Science.gov

Sample records for hook snout carp

  1. Habitat-Specific Locomotor Variation among Chinese Hook Snout Carp (Opsariichthys bidens) along a River

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shi-Jian; Peng, Zuogang; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Peng, Jiang-Lan; He, Xiao-Ke; Xu, Dandan; Zhang, An-Jie

    2012-01-01

    The Wujiang River is a tributary of the upper Yangtze River that shows great variations in its flow regime and habitat condition. Dams have been built along the Wujiang River and have altered the habitats profoundly enough that they may give rise to reproductive isolation. To test whether the swimming performance and morphology of the Chinese hook snout carp (Opsariichthys bidens), varied among habitats and whether the possible differences had a genetic basis, we measured the steady and unsteady swimming performance, external body shape and genetic distance among fish collected from both the main and tributary streams of the upper, middle and lower reaches along the river. We also measured the routine energy expenditure (RMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR), cost of transport (COT) and calculated the optimal swimming speed. The steady swimming capacity, RMR, MMR and optimal swimming speed were all higher and the COT was lower in the upper reach or tributary streams compared with the lower reach or main stream. However, unsteady swimming performance showed no variation among collecting sites. Flow regimes as suggested by river slope and water velocity were positively correlated with steady swimming performance but not with unsteady swimming performance. Predation stress were significantly related with body morphology and hence energy cost during swimming but not Ucrit value. The fish from only one population (Hao-Kou) showed relatively high genetic differentiation compared with the other populations. Fish from the upper reach or tributary streams exhibited improved steady swimming performance through improved respiratory capacity and lower energy expenditure during swimming at the cost of higher maintenance metabolism. There was no correlation between the steady and unsteady swimming performance at either the population or the individual levels. These results suggest that a trade-off between steady and unsteady swimming does not occur in O. bidens. PMID:22829884

  2. Tc1-like Transposase Thm3 of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) Can Mediate Gene Transposition in the Genome of Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala)

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiu-Ming; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Sun, Yi-Wen; Jiang, Xia-Yun; Zou, Shu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Tc1-like transposons consist of an inverted repeat sequence flanking a transposase gene that exhibits similarity to the mobile DNA element, Tc1, of the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. They are widely distributed within vertebrate genomes including teleost fish; however, few active Tc1-like transposases have been discovered. In this study, 17 Tc1-like transposon sequences were isolated from 10 freshwater fish species belonging to the families Cyprinidae, Adrianichthyidae, Cichlidae, and Salmonidae. We conducted phylogenetic analyses of these sequences using previously isolated Tc1-like transposases and report that 16 of these elements comprise a new subfamily of Tc1-like transposons. In particular, we show that one transposon, Thm3 from silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix; Cyprinidae), can encode a 335-aa transposase with apparently intact domains, containing three to five copies in its genome. We then coinjected donor plasmids harboring 367 bp of the left end and 230 bp of the right end of the nonautonomous silver carp Thm1 cis-element along with capped Thm3 transposase RNA into the embryos of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala; one- to two-cell embryos). This experiment revealed that the average integration rate could reach 50.6% in adult fish. Within the blunt snout bream genome, the TA dinucleotide direct repeat, which is the signature of Tc1-like family of transposons, was created adjacent to both ends of Thm1 at the integration sites. Our results indicate that the silver carp Thm3 transposase can mediate gene insertion by transposition within the genome of blunt snout bream genome, and that this occurs with a TA position preference. PMID:26438298

  3. Comparative analysis of mitochondrial control region in polyploid hybrids of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus) x blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    PubMed

    Yan, Jinpeng; Liu, Liangguo; Liu, Shaojun; Guo, Xinhong; Liu, Yun

    2010-06-01

    The entire sequences of the mitochondrial (mt)DNA control region (CR) and portions of its flanking genes in the red crucian carp (RC) and blunt snout bream (BSB) as well as their polyploid hybrids (3nRB, 4nRB and 5nRB) were determined and subjected to a comparative analysis. The mtDNA-CRs of these five fish species ranged from 923 to 937 bp in length, they had the same flanking gene arrangement as other vertebrates and the pattern of nucleotide substitution bias was also similar to that in other vertebrates. Our data are consistent with the viewpoint of three domains [extended terminal associated sequence (ETAS domain), central conserved sequence block domain and conserved sequence block (CSB) domain] within the mtDNA-CR of mammals. On the basis our comparative analysis of the mtDNA-CRs of these five fish species, we were able to identify the consensus sequences of functional conserved units, including the ETAS, CSB-F, CSB-D, CSB-E, CSB1, CSB2 and CSB3 and putative promoter. The percentage of variable nucleotide positions (41.98%) in the central domain was lower than those in the ETAS and conserved domain (71.70 and 47.12%, respectively), suggesting that the central domain was the most conserved part of the mtDNA-CR. These results provide useful and important information for the further study of mtDNA-CR structure in fish. The sequence similarities of mtDNA-CR among the 3nRB, 4nRB, 5nRB hybrids and their respective female parents were higher than those among the 3nRB, 4nRB, 5nRB hybrids and their respective male parents, providing the direct evidence of stringent maternal inheritance of mtDNA-CR in the 3nRB, 4nRB and 5nRB hybrids. PMID:18815893

  4. Snout Shape in Extant Ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Tennant, Jonathan P.; MacLeod, Norman

    2014-01-01

    Snout shape is a prominent aspect of herbivore feeding ecology, interacting with both forage selectivity and intake rate. Previous investigations have suggested ruminant feeding styles can be discriminated via snout shape, with grazing and browsing species characterised by ‘blunt’ and ‘pointed’ snouts respectively, often with specification of an ‘intermediate’ sub-grouping to represent ambiguous feeding styles and/or morphologies. Snout shape morphology is analysed here using a geometric morphometric approach to compare the two-dimensional profiles of the premaxilla in ventral aspect for a large sample of modern ruminant species, for which feeding modes are known from secondary criteria. Results suggest that, when browsing and grazing ruminants are classified ecologically based on a range of feeding style indicators, they cannot be discriminated unambiguously on the basis of snout profile shape alone. Profile shapes in our sample form a continuum with substantial overlap between groupings and a diverse range of morphologies. Nevertheless, we obtained an 83.8 percent ratio of correct post hoc feeding style categorisations based on the proximity of projected profile shapes to group centroids in the discriminant space. Accordingly, this procedure for identifying species whose feeding strategy is ‘unknown’ can be used with a reasonable degree of confidence, especially if backed-up by additional information. Based on these results we also refine the definitions of snout shape varieties, taking advantage of the descriptive power that geometric morphometrics offers to characterize the morphological disparities observed. The shape variance exhibited by both browsing and grazing ruminants corresponds strongly to body mass, providing further evidence for an interaction between snout shape, feeding style, and body size evolution. Finally, by exploring the role of phylogenetic similarity in snout shape, we find a slight increase in successful categorisation when repeating the analysis with phylogenetic control on the geometric profiles. PMID:25372878

  5. Bighead Carp

    This bighead carp was collected on the Illinois River to learn more about the anatomy and physiology of Asian carp. This information will guide the development of potential biological or chemical controls as part of an integrated pest management approach for natural resource managers. Asian carp ar...

  6. Silver Carp

    Silver carp are a large a troublesome invasive species from Asia found in the great rivers of the central United States. Silver carp have been observed to jump in response to rocks thrown in the water, passing trains, geese taking off from the water, or just when they unexpectedly find themselves in...

  7. Reproduction mode of an artificial allotetraploid carp (Pisces; Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Ye, Yuzhen; Zhou, Jianfeng; Wang, Xiaohu; Wu, Qingjiang

    2002-01-01

    Mature eggs of allotetraploid carp were activated by inactive sperm or crossed with normal sperms of common carp (Cyprinus carpio), crucian carp (Carassius auratus), Chinese blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), Hemiculter leucisculus and Pseudorasbora parva. Chromosome counts showed that all offspring of these crosses presented a mode number of 200 chromosomes (4n = 200), and their morphological traits are much like maternal. Microsatelite marker and RAPD patterns between allotetraploid maternal and its offspring, reproduced from different paternal species, were identical. Cytological, morphological and molecular evidences suggested that allotetraploid carp female nucleus would not fuse with any male nucleus and its reproduction mode might be gynogenesis and therefore their offspring are retaining their tetraploidy and give origin to clonal individuals. PMID:12627840

  8. Carp and Radio Transmitters

    Iowa Unit Graduate student Chris Penne listens for signals from carp with surgically implanted radio transmitters in Clear Lake. Chris studied carp aggregation to assist in planning for carp reduction by the DNR....

  9. Grass Carp

    Josh Schloesser, a MS student at the Kansas Unit holding a grass carp collected while sampling with the USFWS on the Missouri River. Josh is working closely with the FWS and other agencies to develop sampling protocols for Missouri River fishes....

  10. Lunar crane hook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cash, John Wilson, III; Cone, Alan E.; Garolera, Frank J.; German, David; Lindabury, David Peter; Luckado, Marshall Cleveland; Murphey, Craig; Rowell, John Bryan; Wilkinson, Brad

    1988-01-01

    The base and ball hook system is an attachment that is designed to be used on the lunar surface as an improved alternative to the common crane hook and eye system. The design proposed uses an omni-directional ball hook and base to overcome the design problems associated with a conventional crane hook. The base and ball hook is not sensitive to cable twist which would render a robotic lunar crane useless since there is little atmospheric resistance to dampen the motion of an oscillating member. The symmetric characteristics of the ball hook and base eliminates manual placement of the ball hook into the base; commonly associated with the typical hook and eye stem. The major advantage of the base and ball hook system is it's ease of couple and uncouple modes that are advantages during unmanned robotic lunar missions.

  11. Silver Carp Larvae

    This image of live silver carp larvae was taken with a microscope camera at the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become established....

  12. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 1 (LEAP-1) and LEAP-2 genes in the blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    PubMed

    Liang, Tao; Ji, Wei; Zhang, Gui-Rong; Wei, Kai-Jian; Feng, Ke; Wang, Wei-Min; Zou, Gui-Wei

    2013-08-01

    Liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 1 (LEAP-1) and LEAP-2 are widespread in fish and extremely important components of the host innate immune system. In this study, full-length cDNAs of LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 were cloned and sequenced from blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala. The open reading frames (ORF) of LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 genes encode putative peptides of 94 and 92 amino acids, which possess eight and four conserved cysteine residues, respectively. The homologous identities of deduced amino acid sequences show that the LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 of blunt snout bream share considerable similarity with those of grass carp. The mRNA expressions of LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 were detectable at different early developmental stages of blunt snout bream and varied with embryonic and larval growth. LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 were expressed in a wide range of adult tissues, with the highest expression levels in the liver and midgut, respectively. Bacterial challenge experiments showed that the levels of LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 mRNA expression were up-regulated in the liver, spleen, gill and brain of juvenile blunt snout bream. These results indicate that the LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 may play important roles in early development of embryos and fry, and may contribute to the defense against the pathogenic bacterial invasion. This study will further our understanding of the function of LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 and the molecular mechanism of innate immunity in teleosts. PMID:23748217

  13. Juvenile Bighead Carp

    These juvenile bighead carps are used to find potential physical, biological or chemical controls as part of an integrated pest management approach for natural resource managers. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become esta...

  14. Juvenile Silver Carp

    These juvenile silver carps are used to find potential physical, biological or chemical controls as part of an integrated pest management approach for natural resource managers. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become estab...

  15. Silver and Bighead Carp

    These silver and bighead carp were collected on the Illinois River to learn more about the anatomy and physiology of Asian carp. This information will guide the development of potential biological or chemical controls as part of an integrated pest management approach for natural resource managers. ...

  16. Silver Carp Larva

    This image of a live silver carp larva was taken with a microscope camera at the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become established....

  17. Silver Carp Egg

    This image of a live silver carp egg specimen was taken with a microscope camera at the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become established....

  18. Reflections on Sandy Hook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trump, Kenneth S.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his thoughts for district administrators regarding the Sandy Hook Elementary school tragedy. Administrators heard a lot of potential solutions or attempts at solutions. However, these proposals raise lengthy lists of implementation questions and issues that illustrate a lack of understanding of school operations,…

  19. Establishment from the snout and kidney of goldfish, Carassius auratus, of two new cell lines and their susceptibility to infectious pancreatic necrosis virus.

    PubMed

    Jing, Hongli; Gao, Longying; Zhang, Min; Wang, Na; Lin, Xiangmei; Zhang, Lifeng; Wu, Shaoqiang

    2016-02-01

    Goldfish Carassius auratus are commonly used in scientific research and have a significant economic value in the pet trade. In this study, two cell lines were established from the snout and kidney tissue of goldfish, in order to create a biological monitoring tool for viral diseases. Cell lines were optimally maintained at 25 °C in M199 medium supplemented with 15-20 % fetal bovine serum. Chromosomal analysis indicated that both cell lines remained diploid, with a mean chromosomal count of 100. Results of viral inoculation assays revealed that both cell lines shared similar patterns of viral susceptibility and production to infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). The viral titers of IPNV in goldfish snout cell line (GFSe) and goldfish kidney cell line (GFKf) reached 10(6.8) and 10(5.9) TCID50/0.1 mL, respectively, within 7 days. The cytopathic effect could be observed when Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 was inoculated into these cells; however, the CPE disappeared after four passages. No CPE was observed in the cells infected by spring viremia carp virus or grass carp reovirus. These newly established cell lines will be a useful diagnostic tool for viral diseases in this fish species and also for the isolation and study of goldfish viruses in future. PMID:26419476

  20. Update on CARP codes

    SciTech Connect

    Crump, T.N.

    1995-12-31

    The Committee on Acoustic Emission from Reinforced Plastic (CARP) sprang from basic industry needs in the late 1970`s for appropriate NDT technology for the inspection of both new and in-service FRP components in the chemical processing and electric power industries. Originally, CARP operated under the auspices of the Society of the Plastics Industry (SPI). CARP is currently working within the auspices of the American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT). The CARP subcommittee on Tanks and Pressure Vessels is currently completing work on a new document to replace the 1987 edition of the recommended practice on tanks and pressure vessels. The revised procedure will reflect current field test practice, the use of microprocessor controlled instruments with large data storage capacity, and advances in post-test analysis. It is anticipated that the new procedure, which will be published by the American Society for Nondestructive Testing, will replace the 1987 CARP procedure which will be phased out. The CARP Ad Hoc Committee on International Symposia is currently planning the ``Sixth International Symposium on Acoustic Emission from Composite Materials`` (AECM-6). It will be held in San Antonio, TX, July 1998. The American Society for Nondestructive Testing is the anticipated sponsor.

  1. Snout and Visual Rooting Reflexes in Infantile Autism. Brief Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minderaa, Ruud B.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The authors conducted extensive neurological evaluations of 42 autistic individuals and were surprised to discover a consistently positive snout reflex in most of them. Difficulties with assessing the reflex are noted. The authors then reassessed the Ss for a series of primitive reflexes which are interpreted as signs of diffuse cortical brain…

  2. Stress analyses of B-52 pylon hooks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, W. L.; Schuster, L. S.

    1985-01-01

    The NASTRAN finite element computer program was used in the two dimensional stress analysis of B-52 carrier aircraft pylon hooks: (1) old rear hook (which failed), (2) new rear hook (improved geometry), (3) new DAST rear hook (derated geometry), and (4) front hook. NASTRAN model meshes were generated by the aid of PATRAN-G computer program. Brittle limit loads for all the four hooks were established. The critical stress level calculated from NASTRAN agrees reasonably well with the values predicted from the fracture mechanics for the failed old rear hook.

  3. The Hooked Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-06-01

    Life is not easy, even for galaxies. Some indeed get so close to their neighbours that they get rather distorted. But such encounters between galaxies have another effect: they spawn new generations of stars, some of which explode. ESO's VLT has obtained a unique vista of a pair of entangled galaxies, in which a star exploded. Because of the importance of exploding stars, and particularly of supernovae of Type Ia [1], for cosmological studies (e.g. relating to claims of an accelerated cosmic expansion and the existence of a new, unknown, constituent of the universe - the so called 'Dark Energy'), they are a preferred target of study for astronomers. Thus, on several occasions, they pointed ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) towards a region of the sky that portrays a trio of amazing galaxies. MCG-01-39-003 (bottom right) is a peculiar spiral galaxy, with a telephone number name, that presents a hook at one side, most probably due to the interaction with its neighbour, the spiral galaxy NGC 5917 (upper right). In fact, further enhancement of the image reveals that matter is pulled off MCG-01-39-003 by NGC 5917. Both these galaxies are located at similar distances, about 87 million light-years away, towards the constellation of Libra (The Balance). ESO PR Photo 22/06 ESO PR Photo 22/06 The Hooked Galaxy and its Companion NGC 5917 (also known as Arp 254 and MCG-01-39-002) is about 750 times fainter than can be seen by the unaided eye and is about 40,000 light-years across. It was discovered in 1835 by William Herschel, who strangely enough, seems to have missed its hooked companion, only 2.5 times fainter. As seen at the bottom left of this exceptional VLT image, a still fainter and nameless, but intricately beautiful, barred spiral galaxy looks from a distance the entangled pair, while many 'island universes' perform a cosmic dance in the background. But this is not the reason why astronomers look at this region. Last year, a star exploded in the vicinity of the hook. The supernova, noted SN 2005cf as it was the 84th found that year, was discovered by astronomers Pugh and Li with the robotic KAIT telescope on 28 May. It appeared to be projected on top of a bridge of matter connecting MCG-01-39-003 with NGC5917. Further analysis with the Whipple Observatory 1.5m Telescope showed this supernova to be of the Ia type and that the material was ejected with velocities up to 15 000 km/s (that is, 54 million kilometres per hour!). Immediately after the discovery, the European Supernova Collaboration (ESC [2]), led by Wolfgang Hillebrandt (MPA-Garching, Germany) started an extensive observing campaign on this object, using a large number of telescopes around the world. There have been several indications about the fact that galaxy encounters and/or galaxy activity phenomena may produce enhanced star formation. As a consequence, the number of supernovae in this kind of system is expected to be larger with respect to isolated galaxies. Normally, this scenario should favour mainly the explosion of young, massive stars. Nevertheless, recent studies have shown that such phenomena could increase the number of stars that eventually explode as Type Ia supernovae. This notwithstanding, the discovery of supernovae in tidal tails connecting interacting galaxies remains quite an exceptional event. For this reason, the discovery of SN2005cf close to the 'tidal bridge' between MCG-01-39-002 and MCG-01-39-003 constitutes a very interesting case. The supernova was followed by the ESC team during its whole evolution, from about ten days before the object reached its peak luminosity until more than a year after the explosion. As the SN becomes fainter and fainter, larger and larger telescopes are needed. One year after the explosion, the object is indeed about 700 times fainter than at maximum. The supernova was observed with the VLT equipped with FORS1 by ESO astronomer Ferdinando Patat, who is also member of the team led by Massimo Turatto (INAF-Padua, Italy), and at a latter stage by the Paranal Science Team, with the aim of studying the very late phases of the supernova. These late stages are very important to probe the inner parts of the ejected material, in order to better understand the explosion mechanism and the elements produced during the explosion. The deep FORS1 images reveal a beautiful tidal structure in the form of a hook, with a wealth of details that probably include regions of star formation triggered by the close encounter between the two galaxies. "Curiously, the supernova appears to be outside of the tidal tail", says Ferdinando Patat. "The progenitor system was probably stripped out of one of the two galaxies and exploded far away from the place where it was born." Life may not be easy for galaxies, but it isn't much simpler for stars either. Technical information: ESO PR Photo 22/06 is a composite image based on data acquired with the FORS1 multi-mode instrument in April and May 2006 for the European Supernova Collaboration. The observations were made in four different filters (B, V, R, and I) that were combined to make a colour image. The field of view covers 5.6 x 8.3 arcmin. North is up and East is to the left. The observations were done by Ferdinando Patat and the Paranal Science team (ESO), and the final processing was done by Olivia Blanchemain, Henri Boffin and Haennes Heyer (ESO).

  4. High-jumping Silver Carp

    Silver carp are a large a troublesome invasive species from Asia found in the great rivers of the central United States. Silver carp have been observed to jump in response to rocks thrown in the water, passing trains, geese taking off from the water, or just when they unexpectedly find themselves in...

  5. 21 CFR 868.5420 - Ether hook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ether hook. 868.5420 Section 868.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5420 Ether hook. (a) Identification. An ether hook is a...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5420 - Ether hook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ether hook. 868.5420 Section 868.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5420 Ether hook. (a) Identification. An ether hook is a...

  7. 21 CFR 868.5420 - Ether hook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ether hook. 868.5420 Section 868.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5420 Ether hook. (a) Identification. An ether hook is a...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5420 - Ether hook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ether hook. 868.5420 Section 868.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5420 Ether hook. (a) Identification. An ether hook is a...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5420 - Ether hook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ether hook. 868.5420 Section 868.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5420 Ether hook. (a) Identification. An ether hook is a...

  10. Lactococcosis in Silver Carp.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Lester H; Austin, Frank W; Quiniou, Sylvie M A; Gaunt, Patricia S; Riecke, Dennis K; Jacobs, Alicia M; Meals, Keith O; Dunn, Arthur W; Griffin, Matt J

    2014-03-01

    An adult Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix with a focally extensive skin lesion near the caudal peduncle and mild iridial hemorrhage was submitted to the Aquatic Research and Diagnostic Laboratory (ARDL) in Stoneville, Mississippi, as part of a fish kill investigation. Touch impressions of this musculoskeletal lesion revealed small cocci (∼1 μm) in pairs or chains within an inflammatory milieu. A pure Gram-positive cocci isolate was obtained from the brain, while cultures of the kidney and muscle yielded multiple bacterial colony types, including the Gram-positive cocci seen in the brain. This brain isolate was characterized biochemically and identified as Lactococcus spp. Analysis of the near complete 16S small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) and DNA gyrase subunit B (gyrB) gene sequences revealed the bacterium to be L. lactis subsp. lactis (SSU rDNA: 100% identity, 1,372/1,372 bp; gyrB: 99.7% identity, 1,779/1,785 bp). Comparatively, at the gyrB locus the case isolate shared less than 90% similarity to L. lactis subsp. cremoris (1,599/1,781 bp) and less than 80% homology to L. garvieae (1409/1775 bp). Histopathological examination confirmed a severe meningoencephalitis, a moderate mononuclear myositis, and a mild interstitial nephritis. We believe this represents the first report of a natural infection by L. lactis subsp. lactis in Silver Carp. PMID:24689953

  11. Covariant Formulation of Hooke's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gron, O.

    1981-01-01

    Introducing a four-vector strain and a four-force stress, Hooke's law is written as a four-vector equation. This formulation is shown to clarify seemingly paradoxical results in connection with uniformly accelerated motion, and rotational motion with angular acceleration. (Author/JN)

  12. Hooke, Robert (1635-1703)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Scientist, born in Freshwater, Isle of Wight, England, educated at Christ Church College, Oxford where he met Boyle and was employed by him to construct his air pump, became professor of geometry at Gresham College, London. Discovered Hooke's law of elasticity. Worked on optics, simple harmonic motion and elasticity in strings. Published a monograph called Micrographia, containing beautiful pict...

  13. The smaller your mouth, the longer your snout: predicting the snout length of Syngnathus acus, Centriscus scutatus and other pipette feeders.

    PubMed

    de Lussanet, Marc H E; Muller, M

    2007-06-22

    Like most ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii), pipefishes (Syngnathoidei) feed by suction. Most pipefishes reach their prey by a rapid dorso-rotation of the head. In the present study, we analysed the feeding kinematics of the razor fish, Centriscus scutatus, and of the greater pipefish, Syngnathus acus in detail. We found capture times of as little as 4-6ms for C. scutatus and 6-8ms for S. acus. We then hypothesized that the long snout of pipefishes is optimal for such fast feeding. To test this, we implemented in a mathematical model the following considerations. To reach the prey as fast as possible, a low moment of inertia increases the head's angular speed, whereas a long snout decreases the angle over which the head must be turned. The model accurately predicted the snout lengths of a number of pipefishes. We found that the optimal snout length, with which a prey will be reached fastest, is inversely related to its cross-section. In spite of the small cross-section, the development of a long snout can be an evolutionary advantage because this reduces the time to approach the prey. PMID:17251161

  14. A new clade of Asian late Cretaceous long-snouted tyrannosaurids.

    PubMed

    Lü, Junchang; Yi, Laiping; Brusatte, Stephen L; Yang, Ling; Li, Hua; Chen, Liu

    2014-01-01

    The iconic tyrannosaurids were top predators in Asia and North America during the latest Cretaceous, and most species had deep skulls that allowed them to generate extreme bite forces. Two unusual specimens of Alioramus from Mongolia seem to indicate a divergent long-snouted body plan among some derived tyrannosaurids, but the rarity and juvenile nature of these fossils leaves many questions unanswered. Here, we describe a remarkable new species of long-snouted tyrannosaurid from the Maastrichtian of southeastern China, Qianzhousaurus sinensis. Phylogenetic analysis places Qianzhousaurus with both species of Alioramus in a novel longirostrine clade, which was geographically widespread across latest Cretaceous Asia and formed an important component of terrestrial ecosystems during this time. The new specimen is approximately twice the size as both Alioramus individuals, showing that the long-snouted morphology was not a transient juvenile condition of deep-snouted species, but a characteristic of a major tyrannosaurid subgroup. PMID:24807588

  15. Identification and expression analysis on bactericidal permeability-increasing protein/lipopolysaccharide-binding protein of blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala.

    PubMed

    Tang, Leilei; Liang, Yinhua; Jiang, Yuhong; Liu, Shaojun; Zhang, Fuyun; He, Xia; Wang, Tianyi; Zhou, Yi; Zhong, Huan; Yan, Jinpeng

    2015-08-01

    Bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (BPI) and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) belong to the lipid transfer protein/lipopolysaccharide-binding protein family and play a critical role in the innate immune response to Gram-negative bacteria. In the present study, a novel BPI/LBP from blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala (maBPI/LBP) was isolated by RACE techniques. The open reading frame (ORF) of maBPI/LBP gene encoded a polypeptide of 474 amino acids with a putative 18-aa hydrophobic signal peptide. Structurally, the maBPI/LBP showed highly similar to those of BPI/LBPs from invertebrate and teleost, LBPs and BPIs from mammal, which contained an N-terminal BPI/LBP/CETP domain BPI1 with a LPS-binding domain, a C-terminal BPI/LBP/CETP domain BPI2, and proline-rich domain. The homologous identities of deduced amino acid sequences displayed that the maBPI/LBP possessed significant similarity (96.61% and 90.07%) with those of grass carp and common carp, respectively. The recombinant protein of maBPI/LBP showed effectively kill Gram-negative bacteria. The maBPI/LBP gene was expressed in a wide range of normal tested tissues, with the highest expression levels in the kidney. The experiments revealed that the mRNA expression of maBPI/LBP in spleen considerably up-regulated from 2 h to 8 h post LPS stimulation, and peaked rapidly at 2 h (7.40-fold, P < 0.05), which confirmed that maBPI/LBP was the absolute sensitive to LPS stimulation. Furthermore, the level of maBPI/LBP mRNA expression reached the maximum for a second time at 24 h after LPS stimulation. These results suggested that maBPI/LBP was a constitutive and inducible acute-phase protein contributing to the host immune defense against pathogenic bacterial infection in M. amblycephala. This study will further our understanding of the function of BPI/LBP and the molecular mechanism of innate immunity in teleost. PMID:25982396

  16. Isotope incorporation in broad-snouted caimans (crocodilians)

    PubMed Central

    Caut, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    Summary The trophic ecology and migration of vertebrate species have been increasingly studied using stable isotope analysis. However, this approach requires knowledge on how dietary isotopic values are reflected in consumers' tissues. To date, this information has only been obtained for a handful of ectotherms; in particular, little is known about crocodilians. In this study, diet-tissue discrimination factors (DTDFs) and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope turnover rates were estimated for plasma, red blood cells (RBCs), and muscle obtained from broad-snouted caimans (Caiman latirostris). Individuals were fed two different control diets for 189 days. DTDFs for δ15N (Δ15N) and δ13C (Δ13C) ranged from −2.24‰ to 0.39‰ and from −0.52‰ to 1.06‰, respectively. Isotope turnover rates in tissues, expressed as half-lives, ranged from 11 to 71 days, with plasma

  17. CARP: fishing for novel mechanisms of neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Samaras, Susan E; Shi, Yubin; Davidson, Jeffrey M

    2006-09-01

    Gene expression profiling of mouse skin wounds has led to the discovery of numerous target genes that may have therapeutic or diagnostic value. Among these, cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP, ankrd1) expression was markedly and persistently elevated in several cutaneous compartments. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of CARP and its regulation in biological systems. In addition to its role as a nuclear transcription cofactor in many cell types including vascular endothelium, CARP is also a structural component of the sarcomere. CARP transcripts are prominent in cardiogenesis and muscle injury, and they are under complex regulation by cytokines, hypoxia, doxorubicin, and other forms of stress. CARP overexpression in wounds by adenoviral gene transfer leads to a high vascular density, and CARP exerts effects on endothelial behavior. The unusual cellular distribution and actions of CARP make it a novel candidate gene in tissue repair. PMID:17069020

  18. What is Hooking Up? Examining Definitions of Hooking Up in Relation to Behavior and Normative Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Melissa A.; Atkins, David C.; Blayney, Jessica A.; Dent, David V.; Kaysen, Debra L.

    2012-01-01

    Research has demonstrated ambiguity about the definition of hooking up among college students. The current research examined whether there were multiple hooking up definitions among college students and how different definitions might be associated with participant's own hooking up behavior and normative perceptions of peer hooking up behavior. A random sample (N = 1,468) of undergraduates (56.4% female) completed a Web-based survey that was comprised of measures of drinking and sexual behavior. Open-ended definitions of hooking up were content coded and analyzed using a mixture model to explore discrete definitions of hooking up among college students. Findings indicated three clusters of student definitions of hooking up. Cluster 1 had the broadest definition, referring to sex in general, not specific sexual acts, and to making out. Cluster 2 placed an emphasis on interpersonal and social aspects. Cluster 3 defined hooking up as sex with notable references to specific sexual acts. Results further indicated that hooking up behavior and normative perceptions differentiated these three groups of definitions. Clinical implications regarding the inconsistency of student definitions of hooking up and how they may impact negative consequences associated with hooking up are discussed. PMID:23057805

  19. Parachute Line Hook Includes Integral Loop Expander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayless, G. B.

    1983-01-01

    Parachute packing simplified with modified line hook. One person packs parachutes for test recovery vehicles faster than previously two-person team. New line hook includes expander that opens up two locking loops so parachute lines are pulled through them. Parachutes are packed at high pressure to be compressed into limited space available in test vehicles.

  20. Relationship between Religiosity and "Hooking Up" Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penhollow, Tina; Young, Michael; Bailey, William

    2007-01-01

    Background: "Hooking up" behaviors, or sexual activities without commitment or emotional attachment, are occurring among college students. Purpose: This study examined the relationship between hooking up and two measures of religiosity. Methods: Data was obtained from students at a mid-southern university (n=459). Results: Most respondents…

  1. Transgressions: Teaching According to "bell hooks."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Susan E.; Fitzgerald, Linda May; Haack, Joel; Clayton, Scharron

    1998-01-01

    Four faculty members from different disciplines at the University of Northern Iowa discuss whether and to what extent they were engaging in the critical pedagogy proposed by bell hooks [sic], a writer on feminism, racism, pedagogy, and black intellectual life. They also consider the ways in which hooks's work informs their understanding of…

  2. Cooling system for three hook ring segment

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Christian X.; Eng, Darryl; Lee, Ching-Pang; Patat, Harry

    2014-08-26

    A triple hook ring segment including forward, midsection and aft mounting hooks for engagement with respective hangers formed on a ring segment carrier for supporting a ring segment panel, and defining a forward high pressure chamber and an aft low pressure chamber on opposing sides of the midsection mounting hook. An isolation plate is provided on the aft side of the midsection mounting hook to form an isolation chamber between the aft low pressure chamber and the ring segment panel. High pressure air is supplied to the forward chamber and flows to the isolation chamber through crossover passages in the midsection hook. The isolation chamber provides convection cooling air to an aft portion of the ring segment panel and enables a reduction of air pressure in the aft low pressure chamber to reduce leakage flow of cooling air from the ring segment.

  3. Pipe lifting hook having clamp assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Codner, J.A.

    1984-06-12

    A pipe lifting hook is provided having a generally ''C'' shaped hook member having an elongated lower portion being insertable within the end of a joint of pipe and having an upper portion positionable above the pipe and provided with lifting connection means. The hook member is frictionally clamped to the pipe by grip shoe means that is movably supported by the upper portion of the hook member and is selectably movable from a released position out of contact with said pipe to a locked position in frictional locking engagement with the outer surface of the pipe. A ratchet mechanism couples said grip shoe means to the upper portion of the hook member and is manually positionable to lock said grip shoe means at said locked position or release said grip shoe means for movement toward said released position thereof.

  4. Designing physics video hooks for science students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHugh, M.; McCauley, V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers an insight into the design structure of physics video hooks that were developed by the Science Education Resource design team in the school of education (SOE) in National University of Ireland, Galway (NUI Galway). A hook, is an instructional technique used to stimulate student attention (Hunter 1994, Lemov 2010), interest (Jewett 2013) and engagement (McCrory 2011, Riendeau 2013). The physics video hooks followed a design framework that is illustrated below by breaking down the centre of gravity (COG) hook. Various design principles and elements embedded within the COG hook are presented with examples and the time they occur within the video. The intention of this article is that the design can be replicated and modified to aid teachers and designers in the development of a multitude of classroom based multimedia resources.

  5. Taste response in the facial nerve of the carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Funakoshi, M; Kawakita, K; Marui, T

    1981-01-01

    The stimulating effect of taste substances on the external chemoreceptors of the carp, Cyprinus carpio L., was studied by recording the electrical activity from the facial taste fibers innervating the facial skin surface. The integrated responses from each whole nerve bundle of the trigemino-facial complex nerve revealed that gustatory receptors on the snout of the carp were extremely sensitive to salts, acids and the extract of silk worm pupae. Quinine-HCl and sucrose elicited relatively small responses. Responses occurred to several amino acids, and especially to betaine. The threshold concentration for both mono- and di-valent salts was estimated to be about 5 X 10-3 M and that for acids about 10-4 M. Single fiber analysis was performed on 77 preparations. According to responsiveness to the 4 basic chemicals, the fibers were classified into 5 types: type I, activated by one stimulus (22 fibers out of 77); type II by two (29); type III by three (11); type IV by four (13); and type V showing inhibition by quinine-HCl (2) as their notable feature. Single fibers responsive to several amino acids, and the worm extract were found, among which the last was the most effective stimulus as shown in the whole nerve experiments. PMID:7300043

  6. Hook of the hamate fractures in athletes.

    PubMed

    Parker, R D; Berkowitz, M S; Brahms, M A; Bohl, W R

    1986-01-01

    Five patients have been treated for six hook of the hamate fractures over the past 8 years by the authors. Of these, four patients were professional baseball players and one patient was an accountant. All fractures occurred while playing baseball; four while swinging a bat, and two secondary to a fall on an outstretched hand. Roentgenographic diagnosis was made by carpal tunnel view alone in two, oblique and carpal tunnel view in one, bone scan and subsequent carpal tunnel view in two, and computerized tomography in one fracture. Five of the fractures were through the base of the hook, while one was toward the tip. All patients ultimately underwent hook resection, four early and two late. The patient who sustained the tip of the hook fracture underwent resection of the fracture only to refracture the same hook at its base 6 months later. All patients returned to their previous level of activity in 6 to 8 weeks after surgery without loss of function. Hence, it is the authors' opinion that the entire hook should be resected to the base of the hamate as the primary form of treatment in hook of the hamate fractures. PMID:3799882

  7. Writers Draw Visual Hooks: Children's Inquiry into Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, S. Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Drawing and writing in response to picturebook read-alouds, elementary children construct varying "visual hooks" in their sketches as effective visual devices for extending ideas for writing: the bubble hook, the zoom hook, and the group hook. This article reports on a 12-week qualitative study in which children in second grade develop as writers…

  8. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of flumequine in blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) after intravascular and oral administrations.

    PubMed

    Xu, N; Dong, J; Yang, Y; Yang, Q; Liu, Y; Ai, X

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the pharmacokinetic profile of flumequine (FMQ) was investigated in blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) after intravascular (3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)) and oral (50 mg/kg b.w.) administrations. The plasma samples were determinedby ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with fluorescence detection. After intravascular administration, plasma concentration-time curves were best described by a two-compartment open model. The distribution half-life (t1/2α ), elimination half-life (t1/2β ), and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of blunt snout bream were 0.6 h, 25.0 h, and 10612.7 h·μg/L, respectively. After oral administration, a two-compartment open model with first-order absorption was also best fit the data of plasma. The t1/2α , t1/2β , peak concentration (Cmax ), time-to-peak concentration (Tmax ), and AUC of blunt snout bream were estimated to be 2.5 h, 19.7 h, 3946.5 μg/L, 1.4 h, and 56618.1 h. μg/L, respectively. The oral bioavailability (F) was 32.0%. The pharmacokinetics of FMQ in blunt snout bream displayed low bioavailability, rapid absorption, and rapid elimination. PMID:26411430

  9. Intraspecies heterogeneity of epidermal keratins isolated from bovine hoof and snout.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, L D; Kubilus, J; Baden, H P

    1979-01-01

    The alpha-keratins, the principal components of the tonafilaments, were extracted, characterized and compared in bovine hoof and snout epidermis. The alpha-fibrous proteins of these tissues are similar with respect to their molecular weights, amino acid composition and percentage of helical structure. However, distinct differences in the polypeptides comprising these proteins were observed. Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of these proteins consistently showed that the polypeptide chain in snout, designated as band B (mol.wt. 67,000), was completely absent from hoof preparations. This was confirmed with several alternative preparative procedures. The peptides produced by digestion of the intact keratins from hoof and snout with CNBr were distinctly different. Finally, digestion of keratins from hoof and snout with trypsin yielded products that differed in size and resistance to further digestion. Thus, in addition to the interspecies polypeptide heterogeneity documented in the literature, this report establishes the intraspecies heterogeneity of keratins and suggests that these differences are due to either the expression of different gene products or differences in post-translational modifications in these two tissues. Images PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PMID:426768

  10. Kinematics of Hooke universal joint robot wrists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinney, William S., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The singularity problem associated with wrist mechanisms commonly found on industrial manipulators can be alleviated by redesigning the wrist so that it functions as a three-axis gimbal system. This paper discussess the kinematics of gimbal robot wrists made of one and two Hooke universal joints. Derivations of the resolved rate motion control equations for the single and double Hooke universal joint wrists are presented using the three-axis gimbal system as a theoretical wrist model.

  11. Utility of snout wipe samples for influenza A virus surveillance in exhibition swine populations

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Jody L; Nelson, Sarah W; Workman, Jeffrey D; Slemons, Richard D; Szablewski, Christine M; Nolting, Jacqueline M; Bowman, Andrew S

    2014-01-01

    Background Sporadic influenza A virus (IAV) outbreaks in humans and swine have resulted from commingling of large numbers of people and pigs at agricultural fairs in the United States. Current antemortem IAV surveillance strategies in swine require collecting nasal swabs, which entails restraining pigs with snares. Restraint is labor-intensive for samplers, stressful for pigs, and displeasing to onlookers because pigs often resist and vocalize. Objective To evaluate the utility of snout wipes in exhibition swine as a method to make IAV surveillance efforts less intrusive, less labor-intensive, and more widely accepted among pig owners and exhibition officials. Methods Three materials (rayon/polyester gauze, cotton gauze, and Swiffer® Sweeper dry cloths) were inoculated with IAV, and viral recoveries from these materials were quantified using qRT-PCR and TCID50 assays. In a field trial, paired cotton gauze snout wipes and gold standard polyester-tipped nasal swabs were collected from 553 pigs representing 29 agricultural fairs and the qualitative results of rRT-PCR and viral isolation were compared. Results and Conclusions Viral recoveries from potential snout wipe materials ranged from 0·26 to 1·59 log10 TCID50/ml less than that of the positive control in which no substrate was included; rayon/polyester gauze performed significantly worse than the other materials. In the field, snout wipes and nasal swabs had high levels of agreement for both rRT-PCR detection and virus isolation. Although further investigation and refinement of the sampling method is needed, results indicate that snout wipes will facilitate convenient and undisruptive IAV surveillance in pigs at agricultural fairs. PMID:25043408

  12. Carp-based aquafeeds and market-driven approaches to controlling invasive Asian carp in the Illinois River

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incentivizing ‘overfishing’ through the creation of high value markets for rendered carp products such as fish meal (FM) is a promising strategy to reduce the density of silver carp and bighead carp (collectively referred to as Asian carp) in the Illinois River. However, the nutrient content and dig...

  13. The Topic Is Sandy Hook: A Program for Gifted and Talented Students at Sandy Hook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, David

    "The Topic Is Sandy Hook" is an experiential 10-week program designed to provide special opportunities and educational experiences for 6th to 10th grade gifted and talented students. Sandy Hook, a natural resource in Monmouth County, New Jersey, is unique in its physical and historical features and provides an exceptionally rich environment in…

  14. History of introductions and governmental involvement in promoting the use of grass, silver, and bighead carps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous natural resource agency and media reports have alleged that Asian carps were introduced into the wild through escapes from commercial fish farms. This presentation chronologically traces the introductions of Asian carps (grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys mol...

  15. Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

  16. Two fault tolerant toggle-hook release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Thomas Joseph (Inventor); Brown, Christopher William (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A coupling device is disclosed which is mechanically two fault tolerant for release. The device comprises a fastener plate and fastener body, each of which is attachable to a different one of a pair of structures to be joined. The fastener plate and body are coupled by an elongate toggle mounted at one end in a socket on the fastener plate for universal pivotal movement thereon. The other end of the toggle is received in an opening in the fastener body and adapted for limited pivotal movement therein. The toggle is adapted to be restrained by three latch hooks arranged in symmetrical equiangular spacing about the axis of the toggle, each hook being mounted on the fastener body for pivotal movement between an unlatching non-contact position with respect to the toggle and a latching position in engagement with a latching surface of the toggle. The device includes releasable lock means for locking each latch hook in its latching position whereby the toggle couples the fastener plate to the fastener body and means for releasing the lock means to unlock each said latch hook from the latch position whereby the unlocking of at least one of the latch hooks from its latching position results in the decoupling of the fastener plate from the fastener body.

  17. Rhabdomyosarcoma in a Silver Carp.

    PubMed

    Rezaie, Annahita; Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad; Ansari, Mahshid Bagherzadeh

    2016-06-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is a primitive neoplasm that originates from skeletal muscle progenitor cells. In a routine inspection of a cyprinid farm in southwestern Iran, an approximately 2-year-old female Silver Carp was observed to have a raised mass located on the dorsolateral surface just caudal to the head. Macroscopic examination revealed a firm irregular fleshy pink mass (5 × 4 cm, depth = 3 cm) that appeared to arise from the subcutaneous musculature. Histologic sections were prepared using routine methods and separate sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Massons' trichrome. Microscopically, the tumor mass was composed of spindle cells that were densely packed and arranged in long interwoven bundles. The nuclei were vesicular and oval to elongated or cigar-shaped. Nuclear pleomorphism and multinucleate tumor giant cells were clearly evident. The neoplastic cell cytoplasm was eosinophilic with indistinct cell margins, and clear cross striations were observed in fibrils. The striated fibrils stained diffusely red with Masson's trichrome. This account represents the first reported occurrence of rhabdomyosarcoma in Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix. Received July 10, 2015; accepted February 4, 2016. PMID:27229885

  18. Variable Spaced Grating (VSG) Snout, Rotator and Rails for use at LLE

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, S K; Emig, J A; Griffith, L V; Heeter, R F; House, F A; James, D L; Schneider, M B; Sorce, C M

    2010-01-25

    The Variable Spaced Grating (VSG) is a spectrometer snout mounted to an X-Ray Framing Camera (XRFC) through the Unimount flange. This equipment already exists and is used at the University of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) facility. The XRFC and the Unimount flange are designed by LLE. The Tilt Rotator fixture that mounts next to the XRFC and the cart rails are designed by LLNL, and are included in this safety note. The other related components, such as the TIM rails and the Unimount flange, are addressed in a separate safety note, EDSN09-500005-AA. The Multipurpose Spectrometer (MSPEC) and VSG are mounted on the TIM Boat through the cart rails that are very similar in design. The tilt rotator combination with the Unimount flange is also a standard mounting procedure. The later mounting system has been included in this safety note. Figure-1 shows the interface components and the VSG snout. Figure-2 shows the VSG assembly mounted on the Unimount flange. The calibration pointer attachment is shown in place of the snout. There are two types of VSG, one made of 6061-T6 aluminum, weighing approximately 3 pounds, and the other made of 304 stainless steel, weighing approximately 5.5 pounds. This safety note examines the VSG steel design. Specific experiments may require orienting the VSG snout in 90 degrees increment with respect to the Unimount flange. This is done by changing the bolts position on the VSG-main body adapter flange to the Unimount adapter plate. There is no hazard involved in handling the VSG during this procedure as it is done outside the target chamber on the cart rail before installing on the TIM. This safety note addresses the mechanical integrity of the VSG structure, the tilt rotating fixture, the cart rails with handle and their connections. Safety Factors are also calculated for the MSPEC in place of the VSG.

  19. Dorsorostral snout muscles in the rat subserve coordinated movement for whisking and sniffing

    PubMed Central

    Haidarliu, Sebastian; Golomb, David; Kleinfeld, David; Ahissar, Ehud

    2014-01-01

    Histochemical examination of the dorsorostral quadrant of the rat snout revealed superficial and deep muscles that are involved in whisking, sniffing, and airflow control. The part of M. nasolabialis profundus that acts as an intrinsic (follicular) muscle to facilitate protraction and translation of the vibrissae is described. An intraturbinate and selected rostral-most nasal muscles that can influence major routs of inspiratory airflow and rhinarial touch through their control of nostril configuration, atrioturbinate and rhinarium position were revealed. PMID:22641389

  20. The nearly complete mitochondrial genome of a snout weevil, Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Teng; Yu, Bo; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-07-01

    We report the nearly complete mitochondrial genome of a snout weevil, Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The 16,919 bp long genome consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs and a partial control region. A phylogenetic tree has been built using the 13 protein-coding genes of 11 related species from Coleoptera. Our results would contribute to further study of phylogeny in Coleoptera. PMID:26094987

  1. Robust Mouse Pattern Electroretinograms Derived Simultaneously From Each Eye Using a Common Snout Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Tsung-Han; Bohorquez, Jorge; Toft-Nielsen, Jonathon; Ozdamar, Ozcan; Porciatti, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We recorded pattern electroretinograms (PERGs) simultaneously from each eye in mice using binocular stimulation and a common noncorneal electrode. Methods. The PERG was derived simultaneously from each eye in 71 ketamine/xylazine anesthetized mice (C57BL/6J, 4 months old) from subcutaneous needles (active, snout; reference, back of the head; ground, root of the tail) in response to contrast-reversal of gratings (0.05 cycles/deg, >95% contrast) generated on two custom-made light-emitting diode (LED) tablets alternating at slight different frequencies (OD, 0.984 Hz; OS, 0.992 Hz). Independent PERG signals from each eye were retrieved using one channel continuous acquisition and phase-locking average (OD, 369 epochs of 492 ms; OS, 372 epochs of 496 ms). The PERG was the average of three consecutive repetitions. Results. Binocular snout PERGs had high amplitude (mean, 25.3 μV, SD 6.6) and no measurable interocular cross-talk. Responses were reliable (test–retest variability within-session, 14%, SD 7; between sessions, 25%, SD 9; interocular asymmetry within-session, 9%, SD 7; between sessions, 13%, SD 5). Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were the main source of the binocular snout PERG, as optic nerve crush in three mice abolished the signal. Conclusions. The PERG, a sensitive measure of RGC function, is used increasingly in mouse models of glaucoma and optic nerve disease. Compared to current methods, the binocular snout PERG represents a substantial improvement in terms of simplicity and speed. It also overcomes limitations of corneal electrodes that interfere with invasive procedures of the eye and facilitates experiments based on comparison between the responses of the two eyes. PMID:24667861

  2. FRONT ELEVATION; HOOK & LADDER BUILDING ON THE RIGHT, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FRONT ELEVATION; HOOK & LADDER BUILDING ON THE RIGHT, SHOWING THE ARCHED OPENING THAT CONNECTS IT TO THE MAIN FIRE STATION BUILDING, VIEW FACING NORTH NORTHWEST - Kakaako Fire Station, Hook & Ladder Building, 620 South Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  3. Literacy and Activism: A Response to bell hooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Tom

    1994-01-01

    Comments on the interview of bell hooks in the preceding issue of the "Journal of Advanced Composition." Comments on hooks's concepts of audience and power, race relations, multicultural education, and the politics of literacy. (HB)

  4. Morphological variation in head shape of pipefishes and seahorses in relation to snout length and developmental growth.

    PubMed

    Leysen, Heleen; Roos, Gert; Adriaens, Dominique

    2011-10-01

    The feeding apparatus of Syngnathidae, with its elongate tubular snout and tiny, toothless jaws, is highly specialized for performing fast and powerful pivot feeding. In addition, the prolonged syngnathid parental care probably enables the juveniles to be provided with a feeding apparatus that resembles the one in adults, both in morphology and function. In this study, a landmark-based geometric morphometric analysis was carried out on the head of syngnathid representatives in order to (1) examine to what degree pipefish shape variation is different from that of seahorses; (2) determine whether the high level of specialization reduces the amount of intraspecific morphological variation found within the family; and (3) elucidate whether or not important shape changes occur in the seahorse head during postrelease ontogeny. We found that (1) there is a significant shape difference between head shape of pipefish and seahorse: the main differences concern snout length and height, position and orientation of the pectoral fin base, and height of the head and opercular bone. We hypothesize that this might be related to different prey capture kinematics (long snout with little head rotation versus short snout with large head rotation) and to different body postures (in line with the head versus vertical with a tilted head) in pipefishes and seahorses; (2) both pipefishes and seahorses showed an inverse relation between relative snout length and intraspecific variation and although pipefishes show a large diversity in relative snout elongation, they are more constrained in terms of head shape; and (3) the head of juvenile Hippocampus reidi specimens still undergoes gradual shape changes after being expelled from the brood pouch. Ontogenetic changes include lowering of the snout and head but also differences in orientation of the preopercular bone and lowering of the snout tip. PMID:21630324

  5. Stainless hooks to bond lower lingual retainer.

    PubMed

    Durgekar, Sujala G; Nagaraj, K

    2011-01-01

    We introduced a simple and economical technique for precise placement of lower lingual retainers. Two stainless steel hooks made of 0.6mm wire are placed interdentally in the embrasure area between canine and lateral incisor bilaterally to lock the retainer wire in the correct position. Etch, rinse and dry the enamel surfaces with the retainer passively in place, then bond the retainer with light-cured adhesive. Hooks are simple to fabricate and eliminate the need for a transfer tray. PMID:22360083

  6. Drawings of fossils by Robert Hooke and Richard Waller

    PubMed Central

    Kusukawa, Sachiko

    2013-01-01

    The drawings of fossils by Robert Hooke and Richard Waller that were the basis of the engravings in Hooke's Posthumous works (1705) are published here for the first time. The drawings show that both Hooke and Waller were proficient draftsmen with a keen eye for the details of petrified objects. These drawings provided Hooke with a polemic edge in making the case for the organic origins of ‘figured stones’.

  7. Musculoskeletal structure of the feeding system and implications of snout elongation in Hippocampus reidi and Dunckerocampus dactyliophorus.

    PubMed

    Leysen, H; Christiaens, J; De Kegel, B; Boone, M N; Van Hoorebeke, L; Adriaens, D

    2011-06-01

    A thorough morphological description of the feeding apparatus in Hippocampus reidi, a long-snouted seahorse, and Dunckerocampus dactyliophorus, an extremely long-snouted pipefish, revealed specialized features that might be associated with the fast and powerful suction feeding, like the two ligamentous connections between the lower jaw and the hyoid, the saddle joint of the latter with the suspensorium and the vertebro-pectoral fusion that articulates on three points with the cranium. Despite the conserved morphology of the feeding apparatus, it was found that in H. reidi the orientation of the occipital joint is ventrocaudal, the sternohyoideus and epaxial muscles are more bulky and both have a short tendon. In D. dactyliophorus, on the other hand, the protractor hyoidei muscle is enclosed by the mandibulo-hyoid ligament, the sternohyoideus and epaxial tendons are long and a sesamoid bone is present in the latter. These features were compared to other syngnathid species with different snout lengths to evaluate the implications of snout elongation on the musculoskeletal structure of the cranium. The arched path of the adductor mandibulae and the greater rigidity of the lower jaw might be related to elongation of the snout, as it yields an increased mechanical advantage of the lower jaw system and a reduced torque between the elements of the lower jaw during protractor hyoidei muscle contraction, respectively. Nevertheless, most observed features did not seem to be related to snout length, but might be associated with different force-generating strategies. PMID:21651529

  8. Aspects of embryonic and larval development in bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix.

    PubMed

    George, Amy E; Chapman, Duane C

    2013-01-01

    As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthysnobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region's economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one "cold" and one "warm". Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and "warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river. PMID:23967350

  9. Aspects of Embryonic and Larval Development in Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    PubMed Central

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2013-01-01

    As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthysnobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river. PMID:23967350

  10. Aspects of embryonic and larval development in bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2013-01-01

    As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river.

  11. Hooking Up and Identity Development of Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kooyman, Leslie; Pierce, Gloria; Zavadil, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Hooking up generally involves casual sex with noncommittal partners. Hooking up is prevalent on college campuses today and can negatively affect the identity development of female students. The authors examined this phenomenon with a feminist developmental perspective, evaluating hooking up in the context of sexual risk taking with physical and…

  12. A Pedagogy of Sight: Microscopic Vision in Robert Hooke's "Micrographia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Jordynn

    2009-01-01

    Robert Hooke's "Micrographia" (1665) holds an important place in the history of scientific visual rhetoric. Hooke's accomplishment lies not only in a stunning array of engravings, but also in a "pedagogy of sight"--a rhetorical framework that instructs readers how to view images in accordance with an ideological or epistemic program. Hooke not…

  13. Education as a Practice of Freedom: Reflections on bell hooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Specia, Akello; Osman, Ahmed A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper critically analyses the conceptions of bell hooks on education. It focuses on the relevance of hook's ideas to the classroom. It is a theoretical paper based on secondary data that seeks to contribute to the growing body of knowledge in education. The paper is a reflection of hook's reaction to education as a practice of freedom, the…

  14. Acoustical deterrence of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooke J. Vetter; Cupp, Aaron R.; Fredricks, Kim T.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Allen F. Mensinger

    2015-01-01

    The invasive Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) dominate large regions of the Mississippi River drainage and continue to expand their range northward threatening the Laurentian Great Lakes. This study found that complex broadband sound (0–10 kHz) is effective in altering the behavior of Silver Carp with implications for deterrent barriers or potential control measures (e.g., herding fish into nets). The phonotaxic response of Silver Carp was investigated using controlled experiments in outdoor concrete ponds (10 × 4.9 × 1.2 m). Pure tones (500–2000 Hz) and complex sound (underwater field recordings of outboard motors) were broadcast using underwater speakers. Silver Carp always reacted to the complex sounds by exhibiting negative phonotaxis to the sound source and by alternating speaker location, Silver Carp could be directed consistently, up to 37 consecutive times, to opposite ends of the large outdoor pond. However, fish habituated quickly to pure tones, reacting to only approximately 5 % of these presentations and never showed more than two consecutive responses. Previous studies have demonstrated the success of sound barriers in preventing Silver Carp movement using pure tones and this research suggests that a complex sound stimulus would be an even more effective deterrent.

  15. Can Soft Water Limit Bighead Carp and Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) Invasions?

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is concern that the non-native bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix), now found in many large rivers of the Mississippi River Basin, may spread to other regions. However, evidence suggests that their eggs may not be able to survive in soft ...

  16. A new bipolar hook for endoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Perko, Z; Mimica, Z; Cala, Z; Druzijanic, N

    2000-01-01

    This article presents a new bipolar hook for endoscopic surgery. With this instrument monopolar and bipolar current can be used. The advantage of this new instrument is the possibility of using a bipolar current, which is safer than using the monopolar current. The technical details and usage instructions are discussed. PMID:10918995

  17. Inferences of Diplodocoid (Sauropoda: Dinosauria) Feeding Behavior from Snout Shape and Microwear Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Background As gigantic herbivores, sauropod dinosaurs were among the most important members of Mesozoic communities. Understanding their ecology is fundamental to developing a complete picture of Jurassic and Cretaceous food webs. One group of sauropods in particular, Diplodocoidea, has long been a source of debate with regard to what and how they ate. Because of their long lineage duration (Late Jurassic-Late Cretaceous) and cosmopolitan distribution, diplodocoids formed important parts of multiple ecosystems. Additionally, fortuitous preservation of a large proportion of cranial elements makes them an ideal clade in which to examine feeding behavior. Methodology/Principal Findings Hypotheses of various browsing behaviors (selective and nonselective browsing at ground-height, mid-height, or in the upper canopy) were examined using snout shape (square vs. round) and dental microwear. The square snouts, large proportion of pits, and fine subparallel scratches in Apatosaurus, Diplodocus, Nigersaurus, and Rebbachisaurus suggest ground-height nonselective browsing; the narrow snouts of Dicraeosaurus, Suuwassea, and Tornieria and the coarse scratches and gouges on the teeth of Dicraeosaurus suggest mid-height selective browsing in those taxa. Comparison with outgroups (Camarasaurus and Brachiosaurus) reinforces the inferences of ground- and mid-height browsing and the existence of both non-selective and selective browsing behaviors in diplodocoids. Conclusions/Significance These results reaffirm previous work suggesting the presence of diverse feeding strategies in sauropods and provide solid evidence for two different feeding behaviors in Diplodocoidea. These feeding behaviors can subsequently be tied to paleoecology, such that non-selective, ground-height behaviors are restricted to open, savanna-type environments. Selective browsing behaviors are known from multiple sauropod clades and were practiced in multiple environments. PMID:21494685

  18. An agent-based mathematical model about carp aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yu; Wu, Chao

    2005-05-01

    This work presents an agent-based mathematical model to simulate the aggregation of carp, a harmful fish in North America. The referred mathematical model is derived from the following assumptions: (1) instead of the consensus among every carps involved in the aggregation, the aggregation of carp is completely a random and spontaneous physical behavior of numerous of independent carp; (2) carp aggregation is a collective effect of inter-carp and carp-environment interaction; (3) the inter-carp interaction can be derived from the statistical analytics about large-scale observed data. The proposed mathematical model is mainly based on empirical inter-carp force field, whose effect is featured with repulsion, parallel orientation, attraction, out-of-perception zone, and blind. Based on above mathematical model, the aggregation behavior of carp is formulated and preliminary simulation results about the aggregation of small number of carps within simple environment are provided. Further experiment-based validation about the mathematical model will be made in our future work.

  19. Respiratory and olfactory turbinals in feliform and caniform carnivorans: the influence of snout length.

    PubMed

    van Valkenburgh, Blaire; Pang, Benison; Bird, Deborah; Curtis, Abigail; Yee, Karen; Wysocki, Charles; Craven, Brent A

    2014-11-01

    To enhance bite force at the canines, feliform carnivorans have short rostra relative to caniform carnivorans. Rostral reduction in feliforms results in less rostrocaudal space for the maxilloturbinals, the complex set of bones involved in conditioning inspired air and conserving water. It is unknown whether the maxilloturbinals might show adaptations to adjust for this loss, such as greater complexity than what is observed in longer snouted caniforms. To understand the impact of rostral shortening on turbinals in feliforms, we used high resolution CT scans to quantify turbinal surface areas (SA) in 16 feliforms and compared them with published data on 20 caniforms. Results indicate that feliforms have reduced maxilloturbinal SA for their body mass relative to caniforms, but comparable fronto-ethmoturbinal SA. However, anterior portions of the ethmoturbinals in feliforms extend forward into the snout and are positioned within the respiratory pathway. When the SA of these anterior ethmoturbinals is added to maxilloturbinal SA to produce an estimated respiratory SA, feliforms and caniforms are similar in respiratory SA. This transfer of ethmoturbinal SA to respiratory function results in feliforms having less estimated olfactory SA relative to caniforms. Previous work on canids found a positive association between olfactory surface area and diet, but this was not found for felids. Results are consistent with feliforms having somewhat reduced olfactory ability relative to caniforms. If confirmed by behavioral data, the relative reduction in olfactory SA in many feliforms may reflect a greater reliance on vision in foraging relative to caniforms. PMID:25312365

  20. A strain of calicivirus isolated from lions with vesicular lesions on tongue and snout.

    PubMed

    Kadoi, K; Kiryu, M; Iwabuchi, M; Kamata, H; Yukawa, M; Inaba, Y

    1997-04-01

    In December 1992, 17 African lions and 7 Siberian tigers in a Safari park in Japan became sick with characteristic clinical symptoms of acute vesicular formations on tongue and snout. The disease was highly contagious since all of these animals showed similar symptoms within two days after the onset of the first case. Swabs were taken from affected animals in rubbing tongues, snouts and some from rectums. Cytopathic viruses were isolated on CRFK cell culture by virological tests. The physicochemical property of a representative virus strain, named Arthur/L, isolated from a male lion was identified as a member of Caliciviridae. However, seroneutralization test indicated that this virus strain was antigenically distinct from Japanese isolates of feline caliciviruses used for comparison. Viral capsid proteins of the present isolate, Arthur/L, and of a feline calicivirus, strain FC7, were compared in an electrophoresis in SDS-PAGE gel. The major viral capsid polypeptide of them were proved to be significantly different in molecular weight. The polypeptide of FC7 was estimated to be ca. 63 KDa whereas that of Arthur/L consisted of 2 components of ca. 65 and 62 KDa. The viral proteins of these two strains were also proved to be distinct by an immunoblotting test. PMID:9208424

  1. Feeding habits of the deep-snouted pipefish Syngnathus typhle in a temperate coastal lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Frederico; Erzini, Karim; Gonçalves, Jorge M. S.

    2007-03-01

    Feeding habits of Syngnathus typhle were determined based on monthly sampling during experimental fishing in a coastal lagoon (Ria Formosa, South Portugal) from April 2001 to May 2002. The gut contents of 856 individuals were analysed and quantified with numerical and gravimetric methods, as well as with some complementary indices and measures (vacuity, fullness and relative importance). In this study, this species fed mainly on Copepoda, Mysidacea, small caridean grass shrimps (Hippolytidae and Palaemonidae) and small fishes (Gobiidae) and to a lesser degree on other small invertebrates. No significant differences were found between the diets of males and females. However, significant differences in the fullness indexes of both sexes were observed during the reproductive period. Significant differences in the diet among seasons were also verified but no seasonal trends were discovered. Snout length showed a linear increase with growth while mouth area and total length displayed an allometric relation. Mouth shape varied between an ellipse and an almost perfect circle. The increase in mouth area and snout length as S. typhle grows contributed to the observed ontogenic diet shift with specimens smaller than 10 cm feeding almost exclusively on Copepoda, medium sized specimens feeding mainly on Hippolytidae and Mysidacea, while larger specimens preyed on Hippolytidae, Palaemonidae and Gobiidae. Prey size generally increased with size of S. typhle.

  2. Ultraviolet radiation-induced genotoxic effects in the broad-snouted caiman, Caiman latirostris.

    PubMed

    Schaumburg, L G; Poletta, G L; Imhof, A; Siroski, P A

    2010-07-19

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has many positive effects, but overexposure of organisms can generate alterations in DNA, either directly or indirectly, inducing mutagenic and cytotoxic lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects of UVA-B/visible light in the broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris), using the micronucleus (MN) test as a biomarker. Seventy two juvenile caimans, approximately 5 months old, were maintained for during 3 months under total darkness, or under 8 or 16h of daily exposure to artificial UV/visible light. MN test was applied before and after the experiment and the difference in MN frequencies was determined. Our results indicate significant increases in MN frequency with all treatments, compared to the basal (before experiment) values. Animals exposed to UV radiation showed a greater increase in MN frequency, compared to the animals exposed to total darkness (TD) treatment. These results provide information about the possible harmful effects generated by sub-chronic exposure to UVR in zoos, reptile hobbyist and breeding programs, as well as the deleterious consequences of increased UV environmental impact on wild species such as the broad-snouted caiman. PMID:20466067

  3. Histochemical localization of sialic acids and antimicrobial substances in eccrine glands of porcine snout skin

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, K.; Yasui, T.; Gomi, H.; Sugiya, H.; Fujimori, O.; Meyer, W.; Tsukise, A.

