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1

Habitat-Specific Locomotor Variation among Chinese Hook Snout Carp (Opsariichthys bidens) along a River  

PubMed Central

The Wujiang River is a tributary of the upper Yangtze River that shows great variations in its flow regime and habitat condition. Dams have been built along the Wujiang River and have altered the habitats profoundly enough that they may give rise to reproductive isolation. To test whether the swimming performance and morphology of the Chinese hook snout carp (Opsariichthys bidens), varied among habitats and whether the possible differences had a genetic basis, we measured the steady and unsteady swimming performance, external body shape and genetic distance among fish collected from both the main and tributary streams of the upper, middle and lower reaches along the river. We also measured the routine energy expenditure (RMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR), cost of transport (COT) and calculated the optimal swimming speed. The steady swimming capacity, RMR, MMR and optimal swimming speed were all higher and the COT was lower in the upper reach or tributary streams compared with the lower reach or main stream. However, unsteady swimming performance showed no variation among collecting sites. Flow regimes as suggested by river slope and water velocity were positively correlated with steady swimming performance but not with unsteady swimming performance. Predation stress were significantly related with body morphology and hence energy cost during swimming but not Ucrit value. The fish from only one population (Hao-Kou) showed relatively high genetic differentiation compared with the other populations. Fish from the upper reach or tributary streams exhibited improved steady swimming performance through improved respiratory capacity and lower energy expenditure during swimming at the cost of higher maintenance metabolism. There was no correlation between the steady and unsteady swimming performance at either the population or the individual levels. These results suggest that a trade-off between steady and unsteady swimming does not occur in O. bidens. PMID:22829884

Fu, Shi-Jian; Peng, Zuogang; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Peng, Jiang-Lan; He, Xiao-Ke; Xu, Dandan; Zhang, An-Jie

2012-01-01

2

Snout Shape in Extant Ruminants  

PubMed Central

Snout shape is a prominent aspect of herbivore feeding ecology, interacting with both forage selectivity and intake rate. Previous investigations have suggested ruminant feeding styles can be discriminated via snout shape, with grazing and browsing species characterised by ‘blunt’ and ‘pointed’ snouts respectively, often with specification of an ‘intermediate’ sub-grouping to represent ambiguous feeding styles and/or morphologies. Snout shape morphology is analysed here using a geometric morphometric approach to compare the two-dimensional profiles of the premaxilla in ventral aspect for a large sample of modern ruminant species, for which feeding modes are known from secondary criteria. Results suggest that, when browsing and grazing ruminants are classified ecologically based on a range of feeding style indicators, they cannot be discriminated unambiguously on the basis of snout profile shape alone. Profile shapes in our sample form a continuum with substantial overlap between groupings and a diverse range of morphologies. Nevertheless, we obtained an 83.8 percent ratio of correct post hoc feeding style categorisations based on the proximity of projected profile shapes to group centroids in the discriminant space. Accordingly, this procedure for identifying species whose feeding strategy is ‘unknown’ can be used with a reasonable degree of confidence, especially if backed-up by additional information. Based on these results we also refine the definitions of snout shape varieties, taking advantage of the descriptive power that geometric morphometrics offers to characterize the morphological disparities observed. The shape variance exhibited by both browsing and grazing ruminants corresponds strongly to body mass, providing further evidence for an interaction between snout shape, feeding style, and body size evolution. Finally, by exploring the role of phylogenetic similarity in snout shape, we find a slight increase in successful categorisation when repeating the analysis with phylogenetic control on the geometric profiles. PMID:25372878

Tennant, Jonathan P.; MacLeod, Norman

2014-01-01

3

Effects of angling with a single-hook and live bait on muskellunge survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of live bait for angling of muskellunge, Esox masquinongy, is popular in Wisconsin. A traditional method utilizes a large hook through the bait fish’s snout, which requires the muskellunge\\u000a to swallow the bait prior to hook set. Adult muskellunge (>76 cm; 30 in) were held in lined hatchery ponds and caught while\\u000a fishing with live bait on 10\\/0 size single hooks. The

Terry L. Margenau

2007-01-01

4

Effects of angling with a single-hook and live bait on muskellunge survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of live bait for angling of muskellunge, Esox masquinongy, is popular in Wisconsin. A traditional method utilizes a large hook through the bait fish’s snout, which requires the muskellunge\\u000a to swallow the bait prior to hook set. Adult muskellunge (>76 cm; 30 in) were held in lined hatchery ponds and caught while\\u000a fishing with live bait on 10\\/0 size single hooks. The

Terry L. Margenau

5

Partner(s): Hooke's Law  

E-print Network

Name: Partner(s): Date: Hooke's Law 1. Purpose: The primary purpose of the lab is to study Hooke exceeds the elastic limit of the material). Hooke's Law states that if the distortion of an elastic body to the displacement of the body from the equilibrium position. If a body, which obeys Hooke's Law, is displaced from

Spalding, Gabriel Cooper

6

Snout and Visual Rooting Reflexes in Infantile Autism. Brief Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors conducted extensive neurological evaluations of 42 autistic individuals and were surprised to discover a consistently positive snout reflex in most of them. Difficulties with assessing the reflex are noted. The authors then reassessed the Ss for a series of primitive reflexes which are interpreted as signs of diffuse cortical brain…

Minderaa, Ruud B.; And Others

1985-01-01

7

SNOUT DIMORPHISM IN WHITE STURGEON, ACIPENSER TRANSMONTANUS, FROM THE  

E-print Network

SNOUT DIMORPHISM IN WHITE STURGEON, ACIPENSER TRANSMONTANUS, FROM THE COLUMBIA RIVER AT HANFORD and adult white sturgeon in the Hanford reach of the Columbia River. Materials and Methods Sturgeon were not been reported in other areas of the species range. The occurrence of this dimorphism at Hanford may

8

Cardiac responses to snout immersion in trained dogs  

PubMed Central

1. Four dogs were trained to immerse their snout voluntarily for durations up to 30 sec. Indwelling instrumentation was implanted to measure blood flow velocity in the circumflex branch of the left coronary artery, to sample blood from the left atrium and coronary sinus for the determination of PO2, PCO2, pH, oxygen saturation and haemoglobin concentration, and to pace the heart. An index of myocardial oxygen consumption was calculated by multiplying the mean flow velocity by the arteriovenous difference in oxygen content. 2. Mean coronary flow velocity decreased significantly during simulated diving by 26 ± 27% (± S.D.). The range of decrease in seventeen out of twenty experiments was from -5 to -81%. Heart rate decreased by 48 ± 7% and this bradycardia was abolished by I.V. atropine. 3. Coronary sinus oxygen saturation increased significantly with snout immersion (three dogs) and arteriovenous difference decreased from 67 ± 10 to 47 ± 5%. The index of myocardial oxygen consumption decreased by 42 ± 19%. This decrease was attenuated slightly by ?-blockade but was abolished by cardiac pacing in three out of four experiments. 4. The present study indicates that the heart consumes oxygen at a considerably reduced rate during simulated diving and therefore plays a direct role in the overall conservation of oxygen. This response appears to result primarily from a negative chronotropic effect induced by increased vagal tone. PMID:4455822

Gooden, B. A.; Stone, H. L.; Young, S.

1974-01-01

9

Hook-And-Loop Metal Fastener  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed fastener includes metal loops and hooks repeatedly put together and pulled apart like Velcro (or equivalent) plastic fastener. Strip of hooks stamped from sheet of metal, and tip of each hook bent at right angle to root. Many such strips arrayed in parallel to form hook half of fastener. Each hook twists and bends as loop pulled away.

Sawaf, Bernard; Ross, J. P.; Harvey, Andrew C.

1994-01-01

10

Responses of electroreceptors in the snout of the echidna.  

PubMed

1. This is a report of experiments which provide evidence in support of the existence of an electric sense in the echidna, or spiny anteater Tachyglossus aculeatus. It is the first known example of electroreception in a terrestrial animal. 2. In each of four animals anaesthetized with alpha-chloralose, afferent responses were recorded in dissected filaments of the infraorbital branch of the trigeminal nerve which supplies skin of the upper jaw. Recordings were obtained from a total of forty-seven units identified as electroreceptors, by their responses to weak voltage pulses using focal stimulation of the moist skin surface. 3. In the absence of a stimulus, some receptors had an irregular resting discharge; others were silent. The receptive field for each receptor consisted of a discrete spot. Receptive fields were restricted to the tip of the snout. Cathodal stimulation over the receptive spot was excitatory for the duration of an applied voltage pulse. Reversal of stimulus polarity silenced any on-going activity and was followed by a post-anodal rebound excitation. 4. Receptor threshold was best measured not in air but with the snout immersed in tap water. An electric field was applied between a pair of large plate electrodes on either side of the snout. Threshold for thirty receptors lay in the range 1.8-73 mV cm-1. Measurements of response latency and of conduction path length gave estimates of axonal conduction velocities for the afferent fibres of 10-18 m Receptors responded to sinusoidally changing voltage gradients over the range 0.5-200 Hz with a maximum sensitivity at 20 Hz. 5. In one experiment a receptor site was marked with fine pins. Serial sections of the piece of underlying skin revealed a large mucus-secreting gland at the marked spot. Similar glands in skin of the platypus have previously been shown to be the sites of electroreceptors. 6. In a behavioural experiment an echidna was trained to choose between two identical tap water-filled troughs, one of which had a weak electric field across it. The animal learned to detect field strengths down to 1.8 mV cm-1 which corresponded to threshold for the most sensitive receptor measured in a subsequent electro-physiological experiment. It is concluded that the echidna, like the other Australian representative of the monotremes, the platypus, has an electric sense. It remains to be determined what kinds of sources of electric fields the animal encounters in its normal habitat. PMID:2607440

Gregory, J E; Iggo, A; McIntyre, A K; Proske, U

1989-07-01

11

Macrogeographic genetic variation in broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris).  

PubMed

Broad-snouted caiman's (Caiman latirostris) geographic distribution comprises one of the widest latitudinal ranges among all crocodilians. In this study we analyzed the relationship between geographic distance (along the species latitudinal range) and genetic differentiation using DNA microsatellite loci developed for C. latirostris and Alligator mississippiensis. The results suggest that there is a consistent relationship between geographic distance and genetic differentiation; however, other biogeographical factors seem to be relevant. The Atlantic Chain (Serra do Mar) seems to be an effective geographic barrier, as well as the relatively narrow (< or =1.5 km) sea channel between Cardoso Island and the continent. In addition, coastal populations seem to have been well connected in recent geological time (Pleistocene 16,000 years ago) all along the eastern Brazilian coast. Further studies should focus on the São Francisco River drainage, which is still poorly known for this species. PMID:18661469

Villela, Priscilla Marqui Schmidt; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann; Piña, Carlos Ignacio; Verdade, Luciano M

2008-12-01

12

[Correlation and path analyses of phenotypic traits and body mass of transgenic carp with growth hormone gene of salmon].  

PubMed

Thirty 2-year old transgenic carp individuals with growth hormone gene of salmon were randomly selected to study the affecting degree of their phenotypic traits on their body mass by the methods of correlation and path analyses, with 30 individuals of non-transgenic carp as the control, aimed to ascertain the main phenotypic parameters affecting the body mass of the transgenic and non-transgenic carps. The test phenotypic traits were total length, body length, body height, least height of caudal peduncle, length of caudal peduncle, length of head, snout length, eyes horizontal diameter, inter-orbital distance, and body depth. Correlation analysis showed that for both of the transgenic and non-transgenic carps, most of the test phenotypic parameters were significantly correlated to body mass (P<0.01). Path analysis indicated that for transgenic carp, its body length and body height were the main predictable factors affecting body mass, with the path coefficient being 0.572 and 0.415, respectively, while for non-transgenic carp, its body depth and tail length were the main predictable factors affecting body mass, with the path coefficient being 0.610 and 0.377, respectively. PMID:22007470

Liu, Chun-lei; Chang, Yu-mei; Liang, Li-qun; Xu, Li-hua; Liu, Jin-liang; Chi, Bing-jie; Wu, Xue-gong

2011-07-01

13

An approach to Hooke's law  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usefulness of Hooke's law extends from elementary to very advanced levels of physics. However, in many cases this law is not clearly presented at the school level. Indeed, sometimes it is simply misrepresented (Farrell 1976). When relating Hooke's law for bulk matter to the nature of interatomic forces, textbooks normally use the potential energy curve as a function of

J. Mwanje

1980-01-01

14

Triploid Grass Carp The grass carp, or white amur (Ctenopharyngodon  

E-print Network

developed a method to cre- ate sterile, non-reproducing grass carp by exposing the fertilized eggs to heat carp cannot be identified by their external appearance. Determination of the fertility or sterility lily (Nymphaea), or spe- cies of filamentous algae. They will eat algae in the absence of preferred

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

15

Robert Hooke's model of memory.  

PubMed

In 1682 the scientist and inventor Robert Hooke read a lecture to the Royal Society of London, in which he described a mechanistic model of human memory. Yet few psychologists today seem to have heard of Hooke's memory model. The lecture addressed questions of encoding, memory capacity, repetition, retrieval, and forgetting--some of these in a surprisingly modern way. Hooke's model shares several characteristics with the theory of Richard Semon, which came more than 200 years later, but it is more complete. Among the model's interesting properties are that (1) it allows for attention and other top-down influences on encoding; (2) it uses resonance to implement parallel, cue-dependent retrieval; (3) it explains memory for recency; (4) it offers a single-system account of repetition priming; and (5) the power law of forgetting can be derived from the model's assumptions in a straightforward way. PMID:12747488

Hintzman, Douglas L

2003-03-01

16

Stress, Strain and Hooke's Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to Hooke's law as well as stress-strain relationships. First they learn the governing equations, then they work through several example problems, first individually, then as a class. Through the lesson's two-part associated activity, students 1) explore Hooke's law by experimentally determining an unknown spring constant, and then 2) apply what they've learned to create a strain graph depicting a tumor using Microsoft Excel®. After the activities, the lesson concludes with a stress-strain quiz to assess each student's comprehension of the concepts.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

17

Robert Hooke's Seminal Contribution to Orbital Dynamics  

E-print Network

physical concept to Isaac Newton (1642­1726) in correspondence in 1679. Newton denied having heard of Hooke or misunderstood. Key words: Robert Hooke; Isaac Newton; astronomy; orbital motion. Introduction One of the most in Isaac Newton's mas- terpiece, the Principia in 1687.1 Hooke was one of the most prolific and inventive

Belanger, David P.

18

Hooke, Robert (1635-1703)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientist, born in Freshwater, Isle of Wight, England, educated at Christ Church College, Oxford where he met Boyle and was employed by him to construct his air pump, became professor of geometry at Gresham College, London. Discovered Hooke's law of elasticity. Worked on optics, simple harmonic motion and elasticity in strings. Published a monograph called Micrographia, containing beautiful pict...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

19

Covariant Formulation of Hooke's Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introducing a four-vector strain and a four-force stress, Hooke's law is written as a four-vector equation. This formulation is shown to clarify seemingly paradoxical results in connection with uniformly accelerated motion, and rotational motion with angular acceleration. (Author/JN)

Gron, O.

1981-01-01

20

A new Hooke's law experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this note we propose an alternative approach to the experimental study of Hooke's law that takes into account the variation of the elastic constant as a function of the initial length of the spring. We also present an adequate methodology to develop the analysis of graphics that students will obtain in a laboratory when they follow the new method

Fabio Menezes de Souza Lima; Gustavo Mulim Venceslau; Eliano Dos Reis Nunes

2002-01-01

21

Redundant Toggle/Hook Release Mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Release mechanism ensures reliable separation of structural members while imparting minimal impulse to members. Includes set of three hooks and pistons holding toggle and thereby clamp plate to body of mechanism. In locked position, pistons down, and hooks held against toggle. In unlocked position, pistons up. Notches in pistons let hook swivel on pivot pins. Functions even when two of its three key elements fail.

Graves, Thomas J.; Brown, Christopher W.

1991-01-01

22

HookFinder: Identifying and Understanding Malware Hooking Behaviors Zhenkai Liang  

E-print Network

hook- ing mechanism. Malicious programs implant hooks for many different purposes. Spyware may implant. In addition, rootkits may implant hooks to intercept and tamper with critical sys- tem information to conceal behaviors by checking known memory regions for suspicious entries. However, they need prior knowledge of how

Yin, Heng

23

Fish hook injuries of the eye.  

PubMed Central

Two cases of fish hook injuries to the eye are described. Both were removed successfully by rotating the hook through undamaged tissue before snipping off the barb. Good vision was restored without complications for periods of 12 and 18 months. Images PMID:7426567

Bartholomew, R S; Macdonald, M

1980-01-01

24

Relationship between Religiosity and "Hooking Up" Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: "Hooking up" behaviors, or sexual activities without commitment or emotional attachment, are occurring among college students. Purpose: This study examined the relationship between hooking up and two measures of religiosity. Methods: Data was obtained from students at a mid-southern university (n=459). Results: Most respondents…

Penhollow, Tina; Young, Michael; Bailey, William

2007-01-01

25

Pipe lifting hook having clamp assembly  

SciTech Connect

A pipe lifting hook is provided having a generally ''C'' shaped hook member having an elongated lower portion being insertable within the end of a joint of pipe and having an upper portion positionable above the pipe and provided with lifting connection means. The hook member is frictionally clamped to the pipe by grip shoe means that is movably supported by the upper portion of the hook member and is selectably movable from a released position out of contact with said pipe to a locked position in frictional locking engagement with the outer surface of the pipe. A ratchet mechanism couples said grip shoe means to the upper portion of the hook member and is manually positionable to lock said grip shoe means at said locked position or release said grip shoe means for movement toward said released position thereof.

Codner, J.A.

1984-06-12

26

Robust Mouse Pattern Electroretinograms Derived Simultaneously From Each Eye Using a Common Snout Electrode  

PubMed Central

Purpose. We recorded pattern electroretinograms (PERGs) simultaneously from each eye in mice using binocular stimulation and a common noncorneal electrode. Methods. The PERG was derived simultaneously from each eye in 71 ketamine/xylazine anesthetized mice (C57BL/6J, 4 months old) from subcutaneous needles (active, snout; reference, back of the head; ground, root of the tail) in response to contrast-reversal of gratings (0.05 cycles/deg, >95% contrast) generated on two custom-made light-emitting diode (LED) tablets alternating at slight different frequencies (OD, 0.984 Hz; OS, 0.992 Hz). Independent PERG signals from each eye were retrieved using one channel continuous acquisition and phase-locking average (OD, 369 epochs of 492 ms; OS, 372 epochs of 496 ms). The PERG was the average of three consecutive repetitions. Results. Binocular snout PERGs had high amplitude (mean, 25.3 ?V, SD 6.6) and no measurable interocular cross-talk. Responses were reliable (test–retest variability within-session, 14%, SD 7; between sessions, 25%, SD 9; interocular asymmetry within-session, 9%, SD 7; between sessions, 13%, SD 5). Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were the main source of the binocular snout PERG, as optic nerve crush in three mice abolished the signal. Conclusions. The PERG, a sensitive measure of RGC function, is used increasingly in mouse models of glaucoma and optic nerve disease. Compared to current methods, the binocular snout PERG represents a substantial improvement in terms of simplicity and speed. It also overcomes limitations of corneal electrodes that interfere with invasive procedures of the eye and facilitates experiments based on comparison between the responses of the two eyes. PMID:24667861

Chou, Tsung-Han; Bohorquez, Jorge; Toft-Nielsen, Jonathon; Ozdamar, Ozcan; Porciatti, Vittorio

2014-01-01

27

Variable Spaced Grating (VSG) Snout, Rotator and Rails for use at LLE  

SciTech Connect

The Variable Spaced Grating (VSG) is a spectrometer snout mounted to an X-Ray Framing Camera (XRFC) through the Unimount flange. This equipment already exists and is used at the University of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) facility. The XRFC and the Unimount flange are designed by LLE. The Tilt Rotator fixture that mounts next to the XRFC and the cart rails are designed by LLNL, and are included in this safety note. The other related components, such as the TIM rails and the Unimount flange, are addressed in a separate safety note, EDSN09-500005-AA. The Multipurpose Spectrometer (MSPEC) and VSG are mounted on the TIM Boat through the cart rails that are very similar in design. The tilt rotator combination with the Unimount flange is also a standard mounting procedure. The later mounting system has been included in this safety note. Figure-1 shows the interface components and the VSG snout. Figure-2 shows the VSG assembly mounted on the Unimount flange. The calibration pointer attachment is shown in place of the snout. There are two types of VSG, one made of 6061-T6 aluminum, weighing approximately 3 pounds, and the other made of 304 stainless steel, weighing approximately 5.5 pounds. This safety note examines the VSG steel design. Specific experiments may require orienting the VSG snout in 90 degrees increment with respect to the Unimount flange. This is done by changing the bolts position on the VSG-main body adapter flange to the Unimount adapter plate. There is no hazard involved in handling the VSG during this procedure as it is done outside the target chamber on the cart rail before installing on the TIM. This safety note addresses the mechanical integrity of the VSG structure, the tilt rotating fixture, the cart rails with handle and their connections. Safety Factors are also calculated for the MSPEC in place of the VSG.

Mukherjee, S K; Emig, J A; Griffith, L V; Heeter, R F; House, F A; James, D L; Schneider, M B; Sorce, C M

2010-01-25

28

Skin structure in the snout of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Osteichthyes: Dipnoi).  

