carps (Cyprinus carpio) have been observed and tested in microgravity. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge on how to create the best possible environment for fish in microgravity. We are at a stage in history where the thought of longer human space flights, to Mars and beyond,

B. G. B. Solheim; M. Pettersson

2002-01-01

446

Selective breeding of quantitative traits in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio): a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common carp is one of the main aquaculture species in the world. Despite this, most of the production is carried out using unselected strains. Selective breeding for fast growth has not proven to be effective in this species, but other traits (disease resistance, shape) could be successfully selected for. Most heritability estimates in the literature are unreliable due to

Marc Vandeputte

2003-01-01

447

Effectiveness of Praziquantel Bath Treatments against Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in Grass Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many states ban the importation of fish infected with the Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Treatment with an effective tapeworm parasiticide prior to shipment would allow fish to be imported that might otherwise be rejected. In this study, extended praziquantel bath treatments of infected grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella were tested to determine their efficacy against Asian tapeworms. Preliminary praziquantel treatments of

Andrew J. Mitchell

2004-01-01

448

Biological Control of Aquatic Pest Snails by the Black Carp Mylopharyngodon piceus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some freshwater snail species are severe pests to human health or agriculture. We tested the hypothesis that the fish Mylopharyngodon piceus, the black carp, may serve as a biological control agent of two pest snails, Physella acuta (a bank-dwelling snail) and Melanoides tuberculata (a substratum-dwelling snail). Experiments were carried out in the laboratory and under controlled field conditions. In the

Frida Ben-Ami; Joseph Heller

2001-01-01

449

Invasive potential of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) and Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) in American freshwater systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonnative fish introductions disrupt ecosystem processes and can drive native species to local extinction. Two of the most widespread, introduced species are the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Eurasia and the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from Africa. In North and South America, these introductions stem from aquaculture facilities, as well as historical introductions for recreational angling. An emergent field of

Luis Zambrano; Enrique Martínez-Meyer; Naercio Menezes; A. Townsend Peterson

2006-01-01

450

Isolation and characterization of beta-actin gene of carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

A beta-actin gene of carp (Cyprinus carpio) was isolated from a genomic EMBL3 library. The nucleotide sequence of the gene indicates six exons spanning 3.6 kb. Southern blot hybridization of restriction endonuclease digests of carp genomic DNA indicate that there are two copies of the beta-actin isotype and several other species of actin genes. The transcriptional start site is 85 bp and 24 bp downstream respectively from consensus CCAAT and TATA promoter elements. The organization of the carp beta-actin gene is identical to that of chicken, human, and rat genes in terms of size, exon/intron locations and junctions and in having a translationally silent first exon. The fish gene is 90% and 99% conserved at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively, with land vertebrate beta-actin genes. Northern blot analysis of beta-actin gene expression indicated that the gene is highly expressed in brain, less so in muscle, and much less so in liver cells. The putative beta-actin proximal promoter of carp, identified by the conservation of known actin regulatory sequences, is transcriptionally active in both mammalian and piscine cells. PMID:2134183

Liu, Z J; Zhu, Z Y; Roberg, K; Faras, A; Guise, K; Kapuscinski, A R; Hackett, P B

1990-01-01

451

MONTHLY VARIATION IN SPERM MOTILITY IN COMMON CARP ASSESSED USING COMPUTER-ASSISTED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA)  

EPA Science Inventory

Sperm motility variables from the milt of the common carp Cyprinus carpio were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system across several months (March-August 1992) known to encompass the natural spawning period. Two-year-old pond-raised males obtained each mo...

452

Hypoxia and recovery perturb free radical processes and antioxidant potential in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of hypoxia exposure and subsequent normoxic recovery on the levels of lipid peroxides (LOOH), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), carbonylproteins, total glutathione levels, and the activities of six antioxidant enzymes were measured in brain, liver, kidney and skeletal muscle of the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Hypoxia exposure (25% of normal oxygen level) for 5h generally decreased the levels

Volodymyr I. Lushchak; Tetyana V. Bagnyukova; Oleh V. Lushchak; Janet M. Storey; Kenneth B. Storey

2005-01-01

453

Effects of gas supersaturation on lethality and avoidance responses in juvenile rock carp (Procypris rabaudi Tchang)*  

PubMed Central

Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effects of total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation on acute lethality and avoidance responses in juvenile rock carp (Procypris rabaudi Tchang). The juvenile rock carp were exposed to water with different levels of supersaturation (105%, 115%, 120%, 125%, 130%, 135%, 140%, and 145%) and depth of 0.20 m at 25 °C for 60 h. Median lethal time (LT50) was used to assess the lethal responses corresponding to different levels of gas supersaturation. The results show that half of the juvenile rock carp died at the 120%, 125%, 130%, 135%, 140%, and 145% levels of supersaturation, and the LT50 corresponding to different levels of supersaturation was 18.7, 15.4, 8.2, 6.6, 3.5, and 1.7 h. When the level of supersaturated water is below 115%, the mortality is negligible. Avoidance responses were observed 5 min after the fish were put into equilibrated water (99%, 0.08 m deep) and water with different supersaturated levels (105%, 115%, 125%, 135%, and 145%, 0.08 m deep) at 25 °C. The fish exhibited strong avoidance responses in supersaturated water when the gas supersaturation was above 135%. However, they exhibited an obvious preference to supersaturated water when the gas supersaturation was below 115%. Thus, the juvenile rock carp can likely survive in water with a supersaturated level of 115%.