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of sialic acids and antimicrobial products (lysozyme, IgA, lactoferrin, ?-defensin 2) as well as Rab3D in the eccrine glands of porcine snout skin was studied by sialoglycoconjugate histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. The secretory epithelium consisted of two types of secretory cells: dark and clear cells. The dark cells exhibited considerable amounts of sialoglycoconjugates, which included O-acetylated sialic acids, whereas sialic acids in the sequence Sia?-2-3Gal1-4GlcNAc were confined to some of the dark cells. All antimicrobial substances and Rab3D were demonstrated to be also mainly present in some of the dark cells. Additionally, in the cytological and cytochemical features, the different characteristics were observed among the dark cells. The results obtained are discussed with regard to the functional significance of the eccrine glands. The secretory products elaborated by this gland type may function as protective agents in order to preserve the skin integrity of the snout region, considering that sialic acids and antimicrobial substances are important in general defense mechanisms. PMID:22472894

  4. Mechanics of snout expansion in suction-feeding seahorses: musculoskeletal force transmission.

    PubMed

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Leysen, Heleen; Adriaens, Dominique; Aerts, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Seahorses and other syngnathid fishes rely on a widening of the snout to create the buccal volume increase needed to suck prey into the mouth. This snout widening is caused by abduction of the suspensoria, the long and flat bones outlining the lateral sides of the mouth cavity. However, it remains unknown how seahorses can generate a forceful abduction of the suspensoria. To understand how force is transmitted to the suspensoria via the hyoid and the lower jaw, we performed mathematical simulations with models based on computerized tomography scans of Hippocampus reidi. Our results show that the hinge joint between the left and right hyoid bars, as observed in H. reidi, allows for an efficient force transmission to the suspensorium from a wide range of hyoid angles, including the extremely retracted hyoid orientations observed in vivo for syngnathids. Apart from the hyoid retraction force by the sternohyoideus-hypaxial muscles, force generated in the opposite direction on the hyoid by the mandibulohyoid ligament also has an important contribution to suspensorium abduction torque. Forces on the lower jaw contribute only approximately 10% of the total suspensorium torque. In particular, when dynamical aspects of hyoid retraction are included in the model, a steep increase is shown in suspensorium abduction torque at highly retracted hyoid positions, when the linkages to the lower jaw counteract further hyoid rotation in the sagittal plane. A delayed strain in these linkages allows syngnathids to postpone suction generation until the end of cranial rotation, a fundamental difference from non-syngnathiform fishes. PMID:23038729

  5. Ontogeny expression of ghrelin, neuropeptide Y and cholecystokinin in blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala.

    PubMed

    Ping, H-C; Feng, K; Zhang, G-R; Wei, K-J; Zou, G-W; Wang, W-M

    2014-04-01

    Ghrelin, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cholecystokinin (CCK) all have important roles in the regulation of feeding in fish and mammals. To better understand the role of the three peptides in appetite regulation in the early developmental stages of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), partial cDNA sequences of ghrelin, NPY and CCK genes were cloned. And then, real-time quantitative PCR and RT-PCR were used to detect and quantify the mRNA expressions of these genes from zygotes to larvae of 50 days after hatching (DAH). Ghrelin, NPY and CCK were all expressed throughout the embryonic and larval development stages, and the expression levels were higher in larval stages than in embryonic stages. Ghrelin and NPY mRNA expressions were upregulated at 1, 3, 5 DAH, while CCK mRNA expression was reduced significantly at 3 DAH. The mRNA expression levels of three genes in larvae varied significantly until 30 DAH. In adult fish, all three peptides were detected to be expressed in brain and several peripheral tissues. Ghrelin mRNA was mainly expressed in the intestine, whereas NPY and CCK mRNAs were mainly expressed in the brain. Taken together, these results indicate that ghrelin, NPY and CCK may have roles in early development and participate in the regulation of feeding of larvae in blunt snout bream and will be helpful for further investigation into feed intake regulation in adults of this species. PMID:23692667

  6. Hook-up Sexual Experiences and Problem Behaviors Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Fortunato, Leanna; Young, Amy M.; Boyd, Carol J.; Fons, Courntey E.

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on the sexual phenomenon of “hooking-up.” A hook-up is defined as a single sexual encounter that may or may not include sexual intercourse with someone who is a stranger, brief acquaintance, or friend. The aim of this study was to document the prevalence of hook-ups in a sample of 1,011 urban, middle and high school students and to examine the relationship between hooking-up and a variety of problem behaviors, including, alcohol, cigarette, illicit drug use, truancy, and school suspensions. The results revealed that 28% of the sample had engaged in at least one hook-up experience, and this percentage increased with age. Hook-ups were correlated moderately with all problem behaviors examined. PMID:22039333

  7. Hook-Up Sexual Experiences and Problem Behaviors among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortunato, Leanna; Young, Amy M.; Boyd, Carol J.; Fons, Courtney E.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the sexual phenomenon of "hooking up." A hook-up is defined as a single sexual encounter that may or may not include sexual intercourse with someone who is a stranger, brief acquaintance, or friend. The aim of this study was to document the prevalence of hook-ups in a sample of 1,011 urban middle and high school students and…

  8. Biochemical and antigenic properties of the Campylobacter flagellar hook protein.

    PubMed Central

    Power, M E; Alm, R A; Trust, T J

    1992-01-01

    The flagellar filament-hook complex was removed from Campylobacter cells by shearing and was purified by differential solubilization and ultracentrifugation at pH 11 followed by cesium chloride buoyant density ultracentrifugation. Flagellar filaments were then dissociated in 0.2 M glycine-HCl (pH 2.2), and purified hooks were collected by ultracentrifugation. The hooks (105 by 24 nm) each displayed a conical protrusion at the proximal end, a concave cavity at the distal end, and helically arranged subunits. The apparent subunit molecular weight of the hook protein of seven of the eight Campylobacter strains studied was 92,500, while that of the other was 94,000. N-terminal amino acid analysis of the hook protein of two strains of Campylobacter coli and one strain of Campylobacter jejuni demonstrated that the first 15 residues were identical. Amino acid composition analysis showed that the Campylobacter hook protein contained 35.7% hydrophobic and 9.5% basic residues. Isoelectric focusing determined that the hook protein was acidic, with a pI of 4.9. Comparisons with the Salmonella and Caulobacter hook protein compositions and N-terminal amino acid sequences indicated that the Campylobacter protein was related, but more distantly than these two proteins were to each other. Immunochemical analysis with four different antisera and a panel of eight strains showed that serospecific epitopes were immunodominant. The Campylobacter hook proteins carried both cross-reactive and specific non-surface-exposed epitopes, as well as serospecific epitopes which were exposed on the surface of the assembled hook. One class of these surface-exposed hook epitopes was shared with serospecific flagellin epitopes and may involve posttranslational modification, while the second class of epitopes was hook specific and not shared with flagellin. Images PMID:1375929

  9. Comparative Genomics of Carp Herpesviruses

    PubMed Central

    Kurobe, Tomofumi; Gatherer, Derek; Cunningham, Charles; Korf, Ian; Fukuda, Hideo; Hedrick, Ronald P.; Waltzek, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    Three alloherpesviruses are known to cause disease in cyprinid fish: cyprinid herpesviruses 1 and 3 (CyHV1 and CyHV3) in common carp and koi and cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV2) in goldfish. We have determined the genome sequences of CyHV1 and CyHV2 and compared them with the published CyHV3 sequence. The CyHV1 and CyHV2 genomes are 291,144 and 290,304 bp, respectively, in size, and thus the CyHV3 genome, at 295,146 bp, remains the largest recorded among the herpesviruses. Each of the three genomes consists of a unique region flanked at each terminus by a sizeable direct repeat. The CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 genomes are predicted to contain 137, 150, and 155 unique, functional protein-coding genes, respectively, of which six, four, and eight, respectively, are duplicated in the terminal repeat. The three viruses share 120 orthologous genes in a largely colinear arrangement, of which up to 55 are also conserved in the other member of the genus Cyprinivirus, anguillid herpesvirus 1. Twelve genes are conserved convincingly in all sequenced alloherpesviruses, and two others are conserved marginally. The reference CyHV3 strain has been reported to contain five fragmented genes that are presumably nonfunctional. The CyHV2 strain has two fragmented genes, and the CyHV1 strain has none. CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 have five, six, and five families of paralogous genes, respectively. One family unique to CyHV1 is related to cellular JUNB, which encodes a transcription factor involved in oncogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the first time that JUNB-related sequences have been reported in a herpesvirus. PMID:23269803

  10. Comparative genomics of carp herpesviruses.

    PubMed

    Davison, Andrew J; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Gatherer, Derek; Cunningham, Charles; Korf, Ian; Fukuda, Hideo; Hedrick, Ronald P; Waltzek, Thomas B

    2013-03-01

    Three alloherpesviruses are known to cause disease in cyprinid fish: cyprinid herpesviruses 1 and 3 (CyHV1 and CyHV3) in common carp and koi and cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV2) in goldfish. We have determined the genome sequences of CyHV1 and CyHV2 and compared them with the published CyHV3 sequence. The CyHV1 and CyHV2 genomes are 291,144 and 290,304 bp, respectively, in size, and thus the CyHV3 genome, at 295,146 bp, remains the largest recorded among the herpesviruses. Each of the three genomes consists of a unique region flanked at each terminus by a sizeable direct repeat. The CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 genomes are predicted to contain 137, 150, and 155 unique, functional protein-coding genes, respectively, of which six, four, and eight, respectively, are duplicated in the terminal repeat. The three viruses share 120 orthologous genes in a largely colinear arrangement, of which up to 55 are also conserved in the other member of the genus Cyprinivirus, anguillid herpesvirus 1. Twelve genes are conserved convincingly in all sequenced alloherpesviruses, and two others are conserved marginally. The reference CyHV3 strain has been reported to contain five fragmented genes that are presumably nonfunctional. The CyHV2 strain has two fragmented genes, and the CyHV1 strain has none. CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 have five, six, and five families of paralogous genes, respectively. One family unique to CyHV1 is related to cellular JUNB, which encodes a transcription factor involved in oncogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the first time that JUNB-related sequences have been reported in a herpesvirus. PMID:23269803

  11. Cadmium-binding protein (metallothionein) in carp

    SciTech Connect

    Kito, H.; Ose, Y.; Sato, T.

    1986-03-01

    When carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to 5 and 30 ppm Cd in the water, the contents of Cd-binding protein, which has low molecular weight, increased in the hepatopancreas, kidney, gills and gastrointestinal tract with duration of exposure. This Cd-binding protein was purified from hepatopancreas, kidney, gills, and spleen of carp administered 2 mg/kg Cd (as CdCl/sub 2/), intraperitoneally for 6 days. Two Cd-binding proteins were separated by DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column chromatography. These proteins had Cd-mercaptide bond, high cysteine contents (ca. 29-34%), but no aromatic amino acids or histidine. From these characteristics the Cd-binding proteins were identified as metallothionein. By using antiserum obtained from a rabbit to which carp hepatopancreas MT-II had been administered, immunological characteristics between hepatopancreas MT-I, II and kidney MT-II were studied, and a slight difference in antigenic determinant was observed among them. By immunological staining techniques with horseradish peroxidase, the localization of metallothionein was investigated. Carp were bred in 1 ppm Cd, 5 ppm Zn solution, and tap water for 14 days, following transfer to 15 ppm Cd solution, respectively. The survival ratio was the highest in the Zn group followed by Cd-treated and control groups.

  12. Lactococcosis in silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An adult silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) was submitted to the Aquatic Research & Diagnostic Laboratory (ARDL) in Stoneville, MS, as part of an investigation of a fish kill event in September 2011, at the Tunica Cutoff, Tunica county, Mississippi. Gross lesions included a focally extensive...

  13. Spring viraemia of carp virus: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Usama; Lu, Yuanan; Lin, Li; Yuan, Junfa; Wang, Min; Liu, Xueqin

    2016-05-01

    Spring viraemia of carp is an environmentally and economically important disease affecting cyprinids, primarily common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The causative agent of this disease is Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) - a member of the genus Vesiculovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. The disease is presently endemic in Europe, America and several Asian countries, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality in affected fish. SVCV infection is generally associated with exophthalmia; abdominal distension; petechial haemorrhage of the skin, gills, eyes and internal organs; degeneration of the gill lamellae; a swollen and coarse-textured spleen; hepatic necrosis; enteritis; and pericarditis. The SVCV genome is composed of linear, negative-sense, ssRNA containing five genes in the order 3'-N-P-M-G-L-5', encoding a nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, respectively. Fully sequenced SVCV strains exhibit distinct amino acid substitutions at unique positions, which may contribute to as-yet unknown strain-specific characteristics. To advance the study of SVCV and the control of spring viraemia of carp disease in the future, this review summarizes our current understanding of SVCV in terms of its genomic characteristics, genetic diversity and pathogenesis, and provides insights into antiviral immunity against SVCV, diagnosis of SVCV and vaccination strategies to combat SVCV. PMID:26905065

  14. Does Hooke's law work in helical nanosprings?

    PubMed

    Ben, Sudong; Zhao, Junhua; Rabczuk, Timon

    2015-08-28

    Hooke's law is a principle of physics that states that the force needed to extend a spring by some distance is proportional to that distance. The law is always valid for an initial portion of the elastic range for nearly all helical macrosprings. Here we report the sharp nonlinear force-displacement relation of tightly wound helical carbon nanotubes at even small displacement via a molecular mechanics model. We demonstrate that the van der Waals (vdW) interaction between the intertube walls dominates the nonlinear relation based on our analytical expressions. This study provides physical insights into the origin of huge nonlinearity of the helical nanosprings. PMID:26214003

  15. Hook nozzle arrangement for supporting airfoil vanes

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, James E. (Maitland, FL); Norton, Paul F. (San Diego, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A gas turbine engine's nozzle structure includes a nozzle support ring, a plurality of shroud segments, and a plurality of airfoil vanes. The plurality of shroud segments are distributed around the nozzle support ring. Each airfoil vane is connected to a corresponding shroud segment so that the airfoil vanes are also distributed around the nozzle support ring. Each shroud segment has a hook engaging the nozzle support ring so that the shroud segments and corresponding airfoil vanes are supported by the nozzle support ring. The nozzle support ring, the shroud segments, and the airfoil vanes may be ceramic.

  16. Hook nozzle arrangement for supporting airfoil vanes

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, J.E.; Norton, P.F.

    1996-02-20

    A gas turbine engine`s nozzle structure includes a nozzle support ring, a plurality of shroud segments, and a plurality of airfoil vanes. The plurality of shroud segments are distributed around the nozzle support ring. Each airfoil vane is connected to a corresponding shroud segment so that the airfoil vanes are also distributed around the nozzle support ring. Each shroud segment has a hook engaging the nozzle support ring so that the shroud segments and corresponding airfoil vanes are supported by the nozzle support ring. The nozzle support ring, the shroud segments, and the airfoil vanes may be ceramic. 8 figs.

  17. In vitro evaluation of synergistic activity between ciprofloxacin and broad snouted caiman serum against Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Siroski, P A; Russi, N B; Ortega, H H; Formentini, E A

    2015-02-01

    The in vitro synergistic activity between ciprofloxacin and serum of broad snouted caiman on Escherichia coli was studied. The estimated MIC value of ciprofloxacin was 0.0188 µg/ml, and two assays of kill curve during 5 hours were performed: the first one in a standard culture medium and the second one in the presence of caiman serum. Different concentrations of ciprofloxacin were tested. Ciprofloxacin showed higher values of bacterial elimination rate in the presence of caiman serum in all concentrations tested. The combined activity of sub-inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin and the humoral immune factors present in caiman serum determined an increase in the bacterial elimination observed in this assay. We suggest that the antibacterial activity of complement and natural antibodies present in caiman serum, which can bind to both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and acting through the classical complement pathway, can inhibit bacterial growth of Escherichia coli by lysis. PMID:25468795

  18. Disseminated Mycobacterium intracellulare infection in a broad-snouted caiman Caiman latirostris.

    PubMed

    Kik, Marja J L

    2013-11-25

    A 10 yr old broad-snouted caiman Caiman latirostris from a small Dutch animal park was presented with long-term variable periods of anorexia and weight loss. Blood chemistry showed slightly elevated uric acid levels and low ionised calcium concentration. Ultrasonographical thickening of the intestinal wall in the region of the duodenum was evident. Pathological changes were a thickening of the wall of 90% of the small intestines, enlarged spleen with multifocal white foci and an enlarged light-brown liver. Histopathological lesions consisted of disseminated granulomas in the intestinal wall, the liver and the spleen. Multinucleated giant cells and epitheloid macrophages were abundant. Ziehl-Neelsen staining showed numerous intralesional acid-fast bacteria. Polymerase chain reaction for Mycobacterium intracellulare was positive. PMID:24270027

  19. Cell Division Activity during Apical Hook Development1

    PubMed Central

    Raz, Vered; Koornneef, Maarten

    2001-01-01

    Growth during plant development is predominantly governed by the combined activities of cell division and cell elongation. The relative contribution of both activities controls the growth of a tissue. A fast change in growth is exhibited at the apical hypocotyl of etiolated seedlings where cells grow at different rates to form a hook-like structure, which is traditionally assumed to result from differential cell elongation. Using new tools we show asymmetric distribution of cell division during early stages of hook development. Cell divisions in the apical hook were predominantly found in subepidermal layers during an early step of hook development, but were absent in mutants exhibiting a hookless phenotype. In addition, during exaggeration of hook curvature, which is mediated by ethylene, a rapid change in the combined activities of cell division and cell elongation was detected. Our results indicate a fast change in cell division activity during apical hook development. We suggest that cell division together with cell elongation contributes to apical hook growth. Our results emphasize the change in the relative contribution of cell division and cell elongation in a fast growing structure like the apical hook. PMID:11154331

  20. Threonine affects digestion capacity and hepatopancreatic gene expression of juvenile blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    PubMed

    Habte-Tsion, Habte-Michael; Ren, Mingchun; Liu, Bo; Xie, Jun; Ge, Xianping; Chen, Ruli; Zhou, Qunlan; Pan, Liangkun

    2015-08-28

    The present study conducted a 9-week feeding trial to investigate the effects of threonine (Thr) on the digestion capacity and hepatopancreas gene expression of juvenile blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). For this purpose, three tanks (300 litres/tank) were randomly arranged and assigned to each experimental diet. Juvenile fish were fed with diets containing graded Thr levels (0·58, 1·08, 1·58, 2·08 or 2·58 % of the diet) to apparent satiation four times daily. At the end of the feeding trial, the results indicated that hepatopancreas weight, hepatosomatic index, hepatopancreatic protein content, intestinal weight, intestosomatic index and intestinal protein content increased with increasing dietary Thr levels up to 1·58 % and thereafter decreased (P< 0·05). The activities of chymotrypsin, trypsin, amylase and lipase elevated as dietary Thr levels increased up to 1·58 % (P< 0·05), while these activities decreased in most cases after 1·58 % dietary Thr except for chymotrypsin and trypsin in the hepatopancreas (plateau 1·58-2·08 % Thr). The relative gene expression levels of chymotrypsin, trypsin, amylase, lipase, target of rapamycin and insulin-like growth factor-I were up-regulated, and the highest values were observed with 1·58 % dietary Thr or 1·58 and 2·08 % dietary Thr, whereas the relative gene expression levels of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 2 gradually decreased (P< 0·10) as dietary Thr levels increased up to 1·58 % and thereafter significantly increased (P< 0·05), which could explain that about 1·58 % dietary Thr could improve the growth and development of digestive organs and activities of digestive enzymes of juvenile blunt snout bream. PMID:26202077

  1. Short-Snouted Toothless Ichthyosaur from China Suggests Late Triassic Diversification of Suction Feeding Ichthyosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Sander, P. Martin; Chen, Xiaohong; Cheng, Long; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    Background Ichthyosaurs were an important group of Mesozoic marine reptiles and existed from the Early Triassic to the early Late Cretaceous. Despite a great diversity in body shapes and feeding adaptations, all share greatly enlarged eyes, an elongated rostrum with numerous conical teeth, and a streamlined body. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on new material from China and the restudy of Shastasaurus pacificus, we here reinterpret the classical large-bodied Late Triassic ichthyosaur genus Shastasaurus to differ greatly from the standard ichthyosaurian body plan, indicating much greater morphological diversity and range of feeding adaptations in ichthyosaurs than previously recognized. Phylogenetic analysis indicates a monophyletic clade consisting of the giant Shonisaurus sikanniensis, Guanlingsaurus liangae, and Shastasaurus pacificus to which the genus name Shastasaurus is applied. Shastasaurus liangae comb. nov. is from the Late Triassic (Carnian) Xiaowa Formation of Guizhou Province, southwestern China. The species combines a diminutive head with an entirely toothless and greatly reduced snout. The species also has by far the highest vertebral count among ichthyosaurs (86 presacral vertebrae and >110 caudal vertebrae), a count that is also very high for tetrapods in general. A reduced toothless snout and a diminutive head is also apparently present in the giant S. sikanniensis and presumably in S. pacificus. Conclusions/Significance In analogy to many modern odontocetes, Shastasaurus is interpreted as a specialized suction feeder on unshelled cephalopods and fish, suggesting a unique but widespread Late Triassic diversification of toothless, suction-feeding ichthyosaurs. Suction feeding has not been hypothesized for any of the other diverse marine reptiles of the Mesozoic before, but in Shastasaurus may be linked to the Late Triassic minimum in atmospheric oxygen. PMID:21625429

  2. Predator-induced morphology enhances escape locomotion in crucian carp

    PubMed Central

    Domenici, Paolo; Turesson, Hkan; Brodersen, Jakob; Brnmark, Christer

    2007-01-01

    Fishes show a remarkable diversity of shapes which have been associated with their swimming abilities and anti-predator adaptations. The crucian carp (Carassius carassius) provides an extreme example of phenotypic plasticity in body shape which makes it a unique model organism for evaluating the relationship between body form and function in fishes. In crucian carp, a deep body is induced by the presence of pike (Esox lucius), and this results in lower vulnerability to gape-limited predators, such as pike itself. Here, we demonstrate that deep-bodied crucian carp attain higher speed, acceleration and turning rate during anti-predator responses than shallow-bodied crucian carp. Therefore, a predator-induced morphology in crucian carp enhances their escape locomotor performance. The deep-bodied carp also show higher percentage of muscle mass. Therefore, their superior performance in escape swimming may be due to a combination of higher muscle power and higher thrust. PMID:17971327

  3. Carp vitellogenin detection by an optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy biosensor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Namsoo; Kim, Dong-Kyung; Cho, Yong-Jin; Moon, Dae-Kyung; Kim, Woo-Yeon

    2008-11-15

    A label-free carp vitellogenin sensor has a strong potential for on-site monitoring on the possible contamination of edible fish with endocrine disruptors as a sum parameter in an inland carp farm. In this study, we performed a sensitive detection for carp vitellogenin with a direct-binding optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy-based immunosensor. Carp vitellogenin bound over the sensor surface quite specifically, judging from the sensor responses according to stepwise antibody immobilization. This was also supported by a negligible sensor response found at bovine serum albumin immobilization. When plotted in double-logarithmic scale for carp vitellogenin concentrations of 0.00675-67.5 nM, a linear relationship was found between analyte concentration and sensor response, together with the limit of detection of 0.00675 nM. The reusability of the immunosensor after the regeneration with 10mM HCl was reasonably good, as presumed from the coefficient of variability of 6.02% for nine repetitive measurements. The model sample prepared by spiking a purified carp vitellogenin into a 10-fold diluted vitellogenin-free carp serum in 9.45 nM showed the response ratio of 96.70% against 9.45 nM of the purified carp vitellogenin. When a female and male carp sera induced with 17beta-estradiol injection were analyzed, biomarker induction was even identifiable at 2000-fold serum dilution. PMID:18534837

  4. Competitive Interactions between Age-0 Bighead Carp and Paddlefish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrank, S.J.; Guy, C.S.; Fairchild, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis on native planktivores in the USA is unknown. The objectives of this study were to experimentally test for competitive interactions between age-0 bighead carp and age-0 paddlefish Polyodon spathula. Differences among water chemistry variables, invertebrate densities, and relative growth of fish were assessed in mesocosms. Water chemistry variables were similar among treatments throughout the experiment and only exhibited a temporal effect. Zooplankton density declined in mesocosms after fish were introduced. In general, zooplankton densities did not differ among treatments but did differ from the control. The relative growth of paddlefish was negative in the paddlefish and paddlefish-bighead carp treatments. The relative growth of bighead carp was negative in the bighead carp treatment but positive in the paddlefish-bighead carp treatment. Age-0 paddlefish exhibited the greatest decrease in relative growth in mesocosms with bighead carp. Bighead carp exhibited the greatest increase in relative growth in mesocosms with paddlefish. These data suggest that bighead carp have the potential to negatively affect the growth of paddlefish when food resources are limited.

  5. Influences of radiation on carp from farm ponds in Fukushima

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2015-01-01

    A massive release of artificial radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant caused radioactive contamination of farms as well as of aquatic products. Carp in small ponds in the highly radiocontaminated area of Iitate Village, Fukushima Prefecture, have been confined to the ponds since the accident, and it is thought that the carp may have suffered health issues as a result. Therefore, I investigated the health condition of the carp in order to elucidate the effects of radiation. Blood neutrophil, monocyte and lymphocyte counts in the carp from three ponds in Fukushima were lower than those in carp from a non-polluted pond in Tochigi Prefecture. Histological observations indicated abnormal hyperplasia of macrophages in the spleen, kidney, liver and pancreas of carp in Fukushima. Although there are likely to have been deleterious effects on carp health due to the radiation in Fukushima, this has not yet been confirmed because only one control pond was available for comparison, and I was not able to find any symptoms in the carp that correlated with internal cesium concentration. Further research is now being conducted to investigate the effects of radiation on carp. PMID:26666689

  6. Mortality due to a retained circle hook in a longfin mako shark Isurus paucus (Guitart-Manday).

    PubMed

    Adams, D H; Borucinska, J D; Maillett, K; Whitburn, K; Sander, T E

    2015-07-01

    A female longfin mako shark Isurus paucus (Guitart-Manday, 1966) was found moribund on the Atlantic Ocean beach near Canaveral National Seashore, Florida; the shark died shortly after stranding. Macroscopic lesions included a partially healed bite mark on the left pectoral fin, a clefted snout, pericardial effusion and a pericardial mass surrounding a 12/0 circle fishing hook. The heart, pericardial mass, gills, ovary, oviduct, shell gland, epigonal organ, liver, kidney and intrarenal and interrenal glands were processed for histopathology and examined by brightfield microscopy. Microscopic examination revealed chronic proliferative and pyogranulomatous pericarditis and myocarditis with rhabdomyolysis, fibrosis and thrombosis; scant bacteria and multifocal granular deposits of iron were found intralesionally. In addition, acute, multifocal infarcts within the epigonal organ and gill filaments were found in association with emboli formed by necrocellular material. The ovary had high numbers of atretic follicles, and the liver had diffuse, severe hepatocellular degeneration, multifocal spongiosis and moderate numbers of melanomacrophage cells. This report provides evidence of direct mortality due to systemic lesions associated with retained fishing gear in a prohibited shark species. Due to the large numbers of sharks released from both recreational and commercial fisheries worldwide, impact of delayed post-release mortality on shark populations is an important consideration. PMID:24974904

  7. Hooked: Habits of the Chinese Permian gigantopterid Gigantonoclea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfullah, Leyla J.; Glasspool, Ian J.; Hilton, Jason

    2014-04-01

    Based upon anatomical evidence, Permian aged gigantopterid fossils are in general reconstructed as climbing or scrambling plants. Gigantonoclea, a genus of adpressed gigantopterid foliage from the Permian of northern China, has been reported to co-occur with hook-like organs that were interpreted as indicating a scrambling/climbing habit. We reinvestigated these hook-like structures and re-evaluated the nature of the co-occurrences in context with the flora preserved in each plant-bearing fossil 'bed' in the North China sedimentary succession. New findings show that the species Gigantonoclea hallei probably climbed using specially adapted clusters of compound grappling hook-like shoots borne on the stems. This structural arrangement comprising shoots of hooks is new to the scrambling/climbing concept in gigantopterids. However, a key figured specimen previously reported as showing intermediate hook-tipped leaf morphology on a sole pinnule tip is discounted as such and is reinterpreted as a 'normal' pinnule partially hidden under sediment that results in an unusual appearance to this pinnule tip. Adaptations for climbing or scrambling based upon 'hooked leaves' observed in Gigantonoclea lagrelii are no longer supported and are reinterpreted as incompletely expanded leaves where the vernation process was interrupted. These data weaken prior interpretations of G. lagrelii as a climber/scrambler and raise doubts about the ubiquity of hooks amongst the gigantopterids as structures enabling them to climb or scramble their way through the Permian world.

  8. Use of eyeballs for establishing ploidy of Asian carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, J.A.; Thomas, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and bighead carp H. nobilis are now established and relatively common in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers. Commercial fishers of Louisiana's large rivers report recurrent catches of grass carp, and the frequency of bighead carp and silver carp catch is increasing. Twelve black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus were recently captured from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River system, and 10 were analyzed for ploidy. By using the methods described herein, all 10 fish were determined to be diploid. Such correct identifications of ploidy of feral Asian carp species, as well as other species, would provide science-based information constructive for meeting reporting requirements, tracking fish movements, and forecasting expansion of species distribution. To investigate the postmortem period for sample collection and to lessen demands on field operations for obtaining samples, a laboratory study was performed to determine the length of time for which eyeballs from postmortem black carp could be used for ploidy determinations. Acquiring eyes rather than blood is simpler and quicker and requires no special supplies. An internal DNA reference standard with a documented genome size, including erythrocytes from diploid black carp or Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, was analyzed simultaneously with cells from seven known triploid black carp to assess ploidy through 12 d after extraction. Ploidy determinations were reliable through 8 d postmortem. The field process entails excision of an eyeball, storage in a physiological buffer, and shipment within 8 d at refrigeration temperatures (4??C) to the laboratory for analysis by flow cytometry. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  9. Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.

    2011-12-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance and reducing perturbations induced by this invasive species.

  10. Facts About Invasive Bighead and Silver Carps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists at the Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC), Columbia, Missouri, carry out basic and applied research on the ecology of invasive fishes in the Missouri and Mississippi river basins. Emphasis is placed on improving understanding of the life cycles of bighead and silver carp to provide information needed to manage these aggressively invasive species. USGS scientists collaborate with Federal and State management agencies and universities, nationally and internationally, to fill critical science information gaps.

  11. Robert Hooke's Seminal Contribution to Orbital Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nauenberg, Michael

    2005-03-01

    During the second half of the seventeenth century, the outstanding problem in astronomy was to understand the physical basis for Kepler’s laws describing the observed orbital motion of a planet around the Sun. In the middle 1660s,Robert Hooke (1635 1703) proposed that a planet’s motion is determined by compounding its tangential velocity with the change in radial velocity impressed by the gravitational attraction of the Sun, and he described his physical concept to Isaac Newton (1642 1726) in correspondence in 1679. Newton denied having heard of Hooke’s novel concept of orbital motion, but shortly after their correspondence he implemented it by a geometric construction from which he deduced the physical origin of Kepler’s area law,which later became Proposition I, Book I, of his Principia in 1687.Three years earlier, Newton had deposited a preliminary draft of it, his De Motu Corporum in Gyrum (On the Motion of Bodies), at the Royal Society of London, which Hooke apparently was able to examine a few months later, because shortly there-after he applied Newton’s construction in a novel way to obtain the path of a body under the action of an attractive central force that varies linearly with the distance from its center of motion (Hooke’s law). I show that Hooke’s construction corresponds to Newton’s for his proof of Kepler’s area law in his De Motu. Hooke’s understanding of planetary motion was based on his observations with mechanical analogs. I repeated two of his experiments and demonstrated the accuracy of his observations.My results thus cast new light on the significance of Hooke’s contributions to the development of orbital dynamics, which in the past have either been neglected or misunderstood.

  12. Genetic mapping and QTL analysis for body weight in Jian carp ( Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) compared with mirror carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Ying; Lu, Cuiyun; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Li, Chao; Yu, Juhua; Sun, Xiaowen

    2015-05-01

    We report the genetic linkage map of Jian carp ( Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). An F1 population comprising 94 Jian carp individuals was mapped using 254 microsatellite markers. The genetic map spanned 1 381.592 cM and comprised 44 linkage groups, with an average marker distance of 6.58 cM. We identified eight quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for body weight (BW) in seven linkage groups, explaining 12.6% to 17.3% of the phenotypic variance. Comparative mapping was performed between Jian carp and mirror carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.), which both have 50 chromosomes. One hundred and ninety-eight Jian carp marker loci were found in common with the mirror carp map, with 186 (93.94%) showing synteny. All 44 Jian carp linkage groups could be one-to-one aligned to the 44 mirror carp linkage groups, mostly sharing two or more common loci. Three QTLs for BW in Jian carp were conserved in mirror carp. QTL comparison suggested that the QTL confidence interval in mirror carp was more precise than the homologous interval in Jian carp, which was contained within the QTL interval in Jian carp. The syntenic relationship and consensus QTLs between the two varieties provide a foundation for genomic research and genetic breeding in common carp.

  13. Fractures of the hook of hamate: radiographic signs

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, A.; Nelson, J.; Green, S.

    1985-01-01

    Isolated fractures of the hamulus, formerly considered rare, are being seen more frequently. Many of these injuries are sports related, particularly in golf, tennis, racquetball and baseball players. Failure to make an early diagnosis can result in severe pain and sometimes incapacitating disability. The authors studied the clinical and radiological findings in 12 patients who had fracture of the hook of the hamate. The proposed three radiographic signs of fracture that are readily seen on routine PA projections: absence of the hook of the hamate; sclerosis of the hook; and lack of cortical density, i.e., barely visible outline, of the hamulus.

  14. Response of Bighead Carp and Silver Carp to repeated water gun operation in an enclosed shallow pond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Romine, Jason G.; Jensen, Nathan; Parsley, Michael J.; Gaugush, Robert F.; Severson, Todd J.; Hatton, Tyson W.; Adams, Ryan F.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    The Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp H. molitrix are nonnative species that pose a threat to Great Lakes ecosystems should they advance into those areas. Thus, technologies to impede Asian carp movement into the Great Lakes are needed; one potential technology is the seismic water gun. We evaluated the efficacy of a water gun array as a behavioral deterrent to the movement of acoustic-tagged Bighead Carp and Silver Carp in an experimental pond. Behavioral responses were evaluated by using four metrics: (1) fish distance from the water guns (D); (2) spatial area of the fish’s utilization distribution (UD); (3) persistence velocity (Vp); and (4) number of times a fish transited the water gun array. For both species, average D increased by 10 m during the firing period relative to the pre-firing period. During the firing period, the spatial area of use within the pond decreased. Carp were located throughout the pond during the pre-firing period but were concentrated in the north end of the pond during the firing period, thus reducing their UDs by roughly 50%. Overall, Vp decreased during the firing period relative to the pre-firing period, as fish movement became more tortuous and confined, suggesting that the firing of the guns elicited a change in carp behavior. The water gun array was partially successful at impeding carp movement, but some fish did transit the array. Bighead Carp moved past the guns a total of 78 times during the pre-firing period and 15 times during the firing period; Silver Carp moved past the guns 96 times during the pre-firing period and 13 times during the firing period. Although the water guns did alter carp behavior, causing the fish to move away from the guns, this method was not 100% effective as a passage deterrent.

  15. GRASS CARP AS A POTENTIAL CONTROL AGENT FOR CATTAILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Replicate ponds were stocked with grass carp in May 1982 and a fence exclosure placed in each pond to assess the effects of this herbivorous fish on the cattail community. Stocking rate of grass carp four individuals oer pond each membership 18-23 cm in total length. In August 19...

  16. 33 CFR 117.460 - La Carpe Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false La Carpe Bayou. 117.460 Section 117.460 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.460 La Carpe Bayou. The draw of...

  17. 33 CFR 117.460 - La Carpe Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false La Carpe Bayou. 117.460 Section 117.460 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.460 La Carpe Bayou. The draw of...

  18. 33 CFR 117.460 - La Carpe Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false La Carpe Bayou. 117.460 Section 117.460 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.460 La Carpe Bayou. The draw of...

  19. 33 CFR 117.460 - La Carpe Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false La Carpe Bayou. 117.460 Section 117.460 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.460 La Carpe Bayou. The draw of...

  20. 33 CFR 117.460 - La Carpe Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false La Carpe Bayou. 117.460 Section 117.460 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.460 La Carpe Bayou. The draw of...

  1. Asian carp behavior in response to static water gun firing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Layhee, Megan J.; Gross, Jackson A.; Parsley, Michael J.; Romine, Jason G.; Glover, David C.; Suski, Cory D.; Wagner, Tristany L.; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The potential for invasion of Asian carp into the Great Lakes has ecological and socio-economic implications. If they become established, Asian carp are predicted to alter lake ecosystems and impact commercial and recreational fisheries. The Chicago Sanitary and Shipping Canal is an important biological conduit between the Mississippi River Basin, where invasive Asian carp are abundant, and the Great Lakes. Millions of dollars have been spent to erect an electric barrier defense in the canal to prevent movement of Asian carp into the Great Lakes, but the need for additional fish deterrent technologies to supplement the existing barrier is warranted. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center are examining seismic water gun technology, formerly used in oceanic oil exploration, as a fish deterrent. The goal of the current study is to employ telemetry and sonar monitoring equipment to assess the behavioral response of Asian carp to seismic water guns and the sound energy it generates.

  2. Determination of the acute toxicity of isoniazid to three invasive carp species and rainbow trout in static exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreier, Theresa M.; Hubert, Terrance D.

    2015-01-01

    Three invasive fishes of considerable concern to aquatic resource managers are the Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (bighead carp),Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp), and Ctenopharyngodon idella (grass carp), collectively known as Asian carps. There is a need for an effective chemical control agent for Asian carps. Isoniazid was identified as a potential toxicant for grass carp. The selective toxicity of isoniazid to grass carp was verified as a response to an anecdotal report received in 2013. In addition, the toxicity of isoniazid to bighead carp, silver carp, and Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout) was evaluated. Isoniazid was not toxic to grass carp at the reported anecdotal concentration, which was 13 milligrams per liter. Isoniazid (130 milligrams per liter) was not selectively toxic to bighead carp, silver carp, or grass carp when compared to rainbow trout.

  3. Relationship between tornadoes and hook echoes on April 3, 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, G. S.

    1975-01-01

    Radar observations of tornado families occurring on April 3, 1974 are discussed. Of the 93 tornadoes included in the sample, 81% were associated with hook-like echoes with appendages at least 40 deg to the south of the echo movement. At least one tornado was associated with 62% of the hook-like echoes observed. All of the tornadoes with intensities of F 4 and F 5 were produced by hook-like echoes; the mean intensity of all tornadoes associated with this type of echo was F 3, while the mean intensity of the remaining tornadoes was F1. The tornadic hook-like echoes moved to the right of the non-tornadic echoes forming a tornado line in advance of the squall line. Some tornadoes were associated with 'spiral' echoes.

  4. Bohlin transformation: the hidden symmetry that connects Hooke to Newton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saggio, Maria Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Hooke's name is familiar to students of mechanics thanks to the law of force that bears his name. Less well-known is the influence his findings had on the founder of mechanics, Isaac Newton. In a lecture given some twenty years ago, W Arnol'd pointed out the outstanding contribution to science made by Hooke, and also noted the controversial issue of the attribution of important discoveries to Newton that were actually inspired by Hooke. It therefore seems ironic that the two most famous force laws, named after Hooke and Newton, are two geometrical aspects of the same law. This relationship, together with other illuminating aspects of Newtonian mechanics, is described in Arnol'd's book and is worth remembering in standard physics courses. In this didactical paper the duality of the two forces is expounded and an account of the more recent contributions to the subject is given.

  5. A remarkable short-snouted horned dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous (late Campanian) of southern Laramidia

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Scott D.; Lund, Eric K.; Loewen, Mark A.; Farke, Andrew A.; Clayton, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    The fossil record of centrosaurine ceratopsids is largely restricted to the northern region of western North America (Alberta, Montana and Alaska). Exceptions consist of single taxa from Utah (Diabloceratops) and China (Sinoceratops), plus otherwise fragmentary remains from the southern Western Interior of North America. Here, we describe a remarkable new taxon, Nasutoceratops titusi n. gen. et sp., from the late Campanian Kaiparowits Formation of Utah, represented by multiple specimens, including a nearly complete skull and partial postcranial skeleton. Autapomorphies include an enlarged narial region, pneumatic nasal ornamentation, abbreviated snout and elongate, rostrolaterally directed supraorbital horncores. The subrectangular parietosquamosal frill is relatively unadorned and broadest in the mid-region. A phylogenetic analysis indicates that Nasutoceratops is the sister taxon to Avaceratops, and that a previously unknown subclade of centrosaurines branched off early in the group's history and persisted for several million years during the late Campanian. As the first well-represented southern centrosaurine comparable in age to the bulk of northern forms, Nasutoceratops provides strong support for the provincialism hypothesis, which posits that Laramidia—the western landmass formed by inundation of the central region of North America by the Western Interior Seaway—hosted at least two coeval dinosaur communities for over a million years of late Campanian time. PMID:23864598

  6. A basal ichthyosauriform with a short snout from the Lower Triassic of China.

    PubMed

    Motani, Ryosuke; Jiang, Da-Yong; Chen, Guan-Bao; Tintori, Andrea; Rieppel, Olivier; Ji, Cheng; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2015-01-22

    The incompleteness of the fossil record obscures the origin of many of the more derived clades of vertebrates. One such group is the Ichthyopterygia, a clade of obligatory marine reptiles that appeared in the Early Triassic epoch, without any known intermediates. Here we describe a basal ichthyosauriform from the upper Lower Triassic (about 248 million years ago) of China, whose primitive skeleton indicates possible amphibious habits. It is smaller than ichthyopterygians and had unusually large flippers that probably allowed limited terrestrial locomotion. It also retained characteristics of terrestrial diapsid reptiles, including a short snout and body trunk. Unlike more-derived ichthyosauriforms, it was probably a suction feeder. The new species supports the sister-group relationships between ichthyosauriforms and Hupehsuchia, the two forming the Ichthyosauromorpha. Basal ichthyosauromorphs are known exclusively from south China, suggesting that the clade originated in the region, which formed a warm and humid tropical archipelago in the Early Triassic. The oldest unequivocal record of a sauropterygian is also from the same stratigraphic unit of the region. PMID:25383536

  7. A remarkable short-snouted horned dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous (late Campanian) of southern Laramidia.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Scott D; Lund, Eric K; Loewen, Mark A; Farke, Andrew A; Clayton, Katherine E

    2013-09-01

    The fossil record of centrosaurine ceratopsids is largely restricted to the northern region of western North America (Alberta, Montana and Alaska). Exceptions consist of single taxa from Utah (Diabloceratops) and China (Sinoceratops), plus otherwise fragmentary remains from the southern Western Interior of North America. Here, we describe a remarkable new taxon, Nasutoceratops titusi n. gen. et sp., from the late Campanian Kaiparowits Formation of Utah, represented by multiple specimens, including a nearly complete skull and partial postcranial skeleton. Autapomorphies include an enlarged narial region, pneumatic nasal ornamentation, abbreviated snout and elongate, rostrolaterally directed supraorbital horncores. The subrectangular parietosquamosal frill is relatively unadorned and broadest in the mid-region. A phylogenetic analysis indicates that Nasutoceratops is the sister taxon to Avaceratops, and that a previously unknown subclade of centrosaurines branched off early in the group's history and persisted for several million years during the late Campanian. As the first well-represented southern centrosaurine comparable in age to the bulk of northern forms, Nasutoceratops provides strong support for the provincialism hypothesis, which posits that Laramidia-the western landmass formed by inundation of the central region of North America by the Western Interior Seaway-hosted at least two coeval dinosaur communities for over a million years of late Campanian time. PMID:23864598

  8. Immunotoxicity of commercial-mixed glyphosate in broad snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris).

    PubMed

    Siroski, Pablo A; Poletta, Gisela L; Latorre, María A; Merchant, Mark E; Ortega, Hugo H; Mudry, Marta D

    2016-01-25

    The expansion and intensification of agriculture during the past 50 years is unprecedented, and thus environmental problems have been triggered at different scales. These transformations have caused the loss of habitat and biodiversity, and disruption of the structure and functioning of ecosystems. As a result of the expansion of the agricultural frontier in the recent past, many areas of the natural geographic distribution of the local wildlife, among them crocodilians and particularly the broad snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris), are being exposed to contaminants. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of commercially-mixed glyphosate (RU) on some parameters of the immune system of C. latirostris. Two groups of caimans were exposed for two months to different concentrations of RU recommended for its application in the field, while one group was maintained as an unexposed control. The RU concentration was progressively decreased through the exposure period to simulate glyphosate degradation in water. After exposure, total and differential white blood cell (WBC), and complement system activity (CS) were determined. In addition, the animals were injected with a solution of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli to trigger an immune response and evaluate the parameters associated with it. The results showed that an effect of the herbicide on CS was observed, as animals exposed to RU showed a lower CS activity than animals from the negative control (NC) but not in total WBC. In the case of leukocyte population counts, differences were only found for heterophils and lymphocytes. PMID:26658029

  9. Insights into the Antiviral Immunity against Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Reovirus (GCRV) in Grass Carp

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Global fish production from aquaculture has rapidly grown over the past decades, and grass carp shares the largest portion. However, hemorrhagic disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) results in tremendous loss of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) industry. During the past years, development of molecular biology and cellular biology technologies has promoted significant advances in the understanding of the pathogen and the immune system. Immunoprophylaxis based on stimulation of the immune system of fish has also got some achievements. In this review, authors summarize the recent progresses in basic researches on GCRV; viral nucleic acid sensors, high-mobility group box proteins (HMGBs); pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid inducible gene I- (RIG-I-) like receptors (RLRs); antiviral immune responses induced by PRRs-mediated signaling cascades of type I interferon (IFN-I) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) activation. The present review also notices the potential applications of molecule genetic markers. Additionally, authors discuss the current preventive and therapeutic strategies (vaccines, RNAi, and prevention medicine) and highlight the importance of innate immunity in long term control for grass carp hemorrhagic disease. PMID:25759845

  10. Insights into the antiviral immunity against grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) reovirus (GCRV) in grass carp.

    PubMed

    Rao, Youliang; Su, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Global fish production from aquaculture has rapidly grown over the past decades, and grass carp shares the largest portion. However, hemorrhagic disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) results in tremendous loss of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) industry. During the past years, development of molecular biology and cellular biology technologies has promoted significant advances in the understanding of the pathogen and the immune system. Immunoprophylaxis based on stimulation of the immune system of fish has also got some achievements. In this review, authors summarize the recent progresses in basic researches on GCRV; viral nucleic acid sensors, high-mobility group box proteins (HMGBs); pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid inducible gene I- (RIG-I-) like receptors (RLRs); antiviral immune responses induced by PRRs-mediated signaling cascades of type I interferon (IFN-I) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) activation. The present review also notices the potential applications of molecule genetic markers. Additionally, authors discuss the current preventive and therapeutic strategies (vaccines, RNAi, and prevention medicine) and highlight the importance of innate immunity in long term control for grass carp hemorrhagic disease. PMID:25759845

  11. Performance of barbed and barbless hooks in a marine recreational fishery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaeffer, Jeffrey S.; Hoffman, Elizabeth M.

    2002-01-01

    We used an angling study to examine catch per unit effort (CPUE), bait loss, and total landings by anglers fishing with natural bait on barbed and barbless hooks in a nearshore marine sport fishery located in the Gulf of Mexico near St. Petersburg, Florida. Anglers fished half the day with a barbed hook and half the day with a barbless hook. We also recorded anatomical hook placement, severity of injury or bleeding, and hook extraction times for each landed fish. Bait loss, CPUE, and mean length of catch did not differ between gears, but anglers landed 22% more fish with barbed hooks. Loss of hooked fish was significantly higher with barbless hooks, and efficiency appeared to vary among species. Mean unhooking times were significantly shorter with barbless hooks. Anatomical hook placement did not differ between gears and most fish were hooked in the jaws. Bleeding did not differ between gears because bleeding was influenced strongly by hook placement, but barbless hooks reduced unhooking injuries. In this fishery, barbless hooks probably did not reduce hooking mortality and conferred only slight benefits at the expense of reduced catches.

  12. Molecular responses differ between sensitive silver carp and tolerant bighead carp and bigmouth buffalo exposed to rotenone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amberg, Jon J.; Schreier, Theresa M.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Some species of fish are more tolerant of rotenone, a commonly used non-specific piscicide, than others. This species-specific tolerance to rotenone has been thought to be associated with the uptake and the efficiency at which the chemical is detoxified. However, rotenone stimulates oxidative stress and superoxides, which are also toxic. Understanding the modes in which fish physiologically respond to rotenone is important in developing improved protocols for its application in controlling aquatic nuisance species. Using a molecular approach, we investigated the physiological and molecular mechanisms of rotenone resistance. Species-specific responses were observed when rotenone-sensitive silver, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and both rotenone-resistant bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, and bigmouth buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus, were exposed to rotenone. Rotenone levels in plasma were highest 90 min after exposure in both silver carp and bigmouth buffalo, but bigmouth buffalo tolerated over twice the burden (ng mL-1 g-1) than silver carp. Expression of genes related with detoxification (cyp1a and gst) increased in silver carp, but either decreased or remained the same in bighead carp. Genes linked with oxidative stress in the cytosol (gpx, cat and sod1) and hsp70 increased only in silver carp after a 6-h exposure. Expression of genes associated with oxidative stress in the mitochondria (sod2 and ucp2) differed between silver carp and bighead carp. Expression of sod2 changed minimally in bighead carp, but expression of ucp2 linearly increased to nearly 85-fold of the level prior to exposure. Expression of sod2 and ucp2 did not change until 6 h in silver carp. Use of sod1 and sod2 to combat oxidative stress results in hydrogen peroxide production, while use of ucp2 produces nitric oxide, a chemical known to inhibit apoptosis. We conclude that the mechanism at which a fish handles oxidative stress plays an important role in the tolerance to rotenone.

  13. Transcriptome analysis and microsatellite discovery in the blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) after challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngoc Tuan; Gao, Ze-Xia; Zhao, Hong-Hao; Yi, Shao-Kui; Chen, Bo-Xiang; Zhao, Yu-Hua; Lin, Li; Liu, Xue-Qin; Wang, Wei-Min

    2015-07-01

    The blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala, is a herbivorous freshwater fish species native to China and a major aquaculture species in Chinese freshwater polyculture systems. In recent years, the bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila has been reported to be its pathogen causing great losses of farmed fish. To understand the immune response of the blunt snout bream to A. hydrophila infection, we used the Solexa/Illumina technology to analyze the transcriptomic profile after artificial bacterial infection. Two nonnormalized cDNA libraries were synthesized from tissues collected from control blunt snout bream or those injected with A. hydrophila. After assembly, 155,052 unigenes (average length 692.8 bp) were isolated. All unigenes were annotated using BLASTX relative to several public databases: the National Center for Biotechnology Information nonreduntant (Nr) database, SwissProt, Eukaryotic Orthologous Groups of proteins (KOG), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and Gene Ontology (GO). The sequence similarity (86%) of the assembled unigenes was to zebrafish based on the Nr database. A number of unigenes (n = 30,482) were assigned to three GO categories: biological processes (25,242 unigenes), molecular functions (26,096 unigenes), and cellular components (22,778 unigenes). 20,909 unigenes were classified into 25 KOG categories and 28,744 unigenes were assigned into 315 specific signaling pathways. In total, 238 significantly differentially expressed unigenes (mapped to 125 genes) were identified: 101 upregulated genes and 24 downregulated genes. Another 303 unigenes were mapped to unknown or novel genes. Among the known expressed genes identified, 53 were immune-related genes and were distributed in 71 signaling pathways. The expression patterns of selected up- and downregulated genes from the control and injected groups were determined with reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Microsatellites (n = 10,877), including di-to pentanucleotide repeat motifs, were also identified in the blunt snout bream transcriptome profiles. This study extends our understanding of the immune defense mechanisms of the blunt snout bream against A. hydrophila and provides useful data for further studies of the immunogenetics of this species. PMID:25681750

  14. Clathrin-Mediated Auxin Efflux and Maxima Regulate Hypocotyl Hook Formation and Light-Stimulated Hook Opening in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qinqin; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Juan; Yan, Xu; Wang, Chao; Xu, Jian; Pan, Jianwei

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of auxin maxima by PIN-FORMED 3 (PIN3)- and AUXIN RESISTANT 1/LIKE AUX1 (LAX) 3 (AUX1/LAX3)-mediated auxin transport is essential for hook formation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls. Until now, however, the underlying regulatory mechanism has remained poorly understood. Here, we show that loss of function of clathrin light chain CLC2 and CLC3 genes enhanced auxin maxima and thereby hook curvature, alleviated the inhibitory effect of auxin overproduction on auxin maxima and hook curvature, and delayed blue light-stimulated auxin maxima reduction and hook opening. Moreover, pharmacological experiments revealed that auxin maxima formation and hook curvature in clc2 clc3 were sensitive to auxin efflux inhibitors 1-naphthylphthalamic acid and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid but not to the auxin influx inhibitor 1-naphthoxyacetic acid. Live-cell imaging analysis further uncovered that loss of CLC2 and CLC3 function impaired PIN3 endocytosis and promoted its lateralization in the cortical cells but did not affect AUX1 localization. Taken together, these results suggest that clathrin regulates auxin maxima and thereby hook formation through modulating PIN3 localization and auxin efflux, providing a novel mechanism that integrates developmental signals and environmental cues to regulate plant skotomorphogenesis and photomorphogenesis. PMID:26458873

  15. Engineering Evaluation of International Low Impact Docking System Latch Hooks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, J.; Patin, R.; Figert, J.

    2013-01-01

    The international Low Impact Docking System (iLIDS) provides a structural arrangement that allows for visiting vehicles to dock with the International Space Station (ISS) (Fig 1). The iLIDS docking units are mechanically joined together by a series of active and passive latch hooks. In order to preserve docking capability at the existing Russian docking interfaces, the iLIDS latch hooks are required to conform to the existing Russian design. The latch hooks are classified as being fail-safe. Since the latch hooks are fail-safe, the hooks are not fracture critical and a fatigue based service life assessment will satisfy the structural integrity requirements. Constant amplitude fatigue testing to failure on four sets of active/passive iLIDS latch hooks was performed at load magnitudes of 10, 11, and 12 kips. Failure analysis of the hook fatigue failures identified multi-site fatigue initiation that was effectively centered about the hook mid-plane (consistent with the 3D model results). The fatigue crack initiation distribution implies that the fatigue damage accumulation effectively results in a very low aspect ratio surface crack (which can be simulated as thru-thickness crack). Fatigue damage progression resulted in numerous close proximity fatigue crack initiation sites. It was not possible to determine if fatigue crack coalescence occurs during cyclic loading or as result of the fast fracture response. The presence of multiple fatigue crack initiation sites on different planes will result in the formation of ratchet marks as the cracks coalesce. Once the stable fatigue crack becomes unstable and the fast fracture advances across the remaining ligament and the plane stress condition at a free-surface will result in failure along a 45 deg. shear plane (slant fracture) and the resulting inclined edge is called a shear lip. The hook thickness on the plane of fatigue crack initiation is 0.787". The distance between the shear lips on this plane was on the order of 0.48" and it was effectively centered about the mid-plane of the section. The numerous ratchet marks between the shear lips on the fracture initiation plane are indicative of multiple fatigue initiation sites within this region. The distribution of the fatigue damage about the centerline of the hook is consistent with the analytical results that demonstrate peak stress/strain response at the mid-plane that decreases in the direction of the hook outer surfaces. Scanning electron microscope images of the failed sections detected fatigue crack striations in close proximity to the free surface of the hook radius. These findings were documented at three locations on the fracture surface : 1) adjacent to the left shear lip, 2) adjacent to the right shear lip, and 3) near the centerline of the section. The features of the titanium fracture surface did not allow for a determination of a critical crack size via identification of the region where the fatigue crack propagation became unstable. The fracture based service life projections where benchmarked with strain-life analyses. The strainrange response in the hook radius was defined via the correlated finite element models and the modified method of universal slopes was incorporated to define the strain-life equation for the titanium alloy. The strain-life assessment confirmed that the fracture based projections were reasonable for the loading range of interest. Based upon the analysis and component level fatigue test data a preliminary service life capability for the iLIDS active and passive hooks of 2 lifetimes is projected (includes a scatter factor of 4).

  16. Eos Interviews Robert Van Hook, Former AGU Interim Executive Director

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-08-01

    Robert Van Hook, who served as AGU's interim executive director since January 2009, led the organization during a transition period that began with the retirement of long-serving executive director A. F. (“Fred”) Spilhaus Jr. Van Hook's tenure concluded on 30 August when Christine McEntee assumed her position as AGU's new executive director (see Eos, 91(17), 153, 156, 2010). During his tenure at AGU, which overlapped with a global economic recession, Van Hook helped to guide the organization through key structural governance changes, strategic planning, and upgrades in technology, human resources, and accounting. He also helped to revitalize public outreach and member services, among many other efforts. Van Hook, president of Transition Management Consulting, recently reflected upon his tenure, the transition period, and the future of AGU. Van Hook credits AGU's strong volunteer leadership—including past presidents Tim Killeen and Tim Grove, current president Mike McPhaden, and president-elect Carol Finn—for courage in moving the organization through a successful transition. “They were the ones who shoved the boat off from the shore. I was lucky enough to be invited into the boat,” he said. He also credits the staff for their resiliency and commitment to supporting AGU's science.

  17. Functional conservation and divergence of duplicated fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (fgfr1) genes in blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian-Qian; Li, Fu-Gui; Qin, Bo; Chen, Jie; Jiang, Xia-Yun; Zou, Shu-Ming

    2015-12-01

    Fgfr1 is a fibroblast growth factor receptor involved in regulating cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and migration. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of duplicated fgfr1 genes in blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). Blunt snout bream fgfr1a and -1b cDNAs were found to share a relatively high sequence identity of 82%. During embryogenesis, both fgfr1a and -1b mRNAs were highly detected at zygotes but gradually decreased and then constantly expressed after 16hpf, besides a strong expression for the fgfr1b mRNA at 12hpf. Whole-mount in situ hybridization demonstrated that fgfr1a mRNA was transcribed at the eyes, mid-hindbrain boundary (MHB), brain, posterior somites and tailbud at 16hpf, while the fgfr1b mRNA was only detected at the eyes and posterior somites at the same period. At 28hpf embryos, both fgfr1a and -1b mRNAs were expressed in the eyes, brain, pharyngeal arches and tailbud, and in the eyes, brain, pharyngeal arches and notochord at 55hpf. In adult fish, fgfr1a mRNA was strongly expressed in the gill, gonad, brain and midgut, but examined relatively low in the skin and kidney. In contrast, the fgfr1b mRNA was highly detected in the brain and liver and quite low in the skin, gill and kidney. During starvation, both fgfr1a and -1b mRNAs were significantly up-regulated in the intestine and liver, but down-regulated in the brain. Moreover, duplicated fgfr1 mRNAs were differentially inhibited in tissues with exogenous recombinant hGH. Our results suggest that two fgfr1 genes play important roles in regulating growth and development in blunt snout bream. PMID:26211630

  18. Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) MyD88 and TRAF6: Characterisation, Comparative Homology Modelling and Expression

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Ngoc Tuan; Liu, Han; Jakovlić, Ivan; Wang, Wei-Min

    2015-01-01

    MyD88 and TRAF6 play an essential role in the innate immune response in most animals. This study reports the full-length MaMyD88 and MaTRAF6 genes identified from the blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) transcriptome profile. MaMyD88 is 2501 base pairs (bp) long, encoding a putative protein of 284 amino acids (aa), including the N-terminal DEATH domain of 78 aa and the C-terminal TIR domain of 138 aa. MaTRAF6 is 2252 bp long, encoding a putative protein of 542 aa, including the N-terminal low-complexity region, RING domain (40 aa), a coiled-coil region (64 aa) and C-terminal MATH domain (147 aa). Coding regions of MaMyD88 and MaTRAF6 genomic sequences consisted of five and six exons, respectively. Physicochemical and functional characteristics of the proteins were analysed. Alpha helices were dominant in the secondary structure of the proteins. Homology models of the MaMyD88 and MaTRAF6 domains were constructed applying the comparative modelling method. RT-qPCR was used to analyse the expression of MaMyD88 and MaTRAF6 mRNA transcripts in response to Aeromonas hydrophila challenge. Both genes were highly upregulated in the liver, spleen and kidney during the first 24 h after the challenge. While MyD88 and TRAF6 have been reported in various aquatic species, this is the first report and characterisation of these genes in blunt snout bream. This research also provides evidence of the important roles of these two genes in the blunt snout bream innate immune system. PMID:25830478

  19. PCBs and other xenobiotics in raw and cooked carp

    SciTech Connect

    Zabik, M.E.; Merrill, C.; Zabik, M.J.

    1982-06-01

    The effect of cooking on PCBs and DDT compounds was determined in fillets from carp ranging from 3.0 to 4.9 Kg. Cooking methods included were: poaching, roasting, deep fat frying, charbroiling and cooking by microwave. (JMT)

  20. Comparative pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of quinocetone in crucian carp (Carassius auratus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) following the same experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Ai, X; Wang, F; Yang, H; Xu, N; Yang, Q

    2015-08-01

    The pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of quinocetone (QCT) in crucian carp (Carassius auratus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were compared after oral administration of QCT (50 mg/kg body weight) at water temperature of 24 ± 1 °C. Similar QCT plasma concentration-time profiles were found in the three species of cyprinid fish at the same dosage regimen and water temperature, which were all fitted two-compartment open pharmacokinetic model. However, different pharmacokinetic parameters were observed in crucian carp, common carp, and grass carp. The absorption rate constants (K(a)) of QCT were 1.65, 1.40 and 1.74/h, respectively and absorption half-lives (t(1/2kα)) were 0.42, 0.49, and 0.40/h, respectively. The distribution half-life (t(1/2α)) was 2.83, 0.67, and 0.88 h, respectively, and elimination half-lives (t(1/2β)) of QCT were 133.97, 63.55, and 40.76 h, respectively. The maximum concentrations (C(max)) of QCT in plasma were 0.315, 0.182, and 0.139 μg/mL and the time to peak concentrations (T(p)) were 1.45, 0.96, and 1.08 h, respectively. The area under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUC) were 12.35, 5.99, and 4.52 μg·h/mL, respectively. The distribution volumes (V(d)/F) of QCT were calculated as 117.81, 128.71, and 220.10 L/kg, respectively. The tissue analysis showed that a similar regularity was obtained in the three species of cyprinids with a single dose of 50 mg/kg body weight after oral administration at the same water temperature. The tissue concentration of QCT in each fish was in order of liver>kidney>muscle, while the residues of QCT in the three species of cyprinid fish were in order of crucian carp>common carp>grass carp. PMID:25515188

  1. Female homogamety in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) determined by gynogenesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Jon G.

    1976-01-01

    Gynogenesis occurred in eggs of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) treated with X-irradiated milt from goldfish (Carassius auratus). Gynogenetic offspring were females, which indicates functional female homogamety in grass carp. Five of these gynogenetic fish were used as an egg source for a second generation of artificially gynogenetic fish. The percentage yield in this second generation was about the same as in the first, which suggests that the tendency to become diploid is not strongly heritable

  2. Painful os styloideum: bone scintigraphy in carpe bossu disease

    SciTech Connect

    Apple, J.S.; Martinez, S.; Nunley, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The os styloideum (ninth carpal bone) is an anatomic variant that may occur as an accessory ossicle located dorsally between the capitate and trapezoid, and the bases of the second and third metacarpals. The association of dorsal wrist pain or fatigability with an os styloideum is known as carpe bossu disease. The authors describe a woman with dorsal wrist pain in whom the diagnosis of painful os styloideum (carpe bossu disease) was made using plain radiography, bone scintigraphy and tomography.

  3. Newton–Hooke-type symmetry of anisotropic oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, P.M.; Horvathy, P.A.; Andrzejewski, K.; Gonera, J.; Kosiński, P.

    2013-06-15

    Rotation-less Newton–Hooke-type symmetry, found recently in the Hill problem, and instrumental for explaining the center-of-mass decomposition, is generalized to an arbitrary anisotropic oscillator in the plane. Conversely, the latter system is shown, by the orbit method, to be the most general one with such a symmetry. Full Newton–Hooke symmetry is recovered in the isotropic case. Star escape from a galaxy is studied as an application. -- Highlights: ► Rotation-less Newton–Hooke (NH) symmetry is generalized to an arbitrary anisotropic oscillator. ► The orbit method is used to find the most general case for rotation-less NH symmetry. ► The NH symmetry is decomposed into Heisenberg algebras based on chiral decomposition.