PubMed

Many fossil lungfish have a system of mineralised tubules in the dermis of the snout, branching extensively and radiating towards the epidermis. The tubules anastomose in the superficial layer of the dermis, forming a plexus consisting of two layers of vessels, with branches that expand into pore canals and flask organs, flanked by cosmine nodules where these are present. Traces of this system are found in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, consisting of branching tubules in the dermis, a double plexus below the epidermis and dermal papillae entering the epidermis without reaching the surface. In N. forsteri, the tubules, the plexus and the dermal papillae consist of thick, unmineralised connective tissue, enclosing fine blood vessels packed with lymphocytes. Tissues in the epidermis and the dermis of N. forsteri are not associated with deposits of calcium, which is below detectable limits in the skin of the snout at all stages of the life cycle. Canals of the sensory line system, with mechanoreceptors, are separate from the tubules, the plexus and the dermal papillae, as are the electroreceptors in the epidermis. The system of tubules, plexus, dermal papillae and lymphatic capillaries may function to protect the tissues of the snout from infection. PMID:25175034

Kemp, A

2014-10-01

29

Taste response in the facial nerve of the carp, Cyprinus carpio L.  

PubMed

The stimulating effect of taste substances on the external chemoreceptors of the carp, Cyprinus carpio L., was studied by recording the electrical activity from the facial taste fibers innervating the facial skin surface. The integrated responses from each whole nerve bundle of the trigemino-facial complex nerve revealed that gustatory receptors on the snout of the carp were extremely sensitive to salts, acids and the extract of silk worm pupae. Quinine-HCl and sucrose elicited relatively small responses. Responses occurred to several amino acids, and especially to betaine. The threshold concentration for both mono- and di-valent salts was estimated to be about 5 X 10-3 M and that for acids about 10-4 M. Single fiber analysis was performed on 77 preparations. According to responsiveness to the 4 basic chemicals, the fibers were classified into 5 types: type I, activated by one stimulus (22 fibers out of 77); type II by two (29); type III by three (11); type IV by four (13); and type V showing inhibition by quinine-HCl (2) as their notable feature. Single fibers responsive to several amino acids, and the worm extract were found, among which the last was the most effective stimulus as shown in the whole nerve experiments. PMID:7300043

Funakoshi, M; Kawakita, K; Marui, T

1981-01-01

30

21 CFR 868.5420 - Ether hook.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Identification. An ether hook is a device that fits inside a patient's mouth and that is intended to...represented as sterile, it is exempt from the current good manufacturing practice requirements of the quality system regulation in...

2010-04-01

31

Applying Hooke's Law to Cancer Detection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore Hooke's law while working in small groups at their lab benches. They collect displacement data for springs with unknown spring constants, k, by adding various masses of known weight. After exploring Hooke's law and answering a series of application questions, students apply their new understanding to explore a tissue of known surface area. Students then use the necessary relationships to depict a cancerous tumor amidst normal tissue by creating a graph in Microsoft Excel.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

32

Inferences of Diplodocoid (Sauropoda: Dinosauria) Feeding Behavior from Snout Shape and Microwear Analyses  

PubMed Central

Background As gigantic herbivores, sauropod dinosaurs were among the most important members of Mesozoic communities. Understanding their ecology is fundamental to developing a complete picture of Jurassic and Cretaceous food webs. One group of sauropods in particular, Diplodocoidea, has long been a source of debate with regard to what and how they ate. Because of their long lineage duration (Late Jurassic-Late Cretaceous) and cosmopolitan distribution, diplodocoids formed important parts of multiple ecosystems. Additionally, fortuitous preservation of a large proportion of cranial elements makes them an ideal clade in which to examine feeding behavior. Methodology/Principal Findings Hypotheses of various browsing behaviors (selective and nonselective browsing at ground-height, mid-height, or in the upper canopy) were examined using snout shape (square vs. round) and dental microwear. The square snouts, large proportion of pits, and fine subparallel scratches in Apatosaurus, Diplodocus, Nigersaurus, and Rebbachisaurus suggest ground-height nonselective browsing; the narrow snouts of Dicraeosaurus, Suuwassea, and Tornieria and the coarse scratches and gouges on the teeth of Dicraeosaurus suggest mid-height selective browsing in those taxa. Comparison with outgroups (Camarasaurus and Brachiosaurus) reinforces the inferences of ground- and mid-height browsing and the existence of both non-selective and selective browsing behaviors in diplodocoids. Conclusions/Significance These results reaffirm previous work suggesting the presence of diverse feeding strategies in sauropods and provide solid evidence for two different feeding behaviors in Diplodocoidea. These feeding behaviors can subsequently be tied to paleoecology, such that non-selective, ground-height behaviors are restricted to open, savanna-type environments. Selective browsing behaviors are known from multiple sauropod clades and were practiced in multiple environments. PMID:21494685

Whitlock, John A.

2011-01-01

33

Aspects of embryonic and larval development in bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river.

George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

2013-01-01

34

Aspects of Embryonic and Larval Development in Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix  

PubMed Central

As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthysnobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river. PMID:23967350

George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

2013-01-01

35

Prevalence of ectoparasites of carp fingerlings at Santaher, Bogra  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research work was conducted to find out the seasonal prevalence of ectoparasites of carp fingerlings. Seven species of parasites viz. Trichodina domerguei, Trichodina reticulata, Chilodonella cyprini, Myxobolus koi, Dactylogyroides tripathi, Dactylogyrus extensus and Dactylogyrus catlarius were recovered from 640 fingerlings of Silver carp (Hypophthalmicthys molitrix), Bighead carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), Thai punti (Puntius gonionotus), Catla (Catla

M. D. Hossain; M. Kabil Hossain; M. Habibur Rahman; A. Akter; D. A. Khanom

2008-01-01

36

Feeding habits of the deep-snouted pipefish Syngnathus typhle in a temperate coastal lagoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feeding habits of Syngnathus typhle were determined based on monthly sampling during experimental fishing in a coastal lagoon (Ria Formosa, South Portugal) from April 2001 to May 2002. The gut contents of 856 individuals were analysed and quantified with numerical and gravimetric methods, as well as with some complementary indices and measures (vacuity, fullness and relative importance). In this study, this species fed mainly on Copepoda, Mysidacea, small caridean grass shrimps (Hippolytidae and Palaemonidae) and small fishes (Gobiidae) and to a lesser degree on other small invertebrates. No significant differences were found between the diets of males and females. However, significant differences in the fullness indexes of both sexes were observed during the reproductive period. Significant differences in the diet among seasons were also verified but no seasonal trends were discovered. Snout length showed a linear increase with growth while mouth area and total length displayed an allometric relation. Mouth shape varied between an ellipse and an almost perfect circle. The increase in mouth area and snout length as S. typhle grows contributed to the observed ontogenic diet shift with specimens smaller than 10 cm feeding almost exclusively on Copepoda, medium sized specimens feeding mainly on Hippolytidae and Mysidacea, while larger specimens preyed on Hippolytidae, Palaemonidae and Gobiidae. Prey size generally increased with size of S. typhle.

Oliveira, Frederico; Erzini, Karim; Gonçalves, Jorge M. S.

2007-03-01

37

Two fault tolerant toggle-hook release  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A coupling device is disclosed which is mechanically two fault tolerant for release. The device comprises a fastener plate and fastener body, each of which is attachable to a different one of a pair of structures to be joined. The fastener plate and body are coupled by an elongate toggle mounted at one end in a socket on the fastener plate for universal pivotal movement thereon. The other end of the toggle is received in an opening in the fastener body and adapted for limited pivotal movement therein. The toggle is adapted to be restrained by three latch hooks arranged in symmetrical equiangular spacing about the axis of the toggle, each hook being mounted on the fastener body for pivotal movement between an unlatching non-contact position with respect to the toggle and a latching position in engagement with a latching surface of the toggle. The device includes releasable lock means for locking each latch hook in its latching position whereby the toggle couples the fastener plate to the fastener body and means for releasing the lock means to unlock each said latch hook from the latch position whereby the unlocking of at least one of the latch hooks from its latching position results in the decoupling of the fastener plate from the fastener body.

Graves, Thomas Joseph (inventor); Brown, Christopher William (inventor)

1991-01-01

38

FRONT ELEVATION; HOOK & LADDER BUILDING ON THE RIGHT, SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

FRONT ELEVATION; HOOK & LADDER BUILDING ON THE RIGHT, SHOWING THE ARCHED OPENING THAT CONNECTS IT TO THE MAIN FIRE STATION BUILDING, VIEW FACING NORTH NORTHWEST - Kakaako Fire Station, Hook & Ladder Building, 620 South Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

39

Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

2011-01-01

40

To Hook Up or Date: Which Gender Benefits?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hooking up on college campuses has become more frequent than dating in heterosexual sexual interaction. Analysis of the relative\\u000a benefits and costs associated with dating and hooking up suggest that women benefit more from dating while men benefit more\\u000a from hooking up. U.S students (150 women, 71 men) at a midsized southeastern university indicated preferences for dating and\\u000a hooking up

Carolyn Bradshaw; Arnold S. Kahn; Bryan K. Saville

2010-01-01

41

Disseminated Mycobacterium intracellulare infection in a broad-snouted caiman Caiman latirostris.  

PubMed

A 10 yr old broad-snouted caiman Caiman latirostris from a small Dutch animal park was presented with long-term variable periods of anorexia and weight loss. Blood chemistry showed slightly elevated uric acid levels and low ionised calcium concentration. Ultrasonographical thickening of the intestinal wall in the region of the duodenum was evident. Pathological changes were a thickening of the wall of 90% of the small intestines, enlarged spleen with multifocal white foci and an enlarged light-brown liver. Histopathological lesions consisted of disseminated granulomas in the intestinal wall, the liver and the spleen. Multinucleated giant cells and epitheloid macrophages were abundant. Ziehl-Neelsen staining showed numerous intralesional acid-fast bacteria. Polymerase chain reaction for Mycobacterium intracellulare was positive. PMID:24270027

Kik, Marja J L

2013-11-25

42

Short-Snouted Toothless Ichthyosaur from China Suggests Late Triassic Diversification of Suction Feeding Ichthyosaurs  

PubMed Central

Background Ichthyosaurs were an important group of Mesozoic marine reptiles and existed from the Early Triassic to the early Late Cretaceous. Despite a great diversity in body shapes and feeding adaptations, all share greatly enlarged eyes, an elongated rostrum with numerous conical teeth, and a streamlined body. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on new material from China and the restudy of Shastasaurus pacificus, we here reinterpret the classical large-bodied Late Triassic ichthyosaur genus Shastasaurus to differ greatly from the standard ichthyosaurian body plan, indicating much greater morphological diversity and range of feeding adaptations in ichthyosaurs than previously recognized. Phylogenetic analysis indicates a monophyletic clade consisting of the giant Shonisaurus sikanniensis, Guanlingsaurus liangae, and Shastasaurus pacificus to which the genus name Shastasaurus is applied. Shastasaurus liangae comb. nov. is from the Late Triassic (Carnian) Xiaowa Formation of Guizhou Province, southwestern China. The species combines a diminutive head with an entirely toothless and greatly reduced snout. The species also has by far the highest vertebral count among ichthyosaurs (86 presacral vertebrae and >110 caudal vertebrae), a count that is also very high for tetrapods in general. A reduced toothless snout and a diminutive head is also apparently present in the giant S. sikanniensis and presumably in S. pacificus. Conclusions/Significance In analogy to many modern odontocetes, Shastasaurus is interpreted as a specialized suction feeder on unshelled cephalopods and fish, suggesting a unique but widespread Late Triassic diversification of toothless, suction-feeding ichthyosaurs. Suction feeding has not been hypothesized for any of the other diverse marine reptiles of the Mesozoic before, but in Shastasaurus may be linked to the Late Triassic minimum in atmospheric oxygen. PMID:21625429

Sander, P. Martin; Chen, Xiaohong; Cheng, Long; Wang, Xiaofeng

2011-01-01

43

Respiratory and olfactory turbinals in feliform and caniform carnivorans: the influence of snout length.  

PubMed

To enhance bite force at the canines, feliform carnivorans have short rostra relative to caniform carnivorans. Rostral reduction in feliforms results in less rostrocaudal space for the maxilloturbinals, the complex set of bones involved in conditioning inspired air and conserving water. It is unknown whether the maxilloturbinals might show adaptations to adjust for this loss, such as greater complexity than what is observed in longer snouted caniforms. To understand the impact of rostral shortening on turbinals in feliforms, we used high resolution CT scans to quantify turbinal surface areas (SA) in 16 feliforms and compared them with published data on 20 caniforms. Results indicate that feliforms have reduced maxilloturbinal SA for their body mass relative to caniforms, but comparable fronto-ethmoturbinal SA. However, anterior portions of the ethmoturbinals in feliforms extend forward into the snout and are positioned within the respiratory pathway. When the SA of these anterior ethmoturbinals is added to maxilloturbinal SA to produce an estimated respiratory SA, feliforms and caniforms are similar in respiratory SA. This transfer of ethmoturbinal SA to respiratory function results in feliforms having less estimated olfactory SA relative to caniforms. Previous work on canids found a positive association between olfactory surface area and diet, but this was not found for felids. Results are consistent with feliforms having somewhat reduced olfactory ability relative to caniforms. If confirmed by behavioral data, the relative reduction in olfactory SA in many feliforms may reflect a greater reliance on vision in foraging relative to caniforms. Anat Rec, 297:2065-2079, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25312365

van Valkenburgh, Blaire; Pang, Benison; Bird, Deborah; Curtis, Abigail; Yee, Karen; Wysocki, Charles; Craven, Brent A

2014-11-01

44

Possible pathology in the snout and lower jaw of the Chinese Devonian lungfish, Sorbitorhynchus deleaskitus (Osteichthyes: Dipnoi)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The holotype and only known specimen of Sorbitorhynchus deleaskitus, a large Devonian lungfish from Guangxi, China, is abnormal in the structure of the snout and lower jaw. The tooth plates show marked asymmetry and do not occlude when the jaws are placed in normal articulation. There is a large hemispherical depression with sinus tracts in the bone between the lower

Anne Kemp

1995-01-01

45

Hooking Up and Identity Development of Female College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hooking up generally involves casual sex with noncommittal partners. Hooking up is prevalent on college campuses today and can negatively affect the identity development of female students. The authors examined this phenomenon with a feminist developmental perspective, evaluating hooking up in the context of sexual risk taking with physical and…

Kooyman, Leslie; Pierce, Gloria; Zavadil, Amy

2011-01-01

46

Impacts of grass carp and hybrid carp on aquatic macrophytes and endemic fish populations  

E-print Network

Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) have been suggested as two of the most effective vegetation control agents. Grass carp are endemic to eastern Asia from the Amur River Basin to the West River, Grass carp are now widely distributed as a result of having been... Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) have been suggested as two of the most effective vegetation control agents. Grass carp are endemic to eastern Asia from the Amur River Basin to the West River, Grass carp are now widely distributed as a result of having been...

Luedke, Mark W

2012-06-07

47

The mystery of the curious Crucian carp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most animals can only live for minutes without oxygen -- just try holding your breath and see how long you can go. But, the crucian carp, which is related to the goldfish, can survive for several days with almost no oxygen.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2004-10-01

48

Chromosome set manipulations in the black carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mollusc-eating black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) has economic and health-care potential for biological control of nuisance aquatic molluscs. The present study investigates\\u000a the production of gynogenetic-monosex and triploid-sterile populations of black carp. The goal was to provide a method which\\u000a would eliminate unwanted biological and environmental impacts of introducing this exotic species into areas with nuisance\\u000a mollusc infestation. Meiotic gynogenesis

Shmuel Rothbard; William L. Shelton; Zeev Kulikovsky; Israel Rubinshtein; Yair Hagani; Boaz Moav

1997-01-01

49

Can Soft Water Limit Bighead Carp and Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) Invasions?  

EPA Science Inventory

There is concern that the non-native bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix), now found in many large rivers of the Mississippi River Basin, may spread to other regions. However, evidence suggests that their eggs may not be able to survive in soft ...

50

Relationships among invasive common carp, native fishes and physicochemical characteristics  

E-print Network

). Common carp Cyprinus carpio are distributed worldwide and considered one of the most wide- spread of Freshwater Fish 2011. � 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract ­ Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread

51

A Spring, Hooke's Law, and Archimedes' Principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mass on a spring is a simple and inexpensive device that can be used to demonstrate many important physics concepts. Almost all standard introductory physics lab manuals include at least one or two experiments with a spring.1,2 Most of these experiments explore Hooke's law and simple harmonic motion. We would like to suggest another simple ``spring-based'' experiment that we

Irina Struganova

2005-01-01

52

Toxicity of synthetic and biological insecticides against adults of the Eucalyptus snout-beetle Gonipterus scutellatus Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicity by contact and by ingestion of lufenuron, flufenoxuron, lambda (?)-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, thiamethoxam and five\\u000a entomopathogenic insecticides (three formulations of Beauveria bassiana, a compound containing spores of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum, and a mixture of Brevibacillus laterosporus, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus chitinosporus) were evaluated on adults of the Eucalyptus snout-beetle Gonipterus scutellatus Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) under laboratory conditions. By contact,

Derian Echeverri-Molina; Serena Santolamazza-Carbone

2010-01-01

53

571Tempero et al.--Age, growth and reproduction of koi carp Age composition, growth, and reproduction of koi carp  

E-print Network

, and reproduction of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the lower Waikato region, New Zealand GrAnT W. Tempero nichol, new Zealand email: nling@waikato.ac.nz Abstract A total of 566 koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) from; age; growth; invasive species; maturity; fecundity INTRODUCTION common carp (Cyprinus carpio l

Waikato, University of

54

Hook-up Sexual Experiences and Problem Behaviors Among Adolescents  

PubMed Central

This study focused on the sexual phenomenon of “hooking-up.” A hook-up is defined as a single sexual encounter that may or may not include sexual intercourse with someone who is a stranger, brief acquaintance, or friend. The aim of this study was to document the prevalence of hook-ups in a sample of 1,011 urban, middle and high school students and to examine the relationship between hooking-up and a variety of problem behaviors, including, alcohol, cigarette, illicit drug use, truancy, and school suspensions. The results revealed that 28% of the sample had engaged in at least one hook-up experience, and this percentage increased with age. Hook-ups were correlated moderately with all problem behaviors examined. PMID:22039333

Fortunato, Leanna; Young, Amy M.; Boyd, Carol J.; Fons, Courntey E.

2011-01-01

55

Physiological changes in carps induced by pollution  

SciTech Connect

Several pollutants like DDT, atrazine, PCP, and others induce changes of cortisol and glucose levels in serum, variations of the amount of liver glycogen and liver function, and exert changes of the activity of gill ATPase and acetylcholinesterase in brain and serum of carps. There is always a biphasic response, an increase of concentration or enzyme activity for a short time, and a decrease or inhibition of the enzymes after a longer exposure to the pollutants. The time scale, the duration of the period of increase and that of decrease, depends on the concentration and the toxicity of the pollutants. The influence of the pollutants in normal fresh water was compared with the effects occurring in carps acclimated to 1.2% salt water. This condition enables one to show that the carps are more sensitive to the pollutants under this condition. All responses are unspecific. Advice for the use of these tests as criteria for water quality are given.

Hanke, W.; Gluth, G.; Bubel, H.; Mueller, R.

1983-04-01

56

Hook nozzle arrangement for supporting airfoil vanes  

DOEpatents

A gas turbine engine's nozzle structure includes a nozzle support ring, a plurality of shroud segments, and a plurality of airfoil vanes. The plurality of shroud segments are distributed around the nozzle support ring. Each airfoil vane is connected to a corresponding shroud segment so that the airfoil vanes are also distributed around the nozzle support ring. Each shroud segment has a hook engaging the nozzle support ring so that the shroud segments and corresponding airfoil vanes are supported by the nozzle support ring. The nozzle support ring, the shroud segments, and the airfoil vanes may be ceramic.

Shaffer, James E. (Maitland, FL); Norton, Paul F. (San Diego, CA)

1996-01-01

57

Anharmonic vibrations of an ''ideal'' Hooke's law oscillator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vibrations of a mass connected to fixed supports by two ''ideal'' Hooke's law springs are considered. Although the longitudinal vibrations of this system are always harmonic, the transverse vibrations are, in general, anharmonic even though both springs obey Hooke's law. In fact, it is found that as the supports are brought together, allowing the springs to become slack, the

John Thomchick; J. P. McKelvey

1978-01-01

58

Consistency Analysis of Authorization Hook Placement in the Linux Security  

E-print Network

Consistency Analysis of Authorization Hook Placement in the Linux Security Modules Framework TRENT Research Center We present a consistency analysis approach to assist the Linux community in verifying the cor- rectness of authorization hook placement in the Linux Security Modules (LSM) framework. The LSM

Yener, Aylin

59

Comparative Genomics of Carp Herpesviruses  

PubMed Central

Three alloherpesviruses are known to cause disease in cyprinid fish: cyprinid herpesviruses 1 and 3 (CyHV1 and CyHV3) in common carp and koi and cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV2) in goldfish. We have determined the genome sequences of CyHV1 and CyHV2 and compared them with the published CyHV3 sequence. The CyHV1 and CyHV2 genomes are 291,144 and 290,304 bp, respectively, in size, and thus the CyHV3 genome, at 295,146 bp, remains the largest recorded among the herpesviruses. Each of the three genomes consists of a unique region flanked at each terminus by a sizeable direct repeat. The CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 genomes are predicted to contain 137, 150, and 155 unique, functional protein-coding genes, respectively, of which six, four, and eight, respectively, are duplicated in the terminal repeat. The three viruses share 120 orthologous genes in a largely colinear arrangement, of which up to 55 are also conserved in the other member of the genus Cyprinivirus, anguillid herpesvirus 1. Twelve genes are conserved convincingly in all sequenced alloherpesviruses, and two others are conserved marginally. The reference CyHV3 strain has been reported to contain five fragmented genes that are presumably nonfunctional. The CyHV2 strain has two fragmented genes, and the CyHV1 strain has none. CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 have five, six, and five families of paralogous genes, respectively. One family unique to CyHV1 is related to cellular JUNB, which encodes a transcription factor involved in oncogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the first time that JUNB-related sequences have been reported in a herpesvirus. PMID:23269803

Kurobe, Tomofumi; Gatherer, Derek; Cunningham, Charles; Korf, Ian; Fukuda, Hideo; Hedrick, Ronald P.; Waltzek, Thomas B.