Huang, Xiang; Li, Ke-feng; Du, Jun; Li, Ran

2010-01-01

454

Proceedings of the Grass Carp Symposium Held at Gainesville, Florida on March 7-9,1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A symposium was held in Gainesville on March 7-9, 1994, to discuss the effects of stocking grass carp for aquatic plant control. The purpose of the workshop was to provide information related to the concern for habitat protection and the suitability of us...

1994-01-01

455

THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF PRAZIQUANTEL TO GRASS CARP AND GOLDEN SHINERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Acute praziquantel toxicity and no observable effect concentrations (NOEC), were determined in the laboratory for grass carp and golden shiners, two commercially raised cyprinids known to harbor Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Praziquantel is an anthelmintic used to treat fish with ta...

456

Control of water weeds by grass carp in two small lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.), 4–6 years old and weighing more than 2 kg, were incrementally stocked over a 3 year period at rates between 14 and 218 kg. ha in two small lakes. Preferential consumption of plants was recorded at low stocking densities; the aquatic species Potamogeton ochreatus and the emergent species Eleocharis sphacelata were the most palatable

C. P. Mitchell

1980-01-01

457

Expression of grass carp growth hormone by baculovirus in silkworm larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of five recombinant Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis viruses (BMNPV) carrying the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) growth hormone (GH) cDNA were constructed in this study. Two of them were able to express the hormone up to a level of 12 ?g\\/ml medium when cultured B. mori cells were infected for 4 days. Inoculation of the viruses into silkworm (B.

W. K. K. Ho; Z. Q. Meng; H. R. Lin; C. T. Poon; Y. K. Leung; K. T. Yan; N. Dias; A. P. K. Che; J. Liu; W. M. Zheng; Y. Sun; A. O. L. Wong

1998-01-01

458

Reproduction of Carp, Smallmouth Buffalo, and River Carpsucker in Elephant Butte Lake.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to control smallmouth buffalo, river carpsucker, and carp by commercial harvest, the three species must be managed as a group. A decline in one population allows an increase in another, because the habitat becomes more suitable as interspecific c...

R. Padilla

1972-01-01

459

The Diel Activity of Crucian Carp, Carassius Carassius, in Relation to Chemical Cues from Predators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical cues from piscivorous fish and prey alarm substances often cause rapid fright responses in prey. However little is known of how piscivore-related chemical cues affect prey behaviour over periods longer than a few hours. Here we have investigated how chemical cues from piscivorous northern pike, Esox lucius, affect habitat choice and diel activity of crucian carp, Carassius carassius, over

Lars B. Pettersson; Kent Andersson; Kristian Nilsson

2001-01-01

460

Nutritional Composition and Use of Common Carp Muscle in Yellow Perch Diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

High market demand for marine fish meals coupled with increasing costs and questionable sustainability of wild stocks have led researchers to investigate a variety of alternative plant and animal protein sources for aquaculture feeds. Our objective was to evaluate the use of common carp Cyprinus carpio, a locally abundant, nonnative fish species, to offset the cost of marine fish meal

Travis W. Schaeffer; Matthew J. Hennen; Michael L. Brown; Kurt A. Rosentrater

2012-01-01

461

Artificial Neural Network for Production of Antioxidant Peptides Derived from Bighead Carp Muscles with Alcalase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Controlled enzymatic modification proteins are currently being used as good sources of bioactive protein ingredients, and hydrolysates derived from bighead carp muscles may serve as antioxidants through the control of the processing-related parameters. The antiox- idant ability was evaluated with regard to the scavenging effect on free radical DPPH·, OH· and O2 ·- . Due to the robustness, fault

Lin Li; Jinshui Wang; Mouming Zhao; Chun Cui; Yueming Jiang

462

Effect of Different Feed Ingredients on the Growth of Caged Common Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

To know the effect of four different fish feed, nine months old common carp about 47 g size were stocked at the stocking density of 12 fish m -3 in the cages and cultured in Lake Phewa for 175 days. Four different feed ingredients used were fish meal + soybean + oil cake + rice bran + wheat flour, fish

Ash K Rai; Jaya D Bista

463

ACCUMULATION FACTORS FOR ALKYLPHENOLS AND ALKYLPHENOL ETHOXYLATES IN CARP FROM THE CUYAHOGA RIVER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Accumulation of a pollutant by fish depends on a number of factors. The exposure pathways are critical as are the properties of the chemical and the life habits of the fish. All of these factors appeared to affect how carp accumulate APEs in this study. Alkylphenols are ranked as moderately bioa...