  4. The multifunctional human p100 protein 'hooks' methylated ligands.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Neil; Zhao, Min; Cheng, Chongyun; Xu, Hao; Saarikettu, Juha; Li, Yang; Da, Yurong; Yao, Zhi; Silvennoinen, Olli; Yang, Jie; Liu, Zhi-Jie; Wang, Bi-Cheng; Rao, Zihe

    2007-08-01

    The human p100 protein is a vital transcription regulator that increases gene transcription by forming a physical bridge between promoter-specific activators and the basal transcription machinery. Here we demonstrate that the tudor and SN (TSN) domain of p100 interacts with U small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) complexes, suggesting a role for p100 in the processing of precursor messenger RNA. We determined the crystal structure of the p100 TSN domain to delineate the molecular basis of p100's proposed functions. The interdigitated structure resembles a hook, with a hinge controlling the movement and orientation of the hook. Our studies suggest that a conserved aromatic cage hooks methyl groups of snRNPs and anchors p100 to the spliceosome. These structural insights partly explain the distinct roles of p100 in transcription and splicing. PMID:17632523

  5. EAARL Coastal Topography - Sandy Hook 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.

    2008-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of Gateway National Recreation Area's Sandy Hook Unit in New Jersey, acquired on May 16, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for pre-survey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that represent submerged or first surface topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation from a point cloud of last return elevations.

  6. Transcriptome Analysis and SSR/SNP Markers Information of the Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong; Zeng, Cong; Liu, Xiaolian; Yi, Shaokui; Wang, Weimin

    2012-01-01

    Background Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) is an herbivorous freshwater fish species native to China and has been recognized as a main aquaculture species in the Chinese freshwater polyculture system with high economic value. Right now, only limited EST resources were available for M. amblycephala. Recent advances in large-scale RNA sequencing provide a fast, cost-effective, and reliable approach to generate large expression datasets for functional genomic analysis, which is especially suitable for non-model species with un-sequenced genomes. Methodology and Principal Findings Using 454 pyrosequencing, a total of 1,409,706 high quality reads (total length 577 Mbp) were generated from the normalized cDNA of pooled M. amblycephala individuals. These sequences were assembled into 26,802 contigs and 73,675 singletons. After BLAST searches against the NCBI non-redundant (NR) and UniProt databases with an arbitrary expectation value of E−10, over 40,000 unigenes were functionally annotated and classified using the FunCat functional annotation scheme. A comparative genomics approach revealed a substantial proportion of genes expressed in M. amblycephala tanscriptome to be shared across the genomes of zebrafish, medaka, tetraodon, fugu, stickleback, human, mouse, and chicken, and identified a substantial number of potentially novel M. amblycephala genes. A total number of 4,952 SSRs were found and 116 polymorphic loci have been characterized. A significant number of SNPs (25,697) and indels (23,287) were identified based on specific filter criteria in the M. amblycephala. Conclusions This study is the first comprehensive transcriptome analysis for a fish species belonging to the genus Megalobrama. These large EST resources are expected to be valuable for the development of molecular markers, construction of gene-based linkage map, and large-scale expression analysis of M. amblycephala, as well as comparative genome analysis for the genus Megalobrama fish species. The identified SSR and SNP markers will greatly benefit its breeding program and whole genome association studies. PMID:22880060

  7. Identification and characterization of immune-related microRNAs in blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala.

    PubMed

    Yuhong, Jiang; Leilei, Tang; Fuyun, Zhang; Hongyang, Jiang; Xiaowen, Liu; Liying, Yang; Lei, Zhang; Jingrong, Mao; Jinpeng, Yan

    2016-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play vital roles in diverse biological processes, including in immune response. Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) is a prevalent and important commercial endemic freshwater fish species in China's intensive polyculture systems. To identify immune-related miRNAs of M. amblycephala, two small RNA (sRNA) libraries from immune tissues with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation were constructed and sequenced using the high-throughput sequencing technology. Totally, 16,425,543 and 15,076,813 raw reads, corresponding to 14,156,755 and 13,445,869 clean reads, were obtained in the normal and infected libraries, respectively. A total of 324 miRNAs, including 218 known miRNAs and 106 putative novel miRNAs were identified by bioinformatic analysis. We analyzed differentially expressed miRNAs between two libraries using pairwise comparison. 113 (34.88%) miRNAs were found to be significantly differentially expressed between two libraries, with 63 (55.75%) exhibiting elevated expression in LPS stimulation sample. Thereinto, a number of known miRNAs were identified immune-related. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) were implemented for 12 miRNAs of two samples, and agreement was confirmed between the sequencing and RT-qPCR data. Target genes likely regulated by these differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted using computational prediction. The functional annotation of target genes by Gene Ontology enrichment (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis (KEGG) indicated that a majority of differential miRNAs might involved in immune response. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study of miRNAs in response to LPS stimulation in M. amblycephala, even in fish. These results deepened our understanding of the role of miRNAs in the intricate host's immune system, and should be useful to develop new control strategies for host immune defense against various bacterial invasions in M. amblycephala. PMID:26773859

  8. Effect of the Hypocotyl Hook on Greening in Etiolated Cucumber Cotyledons 1

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Samuel I.; Castelfranco, Paul A.; Rebeiz, Constantin A.

    1970-01-01

    Four-day-old etiolated cucumber cotyledons (Cucumis sativus, L.) were excised and allowed to green in white fluorescent light at 28 C. Cotyledons excised with a full hypocotyl hook exhibited a lag phase of 1 hour before entering the rapid greening phase, whereas cotyledons excised without any hypocotyl hook exhibited a lag phase of 6 hours. Cotyledons excised with varying lengths of hypocotyl hook accumulated chlorophyll roughly in proportion to the hook length. When cotyledons were excised with a full hook and were partially or totally shielded from light with aluminum foil, the samples with the hook covered accumulated more chlorophyll than the wholly exposed samples. The samples with the cotyledons covered showed no net accumulation of chlorophyll irrespective of hook's exposure to light. These data suggest the contribution of some factor or factors by the hypocotyl hook which reduce the lag phase during greening. PMID:16657533

  9. Evidence for the evolutionary origin of goldfish derived from the distant crossing of red crucian carp × common carp

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Distant hybridization can generate transgressive hybrid phenotypes that lead to the formation of new populations or species with increased genetic variation. In this study, we produced an experimental hybrid goldfish (EG) by distant crossing of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus) × common carp (Cyprinus carpio) followed by gynogenesis. Results We evaluated the phenotype, ploidy level, gonadal structure, and 5S rDNA of the EG. Diploid EG possessed a high level of genetic variation, which was stably inherited. In particular, the EG combined transgressive phenotypes, including a forked tail and shortened caudal peduncle, traits that are present in common goldfish. The EG and common goldfish share a number of morphological and genetic similarities. Conclusions Using the EG, we provide new evidence that goldfish originated from hybridization of red crucian carp × common carp. PMID:24628745

  10. BOOK REVIEW: Robert Hooke and the Royal Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Neil

    2000-01-01

    Many physics students only come across Hooke when they learn his law of stretching springs, which is a pity because it is just one of his contributions to progress in science, and a minor one at that. His, Micrographia, the first great book of microscopical observations, arouses admiration to this day. He was also active in horology, astronomy, geology and surveying, and he took part in biological experiments, transfusing blood between animals. Much of his work was done while he was curator of experiments for the Royal Society, in which he was involved almost from its foundation. This was by no means a full-time occupation, however. After the Great Fire of London, Hooke was appointed one of the three surveyors for the rebuilding of the city. One of the others was Christopher Wren, a lifelong friend. In this role Hooke was responsible for the design of several buildings, including the Monument. Nichols writes about all these activities, as well as Hooke's childhood, his education at Westminster School, the University of Oxford when Hooke was an undergraduate, and the founding of the Royal Society. The book draws on research for a master's degree. Turning a dissertation into a popular book is risky. The author has avoided the pitfall of making it too academic, but the result is not satisfying. Nichols seems overawed by Hooke and his work, frequently seeming to credit Hooke with a far-reaching influence that he did not necessarily have. There may be a case for lauding Hooke as the father of English microscopy, the father of English meteorology, and the founder of English geology and earth sciences, but it needs to be made much more critically, even in a popular work. Hooke was full of good ideas, but he rarely continued long enough to put them into practice. There is no doubt that Hooke proposed using a balance wheel and spring to improve the timekeeping of a watch, for example, but he did not have a watch made to his design until after Christiaan Huygens had independently devised a similar mechanism and published it. Hooke did propose a marine chronometer to solve the (already well understood) problem of finding longitude at sea, but it was John Harrison, decades later, who built a chronometer, and there is not the slightest reason to believe he owed anything to Hooke. The book records Hooke's activities, but is devoid of comment or analysis. The casual cruelty (by modern standards) to the animals used in the blood transfusion experiments passes without remark. The chapter about Oxford University reads almost like entries from a biographical dictionary. The purpose of this and the following chapter on the founding of the Royal Society only becomes apparent at the end, if the reader has not lost interest by then. Expert opinion acknowledges that the popular belief that Wren was primarily responsible for the rebuilding of the City of London undervalues Hooke's work, but Nichols, in his unwavering support for Hooke, glosses over the genuine problems of disentangling their contributions. The disputes between Hooke and Newton are well known, and no-one suggests that Newton was a pleasant person, but the unpleasantness was not all on one side. Historians agree that Hooke was a difficult man. There are no numbered references or notes, a not unusual policy in a popular book, but many sources (most of them secondary) are mentioned in the text. They do not help to make it read well, and the details are incomplete, but so are the details of many of the items listed in the bibliography. An index would be useful, but it is lacking. There are signs in a number of places that the book has not been carefully revised and edited. This ought to be a book to recommend to young students, but it would fail to inspire them. This is a pity, because there is no doubt that Hooke was one of the towering figures of the beginning of the scientific revolution. The fledgling Royal Society might not have survived without the experiments and demonstrations he provided. Historians know this but it deserves to be more widely recognized.

  11. Photocontrol of Hook Opening in Cuscuta gronovii Willd 1

    PubMed Central

    Kujawski, Ronald F.; Truscott, F. H.

    1974-01-01

    Hook opening in seedlings of Cuscuta gronovii Willd. occurred only after prolonged exposures to blue, red, or far red light. Prolonged far red exposure was less effective than prolonged exposure to red or blue light. Brief far red irradiation inhibited the inductive effect of red light. The far red inhibition was in turn reversed by brief red irradiation. These effects suggest the involvement of two photosystems in the control of hook opening in Cuscuta gronovii Willd.: a phytochrome-mediated system and a separate high energy requirement. PMID:16658751

  12. The Clavicular Hook Plate: Consequences in Three Cases.

    PubMed

    Chandrasenan, Jeevan; Badhe, Sachin; Cresswell, Timothy; De Beer, Joe

    2007-10-01

    The small fragment AO clavicular hook plate is indicated for certain fractures of the lateral end of clavicle and for symptomatic acromio-clavicular joint dislocations where there is rupture of the stabilizing ligaments. The complex anatomy and biomechanics of the acromio-clavicular joint can lead to complications that result in damage to the joint itself or acromial erosion. In addition, the rotator cuff complex is at risk of injury when inserting the plate. We report three cases where patients who underwent hook plate fixation subsequently required removal of the implant due to complications previously unreported in current literature. PMID:26814943

  13. 77 FR 15722 - Southern California Hook and Line Survey; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... meeting will be held to: (1) Evaluate the Southern California Hook and Line survey design and protocols... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB082 Southern California Hook and Line Survey... California Shelf Rockfish Hook and Line Survey which was designed to collect fishery-independent data for...

  14. Problem in Two Unknowns: Robert Hooke and a Worm in Newton's Apple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstock, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the place that Robert Hooke has in science history versus the scientific contributions he made. Examines the relationship between Hooke and his contemporary, Isaac Newton, and Hooke's claims that Newton built on his ideas without receiving Newton's recognition. (26 references) (MDH)

  15. The Teaching Philosophy of bell hooks: The Classroom as a Site for Passionate Interrogation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanier, Kirsten Olson

    This paper discusses bell hooks' book of 15 short essays, "Teaching To Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom," which gathers hooks's central beliefs about the political purposes of higher education. The paper describes hooks' own lack of models for the kind of classroom she wished to create as a young teacher and her initial…

  16. Feeding rates affect stress and non-specific immune responses of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala subjected to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-Fei; Xu, Chao; Tian, Hong-Yan; Jiang, Guang-Zhen; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of feeding rates on stress response, innate immunity and hypoxia resistance of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala. Fish were randomly assigned to one of six feeding rates (2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7% of body weight/day) for 60 days. Then, fish were subjected to hypoxic conditions and haemato-immunological parameters were analyzed pre- and post-challenge. Low feed ration resulted in decreased liver superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and reduced glutathione contents. Inadequate feeding also adversely affected the immune functions of fish, as was characterized by the relatively low haemato-immunological parameters (including alternative complement (ACH50), myeloperoxidase (MPO), plasma protein profiles and transferring) and high hypoxia-induced mortality. High feed ration did not lead to the improvement in antioxidant capability, immune responses and survival. In addition, plasma cortisol, glucose and transferrin levels as well as lysozyme activities all increased significantly after hypoxia challenge, whereas the opposite was true for plasma ACH50 and MPO activities as well as protein profiles in terms of hypoxia challenge. An interaction between feeding rate and hypoxia was also observed in plasma cortisol, glucose and protein profiles. In conclusion, a feeding rate of 4-5% of body weight/day is optimal to boost the innate immunity of juvenile blunt snout bream. Low ration resulted in decreased antioxidant capability, compromised immune functions and reduced hypoxia resistance, while over feeding did not benefit the health status. PMID:26772476

  17. Degeneration of the primary snout sensory afferents in the cervical spinal cords following the infraorbital nerve transection in some mammals.

    PubMed

    Chang, C M; Kubota, K; Lee, M S; Iseki, H; Sonoda, Y; Narita, N; Shibanai, S; Nagae, K; Ohkubo, K

    1988-01-01

    To obtain the neuroanatomical information on the role of the snout sensory input in mastication, the present study was conducted on young and adult mice, young Wistar rats and adult Japanese shrew-moles. The animals were subjected to unilateral and bilateral infraorbital nerve transection. Transganglionic degeneration was studied by the Nauta method and electron microscopy including HRP application to the neck muscles. Transganglionic degeneration was found in every experimental case. 1. Transganglionic degeneration of the fibers was found not only in the main sensory nucleus and spinal tract nucleus of the trigeminal nerve but throughout the cervical and the upper part of the thoracic spinal cord. 2. These transganglionically degenerated fibers descended bilaterally through the cuneate nucleus and then caudally through the posterior funiculus at the obex level. They then entered the dorsal and ventral horns to make a synaptic contact with the degenerated synapses on the dorsal horn cells and with the multipolar cells in the ventral horns. This neuroanatomical information suggests: 1) that the trigemino-neck muscle reflex will be generated monosynaptically by the primary neurons arising from the snout sensory organs and 2) that these primary neurons may play a large role as a neuronal bridge in connecting the masticatory reflex system and the cranio-neck reflex system. PMID:3189847

  18. Simulation of Hooke's Joint on the Analog Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Eugene E., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    A problem is presented that teaches the engineering student or practicing engineer the behavior of Hooke's joint, a widely used mechanism for transmitting rotary power in mechanical equipment. Also provided by this problem is an exercise in analog programing which utilizes nonlinear computer elements. (Author/CS)

  19. Development of an externally powered prosthetic hook for amputees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karchak, A., Jr.; Allen, J. R.; Bontrager, E. L.

    1973-01-01

    The powered hook with trigger finger appears to be a useful adaptation of a terminal device for an amputee when performing vocational activities involving the use of a powered tool requiring a trigger control. The proportional control system includes transducers and amplifiers and appears to have widespread application for control of any external power, whether it be in the orthotic or prosthetic field.

  20. Anharmonic Vibrations of an "Ideal" Hooke's Law Oscillator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomchick, John; McKelvey, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a model describing the vibrations of a mass connected to fixed supports by "ideal" Hooke's law springs which may serve as a starting point in the study of the properties of irons in a crystal undergoing soft mode activated transition. (SL)

  1. School Safety in a Post-Sandy Hook World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trump, Kenneth S.

    2014-01-01

    In this report the author, who is a school safety expert, provides information about school safety in a post-Sandy Hook world. He presents the following: (1) Continuum of Threats and Responses; (2) The role social media plays; (3) Reliable Best Practices; (4) Policy and Funding--Climate and Context; (5) Policy and Funding--Things to Avoid; and (6)…

  2. Thermal and hydrologic suitability of Lake Erie and its major tributaries for spawning of Asian carps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Chapman, Duane C.; McKenna, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (hereafter Asian carps) have expanded throughout the Mississippi River basin and threaten to invade Lakes Michigan and Erie. Adult bighead carp and grass carp have been captured in Lake Erie, but self-sustaining populations probably do not exist. We examined thermal conditions within Lake Erie to determine if Asian carps would mature, and to estimate time of year when fish would reach spawning condition. We also examined whether thermal and hydrologic conditions in the largest tributaries to western and central Lake Erie were suitable for spawning of Asian carps. We used length of undammed river, predicted summer temperatures, and predicted water velocity during flood events to determine whether sufficient lengths of river are available for spawning of Asian carps. Most rivers we examined have at least 100 km of passable river and summer temperatures suitable (> 21 C) for rapid incubation of eggs of Asian carps. Predicted water velocity and temperature were sufficient to ensure that incubating eggs, which drift in the water column, would hatch before reaching Lake Erie for most flood events in most rivers if spawned far enough upstream. The Maumee, Sandusky, and Grand Rivers were predicted to be the most likely to support spawning of Asian carps. The Black, Huron, Portage, and Vermilion Rivers were predicted to be less suitable. The weight of the evidence suggests that the largest western and central Lake Erie tributaries are thermally and hydrologically suitable to support spawning of Asian carps.

  3. The Blue Hook Populations of Massive Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    Blue hook stars are a class of hot { 35,000 K} subluminous horizontal branch stars that have been recently discovered using HST ultraviolet images of the globular clusters omega Cen and NGC 2808. These stars occupy a region of the HR diagram that is unexplained by canonical stellar evolution theory. Using new theoretical evolutionary and atmospheric models, we have shown that the blue hook stars are very likely the progeny of stars that undergo extensive internal mixing during a late helium core flash on the white dwarf cooling curve. This "flash mixing" produces an enormous enhancement of the surface helium and carbon abundances, which suppresses the flux in the far ultraviolet. Although flash mixing is more likely to occur in stars that are born with high helium abundances, a high helium abundance, by itself, does not explain the presence of a blue hook population - flash mixing of the envelope is required. We propose ACS ultraviolet {SBC/F150LP and HRC/F250W} observations of the five additional globular clusters for which the presence of blue hook stars is suspected from longer wavelength observations. Like omega Cen and NGC 2808, these five targets are also among the most massive globular clusters, because less massive clusters show no evidence for blue hook stars. Because our targets span 1.5 dex in metallicity, we will be able to test our prediction that flash-mixing should be less drastic in metal-rich blue hook stars. In addition, our observations will test the hypothesis that blue hook stars only form in globular clusters massive enough to retain the helium-enriched ejecta from the first stellar generation. If this hypothesis is correct, then our observations will yield important constraints on the chemical evolution and early formation history in globular clusters, as well as the role of helium self-enrichment in producing blue horizontal branch morphologies and multiple main sequence turnoffs. Finally, our observations will provide new insight into the formation of the hottest horizontal branch stars, with implications for the origin of the hot helium-rich subdwarfs in the Galactic field.

  4. Dynamic infrared imaging analysis of apical hook development in Arabidopsis: the case of brassinosteroids.

    PubMed

    Smet, Dajo; Žádníková, Petra; Vandenbussche, Filip; Benková, Eva; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2014-06-01

    Germination of Arabidopsis seeds in darkness induces apical hook development, based on a tightly regulated differential growth coordinated by a multiple hormone cross-talk. Here, we endeavoured to clarify the function of brassinosteroids (BRs) and cross-talk with ethylene in hook development. An automated infrared imaging system was developed to study the kinetics of hook development in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings. To ascertain the photomorphogenic control of hook opening, the system was equipped with an automatic light dimmer. We demonstrate that ethylene and BRs are indispensable for hook formation and maintenance. Ethylene regulation of hook formation functions partly through BRs, with BR feedback inhibition of ethylene action. Conversely, BR-mediated extension of hook maintenance functions partly through ethylene. Furthermore, we revealed that a short light pulse is sufficient to induce rapid hook opening. Our dynamic infrared imaging system allows high-resolution, kinetic imaging of up to 112 seedlings in a single experimental run. At this high throughput, it is ideally suited to rapidly gain insight in pathway networks. We demonstrate that BRs and ethylene cooperatively regulate apical hook development in a phase-dependent manner. Furthermore, we show that light is a predominant regulator of hook opening, inhibiting ethylene- and BR-mediated postponement of hook opening. PMID:24611517

  5. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Genetic Basis of Skin Color Variation in Common Carp

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanliang; Zhang, Songhao; Xu, Jian; Feng, Jianxin; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.; Sun, Xiaowen; Xu, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Background The common carp is an important aquaculture species that is widely distributed across the world. During the long history of carp domestication, numerous carp strains with diverse skin colors have been established. Skin color is used as a visual criterion to determine the market value of carp. However, the genetic basis of common carp skin color has not been extensively studied. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we performed Illumina sequencing on two common carp strains: the reddish Xingguo red carp and the brownish-black Yellow River carp. A total of 435,348,868 reads were generated, resulting in 198,781 assembled contigs that were used as reference sequences. Comparisons of skin transcriptome files revealed 2,012 unigenes with significantly different expression in the two common carp strains, including 874 genes that were up-regulated in Xingguo red carp and 1,138 genes that were up-regulated in Yellow River carp. The expression patterns of 20 randomly selected differentially expressed genes were validated using quantitative RT-PCR. Gene pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that melanin biosynthesis, along with the Wnt and MAPK signaling pathways, is highly likely to affect the skin pigmentation process. Several key genes involved in the skin pigmentation process, including TYRP1, SILV, ASIP and xCT, showed significant differences in their expression patterns between the two strains. Conclusions In this study, we conducted a comparative transcriptome analysis of Xingguo red carp and Yellow River carp skins, and we detected key genes involved in the common carp skin pigmentation process. We propose that common carp skin pigmentation depends upon at least three pathways. Understanding fish skin color genetics will facilitate future molecular selection of the fish skin colors with high market values. PMID:25255374

  6. [Effect of glyphosate on the energy exchange in carp organs].

    PubMed

    Zhidenko, A A; Bibchuk, E V; Barbukho, E V

    2013-01-01

    The use of glyphosate as a herbicide in agriculture can lead to the presence of its residues and metabolites (aminomethylphosphonic acid) in food for human consumption and pose a threat to health. The effect of these herbicides on the fish organism at the biochemical level has been insufficiently studied. We studied changes in the content of adenine nucleotides, enzyme activity, quantitative indexes of energy metabolism substrates in carp under the action of glyphosate. It has been found that proteins are the major energy substrate under the influence of glyphosate in the liver, brain, white muscle of carp yearlings. Glyphosphate decreases energy metabolism in the brain of carp and increases it in the white muscles. The growth of activity of catabolic enzymes in the liver under the influence of glyphosate can be attributed to the adaptive remodelling of metabolic pathways for homeostasis and enantiostasis in response to herbicides. PMID:23937045

  7. Secondary neutron dose measurement for proton eye treatment using an eye snout with a borated neutron absorber

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We measured and assessed ways to reduce the secondary neutron dose from a system for proton eye treatment. Methods Proton beams of 60.30 MeV were delivered through an eye-treatment snout in passive scattering mode. Allyl diglycol carbonate (CR-39) etch detectors were used to measure the neutron dose in the external field at 0.00, 1.64, and 6.00 cm depths in a water phantom. Secondary neutron doses were measured and compared between those with and without a high-hydrogen–boron-containing block. In addition, the neutron energy and vertices distribution were obtained by using a Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation. Results The ratio of the maximum neutron dose equivalent to the proton absorbed dose (H(10)/D) at 2.00 cm from the beam field edge was 8.79 ± 1.28 mSv/Gy. The ratio of the neutron dose equivalent to the proton absorbed dose with and without a high hydrogen-boron containing block was 0.63 ± 0.06 to 1.15 ± 0.13 mSv/Gy at 2.00 cm from the edge of the field at depths of 0.00, 1.64, and 6.00 cm. Conclusions We found that the out-of-field secondary neutron dose in proton eye treatment with an eye snout is relatively small, and it can be further reduced by installing a borated neutron absorbing material. PMID:23866307

  8. Transcriptome Analysis of Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) Reveals Putative Differential Expression Genes Related to Growth and Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fu-Gui; Chen, Jie; Jiang, Xia-Yun; Zou, Shu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) is an important freshwater aquaculture species, but it is sensitive to hypoxia. No transcriptome data related to growth and hypoxia response are available for this species. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing for the liver and gills of the fast-growth family and slow-growth family derived from ‘Pujiang No.1’ F10 blunt snout bream that were under hypoxic stress and normoxia, respectively. The fish were divided into the following 4 groups: fast-growth family under hypoxic stress, FH; slow-growth family under hypoxic stress, SH; fast-growth family under normoxia, FN; and slow-growth family under normoxia, SN. A total of 185 million high-quality reads were obtained from the normalized cDNA of the pooled samples, which were assembled into 465,582 contigs and 237,172 transcripts. A total of 31,338 transcripts from the same locus (unigenes) were annotated and assigned to 104 functional groups, and 23,103 unigenes were classified into seven main categories, including 45 secondary KEGG pathways. A total of 22,255 (71%) known putative unigenes were found to be shared across the genomes of five model fish species and mammals, and a substantial number (9.4%) of potentially novel genes were identified. When 6,639 unigenes were used in the analysis of differential expression (DE) genes, the number of putative DE genes related to growth pathways in FH, SH, SN and FN was 159, 118, 92 and 65 in both the liver and gills, respectively, and the number of DE genes related to hypoxic response was 57, 33, 23 and 21 in FH, FN, SH and SN, respectively. Our results suggest that growth performance of the fast-growth family should be due to complex mutual gene regulatory mechanisms of these putative DE genes between growth and hypoxia. PMID:26554582

  9. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of immunoglobulin M heavy chain gene of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    PubMed

    Xia, Hu; Wu, Kang; Liu, Wanjing; Gul, Yasmeen; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Xuezhen

    2014-09-01

    Immunoglobulins (Igs), which bind antigens with high specificity, are essential molecules in adaptive immune system of jawed vertebrates. In this study, cDNA encoding the secreted form of the immunoglobulin heavy chain of IgM (sIgM) was cloned from the mesonephros of blunt snout bream (Megalabrama amblycephala) using RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of sIgM heavy chain gene has 1961 nucleotides encoding a putative protein of 569 amino acids, constant region shares high amino acid identity with that of Ctenopharyngodon idella (80%), Carassius auratus langsdorfii (65%) and Danio rerio (59%). Multiple protein sequence alignment revealed that blunt snout bream sIgM was clustered with the homologues of cyprinid fish and constructed one clade. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis, the level of sIgM mRNA was determined, with a V-shape change pattern: decreased initially from unfertilized egg stage to 4 cells stage and increased from 16 cells stage to prelarva. This sharp drop indicates that sIgM mRNA is maternally transferred, and was continuously degraded until 16 cells stage. The drastic rising in sIgM level from blastula stage to prelarva might be attributed to embryonic stem cell differentiation procedure. Compared with juvenile fish, the expression of sIgM was significantly higher in pronephros, liver, spleen, gill and muscle of adult fish. After the injection of Aeromonas hydrophila, the expression pattern of sIgM was found first down-regulated at 4 h, then up-regulated and reached the peak at 7 d and 21 d in mesonephros, spleen, liver and gill, respectively. PMID:24979225

  10. Toxicity of trihalomethanes to common carp embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Mattice, J.S.; Tsai, S.C.; Burch, M.B.; Beauchamp, J.J.

    1981-03-01

    Trihalomethanes recently have been identified in real and simulated effluents from power plants where chlorine is used for biofouling control. Toxicity of the four chlorine- or bromine-containing trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) to developing common carp (Cyprinus carpio) embryos was determined under conditions of intermittent (8-hour) toxicant renewal, based on percent hatch as the end point. Nominal median lethal concentrations (LC50) ranged from 161 mg/liter for chloroform to 53 mg/liter for dibromochloromethane. Decay studies conducted under conditions similar to those used for the toxicity studies, but in distilled water, indicated that (1) half-lives of the trihalomethanes ranged from 4.4 to 6.9 hours; (2) decay was due primarily to volatilization; (3) higher relative toxicity of dibromochloromethane probably was due to formation of a degradation product (likely Br/sub 2/). Correction of the nominal LC50 values to time-weighted mean concentrations over the period between toxicant changes gave weighted LC50 values of 97.2, 67.4, 33.5, and 52.3 mg/liter for chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, respectively. In addition, the period of water-hardening of fertilized eggs was not critical for expression of toxicity of dibromochloromethane. Comparison of these and other published data on effluent and toxic concentrations, persistence, and bioaccumulation of water-chlorination products suggests that trihalomethanes are not as environmentally critical as other chlorinated organic compounds or residual chlorine.

  11. Genetic diversity of and differentiation among five populations of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) revealed by SRAP markers: implications for conservation and management.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wei; Zhang, Gui-Rong; Ran, Wei; Gardner, Jonathan P A; Wei, Kai-Jian; Wang, Wei-Min; Zou, Gui-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) is an important freshwater aquaculture fish throughout China. Because of widespread introductions of this species to many regions, the genetic diversity of wild and natural populations is now threatened. In the present study, SRAP (sequence-related amplified polymorphism) markers were used to assess genetic diversity of blunt snout bream. Three natural populations (Liangzi Lake, Poyang Lake and Yuni Lake, one cultured population (Nanxian) and one genetic strain ('Pujiang No. 1') of blunt snout bream were screened with 88 SRAP primer combinations, of which 13 primer pairs produced stable and reproducible amplification patterns. In total, 172 bands were produced, of which 132 bands were polymorphic. Nei's gene diversity (h) and Shannon's information index (I) values provided evidence of differences in genetic diversity among the five populations (Poyang Lake>Liangzi Lake>Nanxian>'Pujiang No. 1'>Yuni Lake). Based on cluster analysis conducted on genetic distance values, the five blunt snout bream populations were divided into three groups, Poyang Lake and Liangzi Lake (natural populations), Nanxian and 'Pujiang No. 1' (cultured population and genetically selected strain), and Yuni Lake (natural population). Significant genetic differentiation was found among the five populations using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), with more genetic divergence existing among populations (55.49%), than within populations (44.51%). This molecular marker technique is a simple and efficient method to quantify genetic diversity within and among fish populations, and is employed here to help manage and conserve germplasm variability of blunt snout bream and to support the ongoing selective breeding programme for this fish. PMID:25265288

  12. Genetic Diversity of and Differentiation among Five Populations of Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) Revealed by SRAP Markers: Implications for Conservation and Management

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Wei; Gardner, Jonathan P. A.; Wei, Kai-Jian; Wang, Wei-Min; Zou, Gui-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) is an important freshwater aquaculture fish throughout China. Because of widespread introductions of this species to many regions, the genetic diversity of wild and natural populations is now threatened. In the present study, SRAP (sequence-related amplified polymorphism) markers were used to assess genetic diversity of blunt snout bream. Three natural populations (Liangzi Lake, Poyang Lake and Yuni Lake, one cultured population (Nanxian) and one genetic strain (‘Pujiang No. 1’) of blunt snout bream were screened with 88 SRAP primer combinations, of which 13 primer pairs produced stable and reproducible amplification patterns. In total, 172 bands were produced, of which 132 bands were polymorphic. Nei's gene diversity (h) and Shannon's information index (I) values provided evidence of differences in genetic diversity among the five populations (Poyang Lake>Liangzi Lake>Nanxian>‘Pujiang No. 1’>Yuni Lake). Based on cluster analysis conducted on genetic distance values, the five blunt snout bream populations were divided into three groups, Poyang Lake and Liangzi Lake (natural populations), Nanxian and ‘Pujiang No. 1’ (cultured population and genetically selected strain), and Yuni Lake (natural population). Significant genetic differentiation was found among the five populations using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), with more genetic divergence existing among populations (55.49%), than within populations (44.51%). This molecular marker technique is a simple and efficient method to quantify genetic diversity within and among fish populations, and is employed here to help manage and conserve germplasm variability of blunt snout bream and to support the ongoing selective breeding programme for this fish. PMID:25265288

  13. Dynamics of carp growth and biosynthetic processes in the liver of the carp reared in containers in heated waste water from thermal power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Evtushenko, N.Y.; Romanenko, V.D.

    1980-01-01

    When carp are reared in containers in heated waste water from thermal power stations their growth is most intensive in July - 1st half of August and is dependent on the initial mass of the fish stocked. The rate of biosynthetic processes in the liver of the carp reared in containers is directly correlated with the growth rate of the fish. The rate of biosynthetic processes in the liver of carp yearlings reared in natural water bodies and in containers in warm water is higher than in the liver of carp of 1+ reared under similar conditions.

  14. On the reliability of hook echoes as tornado indicators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, G. S.

    1981-01-01

    A study of radar echoes associated with the tornadoes of the 3 April 1974 outbreak was performed to evaluate the usefulness of echo shape as an indicator of tornadic thunderstorms. The hook shape was usually successful in characterizing an echo as tornadic, with a false alarm rate of 16%. Because hook echoes were relatively rare, however, a less restrictive shape called distinctive was more successful at detecting tornadic thunderstorms, identifying 65% of the tornadic echoes. An echo had a distinctive shape if it possessed a marked appendage on its right rear flank or was in the shape of a spiral, comma or line echo wave pattern (LEWP). Characteristics of the distinctive echo are given.

  15. The extended AT-hook is a novel RNA binding motif

    PubMed Central

    Filarsky, Michael; Zillner, Karina; Araya, Ingrid; Villar-Garea, Ana; Merkl, Rainer; Längst, Gernot; Németh, Attila

    2015-01-01

    The AT-hook has been defined as a DNA binding peptide motif that contains a glycine-arginine-proline (G-R-P) tripeptide core flanked by basic amino acids. Recent reports documented variations in the sequence of AT-hooks and revealed RNA binding activity of some canonical AT-hooks, suggesting a higher structural and functional variability of this protein domain than previously anticipated. Here we describe the discovery and characterization of the extended AT-hook peptide motif (eAT-hook), in which basic amino acids appear symmetrical mainly at a distance of 12–15 amino acids from the G-R-P core. We identified 80 human and 60 mouse eAT-hook proteins and biochemically characterized the eAT-hooks of Tip5/BAZ2A, PTOV1 and GPBP1. Microscale thermophoresis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays reveal the nucleic acid binding features of this peptide motif, and show that eAT-hooks bind RNA with one order of magnitude higher affinity than DNA. In addition, cellular localization studies suggest a role for the N-terminal eAT-hook of PTOV1 in nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. In summary, our findings classify the eAT-hook as a novel nucleic acid binding motif, which potentially mediates various RNA-dependent cellular processes. PMID:26156556

  16. The effects of flagellar hook compliance on motility of monotrichous bacteria: A modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shum, H.; Gaffney, E. A.

    2012-06-01

    A crucial structure in the motility of flagellated bacteria is the hook, which connects the flagellum filament to the motor in the cell body. Early mathematical models of swimming bacteria assume that the helically shaped flagellum rotates rigidly about its axis, which coincides with the axis of the cell body. Motivated by evidence that the hook is much more flexible than the rest of the flagellum, we develop a new model that allows a naturally straight hook to bend. Hook dynamics are based on the Kirchhoff rod model, which is combined with a boundary element method for solving viscous interactions between the bacterium and the surrounding fluid. For swimming in unbounded fluid, we find good support for using a rigid model since the hook reaches an equilibrium configuration within several revolutions of the motor. However, for effective swimming, there are constraints on the hook stiffness relative to the scale set by the product of the motor torque with the hook length. When the hook is too flexible, its shape cannot be maintained and large deformations and stresses build up. When the hook is too rigid, the flagellum does not align with the cell body axis and the cell "wobbles" with little net forward motion. We also examine the attraction of swimmers to no-slip surfaces and find that the tendency to swim steadily close to a surface can be very sensitive to the combination of the hook rigidity and the precise shape of the cell and flagellum.

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome of Xingguo red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis) and purse red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis).

    PubMed

    Hu, Guang-Fu; Liu, Xiang-Jiang; Li, Zhong; Liang, Hong-Wei; Hu, Shao-Na; Zou, Gui-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes of Xingguo red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis) and purse red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis) were sequenced. Comparison of these two mitochondrial genomes revealed that the mtDNAs of these two common carp varieties were remarkably similar in genome length, gene order and content, and AT content. However, size variation between these two mitochondrial genomes presented here showed 39 site differences in overall length. About 2 site differences were located in rRNAs, 3 in tRNAs, 3 in the control region, 31 in protein-coding genes. Thirty-one variable bases in the protein-coding regions between the two varieties mitochondrial sequences led to three variable amino acids, which were mainly located in the protein ND5 and ND4. PMID:24521498

  18. Studying Hooke's Law by Using a Pogo Stick

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Perhaps the pogo stick was little Robert Hooke's favorite childhood toy, consisting of a stiff spring inserted in a tube fixed at the upper end and connected to a moveable rod at the other. Hand grips and a foot rest are connected to the tube. The idea is to jump on it taking advantage of the force provided by the spring when it is compressed.

  19. Studying Hooke's Law by Using a Pogo Stick

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Perhaps the pogo stick was little Robert Hooke's favorite childhood toy, consisting of a stiff spring inserted in a tube fixed at the upper end and connected to a moveable rod at the other. Hand grips and a foot rest are connected to the tube. The idea is to jump on it taking advantage of the force provided by the spring when it is compressed.…

  20. Hooking up and penetrative hookups: correlates that differentiate college men.

    PubMed

    Olmstead, Spencer B; Pasley, Kay; Fincham, Frank D

    2013-05-01

    One prominent pathway to sexual intimacy among college student populations is hooking up. Past research has largely compared men and women, with limited attention given to how men differ regarding involvement in hookups and their hookup behaviors. This study used a sample of 412 college men to examine the individual, social, relational, and family background correlates of (1) hooking up during a semester and (2) penetrative hookup encounters (e.g., oral sex, intercourse). Overall, 69% reported a hookup during the semester, with 73% of those who hooked up reporting penetrative hookups. Using logistic regression, men were more likely to hookup if they had an extraverted personality, were consuming more alcohol, and had previous hookup experience. They were less likely to hookup if they were more thoughtful about their relationship decisions and if they were in a stable, committed romantic relationship. Men also were more likely to engage in penetrative hookups only if they held more permissive attitudes towards sex and if they had previous penetrative hookup experience. Implications for intervention and research are discussed. PMID:22350126

  1. In vivo and in vitro exposures of carp and carp tissues to graded concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    PubMed

    Bottero, S; Cevasco, A; Monteverde, M; Pedemonte, F; Bertolotti, R; Viganò, L; Mandich, A; Massari, A

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this study was to correlate morphological and biochemical parameters of reproductive activity in fish exposed to graded concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Two-year-old carps were exposed for two weeks to graded concentrations of ethynyl-estradiol, tamoxifen, and flutamide. For each chemical, morphological alterations of the gonads and liver were described according to biomarker and sex steroid levels. In parallel, isolated follicular cells (FCs) and testis fragments were incubated in the presence or absence of carp pituitary homogenate and 25-hydroxycholesterol. Media were analyzed for sex steroid level evaluations. PMID:15891032

  2. Growth in solution of hooked Ni-Fe fibers by oriented rotation and attachment approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Wei-ze

    2016-04-01

    Inspired by the curved branches of fractal trees, hooked Ni-Fe fibers were grown in situ in Ni-Fe composite coatings on a spheroidal graphite cast iron substrate. These hooked Ni-Fe fibers exhibited inclination angles of about 39°, which was in accordance with the theoretical prediction of 37°. Ni-Fe nanostructures self-assembled to form dendrites and evolved into hooked fibers by an oriented attachment reaction. The orientation rotation of Ni-Fe nanostructures played an important role in the growth of curved hooked Ni-Fe fibers. During sliding wear tests, the volume loss of the spheroidal graphite cast iron substrate was 2.2 times as large as that of the Ni-Fe coating reinforced by hooked fibers. The good load-transferring ability of hooked Ni-Fe fibers led to an improvement in their wear properties during wear tests.

  3. High-density grass carp stocking effects on a reservoir invasive plant and water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garner, A. Brad; Kwak, Thomas J.; Manuel, Kenneth L.; Barwick, D. Hugh

    2013-01-01

    Stocking grass carp [Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes)] is a commonly applied technique to control nuisance aquatic vegetation in reservoirs. Factors that influence the degree of aquatic vegetation control are fish stocking density, regional climate, abundance and species composition of the aquatic plant community, and relative grass carp feeding preferences for plant species. We evaluated high-density grass carp stocking in a southeastern U.S. reservoir for control of parrot-feather [Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell) Verdc.], an invasive aquatic plant that is not preferentially consumed by grass carp and the associated effects on water quality. Lookout Shoals Lake, a 528-ha piedmont North Carolina reservoir, was stocked with triploid grass carp at a density of 100 fish per vegetated hectare. Parrot-feather biomass in the lake was significantly reduced three months after grass carp stocking, compared to biomass in in-situ exclosures. During the second year after grass carp stocking, parrot-feather biomass in the lake compared to biomass in in-situ exclosures indicated continued control, but unexplained lack of growth within most experimental exclosures precluded biomass analyses. Increases in ambient water chlorophyll a, reactive phosphorus, and nitrate-nitrite concentrations were measured after grass carp stocking. The biological significance of observed changes in water chemistry and long-term effects on lake biota remain undetermined. Our results demonstrate that intensive grass carp stocking can control an invasive aquatic plant that is not preferentially consumed by grass carp and reveal associated changes in water quality.

  4. [The seasonal dynamics of Sphaerospora renicola (Myxosporidia) in carp (Osteichthyes)].

    PubMed

    Odening, K; Walter, G; Bockhardt, I

    1988-06-01

    We observed 2 different types of the course of incidence of sporogonic phase and blood phase. Type I shows in both phases a maximum in the first summer, a minimum in winter or autumn and a second maximum between late autumn and second summer. In this case the sporulation was especially distinct with the first maximum. Type II starts in the first summer with the blood phase without occurrence of the sporogonic phase (and the swim-bladder phase), which appears only from autumn until the second summer in a form of three peaks. Here the sporulation was successful only in the third peak. Hitherto there has been no other example of that type. The course of incidence, characterized by peaks and valleys, is regarded as an expression of an internal rhythm of different phases of the parasite and not as caused by the declining of infection and by reinfection. Premunition (if a hitherto unknown reservoir phase is surviving) or age resistance and/or less chance of coincidence of infective stages and older carps are supposed to be the cause of the rare occurrence of the 3 known phases in carps more than 14-15 months old. There are some indications of the infection of carps by carps. Carassius au. auratus was ascertained as a new host for S. renicola in a field experiment. PMID:3177937

  5. Hormonal regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis in the carp, Cyprinus carpio

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens, P.A.; Lowrey, P.

    1987-04-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver maintained normal glycogen content and enzyme complement for several days in organ culture. Epinephrine-stimulated glycogenolysis, phosphorylase activation, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner with EC/sub 50/s of 100, 100, and 500 nM, respectively. These actions were blocked by the ..beta..-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, but not by the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. Glycogenolysis and tissue cAMP were uninfluenced by 10/sup -6/ M arginine vasotocin, arginine vasopressin, lysine vasotocin, lysine vasopressin, mesotocin, or oxytocin, but were slightly increased by 10/sup -5/ M isotocin and slightly decreased by 10/sup -6/ M angiotensin II. (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol (ICP), a ..beta..-adrenergic ligand, bound to isolated carp liver membranes with a K/sub D/ of 83 pM. Maximum binding of 45 fmol/mg protein was at 600 pM. Propranolol, isoprenaline, epinephrine, phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and phenoxybenzamine displaced ICP with K/sub D/s of 100 nM, 2, 20, 20, 60, and 200 ..mu..M, respectively. The ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonists, yohimbine and prazosin, showed no specific binding. These data provide evidence that catecholamines act via ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in carp liver and that ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors are not present. Vasoactive peptides play no significant role in regulation of carp liver glycogenolysis.

  6. The evolutionary history of sharp- and blunt-snouted lenok (Brachymystax lenok (Pallas, 1773)) and its implications for the paleo-hydrological history of Siberia

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Broad-scale phylogeographic studies of freshwater organisms provide not only an invaluable framework for understanding the evolutionary history of species, but also a genetic imprint of the paleo-hydrological dynamics stemming from climatic change. Few such studies have been carried out in Siberia, a vast region over which the extent of Pleistocene glaciation is still disputed. Brachymystax lenok is a salmonid fish distributed throughout Siberia, exhibiting two forms hypothesized to have undergone extensive range expansion, genetic exchange, and multiple speciation. A comprehensive phylogeographic investigation should clarify these hypotheses as well as provide insights on Siberia's paleo-hydrological stability. Results Molecular-sequence (mtDNA) based phylogenetic and morphological analysis of Brachymystax throughout Siberia support that sharp- and blunt-snouted lenok are independent evolutionary lineages, with the majority of their variation distributed among major river basins. Their evolutionary independence was further supported through the analysis of 11 microsatellite loci in three areas of sympatry, which revealed little to no evidence of introgression. Phylogeographic structure reflects climatic limitations, especially for blunt-snouted lenok above 56° N during one or more glacial maxima. Presumed glacial refugia as well as interbasin exchange were not congruent for the two lineages, perhaps reflecting differing dispersal abilities and response to climatic change. Inferred demographic expansions were dated earlier than the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Evidence for repeated trans-basin exchange was especially clear between the Amur and Lena catchments. Divergence of sharp-snouted lenok in the Selenga-Baikal catchment may correspond to the isolation of Lake Baikal in the mid-Pleistocene, while older isolation events are apparent for blunt-snouted lenok in the extreme east and sharp-snouted lenok in the extreme west of their respective distributions. Conclusion Sharp- and blunt-snouted lenok have apparently undergone a long, independent, and demographically dynamic evolutionary history in Siberia, supporting their recognition as two good biological species. Considering the timing and extent of expansions and trans-basin dispersal, it is doubtful that these historical dynamics could have been generated without major rearrangements in the paleo-hydrological network, stemming from the formation and melting of large-scale glacial complexes much older than the LGM. PMID:18254941

  7. Influence of hook position on phototropic and gravitropic curvature by etiolated hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khurana, J. P.; Best, T. R.; Poff, K. L.

    1989-01-01

    Phototropic and gravitropic curvature by hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana is minimal when the side of the hook with the cotyledons attached is positioned toward the direction of tropistic curvature, and maximal when that side of the hook is positioned away from the direction of tropistic curvature. Based on these data, it is proposed that the position of the hook with attached cotyledons affects curvature and not stimulus perception. A randomly oriented population of plants exhibited considerable heterogeneity in tropistic curvature. This heterogeneity arises at least in part from the dependence of curvature on the position of the hook.

  8. [Effect of substrates of glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle on the level of oxidative processes in spermatozoa of grass carp and carp].

    PubMed

    Gosh, R I

    1983-01-01

    Endogenic respiration of grass carp and carp spermatozoids is rather low. Oxidation rate of metabolites is different--malate is oxidized more intensively, it is followed by lactate, pyruvate, succinate. Sperm storage lowers the respiration level and oxidation rate of metabolites. PMID:6845449

  9. Trypanosomiasis-Induced Th17-Like Immune Responses in Carp

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Carla M. S.; Pontes, Maria J. S. L.; Bird, Steve; Chadzinska, Magdalena; Scheer, Marleen; Verburg-van Kemenade, B. M. Lidy; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.; Wiegertjes, Geert F.

    2010-01-01

    Background In mammalian vertebrates, the cytokine interleukin (IL)-12 consists of a heterodimer between p35 and p40 subunits whereas interleukin-23 is formed by a heterodimer between p19 and p40 subunits. During an immune response, the balance between IL-12 and IL-23 can depend on the nature of the pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) recognized by, for example TLR2, leading to a preferential production of IL-23. IL-23 production promotes a Th17-mediated immune response characterized by the production of IL-17A/F and several chemokines, important for neutrophil recruitment and activation. For the cold blooded vertebrate common carp, only the IL-12 subunits have been described so far. Methodology/Principal Findings Common carp is the natural host of two protozoan parasites: Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii. We found that these parasites negatively affect p35 and p40a gene expression in carp. Transfection studies of HEK293 and carp macrophages show that T. carassii-derived PAMPs are agonists of carp TLR2, promoting p19 and p40c gene expression. The two protozoan parasites induce different immune responses as assessed by gene expression and histological studies. During T. carassii infections, in particular, we observed a propensity to induce p19 and p40c gene expression, suggestive of the formation of IL-23. Infections with T. borreli and T. carassii lead to an increase of IFN-γ2 gene expression whereas IL-17A/F2 gene expression was only observed during T. carasssii infections. The moderate increase in the number of splenic macrophages during T. borreli infection contrasts the marked increase in the number of splenic neutrophilic granulocytes during T. carassii infection, along with an increased gene expression of metalloproteinase-9 and chemokines. Conclusion/Significance This is the first study that provides evidence for a Th17-like immune response in fish in response to infection with a protozoan parasite. PMID:20885956

  10. Interspecific differences in hypoxia-induced gill remodeling in carp.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Rashpal S; Yao, Lili; Matey, Victoria; Chen, Bo-Jian; Zhang, An-Jie; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian; Brauner, Colin J; Wang, Yuxiang S; Richards, Jeffrey G

    2013-01-01

    The gills of many fish, but in particular those of crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and goldfish (Carassius auratus), are capable of extensive remodeling in response to changes in oxygen (O2), temperature, and exercise. In this study, we investigated the interspecific variation in hypoxia-induced gill modeling and hypoxia tolerance in 10 closely related groups of cyprinids (nine species, with two strains of Cyprinus carpio). There was significant variation in hypoxia tolerance, measured as the O2 tension (P(O2)) at which fish lost equilibrium (LOEcrit), among the 10 groups of carp. In normoxia, there was a significant, phylogenetically independent relationship between mass-specific gill surface area and LOEcrit, with the more hypoxia-tolerant carp having smaller gills than their less hypoxia-tolerant relatives. All groups of carp, except the Chinese bream (Megalobrama pellegrini), increased mass-specific gill surface area in response to 48 h of exposure to hypoxia (0.7 kPa) through reductions in the interlamellar cell mass (ILCM) volume. The magnitude of the hypoxia-induced reduction in the ILCM was negatively correlated with LOEcrit (and thus positively correlated with hypoxia tolerance), independent of phylogeny. The hypoxia-induced changes in gill morphology resulted in reduced variation in mass-specific gill surface area among species and eliminated the relationship between LOEcrit and mass-specific gill surface area. While behavioral responses to hypoxia differed among the carp groups, there were no significant relationships between hypoxia tolerance and the Po2 at which aquatic surface respiration (ASR) was initiated or the total number of ASR events observed during progressive hypoxia. Our results are the first to show that the extent of gill remodeling in cyprinids is associated with hypoxia tolerance in a phylogenetically independent fashion. PMID:24241069

  11. Feeding rates affect growth, intestinal digestive and absorptive capabilities and endocrine functions of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Li, Xiang-Fei; Tian, Hong-Yan; Jiang, Guang-Zhen; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the optimal feeding rate for juvenile blunt snout bream (average initial weight 23.74 ± 0.09 g) based on the results on growth performance, intestinal digestive and absorptive capabilities and endocrine functions. A total of 840 fish were randomly distributed into 24 cages and fed a commercial feed at six feeding rates ranging from 2.0 to 7.0 % body weight (BW)/day. The results indicated that weight gain rate increased significantly (P < 0.05) as feeding rates increased from 2.0 to 5.0 % BW/day, but decreased with the further increasing feeding rates (P > 0.05). Protein efficiency ratio and nitrogen and energy retention all showed a similar trend. However, feed conversion ratio increased significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing feeding rates. Feeding rates have little effects (P > 0.05) on whole-body moisture, ash and protein contents, but significantly (P < 0.05) affect both lipid and energy contents with the highest values both observed in fish fed 4.0 % BW/day. In addition, moderate ration sizes (2.0-4.0 % BW/day) resulted in the enhanced activities of intestinal enzymes, including lipase, protease, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors-I, growth hormone receptor and neuropeptide all increased significantly (P < 0.05) as feeding rates increased from 2.0 to 5.0 % and 6.0 % BW/day, but decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with the further increase in feeding rates, whereas both leptin and cholecystokinin expressions showed an opposite trend. Based on the broken-line regression analysis of SGR against feeding rates, the optimal feeding rate for juvenile blunt snout bream was estimated to be 4.57 % BW/day. PMID:26597852

  12. Sterile 'Judas' carp--Surgical sterilisation does not impair growth, endocrine and behavioural responses of male carp.

    PubMed

    Patil, Jawahar G; Purser, G J; Nicholson, A M

    2015-09-15

    Use of 'Judas' fish to betray the locations of conspecifics is a powerful tool in management of invasive pest fish but poses a risk of contributing to recruitment. Our aim therefore was to generate surgically sterilised male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and test whether they readily assimilate into wild populations, retain sexual behaviour and successfully betray the locations of feral carp. Male common carp were surgically sterilised (n=44) adopting a two-point nip technique, using either a haemoclip, suture or electro cautery to tie each of the testicular ducts about 2.5 cm cranial to urogenital sinus-retaining all of the glandular testis tissue. Observed survival (95%) and success (>70%) rates were relatively high. Plasma steroids (11-keto testosterone and 17β-estradiol) were quantified by immunoassay. A subset of sterile and control male fish (n=7 each) were implanted with radio-transmitters and released into Lake Sorell (50 km(2)) and their ability to betray the location of feral carp was assessed by radio tracking and targeted fishing. There was a statistically significant difference in 11-keto testosterone and 17β-estradiol levels over time (P<0.05), but not between the sterile and control groups within each sampling time (P>0.05), implying that surgery did not compromise the animals physiologically. The sterile Judas fish integrated well into the population-behaving similarly to control Judas males and assisted in the capture of feral carp. The study marks a significant breakthrough in the management of this pest fish with potential adoption to the management of other pest fish globally. PMID:25776462

  13. Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella Fibulin-4 as a potential interacting partner for grass carp reovirus outer capsid proteins.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Wang, Hao; Liu, Weisha; Lu, Liqun

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian EGF containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 2 (Fibulin-4/EFEMP2), an extracellular matrix(ECM) protein and a member of the fibulin family, is involved in elastic fiber formation, connective tissue development and some human diseases. In a yeast-two hybrid screening of host proteins interacting with outer capsid protein of grass carp reovirus (GCRV), a grass carp homologue of Fibulin-4 (designated as GcFibulin-4) is suggested to hold the potential to bind VP7, VP56 and VP55, the outer capsid protein encoded by type I, II, III GCRV, respectively. GcFibulin-4 gene of grass carp was cloned and sequenced from the cDNA library constructed for the yeast two-hybrid screening. Full-length cDNA of GcFibulin-4 contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1323 bp encoding a putative protein of 440 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of GcFibulin-4 indicated that it shared a high homology with zebra fish Fibulin-4 protein. Transcriptional distribution analysis of GcFibulin-4 in various tissues of healthy grass carp showed that GcFibulin-4 was highly expressed in muscle, moderately expressed in the intestine and brain, and slightly expressed in other examined tissues; the expression pattern is consistent with tissue tropism of GCRV resulting in hemorrhage symptom in the corresponding tissues. Our results suggested that Fibulin-4 might enable free GCRV particles, the pathogen for grass carp hemorrhagic disease, to target fish tissues more efficiently by interacting with viral outer capsid proteins. PMID:26626583

  14. Single-walled carbon nanotubes as candidate recombinant subunit vaccine carrier for immunization of grass carp against grass carp reovirus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Gong, Yu-Xin; Ling, Fei; Song, Lin-Sheng; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2014-12-01

    Grass carp reovirus (GCRV), the most pathogenic aquareovirus, can cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in fingerling and yearling grass carp. Vaccination by injection is by far the most effective method of combating disease. However it is labor intensive, costly and not feasible to vaccinate large numbers of the fish. Thus, an efficient and economic strategy for the prevention of GCRV infection becomes urgent. Here, functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as carrier were used to manufacture SWCNTs-VP7 subunit vaccine with chemical modification. Different developmental stages of grass carps were immunized by VP7/SWCNTs-VP7 subunit vaccine against GCRV by intramuscular injection and bath immunization. The results indicate that better immune responses of grass carp immunized with the SWCNTs-VP7 subunit vaccine were induced in comparison with VP7 subunit vaccine alone. Immunization doses/concentrations are significantly reduced (about 5-8 times) to prevent GCRV infection in different developmental stages of grass carp with injection or bath treatment when SWCNTs carrier was used. A good immune protective effect (relative percentage survival greater than 95%) is observed in smaller size fish (0.2 g) with SWCNTs-VP7 bath immunization. In addition, serum respiratory burst activity, complement activity, lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, immune-related genes and antibody levels were significantly enhanced in fish immunized with vaccine. This study suggested that functionalized SWCNTs was the promising carrier for recombinant subunit vaccine and might be used to vaccinate fish by bath approach. PMID:25240976

  15. Robert Hooke: early respiratory physiologist, polymath, and mechanical genius.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2014-07-01

    Robert Hooke (1635-1703) was a polymath who made important contributions to respiratory physiology and many other scientific areas. With Robert Boyle, he constructed the first air pump that allowed measurements on small animals at a reduced atmospheric pressure, and this started the discipline of high-altitude physiology. He also built the first human low-pressure chamber and described his experiences when the pressure was reduced to the equivalent of an altitude of ∼2,400 m. Using artificial ventilation in an animal preparation, he demonstrated that movement of the lung was not essential for life. His book Micrographia describing early studies with a microscope remains a classic. He produced an exquisite drawing of the head of a fly, showing the elaborate compound eye. There is also a detailed drawing of a flea, and Hooke noted how the long, many-jointed legs enable the insect to jump so high. For 40 years, he was the curator of experiments for the newly founded Royal Society in London and contributed greatly to its intellectual ferment. His mechanical inventions covered an enormous range, including the watch spring, the wheel barometer, and the universal joint. Following the Great Fire of London in 1666, he designed many of the new buildings in conjunction with Christopher Wren. Unfortunately, Hooke had an abrasive personality, which was partly responsible for a lack of recognition of his work for many years. However, during the last 25 years, there has been renewed interest, and he is now recognized as a brilliant scientist and innovator. PMID:24985326

  16. Management of lactating sows during heat stress: effects of water drip, snout coolers, floor type and a high energy-density diet.

    PubMed

    McGlone, J J; Stansbury, W F; Tribble, L F

    1988-04-01

    Two experiments using 120 sows were conducted to determine the effects during heat stress of two floor types, snout coolers or a water drip system, and a high energy-density diet. During both studies, air temperature was maintained at or above 29 degrees C. Floor types included partially slotted concrete and plastic-coated, expanded metal. In Exp. 1, in addition to floor-type treatments, snout coolers were on or off and the water drip was on for 3 min each 10 min or off. Snout coolers increased (P less than .05) sow feed intake and decreased (P less than .05) sow lactation weight loss. Water drip increased (P less than .002) sow feed intake and reduced lactation weight loss. The drip X floor-type interaction was significant for most measures of piglet performance. Drip was beneficial for piglet weights when piglets were on plastic, whereas drip was detrimental to piglet performance while they were housed on concrete. In Exp. 2, two floor types, drip or no-drip and a high energy-density diet or control diet were examined during heat stress. The high energy-density diet reduced (P less than .01) sow feed intake but provided no measurable increase in piglet performance during heat stress. We conclude that water drip is an effective cooling technique for heat-stressed sows, especially when floors are plastic. Snout coolers, partial concrete slots and high energy-density diets provided only minor benefits to heat-stressed sows and were not of benefit to piglets nursing heat-stressed sows. PMID:3378948

  17. The Effect of Exposure to a High-Fat Diet on MicroRNA Expression in the Liver of Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dingdong; Lu, Kangle; Dong, Zaijie; Jiang, Guangzhen; Xu, Weina; Liu, Wenbin

    2014-01-01

    Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) are susceptible to hepatic steatosis when maintained in modern intensive culture systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in diet-induced hepatic steatosis in this species. MiRNAs, small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level, are involved in diverse biological processes, including lipid metabolism. Deep sequencing of hepatic small RNA libraries from blunt snout bream fed normal-fat and high-fat diets identified 202 (193 known and 9 novel) miRNAs, of which 12 were differentially expressed between the normal-fat and high-fat diet groups. Quantitative stem-loop reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses confirmed the upregulation of miR-30c and miR-30e-3p and the downregulation of miR-145 and miR-15a-5p in high-fat diet-fed fish. Bioinformatics tools were used to predict the targets of these verified miRNAs and to explore potential downstream gene ontology biological process categories and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Six putative lipid metabolism-related target genes (fetuin-B, Cyp7a1, NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex subunit 2, 3-oxoacid CoA transferase 1b, stearoyl-CoA desaturase, and fatty-acid synthase) were identified as having potential important roles in the development of diet-induced hepatic steatosis in blunt snout bream. The results presented here are a foundation for future studies of miRNA-controlled lipid metabolism regulatory networks in blunt snout bream. PMID:24788396

  18. Food consumption and growth rates of juvenile black carp fed natural and prepared feeds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodgins, Nathaniel C.; Schramm, Harold L., Jr.; Gerard, Patrick D.

    2014-01-01

    The introduced mollusciphagic black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus poses a significant threat to native mollusks in temperate waters throughout the northern hemisphere, but consumption rates necessary to estimate the magnitude of impact on mollusks have not been established. We measured food consumption and growth rates for small (77–245 g) and large (466–1,071 g) triploid black carp held individually under laboratory conditions at 20, 25, and 30°C. Daily consumption rates (g food · g wet weight fish−1·d−1·100) of black carp that received prepared feed increased with temperature (small black carp 1.39–1.71; large black carp 1.28–2.10), but temperature-related increases in specific growth rate (100[ln(final weight) - ln(initial weight)]/number of days) only occurred for the large black carp (small black carp −0.02 to 0.19; large black carp 0.16–0.65). Neither daily consumption rates (5.90–6.28) nor specific growth rates (0.05–0.24) differed among temperatures for small black carp fed live snails. The results of these laboratory feeding trials indicate food consumption rates can vary from 289.9 to 349.5 J·g−1·d−1 for 150 g black carp receiving prepared feed, from 268.8 to 441.0 J·g−1·d−1for 800 g black carp receiving prepared feed, and from 84.8 to 90.2 J·g−1·d−1 for 150 g black carp that feed on snails. Applying estimated daily consumption rates to estimated biomass of native mollusks indicates that a relatively low biomass of bla

  19. Kohn's theorem and Newton-Hooke symmetry for Hill's equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, P. M.; Gibbons, G. W.; Horvathy, P. A.

    2012-02-01

    Hill’s equations, which first arose in the study of the Earth-Moon-Sun system, admit the two-parameter centrally extended Newton-Hooke symmetry without rotations. This symmetry allows us to extend Kohn’s theorem about the center-of-mass decomposition. Particular light is shed on the problem using Duval’s “Bargmann” framework. The separation of the center-of-mass motion into that of a guiding center and relative motion is derived by a generalized chiral decomposition.

  20. An experimental 'Life' for an experimental life: Richard Waller's biography of Robert Hooke (1705).

    PubMed

    Moxham, Noah

    2016-03-01

    Richard Waller's 'Life of Dr Robert Hooke', prefixed to his edition of Hooke's Posthumous Works (1705), is an important source for the life of one of the most eminent members of the early Royal Society. It also has the distinction of being one of the earliest biographies of a man of science to be published in English. I argue that it is in fact the first biography to embrace the subject's natural-philosophical work as the centre of his life, and I investigate Waller's reasons for adopting this strategy and his struggle with the problem of how to represent an early experimental philosopher in print. I suggest that Waller eschews the 'Christian philosopher' tradition of contemporary biography - partly because of the unusually diverse and fragmentary nature of Hooke's intellectual output - and draws instead upon the structure of the Royal Society's archive as a means of organizing and understanding Hooke's life. The most quoted phrase from Waller's biography is that Hooke became 'to a crime close and reserved' in later life; this essay argues that Waller's biographical sketch was fashioned in order to undo the effects of that reserve. In modelling his approach very closely on the structure of the society's records he was principally concerned with making Hooke's work and biography accessible, intelligible and useful to the fellowship in a context familiar to them, a context which had provided the institutional framework for most of Hooke's adult life. I argue that Waller's 'Life' was also intended to make the largest claims for Hooke's intellectual standing that the author dared in the context of the enmity between Hooke and Isaac Newton once the latter became president of the Royal Society. However, I also adduce fresh manuscript evidence that Waller actually compiled, but did not publish, a defence of Hooke's claim to have discovered the inverse square law of gravity, allowing us to glimpse a much more assertive biography of Hooke than the published version. PMID:26877147

  1. The influence of hook type, angler experience, and fish size on injury rates and the duration of capture in an Alaskan catch-and-release rainbow trout fishery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meka, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Owing to concerns about the high incidence of past hooking injuries in Alagnak River rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, fish were captured with spin- and fly-fishing gear with barbed and barbless circle and "J" hooks to determine gear types contributing to injury. Landing and hook removal times were measured for a portion of fish captured, and the anatomical hooking location, hooking scar locations, bleeding intensity, angler experience, and fish size were recorded for all captured fish. Approximately 62% of fish captured experienced at least one new hooking injury, and 29% of fish had at least one past hooking injury. Small fish sustained higher new injury and bleeding rates, but large fish had higher past injury rates. Injury rates were higher for barbed J hooks, barbed J hooks took longer to remove, and fish caught by spin-fishing were injured more frequently than fish caught by fly-fishing. Fewer fly-fishing-caught fish were injured using circle hooks, and circle hooks tended to hook fish in only one location, generally in the jaw. Barbed J hooks were more efficient at landing fish, and J hooks were more efficient at landing fish than circle hooks. Novice anglers injured proportionally more fish than experienced anglers, primarily during hook removal. Landing time was positively correlated with fish size, and experienced anglers took longer to land fish than novices because they captured larger fish. These results suggest that a reduction in hooking injuries may be achieved by using circle hooks as an alternative to J hooks and barbless J hooks to reduce injury and handling time, yet catch efficiency for both methods would be reduced. Although fish captured with barbless J hooks and circle hooks had fewer injuries, it is important to note that each hook type also caused significant injury, and angler education is recommended to promote proper hook removal techniques.