2013-01-01

60

Management and Ecological Note Effects of hook type on injury and capture efficiency of rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris, angled in south-eastern Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

The injury rates, hooking efficiency, and mortality in rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris Rafinesque, angled using circle hooks and three conventional hook types were compared. Circle hooks have only recently been introduced to recreational fisheries and differ substan- tially from other hook designs. Unlike conventional hooks, the point of a circle hook bends back towards the shank of the hook such

S. J. C OOKE; B. L. B ARTHEL; C. D. S USKI

61

Experience fusion: the next challenge for CARPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CARPE research community has been addressing the very interesting question of how to effectively capture, archive, and retrieve personal experiences. The vision has been to provide people with a super-diary or Memex device that captures all one's experiences in multimedia form and provides easy ways to index, search, navigate, and even virtually relive relevant portions of experiences. The primary

Gopal Pingali

2006-01-01

62

Cadmium-binding protein (metallothionein) in carp  

SciTech Connect

When carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to 5 and 30 ppm Cd in the water, the contents of Cd-binding protein, which has low molecular weight, increased in the hepatopancreas, kidney, gills and gastrointestinal tract with duration of exposure. This Cd-binding protein was purified from hepatopancreas, kidney, gills, and spleen of carp administered 2 mg/kg Cd (as CdCl/sub 2/), intraperitoneally for 6 days. Two Cd-binding proteins were separated by DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column chromatography. These proteins had Cd-mercaptide bond, high cysteine contents (ca. 29-34%), but no aromatic amino acids or histidine. From these characteristics the Cd-binding proteins were identified as metallothionein. By using antiserum obtained from a rabbit to which carp hepatopancreas MT-II had been administered, immunological characteristics between hepatopancreas MT-I, II and kidney MT-II were studied, and a slight difference in antigenic determinant was observed among them. By immunological staining techniques with horseradish peroxidase, the localization of metallothionein was investigated. Carp were bred in 1 ppm Cd, 5 ppm Zn solution, and tap water for 14 days, following transfer to 15 ppm Cd solution, respectively. The survival ratio was the highest in the Zn group followed by Cd-treated and control groups.

Kito, H.; Ose, Y.; Sato, T.

1986-03-01

63

Why and how CARPE should be personal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the significance of modeling human personalities is analyzed for improving the value proposition of solutions for Capturing, Archiving and Retrieval of Personal Experiences (CARPE). Differences in human personalities have a significant and often an overriding impact on how raw events are linked and organized into threads of experiences. Recommendations and predictions are presented on how existing technologies

Leslie G. Seymour

2005-01-01

64

Transcriptome Analysis and SSR/SNP Markers Information of the Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala)  

PubMed Central

Background Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) is an herbivorous freshwater fish species native to China and has been recognized as a main aquaculture species in the Chinese freshwater polyculture system with high economic value. Right now, only limited EST resources were available for M. amblycephala. Recent advances in large-scale RNA sequencing provide a fast, cost-effective, and reliable approach to generate large expression datasets for functional genomic analysis, which is especially suitable for non-model species with un-sequenced genomes. Methodology and Principal Findings Using 454 pyrosequencing, a total of 1,409,706 high quality reads (total length 577 Mbp) were generated from the normalized cDNA of pooled M. amblycephala individuals. These sequences were assembled into 26,802 contigs and 73,675 singletons. After BLAST searches against the NCBI non-redundant (NR) and UniProt databases with an arbitrary expectation value of E?10, over 40,000 unigenes were functionally annotated and classified using the FunCat functional annotation scheme. A comparative genomics approach revealed a substantial proportion of genes expressed in M. amblycephala tanscriptome to be shared across the genomes of zebrafish, medaka, tetraodon, fugu, stickleback, human, mouse, and chicken, and identified a substantial number of potentially novel M. amblycephala genes. A total number of 4,952 SSRs were found and 116 polymorphic loci have been characterized. A significant number of SNPs (25,697) and indels (23,287) were identified based on specific filter criteria in the M. amblycephala. Conclusions This study is the first comprehensive transcriptome analysis for a fish species belonging to the genus Megalobrama. These large EST resources are expected to be valuable for the development of molecular markers, construction of gene-based linkage map, and large-scale expression analysis of M. amblycephala, as well as comparative genome analysis for the genus Megalobrama fish species. The identified SSR and SNP markers will greatly benefit its breeding program and whole genome association studies. PMID:22880060

Liu, Hong; Zeng, Cong; Liu, Xiaolian; Yi, Shaokui; Wang, Weimin

2012-01-01

65

Predator-induced morphology enhances escape locomotion in crucian carp  

PubMed Central

Fishes show a remarkable diversity of shapes which have been associated with their swimming abilities and anti-predator adaptations. The crucian carp (Carassius carassius) provides an extreme example of phenotypic plasticity in body shape which makes it a unique model organism for evaluating the relationship between body form and function in fishes. In crucian carp, a deep body is induced by the presence of pike (Esox lucius), and this results in lower vulnerability to gape-limited predators, such as pike itself. Here, we demonstrate that deep-bodied crucian carp attain higher speed, acceleration and turning rate during anti-predator responses than shallow-bodied crucian carp. Therefore, a predator-induced morphology in crucian carp enhances their escape locomotor performance. The deep-bodied carp also show higher percentage of muscle mass. Therefore, their superior performance in escape swimming may be due to a combination of higher muscle power and higher thrust. PMID:17971327

Domenici, Paolo; Turesson, Hakan; Brodersen, Jakob; Bronmark, Christer

2007-01-01

66

Genetics might determine which smokers get hooked  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have identified genetic risk factors that may accelerate a teen's progression to becoming a lifelong heavy smoker. The team of scientists from the U.S., the U.K., and New Zealand examined earlier studies by other research teams to develop a genetic risk profile for heavy smoking. Then they looked at their own long-term study of 1,000 New Zealanders from birth to age 38 to identify whether individuals at high genetic risk got hooked on cigarettes more quickly as teens and whether, as adults, they had a harder time quitting. Duke University researchers developed a new "genetic risk score" for the study by examining prior genome-wide associations (GWAS) of adult smokers. Duke is home to the Duke Cancer Institute.

67

Subluxated lens: phacoemulsification with iris hooks.  

PubMed

We describe a technique to manage subluxated cataracts with the use of 4 or 5 disposable nylon iris hooks placed on the capsulorhexis edge to support the lens and stabilize the capsular bag during phacoemulsification. The use of an endocapsular tension ring provides excellent centration of the capsular bag, enabling endocapsular intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Sixteen eyes with zonular dialysis between 90 degrees and 180 degrees had surgery with this technique. The mean visual acuity significantly improved from 0.26 +/- 0.18 to 0.68 +/- 0.33 (P<.001). The surgeries were uneventful. Postoperative complications included cystoid macular edema 5 months after surgery in 1 eye and slight IOL dislocation with no symptoms detected 2 months after surgery in 4 eyes. The technique appears to be safe, ensuring a stable IOL with reduced surgical risks. PMID:14709283

Santoro, Severino; Sannace, Carmela; Cascella, Maria Caterina; Lavermicocca, Nicola

2003-12-01

68

Experimental Hydrodynamics of Turning Maneuvers in Koi Carps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental hydrodynamics of two types of turning maneuvers in koi carps (cyprinus carpio koi) are studied. The flow patterns generated by koi carps during turning are quantified by using digital particle image velocimetry. Based on the velocity fields measured, the momentums in the wake and the impulsive moments exerted on the carps are estimated. On the other hand, turning rates and radii, and moments of inertia of the carps including added mass during turning are obtained by processing the images recorded. Comparisons of the impulsive moments and moments of inertia show good agreements.

Wu, G. H.; Yang, Y.; Zeng, L. J.

69

Laminar hook instrumentation in the cervical spine. An experimental study on the relation of hooks to the spinal cord.  

PubMed

Several anterior and posterior methods are today available for stabilization of the cervical spine. Factors such as level and degree of instability, method of decompression, bone quality, length of fixation and safety factors influence the choice of method for a particular patient. The use of laminar hooks in the cervical spine has been restricted by fear of cord compression with the potential of tetraplegia. The aim of the present study was to assess the safety and determine the anatomical relation between hooks inserted in the cervical spinal canal and the dura and spinal cord. Thirteen cadavers from seven women and six men with no evidence of cervical spine disorder were included. The mean age was 81.3 years (range 65-101 years). The cervical spine was instrumented with cervical Compact Cotrel Dubousset hooks and rods. The effect of the hook on the dura was studied by myelography in nine cadavers. The deformation of the dural sac was quantified by measurement of the maximal width of the indentation of the contrast column at each level. A CT myelography scan was obtained in three cadavers. The ratio between the distance of maximal hook intrusion into the spinal canal and the canal diameter in the direction of the hook was calculated. The relation between inserted hooks and the spinal cord and dura was documented in a fresh cadaver studied with CT myelography. A hemilaminectomy was performed at all levels in three cadavers with direct visual inspection and photography of the hook sites before and after excision of the dura. A dural deformation of 2 mm or less, as observed by myelography, was found at four out of 77 (5%) hook sites. The deformation was caused by a supralaminar hook at C3, C6 and C7 and by an infralaminar hook at C6. The mean hook intrusion in the spinal canal, as observed on CT, was 27% (range 8-43) of the canal diameter. On visual inspection, 14 out of 18 hooks were in contact with the dura. After removal of the dura, two out of the 18 hooks in the same cadaver were in contact with the spinal cord. However, no deformation of the cord was observed. To our knowledge this is the first study systematically documenting the relation between hooks and the spinal cord in cadavers. In 95% of the hooks no deformation of the dural sac was observed and there was no evidence of spinal cord deformation. From an anatomical point of view, laminar hook instrumentation can be considered a safe procedure. The study shows, however, that hooks inserted in the cervical spine have a close anatomical relationship with the neuraxis, and at stenotic levels the use of other techniques is therefore recommended. PMID:11563621

Fagerström, T; Hedlund, R; Bancel, P; Robert, R; Dupas, B

2001-08-01

70

Use of eyeballs for establishing ploidy of Asian carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and bighead carp H. nobilis are now established and relatively common in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers. Commercial fishers of Louisiana's large rivers report recurrent catches of grass carp, and the frequency of bighead carp and silver carp catch is increasing. Twelve black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus were recently captured from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River system, and 10 were analyzed for ploidy. By using the methods described herein, all 10 fish were determined to be diploid. Such correct identifications of ploidy of feral Asian carp species, as well as other species, would provide science-based information constructive for meeting reporting requirements, tracking fish movements, and forecasting expansion of species distribution. To investigate the postmortem period for sample collection and to lessen demands on field operations for obtaining samples, a laboratory study was performed to determine the length of time for which eyeballs from postmortem black carp could be used for ploidy determinations. Acquiring eyes rather than blood is simpler and quicker and requires no special supplies. An internal DNA reference standard with a documented genome size, including erythrocytes from diploid black carp or Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, was analyzed simultaneously with cells from seven known triploid black carp to assess ploidy through 12 d after extraction. Ploidy determinations were reliable through 8 d postmortem. The field process entails excision of an eyeball, storage in a physiological buffer, and shipment within 8 d at refrigeration temperatures (4??C) to the laboratory for analysis by flow cytometry. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

Jenkins, J.A.; Thomas, R.G.

2007-01-01

71

Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation  

SciTech Connect

Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance and reducing perturbations induced by this invasive species.

Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.

2011-12-01

72

5. View of typical construction detail, including hook, at south ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. View of typical construction detail, including hook, at south west lower base, looking from north west. - General Dynamics Corporation Shipyard, XYZ Crane & Towers, 97 East Howard Street, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

73

Bohlin transformation: the hidden symmetry that connects Hooke to Newton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hooke's name is familiar to students of mechanics thanks to the law of force that bears his name. Less well-known is the influence his findings had on the founder of mechanics, Isaac Newton. In a lecture given some twenty years ago, W Arnol'd pointed out the outstanding contribution to science made by Hooke, and also noted the controversial issue of the attribution of important discoveries to Newton that were actually inspired by Hooke. It therefore seems ironic that the two most famous force laws, named after Hooke and Newton, are two geometrical aspects of the same law. This relationship, together with other illuminating aspects of Newtonian mechanics, is described in Arnol'd's book and is worth remembering in standard physics courses. In this didactical paper the duality of the two forces is expounded and an account of the more recent contributions to the subject is given.

Saggio, Maria Luisa

2013-01-01

74

29 CFR 1915.113 - Shackles and hooks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Gear and Equipment for Rigging and Materials Handling § 1915.113 Shackles and hooks. The provisions of this section shall apply to ship...

2011-07-01

75

29 CFR 1915.113 - Shackles and hooks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Gear and Equipment for Rigging and Materials Handling § 1915.113 Shackles and hooks. The provisions of this section shall apply to ship...

2010-07-01

76

29 CFR 1915.113 - Shackles and hooks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Gear and Equipment for Rigging and Materials Handling § 1915.113 Shackles and hooks. The provisions of this section shall apply to ship...

2013-07-01

77

29 CFR 1915.113 - Shackles and hooks.  

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Gear and Equipment for Rigging and Materials Handling § 1915.113 Shackles and hooks. The provisions of this section shall apply to ship...

2014-07-01

78

29 CFR 1915.113 - Shackles and hooks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Gear and Equipment for Rigging and Materials Handling § 1915.113 Shackles and hooks. The provisions of this section shall apply to ship...

2012-07-01

79

Relationship between tornadoes and hook echoes on April 3, 1974  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radar observations of tornado families occurring on April 3, 1974 are discussed. Of the 93 tornadoes included in the sample, 81% were associated with hook-like echoes with appendages at least 40 deg to the south of the echo movement. At least one tornado was associated with 62% of the hook-like echoes observed. All of the tornadoes with intensities of F 4 and F 5 were produced by hook-like echoes; the mean intensity of all tornadoes associated with this type of echo was F 3, while the mean intensity of the remaining tornadoes was F1. The tornadic hook-like echoes moved to the right of the non-tornadic echoes forming a tornado line in advance of the squall line. Some tornadoes were associated with 'spiral' echoes.

Forbes, G. S.

1975-01-01

80

The carp-goldfish nucleocytoplasmic hybrid has mitochondria from the carp as the nuclear donor species.  

PubMed

It is widely accepted that mitochondria and its DNA (mtDNA) exhibit strict maternal inheritance, with sperm contributing no or non-detectable mitochondria to the next generation. In fish, nuclear transfer (NT) through the combination of a donor nucleus and an enucleated oocyte can produce fertile nucleocytoplasmic hybrids (NCHs) even between different genera and subfamilies. One of the best studied fish NCHs is CyCa produced by transplanting the nuclei plus cytoplasm from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis) into the oocytes of the wild goldfish (Carassius auratus), which has been propagated by self-mating for three generations. These NCH fish thus provide a unique model to study the origin of mitochondria. Here we report the complete mtDNA sequence of the CyCa hybrid and its parental species carp and goldfish as nuclear donor and cytoplasm host, respectively. Interestingly, the mtDNA of NCH fish CyCa is 99.69% identical to the nuclear donor species carp, and 89.25% identical to the oocyte host species goldfish. Furthermore, an amino acid sequence comparison of 13 mitochondrial proteins reveals that CyCa is 99.68% identical to the carp and 87.68% identical to the goldfish. On an mtDNA-based phylogenetic tree, CyCa is clustered with the carp but separated from the goldfish. A real-time PCR analysis revealed the presence of carp mtDNA but the absence of goldfish mtDNA. These results demonstrate--for the first time to our knowledge--that the mtDNA of a NCH such as CyCa fish may originate from its nuclear donor rather than its oocyte host. PMID:24365595

Hu, Guangfu; Zou, Guiwei; Liu, Xiangjiang; Liang, Hongwei; Li, Zhong; Hu, Shaona

2014-02-25

81

[Gibbous hand deformity--carpe bossu].  

PubMed

Fiolle (10) was the first to describe a bony protuberance of a carpometacarpal joint and named it carpe bossu. This anomalous anatomical condition occasionally becomes a--widely unknown--common clinical entity. The reasons are discussed. The clinical diagnosis can be confirmed by a lateral tangential radiograph. Discomfort and pain are rare and can be treated usually by conservative means, surgery is seldom indicated. PMID:1826387

Hermann, B; von Torklus, D

1991-01-01

82

Performance of barbed and barbless hooks in a marine recreational fishery  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used an angling study to examine catch per unit effort (CPUE), bait loss, and total landings by anglers fishing with natural bait on barbed and barbless hooks in a nearshore marine sport fishery located in the Gulf of Mexico near St. Petersburg, Florida. Anglers fished half the day with a barbed hook and half the day with a barbless hook. We also recorded anatomical hook placement, severity of injury or bleeding, and hook extraction times for each landed fish. Bait loss, CPUE, and mean length of catch did not differ between gears, but anglers landed 22% more fish with barbed hooks. Loss of hooked fish was significantly higher with barbless hooks, and efficiency appeared to vary among species. Mean unhooking times were significantly shorter with barbless hooks. Anatomical hook placement did not differ between gears and most fish were hooked in the jaws. Bleeding did not differ between gears because bleeding was influenced strongly by hook placement, but barbless hooks reduced unhooking injuries. In this fishery, barbless hooks probably did not reduce hooking mortality and conferred only slight benefits at the expense of reduced catches.

Schaeffer, Jeffrey S.; Hoffman, Elizabeth M.

2002-01-01

83

GRASS CARP AS A POTENTIAL CONTROL AGENT FOR CATTAILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Replicate ponds were stocked with grass carp in May 1982 and a fence exclosure placed in each pond to assess the effects of this herbivorous fish on the cattail community. Stocking rate of grass carp four individuals oer pond each membership 18-23 cm in total length. In August 19...

84

Postprandial metabolic changes in larval and juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

E-print Network

Postprandial metabolic changes in larval and juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio). S. J. KAUSHIK K of the model were affected by body weight. Introduction. Attempts to feed carp (Cyprinus carpio) larvae and methods. Eggs of Cyprinus carpio obtained by artificial spawning were hatched in the laboratory (20 °C

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

85

Distribution of populations of broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris, Daudin 1802, Alligatoridae) in the São Francisco River basin, Brazil.  

PubMed

We surveyed populations of the broad-snouted caiman, Caiman latirostris, throughout the São Francisco River basin, from Três Marias reservoir, State of Minas Gerais, to the river delta, at the boarder of Sergipe and Alagoas states. We registered the occurrence of crocodilians in 61% of all surveyed localities (n = 64), in which the presence of C. latirostris was confirmed in 44% of the surveyed sites. Caimans occurred in both lentic and lotic habitats, although there was a preference for small dams, oxbow lakes and wetlands. Despite the hunting pressure and human impact on natural habitats, our results indicate that the populations of C. latirostris in the São Francisco basin are not fragmented. PMID:21180900

Filogonio, R; Assis, V B; Passos, L F; Coutinho, M E

2010-11-01

86

Molecular cloning and function analysis of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1a in blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).  

PubMed

Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1), a hypoxia-induced protein, is a member of the IGFBP family that regulates vertebrate growth and development. In this study, full-length IGFBP-1a cDNA was cloned from a hypoxia-sensitive Cyprinidae fish species, the blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). IGFBP-1a was expressed in various organs of adult blunt snout bream, including strongly in the liver and weakly in the gonads. Under hypoxia, IGFBP-1a mRNA levels increased sharply in the skin, liver, kidney, spleen, intestine and heart tissues of juvenile blunt snout bream, but recovered to normal levels after 24-hour exposure to normal dissolved oxygen. In blunt snout bream embryos, IGFBP-1a mRNA was expressed at very low levels at both four and eight hours post-fertilization, and strongly at later stages. Embryonic growth and development rates decreased significantly in embryos injected with IGFBP-1a mRNA. The average body length of IGFBP-1a-overexpressed embryos was 82.4% of that of the control group, and somite numbers decreased to 85.2%. These findings suggest that hypoxia-induced IGFBP-1a may inhibit growth in this species under hypoxic conditions. PMID:25017749

Tian, Yu-Mei; Chen, Jie; Tao, Yang; Jiang, Xia-Yun; Zou, Shu-Ming

2014-07-18

87

Genotoxicity of the herbicide formulation Roundup ® (glyphosate) in broad-snouted caiman ( Caiman latirostris) evidenced by the Comet assay and the Micronucleus test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genotoxicity of pesticides is an issue of worldwide concern. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the genotoxic potential of a widely used herbicide formulation, Roundup® (glyphosate), in erythrocytes of broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) after in ovo exposure. Caiman embryos were exposed at early embryonic stage to different sub-lethal concentrations of Roundup® (50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 750,

G. L. Poletta; A. Larriera; E. Kleinsorge; M. D. Mudry

2009-01-01

88

Trigeminal Lesions and Maternal Behavior in Norway Rats: I. Effects of Cutaneous Rostral Snout Denervation on Maintenance of Nurturance and Maternal Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cutaneous desensitization of the upper, rostral snout by bilateral section of the infraorbital nerves in lactating Norway rat dams markedly, but transiently, disrupted retrieval and licking of pups, nursing behavior, and fighting with a strange male intruder. Removal of the mystacial vibrissae, which provide major inputs to the infraorbital nerves, or cutaneous desensitization of the chin by bilateral sectioning of

Judith M. Stern; Jane M. Kolunie

1991-01-01

89

An evaluation of low-density introductions of triploid grass carp in vegetated small sportfishing impoundments  

E-print Network

date, number of triploid grass carp stocked, mean triploid grass carp total length (mm), mean weight (g) and density per surface hectare and vegetated hectare. 14 July 1991, 1992, and 1993 physicochemical data for Lake Jackson, Sandstone, Lower... and Wike 1986). Vegetation consumption rates for triploid grass carp and diploid grass carp were found to be comparable (Wattendorf and Anderson 1987; Wiley and Wike 1986). Triploid grass carp are presumed to be functionally sterile, therefore making...