464

Characterization of a pattern recognition molecule vitellogenin from carp ( Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pattern recognition proteins function in innate immune responses by binding to molecules on the surface of invading pathogens and initiating host defense reactions. To explore the role of vitellogenin (Vg) in fish innate immunity, we purified Vg from Carp by gel filtration combined with diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) chromatography. The purified Vg was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Antibacterial activity analysis showed

Qing-Hui Liu; Shi-Cui Zhang; Zhao-Jie Li; Chun-Ren Gao

2009-01-01

465

The ramification pattern of amacrine cells within the inner plexiform layer of the carp retina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology of amacrine cells in the retina of the carp is described using the Golgi technique. The ramification pattern of these cells was analyzed in flat-mounts of retinas. Based on these observations classification into five groups was made. Cells possessing one principal process leaving the soma were subdivided into starburst A-neurons and radiate neurons. Cells having two or more

Josef Ammermiiller; Reto Weiler

1981-01-01

466

Toxicity of crude oil to the metabolism of freshwater minor carp, Puntius sophore  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of crude oil on the rate of metabolism in freshwater fishes have been little investigated. In the present investigation, the respiration rate in vitro and overall QOâ in vivo of a freshwater minor carp Puntius sophore has been measured after exposing the fish to the lethal and sublethal doses of crude oil extracts for varying periods.

M. S. Prasad

1987-01-01

467

Ultrastructural features of the egg envelope of silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis We investigated the ultrastructure of the egg membrane surface (unfertilized egg) of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix using scanning electron microscopy. The eggs of silver carp like most other teleosts are surrounded by a relatively thick egg membrane, and have a type III micropyle at the animal pole. The micropyle is almost circular in shape and the micropyle canal is located in

Hamid Reza Esmaeili; Mohinder Singh Johal

2005-01-01

468

Heritability estimation of silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) harvest traits using microsatellite based parentage assignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver carp accounts for the largest biomass production of any finfish aquaculture species in the world. In spite of its great importance as an aquacultural species, very little is known about the genetic parameters of its commercially important traits. As an initial step towards developing a selective breeding programme, heritability of harvest weight and length was estimated for a silver

Almas A. Gheyas; John A. Woolliams; John B. Taggart; Mohammed A. Sattar; Topan K. Das; Brendan J. McAndrew; David J. Penman

2009-01-01

469

Phytoplankton Preferences of Young Silver Carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, in Hypereutrophic Mesocosms during a Warm Season  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding behavior of age-1 silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Val.), on phytoplankton species in a shallow hypereutrophic lake was studied in enclosures from 22 May to 18 September, 1997. Over the experimental period, the filter-pore sizes of the fish and the total biomass of the phytoplankton in each enclosure changed little with time. The fish biomass in each enclosure increased

Baik-Ho Kim; Min-Ku Choi; Noriko Takamura

2003-01-01

470

Transcriptome Analysis of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) by Paired-End RNA Sequencing  

PubMed Central

The silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) is among the most intensively pond-cultured fish species and is used in the wild to counteract water bloom in China. However, little genomic information is available for this species, especially regarding its ability to grow rapidly in water, even water contaminated with high concentrations of poisonous microcystin. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of the 17.10 million short-read sequences produced by the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. Using an improved multiple k-mer contig assembly method coupled with further scaffolding, 85 759 sequences were obtained. There were 23 044 sequences annotated with 3423 gene ontology terms for 104 196 term occurrences and the three corresponding organizing principles. A total of 38 200 assembled sequences were involved in 218 predicted Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes metabolic pathways. We also recovered 41 of 44 genes involved in the biosynthesis of glutathione. Of these, five genes were identified as experienced positive selection between silver carp and zebrafish, as determined by the likelihood ratio test. This report is the first annotated review of the silver carp transcriptome. These data will be of interest to researchers investigating the evolution and biological processes of the silver carp. This work also provides an archive for future studies of recent speciation and evolution of Cyprinidae fishes and can be used in comparative studies of other fishes.

Fu, Beide; He, Shunping

2012-01-01

471

Predation on Zebra Mussels ('Dreissena polymorpha') by Common Carp ('Cyprinus carpio'). Long Term Resource Monitoring Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors examined the gut contents of 31 common carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected at Mississippi River Mile 217 in August 1995 for evidence of predation on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). They found between 1 and 407 zebra mussel beaks in 83.9% of...

J. K. Tucker F. A. Cronin D. W. Soergel C. H. Theiling

1997-01-01

472

Reactive oxygen species uncouple external horizontal cells in the carp retina and glutathione couples them again  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the effect of free radicals on the electrical gap junctions between horizontal cells in the carp retina. In our previous study, l-buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, caused uncoupling of horizontal cells four days after injection. In the present study, we have used paraquat, a generator of exogenous reactive oxygen species, to investigate whether it was

Z. Y Zhou; K Sugawara; R Hashi; K Muramoto; K Mawatari; T Matsukawa; Z. W Liu; M Devadas; S Kato

2001-01-01

473

THE PUBLIC SECTOR ROLE IN THE ESTABLISHMENT OF GRASS CARP IN THE UNITED STATES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Federal, state, and university personnel played key roles in the establishment of the grass carp (GC) in the United States. Researchers at the USFWS laboratory, Stuttgart, Arkansas and Auburn University (AU), Alabama imported GC from Asia in 1963 and spawned them in 1966. Biologists with the Arkan...

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