  2. Cytochemistry of sialoglycoconjugates, lysozyme, and ?-defensin in eccrine glands of porcine snout skin as studied by electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Kousuke; Yasui, Tadashi; Gomi, Hiroshi; Sugiya, Hiroshi; Fujimori, Osamu; Meyer, Wilfried; Tsukise, Azuma

    2013-01-01

    In most mammals except for humanoid primates, eccrine glands are confined to the skin of a series of specific body regions. Sialic acids and antimicrobial substances exhibit various functional properties and serve as a component of nonspecific defense against micro-organisms, respectively. In this study, the distribution of these moieties was studied by electron microscopic histochemical methods. The eccrine glandular acini consisted of two types of dark cells as well as clear cells. The secretory granules and Golgi apparatus of both types of dark cells contained sialic acid residues linked to ?2-6Gal/GalNAc. On the other hand, sialoglycoconjugates with Si?2-3Gal?1-4GlcNAc sequence were confined to those of the Type II dark cells. In addition, lysozyme and ?-defensin were mainly detected in the secretory granules of the Type II dark cells. These secretory products may create a defensive barrier against microbial invasion and play an essential role in preservation of the integrity of porcine snout skin as a sensory organ. PMID:23032992

  3. Mannose receptor mediated phagocytosis of bacteria in macrophages of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoheng; Liu, Lichun; Hegazy, Abeer M; Wang, Hong; Li, Jie; Zheng, Feifei; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Weimin; Li, Jun; Liu, Xiaoling; Lin, Li

    2015-04-01

    Mannose receptor (MR) is an important pattern-recognition receptor in macrophages and plays a critical role in immune responses. It is has been reported that mammalian macrophages are able to engulf a wide range of microorganisms mediated by Ca(2+)-dependent MR binding to terminal mannose residues which are frequently found on the pathogen surfaces. However, little is known about the MR-mediated phagocytosis in macrophages of fish. In this report, the distributions of MR in the macrophage and head kidney tissue from blunt snout bream were examined using MaMR specific antibody generated in our lab. Mannan and MaMR specific antibody inhibition experiments results collectively showed that MR was involved in the GFP-expressed E. coli engulfed in the macrophages, resulting in respiratory burst, nitric oxide production as well as inflammatory cytokines secretion, and the MaMR-mediated phagocytosis was Ca(2+)-dependent. These results will shed a new light on the immune functions of teleost MRs. PMID:25583544

  4. A Comprehensive Analysis of Codon Usage Patterns in Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) Based on RNA-Seq Data

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xiaoke; Yi, Shaokui; Guo, Xianwu; Wang, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) is an important fish species for its delicacy and high economic value in China. Codon usage analysis could be helpful to understand its codon biology, mRNA translation and vertebrate evolution. Based on RNA-Seq data for M. amblycephala, high-frequency codons (CUG, AGA, GUG, CAG and GAG), as well as low-frequency ones (NUA and NCG codons) were identified. A total of 724 high-frequency codon pairs were observed. Meanwhile, 14 preferred and 199 avoided neighboring codon pairs were also identified, but bias was almost not shown with one or more intervening codons inserted between the same pairs. Codon usage bias in the regions close to start and stop codons indicated apparent heterogeneity, which even occurs in the flanking nucleotide sequence. Codon usage bias (RSCU and SCUO) was related to GC3 (GC content of 3rd nucleotide in codon) bias. Six GO (Gene ontology) categories and the number of methylation targets were influenced by GC3. Codon usage patterns comparison among 23 vertebrates showed species specificities by using GC contents, codon usage and codon context analysis. This work provided new insights into fish biology and new information for breeding projects. PMID:26016504

  5. A Comprehensive Analysis of Codon Usage Patterns in Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) Based on RNA-Seq Data.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaoke; Yi, Shaokui; Guo, Xianwu; Wang, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) is an important fish species for its delicacy and high economic value in China. Codon usage analysis could be helpful to understand its codon biology, mRNA translation and vertebrate evolution. Based on RNA-Seq data for M. amblycephala, high-frequency codons (CUG, AGA, GUG, CAG and GAG), as well as low-frequency ones (NUA and NCG codons) were identified. A total of 724 high-frequency codon pairs were observed. Meanwhile, 14 preferred and 199 avoided neighboring codon pairs were also identified, but bias was almost not shown with one or more intervening codons inserted between the same pairs. Codon usage bias in the regions close to start and stop codons indicated apparent heterogeneity, which even occurs in the flanking nucleotide sequence. Codon usage bias (RSCU and SCUO) was related to GC3 (GC content of 3rd nucleotide in codon) bias. Six GO (Gene ontology) categories and the number of methylation targets were influenced by GC3. Codon usage patterns comparison among 23 vertebrates showed species specificities by using GC contents, codon usage and codon context analysis. This work provided new insights into fish biology and new information for breeding projects. PMID:26016504

  6. 33 CFR 80.170 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. 80.170 Section 80.170 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.170 Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's...

  7. Are College Students Replacing Dating and Romantic Relationships with Hooking Up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebenbruner, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed female college students' ("N" = 197) participation in dating, romantic relationships, hooking up behaviors, and the intersection of these activities. Hooking up was prevalent among students ("n" = 78; 39.6%), but dating ("n" = 139; 70.6%) and romantic relationship ("n" = 147; 74.6%)…

  8. Are College Students Replacing Dating and Romantic Relationships with Hooking Up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebenbruner, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed female college students' ("N" = 197) participation in dating, romantic relationships, hooking up behaviors, and the intersection of these activities. Hooking up was prevalent among students ("n" = 78; 39.6%), but dating ("n" = 139; 70.6%) and romantic relationship ("n" = 147; 74.6%)

  9. Interactions of light and ethylene in hypocotyl hook maintenance in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knee, E. M.; Hangarter, R. P.; Knee, M.

    2000-01-01

    Etiolated seedlings frequently display a hypocotyl or epicotyl hook which opens on exposure to light. Etylene has been shown to be necessary for maintenance of the hook in a number of plants in darkness. We investigated the interaction of ethylene and light in the regulation of hypocotyl hook opening in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that hooks of Arabidopsis open in response to continuous red, far-red or blue light in the presence of up to 100 microliters l-1 ethylene. Thus a change in sensitivity to ethylene is likely to be responsible for hook opening in Arabidopsis, rather than a decrease in ethylene production in hook tissues. We used photomorphogenic mutants of Arabidopsis to demonstrate the involvement of both blue light and phytochrome photosensory systems in light-induced hook opening in the presence of ethylene. In addition we used ethylene mutants and inhibitors of ethylene action to investigate the role of ethylene in hook maintenance in seedlings grown in light and darkness.

  10. 33 CFR 165.130 - Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey-security zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey... Hook Bay, New Jersey—security zone. (a) Naval Ammunition Depot Piers. The navigable waters within the... at Leonardo, New Jersey. (3) Vessels may enter or cross the security zone, except as provided...

  11. 77 FR 47435 - Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Sussex County, DE; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... INFORMATION: On May 31, 2012, we published a Federal Register notice (77 FR 32131) announcing the availability... Fish and Wildlife Service Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Sussex County, DE; Draft Comprehensive... conservation plan and draft environmental impact statement (draft CCP/EIS) for Prime Hook National...

  12. When Teachers Aren't Nice: bell hooks and Feminist Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buffington, Nancy

    The recent "feminization" of composition theory and pedagogy has replaced the classroom figure of the authoritative father with an image of a nurturing mother. But as bell hooks and others insist, the classroom is inherently a place of struggle and conflict and the "real world" is even more so. Hooks offers concrete alternatives to the usual…

  13. Isomerization kinetics of AT hook decapeptide solution structures.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Emily R; Ridgeway, Mark E; Park, Melvin A; Leng, Fenfei; Fernandez-Lima, Francisco

    2014-01-21

    The mammalian high mobility group protein HMGA2 contains three DNA binding motifs associated with many physiological functions including oncogenesis, obesity, stem cell youth, human height, and human intelligence. In the present paper, trapped ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (TIMS-MS) has been utilized to study the conformational dynamics of the third DNA binding motif using the "AT hook" decapeptide unit (Lys(1)-Arg(2)-Prol(3)-Arg(4)-Gly(5)-Arg(6)-Prol(7)-Arg(8)-Lys(9)-Trp(10), ATHP) as a function of the solvent state. Solvent state distributions were preserved during electrospray ion formation, and multiple IMS bands were identified for the [M + 2H](2+) and for the [M + 3H](3+) charge states. Conformational isomer interconversion rates were measured as a function of the trapping time for the [M + 2H](2+) and [M + 3H](3+) charge states. Candidate structures were proposed for all IMS bands observed. Protonation site, proline residue conformation, and side chain orientations were identified as the main motifs governing the conformational interconversion processes. Conformational dynamics from the solvent state distribution to the gas-phase "de-solvated" state distribution demonstrated that ATHP is "structured", and relative abundances are associated with the relative stability between the proposed conformers. The most stable ATHP [M + 2H](2+) conformation at the "de-solvated" state corresponds to the AT hook motif observed in AT-rich DNA regions. PMID:24364733

  14. Hooking tomorrow's geoscientists: Authentic field inquiry as a compelling pedagogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallstrom, Erica

    2015-04-01

    Engaging high school students in the geosciences without providing them with opportunities to directly explore, understand, and question the natural world is like trying to catch a fish without a hook. How can educators hope to inspire youth to pursue a career in the geosciences when the subject is first introduced to teenagers within the confines of a classroom? Regardless of the content and activities employed by the teacher, the synthetic classroom setting is unable to recreate the organic richness of an authentic outdoor learning environment. A new course offering at Rutland High School in Rutland, Vermont, USA shifts away from the traditional classroom based pedagogy by focusing the learning on exploring the temporal changes occurring in the region's geologic features. Numerous visits to local quarries, outcrops, overlooks, and universities guide the course curriculum. Students use their new understandings and personal observations to complete a culminating independent investigation. This alternate learning model is made possible through collaboration with local universities, businesses, and government agencies. If the geosciences is to remain competitive in the recruitment of exemplary STEM candidates, than the focus of high school earth science programs must be considered. This course offers one alternative to improve engagement and understanding of the geoscience standards. While not the only option, it offers one possibility for hooking students on geosciences.

  15. The validation of a generalized Hooke's law for coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong; Zhang, Wei; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2008-01-01

    The exponential form of constitutive model is widely used in biomechanical studies of blood vessels. There are two main issues, however, with this model: 1) the curve fits of experimental data are not always satisfactory, and 2) the material parameters may be oversensitive. A new type of strain measure in a generalized Hooke's law for blood vessels was recently proposed by our group to address these issues. The new model has one nonlinear parameter and six linear parameters. In this study, the stress-strain equation is validated by fitting the model to experimental data of porcine coronary arteries. Material constants of left anterior descending artery and right coronary artery for the Hooke's law were computed with a separable nonlinear least-squares method with an excellent goodness of fit. A parameter sensitivity analysis shows that the stability of material constants is improved compared with the exponential model and a biphasic model. A boundary value problem was solved to demonstrate that the model prediction can match the measured arterial deformation under experimental loading conditions. The validated constitutive relation will serve as a basis for the solution of various boundary value problems of cardiovascular biomechanics. PMID:17933971

  16. Does Subacromial Osteolysis Affect Shoulder Function after Clavicle Hook Plating?

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Siwei; Gan, Minfeng; Sun, Han; Wu, Guizhong; Yang, Huilin; Zhou, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate whether subacromial osteolysis, one of the major complications of the clavicle hook plate procedure, affects shoulder function. Methods. We had performed a retrospective study of 72 patients diagnosed with a Neer II lateral clavicle fracture or Degree-III acromioclavicular joint dislocation in our hospital from July 2012 to December 2013. All these patients had undergone surgery with clavicle hook plate and were divided into two groups based on the occurrence of subacromial osteolysis. By using the Constant-Murley at the first follow-up visit after plates removal, we evaluated patients' shoulder function to judge if it has been affected by subacromial osteolysis. Results. We have analyzed clinical data for these 72 patients, which shows that there is no significant difference between group A (39 patients) and group B (33 patients) in age, gender, injury types or side, and shoulder function (the Constant-Murley scores are 93.38 ± 3.56 versus 94.24 ± 3.60, P > 0.05). Conclusion. The occurrence of subacromial osteolysis is not rare, and also it does not significantly affect shoulder function. PMID:27034937

  17. Capsular hook-assisted implantation of modified capsular tension ring.

    PubMed

    Khokhar, Sudarshan; Gupta, Shikha; Nayak, Bhagabat; Gogia, Varun

    2016-01-01

    A 16-year-old boy presented with decrease of vision over a period of 2 years. On examination, he was diagnosed to have microspherophakia with lenticular myopia with secondary glaucoma in both eyes. He was treated by lens aspiration and two-point capsular support using a modified capsular tension ring (M-CTR) and capsular tension segment (CTS) sutured to the sclera along with implantation of a foldable intraocular lens inside the bag. Lens aspiration was performed without artificial capsular hook support of the bag, as the lens was soft and vitreous was formed. However, M-CTR rotation into the bag was fraught with repeated adherence of the advancing end of the M-CTR into the loose bag causing simultaneous rotation of the bag with the rotation of the ring resulting in transient increase in bag subluxation. Capsular hooks provided appropriate countertraction to the unsupported bag, thus facilitating easy insertion and rotation of the ring into the bag. PMID:27048263

  18. THE BLUE HOOK POPULATIONS OF MASSIVE GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Thomas M.; Smith, Ed; Sweigart, Allen V.; Lanz, Thierry; Landsman, Wayne B.; Hubeny, Ivan E-mail: edsmith@stsci.ed E-mail: lanz@astro.umd.ed E-mail: hubeny@aegis.as.arizona.ed

    2010-08-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet color-magnitude diagrams of five massive Galactic globular clusters: NGC 2419, NGC 6273, NGC 6715, NGC 6388, and NGC 6441. These observations were obtained to investigate the 'blue hook' (BH) phenomenon previously observed in UV images of the globular clusters {omega} Cen and NGC 2808. Blue hook stars are a class of hot (approximately 35,000 K) subluminous horizontal branch stars that occupy a region of the HR diagram that is unexplained by canonical stellar evolution theory. By coupling new stellar evolution models to appropriate non-LTE synthetic spectra, we investigate various theoretical explanations for these stars. Specifically, we compare our photometry to canonical models at standard cluster abundances, canonical models with enhanced helium (consistent with cluster self-enrichment at early times), and flash-mixed models formed via a late helium-core flash on the white dwarf cooling curve. We find that flash-mixed models are required to explain the faint luminosity of the BH stars, although neither the canonical models nor the flash-mixed models can explain the range of color observed in such stars, especially those in the most metal-rich clusters. Aside from the variation in the color range, no clear trends emerge in the morphology of the BH population with respect to metallicity.

  19. Prevalence of Ingested Fish Hooks in Freshwater Turtles from Five Rivers in the Southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Steen, David A.; Hopkins, Brittney C.; Van Dyke, James U.; Hopkins, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater turtles may ingest baited fish hooks because many are opportunistic scavengers. Although the ingestion of fish hooks is known to be a source of mortality in multiple vertebrate groups, the prevalence of hook ingestion by freshwater turtles has not been well studied. We trapped turtles from five rivers in the southeastern United States and used radiographs to examine over 600 individuals of four species. Depending on the species, sex, and age class, 0–33% of turtles contained ingested fish hooks. For some species, larger turtles were more likely to contain a fish hook than smaller individuals. Freshwater turtle demography suggests that even small increases in adult mortality may lead to population declines. If our study areas are representative of other aquatic systems that receive fishing pressure, this work likely identifies a potential conflict between a widespread, common recreational activity (i.e., fishing) and an imperiled taxonomic group. PMID:24621919

  20. Variation in Apical Hook Length Reflects the Intensity of Sperm Competition in Murine Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Šandera, Martin; Albrecht, Tomáš; Stopka, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Background Post-copulatory sexual selection has been shown to shape morphology of male gametes. Both directional and stabilizing selection on sperm phenotype have been documented in vertebrates in response to sexual promiscuity. Methodology Here we investigated the degree of variance in apical hook length and tail length in six taxa of murine rodents. Conclusions Tail sperm length and apical hook length were positively associated with relative testis mass, our proxy for levels of sperm competition, thus indicating directional post-copulatory selection on sperm phenotypes. Moreover, our study shows that increased levels of sperm competition lead to the reduction of variance in the hook length, indicating stabilizing selection. Hence, the higher risk of sperm competition affects increasing hook length together with decreasing variance in the hook length. Species-specific post-copulatory sexual selection likely optimizes sperm morphology. PMID:23844198

  1. Apparent digestibility of Asian carp and common carp-derived fish meals in feeds for hybrid striped bass Morone saxatilis female x M. chrysops male and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of nutrients (crude protein, amino acids, crude lipid, fatty acids, and minerals) were determined for fish meals derived from menhaden, Asian carp (combination of silver and bighead carps), and common carp in feeds for hybrid striped bass and rainbow trout....

  2. Functional morphology of durophagy in black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus.

    PubMed

    Gidmark, Nicholas J; Taylor, Chantel; LoPresti, Eric; Brainerd, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    The black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus (Osteichthyes: Cyprinidae), crushes its snail and other molluscan prey with robust pharyngeal jaws and strong bite forces. Using gross morphology, histological sectioning, and X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM), we investigated structural, behavioral, and mechanical aspects of pharyngeal jaw function in black carp. Strut-like trabeculae in their pharyngeal jaws support large, molariform teeth. The teeth occlude with a hypertrophied basioccipital process that is also reinforced with stout trabeculae. A keratinous chewing pad is firmly connected to the basioccipital process by a series of small bony projections from the base of the pedestal. The pharyngeal jaws have no bony articulations with the skull, and their position is controlled by five paired muscles and one unpaired median muscle. Black carp can crush large molluscs, so we used XROMM to compare pharyngeal jaw postures as fish crushed ceramic tubes of increasing sizes. We found that black carp increase pharyngeal jaw gape primarily by ventral translation of the jaws, with ventral rotation and lateral flaring of the jaws also increasing the space available to accommodate large prey items. A stout, robust ligament connects left and right jaws together firmly, but allows some rotation of the jaws relative to each other. Contrasting with the pharyngeal jaw mechanism of durophagous perciforms with fused left and right lower pharyngeal jaws, we hypothesize that this ligamentous connection may serve to decouple tensile and compressive forces, with the tensile forces borne by the ligament and the compressive forces transferred to the prey. J. Morphol. 276:1422-1432, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26289832

  3. Analysis of three-dimensional kinematics of carp tail fin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ming; Zhang, Shu; He, Xiaoyuan

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, a test based on the wavelet transform for instantaneous three dimensional (3D) Carp tail fin profile measurements and analysis the kinematics of Carp tail fin method was proposed to understand the function of the tail fin. This experiment method is used in cruising carp. Projecting a moiré fringes onto a tail fin, the deformed fringe pattern containing 3D information was produced and varied with the movement of tail fin. The time-sequence deformed fringe pattern images were captured by a high speed camera. By wavelet transform profilometry, the tail fin movements were really reconstructed. On this basis, the kinematics parameter of tail fin was analyses. Experimental results indicate that the 3D profile of tail fin was varied during the tail-beat cycle. Analysis of tail kinematics suggests that, at a swimming speed 0.5Ls-1, the tail beat frequency is 1.42Hz and the dorsal lobe of the tail undergoes a 15.6% greater lateral excursion than does the ventral lobe. The timing of maximal lateral excursion was different at different location of tail fin.

  4. Analysis of three-dimensional kinematics of carp tail fin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ming; Zhang, Shu; He, Xiaoyuan

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, a test based on the wavelet transform for instantaneous three dimensional (3D) Carp tail fin profile measurements and analysis the kinematics of Carp tail fin method was proposed to understand the function of the tail fin. This experiment method is used in cruising carp. Projecting a moiré fringes onto a tail fin, the deformed fringe pattern containing 3D information was produced and varied with the movement of tail fin. The time-sequence deformed fringe pattern images were captured by a high speed camera. By wavelet transform profilometry, the tail fin movements were really reconstructed. On this basis, the kinematics parameter of tail fin was analyses. Experimental results indicate that the 3D profile of tail fin was varied during the tail-beat cycle. Analysis of tail kinematics suggests that, at a swimming speed 0.5Ls-1, the tail beat frequency is 1.42Hz and the dorsal lobe of the tail undergoes a 15.6% greater lateral excursion than does the ventral lobe. The timing of maximal lateral excursion was different at different location of tail fin.

  5. Gut melatonin response to microbial infection in carp Catla catla.

    PubMed

    Pal, Palash Kumar; Hasan, Kazi Nurul; Maitra, Saumen Kumar

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of present study was to demonstrate the response of gut melatoninergic system to Aeromonas hydrophila infection for 3 or 6 days and search for its correlation with the activity of different antioxidative and digestive enzymes to focus their interplay under pathophysiological conditions in carp (Catla catla). Microscopic study of gut in infected fish revealed degenerative changes in the tunica mucosa and lamina propria layers with sloughed off epithelial cells in the lumen. The activity of each digestive enzyme was reduced, but the levels of melatonin, arylalkylamine-N-acetyl transferase protein, the key regulator of melatonin biosynthesis, and different enzymatic antioxidants in gut were gradually and significantly increased with the progress of infection. Gut melatonin concentrations in A. hydrophila challenged carp by showing a positive correlation with the activity of each antioxidative enzyme, and a negative correlation with different digestive enzymes argued in favor of their functional relation, at least, during pathological stress. Moreover, parallel changes in the gut and serum melatonin titers indicated possible contribution of gut to circulating melatonin. Collectively, present carp study provided the first data to suggest that endogenous gut melatonin may be implicated to the mechanism of response to microbial infections in any fish species. PMID:26563281

  6. Identification and characterization of MAVS from black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Zhou, Jujun; Lv, Ying; Qu, Yixiao; Chi, Mengdie; Li, Jun; Feng, Hao

    2015-04-01

    MAVS (mitochondria antiviral signaling protein) plays an important role in the host cellular innate immune response against microbial pathogens. In this study, MAVS has been cloned and characterized from black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus). The full-length cDNA of black carp MAVS (bcMAVS) consists of 2352 nucleotides and the predicted bcMAVS protein contains 579 amino acids. Structural analysis showed that bcMAVS is composed of functional domains including an N-terminal CARD, a central proline-rich domain, a putative TRAF2-binding motif and a C-terminal TM domain, which is similar to mammalian MAVS. bcMAVS is constitutively transcribed in all the selected tissues including gill, kidney, heart, intestine, liver, muscle, skin and spleen; bcMAVS mRNA level in intestine, liver, muscle increased but decreased in spleen right after GCRV or SVCV infection. Multiple bands of bcMAVS were detected in western blot when it was expressed in tissue culture, which is similar to mammalian MAVS. Immunofluorescence assay determined that bcMAVS is a mitochondria protein and luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that bcMAVS could induce zebrafish IFN and EPC IFN expression in tissue culture. Data generated in this manuscript has built a solid foundation for further elucidating the function of bcMAVS in the innate immune system of black carp. PMID:25655327

  7. 76 FR 15857 - Injurious Wildlife Species; Listing the Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) as Injurious Fish

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... Lacey Act (18 U.S.C. 42). In a final rule of July 10, 2007 (72 FR 37459), the Service added silver and..., 2007 (72 FR 59019), the Service added black carp to this list. The Service published a Federal Register notice of inquiry on bighead carp (68 FR 54409; September 17, 2003) and provided a 60-day public...

  8. Phenotypic plasticity in the spawning traits of bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) in novel ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coulter, Alison A.; Keller, Doug; Amberg, Jon J.; Bailey, Elizabeth J.; Goforth, Reuben R.

    2013-01-01

    1. Bigheaded carp, including both silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead (H. nobilis) carp, are successful invasive fishes that threaten global freshwater biodiversity. High phenotypic plasticity probably contributes to their success in novel ecosystems, although evidence of plasticity in several spawning traits has hitherto been largely anecdotal or speculative. 2. We collected drifting eggs from a Midwestern U.S.A. river from June to September 2011 and from April to June 2012 to investigate the spawning traits of bigheaded carp in novel ecosystems. 3. Unlike reports from the native range, the presence of drifting bigheaded carp eggs was not related to changes in hydrological regime or mean daily water temperature. Bigheaded carp also exhibited protracted spawning, since we found drifting eggs throughout the summer and as late as 1 September 2011. Finally, we detected bigheaded carp eggs in a river reach where the channel is c. 30 m wide with a catchment area of 4579 km2, the smallest stream in which spawning has yet been documented. 4. Taken with previous observations of spawning traits that depart from those observed within the native ranges of both bighead and silver carp, our findings provide direct evidence that bigheaded carp exhibit plastic spawning traits in novel ecosystems that may facilitate invasion and establishment in a wider range of river conditions than previously envisaged.

  9. An analysis of inputs cost for carp farming sector in 2001 in Iran.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Hassan

    2007-11-01

    Carp is widely sold and used in its fresh in Iran, however, recently a range of value additions may also be observed. It is essential to the sustainable development of a carp farm to know the production costs and their contribution. Warm-water fish farming is mainly based on common, silver, grass and bighead carp and the common carp and the three Chinese species are often reared in poly culture in Iran. Since, the 1970s carp farming has spread around the Caspian coast and farmed production reached a peak in 2006 with production of more than 73,400 tons. A study of production, costs and profitability of carp farming sector was carried out to help clarify carp production costs and their difference with location in 2001. A total of 101 farms from the three main carp farming provinces, Guilan, Mazandaran and Khuzestan were randomly selected, classified and studied. The results of the survey showed that the various producer provinces have different cost structures. Overall, feed and fertilizer with the highest level of variation accounted for 23% of total costs, followed by seed and labor and salary with 23 and 17%, respectively. On average, benefit-cost ratio and the rate of farm income were closely related to location. This result suggests that farmers practice more efficiently and have better conditions in Mazandaran, followed by Guilan province. PMID:19090234

  10. History of introductions and governmental invovlement in promoting the use of Asian carps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous natural resource agency and media reports have alleged that Asian carps were introduced into the wild through escapes from commercial fish farms. This chapter traces the chronology associated with introductions of Asian carps and discusses the likeliest pathways of their introduction to th...

  11. Effects of phorbol esters in carp (Cyprinus carpio L).

    PubMed

    Becker, K; Makkar, H P

    1998-04-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio L) were fed diets containing phorbol esters at concentrations of 0, 3.75, 7.5, 15, 31, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1,000 micrograms/g feed. Phorbol esters were from Jatropha curcas nuts. Jatropha curcas toxicity has been reported in humans, rodents and livestock, and phorbol esters have been identified as the main toxic agent. The adverse effects observed in carp at phorbol esters concentrations of 31 micrograms/g or higher were lower average metabolic growth rate, fecal mucus production and rejection of feed. Average metabolic growth rates (g/kg 0.8/d) in a 7-d experimental period during which diets containing phorbol esters were fed to carp (values with different letters being significantly different) were 15.4a, 14.4a, 12.5ab, 12.4ab, 10.9b, 3.4c, 0.2c, -3.8d, -4.9d and -5.6d, respectively, at the above mentioned concentrations. The values for the recovery phase of 9-d during which phorbol esters were not included in the diet were 16.0a, 15.6a, 14.9a, 15.6a, 5.3b, 1.6b, 4.6bc, 6.3bc, 7.8c and 8.2c, respectively. The adverse effects of phorbol esters were reversible since withdrawal of the esters from the diets led to gain in body mass. None of the fish died at any of the concentrations studied. Incorporation of vitamin C, an antioxidant, at levels of 0.4 and 2% in the feed did not prevent occurrence of the adverse effects of the phorbol esters. The threshold level at which phorbol esters appeared to cause adverse effects in carp was 15 micrograms/g feed or 15 ppm in the diet. Carp were highly sensitive to phorbol esters, thus making them a useful species for bioassay of these compounds. This bioassay together with other analytic procedures could be of immense use in the development of detoxification processes for agro-industrial products containing phorbol esters, such as jatropha meal or jatropha oil, and as a quality control method to monitor successive stages in industrial detoxification processes. PMID:9554059

  12. Hooke's Law and the Stiffness of a Plastic Spoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestka, Kenneth A.; Warren, Cori

    2012-11-01

    The study of elastic properties of solids is essential to both physics and engineering. Finding simple, easy-to-visualize examples to demonstrate these concepts is often difficult. In a previous article written by one of us (KAPII), a simple method for determining Youngs modulus using marshmallows was given. In this article we will illustrate another method to explore elastic properties of everyday materials. This experiment uses a common plastic spoon exposed to a transverse force in order to determine the stiffness constant, yield point, and rupture point of the plastic spoon. In addition, much like the "Youngs Modulus of a Marshmallow" activity, this experiment visually demonstrates Hooke's law, is fun and easy to perform, and leaves a lasting impression on the students.

  13. New steroidal saponin from Antigonon leptopus Hook. and Arn.

    PubMed Central

    Apaya, Maria Karmella L.; Chichioco-Hernandez, Christine L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antigonon leptopus Hook. and Arn., Polygonaceae (cadena de amor), is a herbal remedy for pain and gout-like symptoms in the Philippines. The methanol extract of A. leptopus have shown strong inhibitory action against xanthine oxidase. Objective: To isolate and identify the compound responsible for the xanthine oxidase inhibitory action. Materials and Methods: A bioassay-guided isolation scheme using an in vitro assay for the inhibition of xanthine oxidase was employed. The structure was established using spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. Results: The isolated compound was determined to be a noncompetitive inhibitor of xanthine with an IC50 of 1.79 μg/mL. Conclusion: The isolated compound may represent a new class of xanthine oxidase inhibitors. PMID:25298666

  14. Design of spinous process hooks for flexible fixation of the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Leahy, J C; Mathias, K J; Heaton, A; Shepherd, D E; Hukins, D W; Deans, W F; Brian, M W; Wardlaw, D

    2000-01-01

    A prototype flexible fixation system for the lumbar spine was subjected to tensile testing to failure and cyclic tensile testing in order to determine any regions of weakness. The system consisted of a spinous process hook and two laminar hooks made of stainless steel (316L). Each laminar hook was attached to the spinous process hook by a loop of polyester braid secured by a crimped metal sleeve. In five tensile tests, the system failed by irreversible deformation of the spinous process hook at 2.5 +/- 0.3 kN (mean +/- standard deviation). In three cyclic tests, in which the applied tension varied sinusoidally between 0.04 and 0.4 kN at a frequency of 5 Hz, failure occurred after less than 400,000 loading cycles. This occurred as a result of fatigue crack initiation and propagation in the spinous process hook. A finite element model showed a stress concentration in the region where the crack occurred, which raised the applied stress above the tensile fatigue strength of this stainless steel. The spinous process hook was redesigned for manufacture in a titanium alloy (Ti-6AI-4V ELI) to minimize artefacts in magnetic resonance imaging. Further finite element models showed no unacceptable stress concentrations. PMID:11109855

  15. Transcriptome analysis of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed with animal and plant diets.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Liang, Xu-Fang; He, Shan; Sun, Jian; Wen, Zheng-Yong; He, Yu-Hui; Cai, Wen-Jing; Wang, Ya-Ping; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2015-12-15

    Numerous studies have been focused on the replacement of fish meal by other alternative protein sources. However, little is currently known about the molecular mechanism of utilization of diets with different protein sources in fish. Grass carp is a typical herbivorous fish. To elucidate the relationship between gene expression and utilization of animal and plant diets, transcriptome sequencing was performed in grass carp fed with chironomid larvae and duckweed. Grass carp fed with duckweed had significantly higher relative length of gut than those fed with chironomid larvae. 4435 differentially expressed genes were identified between grass carp fed with chironomid larvae and duckweed in brain, liver and gut, involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, appetite control, circadian rhythm, digestion and metabolism pathways. These pathways might play important roles in utilization of diets with different protein sources in grass carp. And the findings could provide a new insight into the replacement of fish meal in artificial diets. PMID:26283148

  16. Black Carp: Biological synopsis and risk assessment of an introduced fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nico, L.G.; Williams, J.D.; Jelks, H.L.

    2005-01-01

    Major subjects addressed are (1) taxonomy, description, and distinguishing characteristics of the species; (2) native distribution; (3) biology and natural history, with emphasis on diet and reproduction; (4) history of the species in world aquaculture; (5) history of introduction within and outside the United States; (6) use as a biological control control agent, including a review of digenetic trematodes and snail-borne parasites of special concern and methods used for control; (7) alternatives to the use of black carp; (8) environmental tolerance and potential geographic range; and (9) risks associated with its introduction. The book also includes substantial information on the other Chinese carp species, including bighead carp, silver carp, and grass carp.

  17. Age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of adult bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, in the lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrank, S.J.; Guy, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Bighead carp were introduced into Arkansas in 1973 to improve water clarity in production ponds. Bighead carp subsequently escaped aquaculture facilities in the early 1980's and dispersed into the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. The first documentation of bighead carp reproduction in the Mississippi River system was in 1989. The population has increased in the Missouri River as is evident in their increased proportion in the commercial harvest since 1990. The effect of this exotic planktivore on native ecosystems of the U.S. has not been examined. Basic biological data on bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis in the Missouri River are needed to predict potential ecological problems and provide a foundation for manipulative studies. The objectives of this study were to assess age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of bighead carp in the Missouri River. Adult bighead carp in our sample varied from age 3 to age 7 and length varied from 475 to 1050 mm. There was a large variation in length at age, and overall bighead carp exhibited fast growth. For example, mean back-calculated length at age 3 was 556 mm. The sample was dominated by bighead carp from the 1994 year class. There was no difference in gonad development (i.e., gonadal somatic index, egg diameter) between winter and spring samples. Length of male bighead carp and GSI were not significantly correlated; however, females exhibited a positive linear relationship between length and GSI. In each ovary, egg diameter frequencies exhibited a bimodal distribution, indicating protracted spawning. Mean fecundity was 226 213, with a maximum fecundity of 769 964. Bighead carp in the Missouri River have similar life history characteristics to Asian and European populations. They have become well established in the Missouri River and it is likely that dispersal and population density will increase.

  18. Suitability of Lake Erie for bigheaded carps based on bioenergetic models and remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Karl R.; Chapman, Duane C.; Wynne, Timothy; Masagounder, Karthik; Paukert, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Algal blooms in the Great Lakes are a potential food source for silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (H. nobilis; together bigheaded carps). Understanding these blooms thus plays an important role in understanding the invasion potential of bigheaded carps. We used remote sensing imagery, temperatures, and improved species specific bioenergetics models to determine algal concentrations sufficient for adult bigheaded carps. Depending on water temperature we found that bigheaded carp require between 2 and 7 μg/L chlorophyll or between 0.3 and 1.26 × 105cells/mL Microcystis to maintain body weight. Algal concentrations in the western basin and shoreline were found to be commonly several times greater than the concentrations required for weight maintenance. The remote sensing images show that area of sufficient algal foods commonly encompassed several hundred square kilometers to several thousands of square kilometers when blooms form. From 2002 to 2011, mean algal concentrations increased 273%–411%. This indicates Lake Erie provides increasingly adequate planktonic algal food for bigheaded carps. The water temperatures and algal concentrations detected in Lake Erie from 2008 to 2012 support positive growth rates such that a 4 kg silver carp could gain between 19 and 57% of its body weight in a year. A 5 kg bighead carp modeled at the same water temperatures could gain 20–81% of their body weight in the same period. The remote sensing imagery and bioenergetic models suggest that bigheaded carps would not be food limited if they invaded Lake Erie.

  19. The Golgi-Associated Hook3 Protein Is a Member of a Novel Family of Microtubule-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Walenta, Jason H.; Didier, Aaron J.; Liu, Xinran; Krämer, Helmut

    2001-01-01

    Microtubules are central to the spatial organization of diverse membrane-trafficking systems. Here, we report that Hook proteins constitute a novel family of cytosolic coiled coil proteins that bind to organelles and to microtubules. The conserved NH2-terminal domains of Hook proteins mediate attachment to microtubules, whereas the more divergent COOH-terminal domains mediate the binding to organelles. Human Hook3 bound to Golgi membranes in vitro and was enriched in the cis-Golgi in vivo. Unlike other cis-Golgi–associated proteins, however, a large fraction of Hook3 maintained its juxtanuclear localization after Brefeldin A treatment, indicating a Golgi-independent mechanism for Hook3 localization. Because overexpression of Hook3 caused fragmentation of the Golgi complex, we propose that Hook3 participates in defining the architecture and localization of the mammalian Golgi complex. PMID:11238449

  20. Spatio-temporal expression of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) mIgD and its immune response to Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Kang; Liu, Wanjing; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Xuezhen

    2015-01-01

    The function of IgD in fish and mammals has not been fully understood since its discovery. In this study, we have isolated and characterized the cDNA that encodes membrane-bound form of the immunoglobulin D heavy chain gene (mIgD) of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) using RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of mIgD consisted of 3313 bp, encoding a putative protein of 943 amino acids. The structure of blunt snout bream mIgD is VDJ-μ1-δ1-δ2-δ3-δ4-δ5-δ6-δ7-TM. Multiple alignment and phylogenetic analyses indicated that blunt snout bream mIgD clusters with the homologues of cyprinid fish and that its highest identity is with that of C. idella (82%). The mIgD expression in early different developmental stages showed that the level of mIgD mRNA decreased dramatically from the unfertilized egg stage to the 32-cell stage, suggesting that mIgD mRNA was maternally transferred. As cell differentiation initially took place in the blastula stage, the mIgD expression increased significantly from the blastula stage to prelarva, which might be attributed to embryonic stem cell differentiation processes. Compared with juvenile fish, the expression and tissue distribution patterns of mIgD in adult individuals exhibited considerable variation. After the injection of Aeromonas hydrophila, mIgD expression was up-regulated in various tissues, reaching the peak expression at 5 d, 14 d or 21 d (depending on the tissue type). The present study provides a theoretical basis for further research of the teleost immune system. PMID:26557025

  1. Effects of light intensity on growth, immune responses, antioxidant capability and disease resistance of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Xu, Chao; Wang, Fei; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2015-12-01

    Light is necessary for many fish species to develop and grow normally since most fishes are visual feeders. However, too intense light may be stressful or even lethal. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of light intensity on growth, immune response, antioxidant capability and disease resistance of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala. Fish (18.04 ± 0.22 g) randomly divided into 5 groups were exposed to a range of light intensities (100, 200, 400, 800 and 1600 lx) in cultures for 8 weeks. After the feeding trial, fish were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila and cumulative mortality was recorded for the next 96 h. The results demonstrated that fish subjected to 400 lx showed the greatest weight gain (125.70 ± 5.29%). Plasma levels of glucose and lactate increased with light intensity rising from 100 lx to 1600 lx while the lowest plasma levels of cortisol was observed at 400 lx group. Post-challenged haemato-immunological parameters (including plasma lysozyme and alternative complement activities, as well as plasma nitric oxide level and globulin contents) improved with light intensity increasing from 100 lx to 400 lx, and then decreased with further increasing light intensity. However, antioxidant biomarkers such as liver catalase and malondialdehyde showed an opposite trend with immune response with the lowest values observed at 400 lx groups. The application of light intensity at 1600 lx significantly lowered liver glutathione activity to 76.78 ± 6.91 μmol g(-1). Within a range of light intensity from 100 to 400 lx, no differences were observed in liver total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities while they were significantly higher at 800 and 1600 lx. After challenge, the lowest mortality was observed in fish exposed to 400 lx. It was significantly lower than that of fish exposed to 100 and 1600 lx. The results of the present study indicated that high light intensities (more than 800 lx) not only produced poor growth, but also led to stress response, as might consequently result in the elevated liver oxidation rates and depress immunity of this species. Although no stress response was observed, fish subjected to low light intensities (lower than 400 lx) also showed oxidative stress, immunosuppression and reduced disease resistance. Taken together, the optimal light intensity to enhance growth and boost immunity of this species at juvenile stage is 400 lx. PMID:26306857

  2. DETAIL VIEW OF THE BRIDGE CRANE HOOKS USED IN HB3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF THE BRIDGE CRANE HOOKS USED IN HB-3 AND HB-4, FACING SOUTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  3. Stress fracture of the hook of the hamate: a case report.

    PubMed

    Van Demark, Robert E; Van Demark, Robert E; Helsper, Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    Hook of the hamate fractures are uncommon. This fracture is usually seen in sports involving a club or a racquet (i.e., baseball or golf) and is caused by blunt trauma. Stress fractures of the hamate are exceedingly rare. Because of its subcutaneous position and associated soft tissue structures, hook of the hamate fractures can be difficult to diagnosis. When treated early, conservative (non-operative) options can be used to successfully treat the fracture. When the diagnosis is delayed, nonunion of the fracture is common and is usually treated with surgery. This case represents a hook of the hamate stress fracture that healed with casting in spite of being seen two months from the onset of symptoms. Hamate fractures are reviewed, including the anatomy and treatment options for hook of the hamate fractures. PMID:25946894

  4. Structural study and geochronology in the Hook Batholith, Central Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naydenov, K.; Lehmann, J.; Saalmann, K.; Milani, L.; Kinnaird, J.; Charlesworth, G.; Frei, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Pan-African Hook batholith is emplaced N of the Mwembeshi dislocation, a regional scale structure at the contact between Zambezi Belt and Lufilian Arc in Central Zambia. Exposed over 12000 km2 the batholith is composed mainly of fine-grained and coarse-grained porphyritic granites and leucogranites affected by solid-state deformation along high-strain zones. Two main zones of deformation were investigated - the Itezhi-Tezhi Zone (ITZ) in the SW part of the batholith and the Nalusanga Zone (NZ) to the NE. The 2.5 km wide, N-S trending, subvertical ITZ is a medium-grade, pure shear dominated structure, reflecting probably regional scale E-W shortening. In the central part of the zone, augen-gneiss textures developed. Mineral lineations plunging ~40 S are recorded occasionally. The deformed feldspar porphyroclasts show symmetrical tails and rarely sinistral stair-stepping. In the SE part of the Hook batholith the continuation of the ITZ trends E-W. This orientation can be explained by rotation of the original ITZ trend by N-S shortening that also has been recorded in the siliciclastic metasediments S of the contact. S dipping, up to 15 cm wide thrust zones observed in the ITZ area were probably formed during this tectonic event. The 3 km wide NZ is a subvertical to steeply SSW dipping structure, parallel to the NE contact of the batholith, with well-developed foliation and mineral stretching lineations. Field and microstructural analyses defined the NZ as a medium-grade, non-coaxial, sinistral strike-slip shear zone. The transition from weak foliated granite to S-C mylonites and ultramylonites was observed. The sinistral shearing is consistent with E-W shortening in agreement with the tectonic framework of the ITZ. The low grade metasediments to the E of the granite are folded in N to NNW trending structures also implying E-W shortening. Temperature conditions during the deformation in ITZ and NZ inferred from microstructural analyses are about 500-550C. The metamorphism in the country rocks E of the batholith is in the lower greenschist facies indicating that deformation along the ITZ and NZ occurred during the cooling of the granite. U-Pb zircon LA-SF-ICP-MS analyses reveal that the coarse-grained and fine-grained granites in the NE part of the batholith have the same age of 5492 Ma. The age of an undeformed aplite that truncates the NZ's foliation brackets the strike-slip shearing between 5492 Ma and 5413 Ma. In the SE margin of the batholith deformed coarse-grained granite is dated at 5442 Ma and an undeformed granitic vein gave an age of 5433 Ma, thus relating the fabric formation to the same time interval. To the SW the deformed granite in the ITZ is dated at 5333 Ma indicating that the E-W shortening was still active at this time. This study reports two deformational stages recorded in the Hook batholith and its country rocks. E-W shortening folded the sediments form the E margin of the granite and formed the solid-state fabric in the batholith. The following N-S shortening cold be related to the final docking of the Zambezi sequence to the Lufilian Arc along the Mwembeshi dislocation.

  5. Effects of triploid grass carp on aquatic plants, water quality, and public satisfaction in Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonar, Scott A.; Bolding, B.; Divens, M.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated effects of triploid grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella on aquatic macrophyte communities, water quality, and public satisfaction for 98 lakes and ponds in Washington State stocked with grass carp between 1990 and 1995. Grass carp had few noticeable effects on macrophyte communities until 19 months following stocking. After 19 months, submersed macrophytes were either completely eradicated (39% of the lakes) or not controlled (42% of the lakes) in most lakes. Intermediate control of submersed macrophytes occurred in 18% of lakes at a median stocking rate of 24 fish per vegetated surface acre. Most of the landowners interviewed (83%) were satisfied with the results of introducing grass carp. For sites where all submersed macrophytes were eradicated, average turbidity was higher (11 nephelometric turbidity units, NTU) than at sites where macrophytes were controlled to intermediate levels (4 NTU) or unaffected by grass carp grazing (5 NTU). Chlorophyll a was not significantly different between levels of macrophyte control; therefore, we concluded that most of this turbidity was abiotic and not algal. Triploid grass carp were a popular control option and effectively grazed most submersed macrophytes in Washington State. However, calculating stocking rates based on landowner estimates of aquatic plant coverage rarely resulted in intermediate levels of aquatic plant control. Additionally, the effects of particular stocking rates varied considerably. We recommend against using grass carp in Washington lakes where eradication of submersed vegetation cannot be tolerated.

  6. Effects of growth hormone over-expression on reproduction in the common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Cao, Mengxi; Chen, Ji; Peng, Wei; Wang, Yaping; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; Trudeau, Vance L; Zhu, Zuoyan; Hu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    To study the complex interaction between growth and reproduction we have established lines of transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio) carrying a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) growth hormone (GH) transgene. The GH-transgenic fish showed delayed gonadal development compared with non-transgenic common carp. To gain a better understanding of the phenomenon, we studied body growth, gonad development, changes of reproduction related genes and hormones of GH-transgenic common carp for 2years. Over-expression of GH elevated peripheral gh transcription, serum GH levels, and inhibited endogenous GH expression in the pituitary. Hormone analyses indicated that GH-transgenic common carp had reduced pituitary and serum level of luteinizing hormone (LH). Among the tested genes, pituitary lhβ was inhibited in GH-transgenic fish. Further analyses in vitro showed that GH inhibited lhβ expression. Localization of ghr with LH indicates the possibility of direct regulation of GH on gonadotrophs. We also found that GH-transgenic common carp had reduced pituitary sensitivity to stimulation by co-treatments with a salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and a dopamine antagonist. Together these results suggest that the main cause of delayed reproductive development in GH transgenic common carp is reduced LH production and release. PMID:24184869

  7. Genetic variations of body weight and GCRV resistance in a random mating population of grass carp

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Rong; Sun, Jiaxian; Luo, Qing; He, Libo; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; Guo, Fuhua; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

    2015-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is an important species in freshwater aquaculture both in China and on a global scale. Variety degeneration and frequent diseases have limited the further development of grass carp aquaculture. Thus, new and improved varieties are required. Here, we identified and assessed the body weight and disease resistance in a random mating population of 19 ♀ × 22 ♂ grass carp, which were derived from different water systems. In both the growth experimental group of 10,245 fish and grass carp reovirus (GCRV)-infected group with 10,000 fish, 78 full-sib families were statistically analyzed for body weight and GCRV resistance. The findings showed that body weight traits had low heritability (0.11 ± 0.04, 0.10 ± 0.03 and 0.12 ± 0.05), GCRV resistance traits had high heritability (0.63 ± 0.11); body weight was higher in 3 families, whereas GCRV resistance was significantly greater in 11 families. Our results confirmed that the natural germplasm resources of wild grass carp were genetically diverse. Breeding of GCRV resistant varieties of grass carp have better genetic basis. This study provides the basis for constructing basal populations for grass carp selective breeding, quantitative trait loci (QTL) and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) analysis. PMID:26439690

  8. Assessing impacts of introduced aquatic species: Grass carp in large systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, Mark B.

    1993-03-01

    Introduced species have created environmental benefits and unanticipated disasters so a priori assessments of species introductions are needed for environmental management. A checklist for assessing impacts of introduced species was developed from studies of introduced species and recommendations for planning introductions. Sterile, triploid grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella) are just beginning to be used as a biocontrol agent for the management of aquatic vegetation in open waterways. Potential impacts of grass carp in open systems were identified by reviewing grass carp biology relative to the impact assessment checklist. The potential consequences of introduced grass carp were reviewed for one case study. The case study demonstrated that conclusions about potential impacts and monitoring needs can be made despite incomplete information and uncertainty. Indicators of environmental impact and vulnerability of host systems were grouped into six categories: population control, hybridization, diseases and parasites, habitat alterations, biological effects, and management issues. Triploid grass carp can significantly alter habitat and biological resources through the secondary effects of reductions in aquatic vegetation. Potential impacts and significant uncertainties involve fish dispersions from plant control areas, inability to control vegetation loss, loss of diverse plant communities and their dependent species, and conflicts with human use of the water resource. Adequate knowledge existed to assess most potential consequences of releasing large numbers of triploid grass carp in Guntersville Reservoir, Alabama. However, the assessment of potential impacts indicated that moderate, incremental stockings combined with monitoring of vegetation and biological resources are necessary to control the effects of grass carp and achieve desirable, intermediate plant densities.

  9. Molecular cloning and expression of toll-like receptor 4 (tlr4) in the blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    PubMed

    Lai, Ruifang; Liu, Han; Jakovlić, Ivan; Zhan, Fanbin; Wei, Jin; Yang, Pinhong; Wang, Weimin

    2016-06-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a pivotal role in teleost innate immune system. In this study, Megalobrama amblycephala (ma) tlr4 gene was cloned, its putative polypeptide product characterized, and expression analysed. Matlr4 cDNA is 2862 bp long, with an open reading frame of 2364 bp encoding 787 amino acids. MaTlr4 is a typical TLR protein, including the extracellular part with nine leucine-rich repeat motifs, a transmembrane region and a cytoplasmic Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain. MaTlr4 has the highest level of identity (94%) and similarity (97%) with the grass carp Tlr4.2 homolog. This was also corroborated by the phylogenetic analysis, which placed MaTlr4 in a cluster with other cyprinid homologs. Matlr4 mRNA was ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues and during all sampled developmental stages. The observed peak in matlr4 mRNA expression during gastrula and somite stages is in good agreement with its proposed role in the development of the neural system. Temporal expression patterns of matlr4 and maMyD88 mRNAs and proteins were analyzed in liver, spleen, head kidney, trunk kidney and intestine after Aeromonas hydrophila infection. And mRNA expression varied between different time-points. Both MaTlr4 and MaMyD88 protein expressions at 12 hpi were significantly enhanced in head kidney and intestine. These results indicate that matlr4 is involved in the immune response in M. amblycephala, and that it is indeed a functional homologue of tlr4s described in other animal species. PMID:26802439

  10. HookA is a novel dynein–early endosome linker critical for cargo movement in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Qiu, Rongde; Arst, Herbert N.; Peñalva, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein transports membranous cargoes along microtubules, but the mechanism of dynein–cargo interaction is unclear. From a genetic screen, we identified a homologue of human Hook proteins, HookA, as a factor required for dynein-mediated early endosome movement in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. HookA contains a putative N-terminal microtubule-binding domain followed by coiled-coil domains and a C-terminal cargo-binding domain, an organization reminiscent of cytoplasmic linker proteins. HookA–early endosome interaction occurs independently of dynein–early endosome interaction and requires the C-terminal domain. Importantly, HookA interacts with dynein and dynactin independently of HookA–early endosome interaction but dependent on the N-terminal part of HookA. Both dynein and the p25 subunit of dynactin are required for the interaction between HookA and dynein–dynactin, and loss of HookA significantly weakens dynein–early endosome interaction, causing a virtually complete absence of early endosome movement. Thus, HookA is a novel linker important for dynein–early endosome interaction in vivo. PMID:24637327

  11. Elements of concern in fillets of bighead and silver carp from the Illinois River, Illinois.

    PubMed

    Levengood, Jeffrey M; Soucek, David J; Sass, Gregory G; Dickinson, Amy; Epifanio, John M

    2014-06-01

    Efforts to control invasive bighead (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix) may include harvest for human consumption. We measured concentrations of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) in fillets from silver and bighead carp collected from the lower Illinois River, Illinois, USA, to determine whether concentrations were of health concern and differed by species, size, and location. Concentrations of total As were below detection limits in most bighead (92%) and silver (77%) carp fillets, whereas inorganic As was below detection limits in all samples. Mean Hg concentrations were greater in bighead (0.068 mg kg(-1)) than in silver carp (0.035 mg kg(-1)), and were smallest in carp from the confluence of the Illinois and Mississippi rivers. Mercury concentrations in fillets were positively correlated with body mass in both species. Concentrations of Hg were below the US Food and Drug Administration's (USFDA) action level (1 ppm as methyl-Hg); however, concentrations in some bighead (70%) and silver (12%) carp fell within the range that would invoke a recommendation to limit meals in sensitive cohorts. Mean Se concentrations were greater in silver (0.332 mg kg(-1)) than in bighead (0.281 mg kg(-1)) carp fillets, and were below the 1.5 mg kg(-1) limit for an unrestricted number of meals/month. The mean molar ratio of Se:Hg in fillets was lower in bighead (14.0) than in silver (29.1) carp and was negatively correlated with mass in both species Concentrations of Hg in bighead and silver carp fillets should be considered when assessing the risks associated with the use of these species as a protein source. PMID:24300421

  12. Wireless inclinometer acquisition system for reducing swing movement control module experiment of hook model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yan; Ou, Jinping; Zhang, Chunwei; Li, Luyu

    2008-03-01

    Large Scale Heavy Derrick Lay Barge is very important for sea work. Under intense wind and wave load, the hook on the Barge will vibrate so large that in some cases it can not work. Through installing the Tuned Mass Damper(TMD) on the hook, the vibration will be reduced to a certain range to meet the demand on sea work, which is also important for increasing the efficiency of sea work. To design the suitable TMD for the hook, the dynamical parameters should be specified beforehand. Generally, the related dynamical parameters such as inclinometer and acceleration are measured by wire sensors. But due to the restriction of the actual condition, the wire sensors are very hard to implement. Recently, the wireless sensors have been presented to overcome the shortcomings of wire ones. It is more suitable and also convenient to utilize wireless sensors to acquire the useful data of large scale heavy derrick lay barge. In this paper, the hook reducing swing movement control module is designed for large scale heavy derrick lay barge. Secondly, wireless inclinometer sensor system is integrated using the technique of MEMS, sensing and wireless communication. Finally, the hook reducing swing movement control module is validated by the developed wireless inclinometer data acquisition system. The wireless inclinometer sensor can be used not only in swing monitoring for large scale heavy derrick lay barge's Hook, but also in vibration monitoring for TV tower, large crane. In general, it has great application foreground.

  13. Involvement of Ethylene in Responses of Etiolated Bean Hypocotyl Hook to Coumarin 1

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Page W.; Powell, Robert D.

    1970-01-01

    Coumarin, at concentrations between 1.0 and 0.1 mm, inhibited red light-induced opening of the etiolated bean hypocotyl hook. In addition, anthocyanin synthesis and geotropic bending were inhibited. Coumarin stimulated ethylene synthesis, and ethylene was shown to mediate the inhibitory actions of coumarin. This conclusion was supported by: (a) the parallel concentration dependence and time sequence of hook closing and ethylene synthesis, (b) the restriction of the bulk of coumarin-induced ethylene production to the curved portion of the hook where opening is expressed, (c) the ability of both coumarin and ethylene to reclose partially opened hooks, and (d) the ability of exogenous ethylene, in the amounts produced by coumarintreated hooks, to duplicate the inhibitory effects of coumarin. There was an increasing stimulation of growth of the straight portion of the hypocotyl hook section as coumarin concentrations were increased from 0.1 to 1.0 mm. This action of coumarin was not duplicated by ethylene and occurred regardless of the presence or absence of added ethylene. The results of this study suggest that many actions of coumarin in growth systems are mediated by ethylene produced in response to the coumarin. PMID:16657341

  14. Flagellar Hook Flexibility Is Essential for Bundle Formation in Swimming Escherichia coli Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Mostyn T.; Steel, Bradley C.; Silvestrin, Claudio; Wilkinson, David A.; Delalez, Nicolas J.; Lumb, Craig N.; Obara, Boguslaw; Berry, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Swimming Escherichia coli cells are propelled by the rotary motion of their flagellar filaments. In the normal swimming pattern, filaments positioned randomly over the cell form a bundle at the posterior pole. It has long been assumed that the hook functions as a universal joint, transmitting rotation on the motor axis through up to ∼90° to the filament in the bundle. Structural models of the hook have revealed how its flexibility is expected to arise from dynamic changes in the distance between monomers in the helical lattice. In particular, each of the 11 protofilaments that comprise the hook is predicted to cycle between short and long forms, corresponding to the inside and outside of the curved hook, once each revolution of the motor when the hook is acting as a universal joint. To test this, we genetically modified the hook so that it could be stiffened by binding streptavidin to biotinylated monomers, impeding their motion relative to each other. We found that impeding the action of the universal joint resulted in atypical swimming behavior as a consequence of disrupted bundle formation, in agreement with the universal joint model. PMID:22522898

  15. Hormonal networks involved in apical hook development in darkness and their response to light

    PubMed Central

    Mazzella, Maria A.; Casal, Jorge J.; Muschietti, Jorge P.; Fox, Ana R.

    2013-01-01

    In darkness, the dicot seedlings produce an apical hook as result of differential cell division and extension at opposite sides of the hypocotyl. This hook protects the apical meristem from mechanical damage during seedling emergence from the soil. In darkness, gibberellins act via the DELLA-PIF (PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORs) pathway, and ethylene acts via the EIN3/EIL1 (ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3/EIN3 like 1)-HLS1 (HOOKLESS 1) pathway to control the asymmetric accumulation of auxin required for apical hook formation and maintenance. These core pathways form a network with multiple points of connection. Light perception by phytochromes and cryptochromes reduces the activity of PIFs and (COP1) CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1—both required for hook formation in darkness—, lowers the levels of gibberellins, and triggers hook opening as a component of the switch between heterotrophic and photoautotrophic development. Apical hook opening is thus a suitable model to study the convergence of endogenous and exogenous signals on the control of cell division and cell growth. PMID:24616725

  16. A specific CpG oligodeoxynucleotide induces protective antiviral responses against grass carp reovirus in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    PubMed

    Su, Hang; Yuan, Gailing; Su, Jianguo

    2016-07-01

    CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) show strong immune stimulatory activity in vertebrate, however, they possess specific sequence feature among species. In this study, we screened out an optimal CpG ODN sequence for grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), 1670A 5'-TCGAACGTTTTAACGTTTTAACGTT-3', from six published sequences and three sequences designed by authors based on grass carp head kidney mononuclear cells and CIK (C. idella kidney) cells proliferation. VP4 mRNA expression was strongly inhibited by CpG ODN 1670A in CIK cells with GCRV infection, showing its strong antiviral activity. The mechanism via toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)-mediated signaling pathway was measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, and TLR21 did not play a role in the immune response to CpG ODN. The late up-regulation of CiRIG-I mRNA expression indicated that RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) signaling pathway participated in the immune response to CpG ODN which is the first report on the interaction between CpG and RLRs. We also found that the efficient CpG ODN can activates interferon system. Infected with GCRV, type I interferon expression was reduced and type II interferon was induced by the efficient CpG ODN in CIK cells, especially IFNγ2, suggesting that IFNγ2 played an important role in response to the efficient CpG ODN. These results provide a theoretical basis and new development trend for further research on CpG and the application of CpG vaccine adjuvant in grass carp disease control. PMID:26972738

  17. Effects of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) on blood biochemical parameters, antioxidase activity, and immune function in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Dong-Ming; Chen, Yu-Ke; Wang, Qiu-Ju; Yang, Yi-Yu

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotic use in livestock feed additives has resulted in harmful residue accumulation and spread of drug-resistance. We examined the use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as a safer alternative to antibiotics in feeding the common carp. AMPs were added to common carp basal diets (Control) as additives at four concentrations: 100 mg kg(-1) (B1), 200 mg kg(-1) (B2), 400 mg kg(-1) (B3), 600 mg kg(-1) (B4) by dry weight of basal diet. After a 60-day feeding experiment, the final weight, DG and SGR of carps on B1, B2 and B3 diet were significantly higher than the control (p < 0.05). The FCR of carps on B1, B2 and B3 diet were significantly lower than the control (p < 0.05). Carps on B2, B3, and B4 diets showed significantly lower (p < 0.05) levels of triglyceride than the control. B4-fed carps showed significantly lower (p < 0.05) levels of total protein, albumin, and total cholesterol than the control. However there was no remarkable difference (p > 0.05) in levels of uric ammonia, globulin, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase, lactic dehydrogenase and blood glucose in all groups. The serum superoxide dismutase and catalase activity of B1-fed carps was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control and B4-fed carps. The serum alkaline phosphate activity of carps on B1 diets was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than B4-fed carps. The serum acid phosphatase activity of B1-fed carps was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control and other antimicrobial peptide-fed groups. The serum lysozyme activity of carps on B1, B2, and B3 diets was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control- and B4-fed carps. Regarding immune factors in serum, the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) and interleukin (IL)-1β in B1-fed carps were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control and other groups, while IL-1α levels in B1-fed carps was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control-, B2-, and B3-fed carps. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the content of MHC among the five groups. In conclusion, antimicrobial peptide can reduce triglyceride levels in serum, enrich oxidation resistance, and improve immunity of the common carp. It showed that appropriate concentration of antibacterial peptide as supplements in diets for common carp increased the final weight, DG, SGR and decreased the FCR. PMID:26386195

  18. [The suitability of some chemical methods for evaluation of freshness of stored suffocated carp].

    PubMed

    Gilka, J; Habrda, J; Matyás, Z; Janková, B

    1979-09-01

    For the assessment of the degree of meat freshness of stored unbleeded carp some simple chemical methods were tested to be used as auxiliary criteria for veterinary decisions regarding the edibility. Under the experimental conditions where the suffocated carp were stored at cooling and room temperatures in water or in the air, differences were determined in the followed criteria between fresh and deteriorating fish which were statistically insignificant for most indicators. In view of requirements regarding chemical indicators only the determination of ribose content was found to be expedient. Changes in the levels of ribose were significantly correlated with the sense-detected changes in meat freshness of the stored carp. PMID:117604

  19. Age estimation of a large bighead carp from Grand Lake, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, James M.; Nealis, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    On April 23, 2011, a 1356-mm total length (TL), 39.8 kg bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) was brought to the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation. This specimen is the largest bighead carp recorded from Oklahoma, and it is near the maximum size reported from the United States. This specimen was estimated to be nine years old based on estimates from three different structures (pectoral fin ray, branchiostegal ray, and otolith). The age, together with past Oklahoma records of the species, indicates that there has been multiple introductions or undocumented reproduction of bighead carp in the Grand Lake basin.

  20. Automation Hooks Architecture Trade Study for Flexible Test Orchestration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin A.; Maclean, John R.; Graffagnino, Frank J.; McCartney, Patrick A.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the conclusions of a technology and communities survey supported by concurrent and follow-on proof-of-concept prototyping to evaluate feasibility of defining a durable, versatile, reliable, visible software interface to support strategic modularization of test software development. The objective is that test sets and support software with diverse origins, ages, and abilities can be reliably integrated into test configurations that assemble and tear down and reassemble with scalable complexity in order to conduct both parametric tests and monitored trial runs. The resulting approach is based on integration of three recognized technologies that are currently gaining acceptance within the test industry and when combined provide a simple, open and scalable test orchestration architecture that addresses the objectives of the Automation Hooks task. The technologies are automated discovery using multicast DNS Zero Configuration Networking (zeroconf), commanding and data retrieval using resource-oriented Restful Web Services, and XML data transfer formats based on Automatic Test Markup Language (ATML). This open-source standards-based approach provides direct integration with existing commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) analysis software tools.