Blackwell, Brian Gene

2012-06-07

90

Genetic Diversity of and Differentiation among Five Populations of Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) Revealed by SRAP Markers: Implications for Conservation and Management  

PubMed Central

The blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) is an important freshwater aquaculture fish throughout China. Because of widespread introductions of this species to many regions, the genetic diversity of wild and natural populations is now threatened. In the present study, SRAP (sequence-related amplified polymorphism) markers were used to assess genetic diversity of blunt snout bream. Three natural populations (Liangzi Lake, Poyang Lake and Yuni Lake, one cultured population (Nanxian) and one genetic strain (‘Pujiang No. 1’) of blunt snout bream were screened with 88 SRAP primer combinations, of which 13 primer pairs produced stable and reproducible amplification patterns. In total, 172 bands were produced, of which 132 bands were polymorphic. Nei's gene diversity (h) and Shannon's information index (I) values provided evidence of differences in genetic diversity among the five populations (Poyang Lake>Liangzi Lake>Nanxian>‘Pujiang No. 1’>Yuni Lake). Based on cluster analysis conducted on genetic distance values, the five blunt snout bream populations were divided into three groups, Poyang Lake and Liangzi Lake (natural populations), Nanxian and ‘Pujiang No. 1’ (cultured population and genetically selected strain), and Yuni Lake (natural population). Significant genetic differentiation was found among the five populations using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), with more genetic divergence existing among populations (55.49%), than within populations (44.51%). This molecular marker technique is a simple and efficient method to quantify genetic diversity within and among fish populations, and is employed here to help manage and conserve germplasm variability of blunt snout bream and to support the ongoing selective breeding programme for this fish. PMID:25265288

Ran, Wei; Gardner, Jonathan P. A.; Wei, Kai-Jian; Wang, Wei-Min; Zou, Gui-Wei

2014-01-01

91

Eos Interviews Robert Van Hook, Former AGU Interim Executive Director  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Robert Van Hook, who served as AGU's interim executive director since January 2009, led the organization during a transition period that began with the retirement of long-serving executive director A. F. (“Fred”) Spilhaus Jr. Van Hook's tenure concluded on 30 August when Christine McEntee assumed her position as AGU's new executive director (see Eos, 91(17), 153, 156, 2010). During his tenure at AGU, which overlapped with a global economic recession, Van Hook helped to guide the organization through key structural governance changes, strategic planning, and upgrades in technology, human resources, and accounting. He also helped to revitalize public outreach and member services, among many other efforts. Van Hook, president of Transition Management Consulting, recently reflected upon his tenure, the transition period, and the future of AGU. Van Hook credits AGU's strong volunteer leadership—including past presidents Tim Killeen and Tim Grove, current president Mike McPhaden, and president-elect Carol Finn—for courage in moving the organization through a successful transition. “They were the ones who shoved the boat off from the shore. I was lucky enough to be invited into the boat,” he said. He also credits the staff for their resiliency and commitment to supporting AGU's science.

Showstack, Randy

2010-08-01

92

Exotic Newton-Hooke group, noncommutative plane and superconformal symmetry  

E-print Network

In this thesis some systems with exotic symmetries, which are a peculiarity in 2+1 space-time dimensions, are studied. Coded in the exotic structure, there appear noncommutative coordinates and a phases structure. This kind of systems has attracted attention from different areas of physics independently. Among them, we can mention: theory of ray representations of Lie groups, anyon physics, some condensed matter systems, for instance the quantum Hall effect, planar gauge and gravitation theories, noncommutative field theory, noncommutative geometry, and noncommutative quantum mechanics. We focus our study in some topics on exotic nonrelativistic symmetries, such as the exotic Newton-Hooke group, the relation between such systems and the noncommutative Landau problem, the symmetries of noncommutative Landau problem, and of its supersymmetric extension. The exotic Newton-Hooke group corresponds to the nonrelativistic limit of the de Sitter groups, and has as a particular, flat limit the exotic Galilei group. For the exotic Newton-Hooke symmetry, we construct a free particle action, and realize a complete study of its classical and quantum properties. The Newton-Hooke system is intimately related with the noncommutative Landau problem, which we study apart. We show that the inclusion of spin degrees of freedom in the noncommutative Landau problem produces a natural integration of the exotic Newton-Hooke group with the conformal symmetry and supersymmetry.

Pedro D. Alvarez

2009-09-08

93

EAARL Coastal Topography - Sandy Hook 2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of Gateway National Recreation Area's Sandy Hook Unit in New Jersey, acquired on May 16, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for pre-survey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that represent submerged or first surface topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation from a point cloud of last return elevations.

Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.

2008-01-01

94

Newton–Hooke-type symmetry of anisotropic oscillators  

SciTech Connect

Rotation-less Newton–Hooke-type symmetry, found recently in the Hill problem, and instrumental for explaining the center-of-mass decomposition, is generalized to an arbitrary anisotropic oscillator in the plane. Conversely, the latter system is shown, by the orbit method, to be the most general one with such a symmetry. Full Newton–Hooke symmetry is recovered in the isotropic case. Star escape from a galaxy is studied as an application. -- Highlights: ? Rotation-less Newton–Hooke (NH) symmetry is generalized to an arbitrary anisotropic oscillator. ? The orbit method is used to find the most general case for rotation-less NH symmetry. ? The NH symmetry is decomposed into Heisenberg algebras based on chiral decomposition.

Zhang, P.M., E-mail: zhpm@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Horvathy, P.A., E-mail: horvathy@lmpt.univ-tours.fr [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Laboratoire de Mathématiques et de Physique Théorique, Université de Tours (France); Andrzejewski, K., E-mail: k-andrzejewski@uni.lodz.pl [Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Lodz (Poland); Gonera, J., E-mail: jgonera@uni.lodz.pl [Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Lodz (Poland); Kosi?ski, P., E-mail: pkosinsk@uni.lodz.pl [Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Lodz (Poland)

2013-06-15

95

Anti-stress properties and two HSP70s mRNA expressions of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) fed with all-plant-based diet.  

PubMed

The influence of all-plant-based diet on fingerling blunt snout breams (Megalobrama amblycephala) was tested by examining growth performance, anti-stress properties and related gene expression. Healthy fish were randomly divided into triplicate groups per dietary treatment and fed with different formulated diets. The results showed that both weight gain, specific growth rate and protein efficiency ratio of all-plant-based diet group were significant higher than those of the control (p < 0.05). In contrast, FCR of all-plant-based diet group was significantly lower than that of the control (p < 0.05). Therefore, all-plant-based diets could not affect the growth performance of blunt snout breams. Compared to the control group, the lysozyme levels in serum and mucus, and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase activities in serum and liver decreased significantly (p < 0.05). In contrast, the glutamic-pyruvic transaminase activities in serum and liver increased significantly (p < 0.05). For blunt snout breams fed with all-plant-based diets, the superoxide dismutase activities in mucus, serum and liver as well as catalase activity in serum and liver were decreased significantly (p < 0.05) comparing with that of the control group. But malondialdehyde contents were higher (p < 0.05) in serum and liver than that of control group. The expression of HSC70 mRNA increased significantly (p < 0.05) in blunt snout breams fed with all-plant-based diet, whereas the HSP70 mRNA expression decreased significantly (p < 0.05) when compared with control group. In conclusion, all these results indicated that the application of all-plant-based diet could decrease the anti-stress properties (non-specific immunity, stress resistance and antioxidant ability) and HSP70 mRNA expression in blunt snout breams fingerling. Although all-plant-based diets could not affect the growth performance of blunt snout breams, the application of all-plant-based diet should be discreet in the production practice. PMID:24254296

Deng, Wei; Zhao, Yuhua; Wang, Weimin; Gul, Yasmeen; Cao, Junming; Huang, Yanhua; Sheng, Guangcheng; Ding, Zhujin; Du, Rui

2014-06-01

96

Conformal Newton-Hooke symmetry of Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator  

E-print Network

It is demonstrated that the Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator in arbitrary dimension enjoys the l-conformal Newton-Hooke symmetry provided frequencies of oscillation form the arithmetic sequence omega_k=(2k-1) omega_1, where k=1,...,n, and l is the half-integer (2n-1)/2. The model is shown to be maximally superintegrable. A link to n decoupled isotropic oscillators is discussed and an interplay between the l-conformal Newton-Hooke symmetry and symmetries characterizing each individual isotropic oscillator is analyzed.

Krzysztof Andrzejewski; Anton Galajinsky; Joanna Gonera; Ivan Masterov

2014-02-06

97

Photocontrol of Hook Opening in Cuscuta gronovii Willd 1  

PubMed Central

Hook opening in seedlings of Cuscuta gronovii Willd. occurred only after prolonged exposures to blue, red, or far red light. Prolonged far red exposure was less effective than prolonged exposure to red or blue light. Brief far red irradiation inhibited the inductive effect of red light. The far red inhibition was in turn reversed by brief red irradiation. These effects suggest the involvement of two photosystems in the control of hook opening in Cuscuta gronovii Willd.: a phytochrome-mediated system and a separate high energy requirement. PMID:16658751

Kujawski, Ronald F.; Truscott, F. H.

1974-01-01

98

BOOK REVIEW: Robert Hooke and the Royal Society  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many physics students only come across Hooke when they learn his law of stretching springs, which is a pity because it is just one of his contributions to progress in science, and a minor one at that. His, Micrographia, the first great book of microscopical observations, arouses admiration to this day. He was also active in horology, astronomy, geology and surveying, and he took part in biological experiments, transfusing blood between animals. Much of his work was done while he was curator of experiments for the Royal Society, in which he was involved almost from its foundation. This was by no means a full-time occupation, however. After the Great Fire of London, Hooke was appointed one of the three surveyors for the rebuilding of the city. One of the others was Christopher Wren, a lifelong friend. In this role Hooke was responsible for the design of several buildings, including the Monument. Nichols writes about all these activities, as well as Hooke's childhood, his education at Westminster School, the University of Oxford when Hooke was an undergraduate, and the founding of the Royal Society. The book draws on research for a master's degree. Turning a dissertation into a popular book is risky. The author has avoided the pitfall of making it too academic, but the result is not satisfying. Nichols seems overawed by Hooke and his work, frequently seeming to credit Hooke with a far-reaching influence that he did not necessarily have. There may be a case for lauding Hooke as the father of English microscopy, the father of English meteorology, and the founder of English geology and earth sciences, but it needs to be made much more critically, even in a popular work. Hooke was full of good ideas, but he rarely continued long enough to put them into practice. There is no doubt that Hooke proposed using a balance wheel and spring to improve the timekeeping of a watch, for example, but he did not have a watch made to his design until after Christiaan Huygens had independently devised a similar mechanism and published it. Hooke did propose a marine chronometer to solve the (already well understood) problem of finding longitude at sea, but it was John Harrison, decades later, who built a chronometer, and there is not the slightest reason to believe he owed anything to Hooke. The book records Hooke's activities, but is devoid of comment or analysis. The casual cruelty (by modern standards) to the animals used in the blood transfusion experiments passes without remark. The chapter about Oxford University reads almost like entries from a biographical dictionary. The purpose of this and the following chapter on the founding of the Royal Society only becomes apparent at the end, if the reader has not lost interest by then. Expert opinion acknowledges that the popular belief that Wren was primarily responsible for the rebuilding of the City of London undervalues Hooke's work, but Nichols, in his unwavering support for Hooke, glosses over the genuine problems of disentangling their contributions. The disputes between Hooke and Newton are well known, and no-one suggests that Newton was a pleasant person, but the unpleasantness was not all on one side. Historians agree that Hooke was a difficult man. There are no numbered references or notes, a not unusual policy in a popular book, but many sources (most of them secondary) are mentioned in the text. They do not help to make it read well, and the details are incomplete, but so are the details of many of the items listed in the bibliography. An index would be useful, but it is lacking. There are signs in a number of places that the book has not been carefully revised and edited. This ought to be a book to recommend to young students, but it would fail to inspire them. This is a pity, because there is no doubt that Hooke was one of the towering figures of the beginning of the scientific revolution. The fledgling Royal Society might not have survived without the experiments and demonstrations he provided. Historians know this but it deserves to be more widely recognized.

Brown, Neil

2000-01-01

99

PCBs and other xenobiotics in raw and cooked carp  

SciTech Connect

The effect of cooking on PCBs and DDT compounds was determined in fillets from carp ranging from 3.0 to 4.9 Kg. Cooking methods included were: poaching, roasting, deep fat frying, charbroiling and cooking by microwave. (JMT)

Zabik, M.E.; Merrill, C.; Zabik, M.J.

1982-06-01

100

MARP: Multi-Agent Route Planning CARP vs. FPS  

E-print Network

-Agent Route Planning CARP vs. FPS Algorithms Experiments Conclusions Application domains (a) Airport taxi of traffic information in the route choice A. W. ter Mors, C. Witteveen, J. Zutt, F. A. Kuipers Context

Kuzmanov, Georgi

101

Grass carp reovirus induces apoptosis and oxidative stress in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) kidney cell line.  

PubMed

Grass carp hemorrhage is an acute contagious disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV). The pathogenesis of GCRV and the relationship between GCRV and the host cells remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relations among apoptosis, intracellular oxidative stress and virus replication in GCRV infected-cells. The results showed that GCRV induced activation of caspase proteases as early as 12 h, and reached maximum activities at 24 h or 48 h post-infection in a grass carp kidney cell line (CIK cells). Meanwhile, the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) also were increased in GCRV-infected CIK cells and showed a statistically significant difference from 24 h to 96 h post-infection. The infection of GCRV caused the destruction of entire monolayer and the death of host cells. Accompanied by the infection, a severe oxidative stress occurred, which led to extensive loss of antioxidants and formation of lipid peroxidation after 48 h post-infection. These data suggested that the apoptosis which was triggered at an early stage (12-24 h) in the viral infection cycle, might be independent of virus replication, while the oxidative stress induced by GCRV was mostly related to the virus replication. PMID:24680657

Jia, Rui; Cao, Li-Ping; Du, Jin-Liang; Liu, Ying-Juan; Wang, Jia-Hao; Jeney, Galina; Yin, Guo-Jun

2014-06-24

102

Problem in Two Unknowns: Robert Hooke and a Worm in Newton's Apple.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the place that Robert Hooke has in science history versus the scientific contributions he made. Examines the relationship between Hooke and his contemporary, Isaac Newton, and Hooke's claims that Newton built on his ideas without receiving Newton's recognition. (26 references) (MDH)

Weinstock, Robert

1992-01-01

103

THE RIEMANN PROBLEM FOR AN ELASTIC STRING WITH A LINEAR HOOKE'S LAW  

E-print Network

THE RIEMANN PROBLEM FOR AN ELASTIC STRING WITH A LINEAR HOOKE'S LAW HARALD HANCHE­OLSEN, HELGE stretching, i.e., with a linear Hooke's law. The motion is governed by a 4 � 4 system of conservation laws, elastic string with a linear stress­strain relationship (Hooke's law). Shearer solved the Riemann problem

104

Female homogamety in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) determined by gynogenesis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gynogenesis occurred in eggs of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) treated with X-irradiated milt from goldfish (Carassius auratus). Gynogenetic offspring were females, which indicates functional female homogamety in grass carp. Five of these gynogenetic fish were used as an egg source for a second generation of artificially gynogenetic fish. The percentage yield in this second generation was about the same as in the first, which suggests that the tendency to become diploid is not strongly heritable

Stanley, Jon G.

1976-01-01

105

The Effect of Exposure to a High-Fat Diet on MicroRNA Expression in the Liver of Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala)  

PubMed Central

Blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) are susceptible to hepatic steatosis when maintained in modern intensive culture systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in diet-induced hepatic steatosis in this species. MiRNAs, small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level, are involved in diverse biological processes, including lipid metabolism. Deep sequencing of hepatic small RNA libraries from blunt snout bream fed normal-fat and high-fat diets identified 202 (193 known and 9 novel) miRNAs, of which 12 were differentially expressed between the normal-fat and high-fat diet groups. Quantitative stem-loop reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses confirmed the upregulation of miR-30c and miR-30e-3p and the downregulation of miR-145 and miR-15a-5p in high-fat diet-fed fish. Bioinformatics tools were used to predict the targets of these verified miRNAs and to explore potential downstream gene ontology biological process categories and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Six putative lipid metabolism-related target genes (fetuin-B, Cyp7a1, NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex subunit 2, 3-oxoacid CoA transferase 1b, stearoyl-CoA desaturase, and fatty-acid synthase) were identified as having potential important roles in the development of diet-induced hepatic steatosis in blunt snout bream. The results presented here are a foundation for future studies of miRNA-controlled lipid metabolism regulatory networks in blunt snout bream. PMID:24788396

Zhang, Dingdong; Lu, Kangle; Dong, Zaijie; Jiang, Guangzhen; Xu, Weina; Liu, Wenbin

2014-01-01

106

LINDA M. HOOKS Department of Economics 11 Hamilton Drive  

E-print Network

cum laude RESEARCH INTERESTS Information asymmetries in banking; causes of bank failures; measures, Linda M. "The Impact of Firm Size on Bank Debt Use," Review of Financial Economics, 12:2, 2003. Hooks. Robinson. "Adverse Selection and Competing Deposit Insurance Systems in Pre-Depression Texas," Journal

Marsh, David

107

Zinc Hyperaccumulation and Uptake by Potentilla Griffithii Hook  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of Potentilla griffithii Hook var. velutina Cardot to hypaeraccumulate zinc (Zn) was identified through field survey and hydroponic experiments. Our results showed that P. griffithii could be classified as a new Zn hyperaccumulator. Zn concentrations in the shoots of P. griffithii averaged 6250 mg kg (3870–8530 mg kg) growing in Zn-rich soils. The highest Zn concentration was observed

Rongliang Qiu; Xiaohang Fang; Yetao Tang; Suojun Du; Xiaowen Zeng; Eric Brewer

2006-01-01

108

Catch and release: how do kinetochores hook the right  

E-print Network

Catch and release: how do kinetochores hook the right microtubules during mitosis? Krishna K version of this angler's trick, operating at kinetochores, ensures accu- racy during mitosis: the mitotic toward emerging models for other force- activated systems. Although attention in the mitosis field has

Asbury, Chip

109

Upscaling of Hooke's Law for Imperfectly Layered Rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider the upscaling of Hooke's law and its parameters on the fine scale, to a similar law with upscaled parameters on a larger scale. It is assumed that the fine scale material properties of the rock are imperfectly layered. In the governing equations, the deviations from perfect layering introduce a small parameter that can be used

Gerard Rijpsma; Wouter Zijl

1998-01-01

110

Anharmonic Vibrations of an "Ideal" Hooke's Law Oscillator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a model describing the vibrations of a mass connected to fixed supports by "ideal" Hooke's law springs which may serve as a starting point in the study of the properties of irons in a crystal undergoing soft mode activated transition. (SL)

Thomchick, John; McKelvey, J. P.

1978-01-01

111

Studying Hooke's Law by Using a Pogo Stick  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perhaps the pogo stick was little Robert Hooke's favorite childhood toy, consisting of a stiff spring inserted in a tube fixed at the upper end and connected to a moveable rod at the other. Hand grips and a foot rest are connected to the tube. The idea is to jump on it taking advantage of the force provided by the

Nicolás Silva

2011-01-01

112

CAMERA IS ON CATWALK ABOVE MTR. CRANE HOOK LOWERS TOP ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CAMERA IS ON CATWALK ABOVE MTR. CRANE HOOK LOWERS TOP PLUG ONTO REACTOR. NOTE PLANK-LIKE BRIDGE (WALKWAY) TO BALCONY AT UPPER RIGHT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 4502. Unknown Photographer, probable date 3/31/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

113

Hooking up: gender differences, evolution, and pluralistic ignorance.  