  1. Quantum Hooke's Law to classify pulse laser induced ultrafast melting

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Hao; Ding, Hepeng; Liu, Feng

    2015-02-03

    Ultrafast crystal-to-liquid phase transition induced by femtosecond pulse laser excitation is an interesting material's behavior manifesting the complexity of light-matter interaction. There exist two types of such phase transitions: one occurs at a time scale shorter than a picosecond via a nonthermal process mediated by electron-hole plasma formation; the other at a longer time scale via a thermal melting process mediated by electron-phonon interaction. However, it remains unclear what material would undergo which process and why? Here, by exploiting the property of quantum electronic stress (QES) governed by quantum Hooke's law, we classify the transitions by two distinct classes of materials: the faster nonthermal process can only occur in materials like ice having an anomalous phase diagram characterized with dTm/dP < 0, where Tm is the melting temperature and P is pressure, above a high threshold laser fluence; while the slower thermal process may occur in all materials. Especially, the nonthermal transition is shown to be induced by the QES, acting like a negative internal pressure, which drives the crystal into a “super pressing” state to spontaneously transform into a higher-density liquid phase. Our findings significantly advance fundamental understanding of ultrafast crystal-to-liquid phase transitions, enabling quantitative a priori predictions.

  2. Quantum Hooke's Law to classify pulse laser induced ultrafast melting

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hu, Hao; Ding, Hepeng; Liu, Feng

    2015-02-03

    Ultrafast crystal-to-liquid phase transition induced by femtosecond pulse laser excitation is an interesting material's behavior manifesting the complexity of light-matter interaction. There exist two types of such phase transitions: one occurs at a time scale shorter than a picosecond via a nonthermal process mediated by electron-hole plasma formation; the other at a longer time scale via a thermal melting process mediated by electron-phonon interaction. However, it remains unclear what material would undergo which process and why? Here, by exploiting the property of quantum electronic stress (QES) governed by quantum Hooke's law, we classify the transitions by two distinct classes ofmore » materials: the faster nonthermal process can only occur in materials like ice having an anomalous phase diagram characterized with dTm/dP < 0, where Tm is the melting temperature and P is pressure, above a high threshold laser fluence; while the slower thermal process may occur in all materials. Especially, the nonthermal transition is shown to be induced by the QES, acting like a negative internal pressure, which drives the crystal into a “super pressing” state to spontaneously transform into a higher-density liquid phase. Our findings significantly advance fundamental understanding of ultrafast crystal-to-liquid phase transitions, enabling quantitative a priori predictions.« less

  3. Quantum Hooke's Law to Classify Pulse Laser Induced Ultrafast Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hao; Ding, Hepeng; Liu, Feng

    2015-02-01

    Ultrafast crystal-to-liquid phase transition induced by femtosecond pulse laser excitation is an interesting material's behavior manifesting the complexity of light-matter interaction. There exist two types of such phase transitions: one occurs at a time scale shorter than a picosecond via a nonthermal process mediated by electron-hole plasma formation; the other at a longer time scale via a thermal melting process mediated by electron-phonon interaction. However, it remains unclear what material would undergo which process and why? Here, by exploiting the property of quantum electronic stress (QES) governed by quantum Hooke's law, we classify the transitions by two distinct classes of materials: the faster nonthermal process can only occur in materials like ice having an anomalous phase diagram characterized with dTm/dP < 0, where Tm is the melting temperature and P is pressure, above a high threshold laser fluence; while the slower thermal process may occur in all materials. Especially, the nonthermal transition is shown to be induced by the QES, acting like a negative internal pressure, which drives the crystal into a ``super pressing'' state to spontaneously transform into a higher-density liquid phase. Our findings significantly advance fundamental understanding of ultrafast crystal-to-liquid phase transitions, enabling quantitative a priori predictions.

  4. Pseudopollen and Food?hair Diversity in Polystachya Hook. (Orchidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    DAVIES, K. L.; ROBERTS, D. L.; TURNER, M. P.

    2002-01-01

    Labellar food?hairs in Polystachya Hook. exhibit considerable morphological diversity. The commonest type of trichome is uniseriate, two to four?celled, with a clavate or subclavate terminal cell. This type occurs amongst representatives of most sections examined. Other trichomes are bristle?like with tapering or fusiform terminal cells, whereas representatives of section Polystachya have uniseriate, moniliform trichomes that fragment with the formation of rounded or elliptical component cells. Most contain protein and, while some contain starch, lipid is invariably absent. The presence of particular types of labellar trichomes does not coincide with variations in vegetative morphology. Thus, current taxonomic treatment of the genus indicates that trichome types, with perhaps the sole exception of moniliform, pseudopollen?forming hairs found in section Polystachya only, have limited taxonomic value. However, the remarkable similarity between pseudopollen?forming hairs of Polystachya and those of the Neotropical genus Maxillaria in terms of morphology, cellular dimensions and food content indicates that pseudopollen may have arisen several times and evolved in response to similar pollinator pressures. PMID:12324271

  5. Immunomodulation by Zearalenone in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Pietsch, Constanze; Junge, Ranka; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is a frequent contaminant of animal feeds, but its effects on fish have not yet been investigated extensively. In order to fill this gap a feeding trial with juvenile carp was conducted. Three groups of fish were fed feeds contaminated with ZEN at three concentrations (low: 332 μg kg−1, medium: 621 μg kg−1, and high: 797 μg kg−1 feed) for four weeks. Possible reversible effects of ZEN were evaluated by feeding additional groups with the ZEN-contaminated feeds for four weeks, followed by the uncontaminated diet for two weeks. Immune function of isolated leukocytes from head kidney and trunk kidney was assessed using the assessment of NO production, the respiratory burst assay, the chemiluminescence assay, and the measurement of arginase activities. These investigations frequently revealed increased immune responses after exposure of fish to low ZEN concentrations and reduced immune responses after exposure to high mycotoxin concentrations. Moreover, the feeding of the uncontaminated diet for further two weeks did not improve the immune responses in most cases. These results indicate that cellular immune functions in ZEN-contaminated carp are influenced which may be relevant for fish health in aquaculture. PMID:26491670

  6. Case report of right hamate hook fracture in a patient with previous fracture history of left hamate hook: is it hamate bipartite?

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Marion W; Gilbert, Micheal L; Norton, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Background Hamate hook fracture is a common fracture in golfers and others who play sports that involve rackets or sticks such as tennis or hockey. This patient had a previous hamate fracture in the opposing wrist along with potential features of hamate bipartite. Case presentation A 19 year old male presented with a complaint of right wrist pain on the ulnar side of the wrist with no apparent mechanism of injury. The pain came on gradually one week before being seen in the office and he reported no prior care for the complaint. His history includes traumatic left hamate hook fracture with surgical excision. Conclusion The patient was found to have marked tenderness over the hamate and with a prior fracture to the other wrist, computed tomography of the wrist was ordered revealing a fracture to the hamate hook in the right wrist. He was referred for surgical evaluation and the hook of the hamate was excised. Post-surgically, the patient was able to return to normal activity within eight weeks. This case is indicative of fracture rather than hamate bipartite. This fracture should be considered in a case of ulnar sided wrist pain where marked tenderness is noted over the hamate, especially after participation in club or racket sports. PMID:17038179

  7. High-Level HOOK3 Expression Is an Independent Predictor of Poor Prognosis Associated with Genomic Instability in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hube-Magg, Claudia; Kluth, Martina; Simon, Ronald; Lebok, Patrick; Minner, Sarah; Tsourlakis, Maria Christina; Koop, Christina; Graefen, Markus; Adam, Meike; Haese, Alexander; Wittmer, Corinna; Steurer, Stefan; Izbicki, Jakob; Sauter, Guido; Wilczak, Waldemar; Schlomm, Thorsten; Krech, Till

    2015-01-01

    Hook microtubule-tethering protein 3 (HOOK3) is an adaptor protein for microtubule-dependent intracellular vesicle and protein trafficking. In order to assess the role of HOOK3 in prostate cancer we analyzed HOOK3 expression by immunohistochemistry on a TMA containing more than 12,400 prostate cancers. Results were compared to tumor phenotype and PSA recurrence as well as aberrations possibly defining relevant molecular subtypes such as ERG status and deletions of 3p13, 5q21, 6q15 and PTEN. HOOK3 immunostaining was negative in normal luminal cells of prostate epithelium, whereas 53.3% of 10,572 interpretable cancers showed HOOK3 expression, which was considered low in 36.4% and high in 16.9% of cases. High-level HOOK3 expression was linked to advanced tumor stage, high Gleason score, high proliferation index, positive lymph node stage, and PSA recurrence (p<0.0001 each). The prognostic role of HOOK3 expression was independent of established clinico-pathological parameters both in preoperative and postoperative settings. Comparisons with molecular features were performed to draw conclusions on the potential function of HOOK3 in the prostate. A strong association with all examined deletions is consistent with a role of HOOK3 for maintaining genomic integrity by contributing to proper centrosome assembly. Finding HOOK3 expression in 74% of ERG positive but in only 38% of ERG negative cancers (p<0.0001) further suggests functional interactions between these genes. In conclusion, the results of our study identify HOOK3 as a strong candidate prognostic marker with a possible role in maintaining genomic integrity in prostate cancer, which may have potential for inclusion into clinical routine assays. PMID:26230842

  8. High mobility group AT-hook 2 is overexpressed in hepatoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chung-Ta; Zhang, Lizhi; Mounajjed, Taofic; Wu, Tsung-Teh

    2013-05-01

    Hepatoblastoma is the most frequent malignant hepatic tumor in children. Expression of high mobility group AT-hook 2, an architectural nuclear factor and marker for hepatic progenitor cells, has not been studied in detail in hepatocellular neoplasms. Immunohistochemical stains using antibodies against high mobility group AT-hook 2, β-catenin, glypican-3, p53, and Ki-67 were performed in 15 hepatoblastomas, 15 fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinomas, 34 hepatocellular carcinomas (12, ≤30 years old; 22, >30 years old), and 22 hepatic adenomas. High mobility group AT-hook 2 was expressed in all 15 hepatoblastomas, including all fetal and embryonal components, significantly higher than in 41.7% (5/12) of hepatocellular carcinomas of 30 years or younger (P = .001) and in 9% (2/22) of hepatocellular carcinomas of older than 30 years (P < .001). Aberrant β-catenin expression was detected in 80% (12/15) of hepatoblastomas, 41.6% (5/12) of hepatocellular carcinomas of 30 years or younger, and 18.2% (4/22) of hepatocellular carcinomas of older than 30 years. All 15 fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinomas and 22 hepatic adenomas were negative for high mobility group AT-hook 2 or β-catenin. High mobility group AT-hook 2 and β-catenin expression correlated positively (P = .017; τ = 0.522) in 34 hepatocellular carcinomas. β-Catenin and glypican-3 exhibited a distinct spatial distribution within hepatoblastomas; glypican-3 was more frequently expressed in fetal components (P = .007), whereas β-catenin tended to be more frequently expressed in embryonal components (P = .062). In conclusion, high mobility group AT-hook 2 is expressed in all hepatoblastomas and could be used as a sensitive marker in their diagnosis. High mobility group AT-hook 2 was also expressed in a subset of hepatocellular carcinomas in association with β-catenin expression; this might represent a subtype of hepatocellular carcinoma with hepatic progenitor cell differentiation. PMID:23134771

  9. Transcriptome profiling of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) infected with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Yu, Hui; Li, Hua; Wang, Anli

    2016-04-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is the causative pathogen of intestinal hemorrhage which has caused great economic loss in grass carp aquaculture. In order to understand the immunological response of grass carp to infection by A. hydrophila, the transcriptomic profiles of the spleens from infected and non-infected grass carp groups were obtained using HiSeq™ 2500 (Illumina). An average of 63 million clean reads per library was obtained, and approximately 80% of these genes were successfully mapped to the reference genome. A total of 1591 up-regulated and 530 down-regulated genes were identified. Eight immune-related categories involving 105 differently expressed genes were scrutinized. 16 of the differently expressed genes involving immune response were further validated by qRT-PCR. Our results provide valuable information for further analysis of the mechanisms of grass carp defense against A. hydrophila invasion. PMID:26945937

  10. Predictability of PCBs in carp harvested in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron

    SciTech Connect

    Zabik, M.E.; Merrill, C.; Zabik, M.J.

    1982-05-01

    Samples of carp flesh were analyzed for PCBs, dieldrin, and DDT using a gas chromatograph equipped with a Ni/sup 63/ electron capture detector. Of 211 carp obtained commercially from Saginaw Bay, none exceeded the current tolerance of 5 ppm PCBs in edible fillet. Prediction equations were calculated which accounted for 68-90 percent of PCB in many groups. The carp from 2 to 4 kg were less predictable as to their level of PCBs as were female carp or those caught in the fall. The percentage fat was an important component of these prediction equations. Length of fish correlated better for fish 4 to 5.5 kg. Correlations were highest for spring and summer catches and for males. Thus size alone could be a reasonably good predictor of PCBs caught during the spring and summer but is less so the rest of the year.

  11. Aquacultural and socio-economic aspects of processing carps into some value-added products.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, H S; Sehgal, G K

    2002-05-01

    Carps are the mainstay of Indian aquaculture, contributing over 90% to the total fish production, which was estimated to be 1.77 million metric tonnes in 1996. Carp culture has a great potential for waste utilization and thus for pollution abatement. Many wastes such as cow, poultry, pig, duck, goat, and sheep excreta, biogas slurry, effluents from different kinds of factories/industries have been efficiently used for enhancing the productivity of natural food of carps and related species. Besides, several organic wastes/byproducts such as plant products, wastes from animal husbandry, and industrial by-products have been used as carp feed ingredients to lower the cost of supplementary feeding. However, to ensure the continued expansion of fish ponds and the pollution control, there must be a market for the fish (carps) produced in these ponds. The carps have, however, a low market value due to the presence of intra-muscular bones, which reduces their consumer acceptability. Thus, a need was felt to develop some boneless convenience products for enhancing the consumer acceptability of the carps. Efforts were made to prepare three value-added fish products, namely fish patty, fish finger and fish salad from carp flesh and were compared with a reference product ('fish pakoura'). Sensory evaluation of these products gave highly encouraging results. The methods of preparation of these products were transferred to some progressive farmers of the region who prepared and sold these products at very attractive prices. Carp processing has a great potential for the establishment of a fish ancillary industry and thus for boosting the production of these species. In Punjab alone, there is a potential of consuming 32,448 metric tonnes per annum of such value-added products (which would require 54,080 metric tonnes of raw fish). The development of value-added products has a significant role in raising the socio-economic status of the people associated with carp culture. The average cost of production of these products was estimated to be INR 80 per kg. With a sale price of INR 110 per kg, and a sale of 50 kg per day of the value-added products (26 days a month), the average monthly income of a carp-processing unit comes to be INR 39,000 (929 USD, approximately). PMID:11991079

  12. Stress-induced adaptation of neutrophilic granulocyte activity in K and R3 carp lines.

    PubMed

    Pijanowski, L; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M L; Irnazarow, I; Chadzinska, M

    2015-12-01

    Both in mammals and fish, stress induces remarkable changes in the immune response. We focused on stress-induced changes in the activity of neutrophilic granulocytes in the R3 and K lines of common carp, which showed differential stress responses. Our study clearly demonstrates that a prolonged restraint stress differentially affects the activity of K and R3 carp neutrophils. In the K line, stress decreased the respiratory burst, while in the R3 line it reduced the release of extracellular DNA. Surprisingly, the stress-induced changes in ROS production and NET formation did not correlate with changes in gene expression of the inflammatory mediators and GR receptors. In neutrophilic granulocytes from K carp, gene expression of the stress-sensitive cortisol GR1 receptor was significantly higher than in neutrophils from R3 fish, which will make these cells more sensitive to high levels of cortisol. Moreover, upon stress, neutrophilic granulocytes of K carp up-regulated gene expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 while this was not observed in neutrophilic granulocytes of R3 carp. Therefore, we can hypothesize that, in contrast to R3 neutrophils, the more cortisol sensitive neutrophils from K carp respond to stress with up-regulation of IL-10 and consequently reduction of ROS production. Most probably the ROS-independent NET formation in K carp is not regulated by this anti-inflammatory cytokine. These data may indicate a predominantly ROS-independent formation of NETs by carp neutrophilic granulocytes. Moreover, they underline the important role of IL-10 in stress-induced immunoregulation. PMID:26505123

  13. Closeup of QF-106 release hook for Eclipse program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    View of the release hook on the QF-106 that allowed the pilot to release the tow rope extending from the C-141A tow plane in the Eclipse project. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  14. Hooked Flare Ribbons and Flux-rope-related QSL Footprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jie; Gilchrist, Stuart A.; Aulanier, Guillaume; Schmieder, Brigitte; Pariat, Etienne; Li, Hui

    2016-05-01

    We studied the magnetic topology of active region 12158 on 2014 September 10 and compared it with the observations before and early in the flare that begins at 17:21 UT (SOL2014-09-10T17:45:00). Our results show that the sigmoidal structure and flare ribbons of this active region observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly can be well reproduced from a Grad–Rubin nonlinear force-free field extrapolation method. Various inverse-S- and inverse-J-shaped magnetic field lines, which surround a coronal flux rope, coincide with the sigmoid as observed in different extreme-ultraviolet wavelengths, including its multithreaded curved ends. Also, the observed distribution of surface currents in the magnetic polarity where it was not prescribed is well reproduced. This validates our numerical implementation and setup of the Grad–Rubin method. The modeled double inverse-J-shaped quasi-separatrix layer (QSL) footprints match the observed flare ribbons during the rising phase of the flare, including their hooked parts. The spiral-like shape of the latter may be related to a complex pre-eruptive flux rope with more than one turn of twist, as obtained in the model. These ribbon-associated flux-rope QSL footprints are consistent with the new standard flare model in 3D, with the presence of a hyperbolic flux tube located below an inverse-teardrop-shaped coronal QSL. This is a new step forward forecasting the locations of reconnection and ribbons in solar flares and the geometrical properties of eruptive flux ropes.

  15. Comparison of the exomes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Henkel, Christiaan V; Dirks, Ron P; Jansen, Hans J; Forlenza, Maria; Wiegertjes, Geert F; Howe, Kerstin; van den Thillart, Guido E E J M; Spaink, Herman P

    2012-06-01

    Research on common carp, Cyprinus carpio, is beneficial for zebrafish research because of resources available owing to its large body size, such as the availability of sufficient organ material for transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Here we describe the shot gun sequencing of a clonal double-haploid common carp line. The assembly consists of 511891 scaffolds with an N50 of 17?kb, predicting a total genome size of 1.4-1.5?Gb. A detailed analysis of the ten largest scaffolds indicates that the carp genome has a considerably lower repeat coverage than zebrafish, whilst the average intron size is significantly smaller, making it comparable to the fugu genome. The quality of the scaffolding was confirmed by comparisons with RNA deep sequencing data sets and a manual analysis for synteny with the zebrafish, especially the Hox gene clusters. In the ten largest scaffolds analyzed, the synteny of genes is almost complete. Comparisons of predicted exons of common carp with those of the zebrafish revealed only few genes specific for either zebrafish or carp, most of these being of unknown function. This supports the hypothesis of an additional genome duplication event in the carp evolutionary history, which--due to a higher degree of compactness--did not result in a genome larger than that of zebrafish. PMID:22715948

  16. Sensitivity of adult, embryonic, and larval carp Cyprinus carpio to copper

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, F.L.; Rice, D.W. Jr.

    1981-03-01

    The copper sensitivity of adult, embryonic, and larval stages of carp Cyprinus carpio was determined using flow-through bioassay methods. Carp adults, embryos, and larvae were exposed continuously to copper concentrations that ranged from those producing an immediate effect to those producing none. Carp embryos were obtained after we induced adults to spawn. Exposure of embryos began at 4 to 6, 8 to 10, and 20 to 24 h after fertilization and continued until hatching. Exposure of larvae began 6 to 8 h after hatching and continued until yolk sac absorption. From the family of curves of cumulative mortality versus duration of exposure, median lethal times were determined and used to construct comparative toxicity curves. The 24-h LC50s show the order of acute copper sensitivity of carp life-history stages, measured in micrograms per liter, as; larvae (180 ..mu..g/L) > embryos (240 ..mu..g/L) > adults (540 ..mu..g/L). Estimated incipient lethal concentrations give the order of subacute copper sensitivity of carp life-history stages as: larvae (110 ..mu..g/L) > adult (120 ..mu..g/L) > embryo (230 ..mu..g/L). The sensitivity of carp embryos to copper changed as embryogenesis progressed; for example, embryos were approximately twice as sensitive before as after blastopore closure. 70 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Development of an antimycin-impregnated bait for controlling common carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, J.J.; Luoma, J.A.; Marking, L.L.

    1994-01-01

    The common carp Cyprinus carpio is a major problem for fisheries and wildlife managers because its feeding behavior causes degradation of valuable fish and waterfowl habitat. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an antimycin-impregnated bait for control of common carp. The toxic bait contained fish meal, a binder, antimycin, and water. The ingredients were mixed together and made into pellets. This bait was force-fed to common carp or administered in a pond environment, where fish voluntarily fed on the bait. The lowest lethal dose in the forcefeeding study was 0.346 mg antimycin/kg of fish and doses that exceeded 0.811 mg antimycin/kg were toxic to all fish. On three occasions, adult common carp held in 0.004-ha concrete ponds were offered 10 g of toxic bait containing 5.0, 7.5, and 10 mg antimycin/g of bait and the mean mortalities 96 h later were 21, 35, and 51%, respectively. Three tests were conducted in 0.04-ha earthen ponds each containing 100 adult common carp; these fish were offered 50 g of the toxic bait that contained 10 mg antimycin/g, and the mean mortalities (96 h) were 19, 32, and 74%. Toxic baits should be used in conjunction with other management techniques, and only when common carp are congregated and actively feeding, and when few nontarget bottom- feeding species are present.

  18. The influence of pornography on sexual scripts and hooking up among emerging adults in college.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Scott R; Coulson, Gwen; Keddington, Krista; Fincham, Frank D

    2015-01-01

    The explosive growth in access to the Internet has led to a commensurate increase in the availability, anonymity, and affordability of pornography. An emerging body of research has shown associations between pornography and certain behaviors and attitudes; yet, how pornography actually influences these outcomes has not been documented. In two studies (Study 1 N = 969; Study 2 N = 992) we examined the hypothesis that pornography influences potentially risky sexual behavior (hooking up) among emerging adults via sexual scripts. Our results demonstrate that more frequent viewing of pornography is associated with a higher incidence of hooking up and a higher number of unique hook up partners. We replicated these effects both cross-sectionally and longitudinally while accounting for the stability of hook ups over the course of an academic semester. We also demonstrated that more frequent viewing of pornography is associated with having had more previous sexual partners of all types, more one occasion sexual partners ("one night stands"), and plans to have a higher number of sexual partners in the future. Finally, we provided evidence that more permissive sexual scripts mediated the association between more frequent pornography viewing and hooking up. We discuss these findings with an eye toward mitigating potential personal and public health risks among emerging adults. PMID:25239659

  19. Grasp and force based taxonomy of split-hook prosthetic terminal devices.

    PubMed

    Belter, Joseph T; Reynolds, Bo C; Dollar, Aaron M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the use of the body-powered split-hook prosthetic terminal device, which is the most commonly used upper-limb prosthesis. We developed two taxonomies of split-hook use, one on grasp shape and one on force exertion, illustrating the functional capabilities and use cases of the device. Video captured from an amputee using a body-powered split-hook during a number of common activities was used to lend weight to the completeness of the classifications. These taxonomies serve to establish a common language and means of comparing the types of grasps achievable by simple terminal devices to those of advanced myoelectric terminal devices or even human hands. The first taxonomy categorizes the grasp type based on the contacts with the environment while the second is categorized by the method and limitation of force exertion. We discuss the difference between grasps capable of holding objects compared to those that are capable of acquiring objects and the importance of non-prehensile uses of the split-hook. The classification schemes lay the groundwork for further detailed study of split-hook use, and the discussion of the use cases described may help guide terminal device developers to create improved prostheses. PMID:25571512

  20. No evidence of sperm conjugate formation in an Australian mouse bearing sperm with three hooks

    PubMed Central

    Firman, Renée C; Bentley, Blair; Bowman, Faye; Marchant, Fernando García-Solís; Parthenay, Jahmila; Sawyer, Jessica; Stewart, Tom; O'Shea, James E

    2013-01-01

    Sperm conjugation occurs when two or more sperm physically unite for motility or transport through the female reproductive tract. In many muroid rodent species, sperm conjugates have been shown to form by a single, conspicuous apical hook located on the sperm head. These sperm “trains” have been reported to be highly variable in size and, despite all the heads pointing in roughly the same direction, exhibit a relatively disordered arrangement. In some species, sperm “trains” have been shown to enhance sperm swimming speed, and thus have been suggested to be advantageous in sperm competition. Here, we assessed the behavior of sperm in the sandy inland mouse (Pseudomys hermannsburgensis), a muroid rodent that bears sperm with three apical hooks. First, we accrued genetic evidence of multiple paternity within “wild” litters to unequivocally show that sperm competition does occur in this species. Following this we utilized both in vitro and in vivo methodologies to determine whether sandy inland mouse sperm conjugate to form motile trains. Our observations of in vitro preparations of active sperm revealed that sandy inland mouse sperm exhibit rapid, progressive motility as individual cells only. Similarly, histological sections of the reproductive tracts of mated females revealed no in vivo evidence of sperm conjugate formation. We conclude that the unique, three-hooked morphology of the sandy inland mouse sperm does not facilitate the formation of motile conjugates, and discuss our findings in relation to the different hypotheses for the evolution of the muroid rodent hook/s. PMID:23919134

  1. Spatial and interspecific patterns in persistent contaminant loads in bighead and silver carp from the Illinois River.

    PubMed

    Levengood, Jeffrey M; Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy; Sass, Gregory G; Epifanio, John M

    2013-09-01

    We measured concentrations of selected organohalogens, fluorinated compounds and mercury in whole, ground silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead (H. nobilis) carp from the Illinois River, Illinois, in 2010 and 2011 to characterize spatial and interspecific patterns of contaminant burdens. Silver carp, which had greater lipid content, tended to have greater concentrations of lipophilic compounds. Concentrations of organohalogens were generally greater in carp from the upper reaches of the river. The halogenated compounds were associated with length and lipid content in silver carp. Bighead carp had greater mercury concentrations than did silver carp; total mercury concentrations were negatively associated with lipid content of bighead carp. Perfluorinated compounds, comprised predominantly of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, did not vary by species or river reach. Chlordanes and polychlorinated biphenyls were of potential concern with regard to the use of these carp as animal feed additives. Our results indicated that, even though they occupy a lower trophic level than many similarly-sized fish, these carp may accumulate measureable concentrations of organic contaminants. PMID:23887862

  2. Distribution of populations of broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris, Daudin 1802, Alligatoridae) in the São Francisco River basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Filogonio, R; Assis, V B; Passos, L F; Coutinho, M E

    2010-11-01

    We surveyed populations of the broad-snouted caiman, Caiman latirostris, throughout the São Francisco River basin, from Três Marias reservoir, State of Minas Gerais, to the river delta, at the boarder of Sergipe and Alagoas states. We registered the occurrence of crocodilians in 61% of all surveyed localities (n = 64), in which the presence of C. latirostris was confirmed in 44% of the surveyed sites. Caimans occurred in both lentic and lotic habitats, although there was a preference for small dams, oxbow lakes and wetlands. Despite the hunting pressure and human impact on natural habitats, our results indicate that the populations of C. latirostris in the São Francisco basin are not fragmented. PMID:21180900

  3. Efficacy of quinine against ichthyophthiriasis in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Ilka V; Wedekind, Helmut; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2011-07-12

    Ichthyophthiriasis, caused by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, is an economically important worldwide parasitic disease that infects all freshwater fish. Since the banning of malachite green for use in food fish, there has been a great need for alternative therapeutants. The goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of quinine against I. multifiliis. Parasite developmental stages from our laboratory-established life cycle in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss were exposed to quinine in vitro, and a dual fluorescent staining technique was used to allow a clear distinction between viable and damaged parasites. Furthermore, the effect of quinine was assessed in vivo by oral administration and intraperitoneal injections in common carp Cyprinus carpio. The results of the in vitro experiments proved quinine to be effective against the parasite. Quinine injected at a dosage of 60 mg kg(-1) body weight resulted in a significantly lower number of trophonts. In contrast, in-feed trials did not show a significant reduction of trophonts after treatment commencing 1 d after infection with concentrations of up to 20 g quinine kg(-1) feed for 3 d. After a 14-d treatment at concentrations of up to 10 g quinine kg(-1) feed prior to theront exposure, there was also no significant difference in parasite numbers between treated and control groups. The results of oral versus parenteral application of quinine indicate that the substance is not completely absorbed from the intestinal tract of common carp. However, medicated feed containing higher concentrations of quinine was less readily accepted by the fish, presumably due to the bitter taste. PMID:21932533

  4. Optimization of gelatin extraction from silver carp skin.

    PubMed

    Boran, G; Regenstein, J M

    2009-10-01

    Fish skins are a by-product of the fish processing industry that can be successfully processed into gelatin. This study was designed to optimize the extraction process to obtain the highest yield, gel strength, and viscosity for gelatin production from silver carp skin. A fractional factorial design (2 levels, resolution III, 2(9-5)) was chosen to screen 9 parameters to determine the most significant ones. Those found to be significant were optimized to determine the maximum value for 3 dependent variables mentioned above. The hydroxyproline content and hydroxyproline/protein ratio of the skin were 1.7% and 6.5%, respectively. The protein content of the skin was 26%. The hydroxyproline content of the gelatin for the sample giving the highest hydroxyproline/protein ratio was 10.9%. This sample was arbitrarily called pure gelatin and the purity of the remaining samples was between 71.8% and 97%. The highest protein and gelatin recovery was 78.1% and 98.8% of the total available, respectively. The latter, gelatin recovery, is proposed to be used instead of protein yield. Four variables were determined as significant in screening and these variables were studied by a central composite rotatable design (4-factor and 5-level with 6 central points) to model the system and response surface methodology was used for optimization. The optimum extraction conditions were 50 degrees C for the extraction temperature, 0.1 N HCl for the acid concentration, 45 min for the acid pretreatment time, and finally 4 : 1 (v/w) for the water/skin ratio. The predicted responses for these extraction conditions were 630 g gel strength, 6.3 cP viscosity, and 80.8% gelatin recovery. The data suggest that silver carp skin gelatin is similar to those of fish gelatins currently being exploited commercially. PMID:19799664

  5. Structure, organization and expression of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) NKEF-B gene.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong; Gao, Long-Ying; Wang, Ya-Ping; Hu, Wei; Guo, Qiong-Lin

    2009-02-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell enhancing factor (NKEF) belongs to the newly defined peroxiredoxin (Prx) family. Its functions are to enhance NK cell cytotoxicity and to protect DNA and proteins from oxidative damage. In this study, a partial cDNA sequence of carp NKEF-B was isolated from thymus cDNA library. Subsequently, the full-length cDNA of carp NKEF-B was obtained by means of 3' and 5' RACE, respectively. The full-length cDNA of carp NKEF-B was 1022 bp, consisting of a 73 bp 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR), a 355 bp 3'-terminal UTR, and a 594 bp open reading frame coding for a protein of 197 amino acids. Carp NKEF-B contained two consensus Val-Cys-Pro (VCP) motifs and three consensus cysteine (Cys-51, Cys-70 and Cys-172) residues. Sequence comparison showed that the deduced amino acid sequence of carp NKEF-B had an overall similarity of 74-96% to that of other species homologues. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that carp NKEF-B forms a cluster with other known teleost NKEF-Bs. Then, by PCR we obtained a 5.1-k long genomic DNA of carp NKEF-B containing six exons and five introns. Real-time RT-PCR results showed that carp NKEF-B gene was predominantly detected in kidney and head kidney under un-infected conditions. Whereas under SVCV-infection condition, the expression of NKEF-B gene was significantly increased in blood cells, gill, intestine and spleen, but maintained in liver, and decreased significantly in kidney and head kidney. Finally, the rNKEF-B was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. By using an antibody against carp rNKEF-B, immunohistochemical study further indicated that NKEF-B positive cells are mainly some RBCs and a few epithelial cells in gill and intestine, and that under SVCV-infection condition, these positive cells or positive products in their cytoplasm were mainly increased in gill and spleen sections of carp. The results obtained in the present study will help to understand the function of NKEF-B in teleost innate immunity. PMID:19032984

  6. Physiological response to hooking stress in hatchery and wild rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wydoski, R.S.; Wedemeyer, G.A.; Nelson, N. C.

    1976-01-01

    This study evaluated the physiological response of rainbow trout to hooking stress after being played under standardized conditions (0–5 min) and estimated the time needed for recovery (to 72 h). Plasma osmolality and chloride measurements were used to evaluate osmoregulatory disturbances and gill ion-exchange function, and plasma glucose was used as an index of the generalized nonspecific physiological stress response. Hooking stress caused more severe blood chemistry differences in hatchery fish than in wild trout. Also, hooking stress imposed a greater stress on larger than on smaller hatchery rainbow trout. Higher water temperatures aggravated the delayed hyperglycemia and hyperchloremia in both hatchery and wild trout but only about 3 days were needed for recovery at 4, 10, or 20 C.

  7. CRAFTING THE MICROWORLD: HOW ROBERT HOOKE CONSTRUCTED KNOWLEDGE ABOUT SMALL THINGS.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Ian

    2016-03-20

    This paper investigates the way in which Robert Hooke constructed his microscopical observations. His Micrographia is justifiably famous for its detailed engravings, which communicated Hooke's observations of tiny nature to his readers, but less attention has been paid to how he went about making the observations themselves. In this paper I explore the relationship between the materiality of his instrument and the epistemic images he produced. Behind the pictures lies an array of hidden materials, and the craft knowledge it took to manipulate them. By investigating the often counter-theoretical and conflicting practices of his ingenious microscope use, I demonstrate the way in which Hooke crafted the microworld for his readers, giving insight into how early modern microscopy was understood by its practitioners and audience. PMID:27017680

  8. Toward a more complete understanding of reactions to hooking up among college women.

    PubMed

    Owen, Jesse; Quirk, Kelley; Fincham, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Hooking up, a relatively common behavior among young adults, refers to a casual sexual encounter, ranging from kissing to sexual intercourse, without an expectation of ongoing physical encounters or relational commitment. Reactions to hooking up have examined psychosocial outcomes as a proxy for specific reactions. The present study examined the reactions of 190 college women, with a specific focus on the effect of hooking up on their social/peer network, their sexual/romantic sense of self, and their academic performance. Results demonstrated large positive effects for sexual/romantic reactions and social/academic engagement reactions in comparison with negative personal reactions. In addition, higher ratings of anxious attachment, loneliness, and relational/intimacy sex motives were related to less positive reactions, highlighting the importance of attachment and motivations behind hookup experiences. Implications for educational practice and future research are offered. PMID:23905685

  9. Rab11 facilitates cross-talk between autophagy and endosomal pathway through regulation of Hook localization

    PubMed Central

    Szatmári, Zsuzsanna; Kis, Viktor; Lippai, Mónika; Hegedűs, Krisztina; Faragó, Tamás; Lőrincz, Péter; Tanaka, Tsubasa; Juhász, Gábor; Sass, Miklós

    2014-01-01

    During autophagy, double-membrane autophagosomes deliver sequestered cytoplasmic content to late endosomes and lysosomes for degradation. The molecular mechanism of autophagosome maturation is still poorly characterized. The small GTPase Rab11 regulates endosomal traffic and is thought to function at the level of recycling endosomes. We show that loss of Rab11 leads to accumulation of autophagosomes and late endosomes in Drosophila melanogaster. Rab11 translocates from recycling endosomes to autophagosomes in response to autophagy induction and physically interacts with Hook, a negative regulator of endosome maturation. Hook anchors endosomes to microtubules, and we show that Rab11 facilitates the fusion of endosomes and autophagosomes by removing Hook from mature late endosomes and inhibiting its homodimerization. Thus induction of autophagy appears to promote autophagic flux by increased convergence with the endosomal pathway. PMID:24356450

  10. 75 FR 7403 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Hook...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... (74 FR 7359, February 17, 2009) and inseason adjustment (74 FR 68717, December 29, 2009). In... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Hook-and-Line Gear in the Bering Sea and... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher/processors using hook-and-line gear in the Bering Sea...

  11. 78 FR 23864 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Hook...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (78 FR 13162, February 26, 2013). In accordance with Sec... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher/Processors Using Hook-and-line Gear in the Western... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher/processors (C/Ps) using hook-and-line gear in the...

  12. 78 FR 25004 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Hook...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... specifications for groundfish of the GOA (78 FR 13162, February 26, 2013). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Hook-and-Line Gear in the Western Regulatory... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels (CVs) using hook-and-line gear in the...

  13. Subsurface macro-inclusions and solidified hook character in aluminum-killed deep-drawing steel slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiao-xuan; Li, Lin-ping; Wang, Xin-hua; Ji, Yun-qing; Ji, Chen-xi; Zhu, Guo-sen

    2014-06-01

    Subsurface macro-inclusions and hooks are detrimental to the surface quality of deep-drawing steel sheets. However, little is known about the relationship between macro-inclusions and hooks. Thus, in this work, two ultralow carbon (ULC) steel slabs and two low carbon (LC) aluminum-killed steel slabs were sampled to study the relationship between hooks and subsurface macro-inclusions, which were detected on the cross-sections of steel samples with an area of 56058 mm2 using an automated scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy system. Results show that subsurface inclusions larger than 200 μm were almost entrapped by hook structures, whereas the location of other inclusions smaller than 200 μm had no obvious dependence on the location of solidified hooks. Furthermore, the number density (ND) of subsurface inclusions larger than 200 μm decreased from 0.02 to 0 cm-2 in ULC steel as the mean hook depth decreased from 1.57 to 1.01 mm. Similar trends were also observed in LC steel. In addition, the detected inclusions larger than 200 μm were concentrated in the region near the slab center (3/8 width-5/8 width), where hook depths were also larger than those at any other locations. Therefore, minimizing the hook depth is an effective way to reduce inclusion-induced sliver defects in deep-drawing steels.

  14. 77 FR 20571 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Hook...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... groundfish of the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the... directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels (CVs) using hook-and-line gear in the Western... allowance of the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to CVs using hook-and-line gear in...

  15. The hooked element in the pes of turtles (Testudines): a global approach to exploring primary and secondary homology

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Walter G; Werneburg, Ingmar; Lyson, Tyler R

    2013-01-01

    The hooked element in the pes of turtles was historically identified by most palaeontologists and embryologists as a modified fifth metatarsal, and often used as evidence to unite turtles with other reptiles with a hooked element. Some recent embryological studies, however, revealed that this element might represent an enlarged fifth distal tarsal. We herein provide extensive new myological and developmental observations on the hooked element of turtles, and re-evaluate its primary and secondary homology using all available lines of evidence. Digital count and timing of development are uninformative. However, extensive myological, embryological and topological data are consistent with the hypothesis that the hooked element of turtles represents a fusion of the fifth distal tarsal with the fifth metatarsal, but that the fifth distal tarsal dominates the hooked element in pleurodiran turtles, whereas the fifth metatarsal dominates the hooked element of cryptodiran turtles. The term ‘ansulate bone’ is proposed to refer to hooked elements that result from the fusion of these two bones. The available phylogenetic and fossil data are currently insufficient to clarify the secondary homology of hooked elements within Reptilia. PMID:24102560

  16. Quantification of eDNA shedding rates from invasive bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klymus, Katy E.; Richter, Catherine A.; Chapman, Duane C.; Paukert, Craig P.

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife managers can more easily mitigate the effects of invasive species if action takes place before a population becomes established. Such early detection requires sensitive survey tools that can detect low numbers of individuals. Due to their high sensitivity, environmental DNA (eDNA) surveys hold promise as an early detection method for aquatic invasive species. Quantification of eDNA amounts may also provide data on species abundance and timing of an organism’s presence, allowing managers to successfully combat the spread of ecologically damaging species. To better understand the link between eDNA and an organism’s presence, it is crucial to know how eDNA is shed into the environment. Our study used quantitative PCR (qPCR) and controlled laboratory experiments to measure the amount of eDNA that two species of invasive bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) shed into the water. We first measured how much eDNA a single fish sheds and the variability of these measurements. Then, in a series of manipulative lab experiments, we studied how temperature, biomass (grams of fish), and diet affect the shedding rate of eDNA by these fish. We found that eDNA amounts exhibit a positive relationship with fish biomass, and that feeding could increase the amount of eDNA shed by ten-fold, whereas water temperature did not have an effect. Our results demonstrate that quantification of eDNA may be useful for predicting carp density, as well as densities of other rare or invasive species.

  17. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 is Expressed inOsteoblasts and Regulated by PTH

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Sonali; Mahalingam, Chandrika D.; Das, Varsha; Levi, Edi; Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 ; Rishi, Arun K.; Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201; VA Medical Center, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 ; Datta, Nabanita S.

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •CARP-1 is identified for the first time in bone cells. •PTH downregulates CARP-1 expression in differentiated osteoblasts. •PTH displaces CARP-1 from nucleus to the cytoplasm in differentiated osteoblasts. •Downregulation of CARP-1 by PTH involves PKA, PKC and P-p38 MAPK pathways. -- Abstract: Bone mass is dependent on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and life-span of osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. Intermittent administration of PTH increases bone mass but the mechanism of action are complex and incompletely understood. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including cell growth and differentiation factors. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism, we investigated involvement of CARP-1 in PTH signaling in osteoblasts. Immunostaining studies revealed presence of CARP-1 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while a minimal to absent levels were noted in the chondrocytes of femora from 10 to 12-week old mice. Treatment of 7-day differentiated MC3T3-E1 clone-4 (MC-4) mouse osteoblastic cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts with PTH for 30 min to 5 h followed by Western blot analysis showed 2- to 3-fold down-regulation of CARP-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the respective vehicle treated control cells. H-89, a Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, suppressed PTH action on CARP-1 protein expression indicating PKA-dependent mechanism. PMA, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonist, mimicked PTH action, and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, partially blocked PTH-dependent downregulation of CARP-1, implying involvement of PKC. U0126, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Kinase (MEK) inhibitor, failed to interfere with CARP-1 suppression by PTH. In contrast, SB203580, p38 inhibitor, attenuated PTH down-regulation of CARP-1 suggesting that PTH utilized an Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase (ERK)-independent but p38 dependent pathway to regulate CARP-1 protein expression in osteoblasts. Immunofluorescence staining of differentiated osteoblasts further revealed nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of CARP-1 protein following PTH treatment. Collectively, our studies identified CARP-1 for the first time in osteoblasts and suggest its potential role in PTH signaling and bone anabolic action.

  18. Automation Hooks Architecture for Flexible Test Orchestration - Concept Development and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansdowne, C. A.; Maclean, John R.; Winton, Chris; McCartney, Pat

    2011-01-01

    The Automation Hooks Architecture Trade Study for Flexible Test Orchestration sought a standardized data-driven alternative to conventional automated test programming interfaces. The study recommended composing the interface using multicast DNS (mDNS/SD) service discovery, Representational State Transfer (Restful) Web Services, and Automatic Test Markup Language (ATML). We describe additional efforts to rapidly mature the Automation Hooks Architecture candidate interface definition by validating it in a broad spectrum of applications. These activities have allowed us to further refine our concepts and provide observations directed toward objectives of economy, scalability, versatility, performance, severability, maintainability, scriptability and others.

  19. Visitor and Community Survey Results for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge: Completion Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sexton, Natalie R.; Stewart, Susan C.; Koontz, Lynne; Ponds, Phadrea; Walters, Katherine D.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary This study was commissioned by the Northeast Region of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in support of the Comprehensive Conservation Planning at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge (Prime Hook NWR or Refuge). The National Wildlife Refuge Improvement Act of 1997 (Public Law 105-57, USC668dd) mandates a Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) for every refuge in the system. A refuge CCP outlines goals, objectives, and management strategies for all refuge programs over the next 15 years, while providing opportunities for compatible, wildlife-dependent public uses. The plan evaluates refuge wildlife, habitat, land protection, and visitor service priorities during the planning process.

  20. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in the spleen of common carp immune organ.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoxi; Zhao, Yinli; Wen, Lin; Liu, Zhonghu; Yan, Fengbin; Gao, Chunsheng

    2014-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the regulation of many fundamental biological processes in eukaryotes; however, miRNAs associated with immune functions in the common carp have not been reported. In this study, a small-RNA cDNA library was constructed from the spleen of the common carp. A total of 10,603,456 high-quality clean reads, representing 293,603 unique sequences, were obtained from the small-cDNA library using the Solexa sequencing. By the bioinformatic analysis, 194 conserved miRNAs and 12 novel miRNAs were identified in the carp spleen. The abundant miRNAs principally belong to 30 miRNA gene families such as let-7, mir-10, mir-15, mir-30, and so on. The conservation analysis showed that 23 families were present both in protostomes and deuterostomes, 46 families were conserved only in vertebrates, and 5 families (mir-430, mir-722, mir-724, mir-734, and mir-738) were identified only in fish species. Furthermore, GO enrichment analysis and KEGG pathway analysis suggested that miRNAs expressed in the spleen of common carp are involved in immune system development, lymphoid organ development, lymphocyte activation, immune response, B cell receptor signaling pathway, T cell receptor signaling pathway, Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, and so on. This study described the miRNA transcriptome in spleen tissue for the first time in the common carp. The results expand the number of known common carp miRNAs and provides a meaningful framework to understand the common carp immune system and defense mechanisms. PMID:24819892

  1. Molecular and functional characterization of an IL-1β receptor antagonist in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Yao, Fuli; Yang, Xiao; Wang, Xinyan; Wei, He; Zhang, Anying; Zhou, Hong

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we discovered a novel IL-1 family member (nIL-1F) from grass carp that possessed the ability to bind with grass carp IL-1β receptor type 1 (gcIL-1R1) and attenuate grass carp IL-1β activity in head kidney leukocytes (HKLs), suggesting that it may function as an IL-1β receptor antagonist. Grass carp nIL-1F transcript was constitutively expressed with the highest levels in some lymphoid organs, including head kidney, spleen and intestine, implying its potential in grass carp immunity. In agreement with this notion, in vitro and in vivo studies showed that nIL-1F mRNA was inductively expressed in grass carp with a rapid kinetics, indicating that it may be an early response gene during immune challenges. In addition, recombinant grass carp IL-1β (rgcIL-1β) induced nIL-1F mRNA expression via NF-κB and MAPK (JNK, p38 and p42/44) signaling pathways in HKLs. Particularly, the orthologs of nIL-1F found in other fish species, including zebrafish, pufferfish and rainbow trout are not homologous to mammalian IL-1β receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), indicating that fish nIL-1F and mammalian IL-1Ra may not share a common evolutionary ancestor. Taken together, our data suggest the existence of a naturally occurring fish nIL-1F, which may function like mammalian IL-1Ra, being beneficial to understand the auto-regulatory mechanism of IL-1β activity in fish immunity. PMID:25475961

  2. Passing of northern pike and common carp through experimental barriers designed for use in wetland restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P., III; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    1999-01-01

    Restoration plans for Metzger Marsh, a coastal wetland on the south shore of western Lake Erie, incorporated a fish-control system designed to restrict access to the wetland by large common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ingress fish passageways in the structure contain slots into which experimental grates of varying size and shape can be placed to selectively allow entry and transfer of other large fish species while minimizing the number of common carp to be handled. We tested different sizes and shapes of grates in experimental tanks in the laboratory to determine the best design for testing in the field. We also tested northern pike (Esox lucius) because lack of access to wetland spawning habitat has greatly reduced their populations in western Lake Erie. Based on our results, vertical bar grates were chosen for installation because common carp were able to pass through circular grates smaller than body height by compressing their soft abdomens; they passed through rectangular grates on the diagonal. Vertical bar grates with 5-cm spacing that were installed across much of the control structure should limit access of common carp larger than 34 cm total length (TL) and northern pike larger than 70 cm. Vertical bar grates selected for initial field trials in the fish passageway had spacings of 5.8 and 6.6 cm, which increased access by common carp to 40 and 47 cm TL and by northern pike to 76 and 81 cm, respectively. The percentage of potential common carp biomass (fish seeking entry) that must be handled in lift baskets in the passageway increased from 0.9 to 4.8 to 15.4 with each increase in spacing between bars. Further increases in spacing would greatly increase the number of common carp that would have to be handled. The results of field testing should be useful in designing selective fish-control systems for other wetland restoration sites adjacent to large water bodies.

  3. Effects of water hardness on size and hatching success of silver carp eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, Jeff J.; Sass, Greg G.; Luoma, James A.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    Eggs of silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix absorb water after release from the female, causing them to become turgid and to increase substantially in size. The volume of water that diffuses within an egg is most likely determined by (1) the difference in ionic concentration between the egg and the water that surrounds it and (2) the elasticity of the egg membrane. Prior observations suggest that silver carp eggs may swell and burst in soft waters. If water hardness affects silver carp reproductive success in nonnative ecosystems, this abiotic factor could limit silver carp distribution or abundance. In this study, we tested the effect of water hardness on silver carp egg enlargement and hatching success. Groups of newly fertilized silver carp eggs were placed in water at one of five nominal water hardness levels (50, 100, 150, 200, or 250 mg/L as CaCO3) for 1 h to harden (absorb water after fertilization). Egg groups were then placed in separate incubation vessels housed in two recirculation systems that were supplied with either soft (50 mg/L as CaCO3) or hard (250 mg/L as CaCO3) water to evaluate hatching success. Tests were terminated within 24 h after viable eggs had hatched. Eggs that were initially placed in 50-mg/L water to harden were larger (i.e., swelled more) and had a greater probability of hatch than eggs hardened in other water hardness levels. Unlike the effect of water hardness during egg hardening, the water hardness during incubation appeared to have no effect on egg hatching success. Our research suggests that water hardness may not be a limiting factor in the reproduction, recruitment, and range expansion of silver carp in North America.

  4. An experimental investigation into electromyography, constitutive relationship and morphology of crucian carp for biomechanical "digital fish"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Meng; Yin, Xiezhen; Tong, Binggang

    2011-05-01

    Currently, the integrated biomechanical studies on fish locomotion come into focus, so it is urgent to provide reliable and systematic experimental results, and to establish a biomechanical "digital fish" database for some typical fish species. Accordingly, based on the control framework of "Neural Control — Active Contraction of Muscle — Passive Deformation", the electromyography (EMG) signals, the mechanical properties and the constitutive relationship of skin, muscle, and body trunk, as well as morphological parameters of crucian carp, are investigated with experiments, from which a simplified database of biomechanical "digital fish" is established. First, the EMG signals from three lateral superficial red muscles of crucian carp, which was evolving in the C-start movement, were acquired with a self-designing amplifier. The modes of muscle activity were also investigated. Secondly, the Young's modulus and the reduced relaxation function of crucian carp's skin and muscle were determined by failure tests and relaxation tests in uniaxial tensile ways, respectively. Viscoelastic models were adopted to deduce the constitutive relationship. The mechanical properties and the angular stiffness of different sites on the crucian carp's body trunk were obtained with dynamic bending experiments, where a self-designing dynamic bending test machine was employed. The conclusion was drawn regarding the body trunk of crucian carp under dynamic bending deformation as an approximate elastomer. According to the above experimental results, a possible benefit of body effective stiffness increasing with a little energy dissipation was discussed. Thirdly, the distribution of geometric parameters and weight parameters for a single experimental individual and multiple individuals of crucian carp was studied with experiments. Finally, considering all the above results, generic experimental data were obtained by normalization, and a preliminary biomechanical "digital fish" database for crucian carp was established.

  5. Isolation of innate immune response genes, expression analysis, polymorphism identification and development of genetic marker for linkage analysis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common carp are economically important foodfish worldwide. Over the past few years, carp aquaculture has suffered from enormous losses to a disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3). A recent study reported that common carp strains/crossbreds have differential resistance to CyHV-3, suggest...

  6. Preservation of ejaculated mouse spermatozoa from fertile C57BL/6 and infertile Hook1/Hook1 mice collected from the uteri of mated females.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Ward, Monika A

    2007-06-01

    Methods routinely used to preserve mouse spermatozoa require that the male be killed to recover spermatozoa from the epididymides. Here we obtained multiple samples of ejaculated spermatozoa from normal fertile C57BL/6 and infertile Hook1/Hook1 (formerly known as azh/azh) mutant males from uteri after mating, thus avoiding termination of the males. Ejaculated sperm were preserved by conventional cryopreservation or by rapid freezing without cryoprotection, and were injected into the oocytes by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The proportions of oocytes that survived, became activated, and developed into two-cell embryos were similar when comparing the two preservation methods in wild-type versus Hook1/Hook1 mice and tested mice versus controls (fresh and rapid-frozen epididymal and fresh ejaculated sperm). Two-cell embryos were transferred into the oviducts of pseudopregnant females, and fetal development was examined at Day 15 of gestation. A total of 39%-54% of transferred embryos produced with preserved ejaculated sperm implanted. Live, normal fetuses (11%-17%) were obtained in all examined groups and from all males included in the study. More implants (71%-82%) and fetuses (28%-31%) were noted in controls. Lower developmental potentials of embryos produced with preserved ejaculated sperm might be due to their capacitation status; the majority of sperm retrieved from the uterus were capacitated. This study bears significance for the maintenance and distribution of novel mouse strains. The method is applicable for all types of mice, including those with male infertility syndromes. The sole requirement is that the male of interest is able to copulate and its ejaculate contains spermatozoa. PMID:17314312

  7. Comparative Proteomic, Physiological, Morphological, and Biochemical Analyses Reveal the Characteristics of the Diploid Spermatozoa of Allotetraploid Hybrids of Red Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Duan, Wei; Xu, Kang; Hu, Fangzhou; Zhang, Yi; Wen, Ming; Wang, Jing; Tao, Min; Luo, Kaikun; Zhao, Rurong; Qin, Qinbo; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Jinhui; Liu, Yun; Liu, Shaojun

    2016-02-01

    The generation of diploid spermatozoa is essential for the continuity of tetraploid lineages. The DNA content of diploid spermatozoa from allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp and common carp was nearly twice as great as that of haploid spermatozoa from common carp, and the durations of rapid and slow progressive motility were longer. We performed comparative proteomic analyses to measure variations in protein composition between diploid and haploid spermatozoa. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, 21 protein spots that changed in abundance were analyzed. As the common carp and the allotetraploid hybrids are not fully sequenced organisms, we identified proteins by Mascot searching against the National Center for Biotechnology Information non-redundant (NR) protein database for the zebrafish (Danio rerio), and verified them against predicted homologous proteins derived from transcriptomes of the testis. Twenty protein spots were identified successfully, belonging to four gene ontogeny categories: cytoskeleton, energy metabolism, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and other functions, indicating that these might be associated with the variation in diploid spermatozoa. This categorization of variations in protein composition in diploid spermatozoa will provide new perspectives on male polyploidy. Moreover, our approach indicates that transcriptome data are useful for proteomic analyses in organisms lacking full protein sequences. PMID:26674567

  8. Accumulation of 20 elements in great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) and its main prey, common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio).

    PubMed

    Skoric, Stefan; Visnjić-Jeftic, Zeljka; Jaric, Ivan; Djikanovic, Vesna; Mickovic, Branislav; Nikcevic, Miroslav; Lenhardt, Mirjana

    2012-06-01

    In this study, 20 heavy metals and trace elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Si, Se, Sr and Zn) were analyzed in different tissues (muscle, liver, intestine, feather and bone) of the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) and in different tissues (muscle, liver, gills, kidney and gonad) of their main prey (common carp-Cyprinus carpio and Prussian carp-Carassius gibelio) during the nesting season. Cormorant and fish specimens were collected at the Ečka Fishing Farm (Serbia) and from the nearby river. Principal components analysis (PCA) showed that cormorant livers were differentiated from other four tissues by higher concentrations of Hg, Fe, Cu and Mo, feathers by higher concentrations of Al and Si, and bones by higher concentrations of Sr and Mg. Differentiation among the three age classes of cormorants was observed only with regard to elemental concentrations in their feathers: subadult cormorants were differentiated by higher Hg and Zn concentrations, while the adults were separated by higher concentrations of Fe. In comparison with their prey (common carp and Prussian carp) cormorants were differentiated by higher concentrations of Fe, Hg and Cu in the muscle. Toxic mercury concentrations above 4μgg(-1)dw were determined in the liver of juvenile cormorants, as well as in the liver and feathers of subadults. Hg concentrations were significantly correlated among all studied tissues. Cormorant had significantly higher concentrations of Fe and Hg in muscle and liver than two studied fish species. PMID:22494478

  9. Preferential feeding on high quality diets decreases methyl mercury of farm-raised common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Sebastian; Vallant, Birgit; Kainz, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    This study on aquaculture ponds investigated how diet sources affect methyl mercury (MeHg) bioaccumulation of the worldwide key diet fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio). We tested how MeHg concentrations of one and two year-old pond-raised carp changed with different food quality: a) zooplankton (natural pond diet), b) cereals enriched with vegetable oil (VO ponds), and c) compound feeds enriched with marine fish oils (FO ponds). It was hypothesized that carp preferentially feed on supplementary diets with the highest biochemical quality (FO diet over VO diets over zooplankton). Although MeHg concentrations were highest in zooplankton of FO ponds, MeHg concentrations of carp were clearly lower in FO ponds (17–32 ng g− 1 dry weight) compared to the reference (40–46 ng g− 1 dry weight) and VO ponds (55–86 ng g− 1 dry weight). Stable isotope mixing models (δ13C, δ15N) indicated selective feeding of carp on high quality FO diets that caused MeHg concentrations of carp to decrease with increasing dietary proportions of supplementary FO feeds. Results demonstrate that carp selectively feed on diets of highest biochemical quality and strongly suggest that high diet quality can reduce MeHg bioaccumulation in farm-raised carp. PMID:23564978

  10. Physiological responses of over-wintering common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to disturbance by Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra).

    PubMed

    Poledník, Lukás; Rehulka, Jirí; Kranz, Andreas; Poledníková, Katerina; Hlavác, Václav; Kazihnitková, Hana

    2008-09-01

    Using a tame animal, the impact of otter (Lutra lutra) disturbance on over-wintering carp (Cyprinus carpio) was monitored in two experiments, 133 and 140 days, respectively, over two consecutive winters (November-April). The level of stress in over-wintering carp exposed to various intensities of disturbance by otters was quantified using biological indicators of stress (cortisol, cortisone, indices of nitrogen, carbohydrate, lipid and mineral metabolism and activity of basic blood plasma enzymes) taken from blood plasma of stocked carp at the end of the winter seasons (when the photoperiod was 12 light:12 dark, respectively, 13L:10D). Moreover, condition (Fulton's coefficient of condition and fat content in muscles) and mortality rate of that carp were measured after over-wintering and also after the subsequent vegetation period. The analysis of blood and tissue samples of experimental fish showed changes in nitrogen, carbohydrate and mineral metabolism as well as levels of hormones and fat reserves. Higher response to stress in metabolism of carp with lower intensity of disturbance by otter suggests that high level of disturbance can lead to metabolic adaptation of carp to stress. The effect of stress on the mortality rate of carp during the over-wintering is not clear. Nevertheless, the negative effect of stress on survival, condition and growth rate of carp in the subsequent vegetation period was not observed. PMID:18665460

  11. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahon, Andrew R.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L.; Chadderton, W. Lindsay; Lodge, David M.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Nico, Leo G.

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided.

  12. Validation of eDNA Surveillance Sensitivity for Detection of Asian Carps in Controlled and Field Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Mahon, Andrew R.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L.; Chadderton, W. Lindsay; Lodge, David M.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Nico, Leo G.

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided. PMID:23472178

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of rock carp Procypris rabaudi (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) and phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuyue; Yue, Bisong; Jiang, Wanxiang; Song, Zhaobin

    2009-05-01

    Rock carp, Procypris rabaudi (Tchang), is an endemic fish species in China. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of it by high-fidelity polymerase chain reaction with conserved primers and primer walking sequencing method. The complete mitochondrial genome of rock carp is 16595 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and one control region, with an identical order to that of most other vertebrates. The origin of L-strand replication (OL) in rock carp mitochondrion is located in a cluster of five tRNA genes (WANCY region) with 35 nucleotides in length. The control region is located between the tRNA-Pro and tRNA-Phe genes and is 943 bp in length. Three conserved sequence blocks (CSB), an extended termination associated sequence (ETAS), an AT-repeat microsatellite sequence and a putative promoter sequence for H-strand transcription (HSP) were identified within this region. The microsatellite sequence has a very low variation, with only one repeat alteration in 50 checked individuals (from 12 to 13 repeats). The phylogenetic analysis for rock carp was performed with Bayesian and Maximum likelihood (ML) methods based on the concatenated nucleotide sequence of 12 protein-coding genes on the heavy strand. The result suggested that traditional taxonomic barbines possibly originated more early than cyprininaes; rock carp was placed at the position between barbines and cyprininaes, while has a closer relationship with cyprininaes than barbines. PMID:18496768

  14. Microsatellite genetic diversity and differentiation of native and introduced grass carp populations in three continents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.; Chen, Qin; Wang, Chenghui; Zhao, Jinlian; Lu, Guoqing; Zsigmond, Jeney; Li, Sifa

    2012-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater species native to China, has been introduced to about 100 countries/regions and poses both biological and environmental challenges to the receiving ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation in grass carp from three introduced river systems (Mississippi River Basin in US, Danube River in Hungary, and Tone River in Japan) as well as its native ranges (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur Rivers) in China using 21 novel microsatellite loci. The allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, and within-population gene diversity were found to be lower in the introduced populations than in the native populations, presumably due to the small founder population size of the former. Significant genetic differentiation was found between all pairwise populations from different rivers. Both principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed obvious genetic distinction between the native and introduced populations. Interestingly, genetic bottlenecks were detected in the Hungarian and Japanese grass carp populations, but not in the North American population, suggesting that the Mississippi River Basin grass carp has experienced rapid population expansion with potential genetic diversification during the half-century since its introduction. Consequently, the combined forces of the founder effect, introduction history, and rapid population expansion help explaining the observed patterns of genetic diversity within and among both native and introduced populations of the grass carp.

  15. Tissue-Specific Fatty Acids Response to Different Diets in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Bhm, Markus; Schultz, Sebastian; Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Kainz, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA) to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively) in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue) of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO) with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption. PMID:24733499

  16. Feasibility of an implantable capsule for limiting lifespan of grass carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, R.M.; Miranda, L.E.; Kirk, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an herbivorous cyprinid stocked to control undesirable aquatic vegetation. However, stocking grass carp presents several problems including complete eradication of submersed aquatic vegetation, dispersal out of the target area, adverse effects on fish communities, and damage to waterfowl habitat and native vegetation. The purpose of this research was to consider the feasibility of an implantable capsule for limiting the lifespan of grass carp. Stainless steel dowel pins were inserted into 49 fish to identify the most appropriate site to implant the capsule. The throat region along the body's longitudinal axis was identified as the most suitable location because it resulted in minimal loss over an 8-month holding period. Rotenone solutions were injected into the ventral surface between the pelvic fins to determine the lethal dosage to 95% of the population (LD 95). The LD95 for grass carp increased curvilin-early with fish weight. Four polymers that merit further evaluation in constructing the capsule are poly[bis(p-carboxyphenoxy) propane anhydride], poly[bis(p- carboxyphenoxy) hexane anhydride], poly-1-lactide, and poly(??-caprolactone) . Implants are commonly used to deliver pharmaceutical products in medical and veterinarian applications, and have been used in fish. Developing a bioerodible capsule could increase the safety and flexibility of stocking grass carp for control of aquatic plants, and may also be applicable for management of other exotic species.