PubMed

"Hooking-up"--engaging in no-strings-attached sexual behaviors with uncommitted partners--has become a norm on college campuses, and raises the potential for disease, unintended pregnancy, and physical and psychological trauma. The primacy of sex in the evolutionary process suggests that predictions derived from evolutionary theory may be a useful first step toward understanding these contemporary behaviors. This study assessed the hook-up behaviors and attitudes of 507 college students. As predicted by behavioral-evolutionary theory: men were more comfortable than women with all types of sexual behaviors; women correctly attributed higher comfort levels to men, but overestimated men's actual comfort levels; and men correctly attributed lower comfort levels to women, but still overestimated women's actual comfort levels. Both genders attributed higher comfort levels to same-gendered others, reinforcing a pluralistic ignorance effect that might contribute to the high frequency of hook-up behaviors in spite of the low comfort levels reported and suggesting that hooking up may be a modern form of intrasexual competition between females for potential mates. PMID:22947808

Reiber, Chris; Garcia, Justin R

2010-01-01

114

3. This machine in building #7 plated the hooks used ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. This machine in building #7 plated the hooks used on the cross chains in tire chains, by the 'pean' or mechanical process. This process was replaced when coated wire was introduced. - American Chain & Cable Company, East Princess Street (400 Block), York, York County, PA

115

Evidence for the evolutionary origin of goldfish derived from the distant crossing of red crucian carp × common carp  

PubMed Central

Background Distant hybridization can generate transgressive hybrid phenotypes that lead to the formation of new populations or species with increased genetic variation. In this study, we produced an experimental hybrid goldfish (EG) by distant crossing of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus)?×?common carp (Cyprinus carpio) followed by gynogenesis. Results We evaluated the phenotype, ploidy level, gonadal structure, and 5S rDNA of the EG. Diploid EG possessed a high level of genetic variation, which was stably inherited. In particular, the EG combined transgressive phenotypes, including a forked tail and shortened caudal peduncle, traits that are present in common goldfish. The EG and common goldfish share a number of morphological and genetic similarities. Conclusions Using the EG, we provide new evidence that goldfish originated from hybridization of red crucian carp × common carp. PMID:24628745

2014-01-01

116

Ureteral Stent Retrieval Using the Crochet Hook Technique in Females  

PubMed Central

Introduction We developed a method for ureteral stent removal in female patients that requires no cystoscopy or fluoroscopic guidance using a crochet hook. In addition, we also investigated the success rate, complications and pain associated with this procedure. Methods A total of 40 female patients (56 stents) underwent the removal of ureteral stents. All procedures were carried out with the patients either under anesthesia, conscious sedation, or analgesic suppositories as deemed appropriate for each procedure including Shock Wave Lithotripsy (SWL), Ureteroscopy (URS), Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL), and ureteral stent removal. At the time of these procedures, fluoroscopy and/or cystoscopy were prepared, but they were not used unless we failed to successfully remove the ureteral stent using the crochet hook. In addition, matched controls (comprising 50 stents) which were removed by standard ureteral stent removal using cystoscopy were used for comparison purposes. Results A total of 47 of the 56 stents (83.9%) were successfully removed. In addition, 47 of 52 (90.4%) were successfully removed except for two migrated stents and two heavily encrusted stents which could not be removed using cystoscopy. Ureteral stent removal using the crochet hook technique was unsuccessful in nine patients, including two encrustations and two migrations. Concerning pain, ureteral stent removal using the crochet hook technique showed a lower visual analogue pain scale (VAPS) score than for the standard technique using cystoscopy. Conclusions Ureteral stent removal using a crochet hook is considered to be easy, safe, and cost effective. This technique is also easy to learn and is therefore considered to be suitable for use on an outpatient basis. PMID:22235282

Kawahara, Takashi; Ito, Hiroki; Terao, Hideyuki; Yamagishi, Takuya; Ogawa, Takehiko; Uemura, Hiroji; Kubota, Yoshinobu; Matsuzaki, Junichi

2012-01-01

117

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING USING PHYSIOLOGICAL TELEMETRY A CASE STUDY EXAMINING COMMON CARP  

E-print Network

. During the winters of 1998 and 1999, the response of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to fluctuating thermal study of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Studies of thermal discharges employing continuously monitored

Cooke, Steven J.

118

Genetic Diversity and Variation of Mitochondrial DNA in Native and Introduced Bighead Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis is native to China but has been introduced to over 70 countries and is established in many large river systems. Genetic diversity and variation in introduced bighead carp have not previously been evaluated, and a systematic comparison among fish from different river systems was unavailable. In this study, 190 bighead carp specimens were sampled from

Si-Fa Li; Qin-Ling Yang; Jia-Wei Xu; Cheng-Hui Wang; Duane C. Chapman; Guoqing Lu

2010-01-01

119

Spatial variability of common carp populations in relation to lake morphology and physicochemical  

E-print Network

, often by mediating nutrient flow and species interactions. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is listed 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract ­ Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a widespread invasive species, SD, USA Key words: common carp; Cyprinus carpio; autecology; spatial distribution; abiotic factors

120

First year growth and survival of common carp in two glacial lakes  

E-print Network

University, Brookings, SD, USA Abstract Cohorts of common carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, were monitored from the previous autumn. K E Y W O R D S : Common carp, Cyprinus carpio, overwinter survival, recruitment. Introduction Management strategies for common carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, tend to differ for native

121

Carp Exclusion, Food-web Interactions, and the Restoration of Cootes Paradise Marsh  

E-print Network

Carp Exclusion, Food-web Interactions, and the Restoration of Cootes Paradise Marsh Vanessa L percent, respectively, following carp exclusion. However, responses by plants and other trophic levels dominated state. INDEX WORDS: Carp exclusion, coastal wetlands, restoration, food web. J. Great Lakes Res

McMaster University

122

The effect of diet on ontogenic development of the digestive tract in juvenile reared long snout seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus.  

PubMed

Ontogenetic development of the digestive tract and associated organs in long snout seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus juveniles was morphologically and histologically examined from the time of release from the male's pouch until 72 h after the first meal. When released from the male's pouch, juvenile seahorses are small adult replicates. This means that unlike other teleost fish larvae, the first developmental phase has already taken place, and juveniles are morphologically prepared and able to feed on live prey immediately following parturition. At this stage, the buccopharynx, oesophagus, and intestine already appear to be fully developed. The intestine is divided into the midgut and hindgut by an intestinal valve, and intestinal villi are visible in the midgut. When fed with DHA-Selco(®) enriched Artemia, H. guttulatus juveniles developed a severe condition of overinflation of the gas bladder. The continuous overinflation of the gas bladder forced air into the gut (48 h after the first meal), resulting in overinflation of both the gut and the gas bladder (72 h after the first meal), and death occurred within 120 h after the first meal. When fed natural copepods, H. guttulatus juveniles continued a normal feeding activity with no signs of intestinal disorders, and the gas bladder and intestine maintained their normal shape. This is the first study to positively associate gas bladder overinflation of juvenile seahorses with nutritionally unbalanced diets, and not to gas supersaturation alone. It is therefore necessary to develop more adequate feed and/or enrichment products to improve the survival of juvenile seahorses in captivity. PMID:24162549

Palma, J; Bureau, D P; Andrade, J P

2014-06-01

123

Terminal components of carp complement constituting a membrane attack complex.  

PubMed

The membrane attack complex (MAC) of carp complement was extracted with deoxycholate from rabbit erythrocytes lysed by carp serum and purified by a two-step chromatographic procedure. On two-dimensional SDS-PAGE of carp MAC, eight bands were detected. The band of M(r) 91,000 was identified as carp C9 by western blotting using anti-carp C9, and two bands of M(r) 62,000 and one band of M(r) 22,000 were confirmed as those of carp C8 alpha, C8 beta and C8 gamma, respectively, by their N-terminal amino acid sequences. The bands of M(r) 102,000 and 73,000, which generated from a 180,000 band under reducing conditions, were those corresponding to human C5b alpha and C5b beta, respectively. The remaining bands of M(r) 115,000 and 106,000 were identified as those corresponding to human C6 and C7, as determined by their molecular size, single-chain structures and similarities in N-terminal amino acid sequences to their mammalian counterparts. Densitometric scan of the gels showed the molar ratio of C5b, C6, C7, C8 and C9 in carp MAC to be 1:1:1:1:4. Based on these results, it appears that, as with mammals, the cytolytic pathway of bony fish complement is composed of five terminal components from C5 to C9. PMID:8960117

Nakao, M; Uemura, T; Yano, T

1996-08-01

124

CARP Is a Potential Tumor Suppressor in Gastric Carcinoma and a Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism in CARP Gene Might Increase the Risk of Gastric Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background The caspase-associated recruitment domain-containing protein (CARP) is expressed in almost all tissues. Recently, the tumor-suppressive function of CARP was discovered and attracted increasing attention. This study aimed to investigate the role of CARP in the carcinogenesis of human gastric carcinoma. Methodology/Principal Findings Compared with normal gastric tissue, the downregulation of CARP expression was observed in gastric carcinoma tissue by cDNA array and tissue microarray assay. In vitro, the gastric carcinoma cell line (BGC-823) was stably transfected with pcDNA3.1B-CARP or plus CARP siRNA, and we used MTT, flow cytometry, cell migration on type I collagen, cell-matrix adhesion assay and western blot analysis to investigate the potential anti-tumor effects of CARP. The data showed that overexpressing CARP suppressed the malignancy of gastric carcinoma BGC-823 cell line, including significant increases in apoptosis, as well as obvious decreases in cell proliferation, migration, adhesion ability, and tumor growth. The tumor-suppressive effects of CARP were almost restored by siRNA-directed CARP silence. In addition, overexpression of CARP induced G1 arrest, decreased the expressions of cyclin E and CDK2, and increased the expressions of p27, p53 and p21. In vivo, the tumor-suppressive effect of CARP was also verified. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype of CARP (rs2297882) was located in the Kozak sequence of the CARP gene. The reporter gene assay showed that rs2297882 TT caused an obvious downregulation of activity of CARP gene promoter in BGC-823 cells. Furthermore, the association between rs2297882 and human gastric carcinoma susceptibility was analyzed in 352 cases and 889 controls. It displayed that the TT genotype of rs2297882 in the CARP gene was associated with an increased risk of gastric carcinoma. Conclusions/Significance CARP is a potential tumor suppressor of gastric carcinoma and the rs2297882 C>T phenotype of CARP may serve as a predictor of gastric carcinoma. PMID:24870804

Hu, Yu-chang; Gan, Lu; Shi, Yi; Yang, Han-shuo; Wei, Yu-quan

2014-01-01

125

Spring Viremia of Carp1 Barbara D. Petty, Ruth Francis-Floyd, and Roy P.E. Yanong2  

E-print Network

significant mortality in several carp species including the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). These species infections with the virus have been reported in common carp (or koi), (Cyprinus carpio), goldfish (Carassius? Spring viremia of carp is an infection caused by Rhabdo- virus carpio, a bullet-shaped RNA virus. Natural

Watson, Craig A.

126

Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Genetic Basis of Skin Color Variation in Common Carp  

PubMed Central

Background The common carp is an important aquaculture species that is widely distributed across the world. During the long history of carp domestication, numerous carp strains with diverse skin colors have been established. Skin color is used as a visual criterion to determine the market value of carp. However, the genetic basis of common carp skin color has not been extensively studied. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we performed Illumina sequencing on two common carp strains: the reddish Xingguo red carp and the brownish-black Yellow River carp. A total of 435,348,868 reads were generated, resulting in 198,781 assembled contigs that were used as reference sequences. Comparisons of skin transcriptome files revealed 2,012 unigenes with significantly different expression in the two common carp strains, including 874 genes that were up-regulated in Xingguo red carp and 1,138 genes that were up-regulated in Yellow River carp. The expression patterns of 20 randomly selected differentially expressed genes were validated using quantitative RT-PCR. Gene pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that melanin biosynthesis, along with the Wnt and MAPK signaling pathways, is highly likely to affect the skin pigmentation process. Several key genes involved in the skin pigmentation process, including TYRP1, SILV, ASIP and xCT, showed significant differences in their expression patterns between the two strains. Conclusions In this study, we conducted a comparative transcriptome analysis of Xingguo red carp and Yellow River carp skins, and we detected key genes involved in the common carp skin pigmentation process. We propose that common carp skin pigmentation depends upon at least three pathways. Understanding fish skin color genetics will facilitate future molecular selection of the fish skin colors with high market values. PMID:25255374

Jiang, Yanliang; Zhang, Songhao; Xu, Jian; Feng, Jianxin; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.; Sun, Xiaowen; Xu, Peng

2014-01-01

127

On the reliability of hook echoes as tornado indicators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of radar echoes associated with the tornadoes of the 3 April 1974 outbreak was performed to evaluate the usefulness of echo shape as an indicator of tornadic thunderstorms. The hook shape was usually successful in characterizing an echo as tornadic, with a false alarm rate of 16%. Because hook echoes were relatively rare, however, a less restrictive shape called distinctive was more successful at detecting tornadic thunderstorms, identifying 65% of the tornadic echoes. An echo had a distinctive shape if it possessed a marked appendage on its right rear flank or was in the shape of a spiral, comma or line echo wave pattern (LEWP). Characteristics of the distinctive echo are given.

Forbes, G. S.

1981-01-01

128

Hooke's law correlation in two-electron systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the properties of the Hooke’s law correlation energy (Ec), defined as the correlation energy when two electrons interact via a harmonic potential in a D-dimensional space. More precisely, we investigate the 1S ground-state properties of two model systems: the Moshinsky atom (in which the electrons move in a quadratic potential) and the spherium model (in which they move on the surface of a sphere). A comparison with their Coulombic counterparts is made that highlights the main differences of the Ec in both the weakly and strongly correlated limits. Moreover, we show that the Schrödinger equation of the spherium model is exactly solvable for two values of the dimension (D=1and3) and that the exact wave function is based on Mathieu functions.

Loos, Pierre-François

2010-03-01

129

Immunological effects of paraquat on common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.  

PubMed

Paraquat (PQ) is a nonselective worldwide used herbicide and it has been demonstrated to be highly toxic to animals and humans. However, relatively little is known about PQ effect on the immune system and histopathology of fish. In the present study, we aimed to determine the lysozyme activities, content of IgM, and complement C3 content in the liver, kidney, and spleen of common carp exposed to 1.596 or 3.192 mg/L of PQ for 7 d. The results showed that lysozyme activity in the liver, kidney, or spleen of common carp was increased at the earlier stages of PQ-exposure (from 1 to 3 d) while decreased at the end of treatment. Moreover, PQ-exposure caused irregular change of IgM content while decreased C3 content. These results suggest that PQ-exposure may disturb the innate immunity of common carp and could result in dysfunction of the specific immunity in common carp. In addition, PQ-exposure also caused remarkable histopathological damages in fish gill, fin, liver, spleen, kidney, and intestine, indicating that PQ has immunotoxicity on common carp. PMID:24486634

Ma, Junguo; Li, Yuanyuan; Niu, Daichun; Li, Yao; Li, Xiaoyu

2014-03-01

130

Immune gene discovery in the crucian carp Carassius auratus.  

PubMed

The crucian carp Carassius auratus (Cyprinidae) is one of the important fish species in aquaculture. Although the crucian carp has several economic benefits, their immune system and gene information have not been investigated in depth as yet. Here, we performed the transcriptome analysis of C. auratus using the pyrosequencing method and selected several immune-related genes. Of unigenes obtained in this species, we identified a number of immune system-related genes (e.g. adhesive protein, antimicrobial protein, apoptosis- and cell cycle-related protein, cellular defense effector, immune regulator, pattern recognition protein, protease, protease inhibitor, reduction/oxidation-related protein, signal transduction-related protein and stress protein) that are potentially useful for studies on fish immunity. To be of public and practical use, we designed primer pairs of each gene from the crucian carp for real-time RT-PCR application and tested the amplicon identity of entire gene sets with the total RNA sample. For comparative analysis, we measured tissue-preferential transcript profiles of selected genes. This study will be helpful to extend our knowledge on the immune system of the crucian carp in comparative aspects and to develop the crucian carp as a potential model organism for aquatic quality monitoring in fish farming. PMID:24287371

Rhee, Jae-Sung; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Kim, Il-Chan; Lee, Yong Sung; Lee, Chulwoo; Lee, Jae-Seong

2014-01-01

131

Personality as a Predictor of Hooking Up Among College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hookups—casual sexual encounters that may or may not include intercourse—are common on college campuses. Previous research has suggested that these casual sexual encounters may have serious health-related consequences. Understanding the relationships among multiple predictors of hooking up is important if high-risk prevention programming among college students is to be effective. This study considers each of the Big Five personality traits

Gary Gute; Elaine M. Eshbaugh

2008-01-01

132

Volatile components of Discaria americana Gillies & Hook (Rhamnaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile fraction from aerial parts (flowers, stems and leaves) of Discaria americana Gillies & Hook (Rhamnaceae) was obtained by hydrodistillation and the chemical composition of this oil was determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The major constituents resulted to be 4-methylphenol (15.5%), eugenol (11%), 3-methylindole (9.7%) and ?-terpineol (6.2%). The essential oil of this plant displayed strong

Silvana Rodriguez; Ana Paula Murray

2008-01-01

133

Mortality of Striped Bass Hooked and Released in Salt Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the importance of the recreational fishery for striped bass Morone saxatilis along the eastern coast of the United States, little is known about the survival rates of caught and released striped bass. We predicted long-term (58-d) hooking mortality of striped bass after catch and release in saltwater using a logistic regression model. Experimental fishing was conducted on fish (27–57

Paul J. Diodati; R. Anne Richards

1996-01-01

134

Hooking Up” Among College Students: Demographic and Psychosocial Correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated 832 college students’ experiences with hooking up, a term that refers to a range of physically intimate\\u000a behavior (e.g., passionate kissing, oral sex, and intercourse) that occurs outside of a committed relationship. Specifically,\\u000a we examined how five demographic variables (sex, ethnicity, parental income, parental divorce, and religiosity) and six psychosocial\\u000a factors (e.g., attachment styles, alcohol use, psychological

Jesse J. Owen; Galena K. Rhoades; Scott M. Stanley; Frank D. Fincham

2010-01-01

135

Hooke's law correlation in two-electron systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the properties of the Hooke's law correlation energy (E{sub c}), defined as the correlation energy when two electrons interact via a harmonic potential in a D-dimensional space. More precisely, we investigate the ¹S ground-state properties of two model systems: the Moshinsky atom (in which the electrons move in a quadratic potential) and the spherium model (in which they

Loos; Pierre-Francois

2010-01-01

136

A generalization of hooke's law in muscle elasticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental data concerning stress-strain relations of biological substances, including single muscle fibers, are reviewed\\u000a in the literature. A reconsideration of the conclusions reached from these data is made. Thus, the experiments indicate that\\u000a prima facie a linear theory of elasticity such as Hooke's law does not obtain because of the complicated form of the stress-strain\\u000a curves. It is then shown

William H. Gutstein

1956-01-01

137

Studying Hooke's Law by Using a Pogo Stick  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perhaps the pogo stick was little Robert Hooke's favorite childhood toy, consisting of a stiff spring inserted in a tube fixed at the upper end and connected to a moveable rod at the other. Hand grips and a foot rest are connected to the tube. The idea is to jump on it taking advantage of the force provided by the spring when it is compressed.…

Silva, Nicolas

2011-01-01

138

Augmented Hooke's law based on alternative stress relaxation models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships are presented which are considered to be the most general, linear, constitutive stress–strain relationships\\u000a for a simple, solid material at isothermal conditions. Formally, they are obtained in frequency domain by adding “anelastic”,\\u000a frequency dependent terms to the elastic constants of the material. The resulting, basic, augmented Hooke's law (AHL) is proposed\\u000a as a general framework for comparison of alternative

K. Dovstam

2000-01-01

139

Studying Hooke's Law by Using a Pogo Stick  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perhaps the pogo stick was little Robert Hooke's favorite childhood toy, consisting of a stiff spring inserted in a tube fixed at the upper end and connected to a moveable rod at the other. Hand grips and a foot rest are connected to the tube. The idea is to jump on it taking advantage of the force provided by the spring when it is compressed. Figure 1 shows a schematic of a pogo stick.

Silva, Nicolás

2011-05-01

140

Fracture of the hook of the hamate in athletes.  

PubMed

During an eight-year period, four tennis players, seven golfers, and nine baseball players were seen with a fracture of the hook of the hamate. Eighteen of these twenty patients were disabled by pain and after the fracture fragment was removed, all eighteen were relieved so that they returned to their athletic pursuits. Two patients were asymptomatic, their old fracture being discovered accidentally when they were treated for other injuries. Nineteen of the twenty patients had been examined before coming under our care, but the correct diagnosis had been made in only two. Conservative treatment, including rest, physical therapy, and injections of steroids into the wrist and hand, had not been beneficial. From the history and findings, we believe that these fractures were caused by a direct blow against the hook of the hamate caused by the handle of the tennis racket, golf club, or bat during a swing, and not by indirect force produced by the ligaments and muscles attached to the hook. The fracture was demonstrated in all twenty patients by a roentgenogram (profile view) of the carpal tunnel. PMID:873952

Stark, H H; Jobe, F W; Boyes, J H; Ashworth, C R

1977-07-01

141

Isolation and Characterization of Glycophorin from Carp Red Blood Cell Membranes  

PubMed Central

We isolated a high-purity carp glycophorin from carp erythrocyte membranes following extraction using the lithium diiodosalicylate (LIS)-phenol method and streptomycin treatment. The main carp glycophorin was observed to locate at the position of the carp and human band-3 proteins on an SDS-polyacrylamide gel. Only the N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) form of sialic acid was detected in the carp glycophorin. The oligosaccharide fraction was separated into two components (P-1 and P-2) using a Glyco-Pak DEAE column. We observed bacteriostatic activity against five strains of bacteria, including two known fish pathogens. Fractions from the carp erythrocyte membrane, the glycophorin oligosaccharide and the P-1 also exhibited bacteriostatic activity; whereas the glycolipid fraction and the glycophorin fraction without sialic acid did not show the activity. The carp glycophorin molecules attach to the flagellum of V. anguillarum or the cell surface of M. luteus and inhibited bacterial growth. PMID:25110961

Aoki, Takahiko; Chimura, Kenji; Nakao, Nobuhiro; Mizuno, Yasuko

2014-01-01

142

Isolation and characterization of glycophorin from carp red blood cell membranes.  

PubMed

We isolated a high-purity carp glycophorin from carp erythrocyte membranes following extraction using the lithium diiodosalicylate (LIS)-phenol method and streptomycin treatment. The main carp glycophorin was observed to locate at the position of the carp and human band-3 proteins on an SDS-polyacrylamide gel. Only the N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) form of sialic acid was detected in the carp glycophorin. The oligosaccharide fraction was separated into two components (P-1 and P-2) using a Glyco-Pak DEAE column. We observed bacteriostatic activity against five strains of bacteria, including two known fish pathogens. Fractions from the carp erythrocyte membrane, the glycophorin oligosaccharide and the P-1 also exhibited bacteriostatic activity; whereas the glycolipid fraction and the glycophorin fraction without sialic acid did not show the activity. The carp glycophorin molecules attach to the flagellum of V. anguillarum or the cell surface of M. luteus and inhibited bacterial growth. PMID:25110961

Aoki, Takahiko; Chimura, Kenji; Nakao, Nobuhiro; Mizuno, Yasuko

2014-01-01

143

Toxicity of trihalomethanes to common carp embryos  

SciTech Connect

Trihalomethanes recently have been identified in real and simulated effluents from power plants where chlorine is used for biofouling control. Toxicity of the four chlorine- or bromine-containing trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) to developing common carp (Cyprinus carpio) embryos was determined under conditions of intermittent (8-hour) toxicant renewal, based on percent hatch as the end point. Nominal median lethal concentrations (LC50) ranged from 161 mg/liter for chloroform to 53 mg/liter for dibromochloromethane. Decay studies conducted under conditions similar to those used for the toxicity studies, but in distilled water, indicated that (1) half-lives of the trihalomethanes ranged from 4.4 to 6.9 hours; (2) decay was due primarily to volatilization; (3) higher relative toxicity of dibromochloromethane probably was due to formation of a degradation product (likely Br/sub 2/). Correction of the nominal LC50 values to time-weighted mean concentrations over the period between toxicant changes gave weighted LC50 values of 97.2, 67.4, 33.5, and 52.3 mg/liter for chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, respectively. In addition, the period of water-hardening of fertilized eggs was not critical for expression of toxicity of dibromochloromethane. Comparison of these and other published data on effluent and toxic concentrations, persistence, and bioaccumulation of water-chlorination products suggests that trihalomethanes are not as environmentally critical as other chlorinated organic compounds or residual chlorine.

Mattice, J.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN); Tsai, S.C.; Burch, M.B.; Beauchamp, J.J.

1981-03-01

144

Central African Regional Program for the Environment (CARPE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Comprised of numerous scientific and advocacy partners, and funded by the US Agency for International Development (USAID), CARPE seeks to help identify and establish conditions and practices which will reduce deforestation and biodiversity loss in the Congo Basin. CARPE arose in response to both local and international concern about the consequences of the current pattern of unsustainable resource use in the region. Main sections at this site include: Briefing Sheet, Partners, Activities, Products, Donor Coordination and related sites. Users can join a discussion group or link to related sites.

1997-01-01

145

The Influence of Hook Type, Angler Experience, and Fish Size on Injury Rates and the Duration of Capture in an Alaskan Catch-and-Release Rainbow Trout Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to concerns about the high incidence of past hooking injuries in Alagnak River rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, fish were captured with spin- and fly-fishing gear with barbed and barbless circle and “J” hooks to determine gear types contributing to injury. Landing and hook removal times were measured for a portion of fish captured, and the anatomical hooking location, hooking

Julie M. Meka

2004-01-01

146

Genetic divergence between Cyprinus carpio carpio and Cyprinus carpio haematopterus as assessed by mitochondrial DNA analysis, with emphasis on origin of European domestic carp.  

PubMed

Although common carp is the major fish species in Asian and European aquaculture and many domestic varieties have occurred, there is a controversy about the origination of European domestic common carp. Some scientists affirmed that the ancestor of European domestic common carp was Danube River wild common carp, but others considered it might be Asian common carp. For elucidating origination of European domestic common carp, we chose two representative European domestic common carp strains (German mirror carp and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp) and one wild common carp strain of Cyprinus carpio carpio subspecies (Volga River wild common carp) and two Asian common carp strains, the Yangtze River wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) and traditionally domestic Xingguo red common carp, as experimental materials. ND5-ND6 and D-loop segments of mitochondrial DNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed through restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing respectively. The results revealed that HaeIII and DdeI digestion patterns of ND5-ND6 segment and sequences of control region were different between European subspecies C. carpio carpio and Asian subspecies C. carpio haematopterus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that German mirror carp and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp belonged to two subspecies, C. carpio carpio and C. carpio haematopterus, respectively. Therefore, there were different ancestors for domestic carp in Europe: German mirror carp was domesticated from European subspecies C. carpio carpio and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp originated from Asian subspecies C. carpio haematopterus. PMID:12903751

Zhou, Jian Feng; Wu, Qing Jiang; Ye, Yu Zhen; Tong, Jin Gou

2003-09-01

147

Development and impact of hooks of high droplet concentration on remote southeast Pacific stratocumulus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the southeastern Pacific (SEP), droplet concentration (Nd) in the typically unpolluted marine stratocumulus west of 80° W (> 1000 km offshore) is periodically strongly enhanced in zonally elongated "hook"-shaped features that increase albedo. Here, we examine three hook events using the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem) with 14 km horizontal resolution, satellite data, and aircraft data from the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx). A particularly strong hook yields insights into the development, decay, and radiative impact of these features. Hook development occurs with Nd increasing to polluted levels over the remote ocean primarily due to entrainment of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) from the lower free troposphere (FT). The feature advects northwestward until the FT CCN source is depleted, after which Nd decreases over a few days due to precipitation and dilution. The model suggests that the FT CCN source supplying the hook consists of high concentrations of small accumulation-mode aerosols that contribute a relatively small amount of aerosol mass to the MBL, in agreement with near-coast VOCALS measurements of polluted layers in the FT. The aerosol particles in this hook originate mainly from a pulse of offshore flow that transports Santiago-region (33-35° S) emissions to the remote marine FT. To provide pollution CCN that can sustain hooks, the FT transport of pollution plumes to the remote ocean requires strong, deep offshore flow. Such flow is favored by a trough approaching the South American coast and a southeastward shift of the climatological subtropical high-pressure system. The model simulations show precipitation suppression in the hook and a corresponding increase in liquid water path (LWP) compared with a simulation without anthropogenic sources. LWP also increases as the hook evolves over time due to increasing stability and decreasing subsidence. WRF-Chem suggests that dimethyl sulfide (DMS) significantly influences the aerosol number and size distributions in a hook, but that hooks do not form without FT CCN. The Twomey effect contributes ~ 50-70% of the albedo increase due to the presence of the hook, while secondary aerosol indirect effects and meteorological influences also contribute significantly. The source of hook aerosols is difficult to determine with the available observations alone. The model provides further explanation of the factors influencing hook formation. Two other weaker hooks during VOCALS-REx are not as well simulated but are also associated with FT offshore flow near Santiago. Hooks demonstrate the importance of free-tropospheric transport of aerosols in modulating the droplet concentration in the southeastern Pacific stratocumulus deck, and present a formidable challenge to simulate accurately in large-scale models.

George, R. C.; Wood, R.; Bretherton, C. S.; Painter, G.

2013-07-01

148

Influence of hook position on phototropic and gravitropic curvature by etiolated hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phototropic and gravitropic curvature by hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana is minimal when the side of the hook with the cotyledons attached is positioned toward the direction of tropistic curvature, and maximal when that side of the hook is positioned away from the direction of tropistic curvature. Based on these data, it is proposed that the position of the hook with attached cotyledons affects curvature and not stimulus perception. A randomly oriented population of plants exhibited considerable heterogeneity in tropistic curvature. This heterogeneity arises at least in part from the dependence of curvature on the position of the hook.

Khurana, J. P.; Best, T. R.; Poff, K. L.

1989-01-01

149

Do wild fish species contribute to the transmission of koi herpesvirus to carp in hatchery ponds?  

PubMed

The koi herpesvirus (KHV) has spread worldwide since its discovery in 1998 and causes disease and mortality in koi and common carp populations with a high impact on the carp production industry. Many investigations have been conducted to examine ways of distribution and to identify possible transmission vectors. The answers, however, raise many new questions. In the present study, different wild fish species taken from carp ponds with a history of KHV infection were examined for their susceptibility to the virus. In the tissue of these fish, the virus load was determined and it was tested whether a release of the virus could be induced by stress and the virus then could be transferred to naive carp. Wild fish were gathered from carp ponds during acute outbreaks of virus-induced mortality in summer and from ponds stocked with carp carrying a latent KHV infection. From these ponds, wild fish were collected during the harvesting process in autumn or spring when the ponds were drained. We found that regardless of season, temperature variation, age and infection status of the carp stock, wild fish from carp ponds and its outlets could be tested positive for the KHV genome using real-time PCR with a low prevalence and virus load. Furthermore, virus transfer to naive carp was observed after a period of cohabitation. Cyprinid and non-cyprinid wild fish can therefore be considered as an epidemiological risk for pond carp farms. PMID:23121232

Fabian, M; Baumer, A; Steinhagen, D

2013-05-01

150

Kohn's theorem and Newton-Hooke symmetry for Hill's equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hill’s equations, which first arose in the study of the Earth-Moon-Sun system, admit the two-parameter centrally extended Newton-Hooke symmetry without rotations. This symmetry allows us to extend Kohn’s theorem about the center-of-mass decomposition. Particular light is shed on the problem using Duval’s “Bargmann” framework. The separation of the center-of-mass motion into that of a guiding center and relative motion is derived by a generalized chiral decomposition.

Zhang, P. M.; Gibbons, G. W.; Horvathy, P. A.

2012-02-01

151

Hormonal regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis in the carp, Cyprinus carpio  

SciTech Connect

Carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver maintained normal glycogen content and enzyme complement for several days in organ culture. Epinephrine-stimulated glycogenolysis, phosphorylase activation, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner with EC/sub 50/s of 100, 100, and 500 nM, respectively. These actions were blocked by the ..beta..-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, but not by the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. Glycogenolysis and tissue cAMP were uninfluenced by 10/sup -6/ M arginine vasotocin, arginine vasopressin, lysine vasotocin, lysine vasopressin, mesotocin, or oxytocin, but were slightly increased by 10/sup -5/ M isotocin and slightly decreased by 10/sup -6/ M angiotensin II. (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol (ICP), a ..beta..-adrenergic ligand, bound to isolated carp liver membranes with a K/sub D/ of 83 pM. Maximum binding of 45 fmol/mg protein was at 600 pM. Propranolol, isoprenaline, epinephrine, phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and phenoxybenzamine displaced ICP with K/sub D/s of 100 nM, 2, 20, 20, 60, and 200 ..mu..M, respectively. The ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonists, yohimbine and prazosin, showed no specific binding. These data provide evidence that catecholamines act via ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in carp liver and that ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors are not present. Vasoactive peptides play no significant role in regulation of carp liver glycogenolysis.

Janssens, P.A.; Lowrey, P.

1987-04-01

152

Development and impact of hooks of large droplet concentration on remote southeast Pacific stratocumulus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the southeastern Pacific (SEP), droplet concentration (Nd) in the typically unpolluted marine stratocumulus west of 80° W (> 1000 km offshore) is periodically strongly enhanced in zonally-elongated "hook"-shaped arcs that increase albedo. Here, we examine three hook events using the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem) with 14 km horizontal resolution, satellite data and aircraft data from the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx). A particularly strong hook yields insights to the development, decay, and radiative impact of these features. Hook development occurs with Nd increasing to polluted levels over the remote ocean primarily due to entrainment of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) from the free troposphere (FT). The feature advects northwestward until the FT CCN source is depleted, after which Nd decreases over a few days due to precipitation and dilution. The model suggests that the FT CCN source supplying the hook consists of high concentrations of small accumulation mode aerosols that contribute a relatively small amount of aerosol mass to the MBL. The aerosol particles originate mainly from a pulse of offshore flow that transports Santiago region (33-35° S) emissions to the marine FT. To provide a sustained hook CCN source, the FT transport of pollution plumes to the remote ocean requires strong, deep offshore flow. Such flow is favored by a trough approaching the South American coast and a southeastward shift of the climatological subtropical high pressure system. The model simulations show precipitation suppression in the hook and a corresponding increase in liquid water path (LWP) compared with a simulation without anthropogenic sources. LWP also increases in time as the hook evolves due to increasing stability and decreasing subsidence. WRF-Chem suggests that DMS significantly influences the aerosol number and size distributions in a hook, but that hooks do not form without FT CCN. The Twomey effect contributes ~ 50-70% of the albedo increase due the presence of the hook, while secondary aerosol indirect effects and meteorological influences also contribute significantly. The source of hook aerosols is difficult to determine with the available observations alone. The model explains the observations and puts them in context of the factors influencing hook formation. Two other weaker hooks during VOCALS-REx are not as well simulated but are also associated with FT offshore flow near Santiago. Hooks demonstrate the importance of free-tropospheric transport of aerosols in modulating the droplet concentration in the southeastern Pacific stratocumulus deck, and present a formidable challenge to simulate accurately in large scale models.

George, R. C.; Wood, R.; Bretherton, C. S.; Painter, G.

2013-01-01

153

[The analysis of genetic variability of mtDNA 12S rRNA genes in the allotetraploid, triploid crucian carp and their parents].  

PubMed

The complete 12S rRNA genes from the five F11 allotetraploids, two diploid gynogens, two triploid crucian carps, one red crucian carp, one xiangjiang common carp, and one Japanese crucian carp were successfully cloned and sequenced. Sequence compositions and variations were analyzed with MEGA 1.0 software. Five F11 allotetraploids shared two haplotypes, and two diploid gynogens, two triploid crucian carps, one red crucian carp, one xiangjiang common carp, one Japanese crucian carp shared one haplotype, respectively. The similarities among red crucian carp, xiangjiang common carp, allotetraploid, diploid gynogen, Japanese crucian carp, and triploid crucian carp varied from 95% to 99%. The similarities between allotetraploid, triploid crucian carp and their female parents (red crucian carp and Japanese crucian carp, respectively) were higher than those between allotetraploid, triploid crucian carp and their male parents (xiangjiang common carp and allotetraploid, respectively). Such result indicated that mitochondrial 12S rRNA genes of the allotetraploid and triploid crucian carp were inherited maternally. A phylogenetic tree was reconstructed using the neighbor joining method of the MEGA package. It was noticeable that after nine generations from F3 to F11 hybrids, the five F11 allotetraploids shared two haplotypes (AT-1 and AT-2), indicating the allotetraploid stock had the genetic diversity. The results provided some valuable information for the breeding, genetic conservation, and population rejuvenation of the tetraploid stock. PMID:15640120

Guo, Xin-Hong; Liu, Shao-Jun; Yan, Jin-Peng; Liu, Yun

2004-11-01

154

THE BLUE HOOK POPULATIONS OF MASSIVE GLOBULAR CLUSTERS  

SciTech Connect

We present new Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet color-magnitude diagrams of five massive Galactic globular clusters: NGC 2419, NGC 6273, NGC 6715, NGC 6388, and NGC 6441. These observations were obtained to investigate the 'blue hook' (BH) phenomenon previously observed in UV images of the globular clusters {omega} Cen and NGC 2808. Blue hook stars are a class of hot (approximately 35,000 K) subluminous horizontal branch stars that occupy a region of the HR diagram that is unexplained by canonical stellar evolution theory. By coupling new stellar evolution models to appropriate non-LTE synthetic spectra, we investigate various theoretical explanations for these stars. Specifically, we compare our photometry to canonical models at standard cluster abundances, canonical models with enhanced helium (consistent with cluster self-enrichment at early times), and flash-mixed models formed via a late helium-core flash on the white dwarf cooling curve. We find that flash-mixed models are required to explain the faint luminosity of the BH stars, although neither the canonical models nor the flash-mixed models can explain the range of color observed in such stars, especially those in the most metal-rich clusters. Aside from the variation in the color range, no clear trends emerge in the morphology of the BH population with respect to metallicity.

Brown, Thomas M.; Smith, Ed [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sweigart, Allen V. [Code 667, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Lanz, Thierry [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Landsman, Wayne B. [Adnet Systems, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Hubeny, Ivan, E-mail: tbrown@stsci.ed, E-mail: edsmith@stsci.ed, E-mail: allen.v.sweigart@nasa.go, E-mail: lanz@astro.umd.ed, E-mail: wayne.b.landsman@nasa.go, E-mail: hubeny@aegis.as.arizona.ed [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85712 (United States)

2010-08-01

155

The validation of a generalized Hooke's law for coronary arteries.  

PubMed

The exponential form of constitutive model is widely used in biomechanical studies of blood vessels. There are two main issues, however, with this model: 1) the curve fits of experimental data are not always satisfactory, and 2) the material parameters may be oversensitive. A new type of strain measure in a generalized Hooke's law for blood vessels was recently proposed by our group to address these issues. The new model has one nonlinear parameter and six linear parameters. In this study, the stress-strain equation is validated by fitting the model to experimental data of porcine coronary arteries. Material constants of left anterior descending artery and right coronary artery for the Hooke's law were computed with a separable nonlinear least-squares method with an excellent goodness of fit. A parameter sensitivity analysis shows that the stability of material constants is improved compared with the exponential model and a biphasic model. A boundary value problem was solved to demonstrate that the model prediction can match the measured arterial deformation under experimental loading conditions. The validated constitutive relation will serve as a basis for the solution of various boundary value problems of cardiovascular biomechanics. PMID:17933971

Wang, Chong; Zhang, Wei; Kassab, Ghassan S

2008-01-01

156

Hermitian extension of the four-dimensional Hooke's law  

E-print Network

It has been shown recently that the classical law of elasticity, expressed in terms of the displacement three-vector and of the symmetric deformation three-tensor, can be extended to the four dimensions of special and of general relativity with a physically meaningful outcome. In fact, the resulting stress- momentum-energy tensor can provide a unified account of both the elastic and the inertial properties of uncharged matter. The extension of the displacement vector to the four dimensions of spacetime allows a further possibility. If the real displacement four-vector is complemented with an imaginary part, the resulting complex ``displacement'' four-vector allows for a complex, Hermitian generalisation of the four-dimensional Hooke's law. Let the complex, Hermitian ``stress-momentum-energy'' tensor density built in this way be subjected to the usual conservation condition. It turns out that, while the real part of the latter equation is able to account for the motion of electrically charged, elastic matter, the imaginary part of the same equation can describe the evolution of the electromagnetic field and of its sources. The Hermitian extension of Hooke's law is performed by availing of the postulate of ``transposition invariance'', introduced in 1945 by A. Einstein for finding the nonsymmetric generalisation of his theory of gravitation of 1915.

S. Antoci

2000-05-23

157

Interactions of light and ethylene in hypocotyl hook maintenance in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Etiolated seedlings frequently display a hypocotyl or epicotyl hook which opens on exposure to light. Etylene has been shown to be necessary for maintenance of the hook in a number of plants in darkness. We investigated the interaction of ethylene and light in the regulation of hypocotyl hook opening in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that hooks of Arabidopsis open in response to continuous red, far-red or blue light in the presence of up to 100 microliters l-1 ethylene. Thus a change in sensitivity to ethylene is likely to be responsible for hook opening in Arabidopsis, rather than a decrease in ethylene production in hook tissues. We used photomorphogenic mutants of Arabidopsis to demonstrate the involvement of both blue light and phytochrome photosensory systems in light-induced hook opening in the presence of ethylene. In addition we used ethylene mutants and inhibitors of ethylene action to investigate the role of ethylene in hook maintenance in seedlings grown in light and darkness.

Knee, E. M.; Hangarter, R. P.; Knee, M.

2000-01-01

158

Sternal closure after median sternotomy: a new technique using titanium hooks and wires applied parasternally  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Osteosynthetic closure of the chest after median sternotomy is usually performed with steel wires. We describe, for the first time, a case series in which titanium hooks were implanted from the sternal surface in patients who required secondary or additional stabilization. In comparison to the classic wires, the diameters of the hooks are approximately three times bigger and therefore reduce the risk of cutting through the bones. Additionally, there is no need to dissect retrosternal adhesions, which may reduce the risk of injuring mediastinal tissues. METHODS The hooks are shaped like fishing hooks and can be inserted parasternally into the intercostal spaces. They can be pulled to the contralateral side of the sternum by the attached wires and then intertwined with a second hook. RESULTS In 13 patients, the system was used to provide additional stabilization, while in two patients the hooks were implanted for exclusive stabilization of sternal fractures. In all cases but one, the implantation was able to eliminate the sternal problems. No infections, necrosis or bleeding of neighbouring tissues occurred. One patient developed chronic sternal infection, which necessitated explantation of the hooks. CONCLUSIONS This sternal closure system using titanium hooks inserted parasternally is an effective alternative to conventional techniques and may increase stability of the breastbone and reduce the risk of injury to retrosternal tissues. PMID:23449663

Kilian, Eckehard; Mair, Helmut; Reichart, Bruno; Lamm, Peter

2013-01-01

159

Are College Students Replacing Dating and Romantic Relationships with Hooking Up?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed female college students' ("N" = 197) participation in dating, romantic relationships, hooking up behaviors, and the intersection of these activities. Hooking up was prevalent among students ("n" = 78; 39.6%), but dating ("n" = 139; 70.6%) and romantic relationship ("n" = 147; 74.6%)…

Siebenbruner, Jessica

2013-01-01

160

When Teachers Aren't Nice: bell hooks and Feminist Pedagogy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recent "feminization" of composition theory and pedagogy has replaced the classroom figure of the authoritative father with an image of a nurturing mother. But as bell hooks and others insist, the classroom is inherently a place of struggle and conflict and the "real world" is even more so. Hooks offers concrete alternatives to the usual…

Buffington, Nancy

161

Newton-Hooke algebras, nonrelativistic branes, and generalized pp-wave metrics  

SciTech Connect

The Newton-Hooke algebras in d dimensions are constructed as contractions of dS(AdS) algebras. Nonrelativistic brane actions are WZ terms of these Newton-Hooke algebras. The NH algebras appear also as subalgebras of multitemporal relativistic conformal algebras, SO(d+1,p+2). We construct generalizations of pp-wave metrics from these algebras.