  17. CARP-1 / CCAR1: A biphasic regulator of cancer cell growth and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Muthu, Magesh; Cheriyan, Vino T.; Rishi, Arun K.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted cancer therapy using small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) has been useful in targeting the tumor cells while sparing the normal cells. Despite clinical success of many targeted therapies, their off-target effects and development of resistance are emerging as significant and challenging problems. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify targets to devise new means to treat cancers and their drug-resistant phenotypes. CARP-1/CCAR1 (Cell division cycle and apoptosis regulator 1), a peri-nuclear phospho-protein, plays a dynamic role in regulating cell growth and apoptosis by serving as a co-activator of steroid/thyroid nuclear receptors, β-catenin, Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) E3 ligase, and tumor suppressor p53. CARP-1/CCAR1 also regulates chemotherapy-dependent apoptosis. CARP-1/CCAR1 functional mimetics (CFMs) are a novel SMIs of CARP-1/CCAR1 interaction with APC/C. CFMs promote apoptosis in a manner independent of p53. CFMs are potent inhibitors of a variety of cancer cells including the drug (Adriamycin or Tamoxifen)-resistant breast cancer cells but not the immortalized breast epithelial cells, while a nano-lipid formulation of the lead compound CFM-4 improves its bioavailability and efficacy in vivo when administered orally. This review focuses on the background and pleiotropic roles of CARP-1/CCAR1 as well as its apoptosis signaling mechanisms in response to chemotherapy in cancer cells. PMID:25894788

  18. The effect of encapsulated fennel extracts on the quality of silver carp fillets during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Mazandrani, Hoda Alipour; Javadian, SeyedRoholla; Bahram, Somayeh

    2016-03-01

    The effect of fennel extract on the quality of silver carp (Hypophthalmicthys molitrix) fillets, and the possible efficacy of liposomal encapsulation in the improvement of its antimicrobial and antioxidant activity during chilled storage (4 + 1°C) of the fillets were examined over a period of 15 days. Silver carp fillets were treated with pure fennel extract (0.3% and 0.5% w/v) and liposomal encapsulated fennel extract (0.3% and 0.5% w/v), and their quality changes in terms of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), microbial counts, and sensory properties were investigated. Fennel extract could retard the deterioration of silver carp fillets, as reflected in lower TVB-N, PV and TBA value. Moreover, the efficacy of fennel extract was improved when it was encapsulated into liposome. Silver carp fillets treated with the encapsulated fennel extract showed the lowest amount of lipid oxidation and microbial deterioration during the storage period compared with the control and pure extract treatments. Sensory evaluation revealed that shelf life of silver carp fillet was longest for samples treated with encapsulated fennel extract at 0.5% (15 days), as compared to the control (6 days) (P < 0.05). PMID:27004119

  19. The protective immunity against grass carp reovirus in grass carp induced by a DNA vaccination using single-walled carbon nanotubes as delivery vehicles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Liu, Guang-Lu; Li, Dong-Liang; Ling, Fei; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2015-12-01

    To reduce the lethal hemorrhagic disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) and improve the production of grass carp, efficient and economic prophylactic measure against GCRV is the most pressing desired for the grass carp farming industry. In this work, a novel SWCNTs-pEGFP-vp5 DNA vaccine linked vp5 recombinant in the form of plasmid pEGFP-vp5 and ammonium-functionalized SWCNTs by a chemical modification method was prepared to enhance the efficacy of a vp5 DNA vaccine against GCRV in juvenile grass carp. After intramuscular injection (1, 2.5 and 5 μg) and bath administration (1, 10, and 20 mg/L), the ability of the different immune treatments to induce transgene expression was analyzed. The results showed that higher levels of transcription and expression of vp5 gene could be detected in muscle tissues of grass carp in SWCNTs-pEGFP-vp5 treatment groups compare with naked pEGFP-vp5 treatment groups. Moreover, antibody levels, immune-related genes, and relative percentage survival were significantly enhanced in fish immunized with SWCNTs-pEGFP-vp5 vaccine. In addition, we found that a good immune protective effect was observed in bath immunization group; which at a concentration of 20 mg/L could reach the similar relative percentage survival (approximately 100%) in injection group at a dose of 5 μg. All these results indicated that ammonium-functionalized SWCNTs could provide extensive application prospect to aquatic vaccine and might be used to vaccinate fish by intramuscular injection or bath administration method. PMID:26497092

  20. Tracks in the Sand: Hooke's Pendulum "Cum Grano Salis"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babovic, Vukota; Babovic, Miloš

    2014-01-01

    The history of science remembers more than just formal facts about scientific discoveries. These side stories are often inspiring. One of them, the story of an unfulfilled death wish of Jacob Bernoulli regarding spirals, inspired us to look around ourselves. And we saw natural spirals around us, which led to the creation of a Hooke's…

  1. Tracks in the Sand: Hooke's Pendulum "Cum Grano Salis"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babovic, Vukota; Babovic, Milo

    2014-01-01

    The history of science remembers more than just formal facts about scientific discoveries. These side stories are often inspiring. One of them, the story of an unfulfilled death wish of Jacob Bernoulli regarding spirals, inspired us to look around ourselves. And we saw natural spirals around us, which led to the creation of a Hooke's

  2. Symposium of Hope: Recovery and Resiliency after the Sandy Hook Tragedy. Crisis Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenere, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    On February 27 and 28, 2013, The Symposium of Hope: Recovery and Resilience after the Sandy Hook Tragedy, was held in Danbury, Connecticut. The event was hosted by the United Way of Western Connecticut and Western Connecticut State University. Frank J. Zenere, school psychologist and crisis team member in the Division of Student Services of the…

  3. Diagnostic Value of Hook Wire Localization Technique for Non-Palpable Breast Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Demiral, Gokhan; Senol, Metin; Bayraktar, Baris; Ozturk, Hasan; Celik, Yahya; Boluk, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of hook wire localization biopsy for non-palpable breast lesions which were detected by ultrasonography (USG) or mammography (MMG). Methods In this retrospective study, USG or MMG-guided hook wire localization technique was performed on 83 patients who had non-palpable breast lesions. Then histopathological examination was performed on surgically removed specimens. All patients’ mammograms or ultrasonograms were categorized using Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classification. Results Radiologically, 27 (32.53%) patients were classified as BI-RADS 3, 49 (59.04%) BI-RADS 4, one (1.2%) BIRADS 5 and six (7.23%) BI-RADS 0. Histopathological results were benign in 68 (81.9%) and malignant in 15 (18.1%) patients. Twenty-seven patients were classified as BI-RADS 3 and definitive diagnoses for all were benign. Besides, 49 patients were classified as BI-RADS 4 and histopathologically 14 of them were reported as malignant, and 35 as benign. Sensitivity of MMG was 93% and specificity was 55%. For USG, the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity was 73%. Conclusion In early diagnosis of breast cancer, the validity of the imaging-guided hook wire localization biopsy of non-palpable breast lesions has been proved. The cooperation of surgeon, radiologist and pathologist increases the successfull results of hook wire localization technique. PMID:27081425

  4. Assessing College Students' Autonomy over Smoking with the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Robert; McMillen, Robert; DiFranza, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective, Participants, and Methods: In this study, the authors explored the psychometric properties of the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC) among 300 college students who were current smokers. The HONC is a 10-item survey instrument designed to measure diminished autonomy over smoking, a key aspect of dependence. Autonomy is diminished when…

  5. Assessing College Students' Autonomy over Smoking with the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Robert; McMillen, Robert; DiFranza, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective, Participants, and Methods: In this study, the authors explored the psychometric properties of the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC) among 300 college students who were current smokers. The HONC is a 10-item survey instrument designed to measure diminished autonomy over smoking, a key aspect of dependence. Autonomy is diminished when

  6. Latitude Hooks and Azimuth Kings: How To Build and Use 18 Traditional Navigational Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Dennis

    This book contains directions for building and using 18 different traditional navigational tools. Each of the devices discussed has at one time or another been used for the practical business of navigation. Devices featured in this book include the Latitude Hook, Kamal, Astrolabe, Quadrant, Astronomical Ring, Sundial, Nocturnal, Cross Staff,…

  7. Diverse reactions to hooking up among U.S. university students.

    PubMed

    Strokoff, Johanna; Owen, Jesse; Fincham, Frank D

    2015-05-01

    Hooking up is defined as a physical encounter between two people who are not romantically committed. This study explored whether there were subgroups of young adults with unique reactions to hooking up (N = 879). Psychosocial predictor variables (gender, depression, loneliness, intoxication level, college adjustment, and hope for a committed relationship) were investigated along with emotional reactions as the outcome variables. Through the use of cluster analysis, four distinct clusters were identified: Happy Hopeful, Content Realist, Used and Confused, and Disappointed and Disengaged. The majority (62 %) of the sample reported mostly positive reactions to hooking up and fell within the Happy Hopeful or Content Realist clusters. Protective factors in these two clusters included hope for a committed relationship, having realistic expectations, and healthy psychological adjustment. The Used and Confused and Disappointed and Disengaged clusters reported the most negative hooking up reactions and consisted of 38 % of the overall sample. These two groups reported increased depression and loneliness symptoms and lower levels of social adjustment as compared to those clusters with more positive reactions. PMID:24872187

  8. 46 CFR 7.35 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Cape May, NJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Atlantic Coast § 7.35 Sandy Hook, NJ to Cape May, NJ. (a) A line drawn from Shark River Inlet North Breakwater Light “2” to Shark River Inlet South Breakwater Light “1”. (b) A line drawn from Manasquan...

  9. 46 CFR 7.35 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Cape May, NJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Atlantic Coast § 7.35 Sandy Hook, NJ to Cape May, NJ. (a) A line drawn from Shark River Inlet North Breakwater Light “2” to Shark River Inlet South Breakwater Light “1”. (b) A line drawn from Manasquan...

  10. 46 CFR 7.35 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Cape May, NJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Atlantic Coast § 7.35 Sandy Hook, NJ to Cape May, NJ. (a) A line drawn from Shark River Inlet North Breakwater Light “2” to Shark River Inlet South Breakwater Light “1”. (b) A line drawn from Manasquan...

  11. 46 CFR 7.35 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Cape May, NJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Atlantic Coast § 7.35 Sandy Hook, NJ to Cape May, NJ. (a) A line drawn from Shark River Inlet North Breakwater Light “2” to Shark River Inlet South Breakwater Light “1”. (b) A line drawn from Manasquan...

  12. 46 CFR 7.35 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Cape May, NJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Atlantic Coast § 7.35 Sandy Hook, NJ to Cape May, NJ. (a) A line drawn from Shark River Inlet North Breakwater Light “2” to Shark River Inlet South Breakwater Light “1”. (b) A line drawn from Manasquan...

  13. Cheating, Hooking Up, and Attention to Romantic Alternatives among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buri, John R.; Cromett, Cristina E.; Pappas, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    While numerous studies have emphasized more situational factors related to cheating, hooking up, and attention to romantic alternatives (e.g., alcohol use, need fulfillment, opportunity), the present findings support Finkel el al.'s (2012) argument for greater attentiveness to personal factors intrinsic to the individual that may influence…

  14. Risk Factors and Consequences of Unwanted Sex among University Students: Hooked up, Alcohol, and Stress Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flack, William F., Jr.; Daubman, Kimberly A.; Caron, Marcia L.; Asadorian, Jenica A.; D'Aureli, Nicole R.; Gigliotti, Shannon N.; Hall, Anna T.; Kiser, Sarah; Stine, Erin R.

    2007-01-01

    This is the first study of unwanted sexual experiences in the collegiate "hooking-up" culture. In a representative sample of 178 students at a small liberal arts university. Twenty-three percent of women and 7% of men surveyed reported one or more experiences of unwanted sexual intercourse. Seventy-eight percent of unwanted vaginal, anal, and oral…

  15. COLLECTING TAPER TIP ONION (ALLIUM ACUMINATUM HOOK.) IN THE GREAT BASIN USING TRADITIONAL AND GIS METHODS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We collected 55 populations of taper-tip onion (Allium acuminatum Hook. [Alliaceae]) throughout the Great Basin Region of the United States (Idaho, Oregon, Nevada) as part of a biodiversity assessment and germplasm conservation project. Population data from personal observations and herbarium spec...

  16. 50 CFR 660.716 - Surface hook-and-line fishery. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Surface hook-and-line fishery. 660.716 Section 660.716 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES...

  17. 50 CFR 660.716 - Surface hook-and-line fishery. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Surface hook-and-line fishery. 660.716 Section 660.716 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES...

  18. 33 CFR 165.130 - Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey-security zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey-security zone. 165.130 Section 165.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.130...

  19. 33 CFR 165.130 - Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey-security zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey-security zone. 165.130 Section 165.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.130...

  20. 77 FR 32131 - Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Sussex County, DE; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... process for Prime Hook NWR. We started this process through a notice in the Federal Register (70 FR 60365..., 2011, we issued a second notice in the Federal Register (76 FR 26751) announcing we were preparing an... and fox squirrels, protecting bald eagle and osprey active nest sites from human disturbance on...

  1. 76 FR 26751 - Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Sussex County, DE; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... 17, 2005 (70 FR 60365) stating we intended to prepare a CCP and EA for Prime Hook NWR. We held three... the planting of genetically modified organisms until the refuge completed compatibility determinations... challenging to wildlife managers and biologists. Mosquitoes are a part of the natural environment and a...

  2. 33 CFR 165.130 - Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey-security zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey-security zone. 165.130 Section 165.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and...

  3. Hooking up in Young Adulthood: A Review of Factors Influencing the Sexual Behavior of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Rebecca D.

    2010-01-01

    Hooking up, or casual "no strings attached" sexual encounters, has become the normative heterosexual relationship on college campuses. This phenomenon has only recently received public attention. Many citizens have become alarmed that this trend is indicative of moral decline in our culture, a reflection of our hypersexualized media, and a…

  4. Action spectra and adaptation properties of carp photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Witkovsky, P; Nelson, J; Ripps, H

    1973-04-01

    The mass photoreceptor response of the isolated carp retina was studied after immersing the tissue in aspartate-Ringer solution. Two electro-retinogram components were isolated by differential depth recording: a fast cornea-negative wave, arising in the receptor layer, and a slow, cornea-negative wave arising at some level proximal to the photoreceptors. Only the fast component was investigated further. In complete dark adaptation, its action spectrum peaked near 540 nm and indicated input from both porphyropsin-containing rods (lambda(max) approximately 525 nm) and cones with longer wavelength sensitivity. Under photopic conditions a broad action spectrum, lambda(max) approximately 580 nm was seen. In the presence of chromatic backgrounds, the photopic curve could be fractionated into three components whose action spectra agreed reasonably well with the spectral characteristics of blue, green, and red cone pigments of the goldfish. In parallel studies, the carp rod pigment was studied in situ by transmission densitometry. The reduction in optical density after a full bleach averaged 0.28 at its lambda(max) 525 nm. In the isolated retina no regeneration of rod pigment occurred within 2 h after bleaching. The bleaching power of background fields used in adaptation experiments was determined directly. Both rods and cones generated increment threshold functions with slopes of +1 on log-log coordinates over a 3-4 log range of background intensities. Background fields which bleached less than 0.5% rod pigment nevertheless diminished photoreceptor sensitivity. The degree and rate of recovery of receptor sensitivity after exposure to a background field was a function of the total flux (I x t) of the field. Rod saturation, i.e. the abolition of rod voltages, occurred after approximately 12% of rod pigment was bleached. In light-adapted retinas bathed in normal Ringer solution, a small test flash elicited a larger response in the presence of an annular background field than when it fell upon a dark retina. The enhancement was not observed in aspartate-treated retinas. PMID:4694741

  5. Studies on resistance characteristic and cDNA sequence conservation of transferrin from crucian carp, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Long, Hua; Yu, Qi-Xing

    2007-09-01

    Transferrin (Tf) is a kind of non-heme beta-globulin with two iron ions (Fe(3+))-binding sites. To prove Tf's physiological functions, Fe(3+)-proteins, serum iron contents, and total iron-binding capabilities were tested for Tfs of crucian carps (Carassius auratus) and sliver carps (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). The above results demonstrated that sliver carps shared 1/3 Tf alleles with crucian carps; Tf of crucian carps had stronger Fe(3+)-binding ability and transportation ability in plasma than that of sliver carps. In addition, the results of oxygen consumption experiments indicated that crucian carps had the higher oxygen utility rate than sliver carps. For acute hypoxia exposure assay, normoxic gas mixture, hypoxic gas mixture A, and hypoxic gas mixture B were used to induce oxygen-regulated gene expression of crucian carps in acute hypoxia. The results of quantitative real-time PCR revealed that mRNA levels of Tf gene, Tfr gene and ATPase gene were down-regulated in acute hypoxia but mRNA level of LDHa gene was up-regulated in acute hypoxia. The results of crucian carp Tf-cDNA sequence analysis showed that cDNA regions of two Fe(3+)-binding sites were T(747)-T(1026) and T(1737)-A(1884) based on the principle of bioinformatics. The sequence conservation of two Fe(3+)-binding sites was higher than that of the other five regions, which were confirmed according to the subregion model of Tf-cDNA sequence. PMID:17646932

  6. Rose Prickles and Asparagus Spines--Different Hook Structures as Attachment Devices in Climbing Plants.

    PubMed

    Gallenmüller, Friederike; Feus, Amélie; Fiedler, Kathrin; Speck, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Functional morphology and biomechanical properties of hook structures functioning as attachment devices in the leaning climbers Rosa arvensis, Rosa arvensis 'Splendens', Asparagus falcatus and Asparagus setaceus are analysed in order to investigate the variability in closely related species as well as convergent developments of hook structure and properties in distant systematic lineages (monocots and dicots). Prickles and spines were characterised by their size, orientation and the maximum force measured at failure in mechanical tests performed with traction forces applied at different angles. In Rosa arvensis and Rosa arvensis 'Splendens' three types of prickles differing largely in geometrical and mechanical properties are identified (prickles of the wild species and two types of prickles in the cultivar). In prickles of Rosa arvensis no particular orientation of the prickle tip is found whereas in the cultivar Rosa arvensis 'Splendens' prickles gradually gain a downward-orientation due to differential growth in the first weeks of their development. Differences in mechanical properties and modes of failure are correlated to geometrical parameters. In Asparagus falcatus and Asparagus setaceus spines are composed of leaf tissue, stem tissue and tissue of the axillary bud. Between species spines differ in size, orientation, distribution along the stem, tissue contributions and mechanical properties. The prickles of Rosa arvensis and its cultivar and the spines of the studied Asparagus species have several traits in common: (1) a gradual change of cell size and cell wall thickness, with larger cells in the centre and smaller thick-walled cells at the periphery of the hooks, (2) occurrence of a diversity of shape and geometry within one individual, (3) failure of single hooks when submitted to moderate mechanical stresses (Fmax/basal area < 35 N/mm²) and (4) failure of the hooks without severe stem damage (at least in the tested wild species). PMID:26629690

  7. Rose Prickles and Asparagus Spines – Different Hook Structures as Attachment Devices in Climbing Plants

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Kathrin

    2015-01-01

    Functional morphology and biomechanical properties of hook structures functioning as attachment devices in the leaning climbers Rosa arvensis, Rosa arvensis ‘Splendens‘, Asparagus falcatus and Asparagus setaceus are analysed in order to investigate the variability in closely related species as well as convergent developments of hook structure and properties in distant systematic lineages (monocots and dicots). Prickles and spines were characterised by their size, orientation and the maximum force measured at failure in mechanical tests performed with traction forces applied at different angles. In Rosa arvensis and Rosa arvensis ‘Splendens‘ three types of prickles differing largely in geometrical and mechanical properties are identified (prickles of the wild species and two types of prickles in the cultivar). In prickles of Rosa arvensis no particular orientation of the prickle tip is found whereas in the cultivar Rosa arvensis ‘Splendens‘ prickles gradually gain a downward-orientation due to differential growth in the first weeks of their development. Differences in mechanical properties and modes of failure are correlated to geometrical parameters. In Asparagus falcatus and Asparagus setaceus spines are composed of leaf tissue, stem tissue and tissue of the axillary bud. Between species spines differ in size, orientation, distribution along the stem, tissue contributions and mechanical properties. The prickles of Rosa arvensis and its cultivar and the spines of the studied Asparagus species have several traits in common: (1) a gradual change of cell size and cell wall thickness, with larger cells in the centre and smaller thick-walled cells at the periphery of the hooks, (2) occurrence of a diversity of shape and geometry within one individual, (3) failure of single hooks when submitted to moderate mechanical stresses (Fmax/basal area < 35 N/mm²) and (4) failure of the hooks without severe stem damage (at least in the tested wild species). PMID:26629690

  8. The Flagellar Soluble Protein FliK Determines the Minimal Length of the Hook in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Kaoru

    2014-01-01

    The length of the flagellar hook is controlled by the soluble protein FliK. FliK is structurally divided into two halves with distinct functions; the N-terminal half determines hook length, while the C-terminal half switches the secretion substrate specificity, consequently terminating hook elongation. FliK properly achieves both functions only when it is secreted. In a previous paper, we showed that a temperature-sensitive flgE mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, SJW2219, produced basal bodies with short hooks (average length, 25 nm) at 37°C. In this study, we show that the mutant cells grown at 37°C secrete FliK but not flagellin (FliC), indicating that FliK is abortively secreted into the medium when the hook is shorter than 30 nm. In contrast, FliK unfailingly switches the gate modes when the hook is longer than 30 nm. Taking the FliC, FliK, and FlgM secretion patterns into account, we conclude that FliK determines the minimal length of the hook. We will discuss how FliK detects the critical switching point of the secretion gate. PMID:24563036

  9. Nitrogen removal and water microbiota in grass carp culture following supplementation with Bacillus licheniformis BSK-4.

    PubMed

    Liang, Quan; Zhang, Xiaoping; Lee, Khui Hung; Wang, Yibing; Yu, Kan; Shen, Wenying; Fu, Luoqin; Shu, Miaoan; Li, Weifen

    2015-11-01

    This experiment was designed to study the effects of Bacillus licheniformis BSK-4 on nitrogen removal and microbial community structure in a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) culture. The selected strain Bacillus licheniformis BSK-4 significantly decreased nitrite, nitrate and total nitrogen levels in water over an extended, whereas increased ammonia level. Pyrosequencing showed that Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes were dominant in grass carp culture water. Compared with the control group, the number of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were increased, while Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes decreased in treatment group. At the genus level, some genera, such as Bacillus, Prosthecobacter, Enterococcus, etc., appear only in the treatment, while many other genera exist only in the control group; Lactobacillus, Luteolibacter, Phenylobacterium, etc. were increased in treatment group compared to those in control group. As above, the results suggested that supplementation with B. licheniformis BSK-4 could remove some nitrogen and cause alterations of the microbial composition in grass carp water. PMID:26385546

  10. Autoradiographic localization of gonadotrophin receptors in ovaries of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniarz, K.; Kime, D.E.

    1986-10-01

    Binding sites for carp gonadotrophin have been located in carp ovaries using (/sup 125/I)labeled gonadotrophin and autoradiography. The radioactive gonadotrophin was displaced from tissue by unlabeled gonadotrophin or carp hypophysial homogenate in a dose-dependent fashion. No binding of gonadotrophin was found in previtellogenic oocytes but binding appeared with the first indications of vitellogenesis. In the smaller vitellogenic oocytes binding was uniformly distributed in the follicular envelope, but in the largest oocytes binding was restricted to the interstitial tissue. In these more mature oocytes gonadotrophin was also found within the oocyte and appeared to migrate toward the nucleus. The relationship between binding location, steroidogenesis, and oocyte maturation is discussed. We found no evidence for specific binding of (/sup 125/I)thyroxine under comparable conditions.

  11. Assessment of synthetic organic compounds, and endocrinology and histology of carp in Lake Mead

    SciTech Connect

    Bevans, H.; Goodbred, S.; Miesner, J.

    1995-12-31

    This study investigated the presence and biologic effects of synthetic organic compounds transported by Las Vegas Wash to Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Water, bottom sediment, and carp (Cyprinus carpio) were analyzed for synthetic organic compounds. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used to sample the water column. Blood samples were collected from Carp for analysis of sex steroid hormones and vitellogenin. Samples of external abnormalities and organs (liver, gill, kidney, small intestine, and gonad) were collected for histologic analysis. Compounds known to affect endocrine systems (PAHs, phthalate esters, PCBs, dioxins and furans) were detected in SPMD, bottom-sediment, and/or carp samples. The number and concentrations of compounds generally were greater in samples from Las Vegas Wash and Bay, than in samples from Callville Bay, a reference site in Lake Mead. High levels of PAHs detected in SPMDs from Callville Bay could indicate the existence of contaminant sources other than Las Vegas Wash.

  12. The invasive fish tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis (Cestoda), a parasite of carp, colonises Africa.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Tomáš; Tavakol, Sareh; Halajian, Ali; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J

    2015-09-01

    Biological invasions represent a serious threat for aquaculture because many of introduced parasites may negatively affect the health state of feral and cultured fish. In the present account, the invasive tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), which was originally described from North America and has been introduced to Europe including the British Isles with its specific host, common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), is reported from Africa for the first time. Its recent introduction to South Africa, where it was found in four localities where common carp is cultured, is another evidence of insufficient prophylactic measures and inadequate veterinary control during transfers of cultured fish, especially common carp, between continents. Together with the Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, A. huronensis is another fish tapeworm with ability to spread throughout the globe as a result of man-made introductions of its fish hosts. PMID:26091762

  13. Intrachain diffusion in a protein loop fragment from carp parvalbumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, Florian; Fierz, Beat; Axthelm, Fabian; Joder, Karin; Meyer, Dominique; Kiefhaber, Thomas

    2004-12-01

    During protein folding a polypeptide chain has to form specific intrachain interactions starting from an ensemble of unfolded conformation. Thus, intrachain diffusion in unfolded polypeptide chains can be regarded as an elementary step in protein folding, which should determine the dynamics of the early stages in the folding process. We have previously applied exothermic triplet-triplet energy transfer from xanthone to naphthalene to determine rate constants for intrachain end-to-end contact formation in unstructured homo-polypeptide chains. Here we show that the method can be applied to determine absolute rate constants for intrachain diffusion in natural loop sequences, if they are free of methionine, tryptophan and tyrosine. We measured the rate of loop formation in an 18 amino acid polypeptide chain corresponding to a natural loop sequence from carp muscle β-parvalbumin (residues 85-102). Contact formation shows single exponential kinetics with a time constant ( τ=1/ k) of 53 ± 3 ns at 22.5 °C in water. Comparison with the results on homo-polypeptide chains shows that this value agrees well with rates obtained earlier for a polyserine chain of the same length.

  14. Effects of cylindrospermopsin on a common carp leucocyte cell line.

    PubMed

    Sieroslawska, Anna; Rymuszka, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cytotoxin produced by different cyanobacterial species, increasingly detected in water reservoirs worldwide. There is very little information available concerning the effects of the toxin on fish immune cells. The aim of the study was to elucidate the potential impact of cylindrospermopsin on the selected parameters of a common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) leucocyte cell line (CLC). The cells were incubated with the cyanotoxin at concentrations of 10, 1 or 0.1 µg ml(-1) for up to 48 h. Cell viability and proliferation, apoptosis/necrosis induction, cell morphology and phagocytic activity were determined. The two higher toxin concentrations occurred to be evidently cytotoxic in a time-dependent manner and influenced all studied parameters. The lowest used concentration had no effects on cell viability and cell number; however, a strong reduction of bacteria uptake after 24-h exposure was detected. The obtained results indicate that cylindrospermopsin may interfere with the basic functions of fish phagocytic cells and as a consequence influence the fish immunity. PMID:24477983

  15. Intensity of parasitic infestation in silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix *

    PubMed Central

    Alam, M. M.; Khan, M. A.; Hussain, M. A.; Moumita, D.; Mazlan, A. G.; Simon, K. D.

    2012-01-01

    Silver carp, Hypopthalmichthys molitrix is one of the most economically valuable fish species in Bangladesh. However, its production is often hindered by parasite-induced mortality. The present study reports the intensity of parasitic infestation in 216 specimens of H. molitrix collected from different fish markets in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh. Nine different parasite species (Trichodina pediculatus, Dactylogyrus vastator, Ichthyophthirius multifilis, Gyrodactylus elegans, Lernaea sp., Apiosoma sp., Myxobolus rohitae, Camallanus ophiocephali, and Pallisentis ophiocephali) were recovered from the gill, skin, stomach, and intestine of host fish. The highest level of infection was observed for host skin, while lower levels were observed for host gill, stomach, and intestine. The results also revealed that the intensity of parasite infection in different organs of H. molitrix varied with the season. In particular, the highest levels of infection were recorded during the winter period (November–February), when fish are most susceptible to parasites. The findings of the study will help in the management and conservation of H. molitrix. PMID:23225858

  16. Une forme exceptionnelle de la luxation perilunaire du carpe

    PubMed Central

    Elouakili, Issam; Ouchrif, Younes; Najib, Abdeljaouad; Ouakrim, Redouane; Lamrani, Omar; Kharmaz, Mohammed; Ismael, Farid; Lahlou, Abdo; Elouadghiri, Mohammed; El Bardouni, Ahmed; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Berrada, Mohammed Saleh; El Yaccoubi, Mouradh

    2014-01-01

    Les luxations périlunaires (LPL) du carpe sont des lésions extrêmement rares, qui peuvent passer inaperçue en raison d'un tableau clinique souvent trompeur, des radiographies en profil non strict ou d'interprétation difficile. Nous rapportons l'observation d'une luxation périlunaire stade III selon la classification de Witvoët et Allieu chez un patient de 32 ans, il s'agit d'une forme encore plus rare voire exceptionnelle et qui peut induire de sérieux problèmes en raison de la sévérité des dommages ligamentaires et du risque de nécrose du semilunaire plus important dans ce type de lésions. Le traitement est toujours chirurgical et doit être réalisé dans les plus brefs délais afin d’éviter les complications. PMID:25404968

  17. Improving efficiency and reliability of environmental DNA analysis for silver carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amberg, Jon J.; McCalla, S. Grace; Monroe, Emy; Lance, Richard; Baerwaldt, Kelly; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Natural resource agencies have established surveillance programs which use environmental DNA (eDNA) for the early detection of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix before they establish populations within the Great Lakes. This molecular monitoring technique must be highly accurate and precise for confident interpretation and also efficient, both in detection threshold and cost. Therefore, we compared two DNA extraction techniques and compared a new quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay with the conventional PCR (cPCR) assay used by monitoring programs. Both the qPCR and cPCR assays were able to amplify the DNA of silver carp present in environmental samples taken from locations where mixed populations of bigheaded carps existed. However, the qPCR assay had substantially fewer PCR positive samples which were subsequently determined not to contain DNA of bigheaded carps than the cPCR assay. Additionally, the qPCR assay was able to amplify the DNA of bigheaded carps even in the presence of inhibitors that blocked amplification with cPCR. Also, the selection of an appropriate DNA extraction method can significantly alter the efficiency of eDNA surveillance programs by lowering detection limits and by decreasing costs associated with sample processing. The results reported herein are presently being incorporated into eDNA surveillance programs to decrease the costs, increase DNA yield and increase the confidence that assays are amplifying the target DNA. These results are critical to enhancing our ability to accurately and confidently interpret the results reported from monitoring programs using eDNA for early detection of invasive species.

  18. G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) inhibits final oocyte maturation in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Suravi; Das, Sumana; Moulik, Sujata Roy; Mallick, Buddhadev; Pal, Puja; Mukherjee, Dilip

    2015-01-15

    GPR-30, now named as GPER (G protein-coupled estrogen receptor) was first identified as an orphan receptor and subsequently shown to be required for estrogen-mediated signaling in certain cancer cells. Later studies demonstrated that GPER has the characteristics of a high affinity estrogen membrane receptor on Atlantic croaker and zebra fish oocytes and mediates estrogen inhibition of oocyte maturation in these two distantly related teleost. To determine the broad application of these findings to other teleost, expression of GPER mRNA and its involvement in 17β-estradiol mediated inhibition of oocyte maturation in other cyprinid, Cyprinus carpio was investigated. Carp oocytes at pre-vitellogenic, late-vitellogenic and post-vitellogenic stages of development contained GPER mRNA and its transcribed protein with a maximum at late-vitellogenic oocytes. Ovarian follicular cells did not express GPER mRNA. Carp oocytes GPER mRNA was essentially identical to that found in other perciformes and cyprinid fish oocytes. Both spontaneous and 17,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20β-P)-induced oocyte maturation in carp was significantly decreased when they were incubated with either E2, or GPER agonist G-1. On the other hand spontaneous oocyte maturation was significantly increased when carp ovarian follicles were incubated with an aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole, GPER antagonist, G-15 and enzymatic removal of the ovarian follicle cell layers. This increase in oocyte maturation was partially reversed by co-treatment with E2. Consistent with previous findings with human and fish GPR30, E2 treatment in carp oocytes caused increase in cAMP production and simultaneously decrease in oocyte maturation, which was inhibited by the addition of 17,20β-P. The results suggest that E2 and GPER play a critical role in regulating re-entry in to meiotic cell cycle in carp oocytes. PMID:25485460

  19. Genome-wide identification, phylogeny, and expression of fibroblast growth genes in common carp.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Likun; Zhang, Songhao; Dong, Chuanju; Chen, Baohua; Feng, Jingyan; Peng, Wenzhu; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Xu, Peng

    2016-03-10

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are a large family of polypeptide growth factors, which are found in organisms ranging from nematodes to humans. In vertebrates, a number of FGFs have been shown to play important roles in developing embryos and adult organisms. Among the vertebrate species, FGFs are highly conserved in both gene structure and amino-acid sequence. However, studies on teleost FGFs are mainly limited to model species, hence we investigated FGFs in the common carp genome. We identified 35 FGFs in the common carp genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the FGFs are highly conserved, though recent gene duplication and gene losses do exist. By examining the copy number of FGFs in several vertebrate genomes, we found that eight FGFs in common carp have undergone gene duplications, including FGF6a, FGF6b, FGF7, FGF8b, FGF10a, FGF11b, FGF13a, and FGF18b. The expression patterns of all FGFs were examined in various tissues, including the blood, brain, gill, heart, intestine, muscle, skin, spleen and kidney, showing that most of the FGFs were ubiquitously expressed, indicating their critical role in common carp. To some extent, examination of gene families with detailed phylogenetic or orthology analysis verified the authenticity and accuracy of assembly and annotation of the recently published common carp whole genome sequences. Gene families are also considered as a unique source for evolutionary studies. Moreover, the whole set of common carp FGF gene family provides an important genomic resource for future biochemical, physiological, and phylogenetic studies on FGFs in teleosts. PMID:26691502

  20. Use of structured expert judgment to forecast invasions by bighead and silver carp in Lake Erie.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Marion E; Cooke, Roger M; Rothlisberger, John D; Rutherford, Edward S; Zhang, Hongyan; Mason, Doran M; Lodge, David M

    2015-02-01

    Identifying which nonindigenous species will become invasive and forecasting the damage they will cause is difficult and presents a significant problem for natural resource management. Often, the data or resources necessary for ecological risk assessment are incomplete or absent, leaving environmental decision makers ill equipped to effectively manage valuable natural resources. Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is a mathematical and performance-based method of eliciting, weighting, and aggregating expert judgments. In contrast to other methods of eliciting and aggregating expert judgments (where, for example, equal weights may be assigned to experts), SEJ weights each expert on the basis of his or her statistical accuracy and informativeness through performance measurement on a set of calibration variables. We used SEJ to forecast impacts of nonindigenous Asian carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) in Lake Erie, where it is believed not to be established. Experts quantified Asian carp biomass, production, and consumption and their impact on 4 fish species if Asian carp were to become established. According to experts, in Lake Erie Asian carp have the potential to achieve biomass levels that are similar to the sum of biomasses for several fishes that are harvested commercially or recreationally. However, the impact of Asian carp on the biomass of these fishes was estimated by experts to be small, relative to long term average biomasses, with little uncertainty. Impacts of Asian carp in tributaries and on recreational activities, water quality, or other species were not addressed. SEJ can be used to quantify key uncertainties of invasion biology and also provide a decision-support tool when the necessary information for natural resource management and policy is not available. PMID:25132396

  1. Binational ecological risk assessment of bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) for the Great Lakes Basin.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cudmore, B.; Mandrak, N.E.; Dettmers, J.; Chapman, D.C.; Kolar, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    Bigheaded carps (Bighead and Silver carps) are considered a potential threat to the Great Lakes basin. A binational ecological risk assessment was conducted to provide scientifically defensible advice for managers and decision-makers in Canada and the United States. This risk assessment looked at the likelihood of arrival, survival, establishment, and spread of bigheaded carps to obtain an overall probability of introduction. Arrival routes assessed were physical connections and human-mediated releases. The risk assessment ranked physical connections (specifically the Chicago Area Waterway System) as the most likely route for arrival into the Great Lakes basin. Results of the risk assessment show that there is enough food and habitat for bigheaded carp survival in the Great Lakes, especially in Lake Erie and productive embayments in the other lakes. Analyses of tributaries around the Canadian Great Lakes and the American waters of Lake Erie indicate that there are many suitable tributaries for bigheaded carp spawning. Should bigheaded carps establish in the Great Lakes, their spread would not likely be limited and several ecological consequences can be expected to occur. These consequences include competition for planktonic food leading to reduced growth rates, recruitment and abundance of planktivores. Subsequently this would lead to reduced stocks of piscivores and abundance of fishes with pelagic, early life stages. Overall risk is highest for lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie, followed by Lake Ontario then Lake Superior. To avoid the trajectory of the invasion process and prevent or minimize anticipated consequences, it is important to continue to focus efforts on reducing the probability of introduction of these species at either the arrival, survival, establishment, or spread stage (depending on location).

  2. Characterization of Common Carp Transcriptome: Sequencing, De Novo Assembly, Annotation and Comparative Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Peifeng; Liu, Guiming; Xu, Jian; Wang, Xumin; Li, Jiongtang; Zhao, Zixia; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen

    2012-01-01

    Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquaculture species of Cyprinidae with an annual global production of 3.4 million tons, accounting for nearly 14% of the freshwater aquaculture production in the world. Due to the economical and ecological importance of common carp, genomic data are eagerly needed for genetic improvement purpose. However, there is still no sufficient transcriptome data available. The objective of the project is to sequence transcriptome deeply and provide well-assembled transcriptome sequences to common carp research community. Result Transcriptome sequencing of common carp was performed using Roche 454 platform. A total of 1,418,591 clean ESTs were collected and assembled into 36,811 cDNA contigs, with average length of 888 bp and N50 length of 1,002 bp. Annotation was performed and a total of 19,165 unique proteins were identified from assembled contigs. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were performed and classified all contigs into functional categories for understanding gene functions and regulation pathways. Open Reading Frames (ORFs) were detected from 29,869 (81.1%) contigs with an average ORF length of 763 bp. From these contigs, 9,625 full-length cDNAs were identified with sequence length from 201 bp to 9,956 bp. Comparative analysis revealed that 27,693(75.2%) contigs have significant similarity to zebrafish Refseq proteins, and 24,371(66.2%), 24,501(66.5%) and 25,025(70.0%) to teraodon, medaka and three-spined stickleback refseq proteins. A total of 2,064 microsatellites were initially identified from 1,730 contigs, and 1,639 unique sequences had sufficient flanking sequences on both sides for primer design. Conclusion The transcriptome of common carp had been deep sequenced, de novo assembled and characterized, providing the valuable resource for better understanding of common carp genome. The transcriptome data will facilitate future functional studies on common carp genome, and gradually apply in breeding programs of common carp, as well as closely related other Cyprinids. PMID:22514716

  3. Occurrence of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda, Bothriocephallidea) in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in the Changjiang River drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Bingwen; Wang, Guitang; Xie, Jun

    2011-05-01

    Bothriocephalus acheilognathi is a potentially serious pathogen in wild or cultured fish in worldwide distribution. We examined 58-farmed grass carp from Nanchang in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River drainage, from which 20.7% were found to harbor the parasite with an infection intensity of 36.9±54.7. The parasites were identified based on morphology and rDNA ITS sequence analysis. The present report represents the first record of the parasite in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in the river drainage.

  4. Oligochitosan stimulated phagocytic activity of macrophages from blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) associated with respiratory burst coupled with nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lichun; Zhou, Yang; Zhao, Xiaoheng; Wang, Hong; Wang, Li; Yuan, Gailing; Asim, Muhammad; Wang, Weimin; Zeng, Lingbing; Liu, Xiaoling; Lin, Li

    2014-11-01

    The immunostimulating effects of oligochitosan have been proven in several fish, however, the mechanisms underlying the stimulation are not characterized. In the present study, the effects of oligochitosan were investigated using macrophages isolated from blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). The results showed that the phagocytic activity of the macrophages was enhanced by the addition of oligochitosan in vitro and in vivo. The two of the most important antimicrobial pathways of macrophages, NADPH oxidase and iNOS pathways were included for further studies. The amounts of superoxide anion and the mRNAs of the five subunits of NADPH oxidase genes were significantly enhanced in the oligochitosan-treated macrophages and macrophages isolated from fish fed with feed containing oligochitosan. In addition, the NO production, iNOS activity and iNOS gene expression were all significantly increased in the presence of oligochitosan. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of the TNF-α and IL-1β were also significantly increased in the macrophages derived from fish fed with oligochitosan. In conclusion, the stimulation effects of oligochitosan on the phagocytic activity of the fish macrophages were associated with respiratory burst coupled with nitric oxide production. PMID:24968077

  5. Public health assessment for east tenth street (FMC Corporation-Marcus Hook Plant), Marcus Hook, Delaware County, Pennsylvania, Region 3. Cerclis No. PAD987323458. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-29

    The Earth 10th Street Site, a former rayon/cellophane manufacturing facility, lies about 1/3 mile northwest of the Delaware River in Marcus Hook, Delaware County, Pennyslvania. As a result of past industrial activities at the site, on-site groundwater and soils are contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and metals. On-site soils are also contaminated with asbestos and several on-site buildings contain asbestos which can become friable and airborne. Overall, the site is identified as an indeterminate public health hazard.

  6. A Dense Genetic Linkage Map for Common Carp and Its Integration with a BAC-Based Physical Map

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Peifeng; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Zixia; Hou, Guangyuan; Huo, Linhe; Liu, Guiming; Li, Chao; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen

    2013-01-01

    Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquaculture species with an annual global production of 3.4 million metric tons. It is also an important ornamental species as well as an important model species for aquaculture research. To improve the economically important traits of this fish, a number of genomic resources and genetic tools have been developed, including several genetic maps and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based physical map. However, integrated genetic and physical maps are not available to study quantitative trait loci (QTL) and assist with fine mapping, positional cloning and whole genome sequencing and assembly. The objective of this study was to integrate the currently available BAC-based physical and genetic maps. Results The genetic map was updated with 592 novel markers, including 312 BAC-anchored microsatellites and 130 SNP markers, and contained 1,209 genetic markers on 50 linkage groups, spanning 3,565.9 cM in the common carp genome. An integrated genetic and physical map of the common carp genome was then constructed, which was composed of 463 physical map contigs and 88 single BACs. Combined lengths of the contigs and single BACs covered a physical length of 498.75 Mb, or around 30% of the common carp genome. Comparative analysis between common carp and zebrafish genomes was performed based on the integrated map, providing more insights into the common carp specific whole genome duplication and segmental rearrangements in the genome. Conclusion We integrated a BAC-based physical map to a genetic linkage map of common carp by anchoring BAC-associated genetic markers. The density of the genetic linkage map was significantly increased. The integrated map provides a tool for both genetic and genomic studies of common carp, which will help us to understand the genomic architecture of common carp and facilitate fine mapping and positional cloning of economically important traits for genetic improvement and modification. PMID:23704958

  7. Acute and subchronic toxic effects of atrazine and chlorpyrifos on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.): Immunotoxicity assessments.

    PubMed

    Xing, Houjuan; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Ziwei; Wang, Xiaolong; Xu, Shiwen

    2015-08-01

    Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are widely used pesticides in agricultural practices throughout world. It has resulted in a series of toxicological and environmental problems, such as impacts on many non-target aquatic species, including fish. The spleen and head kidney in the bony fish are the major hematopoietic organs, and play a crucial part in immune responses. This study evaluated the subchronic effects of ATR and CPF on the mRNA and protein levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 in the immune organs of common carp and compared the acute and subchronic effects of ATR and CPF on the swimming speed (SS) of common carp. The results of acute toxicity tests showed that the 96 h-LC50 of ATR and CPF for common carp was determined to be 2.142 and 0.582 mg/L, respectively. Meanwhile, acute and subacute toxicity of ATR and CPF in common carp resulted in hypoactivity. We also found that the mRNA and protein levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 genes were induced in the spleen and head kidney of common carp exposed to ATR and CPF in the subchronic toxicity test. Our results indicate that ATR and CPF are highly toxic to common carp, and hypoactivity in common carp by acute and subchronic toxicity of ATR and CPF may provide a useful tool for assessing the toxicity of triazine herbicide and organophosphorous pesticides to aquatic organisms. In addition, the results from the subchronic toxicity test exhibited that increasing concentration of ATR and CPF in the environment causes considerable stress for common carp, suggesting that ATR and CPF exposure cause immunotoxicity to common carp. PMID:25917970

  8. Sequestration of RNA by grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella TIA1 is associated with its positive role in facilitating grass carp reovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Song, Lang; Wang, Hao; Wang, Tu; Lu, Liqun

    2015-10-01

    Previous report demonstrated that grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection resulted in unlinking cellular stress granule formation from aggregation of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella TIA1 (CiTIA1). Here, we provided evidence to show that CiTIA1 bound to synthesized ssRNA and dsRNA in vitro. Both GST-pull down assay and RNA immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed the association between GCRV-specific RNA and GST-tagged CiTIA1 in C. idella kidney (CIK) cells. Furthermore, CiTIA1 was shown to protect dsRNA of virus-origin from degradation in CIK cells through Northern blot analysis. Finally, transient overexpression of CiTIA1 enhanced the replication efficiency of GCRV in CIK cells. Taken together, our results suggested that cellular CiTIA1 might facilitate GCRV replication through sequestrating and protecting viral RNA from degradation. PMID:26208752

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome of Yangtze River wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) and Russian scattered scale mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio).

    PubMed

    Hu, Guang Fu; Liu, Xiang Jiang; Zou, Gui Wei; Li, Zhong; Liang, Hong-Wei; Hu, Shao-Na

    2016-01-01

    We sequenced the complete mitogenomes of (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) and Russian scattered scale mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio). Comparison of these two mitogenomes revealed that the mitogenomes of these two common carp strains were remarkably similar in genome length, gene order and content, and AT content. There were only 55 bp variations in 16,581 nucleotides. About 1 bp variation was located in rRNAs, 2 bp in tRNAs, 9 bp in the control region and 43 bp in protein-coding genes. Furthermore, forty-three variable nucleotides in the protein-coding genes of the two strains led to four variable amino acids, which were located in the ND2, ATPase 6, ND5 and ND6 genes, respectively. PMID:24521500

  10. 49 CFR 393.134 - What are the rules for securing roll-on/roll-off or hook lift containers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) One tiedown attached to both the vehicle chassis and the container chassis; (ii) Two tiedowns...) Two hooks, or an equivalent mechanism, securing both sides of the container to the vehicle chassis...

  11. 49 CFR 393.134 - What are the rules for securing roll-on/roll-off or hook lift containers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) One tiedown attached to both the vehicle chassis and the container chassis; (ii) Two tiedowns...) Two hooks, or an equivalent mechanism, securing both sides of the container to the vehicle chassis...

  12. 49 CFR 393.134 - What are the rules for securing roll-on/roll-off or hook lift containers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) One tiedown attached to both the vehicle chassis and the container chassis; (ii) Two tiedowns...) Two hooks, or an equivalent mechanism, securing both sides of the container to the vehicle chassis...

  13. 49 CFR 393.134 - What are the rules for securing roll-on/roll-off or hook lift containers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) One tiedown attached to both the vehicle chassis and the container chassis; (ii) Two tiedowns...) Two hooks, or an equivalent mechanism, securing both sides of the container to the vehicle chassis...

  14. 49 CFR 393.134 - What are the rules for securing roll-on/roll-off or hook lift containers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) One tiedown attached to both the vehicle chassis and the container chassis; (ii) Two tiedowns...) Two hooks, or an equivalent mechanism, securing both sides of the container to the vehicle chassis...

  15. Ultraviolet photoreception in carp: microspectrophotometry and behaviorally determined action spectra.

    PubMed

    Hawryshyn, C W; Harosi, F I

    1991-01-01

    This study demonstrates correlations between u.v. sensitivity and microspectrophotometric absorption spectra determined sequentially for the same group of individuals. We used the heart-rate conditioning technique to measure spectral sensitivity of carp, a species known to have u.v.-sensitive photoreceptors. Mean spectral sensitivity (n = 3) determined with a spectrally-broad background (450 nm long pass filter) revealed a small but consistent u.v. peak (lambda max of 380 nm) in addition to the other long wavelength peaks. An intense blue-green background (490 nm) produced a more prominent u.v. peak (lambda max of 400 nm) when a 450 nm longpass filter was added to the background. Microspectrophotometric measurements of u.v.-sensitive photoreceptors from one individual, which belonged to the group used in the spectral sensitivity experiments, revealed an average lambda max of 377.5 nm (SD +/- 4.5 nm, n = 5 cells). Bleaching and dichroic measurements of these receptors ensured that we were examining typical vertebrate visual pigments and not stable photoproducts. The mean spectral sensitivity points were compared with the u.v. and blue-sensitive visual pigment absorption spectra. A linear subtractive model and ocular media absorption were used in this comparison for the various photic conditions used in the heart-rate conditioning experiments. The model successfully described the sensitivity of the test fish in two cases but in a third case there was some discrepancy. The model generated curve was broader than the spectral sensitivity of the u.v.-sensitive cone mechanism on the shortwave side even though the ocular media corrections had been accounted for. PMID:1843761

  16. Chlorinated paraffins: disposition of a polychloro-[1-14C]-hexadecane in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and bleak (Alburnus alburnus).

    PubMed

    Darnerud, P O; Bengtsson, B E; Bergman, A; Brandt, I

    1983-12-01

    The disposition of polychloro-[1-14C]hexadecane (PCHD, 34% chlorine w/w) was studied in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and bleak (Alburnus alburnus). After intra-arterial (i.a.) injection in carp about 6% of dose was excreted as 14CO2 in 96 h. The autoradiographic distribution pattern after administration of PCHD to carp (i.a.) and bleak (up to 14 days of exposure in PCHD-contaminated water) was characterized by a strong labelling in the bile/intestinal contents. High radioactivity also appeared in the kidney, liver, gills and, particularly in bleak, in the nasal cavity, lens and skin. PMID:6419402

  17. 25 CFR 247.14 - Can I hook up a campsite to on-site or off-site utilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can I hook up a campsite to on-site or off-site utilities? 247.14 Section 247.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.14 Can I hook up a campsite to on-site or off-site utilities? (a) You must share access...

  18. The AT-Hook motif as a versatile minor groove anchor for promoting DNA binding of transcription factor fragments

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Jéssica; Mosquera, Jesús; Couceiro, Jose R.; Vázquez, M. Eugenio; Mascareñas, José L.

    2015-01-01

    We report the development of chimeric DNA binding peptides comprising a DNA binding fragment of natural transcription factors (the basic region of a bZIP protein or a monomeric zinc finger module) and an AT-Hook peptide motif. The resulting peptide conjugates display high DNA affinity and excellent sequence selectivity. Furthermore, the AT-Hook motif also favors the cell internalization of the conjugates. PMID:26290687

  19. Protective immunity of grass carp immunized with DNA vaccine encoding the vp7 gene of grass carp reovirus using carbon nanotubes as a carrier molecule.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Gong, Yu-Xin; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2015-02-01

    The uses of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as carriers for DNA delivery have received considerable attention in cell studies. DNA vaccination of fish has been shown to elicit durable transgene expression, but no reports exist on intramuscular administration of SWCNTs-DNA vaccine electrostatic complexes which prepared through non-covalent conjugation. In this study, we injected grass carp intramuscularly with a plasmid vector containing a major capsid protein gene (vp7) of grass carp reovirus as a) naked pcDNA-vp7, b) SWCNTs-pcDNA-vp7, c) empty plasmid vector, or phosphate buffered saline. After intramuscular administration, the ability of the different immune treatments to induce transgene expression was analyzed. The results indicated that higher levels of transcription and expression of the vp7 gene could be detected in muscle tissues of grass carp 28 days intramuscular injection in SWCNTs-pcDNA-vp7 treatment groups compare with naked pcDNA-vp7 treatment groups. Moreover, the serum respiratory burst activity, complement activity, lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase activity, immune-related genes, antibody levels and relative percentage survival were significantly enhanced in fish immunized with SWCNTs-pcDNA-vp7 vaccine. The data in this study suggested that SWCNTs were promising carriers for plasmid DNA vaccine and might be used to vaccinate fish by intramuscular approach. PMID:25463298

  20. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (156). Golf-induced hamate hook fracture.

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hsien Khai; Chew, Nicholas; Chew, Kelvin TL; Peh, Wilfred CG

    2014-01-01

    The wrist is a common site of injury and the most frequently injured body part among professional golfers. A 37-year-old, right-handed male golfer presented with pain at the ulnar aspect of his left palm, which grew worse after an initial traumatic impact from the golf club handle. There was tenderness over the hypothenar eminence of the left palm. Computed tomography of the left wrist showed an undisplaced fracture through the base of the hamate hook. The golf-induced hamate hook fracture was managed conservatively, with cessation of physical activity involving the left hand and wrist for eight weeks. The patient made a full recovery. Repetitive trauma, exacerbated by improper wrist motion, leads to typical wrist injuries affecting golfers, such as ulnar impaction syndrome, de Quervain’s disease, and tendinopathy affecting the flexor carpi ulnaris and extensor carpi ulnaris, all of which can be diagnosed on imaging. PMID:25631891

  1. Hooked on the nicotine addiction thesis: a response to DiFranza.

    PubMed

    Dar, Reuven; Frenk, Hanan

    2013-01-01

    DiFranza's rebuttal to our critique of the "Hooked on Nicotine" research program misconstrues our arguments beyond recognition. The grossest misrepresentation of our critique by DiFranza is that we devise (by thwarting science) to rescue "the conventional wisdom" of the "threshold model of nicotine addiction." In fact, the difference between our positions lies elsewhere: We believe that nicotine is not an addictive drug and that its contribution to the smoking habit is secondary; DiFranza believes that nicotine is so powerfully addictive that novice smokers can lose autonomy over their smoking behavior after one cigarette or even following a single puff. Our review aimed to critically examine the empirical basis of this extreme version of the nicotine "addiction" model. In this brief commentary we illustrate how the commitment to the nicotine "addiction" theory has biased the methodology and the interpretation of the data in "Hooked on Nicotine" research program. PMID:24246023

  2. Candidate gene markers for selective breeding of CyHV-3-resistant common carp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common carp and koi producers around the world have suffered financial losses for a disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) also known as koi herpes virus (KHV). This disease is highly contagious and causes massive mortality to infected fish. Efforts to identify genetic resistance to the ...

  3. MONTHLY VARIATION IN SPERM MOTILITY IN COMMON CARP ASSESSED USING COMPUTER-ASSISTED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sperm motility variables from the milt of the common carp Cyprinus carpio were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system across several months (March-August 1992) known to encompass the natural spawning period. Two-year-old pond-raised males obtained each mo...

  4. COMPUTER-ASSISTED MOTION ANALYSIS OF SPERM FROM THE COMMON CARP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) technology was applied to the measurement of sperm motility parameters in the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Activated sperm were videotaped at 200 frames s-1 and analysed with the CellTrak/S CASA research system. The percentage of motile cel...

  5. Location and timing of Asian carp spawning in the Lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deters, Joseph E.; Chapman, Duane C.; McElroy, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    We sampled for eggs of Asian carps, (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella) in 12 sites on the Lower Missouri River and in six tributaries from the months of May through July 2005 and May through June 2006 to examine the spatial and temporal dynamics of spawning activity. We categorized eggs into thirty developmental stages, but usually they could not be identified to species. We estimated spawning times and locations based on developmental stage, temperature dependent rate of development and water velocity. Spawning rate was higher in the daytime between 05:00 and 21:00 h than at night. Spawning was not limited to a few sites, as has been reported for the Yangtze River, where these fishes are native, but more eggs were spawned in areas of high sinuosity. We employ a sediment transport model to estimate vertical egg concentration profiles and total egg fluxes during spawning periods on the Missouri River. We did not identify substantial spawning activity within tributaries or at tributary confluences examined in this study.

  6. Chemoprotection of lipoic acid against microcystin-induced toxicosis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Amado, Lílian L; Garcia, Márcia L; Pereira, Talita C B; Yunes, João S; Bogo, Maurício R; Monserrat, José M

    2011-09-01

    This paper evaluated the chemoprotective effect of lipoic acid (LA) against microcystin (MC) toxicity in carp Cyprinus carpio. To determine the LA dose and the time necessary for the induction of three different classes (alpha, mu and pi) of glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene transcription, carp were i.p. injected with 40mg/kg lipoic acid solution. A group was killed 24h after the first i.p. injection (condition 1); another group received two i.p. injections with a 24h of interval between each one and was killed 48h after the first injection (condition 2) and a third group received one i.p. injection and was killed 48h latter (condition 3). Results showed that LA was effective in promoting an increase in GSTs gene transcription in liver only in the condition 2. A second experiment was done, where carp pre-treated with LA (condition 2) were gavaged twice with a 24h interval with 50μg MC/kg. Ninety-six hours after experiment beginning, carp were killed, and organs were dissected. Results of GST activity in liver and brain suggest that LA can be a useful chemoprotection agent against MC induced toxicity, stimulating detoxification through the increment of GST activity (brain) or through reversion of GST inhibition (liver). PMID:21586338

  7. SNP discovery and marker development for disease resistance candidate genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune response genes have been reported as markers of susceptibility to infectious diseases in human and livestock. A disease caused by cyprinid herpes virus 3 (CyHV-3) is highly contagious and virulent in common carp. With the aim to investigate the gene...

  8. Experiential Online Development for Educators: The Example of the Carpe Diem MOOC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Gilly; Gregory, Janet; Lokuge Dona, Kulari; Ross, Bella

    2015-01-01

    We report on educators' experiences of a massive open online course (MOOC) focused on the Carpe Diem learning design process. The MOOC was developed in-house using Blackboard CourseSites by a university innovation and development unit, Learning Transformations, at Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne, Australia. We report on a study of

  9. Transcriptome Analysis of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) by Paired-End RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Beide; He, Shunping

    2012-01-01

    The silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) is among the most intensively pond-cultured fish species and is used in the wild to counteract water bloom in China. However, little genomic information is available for this species, especially regarding its ability to grow rapidly in water, even water contaminated with high concentrations of poisonous microcystin. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of the 17.10 million short-read sequences produced by the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. Using an improved multiple k-mer contig assembly method coupled with further scaffolding, 85 759 sequences were obtained. There were 23 044 sequences annotated with 3423 gene ontology terms for 104 196 term occurrences and the three corresponding organizing principles. A total of 38 200 assembled sequences were involved in 218 predicted Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes metabolic pathways. We also recovered 41 of 44 genes involved in the biosynthesis of glutathione. Of these, five genes were identified as experienced positive selection between silver carp and zebrafish, as determined by the likelihood ratio test. This report is the first annotated review of the silver carp transcriptome. These data will be of interest to researchers investigating the evolution and biological processes of the silver carp. This work also provides an archive for future studies of recent speciation and evolution of Cyprinidae fishes and can be used in comparative studies of other fishes. PMID:22279088

  10. Hot Water Extract of Leather Carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) Improves Exercise Performance in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gong-Hyeon; Harwanto, Dicky; Park, Sun-Mee; Choi, Jae-Suk; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Hong, Yong-Ki

    2015-01-01

    The hot water extract of leather carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) has been used as a nourishing tonic soup and as an aid for recovery from physical fatigue. In this study, we investigated the effect of leather carp extract on exercise performance in mice. Swimming endurance and forelimb grip strength were assessed following oral administration of the extract (once per day for 7 days) at a dose of 0.5 mg/10 μL/g body weight. After 7 days, mice given the leather carp extract had significantly greater swimming endurance [105±18 s (P<0.05); 52% longer than day 0] and forelimb grip strength [1.18±0.05 Newton (P<0.01); 17% greater than day 0]. The extract increased muscle mass, but had little effect on body weight. Following the swimming exercise, blood glucose, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase levels in extract-fed mice were significantly higher (145%, 131%, and 106%, respectively) than in the saline control group. Blood levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were also significantly increased (128%) in mice given the extract compared to the controls. These results suggest that leather carp extract can improve physical exercise performance and prevent oxidative stress caused by exhaustive workouts. PMID:26770911

  11. Experiential Online Development for Educators: The Example of the Carpe Diem MOOC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Gilly; Gregory, Janet; Lokuge Dona, Kulari; Ross, Bella

    2015-01-01

    We report on educators' experiences of a massive open online course (MOOC) focused on the Carpe Diem learning design process. The MOOC was developed in-house using Blackboard CourseSites by a university innovation and development unit, Learning Transformations, at Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne, Australia. We report on a study of…

  12. Toxicity of crude oil to the metabolism of freshwater minor carp, Puntius sophore

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, M.S.

    1987-08-01

    The effects of crude oil on the rate of metabolism in freshwater fishes have been little investigated. In the present investigation, the respiration rate in vitro and overall QO/sub 2/ in vivo of a freshwater minor carp Puntius sophore has been measured after exposing the fish to the lethal and sublethal doses of crude oil extracts for varying periods.

  13. NONYLPHENOL AND NONYLPHENOL-ETHOXYLATES IN CARP, WATER, AND SEDIMENT SAMPLES FROM CUYAHOGA RIVER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study of the occurrence of alkylphenol and alkylphenol ethoxylates in the Cuyahoga, Ohio, river system revealed that high levels of total APEs (NP 0 to 2 EO) occur in carp starting at the Akron WWTP and continues to the river mouth near Cleveland, e.g., 0.9 to 0.46 ppm wet weight, respectively. T...

  14. BIOAVAILABILITY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS FROM CONTAMINATED WISCONSIN RIVER SEDIMENT TO CARP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bioavailability of 2,3,7,8-TCDD from sediment to freshwater fish was studied in laboratory exposures. Carp (10g) exposed to Wisconsin River sediment (39pg/g) for 55 days accumulated 7.5 pg/g. Maintaining exposured fish in clean water for an additional 205 days resulted in dep...

  15. GIS-based rapid-assessment of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845) suitability in reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, James M.; Liang, Yu; Shoup, Daniel E.; Dzialowski, Andrew R.; Bidwell, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Broad-scale niche models are good for examining the potential for invasive species occurrences, but can fall short in providing managers with site-specific locations for monitoring. Using Oklahoma as an example, where invasive bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) are established in certain reservoirs, but predicted to be widely distributed based on broad-scale niche models, we cast bighead carp reproductive ecology in a site-specific geospatial framework to determine their potential establishment in additional reservoirs. Because bighead carp require large, long free-flowing rivers with suitable hydrology for reproduction but can persist in reservoirs, we considered reservoir tributaries with mean annual daily discharge ≥8.5 cubic meters per second (m3 /s) and quantified the length of their unimpeded portions. In contrast to published broad-scale niche models that identified nearly the entire state as susceptible to invasion, our site-specific models showed that few reservoirs in Oklahoma (N = 9) were suitable for bighead carp establishment. Moreover, this method was rapid and identified sites that could be prioritized for increased study or scrutiny. Our results highlight the importance of considering the environmental characteristics of individual sites, which is often the level at which management efforts are implemented when assessing susceptibility to invasion.

  16. Effects of gas supersaturation on lethality and avoidance responses in juvenile rock carp (Procypris rabaudi Tchang)*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiang; Li, Ke-feng; Du, Jun; Li, Ran

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effects of total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation on acute lethality and avoidance responses in juvenile rock carp (Procypris rabaudi Tchang). The juvenile rock carp were exposed to water with different levels of supersaturation (105%, 115%, 120%, 125%, 130%, 135%, 140%, and 145%) and depth of 0.20 m at 25 °C for 60 h. Median lethal time (LT50) was used to assess the lethal responses corresponding to different levels of gas supersaturation. The results show that half of the juvenile rock carp died at the 120%, 125%, 130%, 135%, 140%, and 145% levels of supersaturation, and the LT50 corresponding to different levels of supersaturation was 18.7, 15.4, 8.2, 6.6, 3.5, and 1.7 h. When the level of supersaturated water is below 115%, the mortality is negligible. Avoidance responses were observed 5 min after the fish were put into equilibrated water (99%, 0.08 m deep) and water with different supersaturated levels (105%, 115%, 125%, 135%, and 145%, 0.08 m deep) at 25 °C. The fish exhibited strong avoidance responses in supersaturated water when the gas supersaturation was above 135%. However, they exhibited an obvious preference to supersaturated water when the gas supersaturation was below 115%. Thus, the juvenile rock carp can likely survive in water with a supersaturated level of 115%. PMID:20872989

  17. THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF PRAZIQUANTEL TO GRASS CARP AND GOLDEN SHINERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acute praziquantel toxicity and no observable effect concentrations (NOEC), were determined in the laboratory for grass carp and golden shiners, two commercially raised cyprinids known to harbor Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Praziquantel is an anthelmintic used to treat fish with ta...

  18. The relationship between trace elements in fish otoliths of wild carp and hydrochemical conditions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yonghua; Feng, Qingling; Ren, Dongni; Qiao, Li; Li, Shengrong

    2010-03-01

    The trace element composition of the fish otolith is an indicator of biomineralization. In contrast to other skeletal tissue, the otolith retains its entire original structure and does not absorb any elements after the fish dies. Because otoliths in carp degrade very slowly in the dead body, the information it provides on the environment is retained, even in fossil form. Here, we report our analysis of the trace elements in otoliths of carp and of the water in Donghu Lake and Longhupao Lake, Heilongjiang province, China, where the fish lived. The results revealed that the trace elements found in the carp otoliths were clearly correlated with those found in these water bodies. There were high concentrations of Au, Ba, K, Sr and Zn in both the water and otoliths; in contrast there were high levels of As, Na and Se in water, but low concentrations in otoliths. These results indicate that an analysis of the otoliths of carps provides an accurate procedure for studying the surrounding hydrochemistry conditions. The interaction of the elements during deposition was also studied. The correlation coefficients of 13 trace elements identified in the otoliths in both lakes were calculated. PMID:19093220

  19. Ultrastructure and chemical composition of the proboscis hooks of Acanthocephalus lucii (Müller, 1776) (Acanthocephala: Palaeacanthocephala) using X-ray elemental analysis.