Brugues, Jan; Gomis, Joaquim; Kamimura, Kiyoshi [Departament ECM, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Departament ECM, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, CER for Astrophysics, Particle Physics and Cosmology, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECS) Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile); Department of Physics, Toho University, Funabashi 274-8510 (Japan)

2006-04-15

162

Morphology of the Muscle Articulation Joint Between the Hooks of a Flatworm  

E-print Network

of di- varicator muscle fibers antagonized by contraction of radial myofilaments causes the lateral bundles are present in the core of the hook supports, and lateral divaricator muscle fibers are locatedMorphology of the Muscle Articulation Joint Between the Hooks of a Flatworm (Kalyptorhynchia

Kier, William M.

163

N=2 superconformal Newton-Hooke algebra and many-body mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A representation of the conformal Newton-Hooke algebra on a phase space of n particles in arbitrary dimension which interact with one another via a generic conformal potential and experience a universal cosmological repulsion or attraction is constructed. The minimal N=2 superconformal extension of the Newton-Hooke algebra and its dynamical realization in many-body mechanics are studied.

Galajinsky, Anton

2009-10-01

164

Augmented Hooke's law in frequency domain. A three dimensional, material damping formulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An isothermal, fully three-dimensional material damping modelling technique, to some extent alternative to classic viscoelasticity, is proposed. The method is formulated in the frequency domain as an augmented Hooke's law (AHL) with a constitutive matrix in which material damping is introduced by adding frequency dependent, complex valued terms to the classical material modulus matrix of Hooke's generalized law. The derivations

K. Dovstam

1995-01-01

165

Comparison of Cotrel-Dubousset pedicle screws and hooks in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-two patients with idiopathic scoliosis were treated by Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation between 1987 and 1991. Twenty were treated with hooks only, 47 with screws and hooks, and 15 with screws only. The methods were compared and the findings showed that screw fixation can be used in the thoracic spine without neurological complications. The screws provided immediate stability with rigid fixation, together

S. I. Suk; C. K. Lee; H. J. Min; K. H. Cho; J. H. Oh

1994-01-01

166

Building Prior Knowledge and Vocabulary in Science in the Intermediate Grades: Creating Hooks for Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vocabulary knowledge is a salient factor influencing success both in and out of school. The specialized vocabulary knowledge in science represents the concept-laden hooks on which learning is hung and enables students to build prior knowledge through the expansion of these conceptual hooks. We have identified four levels of learners--struggling…

Rupley, William H.; Slough, Scott

2010-01-01

167

Effect of mixed starter cultures fermentation on the characteristics of silver carp sausages  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the quality and functionality and increase the utilization of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) muscle, three groups of silver carp sausages inoculated with the combinations of Staphylococcus xylosus-12 with Lactobacillus plantarum-15, Pediococcus pentosaceus-ATCC33316, and Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei-1.001, and a batch without any starter (control) were prepared. During the 48 h fermentation at 30°C, silver carp sausages\\u000a inoculated with mixed

Yongjin Hu; Wenshui Xia; Changrong Ge

2007-01-01

168

Prevalence of Ingested Fish Hooks in Freshwater Turtles from Five Rivers in the Southeastern United States  

PubMed Central

Freshwater turtles may ingest baited fish hooks because many are opportunistic scavengers. Although the ingestion of fish hooks is known to be a source of mortality in multiple vertebrate groups, the prevalence of hook ingestion by freshwater turtles has not been well studied. We trapped turtles from five rivers in the southeastern United States and used radiographs to examine over 600 individuals of four species. Depending on the species, sex, and age class, 0–33% of turtles contained ingested fish hooks. For some species, larger turtles were more likely to contain a fish hook than smaller individuals. Freshwater turtle demography suggests that even small increases in adult mortality may lead to population declines. If our study areas are representative of other aquatic systems that receive fishing pressure, this work likely identifies a potential conflict between a widespread, common recreational activity (i.e., fishing) and an imperiled taxonomic group. PMID:24621919

Steen, David A.; Hopkins, Brittney C.; Van Dyke, James U.; Hopkins, William A.

2014-01-01

169

Variation in Apical Hook Length Reflects the Intensity of Sperm Competition in Murine Rodents  

PubMed Central

Background Post-copulatory sexual selection has been shown to shape morphology of male gametes. Both directional and stabilizing selection on sperm phenotype have been documented in vertebrates in response to sexual promiscuity. Methodology Here we investigated the degree of variance in apical hook length and tail length in six taxa of murine rodents. Conclusions Tail sperm length and apical hook length were positively associated with relative testis mass, our proxy for levels of sperm competition, thus indicating directional post-copulatory selection on sperm phenotypes. Moreover, our study shows that increased levels of sperm competition lead to the reduction of variance in the hook length, indicating stabilizing selection. Hence, the higher risk of sperm competition affects increasing hook length together with decreasing variance in the hook length. Species-specific post-copulatory sexual selection likely optimizes sperm morphology. PMID:23844198

Sandera, Martin; Albrecht, Tomas; Stopka, Pavel

2013-01-01

170

A novel approach for removing the hook effect artefact from Electrical Bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very often in Electrical Bioimpedance (EBI) spectroscopy measurements the presence of stray capacitances creates a measurement artefact commonly known as Hook Effect. Such an artefact creates a hook-alike deviation of the EBI data noticeable when representing the measurement on the impedance plane. Such Hook Effect is noticeable at high frequencies but it also causes a data deviation at lower measurement frequencies. In order to perform any accurate analysis of the EBI spectroscopy data, the influence of the Hook Effect must be removed. An established method to compensate the hook effect is the well known Td compensation, which consists on multiplying the obtained spectrum, Zmeas(?) by a complex exponential in the form of exp[j?Td]. Such a method cannot correct entirely the Hook Effect since the hook-alike deviation occurs a broad frequency range in both magnitude and phase of the measured impedance, and by using a scalar value for Td. First a scalar only modifies the phase of the measured impedance and second, a single value can truly corrects the Hook Effect only at a single frequency. In addition, the process to select a value for the scalar Td by an iterative process with the aim to obtain the best Cole fitting lacks solid scientific grounds. In this work the Td compensation method is revisited and a modified approach for correcting the Hook Effect including a novel method for selecting the correcting values is proposed. The initial validation results confirm that the proposed method entirely corrects the Hook Effect at all frequencies.

Buendia, R.; Seoane, F.; Gil-Pita, R.

2010-04-01

171

77 FR 20571 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Catcher Vessels Using Hook...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Vessels Using Hook-and-Line Gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska...using hook-and-line gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska...CVs using hook-and-line gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the GOA. DATES:...

2012-04-05

172

77 FR 46125 - Sunoco, Inc., R&M, Refining Division, Marcus Hook, PA; Sunoco, Inc., 10 Industrial Hwy., MS4...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TA-W-81,145A] Sunoco, Inc., R&M, Refining Division, Marcus Hook, PA; Sunoco...former workers of Sunoco, Inc., R&M, Refining Division, Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania...eligibility of Sunoco, Inc., R&M, Refining Division, Marcus Hook,...

2012-08-02

173

Gross Anatomy and Histology of the Hook and Skin of Forehead Brooding Male Nurseryfish, Kurtus Gulliveri , From Northern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature males of nurseryfish have a hook on their head to which the eggs become attached and are carried like a bunch of grapes. This paper examines the anatomy and histology of the hook. The osteological basis of the hook is shown to be a modification of the supraoccipital crest of the skull covered by typical teleost skin. The integument

Tim M. Berra; John D. Humphrey

2002-01-01

174

49 CFR 393.134 - What are the rules for securing roll-on/roll-off or hook lift containers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...securing roll-on/roll-off or hook lift containers? 393.134 Section 393...securing roll-on/roll-off or hook lift containers? (a) Applicability. ...transportation of roll-on/roll-off or hook lift containers. (b) Securement of a...

2012-10-01

175

49 CFR 393.134 - What are the rules for securing roll-on/roll-off or hook lift containers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...securing roll-on/roll-off or hook lift containers? 393.134 Section 393...securing roll-on/roll-off or hook lift containers? (a) Applicability. ...transportation of roll-on/roll-off or hook lift containers. (b) Securement of a...

2010-10-01

176

49 CFR 393.134 - What are the rules for securing roll-on/roll-off or hook lift containers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...securing roll-on/roll-off or hook lift containers? 393.134 Section 393...securing roll-on/roll-off or hook lift containers? (a) Applicability. ...transportation of roll-on/roll-off or hook lift containers. (b) Securement of a...

2011-10-01

177

Les vitesses de renouvellement des ARN du foie de carpe (Cyprinus carpio L.) soumise un jene total et prolong  

E-print Network

Les vitesses de renouvellement des ARN du foie de carpe (Cyprinus carpio L.) soumise à un jeûne in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after prolonged total starvation. 1. Turnover rate and half-life of hepatic

Boyer, Edmond

178

Tolrance physiologique de l'œuf de carpe (Cyprinus carpio L.) un choc acide appliqu au cours  

E-print Network

Tolérance physiologique de l'œuf de carpe (Cyprinus carpio L.) à un choc acide appliqué au Corzent 74203 Thonon-les-Bains, France. Summary. Physiological tolerance of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) eggs

Boyer, Edmond

179

Spring Viremia of Carp Virus (SVCV) Rule and the Importation of Susceptible Fish General Information and Suggested Procedural Checklist for  

E-print Network

(Carassius auratus) Tench (Tinca tinca) Sheatfish (Silurus glanis) If yes, then go to step 2. 2. Do you have (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) Bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) Goldfish

Watson, Craig A.

180

New steroidal saponin from Antigonon leptopus Hook. and Arn.  

PubMed Central

Background: Antigonon leptopus Hook. and Arn., Polygonaceae (cadena de amor), is a herbal remedy for pain and gout-like symptoms in the Philippines. The methanol extract of A. leptopus have shown strong inhibitory action against xanthine oxidase. Objective: To isolate and identify the compound responsible for the xanthine oxidase inhibitory action. Materials and Methods: A bioassay-guided isolation scheme using an in vitro assay for the inhibition of xanthine oxidase was employed. The structure was established using spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. Results: The isolated compound was determined to be a noncompetitive inhibitor of xanthine with an IC50 of 1.79 ?g/mL. Conclusion: The isolated compound may represent a new class of xanthine oxidase inhibitors. PMID:25298666

Apaya, Maria Karmella L.; Chichioco-Hernandez, Christine L.

2014-01-01

181

Hooke's law correlation in two-electron systems  

SciTech Connect

We study the properties of the Hooke's law correlation energy (E{sub c}), defined as the correlation energy when two electrons interact via a harmonic potential in a D-dimensional space. More precisely, we investigate the {sup 1}S ground-state properties of two model systems: the Moshinsky atom (in which the electrons move in a quadratic potential) and the spherium model (in which they move on the surface of a sphere). A comparison with their Coulombic counterparts is made that highlights the main differences of the E{sub c} in both the weakly and strongly correlated limits. Moreover, we show that the Schroedinger equation of the spherium model is exactly solvable for two values of the dimension (D=1 and 3) and that the exact wave function is based on Mathieu functions.

Loos, Pierre-Francois [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200 (Australia)

2010-03-15

182

Hooke's Law and the Stiffness of a Plastic Spoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of elastic properties of solids is essential to both physics and engineering. Finding simple, easy-to-visualize examples to demonstrate these concepts is often difficult. In a previous article written by one of us (KAPII), a simple method for determining Youngs modulus using marshmallows was given. In this article we will illustrate another method to explore elastic properties of everyday materials. This experiment uses a common plastic spoon exposed to a transverse force in order to determine the stiffness constant, yield point, and rupture point of the plastic spoon. In addition, much like the "Youngs Modulus of a Marshmallow" activity, this experiment visually demonstrates Hooke's law, is fun and easy to perform, and leaves a lasting impression on the students.

Pestka, Kenneth A.; Warren, Cori

2012-11-01

183

The anisotropic Hooke's law for cancellous bone and wood.  

PubMed

A method of data analysis for a set of elastic constant measurements is applied to data bases for wood and cancellous bone. For these materials the identification of the type of elastic symmetry is complicated by the variable composition of the material. The data analysis method permits the identification of the type of elastic symmetry to be accomplished independent of the examination of the variable composition. This method of analysis may be applied to any set of elastic constant measurements, but is illustrated here by application to hardwoods and softwoods, and to an extraordinary data base of cancellous bone elastic constants. The solid volume fraction or bulk density is the compositional variable for the elastic constants of these natural materials. The final results are the solid volume fraction dependent orthotropic Hooke's law for cancellous bone and a bulk density dependent one for hardwoods and softwoods. PMID:11543211

Yang, G; Kabel, J; van Rietbergen, B; Odgaard, A; Huiskes, R; Cowin, S C

184

Spring viremia of carp virus in Minnehaha Creek, Minnesota.  

PubMed

Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) causes a highly contagious and serious disease of freshwater cyprinid fishes, generating significant economic and ecological impacts throughout the world. The SVCV is therefore listed as a notifiable pathogen by the International Organization for Animal Health. In June 2011, a significant mortality event of wild common carp Cyprinus carpio occurred in Minnehaha Creek near its confluence with Mississippi River Pool 2 in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Clinical signs of moribund fish included hemorrhagic lesions in the skin, eyes, and internal adipose tissue. The SVCV was isolated from pooled kidney and spleen of the fish. Rhabdovirus particles were seen upon examination of infected cell culture fluid by electron microscopy. The virus was confirmed to be SVCV subtype Ia by reverse transcription PCR and sequencing. This is the first report of SVCV within the state of Minnesota and the ninth documented case in North America. PMID:23072656

Phelps, Nicholas B D; Armién, Aníbal G; Mor, Sunil K; Goyal, Sagar M; Warg, Janet V; Bhagyam, Ranjit; Monahan, Tim

2012-12-01

185

Food Selection by Grass Carp Fingerlings in a Vegetated Pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five thousand grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fry were stocked into a 0.81-hectare pond in Marion County, Florida. The fry grew from 48.2 mm to 186 mm total length in 6 months with a survival rate of less than 7%. Food consumption decreased to near maintenance ration when water temperature fell below 14 C and growth was reduced. The 76 grass

Douglas E. Colle; Jerome V. Shireman; Roger W. Rottmann

1978-01-01

186

The Political and Economic Implications of the Asian Carp Invasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Asian carp will kill jobs and ruin our way of life.”1 Such is the sentiment expressed by Michigan Attorney General Mike Cox and many other politicians and interest groups in the Great Lakes Region. The invasion of non-native species into the Great Lakes is a public policy problem that has the ability to severely damage the region’s environment and economy.

Thomas Just

2011-01-01

187

OXIDATIVE PROPERTIES OF CARP RED AND WHITE MUSCLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Substrate preferences of isolated mitochondria and maximal enzyme activities were used to assess the oxidative capacities of red muscle (RM) and white muscle (WM) of carp (Cyprinus carpio). A 14-fold higher activity of citrate synthase (CS) in RM reflects the higher mitochondrial density in this tissue. RM mitochondria oxidize pyruvate and fatty acyl carnitines (8:O, 12:0, 16:0) at similarly

C. D. MOYES; L. T. BUCK; P. W. HOCHACHKA; R. K. SUAREZ

1989-01-01

188

Essentiality of dietary phospholipids for carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the essentiality of phospholipid (PL) addition to semi-purified diets for first-feeding carp larvae. In Experiment I (25 days), a casein-based diet was supplemented with 0, 2 or 4% of a purified PL source (PL level in source: 98%) and with 0 or 4% of peanut oil (PO). One casein-based diet without

Inge Geurden; João Radünz-Neto; Pierre Bergot

1995-01-01

189

The development of a radioimmunoassay for carp, Cyprinus carpio , vitellogenin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of an easily — performed and robust radioimmunoassay (RIA) to carp, Cyprinus carpio, vitellogenin (c-VTG) is described. Purified c-VTG was iodinated using Iodogen. The resulting c-VTG label was useful for\\u000a up to 60 days. High titre antibodies were raised in rabbits to the purified c-VTG. The practical operating range of the c-VTG\\u000a RIA was between 2 and 200

Charles R. Tyler; John P. Sumpter

1990-01-01

190

Molecular cloning of a carp Jak3 from activated leukocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Janus kinases (Jaks) are involved in a signalling pathway leading to tyrosine phosphorylation, which is the key step in transducing cytokine signals from the external environment to the nucleus. We report here the molecular cloning of carp Jak3. A partial cDNA of the Jak homologue was initially identified from a cDNA pool obtained by subtracting the cDNAs from Con A-induced

Zhan Yin; Jimmy Kwang

2000-01-01

191

Penetrating fish-hook ocular injury: management of an unusual intraocular foreign body.  

PubMed

Importance. Ocular penetrating fish-hook injuries represent an unusual and very dangerous ocular trauma. We report the management of an unusual case of a simple-single barbed fish-hook accident globe injury successfully treated with surgery. Observations. We described a case report of a caucasian 32-year-old man presented with a scleral perforation of the left eye caused by a fish-hook injury while fishing. The fish-hook penetrated the sclera, passed the trabecular meshwork, and exited into the anterior chamber. He underwent surgery under local anesthesia to remove the intraocular foreign body and to repair the wound. The hook was removed backing through the entrance wound, enlarge the primary scleral laceration. Final visual outcome, one month after trauma, was 0.0 LogMar. Conclusions and Relevance. Our unusual case shows a modified extraction technique of fish-hook from the eye. Although the fish-hook injury represents generally a serious occurrence, in some cases, a prompt and appropriate method of extraction can lead to a good final outcome. PMID:24822071

Iannetti, Ludovico; Tortorella, Paolo

2014-01-01

192

Penetrating Fish-Hook Ocular Injury: Management of an Unusual Intraocular Foreign Body  

PubMed Central

Importance. Ocular penetrating fish-hook injuries represent an unusual and very dangerous ocular trauma. We report the management of an unusual case of a simple-single barbed fish-hook accident globe injury successfully treated with surgery. Observations. We described a case report of a caucasian 32-year-old man presented with a scleral perforation of the left eye caused by a fish-hook injury while fishing. The fish-hook penetrated the sclera, passed the trabecular meshwork, and exited into the anterior chamber. He underwent surgery under local anesthesia to remove the intraocular foreign body and to repair the wound. The hook was removed backing through the entrance wound, enlarge the primary scleral laceration. Final visual outcome, one month after trauma, was 0.0 LogMar. Conclusions and Relevance. Our unusual case shows a modified extraction technique of fish-hook from the eye. Although the fish-hook injury represents generally a serious occurrence, in some cases, a prompt and appropriate method of extraction can lead to a good final outcome. PMID:24822071

Tortorella, Paolo

2014-01-01

193

Absorption of metals in mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus) after ingesting nickel-plated carbon-steel hooks.  

PubMed

Previous research has alluded to the potential of metals being absorbed by fish after ingesting fishing hooks, which may have adverse effects on fish health and the organisms that consume them. Subsequently, this study aimed to quantify the potential of mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus) to absorb metals during the decay of ingested nickel-plated carbon-steel hooks. Twenty-five treatment fish were allowed to ingest nickel-plated carbon-steel hooks during angling and then monitored with 25 controls (untreated fish) for up to 42 days for hook ejection and mortality. Blood, liver and muscle samples were collected from treatment, control and 14 wild-caught individuals to determine the concentrations of chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese and nickel. The results showed that increased oxidation influenced hook ejection, and that hook-ingested fish had significantly elevated concentrations of nickel in their liver and blood, but not muscle. This research has shown that there is an avenue for metal absorption from ingested hooks. PMID:25016938

McGrath, Shane P; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Butcher, Paul A; Cairns, Stuart C

2014-08-01

194

A review of genetic improvement of the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and other cyprinids by crossbreeding, hybridization and selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic research and application have mainly focused on the common carp, while little attention has been given to Chinese and Indian carps. The only exceptions are interspecific and intergeneric hybridization involving the latter species. The common carp is the only species for which distinct varieties exist. Several of these have been used for crossbreeding, and heterosis for growth was shown

Gideon Hulata

1995-01-01

195

Nitrogen and energy utilization in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio) fed casein, amino acids or a protein-free diet  

E-print Network

Nitrogen and energy utilization in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio) fed casein, amino acids and energy metabolism during the early life history of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, we followed changes, Academy of Agriculture and Techno%gy Olsztyn-Kortowo, Poland. Summary. Juvenile carp (Cyrpinus carpio

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

196

Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 55: 11891197 (1998). 1998 NRC Canada Predictions on the effect of common carp  

E-print Network

of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) exclusion on water quality, zooplankton, and submergent macrophytes a study to examine the relationship between common carp (Cyprinus carpio) exclusion, water quality étudié la relation entre l'exclusion des carpes (Cyprinus carpio), la qualité de l'eau, le zooplancton et

McMaster University

197

Influence of nutritional status on the daily patterns of nitrogen excretion in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

E-print Network

after the start of the particular feeding regime. b) Trials with carp. - Three carp (Cyprinus carpio LInfluence of nutritional status on the daily patterns of nitrogen excretion in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri R.) S. J. KAUSHIK Denise BLANC Laboratoire de Nutrition

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

198

Size-and depth-dependent variation in habitat and diet of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

E-print Network

Size- and depth-dependent variation in habitat and diet of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) Emili, Cyprinus carpio, diet, Lake Banyoles, Spain. ABSTRACT The habitat and diet variation of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were studied in Lake Banyo- les (Catalonia, Spain). Carp was the second most abundant