    PubMed

    Brázová, Tímea; Poddubnaya, Larisa G; Miss, Noemí Ramírez; Hanzelová, Vladimíra

    2014-12-01

    The ultrastructure and chemical composition of the proboscis hooks and surrounding tegument of Acanthocephalus lucii (Müller, 1776), a parasite of European perch, Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus, were examined using scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis (EDXA). The blade of middle hooks consists of three layers: an outer homogeneous layer, an inner heterogeneous layer and a central core. TEM observation revealed the presence of hollow tubes, which spaced the central core; fibrous inner hook layer surrounded by an electron-dense margin and the basal tegumental layer filled with electron-dense bodies and outer layer. We found for the first time that the so-called 'epidermal covering' surrounding of the exposed hook blade (outer hook layer) is a modified striped portion of the tegumental layer and there are no special contact sites between these two morphologically different structures, i.e. striped layer of the syncytial tegument and following proper outer hook layer, which is a homogeneous, moderately electron-dense layer of -0.3 μm in thickness. The hook root is embedded into subtegumental fibrous layer. X-ray microanalysis of both the surface and internal parts of A. lucii hooks demonstrated the presence of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and sulphur. The highest concentration of sulphur was recorded at the tip of hooks, whereas the middle part of the hooks was most rich in calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. The proximal part of the hooks contained lower concentrations of sulphur, calcium and phosphorus. In the proboscis tegument, only two elements, calcium and silicon, were found. The differences observed in the chemical composition of the hook 'epidermal covering' and the proboscis tegument support our ultrastructural findings that the hook tegumental covering is a modified structure compared with that of the general proboscis tegument. PMID:25651697

  20. Astronaut Jack Lousma hooks up cable for rate gyro six pack during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, hooks up a 23 ft. 2 in. connecting cable for the rate gyro six pack during extravehicular activity (EVA) on August 24, 1973, as senn in this photographic reproduction taken from a color television tranmsission made by a TV camera aboard the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The rate gyros were mounted inside the Multiple Docking Adapter opposite the Apollo Telescope Mount control and display console.

  1. New realizations of 𝒩 = 2l-conformal Newton-Hooke superalgebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masterov, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    By applying Niederer-like transformation, we construct a representation of the 𝒩 = 2l-conformal Newton-Hooke (NH) superalgebra for the case of a negative cosmological constant in terms of linear differential operators as well as its dynamical realization. Another variant of 𝒩 = 2 supersymmetric Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator for a particular choice of its frequencies is proposed. The advantages of such realizations as compared to their analogues introduced in [I. Masterov, J. Math. Phys.53, 072904 (2012)], are discussed.

  2. A Laboratory Investigation of the Suspension, Transport, and Settling of Silver Carp Eggs Using Synthetic Surrogates

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Tatiana; Zuniga Zamalloa, Carlo; Jackson, P. Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2015-01-01

    Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter) as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this research study provide insights about transport, suspension, and dispersion of silver carp eggs. The knowledge gained from this study is useful to characterize the critical hydrodynamic conditions of the flow at which surrogates for silver carp water-hardened eggs settle out of suspension, and provides insight into how eggs may interact with riverbed sediments and morphology. PMID:26713855

  3. A Laboratory Investigation of the Suspension, Transport, and Settling of Silver Carp Eggs Using Synthetic Surrogates.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Tatiana; Zuniga Zamalloa, Carlo; Jackson, P Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A; Garcia, Marcelo H

    2015-01-01

    Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter) as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this research study provide insights about transport, suspension, and dispersion of silver carp eggs. The knowledge gained from this study is useful to characterize the critical hydrodynamic conditions of the flow at which surrogates for silver carp water-hardened eggs settle out of suspension, and provides insight into how eggs may interact with riverbed sediments and morphology. PMID:26713855

  4. Analysis of the Skin Transcriptome in Two Oujiang Color Varieties of Common Carp

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenghui; Wachholtz, Michael; Wang, Jun; Liao, Xiaolin; Lu, Guoqing

    2014-01-01

    Background Body color and coloration patterns are important phenotypic traits to maintain survival and reproduction activities. The Oujiang color varieties of common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. color), with a narrow distribution in Zhejiang Province of China and a history of aquaculture for over 1,200 years, consistently exhibit a variety of body color patterns. The molecular mechanism underlying diverse color patterns in these variants is unknown. To the practical end, it is essential to develop molecular markers that can distinguish different phenotypes and assist selective breeding. Methodology/Principal Findings In this exploratory study, we conducted Roche 454 transcriptome sequencing of two pooled skin tissue samples of Oujiang common carp, which correspond to distinct color patterns, red with big black spots (RB) and whole white (WW), and a total of 737,525 sequence reads were generated. The reads obtained in this study were co-assembled jointly with common carp Roche 454 sequencing reads downloaded from NCBI SRA database, resulting in 43,923 isotigs and 546,676 singletons. Over 31 thousand (31,445; 71.6%) isotigs were found with significant BLAST matches (E<1e-10) to the nr protein database, which corresponds to 12,597 annotated zebrafish genes. A total of 70,947 isotigs and singletons (transcripts) were annotated with Gene Ontology, and 60,221 transcripts were found with corresponding EC numbers. Out of 145 zebrafish pigmentation genes, orthologs for 117 were recovered in Oujiang color carp transcriptome, including 18 found only among singletons. Our transcriptome analysis revealed over 52,902 SNPs in Oujiang common carp, and identified 63 SNP markers that are putatively unique either for RB or WW. Conclusions The transcriptome of Oujiang color varieties of common carp obtained through this study, along with the pigmentation genes recovered and the color pattern-specific molecular markers developed, will facilitate future research on the molecular mechanism of color patterns and promote aquaculture of Oujiang color varieties of common carp through molecular marker assisted-selective breeding. PMID:24603653

  5. A laboratory investigation of the suspension, transport, and settling of silver carp eggs using synthetic surrogates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, Tatiana; Zuniga Zamalloa, Carlo; Jackson, P. Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2015-01-01

    Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter) as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this research study provide insights about transport, suspension, and dispersion of silver carp eggs. The knowledge gained from this study is useful to characterize the critical hydrodynamic conditions of the flow at which surrogates for silver carp water-hardened eggs settle out of suspension, and provides insight into how eggs may interact with riverbed sediments and morphology.

  6. High-Dose Hook Effect in 17-Hydroxyprogesterone Assay in a Patient with 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Parlak, Mesut; Ellidağ, Hamit Yaşar; Türkkahraman, Doğa

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) describes a group of disorders characterized by enzyme defects in adrenal steroidogenesis. 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) is the most commonly encountered form. The analysis of steroids in pediatric cases requires high-sensitivity assays. A 14-year-old Syrian girl was referred for evaluation of short stature, amenorrhea, and hirsutism. On physical examination, breast development was Tanner stage 1. She had a phallic clitoris with a single urogenital orifice. Laboratory findings revealed primary adrenal deficiency with high androgen levels and low levels of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), (<0.05 ng/mL) and estrogen. This unexpected result led to suspicion of a high-dose hook effect. The measurement was repeated after 1/10 dilution of serum, and a high level of 17-OHP (115.4 ng/mL) was detected with the same test-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Simple virilizing form of CAH (21-OHD) was suspected and confirmed with genetic analysis. After initiation of glucocorticoid therapy, breast development was noted along with a decrease in testosterone level and an increase in estrogen level. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of hook effect for 17-OHP immunoassay in a patient with 21-OHD. High-dose hook effect should be suspected in patients with CAH when the test results are incompatible with one another. Additionally, this case demonstrates that a high testosterone level can block aromatase activity and consequently also estrogen production and breast development. PMID:26777045

  7. Rapidly rotating second-generation progenitors for the `blue hook' stars of ω Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tailo, Marco; D'Antona, Francesca; Vesperini, Enrico; di Criscienzo, Marcella; Ventura, Paolo; Milone, Antonino P.; Bellini, Andrea; Dotter, Aaron; Decressin, Thibaut; D'Ercole, Annibale; Caloi, Vittoria; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    Horizontal branch stars belong to an advanced stage in the evolution of the oldest stellar galactic population, occurring either as field halo stars or grouped in globular clusters. The discovery of multiple populations in clusters that were previously believed to have single populations gave rise to the currently accepted theory that the hottest horizontal branch members (the `blue hook' stars, which had late helium-core flash ignition, followed by deep mixing) are the progeny of a helium-rich `second generation' of stars. It is not known why such a supposedly rare event (a late flash followed by mixing) is so common that the blue hook of ω Centauri contains approximately 30 per cent of the horizontal branch stars in the cluster, or why the blue hook luminosity range in this massive cluster cannot be reproduced by models. Here we report that the presence of helium core masses up to about 0.04 solar masses larger than the core mass resulting from evolution is required to solve the luminosity range problem. We model this by taking into account the dispersion in rotation rates achieved by the progenitors, whose pre-main-sequence accretion disk suffered an early disruption in the dense environment of the cluster's central regions, where second-generation stars form. Rotation may also account for frequent late-flash-mixing events in massive globular clusters.

  8. Rapidly rotating second-generation progenitors for the 'blue hook' stars of ω Centauri.

    PubMed

    Tailo, Marco; D'Antona, Francesca; Vesperini, Enrico; Di Criscienzo, Marcella; Ventura, Paolo; Milone, Antonino P; Bellini, Andrea; Dotter, Aaron; Decressin, Thibaut; D'Ercole, Annibale; Caloi, Vittoria; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, Roberto

    2015-07-16

    Horizontal branch stars belong to an advanced stage in the evolution of the oldest stellar galactic population, occurring either as field halo stars or grouped in globular clusters. The discovery of multiple populations in clusters that were previously believed to have single populations gave rise to the currently accepted theory that the hottest horizontal branch members (the 'blue hook' stars, which had late helium-core flash ignition, followed by deep mixing) are the progeny of a helium-rich 'second generation' of stars. It is not known why such a supposedly rare event (a late flash followed by mixing) is so common that the blue hook of ω Centauri contains approximately 30 per cent of the horizontal branch stars in the cluster, or why the blue hook luminosity range in this massive cluster cannot be reproduced by models. Here we report that the presence of helium core masses up to about 0.04 solar masses larger than the core mass resulting from evolution is required to solve the luminosity range problem. We model this by taking into account the dispersion in rotation rates achieved by the progenitors, whose pre-main-sequence accretion disk suffered an early disruption in the dense environment of the cluster's central regions, where second-generation stars form. Rotation may also account for frequent late-flash-mixing events in massive globular clusters. PMID:26098367

  9. Hook spectroscopy as an atomic number density diagnostic applied to laser-ablated copper plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zerkle, D.K.; Sappey, A.D.; Gamble, T.K.

    1993-11-01

    Hook spectroscopy has been used to determine the absolute number density of ground state copper atoms in laser-ablated plasma plumes. An ablation laser power flux of {approximately} 1.5 GW/cm{sup 2} is applied to a solid copper target in a background gas, producing a plasma plume suitable for studying homogeneous copper vapor condensation. Density is measured at post-ablation time delays ranging from 10 {mu}s to 3 ms with 25 torr of argon as the background gas. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLEF) images containing relative density information are used in conjunction with the hook spectra to resolve spatially the absolute density within the plume. Copper atom densities thus measured ranged from 1.9 {times} 10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}3} at a delay of 10 {mu}s to 2.7 {times} 10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus}3} at 3 ms delay in 25 torr of argon The decrease in density is due to the condensation of copper vapor to form fine particulate. As a combustion diagnostic, the hook method may prove extremely useful for the determination of metal impurity density in coal fired flames as well as a single -- shot OH density and temperature diagnostic.

  10. High-Dose Hook Effect in 17-Hydroxyprogesterone Assay in a Patient with 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Parlak, Mesut; Ellidağ, Hamit Yaşar; Türkkahraman, Doğa

    2015-12-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) describes a group of disorders characterized by enzyme defects in adrenal steroidogenesis. 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) is the most commonly encountered form. The analysis of steroids in pediatric cases requires high-sensitivity assays. A 14-year-old Syrian girl was referred for evaluation of short stature, amenorrhea, and hirsutism. On physical examination, breast development was Tanner stage 1. She had a phallic clitoris with a single urogenital orifice. Laboratory findings revealed primary adrenal deficiency with high androgen levels and low levels of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), (<0.05 ng/mL) and estrogen. This unexpected result led to suspicion of a high-dose hook effect. The measurement was repeated after 1/10 dilution of serum, and a high level of 17-OHP (115.4 ng/mL) was detected with the same test-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Simple virilizing form of CAH (21-OHD) was suspected and confirmed with genetic analysis. After initiation of glucocorticoid therapy, breast development was noted along with a decrease in testosterone level and an increase in estrogen level. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of hook effect for 17-OHP immunoassay in a patient with 21-OHD. High-dose hook effect should be suspected in patients with CAH when the test results are incompatible with one another. Additionally, this case demonstrates that a high testosterone level can block aromatase activity and consequently also estrogen production and breast development. PMID:26777045

  11. Effect of different river flow rates on biomarker responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Hackenberger, Branimir K; Velki, Mirna; Lončarić, Zeljka; Hackenberger, Davorka K; Ečimović, Sandra

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated effects of different river flow rates on basal activities of selected biomarkers and the occurrence of oxidative stress in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Juvenile carp were exposed to different river flow rates (5-120 cm/s) by caging for 3 weeks. After this period, one half of the fish were sacrificed and used for analysis. The other half received a single intraperitoneal injection of 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and after 6 days were sacrificed and used for analysis. In order to investigate whether the physical activity of carp in the environment will influence the condition status of carp, following biomarkers were measured - activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and concentration of protein carbonyls (PC). The results showed that different flow rates significantly influenced biochemical biomarkers. The basal activity of GST did not change significantly after exposure to different river flow rates, whereas the activity of CAT increased with increasing river flow rates. The application of 3-MC caused significant increases in GST and CAT activities, but there were no difference between 3-MC control and 3-MC different flow rates. The occurrence of oxidative stress as a result of exposure to increased physical activity, i.e. increased river flow rates, was confirmed by measurement of PC levels - the level of PC increased with increasing river flow rates. Measurement of EROD basal activity showed that at lower river flow rates the EROD activity increased and at higher river flow rates decreased towards control levels demonstrating a close relationship between oxidative stress, PC levels and EROD activity. Obviously, biomarker responses in carp of different condition status can differ substantially. It can be concluded that flow rate may be an important factor in biomonitoring of rivers using biomarkers and since at different locations river water flow rate can vary significantly, the site selection is extremely important for proper design of river biomonitoring studies involving caging. PMID:25463866

  12. Genome Wide Identification, Phylogeny and Expression of Zinc Transporter Genes in Common Carp

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Shuaisheng; Sun, Jinsheng; Xu, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Background Zinc is an essential trace element in organisms, which serves as a cofactor for hundreds of enzymes that are involved in many pivotal biological processes including growth, development, reproduction and immunity. Therefore, the homeostasis of zinc in the cell is fundamental. The zinc transporter gene family is a large gene family that encodes proteins which regulate the movement of zinc across cellular and intracellular membranes. However, studies on teleost zinc transporters are mainly limited to model species. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified a set of 37 zinc transporters in common carp genome, including 17 from SLC30 family (ZnT), and 20 from SLC39 family (ZIP). Phylogenetic and syntenic analysis revealed that most of the zinc transporters are highly conserved, though recent gene duplication and gene losses do exist. Through examining the copy number of zinc transporter genes across several vertebrate genomes, thirteen zinc transporters in common carp are found to have undergone the gene duplications, including SLC30A1, SLC30A2, SLC30A5, SLC30A7, SLC30A9, SLC30A10, SLC39A1, SLC39A3, SLC39A4, SLC39A5, SLC39A6, SLC39A7 and SLC39A9. The expression patterns of all zinc transporters were established in various tissues, including blood, brain, gill, heart, intestine, liver, muscle, skin, spleen and kidney, and showed that most of the zinc transporters were ubiquitously expressed, indicating the critical role of zinc transporters in common carp. Conclusions To some extent, examination of gene families with detailed phylogenetic or orthology analysis could verify the authenticity and accuracy of assembly and annotation of the recently published common carp whole genome sequences. The gene families are also considered as a unique source for evolutionary studies. Moreover, the whole set of common carp zinc transporters provides an important genomic resource for future biochemical, toxicological and physiological studies of zinc in teleost. PMID:25551462

  13. Bioconcentration, metabolism and effects of diphenhydramine on behavioral and biochemical markers in crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhengxin; Lu, Guanghua; Hou, Kangkang; Qin, Donghong; Yan, Zhenhua; Chen, Wei

    2016-02-15

    Diphenhydramine (DPH), an antihistamine used to alleviate human allergies, is widespread in aquatic environments. However, little is known about the biochemical and behavioral effects of DPH on non-target aquatic animals. In the present study, the tissue distribution, bioconcentration, metabolism, biochemical and behavioral effects were investigated in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) exposed to various concentrations of DPH (0.84, 4.23, 21.7 and 112μgL(-1)) for 7d. DPH can accumulate in crucian carp, and high concentrations have been observed in the liver and brain with maximum bioconcentration factors of 148 and 81.6, respectively. A portion of the absorbed DPH was metabolized by the crucian carp to N-demethyl DPH and N,N-didemethyl DPH via N-demethylation. Direct fluorimetric assay was employed to assess metabolic activity, while oxidative stress and neurotransmission biomarkers were determined by Diagnostic Reagent Kits. DPH was found to increase hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity in crucian carp with maximal induction of 119%. Concerning the oxidative stress status, DPH significantly inhibited superoxide dismutase (SOD, 37-58%) and glutathione S-transferase (GST, 43-65%) activities and led to a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA, 67-140%) levels and catalase (CAT, 38-143%) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx, 39-189%) activities in fish liver. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was also induced in DPH-exposed crucian carp with maximal induction of 174%. In addition, shoaling was significantly enhanced, while swimming activity and feeding rates were markedly suppressed at DPH concentrations equal to or higher than 21.7μgL(-1). Furthermore, significant correlations were found between oxidative stress biomarkers (SOD, CAT, GPx, GST and MDA) and behavioral parameters. Collectively, our results confirmed that DPH can accumulate and be metabolized in fish and exert a negative effect at different levels of biological organization. PMID:26657385

  14. Intraspecific Scaling of the Resting and Maximum Metabolic Rates of the Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qingda; Zhang, Yurong; Liu, Shuting; Wang, Wen; Luo, Yiping

    2013-01-01

    The question of how the scaling of metabolic rate with body mass (M) is achieved in animals is unresolved. Here, we tested the cell metabolism hypothesis and the organ size hypothesis by assessing the mass scaling of the resting metabolic rate (RMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR), erythrocyte size, and the masses of metabolically active organs in the crucian carp (Carassius auratus). The M of the crucian carp ranged from 4.5 to 323.9 g, representing an approximately 72-fold difference. The RMR and MMR increased with M according to the allometric equations RMR = 0.212M0.776 and MMR = 0.753M0.785. The scaling exponents for RMR (br) and MMR (bm) obtained in crucian carp were close to each other. Thus, the factorial aerobic scope remained almost constant with increasing M. Although erythrocyte size was negatively correlated with both mass-specific RMR and absolute RMR adjusted to M, it and all other hematological parameters showed no significant relationship with M. These data demonstrate that the cell metabolism hypothesis does not describe metabolic scaling in the crucian carp, suggesting that erythrocyte size may not represent the general size of other cell types in this fish and the metabolic activity of cells may decrease as fish grows. The mass scaling exponents of active organs was lower than 1 while that of inactive organs was greater than 1, which suggests that the mass scaling of the RMR can be partly due to variance in the proportion of active/inactive organs in crucian carp. Furthermore, our results provide additional evidence supporting the correlation between locomotor capacity and metabolic scaling. PMID:24376588

  15. Centromere Localization for Bighead Carp (Aristichthys nobilis) through Half-Tetrad Analysis in Diploid Gynogenetic Families

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chuankun; Sun, Yanhong; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou

    2013-01-01

    Gene-centromere (G-C) mapping provides insights into structural and behavioural properties of chromosomes. In this study, G-C mapping using microsatellite markers and meiogynogenetic (meiotic gynogenetic) families were performed in bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis, 2N = 48), which belongs to Cyprinidae. A total of 218 microsatellites were selected across 24 linkage groups (LGs) of a recently well-defined genetic linkage map for bighead carp, with 151 being heterozygous in at least one of six dams in diploid meiogynogenetic families. After tests for Mendelian segregation in two diploid control families, 103 microsatellites were used for G-C distance calculation in 383 gynogens. The second division segregation frequency (y) was computed through half-tetrad analyses, and the values ranged from 0 to 0.97 (mean 0.40). High G-C recombination frequencies (over 0.667) were observed in 18 (17.5%) of the loci examined, which revealed a low level of chiasma interferences compared with other fishes studied previously. Distribution of G-C distances across LGs ranged from 0 cM to 48.5 cM (mean 20 cM) under the assumption of complete interference. All 24 centromeres were localized according to their closest-related microsatellites at 95% confident intervals. The average distance between centromeres and their closest-linked markers was 6.1 cM with 15 out of 24 LGs having a distance below 5 cM. Based on the centromere positions in this study, we proposed a formula of 24 m/sm+24 t/st chromosomes with 92 arms for bighead carp, which was mostly in accordance with a previously reported karyotype for bighead carp (24 m/sm+24 st). These results of centromere localization provide a basic framework and important resources for genetics and comparative genomics studies in bighead carp and its closely-related cyprinid species. PMID:24376614

  16. Dietary lipid requirement on non-specific immune responses in juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Jin, Yan; Tian, Li-xia; Zeng, Shuai-lin; Xie, Shi-wei; Yang, Hui-jun; Liang, Gui-ying; Liu, Yong-jian

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the dietary lipid requirement and its effects on liver oxidative status and non-specific immune responses of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Purified diets with five dietary lipid levels (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%, fish oil/corn oil = 1:1) were each fed to triplicate groups of grass carp (mean initial weight: 6.57 ± 0.01 g) in a recirculating rearing system maintained at 27.5 ± 0.5 °C for 10 weeks. Percent weight gain was highest (P < 0.05) with 5% lipid and lowest in fish fed the lipid free control diet. Feed efficiency (FE) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in fish followed the same pattern of percent weight gain. Fish fed with lipid containing diets had better non-specific immune response indexes (e.g. phagocytic activity, plasma peroxidase and lysozyme activity) and low-level of liver oxidation status than fish fed with the control diet. But excess dietary lipid supplement would bring over metabolic burden to liver. After the feeding trial, fish were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish fed control diet obtained significantly (P < 0.05) lower survival rate. The survival rate was highest with 7.5% lipid. The results of this study indicated that proper dietary lipid supplementation enhanced the immune response of grass carp and improved the survival rate in the bacterial challenge, but excess dietary lipid may elevate liver oxidation rates of grass carp. Analysis by second-order regression of percent weight gain indicated that the optimal dietary lipid level in juvenile grass carp (6.6-35.5 g) is about 6.5%. PMID:23416225

  17. Sequence, genomic organization and expression of ghrelin receptor in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wen-jing; Yuan, Xiao-chen; Yuan, Yong-chao; Xie, Shou-qi; Gong, Yuan; Su, Hang; Qiao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (GHS-R) is an endogenous receptor for the gut hormone ghrelin. Here we report the identification and characterization of GHS-R1a in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus. The full-length GHS-R1a cDNA contained a 1803-bp coding domain sequence which encoded a peptide of 360 amino acid residues. Comparison analysis revealed that the amino acid sequences of GHS-R1a were highly conserved in vertebrates and shared 97% amino acid identity with zebrafish (Danio rerio), 96% with jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) and 93% with goldfish (Carassius auratus). The GHS-R1a showed the highest level of mRNA expression in the pituitary, followed by the brain and liver, and the lowest expression was observed in the hindgut. Intraperitoneally injected with grass carp ghrelin (50, 100 and 150ng/g body weight (BW)), grass carp showed greater mRNA expression of GHS-R1a in the pituitary compared with saline injected at 0.5h postinjection. It was observed that food deprivation could promote the expression of ghrelin and GHS-R1a in the pituitary, demonstrating that nutritional status can influence the expression of both ghrelin and GHS-R1a in the pituitary. After a 2- or 4-week fast, plasma growth hormone (GH) increased, was positively correlated with ghrelin and GHS-R1a mRNA expression levels in the pituitary. These results suggested that the involvement of ghrelin/GHS-R1a systems in mediating the effects of nutritional status and ghrelin on growth processes in grass carp. PMID:25242546

  18. The eggshell features and clutch viability of the broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) are associated with the egg burden of organochlorine compounds.

    PubMed

    Stoker, C; Zayas, M A; Ferreira, M A; Durando, M; Galoppo, G H; Rodríguez, H A; Repetti, M R; Beldoménico, H R; Caldini, E G; Luque, E H; Muñoz-de-Toro, M

    2013-12-01

    Organochlorine compounds (OCCs) are toxic and have been identified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The broad-snouted Caiman (Caiman latirostris) is an oviparous species widely distributed in South America with potential to accumulate OCCs. The eggshell is formed during passage of the eggs through the oviduct. Since the oviduct is a target of hormone actions, exposure to OCCs could modify eggshell quality, thus affecting clutch viability. Eight clutches were collected from wetlands of Parana River tributaries, in north-eastern Argentina. Two to four eggs per clutch were used to establish the burden of OCCs, eggshell thickness and eggshell porosity. The remaining eggs were incubated in controlled conditions. Ten days after hatching, hatchling survival was assessed. Organochlorine pesticide residues (OCPs) were found in all clutches, while polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were present in all but one clutch. The principal contributors to the OCP burden were members of the DDT family and oxychlordane. Eggshell thickness was 400.9±6.0 μm and, unexpectedly, no association between eggshell thickness and the OCC burden was found. The number of pores in the outer surface was 25.3±4.3 pores/cm². A significant inverse correlation between porosity and OCC burden was found (Pearson r= -0.81, p= 0.01). Furthermore, a decrease in caiman survival with decreased pore density was observed (Pearson r= 0.73, p= 0.04). Our findings highlight another potential negative impact of current and past use of OCCs on wildlife species. PMID:24054891

  19. Threonine modulates immune response, antioxidant status and gene expressions of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant-immune-cytokine-related signaling molecules in juvenile blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    PubMed

    Habte-Tsion, Habte-Michael; Ren, Mingchun; Liu, Bo; Ge, Xianping; Xie, Jun; Chen, Ruli

    2016-04-01

    A 9-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of graded dietary threonine (Thr) levels (0.58-2.58%) on the hematological parameters, immune response, antioxidant status and hepatopancreatic gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant-immune-cytokine-related signaling molecules in juvenile blunt snout bream. For this purpose, 3 tanks were randomly arranged and assigned to each experimental diet. Fish were fed with their respective diet to apparent satiation 4 times daily. The results indicated that white blood cell, red blood cell and haemoglobin significantly responded to graded dietary Thr levels, while hematocrit didn't. Complement components (C3 and C4), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), immunoglobulin M (IgM), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) increased with increasing dietary Thr levels up to 1.58-2.08% and thereafter tended to decrease. Dietary Thr regulated the gene expressions of Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and CAT, GPx1, glutathione S-transferase mu (GST), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heat shock protein-70 (Hsp70), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA1), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase B (ALDOB); while the gene expression of peroxiredoxin II (PrxII) was not significantly modified by graded Thr levels. These genes are involved in different functions including antioxidant, immune, and defense responses, energy metabolism and protein synthesis. Therefore, this study could provide a new molecular tool for studies in fish immunonutrition and shed light on the regulatory mechanisms that dietary Thr improved the antioxidant and immune capacities of fish. PMID:26631806

  20. Fish Hook Injury: Removal by ‘’Push Through and Cut Off‘’ Technique: A Case Report and Brief Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad Khan, Hayat; Kamal, Younis; Lone, Ansar ul Haq

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Fishing is a leisure activity for some people around the world. Accidently the fish hook can get hooked in the hand. If the hook is barbed, removal becomes difficult. We report a case of such a injury in the hand and discuss the technique for its removal with a brief review of the literature. Case Presentation: A thirty-two year old male accidently suffered a fishhook injury to his hand. He came to the orthopaedic ward two hours after the incident with pain; the fish hook was hanging from the hand. Unsuccessful attempts to remove it were made by his relatives. A push-through and cut-off technique was used for removal of barbed hook. Discussion: Barbed hooks are to be removed atraumatically with controlled incision over properly anaesthetised skin. Proper wound management and prophylactic antibiotics suitable for treatment of Aeromonas species should be initiated to prevent complications. PMID:25032153

  1. De novo assembly and characterization of the spleen transcriptome of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) using Illumina paired-end sequencing.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoxi; Zhao, Yinli; Liu, Zhonghu; Gao, Chunsheng; Yan, Fengbin; Liu, Bianzhi; Feng, Jianxin

    2015-06-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquacultured species of the family Cyprinidae, and breeding this species for disease resistance is becoming more and more important. However, at the genome or transcriptome levels, study of the immunogenetics of disease resistance in the common carp is lacking. In this study, 60,316,906 and 75,200,328 paired-end clean reads were obtained from two cDNA libraries of the common carp spleen by Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. Totally, 130,293 unique transcript fragments (unigenes) were assembled, with an average length of 1400.57 bp. Approximately 105,612 (81.06%) unigenes could be annotated according to their homology with matches in the Nr, Nt, Swiss-Prot, COG, GO, or KEGG databases, and they were found to represent 46,747 non-redundant genes. Comparative analysis showed that 59.82% of the unigenes have significant similarity to zebrafish Refseq proteins. Gene expression comparison revealed that 10,432 and 6889 annotated unigenes were, respectively, up- and down-regulated with at least twofold changes between two developmental stages of the common carp spleen. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were performed to classify all unigenes into functional categories for understanding gene functions and regulation pathways. In addition, 46,847 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected from 35,618 unigenes, and a large number of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and insertion/deletion (INDEL) sites were identified in the spleen transcriptome of common carp. This study has characterized the spleen transcriptome of the common carp for the first time, providing a valuable resource for a better understanding of the common carp immune system and defense mechanisms. This knowledge will also facilitate future functional studies on common carp immunogenetics that may eventually be applied in breeding programs. PMID:25804493

  2. The draft genome of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) provides insights into its evolution and vegetarian adaptation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaping; Lu, Ying; Zhang, Yong; Ning, Zemin; Li, Yan; Zhao, Qiang; Lu, Hengyun; Huang, Rong; Xia, Xiaoqin; Feng, Qi; Liang, Xufang; Liu, Kunyan; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Tingting; Huang, Tao; Fan, Danlin; Weng, Qijun; Zhu, Chuanrang; Lu, Yiqi; Li, Wenjun; Wen, Ziruo; Zhou, Congcong; Tian, Qilin; Kang, Xiaojun; Shi, Mijuan; Zhang, Wanting; Jang, Songhun; Du, Fukuan; He, Shan; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; Gui, Bin; He, Huihui; Ning, Zhen; Yang, Cheng; He, Libo; Luo, Lifei; Yang, Rui; Luo, Qiong; Liu, Xiaochun; Li, Shuisheng; Huang, Wen; Xiao, Ling; Lin, Haoran; Han, Bin; Zhu, Zuoyan

    2015-06-01

    The grass carp is an important farmed fish, accounting for ∼16% of global freshwater aquaculture, and has a vegetarian diet. Here we report a 0.9-Gb draft genome of a gynogenetic female adult and a 1.07-Gb genome of a wild male adult. Genome annotation identified 27,263 protein-coding gene models in the female genome. A total of 114 scaffolds consisting of 573 Mb are anchored on 24 linkage groups. Divergence between grass carp and zebrafish is estimated to have occurred 49-54 million years ago. We identify a chromosome fusion in grass carp relative to zebrafish and report frequent crossovers between the grass carp X and Y chromosomes. We find that transcriptional activation of the mevalonate pathway and steroid biosynthesis in liver is associated with the grass carp's adaptation from a carnivorous to an herbivorous diet. We believe that the grass carp genome could serve as an initial platform for breeding better-quality fish using a genomic approach. PMID:25938946

  3. FIRST-YEAR COLLEGE WOMEN’S MOTIVATIONS FOR HOOKING UP: A MIXED-METHODS EXAMINATION OF NORMATIVE PEER PERCEPTIONS AND PERSONAL HOOKUP PARTICIPATION

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Shannon R.; Thadani, Vandana; Ghaidarov, Tehniat; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    This study used content analysis techniques to explore 221 first-year college women’s perceptions of female peers’ reasons (i.e., normative perceptions) for hooking up. Data on personal participation in hooking up were also collected. The well-established Drinking Motives Questionnaire (Cooper, 1994) was used as a framework for coding positive (enhancement or social) and negative (coping or conformity) normative hookup motivations. Participants most commonly indicated that enhancement reasons motivated peers’ hookup behaviors (69.7%). Coping (23.5%), external (21.7%), social (19.5%), and conformity (16.3%) motives were cited less frequently. Furthermore, women who had hooked up since matriculating into college (61.5%, n = 136) were significantly more likely to state that their female peers hook up for enhancement reasons (a positive motive), but they were significantly less likely to perceive that typical female peers hook up for coping or conformity reasons (negative motives) (ps < .001). Findings indicate not only that college women uphold overwhelmingly positive perceptions for peers’ hooking up, but there appears to be a strong relationship between college women’s own hooking up participation and the positive versus negative attributions they ascribe to hooking up among their peers. This study extends the understanding of college women’s perceptions and potential influences of hooking up and provides implications for harm reduction efforts. PMID:25705322

  4. Biochemical changes and sensory assessment on tissues of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) during sale conditions.

    PubMed

    Duran, Ayhan; Talas, Zeliha Selamoglu

    2009-11-01

    In this study, some biochemical changes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) tissues were investigated. Studies have been carried out on carp which have regional economical importance. Storage temperature and time are the most important factors that affect the quality of fish during sales. It was observed that the temperature varied between 9 and 12 degrees C in sale conditions. In addition, we assumed the arrival time of the fish at the fish market to be 0 (zero) h. Biochemical analyses [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and catalase activity] of carp tissues (muscle, liver, heart, spleen, brain) were carried out on fish which were held for 24 and 48 h, as well as on fresh fish (0 h). In addition, sensory analysis was conducted by a panel consisting of experienced judges of sensory evaluation. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) increases in MDA levels were found in liver, muscle, brain and spleen tissues when comparing the 0- and 24-h groups. But there was no statistically significant (P > 0.05) increase in MDA level in heart tissue of carp after 24 h. There was a statistically significant (P < 0.05) increase in MDA levels in muscle, spleen and heart tissues when comparing the 24- and 48-h groups. In the group examined at 24 h, it was observed that there were statistically significant differences from the 0 h group values (P < 0.05) for catalase (CAT) activity in muscle, brain, spleen and heart tissues. The decreases in CAT activity in liver and spleen tissues were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) between the group examined at 24 h compared with the group examined at 48 h. Carp maintained good quality during the selling conditions up to 24 h. This experiment deals with the effects of post-slaughter time and storage temperature on carp tissues. It is concluded that by considering the storage temperature (9-12 degrees C) and storage time (post-slaughter) the product maintained acceptable quality up to 24 h. There was significant deterioration of sensory quality, as a result of changes in chemical constituents. PMID:19533401

  5. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-09-01

    The objective of the Red HookIBay Ridge project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from these two areas to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Sediment samples were collected from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas. Tests and analyses were conducted. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests. Twenty-four individual sediment core samples were collected from these two areas and analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Three composite sediment samples, representing Red Hook Channel and the two Bay Ridge Reaches to be dredged, were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the three Red Hook Bay Ridge sediment composites, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed. Bioaccumulation tests were also conducted.

  6. Meanest foundations and nobler superstructures: Hooke, Newton and the "compounding of the celestiall motions of the planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal, Ofer

    This book is a historical-epistemological study of one the most consequential idea of early modern celestial mechanics: Robert Hooke's proposal to "compoun[d] the celestial motions of the planets of a direct motion by the tangent & an attractive motion towards a central body," a proposal which Isaac Newton adopted and realized in his Principia. Hooke's Programme was revolutionary both cosmologically and mathematically. It presented "the celestial motions," the proverbial symbol of stability and immutability, as a process of continuous change, and prescribed only parameters of rectilinear motions and rectilinear attractions for calculating their closed curved orbits. Yet the traces of Hooke's construction of his Programme for the heavens lead through his investigations in such earthly disciplines as microscopy, practical optics and horology, and the mathematical tools developed by Newton to accomplish it appear no less local and goal-oriented than Hooke's lenses and springs. This transgression of the boundaries between the theoretical, experimental and technological realms is reminiscent of Hooke's own free excursions in and out of the circles occupied by gentlemen-philosophers, university mathematicians, instrument makers, technicians and servants. It presents an opportunity to examine the social and epistemological distinctions, relations and hierarchies between those realms and their inhabitants, and compels a critical assessment of the philosophical categories they embody.

  7. Effects of Dietary Pantothenic Acid on Growth, Intestinal Function, Anti-Oxidative Status and Fatty Acids Synthesis of Juvenile Blunt Snout Bream Megalobrama amblycephala

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yu; Li, Xiang-Fei; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Cai, Dong-Sen; Tian, Hong-Yan; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Four groups of juvenile Megalobrama amblycephala were fed three times daily with six semi-purified diets containing 3.39 (PA unsupplied diet), 10.54, 19.28, 31.04, 48.38 and 59.72 mg kg-1 calcium D-pantothenate. The results showed that survival rate, final weight, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio and nitrogen retention efficiency all increased significantly (P<0.01) as dietary PA levels increased from 3.39 to 19.28 mg kg-1, whereas the opposite was true for feed conversion ratio. Whole-body crude protein increased as dietary PA levels increased, while the opposite pattern was found for the crude lipid content. Intestinal α-amylase, lipase, protease, Na+-K+-ATPase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase activities were all elevated in fish fed PA-supplemented diets. Hepatic catalase activities improved with increases in dietary PA, while the opposite was true for malondialdehyde contents. The liver PA concentration and coenzyme A content rose significantly (P<0.01), up to 31.04 mg kg-1, with increasing dietary PA levels and then plateaued. The percentage of hepatic saturated fatty acids increased significantly (P<0.01) as dietary PA levels increased, while the percentages of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) decreased as dietary PA increased. Fish fed diets containing 19.28 and 31.04 mg kg-1 PA exhibited higher (P<0.01) docosahexaenoic acid and PUFA percentages in muscle than those fed with other diets. The expression of the gene encoding pantothenate kinase was significantly up-regulated (P<0.01) in fish fed PA-supplemented diets. Hepatic Acetyl-CoA carboxylase α, fatty acid synthetase, stearoyl regulatory element-binding protein 1 and X receptor α genes all increased significantly (P<0.01) as dietary PA levels increased from 3.39 to 31.04 mg kg-1. Based on broken-line regression analyses of weight gain, liver CoA concentrations and PA contents against dietary PA levels, the optimal dietary PA requirements of juvenile blunt snout bream were estimated to be 24.08 mg kg-1. PMID:25781913

  8. Initial characterization of the FlgE hook high molecular weight complex of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kelly A; Motaleb, Md A; Liu, Jun; Hu, Bo; Caimano, Melissa J; Miller, Michael R; Charon, Nyles W

    2014-01-01

    The spirochete periplasmic flagellum has many unique attributes. One unusual characteristic is the flagellar hook. This structure serves as a universal joint coupling rotation of the membrane-bound motor to the flagellar filament. The hook is comprised of about 120 FlgE monomers, and in most bacteria these structures readily dissociate to monomers (∼ 50 kDa) when treated with heat and detergent. However, in spirochetes the FlgE monomers form a large mass of over 250 kDa [referred to as a high molecular weight complex (HMWC)] that is stable to these and other denaturing conditions. In this communication, we examined specific aspects with respect to the formation and structure of this complex. We found that the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi synthesized the HMWC throughout the in vitro growth cycle, and also in vivo when implanted in dialysis membrane chambers in rats. The HMWC was stable to formic acid, which supports the concept that the stability of the HMWC is dependent on covalent cross-linking of individual FlgE subunits. Mass spectrometry analysis of the HMWC from both wild type periplasmic flagella and polyhooks from a newly constructed ΔfliK mutant indicated that other proteins besides FlgE were not covalently joined to the complex, and that FlgE was the sole component of the complex. In addition, mass spectrometry analysis also indicated that the HMWC was composed of a polymer of the FlgE protein with both the N- and C-terminal regions remaining intact. These initial studies set the stage for a detailed characterization of the HMWC. Covalent cross-linking of FlgE with the accompanying formation of the HMWC we propose strengthens the hook structure for optimal spirochete motility. PMID:24859001

  9. Chemical characteristics of Delaware River water, Trenton, New Jersey, to Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durfor, Charles N.; Keighton, Walter B.

    1954-01-01

    This progress report gives the results of an investigation of the quality of water in the Delaware River from Trenton, N. J. to Marcus Hook, Pa., for the period August 1949 to December 1952. The Delaware River is the principal source of water for the many industries and municipal water supplies along this reach of the river and both industries and municipalities use it for the disposal of their wastes. Consequently, a study of the quality of the water and variations in the quality caused by changes in streamflow, tidal effects, pollution and other factors is important to the many users. In both New Jersey and Pennsylvania steps are being taken to abate pollution, thus it is of more than passing interest to measure the effects of waste treatment on the quality of the Delaware River water. At average or higher rates of streamflow the mineral content of the water increases slightly from Trenton to Marcus Hook. There is little variation in the concentration of dissolved minerals from bank to bank or from top to bottom of the river. At times of protracted low rates of flow the effect of ocean water mixing with the river water may be noted as far upstream as Philadelphia. At such times the salinity is often greater near the bottom of the river than near the top. The increase in chloride concentration upstream from Philadelphia is small compared to the rapid increase downstream from Philadelphia. Temperatures of offshore water vary with the season, but on a given day are substantially uniform throughout the reach of the river from Trenton to Marcus Hook. The water contains less dissolved oxygen as it flows downstream indicating that oxygen is being consumed by oxidizable matter. From Philadelphia downstream there are periods, especially in late summer, when the dissolved oxygen is barely sufficient to meet the oxygen demands of the pollution load.

  10. Estimating reef fish discard mortality using surface and bottom tagging: effects of hook injury and barotrauma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rudershausen, Paul J.; Buckel, Jeffrey A.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of discarded black sea bass (Centropristis striata) in various release conditions using tag–recapture data. Fish were captured with traps and hook and line from waters 29–34 m deep off coastal North Carolina, USA, marked with internal anchor tags, and observed for release condition. Fish tagged on the bottom using SCUBA served as a control group. Relative return rates for trap-caught fish released at the surface versus bottom provided an estimated survival rate of 0.87 (95% credible interval 0.67–1.18) for surface-released fish. Adjusted for results from the underwater tagging experiment, fish with evidence of external barotrauma had a median survival rate of 0.91 (0.69–1.26) compared with 0.36 (0.17–0.67) for fish with hook trauma and 0.16 (0.08–0.30) for floating or presumably dead fish. Applying these condition-specific estimates of survival to non-tagging fishery data, we estimated a discard survival rate of 0.81 (0.62–1.11) for 11 hook and line data sets from waters 20–35 m deep and 0.86 (0.67–1.17) for 10 trap data sets from waters 11–29 m deep. The tag-return approach using a control group with no fishery-associated trauma represents a method to accurately estimate absolute discard survival of physoclistous reef species.

  11. Chemotaxis towards, adhesion to, and growth in carp gut mucus of two Aeromonas hydrophila strains with different pathogenicity for common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    van der Marel, M; Schroers, V; Neuhaus, H; Steinhagen, D

    2008-05-01

    Characteristics that promote bacterial colonization of the intestinal mucosal surface were examined in two strains of the common fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila, with different pathogenicity. The characteristics examined were chemotactic activity towards mucus, bacterial adherence to mucus and growth in mucus. Intestinal gut mucus of healthy common carp was used. The results indicate that chemotaxis is not necessary for a bacterium to become pathogenic, but it may be a necessary parameter for a bacterium to be an obligate pathogen. Adhesion also seems to be a factor influencing pathogenicity. The results suggest that higher adhesion to mucus and subsequent growth is associated with differences in pathogenicity. PMID:18355183

  12. Delaware River water quality Bristol to Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania, August 1949 to December 1963

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keighton, Walter B.

    1965-01-01

    During the 14-year period from August 1949 to July 1963, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Philadelphia, collected samples of river water once each month in the 43-mile reach of the Delaware River from Bristol to Marcus Hook, Pa., and daily at Trenton, 10 miles upstream from Bristol. This part of the Delaware is an estuary into which salt water is brought by tides; fresh water flows into the estuary at Trenton, NJ, and farther downstream from the Schuylkill River and other tributaries of the Delaware. In March, April, and May, when fresh-water flow is high, the average concentration of dissolved solids in the water at Bristol was 76 ppm (parts per million), and at Marcus Hook 112 PPM In August and September, streamflow is lower, and the average concentration of dissolved solids increased to 117 PPM at Bristol and 804 PPM at Marcus Hook. Major salinity invasions of the Delaware River occurred in 1949, 1953, 1954, 1957, and 1963. In each of these years the fresh-water flow into the tidal river at Trenton was low during the period from July to October. The greatest dissolved-solids concentrations in these monthly samples were 160 PPM at Bristol and 4,000 PPM at Marcus Hook. At times the dissolved-oxygen concentration of the river water has become dangerously low, especially in that reach of the river between Wharton Street and League Island. At the Benjamin Franklin Bridge, one-third of the samples of river water were less than 30 percent saturated with oxygen; however, no trend, either for better or for worse, was apparent during the 14-year period. It is useful now to summarize these monthly analyses for the period 1949-63 even though a much more detailed description of water quality in this reach of the estuary will soon become available through the use of recording instrumental conditions. This compendium of water-quality data is useful as an explicit statement of water quality during the 14-year study period and is valuable for directing attention to water-quality problems for selecting instrument sites, and for making comparative studies with the more detailed information which is already being obtained with the aid of recording instruments.

  13. Triterpenes from Stachyurus himalaicus var. himalaicus Hook. f. et Thoms. ex Benth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun-Song; Huang, Rong; Li, Ning-Zhong; Xu, Hong-Yi; Yang, Jing-Hua

    2010-04-01

    Four triterpenes 1-4, including a new naturally occurring oleanane-type triterpene 1, were isolated by a multi-step chromatography procedure from the leaves and twigs of Stachyurus himalaicus var. himalaicus Hook. f. et Thoms.ex Benth. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including HRESIMS, 1H- NMR, 13C-NMR, DEPT, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY spectra. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activities against human Hela cell line. PMID:20428029

  14. Effects of sediment burial on grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes,1844), eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.; Deters, Joseph E.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Hayer, Cari-ann

    2015-01-01

    It is thought that grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) eggs must remain suspended in the water column in order to hatch successfully. Using sand, the effects of varying sediment levels on grass carp eggs were tested at different developmental states and temperatures. Survival was high (15–35%, depending on temperature and trial) in the unburied treatment where eggs rested on a sand bed but were not covered by sediment. Survival was lower in the partial burial (5–10%) and very low (0–4%) in the full burial treatment. In all treatments, delayed hatching (organisms remaining in membranes past the stage of hatching competence) was noted. Deformities such as missing heads and pericardial edema occurred at high rates in the partial and full burials. Eggs that come in contact with the benthos and are resuspended in the water column should be considered in embryonic drift models.

  15. Complete mitochondrial DNA genome of triploid pengze crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong; Liang, Hong-wei; Zou, Gui-wei

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of triploid pengze crucian carp was 16,580 bp in length. The mitochondrial genome contains 22 transfer RNAs, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs and 2 non-coding regions (control region and origin of light-strand replication). All genes were encoded on the heavy strain except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes. The overall base composition is A 31.53%, T 26.23%, G 16.15%, C 26.09%, with an A + T bias of 57.76%. The complete mtDNA sequence of the geographic triploid pengze crucian carp was reported in this study for the first time. PMID:25231717

  16. Bioavailability of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from contaminated Wisconsin River sediment to carp

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehl, D.W.; Cook, P.M.; Batterman, A.R.; Lothenbach, D.; Butterworth, B.C.

    1987-01-01

    The bioavailability of 2,3,7,8-TCDD from sediment to freshwater fish was studied in laboratory exposures. Carp (10g) exposed to Wisconsin River sediment (39pg/g) for 55 days accumulated 7.5 pg/g. Maintaining exposured fish in clean water for an additional 205 days resulted in depuration of 32-34% TCDD. These values compare to field data where sediments ranged from 30-200 pg/g and 1.5 kg carp (70 pg/g) depurated 55% in 325 days. Analysis of sediment, laboratory-exposed fish, and Wisconsin River fish for other PCDDs and PCDFs showed residues of 2,3,7 and 8-substituted congeners selectively enriched.

  17. Identification of 2,6-diisopropylnaphthalene metabolites in carp: part 1. in vivo experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, H.; Saito, H.; Yoshida, T.

    1982-01-01

    The metabolism of diisopropylnaphthalene (DIPN) in fish was studied from an ecotoxicological viewpoint to clarify the environmental fate of DIPN, a solvent of carbonless paper which is widely used as a substitute for PCB. This study identified the following metabolites in carp by in vivo experiment; 2-(1-hydroxy-1-methyl) ethyl-6-isopropylnaphthalene, 2-(1-methyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-6-isopropylnaphthalene, 2,6-(1-hydroxy-1-methyl) ethyl-naphthalene, 2-(1-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl) ethyl-6-isopropylnaphthalene and ..cap alpha..-(2-(6-isopropylnaphthyl)) propionic acid. Identification was based on UV, IR, MS, and NMR analyses. The metabolism of 2, 6-DIPN in carp was concluded mainly through oxidation of the isopropyl chain.

  18. Nutritional lipid liver disease of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idullus (C. et V.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ding; Mao, Yongqing; Cai, Fasheng

    1990-12-01

    The inadequate nutrient content of pellet feeds widely used in recent years in China for grass carp farming led to lipid liver degeneration in the fish. The present studies show that the pathological features of lipid liver disease are anaemia and hepatic ceroidosis. Other clinical features are; the ratio of liver to body weight exceeds 3% and lipid content exceeds 5%. Extreme infiltration of hepaiocytes by lipid results in the following deteriorative effects: swelling of the liver cells, increase of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm and dislocation of the nucleus, loss of cytoplasm staining affinity, and increased activities of GOT and GPT in serum. Lipid liver degeneration of grass carp can be divided into three stages: 1) deposition of liver lipid; 2) lipid infiltration of hepatic parenchyma; 3) atrophy of liver nucleus. The causes of lipid liver degeneration are complicated, but the main cause is assumed to be an imbalance of nutrients in daily feed and the lock of some lipotropic substances.

  19. Isolated horizontal cells from carp retina demonstrate dopamine-dependent accumulation of cyclic AMP.

    PubMed Central

    Van Buskirk, R; Dowling, J E

    1981-01-01

    Horizontal cells of the carp retina were separated from other retinal cell types by using enzymatic dissociation and velocity sedimentation at unit gravity. Fractions containing horizontal cells were tested for their ability to accumulate cyclic AMP in the presence of various putative neurotransmitters. Micromolar concentrations of dopamine, when added in the presence of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in these isolated cells. The dopamine-dependent accumulation of cyclic AMP in intact isolated horizontal cells was blocked by nanomolar concentrations of dopamine antagonists such as haloperidol, (+)-butaclamol, and fluphenazine. The results indicate that there is a postsynaptic dopamine receptor on carp horizontal cells that is associated with adenylate cyclase [ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1]. Images PMID:6278491

  20. Fluoride-induced apoptosis and expressions of caspase proteins in the kidney of carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianjie; Cao, Jinling; Wang, Jundong; Jia, Ruhui; Xue, Wenjuan; Xie, Lingtian

    2015-07-01

    The study was conducted to investigate oxidative stress, apoptosis, and protein expressions of caspase-3, 8, and 9 in kidney of the carp juveniles exposed to 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 mg L(-1) of fluoride (in the form of NaF) for 90 days. The results showed that dose- and time-dependent decrease of SOD and GSH and dose- and time-dependent increase of MDA were observed in the carp juveniles, which suggested that fluoride induced oxidative damage accompanied with morphological changes and significant apoptosis in fish exposed to fluoride, especially in the higher doses. Fluoride exposure also significantly elevated the protein expressions of caspase-3, 8, and 9. In conclusion, these results indicate that chronic exposure to fluoride causes oxidative stress, damages the kidney structure, and results in renal apoptosis by caspase-dependent pathway. PMID:24459041

  1. Enhancement of Hsp70 synthesis protects common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., against lethal ammonia toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sung, Y Y; Roberts, R J; Bossier, P

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to TEX-OE®, a patented extract of the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) containing chaperone-stimulating factor, was shown to protect common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., fingerlings against acute ammonia stress. Survival was enhanced twofold from 50% to 95% after exposure to 5.92 mg L(-1) NH(3) , a level determined in the ammonia challenge bioassay as the 1-h LD50 concentration for this species. Survival of TEX-OE®-pre-exposed fish was enhanced by 20% over non-exposed controls during lethal ammonia challenge (14.21 mg L(-1)  NH(3) ). Increase in the levels of gill and muscle Hsp70 was evident in TEX-OE®-pre-exposed fish but not in the unexposed controls, indicating that application of TEX-OE® accelerated carp endogenous Hsp70 synthesis during ammonia perturbation. Protection against ammonia was correlated with Hsp70 accretion. PMID:22724455

  2. [Effect of grass carp introduction of the extinction of Ottelia acuminata in Dianchi Lake].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun-Xing; Shu, Shu-Sen; Chen, Xiao-Yong

    2013-12-01

    Ottelia acuminata was a dominant macrophyte in Dianchi Lake prior up through the 1970s, when it was thought to have gone extinct in 1976. Various theories have been proposed as to its extinction, with a particular focus on pollution-driven factors. By comparing the historical records on pollution and fish yields of Dianchi Lake from the 1950s to early 2000, we found that the extinction of O. acuminata from Dianchi Lake occurred earlier than the documented spread of pollution. The surveyed data also demonstrate that the extinction of O. acuminata was likely caused primarily by the massive introduction of grass carp, from1958 to 1973. Future reclamation of lake bays and pollution may yield some impact on the restoration of the O. acuminata population even after the decline of grass carp population. PMID:24415697

  3. Space experiment using large-sized fish: in case of carp in Spacelab-J mission.

    PubMed

    Mori, S; Mitarai, G; Takagi, S; Takabayashi, A; Usui, S; Nakamura, T; Sakakibara, M; Nagatomo, M; von Baumgarten, R J

    1994-07-01

    Two carp of 26 cm in size, intact and otolith-removed (LB), were flown on the Spacelab-J for 8 days in September 12-20, 1992. Light-dependent reaction to alternating direction of illumination was recorded for 10 min twice a day together with the cerebellar EEG activity, on 2 days before the launch, during the flight and for 4 days after the landing, in same fish chamber. Reproducing the video image, it was revealed that both carp were healthy during the mission, but the LB fish was almost immobilized from the 3rd test session (48 hours in flight) by tight twisting of the EEG cable. Both fish after landing tended to stay still on the bottom of the fish chamber. Findings that the body weight reduced remarkably in both fish and that nitrite and nitrate levels of the fish water were usually high, suggested that the fish metabolism might have been enhanced during the flight. PMID:11539537

  4. Comparative mapping for bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) against model and non-model fishes provides insights into the genomic evolution of cyprinids.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chuankun; Tong, Jingou; Yu, Xiaomu; Guo, Wenjie

    2015-08-01

    Comparative mapping provides an efficient method to connect genomes of non-model and model fishes. In this study, we used flanking sequences of the 659 microsatellites on a genetic map of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) to comprehensively study syntenic relationships between bighead carp and nine model and non-model fishes. Of the five model and two food fishes with whole genome data, Cyprinus carpio showed the highest rate of positive BLAST hits (95.3 %) with bighead carp map, followed by Danio rerio (70.9 %), Oreochromis niloticus (21.7 %), Tetraodon nigroviridis (6.4 %), Gasterosteus aculeatus (5.2 %), Oryzias latipes (4.7 %) and Fugu rubripes (3.5 %). Chromosomal syntenic analyses showed that inversion was the basic chromosomal rearrangement during genomic evolution of cyprinids, and the extent of inversions and translocations was found to be positively correlated with evolutionary relationships among fishes studied. Among the five investigated cyprinids, linkage groups (LGs) of bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Ctenopharyngodon idella exhibited a one-to-one relationship. Besides, LG 9 of bighead carp and homologous LGs of silver carp and grass carp all corresponded to the chromosomes 10 and 22 of zebrafish, suggesting that chromosomal fission may have occurred in the ancestor of zebrafish. On the other hand, LGs of bighead carp and common carp showed an approximate one-to-two relationship with extensive translocations, confirming the occurrence of a 4th whole genome duplication in common carp. This study provides insights into the understanding of genome evolution among cyprinids and would aid in transferring positional and functional information of genes from model fish like zebrafish to non-model fish like bighead carp. PMID:25627158

  5. Evaluation of sugarcane by-product pressmud as a manure in carp culture.

    PubMed

    Keshavanath, P; Shivanna; Gangadhara, B

    2006-03-01

    The effectiveness of pressmud, a sugarcane by-product, was tested as a manure in the production of natural food and carp, by conducting two experiments. The first experiment, of 5 weeks duration, examined the effect of pressmud addition on water quality and natural food production. This study was carried out in fibreglass tubs (1.54 m3) with a 5 cm mud layer, employing pressmud at dosages of 5000, 10,000 and 15,000 kg ha(-1) for treatments T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Unfertilized tubs served as control (T0). The second experiment of 120-day duration to study the effect on growth, survival and quality of common carp was conducted in 25 m2 cement tanks with 15 cm-mud bottom, using the same dosages of pressmud. The control tanks in this experiment were manured with cattle dung at 10,000 kg ha(-1) (T0). Application of pressmud enhanced (P < 0.05) natural food production, with the greatest effect noted in treatment T3. Fish growth was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in treatments T2 and T3, there being no difference in growth between the control (T0) and 5000 kg pressmud treatment (T1). The greatest survival and production were obtained under treatment T2, which indicates that the dosage of 10,000 kg ha(-1) pressmud is optimal for carp culture. A significant effect (P < 0.05) of pressmud on carcass protein was observed. Organoleptic quality of both raw flesh and cooked meat of carp was not affected (P > 0.05) by pressmud treatment. PMID:16459356

  6. Melatonin actions on ovaprim (synthetic GnRH and domperidone)-induced oocyte maturation in carp.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, Mahammed; Hasan, Kazi Nurul; Maitra, Saumen Kumar

    2016-04-01

    The major objective of the present study was to demonstrate the actions of exogenous melatonin on ovaprim (synthetic GnRH and domperidone)-induced final oocyte maturation focusing on the oxidative status of pre-ovulatory follicles in the carp Catla catla. Accordingly, gravid carp during the early spawning phase of the reproductive cycle were injected with melatonin and/or ovaprim at different time intervals or luzindole (a pharmacological blocker of melatonin receptors) before their administration. We studied their effects on the latency period, the rate of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD; a visual marker of final oocyte maturation) in oocytes, and the levels of maturation-promoting factor (MPF), as well as oxidative stress, different antioxidants, melatonin and MT1 melatonin receptor protein in the extracts of pre-ovulatory follicles. Notably, melatonin treatment 2 h before the injection of ovaprim resulted in the shortest latency period as well as the highest rate of GVBD and MPF formation. Exogenous melatonin, irrespective of the injection schedule, caused a significant reduction in intra-follicular oxidative stress and an increase in the levels of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, melatonin and its receptor protein. Concentrations of ovarian melatonin in each fish exhibited a significant negative correlation with the level of oxidative stress, but a positive correlation with the rate of GVBD and the activity/level of different antioxidants. However, no significant effects of melatonin and/or ovaprim were detected in luzindole-pretreated carp. Collectively, the present study provides the first evidence that melatonin pretreatment in carp ameliorates ovaprim actions on the process of final oocyte maturation by the formation of MPF and alleviates oxidative stress in pre-ovulatory follicles by stimulating different antioxidants. PMID:26729919

  7. Stimulation of Spermiation by Human Chorionic Gonadotropin and Carp Pituitary Extract in Grass Puffer, Takifugu niphobles

    PubMed Central

    Goo, In Bon; Park, In-Seok; Gil, Hyun Woo; Im, Jae Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Spermiation was stimulated in the mature grass puffer, Takifugu niphobles, with an injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) or carp pituitary extract (CPE). Spermatocrit and sperm density were reduced, but milt production was increased in both the HCG and CPE treatment groups relative to those in the control group (P <0.05). These results should be useful for increasing the fertilization efficiency in grass puffer breeding programs. PMID:26973977

  8. First evidence of endocrine disruption in feral carp from the Ebro River.

    PubMed

    Lavado, Ramón; Thibaut, Rémi; Raldúa, Demetrio; Martín, Rebeca; Porte, Cinta

    2004-04-15

    Feral carps (Cyprinus carpio) were collected in spring 2001 from five sites along the lower course of Ebro River (Spain) with the aim of investigating the existence of endocrine-disrupting effects. Several findings (low gonadosomatic index (GSI), plasmatic vitellogenin (VTG), depressed levels of testosterone, and histological alterations in gonads) detected in male carps downstream of Zaragoza's sewage treatment plant (STP) strongly suggest that the concentration of sewage effluent in the area is a major causal factor leading to the detected estrogenic effects. Important alterations (viz. delayed maturation in females, indications of arrested spermatogenesis in males) were detected in carps from Flix, a heavily industrialized area. Low ovarian P-450 aromatase and reduced glucuronidation of testosterone and estradiol in males were observed in Zaragoza and Canal Imperial de Aragón-an agricultural area-which suggest decreased estrogen synthesis, and possibly, reduced sex hormone excretion in those organisms. These results were related to some in vitro assays aimed to assess the interference of model compounds (atrazin, vinclozolin, diuron, pp'-DDE, dicofol, triphenyltin, nonylphenol, and fenarimol) with the glucuronidation of testosterone and estradiol by liver microsomal fractions. The fungicide fenarimol (10-20 microM) and nonylphenol (50 microM) were found to significantly inhibit (20%) both activities at relatively low doses. Overall, this work provides the first evidence of the existence of significant alterations of the endocrine system of carps from the medium-low course of the Ebro River and demonstrates the ability of several chemicals to modulate the inactivation of endogenous steroids. PMID:15081271

  9. Transcriptome Analysis to Identify Cold-Responsive Genes in Amur Carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus).

    PubMed

    Liang, LiQun; Chang, YuMei; He, XuLing; Tang, Ran

    2015-01-01

    The adaptation of fish to low temperatures is the result of long-term evolution. Amur carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) survives low temperatures (0-4°C) for six months per year. Therefore, we chose this fish as a model organism to study the mechanisms of cold-adaptive responses using high-throughput sequencing technology. This system provided an excellent model for exploring the relationship between evolutionary genomic changes and environmental adaptations. The Amur carp transcriptome was sequenced using the Illumina platform and was assembled into 163,121 cDNA contigs, with an average read length of 594 bp and an N50 length of 913 bp. A total of 162,339 coding sequences (CDSs) were identified and of 32,730 unique CDSs were annotated. Gene Ontology (GO), EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were performed to classify all CDSs into different functional categories. A large number of cold-responsive genes were detected in different tissues at different temperatures. A total of 9,427 microsatellites were identified and classified, with 1952 identifying in cold-responsive genes. Based on GO enrichment analysis of the cold-induced genes, "protein localization" and "protein transport" were the most highly represented biological processes. "Circadian rhythm," "protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum," "endocytosis," "insulin signaling pathway," and "lysosome" were the most highly enriched pathways for the genes induced by cold stress. Our data greatly contribute to the common carp (C. carpio) transcriptome resource, and the identification of cold-responsive genes in different tissues at different temperatures will aid in deciphering the genetic basis of ecological and environmental adaptations in this species. Based on our results, the Amur carp has evolved special strategies to survive low temperatures, and these strategies include the system-wide or tissue-specific induction of gene expression during their six-month overwintering period. PMID:26098567

  10. Quality Changes and Biogenic Amines Accumulation of Black Carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) Fillets Stored at Different Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hongbing; Liu, Xiaochang; Hong, Hui; Shen, Song; Xu, Qian; Feng, Ligeng; Luo, Yongkang

    2016-04-01

    Postmortem quality changes of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) fillets stored at 20, 4, and 0°C (in ice) were determined in terms of pH value, K value, total volatile basic nitrogen, free amino acids, biogenic amines, drip loss, electrical conductivity (EC), sensory score, and microbial growth. The results showed that black carp fillets could maintain a good quality for 2, 9, and 12 days when stored at 20, 4, and 0°C, respectively. Pseudomonads, Aeromonas, and Enterobacteriaceae were the main spoilage bacteria in black carp. Tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, and tyramine increased significantly (P < 0.05) during storage at the three temperatures, but not spermidine and spermine, among which tyramine and putrescine were the main biogenic amines in black carp fillets. A significantly higher concentration of histamine (132.05 mg/kg on the third day) was detected in the samples stored at 20°C (P < 0.01) than at 4 and 0°C (0.62 to 3.28 mg/kg) throughout storage, indicating storage of samples at 20°C favored the formation of histamine. The accumulations of tyramine, cadaverine, and histamine were highly correlated with the productions of tyrosine, lysine, and histidine, respectively. Correlations between EC and sensory, physical, chemical, and microbial parameters at the three storage temperatures showed that EC could be used as a better quality indicator to assess the overall quality of fish stored at 4 and 0°C (low temperature) than at 20°C. PMID:27052869

  11. CARP-1 Functional Mimetics: A Novel Class of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Medulloblastoma Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Cheryan, Vino T.; Muthu, Magesh; Zoheir, Khairy M. A.; Alafeefy, Ahmed M.; Abd-Allah, Adel R.; Levi, Edi; Tarca, Adi L.; Polin, Lisa A.; Rishi, Arun K.

    2013-01-01

    Medulloblastomas (MBs) constitute an aggressive class of intracranial pediatric tumors. Current multimodality treatments for MBs include surgery, ionizing radiation, and chemotherapy. Toxic side effects of therapies coupled with high incidence of recurrence and the metastatic spread warrant development of more effective, less toxic therapies for this disease. CARP-1/CCAR1 is a peri-nuclear phospho-protein that is a co-activator of the cell cycle regulatory anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) E3 ligase. CARP-1 functional mimetics (CFMs) are a novel class of small molecule compounds that interfere with CARP-1 binding with APC/C subunit APC-2, and suppress growth of a variety of cancer cells in part by promoting apoptosis. Here we investigated MB growth inhibitory potential of the CFMs and found that CFM-4 inhibits growth of MB cells in part by inducing CARP-1 expression, promoting PARP cleavage, activating pro-apoptotic stress-activated protein kinases (SAPK) p38 and JNK, and apoptosis. Gene-array-based analysis of the CFM-4-treated Daoy MB cells indicated down-regulation of a number of key cell growth and metastasis-promoting genes including cell motility regulating small GTP binding protein p21Rac1, and extracellular matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-10. Moreover, CFM-4 treatment stimulated expression of a number of molecules such as neurotrophin (NTF)3, and NF-κB signaling inhibitors ABIN1 and 2 proteins. Overexpression of NTF3 resulted in reduced MB cell viability while knock-down of NTF3 interfered with CFM-4-dependent loss of viability. CFMs also attenuated biological properties of the MB cells by blocking their abilities to migrate, form colonies in suspension, and invade through the matrix-coated membranes. Together our data support anti-MB properties of CFM-4, and provide a proof-of-concept basis for further development of CFMs as potential anti-cancer agents for MBs. PMID:23826121

  12. Spatial and temporal variation of the gill rakers of gizzard shad and silver carp in three Midwestern rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walleser, Liza R.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; Howard, David R.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Amberg, Jon J.

    2014-01-01

    Improved management of invasive Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix in the upper Mississippi River basin may be possible by better understanding the feeding abilities of this population. Food collection for filter-feeding fishes, such as Silver Carp, is influenced by the species-specific structure of their gill rakers. To investigate structural variation in gill rakers of Silver Carp, the morphology of gill rakers was quantified and compared with that of a native filter-feeding fish species which may compete with Silver Carp for food resources, Gizzard Shad Dorosoma cepedianum. Intra- and interspecies variation of gill rakers was examined in both species collected from three locations among four months. Interspecies analysis indicated the size of pores in gill rakers of Silver Carp were much larger than the interraker spacings of Gizzard Shad (95% CI ranged from 80.69 to 185.75 μm versus 16.72 to 47.36 μm, respectively). Intraspecies variation of gill rakers from Silver Carp was related to the overall size of fish and occurred only among sites where dissimilar sizes of fish were collected. This suggested the size of particles filtered by Silver Carp may be dependent upon ontogenic development rather than phenotypic plasticity in response to spatial or temporal factors. Intraspecies variation of gill rakers from Gizzard Shad occurred among site and monthly sampling data; however, variation was only attributable to overall size of fish for monthly sampling data. This suggested ontogeny may influence the filter-feeding ability of this species within a habitat. However, variation noted among sites, which was not attributable to size of fish, may indicate gill rakers are phenotypically plastic among Gizzard Shad populations of various river systems of the upper Mississippi River basin.

  13. Development of a Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator to evaluate the transport and dispersion of Asian carp eggs in rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, Tatiana; Jackson, P. Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Valocchi, Albert J.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2013-01-01

    Asian carp are migrating towards the Great Lakes and are threatening to invade this ecosystem, hence there is an immediate need to control their population. The transport of Asian carp eggs in potential spawning rivers is an important factor in its life history and recruitment success. An understanding of the transport, development, and fate of Asian carp eggs has the potential to create prevention, management, and control strategies before the eggs hatch and develop the ability to swim. However, there is not a clear understanding of the hydrodynamic conditions at which the eggs are transported and kept in suspension. This knowledge is imperative because of the current assumption that suspension is required for the eggs to survive. Herein, FluEgg (Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator), a three-dimensional Lagrangian model capable of evaluating the influence of flow velocity, shear dispersion and turbulent diffusion on the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs is presented. The model's variables include not only biological behavior (growth rate, density changes) but also the physical characteristics of the flow field, such as mean velocities and eddy diffusivities. The performance of the FluEgg model was evaluated using observed data from published flume experiments conducted in China with water-hardened Asian carp eggs as subjects. FluEgg simulations show a good agreement with the experimental data. The model was also run with observed data from the Sandusky River in Ohio to provide a real-world demonstration case. This research will support the identification of critical hydrodynamic conditions (e.g., flow velocity, depth, and shear velocity) to maintain eggs in suspension, assist in the evaluation of suitable spawning rivers for Asian carp populations and facilitate the development of prevention, control and management strategies for Asian carp species in rivers and water bodies.

  14. Investigation of Steven Impact Test Using a Transportation Hook Projectile with Gauged Experiments and 3D Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Vandersall, K S; Murty, S S; Chidester, S K; Forbes, J W; Garcia, F; Greenwood, D W; Tarver, C M

    2003-07-02

    The Steven Impact Test and associated modeling offer valuable practical predictions for evaluating numerous safety scenarios involving low velocity impact of energetic materials by different projectile geometries. One such scenario is the impact of energetic material by a transportation hook during shipping, which offers complexity because of the irregular hook projectile shape. Experiments were performed using gauged Steven Test targets with PBX9404 impacted by a transportation hook projectile to compliment previous non-gauged experiments that established an impact threshold of approximately 69 m/s. Modeling of these experiments was performed with LS-DYNA code using an Ignition and Growth reaction criteria with a friction term. Comparison of the experiment to the model shows reasonable agreement with some details requiring more attention. The experimental results (including carbon resistor gauge records), model calculations, and a discussion of the dominant reaction mechanisms in light of comparisons between experiment and model will be presented.

  15. [Surgical technique of displacement and retraction of the heart with a pigtail shaped hook and Tentacles Heart Positioner].

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Yoshiei; Mochizuki, Y; Yamada, Y; Eda, K; Shibasaki, I; Inoue, Y; Miyoshi, S

    2007-07-01

    We describe a novel heart retracting system with Tentacles Heart Positioner (Sumitomo Bakelite, Tokyo) during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB). The heart retracting system is composed of a pigtail shaped hook attached to a flexible Universal Stabilizer Arm (Estech, Minneapolis). After Tentacles suction device is applied on the surface of the heart, the retracting system is fixed on the sternal retracter so that the hook can hang and support the retracting tubes of the sucker. By regulating the shape of the Universal Stabilizer Arm and the position of the hook, the retracting system can lift the heart sufficiently and maintain the optimal position of the heart during OPCAB procedure. Together with Tentacles Heart Positioner, the heart retracting system provides excellent exposure of target coronary arteries with minimal effect on hemodynamics. PMID:17642215

  16. Application of dopaminergic antagonist: Metoclopramide, in reproduction of crucian carp Carassius carassius (L.) under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Cejko, Beata Irena; Kucharczyk, Dariusz

    2015-09-01

    The effectiveness of Ovopel (two pellets/kg body weight), a complex of [D-Ala(6) Pro(9)NEt-mGnRH] and dopamine antagonist (DA e.g. Metoclopramide, MET), was compared with the application MET alone at the dose of 20mg/kg body weight in spawning crucian carp Carassius carassius (L.) in the present study. Ovulation and spermation rates were greater after MET application (90% and 100%, respectively) in comparison to the Ovopel (80% and 87.5%, respectively) when used as a broodstock reproductive stimulation agent. Sperm quality (CASA parameters) after MET treatment was very acceptable without a significant decrease in comparison to the samples from Ovopel-treated crucian carp when spermation stimulation treatments were employed. Though there were no differences in egg and sperm production between Ovopel and MET treatments, hatching rates were significantly greater after MET (84.4%) compared with Ovopel (76.2%) treatment. The usefulness of MET application without GnRHa addition for stimulation of reproduction was ascertained in the present study for the first time in crucian carp. PMID:26254249

  17. Genomic organization and expression of insulin receptors in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenjing; Liang, Xu-Fang; Yuan, Xiaochen; Li, Aixuan; He, Yuhui; He, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Insulin receptors have been demonstrated to be involved in embryogenesis, food intake regulation and glucose metabolism in several fish, while more researchis needed for further understanding. In this study, the complete coding sequence (CDS) of insulin receptor a (insra) gene and insulin receptor b (insrb) gene in grass carp were obtained, the CDS were 4068 bp and 4514 bp in length, encoding 1355 aa protein and 1351 aa protein. Both of insra and insrb in grass carp showed high amino acid identities with other fish. Insra and insrb genes were widely expressed in all tested tissues with an overlapping but distinct expressions. The high levels of insra mRNA were distributed in hindgut and heart tissues. The insrb gene showed the highest expression levels in liver and hindgut. We also proved that two forms of grass carp insulin receptors participate in the regulation of blood glucose and might act differently. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that different isoforms of fish insulin receptors are derived from two distinct genes, which was inconsistent with the generation of mammalian insulin receptors. Synteny analyses of insulin receptor genes showed that genes surrounding the insulin receptor genes were conserved in fish. Arhgef18, PEX11G, humanC19orf45 genes were highly conserved among mammal species. However, no conserved synteny was observed among fish, mammals, avians and amphibians. PMID:26772721

  18. Hydroxylated PAHs alter the synthesis of androgens and estrogens in subcellular fractions of carp gonads.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Denise; Porte, Cinta

    2013-03-01

    Four different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene) and their hydroxylated metabolites (1-hydroxynaphthalene, 9-hydroxy-phenanthrene, 1-hydroxypyrene, 1-hydroxychrysene) were investigated for their ability to alter the synthesis of steroids by testes and ovaries of the carp Cyprinus carpio. Parental compounds had no significant effect on C17,20-lyase (CYP17), CYP11β and 11β-HSD catalyzed activities, all of them involved in the synthesis of active androgens in carp testes. Conversely, hydroxylated metabolites significantly inhibited C17,20-lyase and CYP11β activities; the strongest inhibitor was 9-hydroxyphenanthrene with IC50s of 10.8 and 31.3 μM for CYP17 and CYP11β, respectively. As for the biosynthesis of estrogens, only 9-hydroxyphenanthrene had a significant inhibitory effect on ovarian CYP19 activity (IC50: 4.3 μM). The study highlights the potential of hydroxylated-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and particularly 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, to disrupt the synthesis of androgens and estrogens in carp gonads. PMID:23376527

  19. Production, characterization and applications of mouse anti-grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) growth hormone monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Yiu-Kwong Leung, Michael; Kwok-Keung Ho, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Mouse anti-grass carp growth hormone (gcGH) monoclonal antibody (MAb) secretors were produced by PEG-mediated fusion of NS-1 myeloma cells and splenic B-lymphocytes of gcGH hyper-immunized mice. Positive secretors were screened by direct ELISA and cloned by limiting dilution. Three positive secretors, 21D3, 22G5 and 23B3, were obtained in a single fusion trial. Anti-gcGH MAbs were produced by growing hybridomas in the peritoneal cavity of pristane-primed mouse. The three MAbs were isotyped to be IgG2a, IgG2b and IgM, respectively. IgG MAbs were purified from ascitic fluid by Hitrap protein G column and IgM MAb was purified by gel filtration chromatography. The purified MAbs were highly specific and had moderate binding affinity. The MAbs were successfully used for the purification of native gcGH from mature grass carp pituitary extract by one-step immunoaffinity chromatography, for the quantification of gcGH by competitive sandwich ELISA, and for the probing of somatotropes in grass carp pituitary by immunohistochemistry. PMID:16352451

  20. Effects of the terbuthylazine metabolite terbuthylazine-desethyl on common carp embryos and larvae.

    PubMed

    Velisek, Josef; Koutnik, Dalibor; Zuskova, Eliska; Stara, Alzbeta

    2016-01-01

    Toxicity of terbuthylazine-desethyl to embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was assessed. Based on mortality, the lethal concentration of terbuthylazine-desethyl was estimated to be 31days LC50=441.6?g/L. Carp exposed to terbuthylazine-desethyl at 1800?g/L exhibited lower weight and length at 7days of exposure compared to the control group. By day 20, carp exposed to 900?g/L terbuthylazine-desethyl showed lower weight and length compared to control group. Terbuthylazine-desethyl in concentrations (180, 900, and 1800?g/L) caused delay in ontogenetic development. Total superoxide dismutase activity was significantly lower in all exposed groups. Exposure to 180 and 900?g/L terbuthylazine-desethyl was associated with alteration of the caudal kidney tubular system including peritubular dilatation detachment of epithelial cells from the basal lamina, and focal autolytic disintegration of the tubular epithelia. Chronic terbuthylazine-desethyl exposure affected survival, growth, ontogenetic development, and the antioxidant system and caused pathological changes to the caudal kidney. PMID:26363394

  1. Comparative hepatic cytochrome P450 activities and contaminant concentrations in caged carp and juvenile ducks

    SciTech Connect

    O`Keefe, P.; Gierthy, J.; Connor, S.; Bush, B.; Hong, C.S.; Wood, L.; Clayton, W.; Storm, R.

    1995-12-31

    Juvenile carp (Cyprinius carpio) weighing approx. 60 g were placed in cages located on the surface of sediments near an aluminum plant and an automobile parts plant in the Massena area of the St. Lawrence River. Fish were removed at weekly intervals over a 35 day exposure period and composited samples of liver tissue, cranial lipid, and fillet tissue were prepared for analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs). Liver tissue was also stored at {minus}80 C for determination of microsomal Cytochrome P450 activity using the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) assay. A control exposure was carried out upstream at an uncontaminated site. Juvenile pre-flight ducks (mallards, gadwalls, wood ducks and common mergansers) were collected in the contaminated areas on the St. Lawrence and on the Hudson River two to three months after hatching. Control pre-flight mallards, wood ducks and common mergansers were collected from remote lakes in the Addirondack State Park. Samples of subcutaneous fat and liver tissue were removed for analysis as described above for the carp. There was a three fold increase in AHH activity in the carp liver tissue at the end of the 35 day exposure period and there was a similar increase it activity for the mallards, common mergansers and wood ducks compared to controls. For each species the enzyme activity increases will be compared to the contaminant concentrations.

  2. Antioxidant properties of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) protein ex vivo and in vitro hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Borawska, Justyna; Darewicz, Małgorzata; Vegarud, Gerd E; Minkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    The presence of specific peptides with antioxidant properties released during carp protein ex vivo and in vitro hydrolysis by human/porcine digestive enzymes, respectively, was examined. Based on the results of the in silico data analysis, antioxidant peptides were selected for subsequent identification in the digests/hydrolysates. Carp proteins were more resistant to hydrolysis by porcine enzymes than by human digestive juices. The sarcoplasmic proteins were hydrolyzed faster than the myofibrillar ones by both human/porcine enzymes. The in vitro myofibrillar protein hydrolysate showed the highest ABTS(+) scavenging activity (∼232.3 TEAC, μM Trolox/g), whereas the ex vivo hydrolysate of sarcoplasmic proteins showed the highest DPPH scavenging activity (∼88μM/g) and reducing power. Five antioxidant peptides were identified in carp protein ex vivo and in vitro hydrolysates: FIKK, HL, IY, PW, VY. The peptide HL from myofibrillar proteins was identified only in the ex vivo hydrolysate, whereas the peptide PW from sarcoplasmic proteins was identified only in the in vitro hydrolysate. PMID:26471617

  3. Development of an improved RT-PCR for specific detection of spring viraemia of carp virus.

    PubMed

    Shimahara, Y; Kurita, J; Nishioka, T; Kiryu, I; Yuasa, K; Sakai, T; Oseko, N; Sano, M; Dixon, P

    2016-03-01

    Spring viraemia of carp (SVC) is a rhabdovirus infection, which has a significant economic impact in pond cultures of carp in Europe and western Independent States of the former Soviet Union. The causative agent of SVC, spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV), has been divided into four subgroups, Ia, Ib, Ic and Id, on the basis of glycoprotein (G) protein gene sequences. In this study, a new primer set was designed from a G gene sequence of SVCV to identify the four subtypes of SVCV by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The specific PCR products of 369 bp were amplified from 15 SVCV isolates of all four subtypes. However, pike fry rhabdovirus (PFRV), which is antigenically related to SVCV, and other viruses antigenically related to SVCV and PFRV were not amplified. The four subtypes of SVCV were specifically amplified by the RT-PCR. Furthermore, the detection limit of the RT-PCR was 7.1 × 10(2) copies/reaction, and it was not influenced by the addition of RNA extracted from fish tissues. The RT-PCR will be applied not only to RNA extracted from viral suspensions, but also from fish tissue. It will contribute to rapid identification of SVCV in fish with clinical signs of SVC. PMID:25832786

  4. Effects of Cyhalothrin-Based Pesticide on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Richterová, Zuzana; Máchová, Jana; Stará, Alžběta; Tumová, Jitka; Velíšek, Josef; Ševčíková, Marie; Svobodová, Zdeňka

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60 g L−1) on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250 μg L−1 (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15 μg L−1 gamma-cyhalothrin). All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50 μg L−1 died soon after hatching; at 25 μg L−1, 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5 μg L−1 showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes. PMID:24860807

  5. Carbon nanotube-based nanocarrier loaded with ribavirin against grass carp reovirus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2015-06-01

    Infectious diseases of viral origin cause major aquatic production losses in different parts of the world. Because of formidable barriers for gastrointestinal tract, skin and cell, large amounts of antiviral drugs have limited therapeutic effect. In the current study, functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were selected as a drug carrier to carry antiviral drug for the treatment of viral diseases on fish. The results show that increasing antiviral drug (ribavirin) intake was observed by SWCNTs carrier and therapeutic dosage to kill grass carp reovirus is significantly reduced. At 12d post infection, survival rate and infection rate were 29.7% and 50.4% for naked ribavirin treatment group exposed to the highest concentration (20 mg/L); however, survival rate of 96.6% and infection rate of 9.4% were observed in 5 mg/L ribavirin-SWCNTs treatment group. In addition, the drug detention time in different organs and tissues (blood, gill, liver, muscle, kidney and intestine) was also significantly extended (about 72 h) compared with the same dosage in naked ribavirin treatment group. Moreover, the toxicity of functionalized SWCNTs in grass carp can be minimal, and physiological markers (some antioxidant enzymes activities, apoptotic factors activities and their corresponding genes expression) remained within normal ranges following treatment. Our results indicated that drug delivery with functionalized SWCNTs can improve the antiviral effect on grass carp and has a potential application value to control fish viral diseases in aquaculture. PMID:25796971

  6. Participation of cathepsin L in modori phenomenon in carp (Cyprinus carpio) surimi gel.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yaqin; Ji, Rong; Jiang, Hai; Zhang, Jinjie; Chen, Jianchu; Ye, Xingqian

    2012-10-15

    Cathepsin L (Cat L) in carp (Cyprinus carpio) dorsal muscles was purified and its molecular weight determined by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was 36 kDa. Its optimal temperature and pH were 50 °C and 5.5, respectively. The results of the effects of specific substrates, activators and inhibitors on the enzymatic activity showed that Cat L belongs to the family of cysteine proteinases containing thiol. Compared to the control, the gel strength of surimi with the addition of purified Cat L decreased significantly by 24.33% while that of surimi with both purified Cat L and inhibitors increased by 13.7% and 21.6%, respectively, suggesting the participation of Cat L in the modori phenomenon occurring in carp surimi. Both the SDS-PAGE electrophoretic pattern and microstructure figure revealed that Cat L could hydrolyse the main protein in carp surimi and was one of the enzymes involved in the modori phenomenon. PMID:23442651

  7. Identification and characterization of alpha-I-proteinase inhibitor from common carp sarcoplasmic proteins.

    PubMed

    Siriangkanakun, Siriphon; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Yongsawadigul, Jirawat

    2016-02-01

    Purification of proteinase inhibitor from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sarcoplasmic proteins resulted in 2.8% yield with purification fold of 111. Two inhibitors, namely inhibitor I and II, exhibited molecular mass of 47 and 52 kDa, respectively, based on non-reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Both inhibitors I and II were identified to be alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (α1-PI) based on LC-MS/MS. They were glycoproteins and molecular mass after peptide-N-glycosidase F treatment was 38 and 45 kDa, respectively. The N-glycosylation sites of both inhibitors were determined to be at N214 and N226. The inhibitors specifically inhibited trypsin. The common carp α1-PI showed high thermal stability with denaturation temperatures of 65.43 and 73.31 °C, which were slightly less than those of ovomucoid. High stability toward NaCl was also evident up to 3M. The common carp α1-PI effectively reduced autolytic degradation of bigeye snapper surimi at the concentration as low as 0.025%. PMID:26304452

  8. Comparison of intestinal bacterial communities in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, from two different habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Jiajia; Yu, Yuhe; Zhang, Tanglin; Gao, Lei

    2012-09-01

    The intestinal bacteria of vertebrates form a close relationship with their host. External and internal conditions of the host, including its habitat, affect the intestinal bacterial community. Similarly, the intestinal bacterial community can, in turn, influence the host, particularly with respect to disease resistance. We compared the intestinal bacterial communities of grass carp that were collected from farm-ponds or a lake. We conducted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified 16S rRNA genes, from which 66 different operational taxonomic units were identified. Using both the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means clustering and principal component analysis ordination, we found that the intestinal bacterial communities from the two groups of pond fish were clustered together and inset into the clusters of wild fish, except for DF-7, and there was no significant correlation between genetic diversity of grass carp and their intestinal bacterial communities (Mantel one-tailed test, R=0.157, P=0.175). Cetobacterium appeared more frequently in the intestine of grass carp collected from pond. A more thorough understanding of the role played by intestinal microbiota on fish health would be of considerable benefit to the aquaculture industry.

  9. Biomarker Benchmarks: Reproductive and Endocrine Biomarkers in Largemouth Bass and Common Carp from United States Waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Smith, Stephen B.; Greene, Patricia S.; Rauschenberger, Richard H.; Bartish, Timothy M.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a national database and report on endocrine and reproductive condition in two species of fish collected in U.S. streams and rivers. This information provides scientists with a national basis for comparing results of endocrine measurements in fish from individual sites throughout the country, so that scientists can better ascertain normal levels of biomarkers. The database includes information on several measures of reproductive and endocrine condition for common carp and largemouth bass. Data summaries are provided by reproductive season and geographic region. A national-scale reconnaissance investigation was initiated in 1994 by the USGS that utilized a suite of biological assays (biomarkers) as indicators of reproductive health, and potentially, endocrine disruption in two widely distributed species of teleost (bony) fish, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and common carp (Cyrinus carpio). The suite of assays included plasma sex-steroid hormones, stage of gonadal development, and plasma vitellogenin, an egg protein that indicates exposure to estrogenic compounds when found in male fish. More than 2,200 common carp and 650 largemouth bass were collected at 119 rivers and streams (fig. 1).

  10. Effects of Dietary Exposure to Zearalenone (ZEN) on Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Pietsch, Constanze; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Dänicke, Sven; Schulz, Carsten; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; Junge, Ranka

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is frequently contaminating animal feeds including feed used in aquaculture. In the present study, the effects of dietary exposure to ZEN on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were investigated. ZEN at three different concentrations (low dose: 332 µg kg−1, medium dose: 621 µg kg−1 and high dose: 797 µg kg−1 final feed, respectively) was administered to juvenile carp for four weeks. Additional groups received the mycotoxin for the same time period but were fed with the uncontaminated diet for two more weeks to examine the reversibility of the ZEN effects. No effects on growth were observed during the feeding trial, but effects on haematological parameters occurred. In addition, an influence on white blood cell counts was noted whereby granulocytes and monocytes were affected in fish treated with the medium and high dose ZEN diet. In muscle samples, marginal ZEN and α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) concentrations were detected. Furthermore, the genotoxic potential of ZEN was confirmed by analysing formation of micronuclei in erythrocytes. In contrast to previous reports on other fish species, estrogenic effects measured as vitellogenin concentrations in serum samples were not increased by dietary exposure to ZEN. This is probably due to the fact that ZEN is rapidly metabolized in carp. PMID:26343724

  11. Metatranscriptomic discovery of plant biomass-degrading capacity from grass carp intestinal microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shangong; Ren, Yi; Peng, Chun; Hao, Yaotong; Xiong, Fan; Wang, Guitang; Li, Wenxiang; Zou, Hong; Angert, Esther R

    2015-10-01

    Despite the economic importance of fish, the ecology and metabolic capacity of fish microbiomes are largely unknown. Here, we sequenced the metatranscriptome of the intestinal microbiota of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, a freshwater herbivorous fish species. Our results confirmed previous work describing the bacterial composition of the microbiota at the phylum level as being dominated by Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes. Comparative transcriptomes of the microbiomes of fish fed with different experimental diets indicated that the bacterial transcriptomes are influenced by host diet. Although hydrolases and cellulosome-based systems predicted to be involved in degradation of the main chain of cellulose, xylan, mannan and pectin were identified, transcripts with glycoside hydrolase modules targeting the side chains of noncellulosic polysaccharides were more abundant. Predominant 'COG' (Clusters of Orthologous Group) categories in the intestinal microbiome included those for energy production and conversion, as well as carbohydrate and amino acid transport and metabolism. These results suggest that the grass carp intestinal microbiome functions in carbohydrate turnover and fermentation, which likely provides energy for both host and microbiota. Grass carp intestinal microbiome thus reflects its evolutionary adaption for harvesting nutrients for an herbivore with a high-throughput nutritional strategy that is not dominated by cellulose digestion but rather the degradation of intracellular polysaccharides. PMID:26362922

  12. Characterisation of immunoglobulin-binding leucocytes in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Koumans-van Diepen, J C; van de Lisdonk, M H; Taverne-Thiele, A J; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M; Rombout, J H

    1994-01-01

    This study demonstrates the immunoglobulin(Ig)-binding capacity of Ig-positive carp macrophages employing immunofluorescence and immunogold methods. These methods allow for the characterisation of the Ig-binding cells. After internalisation of fluorescent- or gold-labelled Ig (30 min at room temperature), most macrophages from the hindgut were able to bind added purified carp Ig, which could be demonstrated clearly with a second fluorescent or gold label. In pronephros, an important haemopoietic organ in fish, a limited number of monocyte-like cells also showed Ig binding. Pronephros macrophages and neutrophilic granulocytes appeared to be Ig-negative. The use of goat anti-mouse Ig gold particles bound by carp anti-goat antibodies revealed that, in addition to hindgut macrophages and pronephric monocyte-like cells, some lymphoid cells in both hindgut and pronephros cell suspensions were also able to bind Ig. The classic erythrocyte-antibody rosette assay resulted in a limited number of small rosettes in cell suspensions from both organs. PMID:8050616

  13. Composition, diversity, and origin of the bacterial community in grass carp intestine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shangong; Wang, Guitang; Angert, Esther R; Wang, Weiwei; Li, Wenxiang; Zou, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Gut microbiota has become an integral component of the host, and received increasing attention. However, for many domestic animals, information on the microbiota is insufficient and more effort should be exerted to manage the gastrointestinal bacterial community. Understanding the factors that influence the composition of microbial community in the host alimentary canal is essential to manage or improve the microbial community composition. In the present study, 16S rRNA gene sequence-based comparisons of the bacterial communities in the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) intestinal contents and fish culture-associated environments are performed. The results show that the fish intestinal microbiota harbors many cellulose-decomposing bacteria, including sequences related to Anoxybacillus, Leuconostoc, Clostridium, Actinomyces, and Citrobacter. The most abundant bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the grass carp intestinal content are those related to feed digestion. In addition, the potential pathogens and probiotics are important members of the intestinal microbiota. Further analyses show that grass carp intestine holds a core microbiota composed of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. The comparison analyses reveal that the bacterial community in the intestinal contents is most similar to those from the culture water and sediment. However, feed also plays significant influence on the composition of gut microbiota. PMID:22363439

  14. Effects of dietary histidine on antioxidant capacity in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    PubMed

    Feng, Lin; Zhao, Bo; Chen, Gangfu; Jiang, Weidan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Hu, Kai; Li, Shuhong; Zhou, Xiaoqiu

    2013-06-01

    In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that dietary histidine could improve antioxidant capacity of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). A total of 1,200 juvenile Jian carp were fed graded levels of histidine at 2.3 (unsupplemented control), 4.4, 6.3, 8.6, 10.8 and 12.7 g/kg diet for 60 days. Results showed that the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PC) in serum and all tissues apparently decreased with increasing histidine levels up to an optimal level and increased thereafter. Anti-superoxide anion (ASA) capacity, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities and glutathione (GSH) content in serum and all tissues, anti-hydroxyl radical (a-HR) capacity, catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities in serum, muscle and intestine, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in serum and intestine, as well as glutathione reductase (GR) activity in serum, muscle and hepatopancreas were improved by dietary histidine. Fish fed diet with 8.6 g/kg histidine had lower serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activity than that fed with control diet, whereas pattern of glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) activity was opposite. The present results suggested that histidine could improve antioxidant capacity and inhibit lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of juvenile Jian carp. PMID:23053605

  15. Out-of-sample validation for structured expert judgment of Asian carp establishment in Lake Erie

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Roger M; Wittmann, Marion E; Lodge, David M; Rothlisberger, John D; Rutherford, Edward S; Zhang, Hongyan; Mason, Doran M

    2014-01-01

    Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is used to quantify the uncertainty of nonindigenous fish (bighead carp [Hypophthalmichthys nobilis] and silver carp [H. molitrix]) establishment in Lake Erie. The classical model for structured expert judgment model is applied. Forming a weighted combination (called a decision maker) of experts' distributions, with weights derived from performance on a set of calibration variables from the experts' field, exhibits greater statistical accuracy and greater informativeness than simple averaging with equal weights. New methods of cross validation are applied and suggest that performance characteristics relative to equal weighting could be predicted with a small number (1–2) of calibration variables. The performance-based decision maker is somewhat degraded on out-of-sample prediction, but remained superior to the equal weight decision maker in terms of statistical accuracy and informativeness. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2014;10:522–528. © 2014 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. Key Points Structured expert judgment is applied to quantify uncertainty in Asian carp establishment in Lake Erie Calibration variables from the experts' field are used to enable performance-based combination In sample validation is applied to the combination of expert judgments and to the experts Out-of-sample validation is applied to the performance-based combination method PMID:25044130

  16. Transfissural Route Used for Preoperative Localization of Small Pulmonary Lesions with a Short Hook Wire and Suture System

    SciTech Connect

    Iguchi, Toshihiro Hiraki, Takao Gobara, Hideo Fujiwara, Hiroyasu Matsui, Yusuke; Sugimoto, Seiichiro Toyooka, Shinichi Oto, Takahiro Miyoshi, Shinichiro; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2015-02-15

    PurposeWe retrospectively evaluated the results of the transfissural route for preoperative localization with a short hook wire and suture system for video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS).MethodsEleven patients with 11 tumors underwent CT-guided transfissural placement of a hook wire before VATS. This route was selected for all patients, because the distance between the tumor and interlobar fissure was much shorter than the required distance traversed using the conventional approach. Complications were evaluated using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 4.0.ResultsThe hook wire was successfully placed using the transfissural route in all but one case. Of these ten successful placements, two tumors needed a second puncture for optimal placement, because the CT scan showed that the first hook wire was not properly placed in the lung. In one patient, we did not attempt replacement after the first placement was incorrect. In ten successful procedures, the mean distance traversed in the parenchyma of the unaffected lung lobe was 27.9 mm. The distance between the pleura and placed hook wire was significantly shorter than the estimated distance between the pleura and hook wire using the conventional route (mean 16.3 vs. 40.9 mm; P = 0.0002). Grade 1 adverse events occurred (11 pneumothoraxes and 4 pulmonary hemorrhages). No grade 2 or higher adverse event was observed.ConclusionsThe transfissural route used for preoperative localization before VATS is useful for selected patients because this route may allow for more limited lung parenchyma resection.

  17. Detection of spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shivappa, R.B.; Savan, R.; Kono, T.; Sakai, M.; Emmenegger, E.; Kurath, G.; Levine, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) is a rhabdovirus associated with systemic illness and mortality in cyprinids. Several diagnostic tests are available for detection of SVCV. However, most of these tests are time consuming and are not well adapted for field-based diagnostics. In this study, a diagnostic tool for SVCV detection based on reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) has been developed. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the glycoprotein (G) gene of SVCV North Carolina (NC) isolate, four sets (each set containing two outer and two inner) of primers were designed. Temperature and time conditions were optimized to 65 ??C and 60 min, respectively, for LAMP and RT-LAMP using one primer set. In vitro specificity was evaluated using four different strains of fish rhabdoviruses and RT-LAMP was found to be specific to SVCV. Serial dilutions of SVCV NC isolate was used to evaluate the in vitro sensitivity of RT-LAMP. Sensitivity of the assays was similar to RT-PCR and detected SVCV even at the lowest dilution of 10 1 TCID50 mL-1. The ability of RT-LAMP to detect SVCV from infected carp was also tested and the assay detected SVCV from all infected fish. The isothermal temperature requirements, high specificity and sensitivity, and short incubation time of the RT-LAMP assay make it an excellent choice as a field diagnostic test for SVCV. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  18. A comparison of complete mitochondrial genomes of silver carp hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp hypophthalmichthys nobilis: Implications for their taxonomic relationship and phylogeny

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, S.-F.; Xu, J.-W.; Yang, Q.-L.; Wang, C.H.; Chen, Q.; Chapman, D.C.; Lu, G.

    2009-01-01

    Based upon morphological characters, Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (or Aristichthys nobilis) have been classified into either the same genus or two distinct genera. Consequently, the taxonomic relationship of the two species at the generic level remains equivocal. This issue is addressed by sequencing complete mitochondrial genomes of H. molitrix and H. nobilis, comparing their mitogenome organization, structure and sequence similarity, and conducting a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of cyprinid species. As with other cyprinid fishes, the mitogenomes of the two species were structurally conserved, containing 37 genes including 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNAs) genes and a putative control region (D-loop). Sequence similarity between the two mitogenomes varied in different genes or regions, being highest in the tRNA genes (98??8%), lowest in the control region (89??4%) and intermediate in the protein-coding genes (94??2%). Analyses of the sequence comparison and phylogeny using concatenated protein sequences support the view that the two species belong to the genus Hypophthalmichthys. Further studies using nuclear markers and involving more closely related species, and the systematic combination of traditional biology and molecular biology are needed in order to confirm this conclusion. ?? 2009 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  19. Effect of Ultrastructure on Changes of Textural Characteristics between Crisp Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon Idellus C.Et V) and Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon Idellus) Inducing Heating Treatment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wan-Ling; Yang, Xian-Qing; Li, Lai-Hao; Hao, Shu-Xian; Wang, Jin-Xu; Huang, Hui; Wei, Ya; Wu, Yan-Yan

    2016-02-01

    The research studies the ultrastructure effect on texture of crisp grass carp (CGC) and grass carp (GC) fillets inducing heating for 15, 25, and 40 min with boiling water. After heating, the hardness, fracturability, springiness, chewiness, resilience, and cohesiveness of CGC were higher than that of raw CGC, whereas the all textural characteristics of heating GC were lower obviously than that of raw GC. The hardness, fracturability, springiness, chewiness, resilience, and cohesiveness of CGC for heating 15 min were higher by 6.3%, 9.0%, 27.0%, 71.8%, 9.4%, and 23.9%, respectively, than that of raw CGC (RCGC). The hardness increasing of CGC flesh with the extension of heating time related closely to more coagulating connective tissue in interstitial spaces, especially relating to smaller muscle fiber diameter and denser muscle fiber density. The more and larger spaces between fiber and fiber with the extension of heating time results in the decrease of cohesiveness and resilience of CGC flesh. For chewiness, the stronger chewiness of cooked CGC associated with more detachment of myofiber-myocommata and fiber-fiber. Overall, the results show that the changes of texture characteristics of CGC fillet with extension of heating time correlates positively with the ultrastructure. PMID:26757426

  20. Fused lobed anther and hooked stigma affect pollination, fertilization and fruit set in mango

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Varsha; Ansari, Mohammad Wahid; Shukla, Alok; Tuteja, Narendra; Bains, Gurdeep

    2013-01-01

    Mango malformation is the most threaten disease that limits mango production, worldwide. For a long time, due to its complex nature, the cause and causal agents were strongly disputed. Diverse Fusaria, including Fusarium mangiferae, are known to be associated with the disease. There are indications that augmented level of endogenous ethylene in response to various abiotic and biotic stresses alters the morphology of reproductive organs. Here, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of healthy and malformed reproductive organs of mango cv. Baramasi was performed to compare the functional morphology. The SEM study revealed that anthers of hermaphrodite healthy flowers were bilobed with large number of turgid pollen grains whereas malformed flowers showed fused lobed anthers with scanty deformed pollen grains. Furthermore, the stigma of healthy flowers exhibited a broad landing pad as compared to malformed stigma which showed hooked and pointed tip. All these impaired morphology of male and female reproductive organs lead to failure of sexual reproduction. This is the first evidence to show fused lobed anther with impaired pollen grains and hooked stigma with poor stigmatic receptivity are mainly responsible for restricting the pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Here we suggest that abnormal development of anthers and pistils is due to endogenously produced stress ethylene. Further, added load of cyanide, a byproduct of ethylene biosynthesis, may also contribute to the development of necrosis which lead to desiccation of anther and pistil during hypersensitive response of plants. PMID:23299320

  1. Removal of an intracoelomic hook via laparotomy in a sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus).

    PubMed

    Lcu, Alexis; Herbert, Renaud; Coulier, Ludwig; Murray, Michael J

    2011-06-01

    A twenty-one-year-old male sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) demonstrated signs of chronic weight loss even though its appetite remained unchanged. In addition, the gradual development of a red, circular lesion on its ventral body was noted. After months without any significant changes, a ventral fistula appeared revealing the tip of a wire exposed within its center. The shark was immobilized via intramuscular remote injection through dartgun with etomidate; removed from its exhibit tank; and clinically examined with radiographic imaging, a cell blood count/serum chemistry evaluation, and the use of a metal detector along the body wall. A metallic hook was identified in the coelom about 10 cm cranial to the external fistula. The shark was transferred to an isolation pool for 1 mo. A second immobilization via immersion in eugenol was conducted in order to perform a celiotomy. The hook was located in a liver lobe and was surgically removed. After a prolonged recovery from anesthesia, the shark was released into its primary tank and recovered uneventfully, although some of the skin sutures sloughed prematurely. PMID:22946403

  2. Speculative pragmatism and intimate arrangements: online hook-up devices in gay life.

    PubMed

    Race, Kane

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers how certain functions of online hook-up devices are participating in the emergence of new forms of sexual relation, new distributions of intimacy and new sexual arrangements. Though not without precedent, it argues that online hook-up devices generally act in gay culture as 'framing devices', framing sex as a 'no-strings' encounter via their default application. These frames are variously rejected, reconfigured, re-embedded or confounded by participants; they become subject to various forms of overflowing. Understanding this dynamic, its typical forms of connection and estrangement, is pivotal for grasping the emergence of new forms of sexual community and new sexual publics among gay men--and/or 'un-community', as some have put it. My analysis prompts a series of methodological reflections wrought from the encounter it stages between queer theory and Science and Technology Studies. At a time when marriage and monogamy are increasingly monopolising the public discourse of gay life, digital devices are affording novel ways of arranging sex, intimacy and sexual community, with their own qualities and limitations. PMID:24992161

  3. Visitor and community survey results for Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge: Completion report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sexton, Natalie R.; Stewart, Susan C.; Koontz, Lynne; Ponds, Phadrea; Walters, Katherine D.

    2007-01-01

    Community residents’ perceptions and opinions Data for this study were collected using a survey administered to visitors to Prime Hook NWR and individuals living in the communities surrounding the Refuge. Surveys were randomly distributed to both consumptive and nonconsumptive use visitors over a one year period (September 2004 to September 2005) to account for seasonal variation in Refuge use. Three hundred thirty-two visitor surveys were returned for a response rate of 80 percent with a confidence interval of ± 5.4. Surveys were also distributed to a stratified random sample of community members in adjacent and surrounding areas (Slaughter Beach, Broadkill Beach, Prime Hook Beach, Milton, Lewes, Milford, and surrounding communities). Four hundred ninety-one surveys from the overall community sample were returned for a response rate of 39 percent with a ± 4.4 confidence interval. Community member results were weighted by U.S. Census Bureau data to correct for age and gender bias, and for community proportionality.

  4. The Hook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteker, Clarice

    1995-01-01

    Describes a teacher's relationship with a 15-year-old student whose father's mental illness and abusive manner led the student to try to commit suicide. Raises questions about what a teacher can do for such a student and suggests that reading can be one way that teachers and students can be led to talk about sensitive topics. (TB)

  5. Molecular and functional characterization of the scavenger receptor CD36 in zebrafish and common carp.

    PubMed

    Fink, Inge R; Benard, Erica L; Hermsen, Trudi; Meijer, Annemarie H; Forlenza, Maria; Wiegertjes, Geert F

    2015-02-01

    CD36 is a scavenger receptor which has been studied closely in mammals where it is expressed by many different cell types and plays a role in highly diverse processes, both homeostatic and pathologic. It is among other things important in the innate immune system, in angiogenesis, and in clearance of apoptotic cells, and it is also involved in lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis. Recently, in the cephalochordate amphioxus a primitive CD36 family member was described, which was present before the divergence of CD36 from other scavenger receptor B family members, SCARB1 and SCARB2. Not much is known on the Cd36 molecule in teleost fish. We therefore studied Cd36 in both zebrafish and common carp, two closely related cyprinid fish species. Whereas a single cd36 gene is present in zebrafish, carp has two cd36 genes, and all show conserved synteny compared to mammalian CD36. The gene expression of carp cd36 is high in brain, ovary and testis but absent in immune organs. Although in mammals CD36 expression in erythrocytes, monocytes and macrophages is high, gene expression studies in leukocyte subtypes of adult carp and zebrafish larvae, including thrombocytes and macrophages provided no indication for any substantial expression of cd36 in immune cell types. Surprisingly, analysis of the cd36 promoter region does show the presence of several binding sites for transcription factors known to regulate immune responses. Overexpression of carp cd36 locates the receptor on the cell surface of mammalian cell lines consistent with the predicted topology of cyprinid Cd36 with a large extracellular domain, two transmembrane domains, and short cytoplasmic tails at both ends. Gene expression of cd36 is down-regulated during infection of zebrafish with Mycobacterium marinum, whereas knockdown of cd36 in zebrafish larvae led to higher bacterial burden upon such infection. We discuss the putative role for Cd36 in immune responses of fish in the context of other members of the scavenger receptor class B family. PMID:25306962

  6. Upgrading food wastes by means of bromelain and papain to enhance growth and immunity of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Choi, W M; Lam, C L; Mo, W Y; Wong, M H

    2016-04-01

    The fast growing of global aquaculture industry accompanied with increasing pressure on the supply and price of traditional feed materials (e.g., fish meal and soy bean meal). This circumstance has urged the need to search alternative sources of feed stuff. Food waste was used as feed stuff in rearing fish which possess substantial protein and lipid. Grass carp are major species reared in Hong Kong with lower nutritional requirements; it is also an ideal species for investigating the feasibility of using food waste as fish feeds for local aquaculture industry. The growth and immunity, reflected by total protein, total immunologlobulin (IgI), and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) activity of grass carp blood, were depressed when feeding with food waste feeds without enzymes. However, the supplementation of bromelain and papain in fish feed enhanced the efficient use of food waste by grass carp, which in turn improved the fish immunity. The present results indicated that the addition of those enzymes could enhance the feed utilization by fish and hematological parameters of grass carp, and the improvement on growth and immunity superior to the control (commercial feed) was observed with the addition of bromelain and papain supplement. Addition of 1 and 2 % mixture of bromelain and papain could significantly enhance the lipid utilization in grass carp. PMID:26092357

  7. Tissue expression of glandular kallikrein and its response to 17 beta-estradiol in the acclimatized carp.

    PubMed

    Haussmann, Denise; Vidal, Rene; Figueroa, Jaime

    2006-06-01

    Cyprinus carpio skeletal muscle kallikrein was isolated to apparent homogeneity, and a polyclonal antiserum against the purified protein was generated. Glandular kallikrein expression and tissue distribution were assessed using both Western blots and immunohistochemistry. A 39-kDa protein was detected in skeletal muscle, the gill, kidney, and pituitary gland, where an additional 72-kDa immunoreactive band was observed. Immunohistochemistry revealed immunoreactive kallikrein in the intermuscle tissue, epithelial gill cells, apical portion of distal and proximal tubular cells in the kidney, mucus and epithelial cells of the skin, intestinal tube, and prolactin-producing cells of the pituitary gland. In addition, the effect of 17beta-estradiol on kallikrein expression was analyzed in three different tissues of winter- and summer-acclimatized male carps. A 2.5-fold (p<0.05) increase in kallikrein immunoreactivity due to estrogen treatment was observed in winter-acclimatized carp muscle, but not in summer-acclimatized fish. In contrast, the gill responded differently, since a 2-fold (p<0.05) increase was found only in summer-acclimatized carps. Kallikrein immunoreactivity in the kidney increased both in summer- (2.5 fold) and in winter-acclimatized carps (1.5 fold). The signals obtained demonstrate the existence of tissue-specific variable responses to estrogen treatment in vivo, between winter and summer-acclimatized carp. PMID:16849838

  8. The Transcriptomes of the Crucian Carp Complex (Carassius auratus) Provide Insights into the Distinction between Unisexual Triploids and Sexual Diploids

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Jiong-Tang; Kuang, You-Yi; Xu, Ru; Zhao, Zi-Xia; Hou, Guang-Yuan; Liang, Hong-Wei; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Both sexual reproduction and unisexual reproduction are adaptive strategies for species survival and evolution. Unisexual animals have originated largely by hybridization, which tends to elevate their heterozygosity. However, the extent of genetic diversity resulting from hybridization and the genomic differences that determine the type of reproduction are poorly understood. In Carassius auratus, sexual diploids and unisexual triploids coexist. These two forms are similar morphologically but differ markedly in their modes of reproduction. Investigation of their genomic differences will be useful to study genome diversity and the development of reproductive mode. We generated transcriptomes for the unisexual and sexual populations. Genes were identified using homology searches and an ab initio method. Estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that the hybridization of gibel carp occurred 2.2 million years ago. Microsatellite genotyping in each individual from the gibel carp population indicated that most gibel carp genes were not tri-allelic. Molecular function and pathway comparisons suggested few gene expansions between them, except for the progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathway, which is enriched in gibel carp. Differential expression analysis identified highly expressed genes in gibel carp. The transcriptomes provide information on genetic diversity and genomic differences, which should assist future studies in functional genomics. PMID:24871367

  9. Significant genetic differentiation between native and introduced silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) inferred from mtDNA analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, S.-F.; Xu, J.-W.; Yang, Q.-L.; Wang, C.H.; Chapman, D.C.; Lu, G.

    2011-01-01

    Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Cyprinidae) is native to China and has been introduced to over 80 countries. The extent of genetic diversity in introduced silver carp and the genetic divergence between introduced and native populations remain largely unknown. In this study, 241 silver carp sampled from three major native rivers and two non-native rivers (Mississippi River and Danube River) were analyzed using nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial COI gene and D-loop region. A total of 73 haplotypes were observed, with no haplotype found common to all the five populations and eight haplotypes shared by two to four populations. As compared with introduced populations, all native populations possess both higher haplotype diversity and higher nucleotide diversity, presumably a result of the founder effect. Significant genetic differentiation was revealed between native and introduced populations as well as among five sampled populations, suggesting strong selection pressures might have occurred in introduced populations. Collectively, this study not only provides baseline information for sustainable use of silver carp in their native country (i.e., China), but also offers first-hand genetic data for the control of silver carp in countries (e.g., the United States) where they are considered invasive.

  10. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of ?6-desaturase and Elovl5 segments and their associations with common carp (Cyprinus carpio) growth traits.

    PubMed

    Ren, H Ren; Yu, J; Xu, P; Tang, Y

    2015-01-01

    Highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) are crucial for the nutritional health, physiology, and reproduction of vertebrates. The ?6-desaturase and Elovl5 elongase genes produce essential enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of HUFAs. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis of genes functionally related to the growth traits of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) can provide useful information for common carp molecular breeding. In this study, we isolated two ?6 Fad genes and two Elovl5 genes from the common carp. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was performed, and the genotypes of three SNPs (?6Fad-a intron 10_C73T, ?6Fad-b intron 10_A56G, and Elovl5-a intron 5_C64A) in 712 individuals (383 females and 329 males) were detected. Correlation analysis between the genotypes and weight gain revealed that intron 10_C73T of ?6Fad-a, intron 10_A56G of ?6Fad-b, and intron 5_ C64A of Elovl5-a were significantly associated with common carp weight gain. Weight gain increased with the enrichment of molecular SNP markers, consistent with the characteristics of quantitative traits. Our results indicate that ?6Fad and Elovl5 elongase genes could be candidate genes for the molecular breeding of the common carp. This study provides useful information for the improvement of this species. PMID:26505436

  11. Ex vivo digestion of carp muscle tissue--ACE inhibitory and antioxidant activities of the obtained hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Borawska, J; Darewicz, M; Vegarud, G E; Iwaniak, A; Minkiewicz, P

    2015-01-01

    In the digestive tract of humans, bioactive peptides, i.e. protein fragments impacting the physiological activity of the body, may be released during the digestion of food proteins, including those of fish. The aim of the study was to establish the method of human ex vivo digestion of carp muscle tissue and evaluate the angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of hydrolysates obtained after digestion. It was found that the hydrolysates of carp muscle tissue obtained with the three-stage method of simulated ex vivo digestion showed ACE inhibitory as well as antioxidative activities. It was demonstrated that the degree of hydrolysis depended on the duration of individual stages and the degree of comminution of the examined material. Although the applied gastric juices initiated the process of hydrolysis of carp muscle tissue, the duodenal juices caused a rapid increase in the amount of hydrolysed polypeptide bonds. The antihypertensive and antioxidative activities of the hydrolysates of carp muscle tissue increased together with progressive protein degradation. However, the high degree of protein hydrolysis does not favour an increase in the activity of free radical scavenging. The presented results are an example of the first preliminary screening of the potential health-promoting biological activity of carp muscle tissue in an ex vivo study. PMID:25367247

  12. Final environmental assessment: Demonstration of use of grass carp in management of aquatic plants in Guntersville Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) plans to introduce triploid (sterile) grass carp into Guntersville Reservoir to test their usefulness in managing aquatic vegetation in a reservoir system. This demonstration is compatible with the long-range management plan for Guntersville Reservoir being developed jointly by TVA and the US Army Corps of Engineers at the request of several members of Congress. TVA is not at this time proposing to include grass carp as a routine component if its ongoing aquatic plant management program for Guntersville Reservoir or the TVA reservoir system. TVA's present program consists of water level fluctuations supplemented by herbicides. This environmental assessment evaluates several alternatives to use of grass carp, including use of water level fluctuations (drawdowns), herbicides, and mechanical harvesters. The overall target for this demonstration is to reduce aquatic vegetation in Guntersville Reservoir to about 7,000 acres. The results of this initial stocking will be closely monitored. The proposed monitoring will serve to evaluate the effectiveness of the grass carp demonstration. Because only triploid grass carp will be stocked and phased stocking will be done, any undesirable effects that monitoring might reveal should be reversible within a few years following termination of stocking. 88 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. HIF-1alpha and iNOS levels in crucian carp gills during hypoxia-induced transformation.

    PubMed

    Sollid, Jørund; Rissanen, Eeva; Tranberg, Hanna K; Thorstensen, Tage; Vuori, Kristina A M; Nikinmaa, Mikko; Nilsson, Göran E

    2006-05-01

    Hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) initiates expression of a wide variety of genes, some of which are involved in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. We have previously shown that crucian carp increases its respiratory surface area 7.5-fold in response to hypoxia. This change is due to apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in specific parts of its gills. Here we have characterized crucian carp HIF-1alpha, and measured mRNA, protein and DNA binding levels during hypoxia exposure in crucian carp gills. We have also measured an HIF-1alpha-induced gene, the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which has the ability to initiate apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Crucian carp HIF-1alpha was found to have all critical domains known to be important for function. Comparison of the peptide sequence with other species indicated high similarity with other cyprinid fish, but a pronounced variation compared to the salmonid, rainbow trout. Further, we found HIF-1alpha protein to be stabilized during hypoxia. Further, HIF-1alpha was often present in normoxia, and showed marked individual weight-dependent variation. We found no alteration of iNOS mRNA levels during hypoxia exposure. These findings suggest HIF-1alpha involvement in hypoxia-induced change of respiratory surface area in crucian carp gills. However, its activity does not seem to be mediated through iNOS. PMID:16362306

  14. Nutrients budget and effluents characteristics in polyculture of scampi (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and Indian major carps ponds using organic inputs.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Subhendu; Sahu, Bharat Chandra; Dey, Lambodar

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were conducted for the study of nutrient budget in farmers' ponds (0.4-0.6 ha) in Orissa, India, at stocking densities of 0.30-0.38/m(2) for scampi (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and 0.60-0.70/m(2) for Indian major carps (Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala). The average initial body weights of scampi and the major carps were 0.02 and 8-10 g, respectively. The culture period was 272-292 days. Feed was the main input. The FCR (feed conversion ratio) varied from 1.78 to 1.83. Feed and cow dung were applied to these ponds as organic inputs. At harvest time, the average weight of scampi and carps varied from 73 to 92 g and from 718 to 820 g, respectively. Among all the inputs, feed alone accounted for 97.60% total nitrogen (N), 97.90% total phosphorus (P) and 94.72% total organic carbon (OC), respectively. The harvest of scampi and carps accounted for recovery of 52.45% N, 19.43% P and 18.12% OC, respectively. N, P and OC accumulated in sediment were 38.31, 71.40 and 69.50%, respectively. The median nutrient loads in the fish pond effluents were equivalent to 0.58 kg of inorganic N, 0.135 kg of P and 8.83 kg of total OC per ton of Indian major carps and scampi production. PMID:22864442

  15. Kinematics, hydrodynamics and energetic advantages of burst-and-coast swimming of koi carps (Cyprinus carpio koi).

    PubMed

    Wu, Guanhao; Yang, Yan; Zeng, Lijiang

    2007-06-01

    Koi carps frequently swim in burst-and-coast style, which consists of a burst phase and a coast phase. We quantify the swimming kinematics and the flow patterns generated by the carps in burst-and-coast swimming. In the burst phase, the carps burst in two modes: in the first, the tail beats for at least one cycle (multiple tail-beat mode); in the second, the tail beats for only a half-cycle (half tail-beat mode). The carp generates a vortex ring in each half-cycle beat. The vortex rings generated during bursting in multiple tail-beat mode form a linked chain, but only one vortex ring is generated in half tail-beat mode. The wake morphologies, such as momentum angle and jet angle, also show much difference between the two modes. In the burst phase, the kinematic data and the impulse obtained from the wake are linked to obtain the drag coefficient (C(d,burst) approximately 0.242). In the coast phase, drag coefficient (C(d,coast) approximately 0.060) is estimated from swimming speed deceleration. Our estimation suggests that nearly 45% of energy is saved when burst-and-coast swimming is used by the koi carps compared with steady swimming at the same mean speed. PMID:17562892

  16. Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in agricultural waters and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gruber, S.J.; Munn, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was used as a biomarker for assessing exposure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides from irrigated agricultural waters. Carp were collected from a lake (Royal Lake) that receives most of its water from irrigation return flows and from a reference lake (Billy Clapp Lake) outside of the irrigation system. Results indicated that the mean whole-brain ChE activity of carp from Royal Lake (3.47 ??mol/min/g tissue) was 34.2% less than that of carp from Billy Clapp Lake (5.27 ??mol/min/g tissue) (p = 0.003). The depressed ChE activity in brain tissue of Royal Lake carp was in response to ChE- inhibiting insecticides detected in water samples in the weeks prior to tissue sampling; the most frequently detected insecticides included chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, carbaryl, and ethoprop. Neither sex nor size appears to be a covariable in the analysis; ChE activity was not correlated with fish length or weight in either lake and there was no significant difference in ChE activity between the two sexes within each lake. Although organophosphate and carbamate insecticides can break down rapidly in the environment, this study suggests that in agricultural regions where insecticides are applied for extended periods of the year, nontarget aquatic biota may be exposed to high levels of ChE-inhibiting insecticides for a period of several months.

  17. Embryonic and larval development and early behavior in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella: implications for recruitment in rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2015-01-01

    With recent findings of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in tributaries of the Great Lakes, information on developmental rate and larval behavior is critical to efforts to assess the potential for establishment within the tributaries of that region. In laboratory experiments, grass carp were spawned and eggs and larvae reared at two temperature treatments, one "cold" and one "warm", and tracked for developmental rate, egg size, and behavior. Developmental rate was quantified using Yi's (1988) developmental stages and the cumulative thermal units method. Grass carp had a thermal minimum of 13.5°C for embryonic stages and 13.3°C for larval stages. Egg size was related to temperature and maternal size, with the largest eggs coming from the largest females, and eggs were generally larger in warmer treatments. Young grass carp larvae exhibited upward and downward swimming interspersed with long periods of lying on the bottom. Swimming capacity increased with ontogeny, and larvae were capable of horizontal swimming and position holding with gas bladder emergence. Developmental rates, behavior, and egg attributes can be used in combination with physical parameters of a river to assess the risk that grass carp are capable of reproduction and recruitment in rivers.

  18. Embryonic and Larval Development and Early Behavior in Grass Carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella: Implications for Recruitment in Rivers

    PubMed Central

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2015-01-01

    With recent findings of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in tributaries of the Great Lakes, information on developmental rate and larval behavior is critical to efforts to assess the potential for establishment within the tributaries of that region. In laboratory experiments, grass carp were spawned and eggs and larvae reared at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”, and tracked for developmental rate, egg size, and behavior. Developmental rate was quantified using Yi’s (1988) developmental stages and the cumulative thermal units method. Grass carp had a thermal minimum of 13.5°C for embryonic stages and 13.3°C for larval stages. Egg size was related to temperature and maternal size, with the largest eggs coming from the largest females, and eggs were generally larger in warmer treatments. Young grass carp larvae exhibited upward and downward swimming interspersed with long periods of lying on the bottom. Swimming capacity increased with ontogeny, and larvae were capable of horizontal swimming and position holding with gas bladder emergence. Developmental rates, behavior, and egg attributes can be used in combination with physical parameters of a river to assess the risk that grass carp are capable of reproduction and recruitment in rivers. PMID:25822837

  19. Detection of environmental DNA of Bigheaded Carps in samples collected from selected locations in the St. Croix River and in the Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amberg, Jon J.; McCalla, S. Grace; Miller, Loren; Sorensen, Peter; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of molecular methods, such as the detection of environmental deoxyribonucleic acid (eDNA), have become an increasingly popular tool in surveillance programs that monitor for the presence of invasive species in aquatic systems. One early application of these methods in aquatic systems was surveillance for DNA of Asian carps (specifically bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix) in water samples taken from the Chicago Area Waterway System. The ability to identify DNA of a species in an environmental sample presents a potentially powerful tool because these sensitive analyses can presumably detect the presence of DNA in water even when the species is not abundant or are difficult to catch or monitor with traditional gear. Prior to research presented in this report, an initial eDNA surveillance effort was completed in selected locations in the Upper Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers in 2011 after the capture of a bighead carp in the St. Croix River near Prescott, WI. Data presented in this report were developed to duplicate the 2011 monitoring results from the Upper Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers and to provide critical insight into the technique to inform future work in these locations. We specifically sought to understand the potential confounding effects of other pathways of eDNA movement (e.g., fish-eating birds, watercraft) on the variation in background DNA by collecting water samples from (1) sites within the St. Croix River and the upper Mississippi River where the DNA of silver carp was previously detected, (2) sites considered to be free of Asian carp, and (3) a site known to have a large population of Asian carp. We also sought to establish a baseline Asian carp eDNA signature to which future eDNA sampling efforts could be compared. All samples taken as part of this effort were processed using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) according to procedures outlined in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Quality Assurance Project Plan with minor deviations designed to enhance the rigor of our data. Presence of DNA in PCR-positive samples was confirmed by Sanger sequencing (forward and reverse) and sequences were considered positive only if sequences (forward and reverse) of ≥150 base pairs had a match of ≥95% to those of published sequences for bighead carp or silver carp. The DNA of bighead carp and silver carp was not detected in environmental samples collected above and below St. Croix Falls Dam on the St. Croix River, above and below the Coon Rapids Dam and below Lock and Dam 1 on the Upper Mississippi River, and from two negative control lakes, Square Lake and Lake Riley. The DNA of silver carp was detected in environmental samples collected below Lock and Dam 19 at Keokuk, Iowa, a reach of the river with high silver carp abundance. The portion (68%) of environmental samples taken below Lock and Dam 19 that were determined to contain the DNA of silver carp was similar to that reported in the scientific literature for other abundant species. The DNA of bighead carp, however, was not detected in environmental samples collected below Lock and Dam 19, a reach of the river known to have bighead carp. Previous reported detections of the DNA of silver carp in samples collected in 2011 were not replicated in this study. Additional analyses are planned for the DNA extracted from the samples collected in 2012. Those analyses may provide additional information regarding the lack of amplification of bighead carp DNA and the lengths of the sequences of silver carp DNA present in samples taken below Lock and Dam 19. These additional analyses may help inform the use of eDNA monitoring in large, complex systems like the Mississippi River.

  20. Organic Chemical Concentrations and Reproductive Biomarkers in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Collected from Two Areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, May 1999-May 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Leiker, Thomas J.; Patiño, Reynaldo; Jenkins, Jill A.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Orsak, Erik; Rosen, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, Bureau of Reclamation, and Nevada Department of Wildlife, collected and assessed data to determine the general health and reproductive status of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at two study areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, during May 1999-May 2000. These data will form the basis of interpretations and provide a comparison for continuing studies on the health of the ecosystem in Lake Mead. One study area, Las Vegas Bay, is in the western part of Lake Mead. Las Vegas Bay receives inflows from Las Vegas Wash, which is predominantly tertiary-treated wastewater effluent, and to a lesser extent stormwater runoff from Las Vegas, Henderson, and other nearby communities, and from ground water underlying Las Vegas Valley. The other study area, Overton Arm, is in the northern extent of Lake Mead. Overton Arm receives inflow from the Virgin and Muddy Rivers, which historically are not influenced by wastewater effluent. Both sexes of common carp were collected bimonthly for 12 months using boat-mounted electrofishing gear (a direct electric current is used to temporarily immobilize fish for capture) to determine their health and reproductive status and any relation between these factors and environmental contaminants. This report presents fish tissue chemistry, organic chemical compound concentrations, and biomarker data for 83 male common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, similar organic chemistry results for 15 male common carp, and similar biomarker measures for 80 male common carp collected from Overton Arm. Tissue chemistry results also are presented for 16 female common carp and biomarker measures for 79 female common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, and tissue chemistry results for 15 female common carp and biomarker measures for 81 female common carp collected from Overton Arm. Thirty-three organic chemical compounds plus total concentrations for four groups of compounds (chlordanes, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], brominated diphenyl ethers [BDEs], and triclosans) were analyzed from extracts of whole-body tissue using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in male common carp from Las Vegas Bay during May 1999 through May 2000. All 33 compounds were detected in at least one sample of whole-body tissue from male common carp collected in Las Vegas Bay. In Overton Arm, 37 organic compounds plus total concentrations of three groups of compounds (PCBs, BDEs, and triclosans) were analyzed in male common carp where 20 (54 percent) of the compounds were detected. Sixteen of the 33 compounds detected in male common carp from Las Vegas Bay and 10 compounds detected in males from Overton Arm have the potential to disrupt the endocrine system in fish in Lake Mead. During May and June 1999, the mean concentration of all organic compounds detected in male common carp was 670 micrograms per kilogram from Las Vegas Bay and 109 micrograms per kilogram from Overton Arm. Twenty-seven organic compounds plus total PCBs were analyzed from extracts of whole-body tissue in female common carp collected in Las Vegas Bay and Overton Arm during May 1999. Twenty-four (86 percent) of these compounds were detected in at least one sample of whole-body tissue from female common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay while 10 (36 percent) chemical compounds were detected in female common carp from Overton Arm during that same period. Median concentrations of all chemical compounds were higher in female common carp from Las Vegas Bay compared to those collected from Overton Arm except Dacthal (DCPA), which was similar between sites. Biomarker measures obtained for male and female common carp include gonadosomatic index (percentage of gonad weight to total body weight), plasma vitellogenin (a phospholipid protein normally produced by female common carp and other oviparous fish), and condition factor [body weight/(fork length)3]. Biomarker measures for male c