García-Berthou, Emili

199

Effects of hook plate on shoulder function after treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocation  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Internal fixation with hook plate has been used to treat acromioclavicular joint dislocation. This study aims to evaluate the effect of its use on shoulder function, to further analyze the contributing factors, and provide a basis for selection and design of improved internal fixation treatment of the acromioclavicular joint dislocation in the future. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on patients treated with a hook plate for acromioclavicular joint dislocation in our hospital from January 2010 to February 2013. There were 33 cases in total, including 25 males and 8 females, with mean age of 48.27 ± 8.7 years. There were 29 cases of Rockwood type III acromioclavicular dislocation, 4 cases of type V. The Constant-Murley shoulder function scoring system was used to evaluate the shoulder function recovery status after surgery. Anteroposterior shoulder X-ray was used to assess the position of the hook plate, status of acromioclavicular joint reduction and the occurrence of postoperative complications. Results: According to the Constant-Murley shoulder function scoring system, the average scores were 78 ± 6 points 8 to 12 months after the surgery and before the removal of the hook plate, the average scores were 89 ± 5 minutes two months after the removal of hook plate. Postoperative X-ray imaging showed osteolysis in 10 cases (30.3%), osteoarthritis in six cases (18.1%), osteolysis associated with osteoarthritis in four cases(12.1%), and steel hook broken in one case (3%). Conclusion: The use of hook plate on open reduction and internal fixation of the acromioclavicular joint dislocation had little adverse effect on shoulder function and is an effective method for the treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocation. Osteoarthritis and osteolysis are the two common complications after hook plate use, which are associated with the impairment of shoulder function. Shoulder function will be improved after removal of the hook plate. PMID:25356110

Chen, Chang-Hong; Dong, Qi-Rong; Zhou, Rong-Kui; Zhen, Hua-Qing; Jiao, Ya-Jun

2014-01-01

200

The Golgi-Associated Hook3 Protein Is a Member of a Novel Family of Microtubule-Binding Proteins  

PubMed Central

Microtubules are central to the spatial organization of diverse membrane-trafficking systems. Here, we report that Hook proteins constitute a novel family of cytosolic coiled coil proteins that bind to organelles and to microtubules. The conserved NH2-terminal domains of Hook proteins mediate attachment to microtubules, whereas the more divergent COOH-terminal domains mediate the binding to organelles. Human Hook3 bound to Golgi membranes in vitro and was enriched in the cis-Golgi in vivo. Unlike other cis-Golgi–associated proteins, however, a large fraction of Hook3 maintained its juxtanuclear localization after Brefeldin A treatment, indicating a Golgi-independent mechanism for Hook3 localization. Because overexpression of Hook3 caused fragmentation of the Golgi complex, we propose that Hook3 participates in defining the architecture and localization of the mammalian Golgi complex. PMID:11238449

Walenta, Jason H.; Didier, Aaron J.; Liu, Xinran; Kramer, Helmut

2001-01-01

201

Growth, Fecundity, and Diets of Newly Established Silver Carp in the Middle Mississippi River  

Microsoft Academic Search

The silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix has spread throughout the Mississippi River drainage. During 2003, we determined its population status and potential impact in the middle Mississippi River (MMR), the conduit between the lower Mississippi River and the upper Mississippi, Missouri, and Illinois rivers. We quantified growth, age structure, fecundity, and diets of silver carp sampled with trammel nets and AC

Christopher J. Williamson; James E. Garvey

2005-01-01

202

Massive Production of All-female Diploids and Triploids in the Crucian Carp  

PubMed Central

In many species of aquaculture importance, all-female and sterile populations possess superior productivity due to faster growth and a relatively homogenous size of individuals. However, the production of all-female and sterile fish in a large scale for aquaculture is a challenge in practice, because treatments necessary for gynogenesis induction usually cause massive embryonic and larval mortality, and the number of induced gynogens is too small for their direct use in aquaculture. Here we report the massive production of all-female triploid crucian carp by combining artificial gynogenesis, sex reversal and diploid-tetraploid hybridization. Previously, we have obtained an allotetraploid carp population (4n = 200) by hybridization between red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var; ?) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio; ?). We induced all-female diploid gynogens of the Japanese crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri; 2n = 100). We also generated male diploid gynogens of the same species treated gynogenetic fry with 17-?-methyltestosterone, leading to the production of sex-revered gynogenetic males. Finally, these males were used to cross with the female diploid Japanese crucian carp gynogens and the allotetraploid females, resulting in the production of fertile all-female diploid Japanese crucian carp (2n=100) and sterile all-female triploid hybrids (3n = 150), respectively. Therefore, diploid crucian carp gynogenetic females and sex-reversed male together with an allotetraploid line provide an opportunity to produce all-female triploid populations in a large scale to meet demands in aquaculture industry. PMID:21547066

Luo, KaiKun; Xiao, Jun; Liu, ShaoJun; Wang, Jing; He, WeiGuo; Hu, Jie; Qin, QinBo; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Liu, Yun

2011-01-01

203

Effects of triiodothyronine and of some gonadotropic and steroid hormones on the maturation of carp  

E-print Network

Effects of triiodothyronine and of some gonadotropic and steroid hormones on the maturation of carp) and of gonadotropic and steroid hormones on carp oocyte maturation in vitro were investigated using ovarian fragments greater in the subgroups incubated with T3 + steroid hormone, or with T3 + gonadotropic hormone, than

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

204

Genetic variability of German and foreign common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to describe their genetic variability the polymorphisms of 8 enzymatic systems representing 23 gene loci were studied in 11 German and 5 foreign common carp lines using horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. The highest variability measured by the mean number of alleles per locus and the percentage of polymorphic loci was observed in Vietnamese wild carp (1.9 and 50%,

Klaus Kohlmann; Petra Kersten

1999-01-01

205

Cryopreservation of Sperm in Common Carp Cyprinus carpio: Sperm Motility and Hatching Success of Embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, fish sperm cryopreservation methods were elaborated upon for ex situ conservation of nine strains of Bohemian common carp. Common carp sperm were diluted in Kurokura medium and chilled to 4°C and dimethyl sulfoxide was added. Cryotubes of sperm with media were then cooled from +4 to ?9°C at a rate of 4°C min?1 and then from ?9

Otomar Linhart; Marek Rodina; Jacky Cosson

2000-01-01

206

Pathological and Biochemical Characterization of Microcystin-Induced Hepatopancreas and Kidney Damage in Carp ( Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass occurrences of cyanobacteria, due to their inherent capacity for toxin production, specifically of microcystins (MC), have been associated with fish kills worldwide. The uptake of MC-LR and the sequence of pathological and associated biochemical changes was investigated in carp (Cyprinus carpio) in vivo over 72 h. Carp were gavaged with a single sublethal bolus dose of toxic Microcystis aeruginosa

W. J. Fischer; D. R. Dietrich

2000-01-01

207

Organophosphate Effects on Antioxidant System of Carp ( Cyprinus carpio) and Catfish ( Ictalurus nebulosus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the organophosphate insecticide Dichlorvos on antioxidant enzymes and other oxidative and redox parameters of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and catfish (Ictalurus nebulosus) were studied. Changes in superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and in the case of carp acetylcholinesterase activities were studied in tissue homogenates. Other parameters studied: changes of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and the amounts of

Do Quy Hai; Sz. Ilona Varga; B Matkovics

1997-01-01

208

Origin and domestication of the wild carp, Cyprinus carpio: from Roman gourmets to the swimming flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleogeographical, morphological, ecological, physiological, linguistic, archeological and historical evidence is used to explain the origin and history of the domestication of the wild carp. The wild ancestor of the common carp originated in the Black, Caspian and Aral sea drainages and dispersed east into Siberia and China and west as far as the Danube River. It is represented today by

Eugene K. Balon

1995-01-01

209

Effectiveness of an Electrical Barrier and Lake Drawdown for Reducing Common Carp and Bigmouth Buffalo Abundances  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overabundance of common carp Cyprinus carpio and bigmoulh buffalo \\/ctiobus cyprinellus in North and South Heron lakes, Minnesota, has hindered production of food plants for waterfowl. These shallow (maximum depth, 1.5 m), turbid lakes are partially drawn down each winter. Common carp were radio-tracked in both lakes during the winters of 1991 and 1992 to monitor their movements and

DONOVAN D. VERRILL; CHARLES R. BERRY

1995-01-01

210

PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Biomass-dependent effects of age-0 common carp on aquatic  

E-print Network

in structuring aquatic ecosystems through top-down and bottom-up processes. Adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio, although effects may be accrued through different pathways. Keywords Early life history � Cyprinus carpio common carp (Cypri- nus carpio) populations are often associated with the degradation of shallow aquatic

211

Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol., 31(3) 2011, 112 Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and  

E-print Network

Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol., 31(3) 2011, 112 NOTE Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Cyprinus carpio). In order for fish to transfer the #12;Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol., 31(3) 2011, 113 virus Cook University, Queensland, Australia Abstract Goldfish, Carassius auratus, and common carp, Cyprinus

Gray, Matthew

212

Influence of the Moran Effect on Spatiotemporal Synchrony in Common Carp Recruitment  

E-print Network

on a regionwide scale may further our understanding of fish population dynamics. Common carp Cyprinus carpio geographical scale (i.e., the Moran effect) would induce synchrony in recruitment for common carp Cyprinus carpio among 18 glacial lakes across a 175-km2 area in eastern South Dakota. Cross-correlation analysis

213

Short sequence-paper Uncoupling protein 2 from carp and zebrash, ectothermic vertebrates  

E-print Network

vertebrates. UCPs from two fish species, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) and carp (Cyprinus carpio), were Acta 1413 (1999) 50^54 www.elsevier.com/locate/bba #12;ESTs from the carp Cyprinus carpio (accession. carpio `peritoneal exudate cell' cDNA library and from a D. rerio `day 0 fin regeneration' cDNA library

Stuart, Jeffrey A.

214

Effects of Static versus Flowing Water on Aquatic Plant Preferences of Triploid Grass Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triploid grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella were presented with three aquatic plant species (sago pondweed Potamogeton pectinatus, Eurasian watermilfoil Myriophyllum spicatum, and American pondweed P. nodosus) in outdoor canals with static and flowing water in winter, spring, and summer. Plant consumption by triploid grass carp in winter was low but increased dramatically in spring and summer. Based on plant shoot lengths,

Robert T. Pine; Lars W. J. Anderson; Silas S. O. Hung

1989-01-01

215

First evidence of endocrine disruption in feral carp from the Ebro River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feral carps (Cyprinus carpio) were collected in spring 2001 from five sites along the lower course of Ebro River (Spain) with the aim of investigating the existence of endocrine-disrupting effects. Several findings (low gonadosomatic index (GSI), plasmatic vitellogenin (VTG), depressed levels of testosterone, and histological alterations in gonads) detected in male carps downstream of Zaragoza's sewage treatment plant (STP) strongly

Ramón Lavado; Rémi Thibaut; Demetrio Raldúa; Rebeca Mart??n; Cinta Porte

2004-01-01

216

Age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of adult bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, in the lower Missouri River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bighead carp were introduced into Arkansas in 1973 to improve water clarity in production ponds. Bighead carp subsequently escaped aquaculture facilities in the early 1980's and dispersed into the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. The first documentation of bighead carp reproduction in the Mississippi River system was in 1989. The population has increased in the Missouri River as is evident in their increased proportion in the commercial harvest since 1990. The effect of this exotic planktivore on native ecosystems of the U.S. has not been examined. Basic biological data on bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis in the Missouri River are needed to predict potential ecological problems and provide a foundation for manipulative studies. The objectives of this study were to assess age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of bighead carp in the Missouri River. Adult bighead carp in our sample varied from age 3 to age 7 and length varied from 475 to 1050 mm. There was a large variation in length at age, and overall bighead carp exhibited fast growth. For example, mean back-calculated length at age 3 was 556 mm. The sample was dominated by bighead carp from the 1994 year class. There was no difference in gonad development (i.e., gonadal somatic index, egg diameter) between winter and spring samples. Length of male bighead carp and GSI were not significantly correlated; however, females exhibited a positive linear relationship between length and GSI. In each ovary, egg diameter frequencies exhibited a bimodal distribution, indicating protracted spawning. Mean fecundity was 226 213, with a maximum fecundity of 769 964. Bighead carp in the Missouri River have similar life history characteristics to Asian and European populations. They have become well established in the Missouri River and it is likely that dispersal and population density will increase.

Schrank, S.J.; Guy, C.S.

2002-01-01

217

Hook-ups : how youth learn through creating physical computer interfaces  

E-print Network

The Hook-ups project introduces a new set of tools, materials, and activities intended to support children in creating physical computer input devices for computer programs they write. This project introduces a new approach ...

Millner, Amon Daran

2005-01-01

218

33 CFR 80.170 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Atlantic Coast § 80.170 Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. (a) A line drawn from Shark River Inlet North Breakwater Light 2 to Shark River Inlet South Breakwater Light 1. (b) A line drawn from Manasquan Inlet North...

2012-07-01

219

33 CFR 80.170 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Atlantic Coast § 80.170 Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. (a) A line drawn from Shark River Inlet North Breakwater Light 2 to Shark River Inlet South Breakwater Light 1. (b) A line drawn from Manasquan Inlet North...

2011-07-01

220

33 CFR 80.170 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Atlantic Coast § 80.170 Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. (a) A line drawn from Shark River Inlet North Breakwater Light 2 to Shark River Inlet South Breakwater Light 1. (b) A line drawn from Manasquan Inlet North...

2013-07-01

221

76 FR 26751 - Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Sussex County, DE; Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...natural environment and a food source for a variety...migratory birds as important food sources. Prime Hook...Society, Center for Food Safety, and Public Employees...farming and the planting of genetically modified organisms until the...

2011-05-09

222

Summary We determined how ecophysiological charac-teristics of two juniper species, Juniperus occidentalis Hook.  

E-print Network

occidentalis Hook. (western juniper) and Juniperus osteosperma (Torr.) Little (Utah juniper), changed alongSummary We determined how ecophysiological charac- teristics of two juniper species, Juniperus range with J. occidentalis and two with J. osteosperma. Differences in carbon assimilation based

223

33 CFR 80.170 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Atlantic Coast § 80.170 Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. (a) A line drawn from Shark River Inlet North Breakwater Light 2 to Shark River Inlet South Breakwater Light 1. (b) A line drawn from Manasquan Inlet North...

2010-07-01

224

THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND HEAVY METALS ON HEART RATE CHANGES IN COMMON CARP CYPRINUS CARPIO L. AND GRASS CARP CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA (VAL.) DURING EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted on common carp and grass carp embryos and larvae developed under laboratory conditions, at various temperatures and in the presence of heavy metals (Cu 0.20-0.27 mg dm -3 , Pb 2.0-4.0 mg dm -3 , Cd 0.2 mg dm -3 ). Heart rate was measured at various developmental stages and was observed to increase along with

Barbara Jezierska

225

Analysis of field applicability of the rotation-controllable tower-crane hook block  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rotation-controllable tower-crane hook block can control the horizontal rotation angle of a steel beam being lifted by a tower crane using a mechanical apparatus. It is expected that the mechanized hook block can relieve safety concerns; however, at the same time, there are several concerns: Is precise control of the rotation angle possible? Won't it be slower than rotating

Chijoo Lee; Ghang Lee; Joonbeom Cho

226

Four-dimensional Hooke's law can encompass linear elasticity and inertia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question is examined, whether the formally straightforward extension of Hooke's time-honoured stress-strain relation to the four dimensions of special and of general relativity can make physical sense. The four-dimensional Hooke's law is found able to account for the inertia of matter; in the flat space, slow motion approximation the field equations for the ``displacement'' four-vector field can encompass both

S. Antoci; L. Mihich

1999-01-01

227

Wireless inclinometer acquisition system for reducing swing movement control module experiment of hook model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large Scale Heavy Derrick Lay Barge is very important for sea work. Under intense wind and wave load, the hook on the Barge will vibrate so large that in some cases it can not work. Through installing the Tuned Mass Damper(TMD) on the hook, the vibration will be reduced to a certain range to meet the demand on sea work, which is also important for increasing the efficiency of sea work. To design the suitable TMD for the hook, the dynamical parameters should be specified beforehand. Generally, the related dynamical parameters such as inclinometer and acceleration are measured by wire sensors. But due to the restriction of the actual condition, the wire sensors are very hard to implement. Recently, the wireless sensors have been presented to overcome the shortcomings of wire ones. It is more suitable and also convenient to utilize wireless sensors to acquire the useful data of large scale heavy derrick lay barge. In this paper, the hook reducing swing movement control module is designed for large scale heavy derrick lay barge. Secondly, wireless inclinometer sensor system is integrated using the technique of MEMS, sensing and wireless communication. Finally, the hook reducing swing movement control module is validated by the developed wireless inclinometer data acquisition system. The wireless inclinometer sensor can be used not only in swing monitoring for large scale heavy derrick lay barge's Hook, but also in vibration monitoring for TV tower, large crane. In general, it has great application foreground.

Yu, Yan; Ou, Jinping; Zhang, Chunwei; Li, Luyu

2008-03-01

228

Hormonal networks involved in apical hook development in darkness and their response to light  

PubMed Central

In darkness, the dicot seedlings produce an apical hook as result of differential cell division and extension at opposite sides of the hypocotyl. This hook protects the apical meristem from mechanical damage during seedling emergence from the soil. In darkness, gibberellins act via the DELLA-PIF (PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORs) pathway, and ethylene acts via the EIN3/EIL1 (ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3/EIN3 like 1)-HLS1 (HOOKLESS 1) pathway to control the asymmetric accumulation of auxin required for apical hook formation and maintenance. These core pathways form a network with multiple points of connection. Light perception by phytochromes and cryptochromes reduces the activity of PIFs and (COP1) CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1—both required for hook formation in darkness—, lowers the levels of gibberellins, and triggers hook opening as a component of the switch between heterotrophic and photoautotrophic development. Apical hook opening is thus a suitable model to study the convergence of endogenous and exogenous signals on the control of cell division and cell growth. PMID:24616725

Mazzella, Maria A.; Casal, Jorge J.; Muschietti, Jorge P.; Fox, Ana R.

2013-01-01

229

Automation Hooks Architecture Trade Study for Flexible Test Orchestration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe the conclusions of a technology and communities survey supported by concurrent and follow-on proof-of-concept prototyping to evaluate feasibility of defining a durable, versatile, reliable, visible software interface to support strategic modularization of test software development. The objective is that test sets and support software with diverse origins, ages, and abilities can be reliably integrated into test configurations that assemble and tear down and reassemble with scalable complexity in order to conduct both parametric tests and monitored trial runs. The resulting approach is based on integration of three recognized technologies that are currently gaining acceptance within the test industry and when combined provide a simple, open and scalable test orchestration architecture that addresses the objectives of the Automation Hooks task. The technologies are automated discovery using multicast DNS Zero Configuration Networking (zeroconf), commanding and data retrieval using resource-oriented Restful Web Services, and XML data transfer formats based on Automatic Test Markup Language (ATML). This open-source standards-based approach provides direct integration with existing commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) analysis software tools.

Lansdowne, Chatwin A.; Maclean, John R.; Graffagnino, Frank J.; McCartney, Patrick A.

2010-01-01

230

Pseudopollen and Food?hair Diversity in Polystachya Hook. (Orchidaceae)  

PubMed Central

Labellar food?hairs in Polystachya Hook. exhibit considerable morphological diversity. The commonest type of trichome is uniseriate, two to four?celled, with a clavate or subclavate terminal cell. This type occurs amongst representatives of most sections examined. Other trichomes are bristle?like with tapering or fusiform terminal cells, whereas representatives of section Polystachya have uniseriate, moniliform trichomes that fragment with the formation of rounded or elliptical component cells. Most contain protein and, while some contain starch, lipid is invariably absent. The presence of particular types of labellar trichomes does not coincide with variations in vegetative morphology. Thus, current taxonomic treatment of the genus indicates that trichome types, with perhaps the sole exception of moniliform, pseudopollen?forming hairs found in section Polystachya only, have limited taxonomic value. However, the remarkable similarity between pseudopollen?forming hairs of Polystachya and those of the Neotropical genus Maxillaria in terms of morphology, cellular dimensions and food content indicates that pseudopollen may have arisen several times and evolved in response to similar pollinator pressures. PMID:12324271

DAVIES, K. L.; ROBERTS, D. L.; TURNER, M. P.

2002-01-01

231

Hermitian extension of the four-dimensional Hooke's law  

E-print Network

It has been shown recently that the classical law of elasticity, expressed in terms of the displacement three-vector and of the symmetric deformation three-tensor, can be extended to the four dimensions of special and of general relativity with a physically meaningful outcome. In fact, the resulting stress- momentum-energy tensor can provide a unified account of both the elastic and the inertial properties of uncharged matter. The extension of the displacement vector to the four dimensions of spacetime allows a further possibility. If the real displacement four-vector is complemented with an imaginary part, the resulting complex ``displacement'' four-vector allows for a complex, Hermitian generalisation of the four-dimensional Hooke's law. Let the complex, Hermitian ``stress-momentum-energy'' tensor density built in this way be subjected to the usual conservation condition. It turns out that, while the real part of the latter equation is able to account for the motion of electrically charged, elastic matter, ...

Antoci, S

2000-01-01

232

Assessing impacts of introduced aquatic species: Grass carp in large systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduced species have created environmental benefits and unanticipated disasters so a priori assessments of species introductions are needed for environmental management. A checklist for assessing impacts of introduced species was developed from studies of introduced species and recommendations for planning introductions. Sterile, triploid grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella) are just beginning to be used as a biocontrol agent for the management of aquatic vegetation in open waterways. Potential impacts of grass carp in open systems were identified by reviewing grass carp biology relative to the impact assessment checklist. The potential consequences of introduced grass carp were reviewed for one case study. The case study demonstrated that conclusions about potential impacts and monitoring needs can be made despite incomplete information and uncertainty. Indicators of environmental impact and vulnerability of host systems were grouped into six categories: population control, hybridization, diseases and parasites, habitat alterations, biological effects, and management issues. Triploid grass carp can significantly alter habitat and biological resources through the secondary effects of reductions in aquatic vegetation. Potential impacts and significant uncertainties involve fish dispersions from plant control areas, inability to control vegetation loss, loss of diverse plant communities and their dependent species, and conflicts with human use of the water resource. Adequate knowledge existed to assess most potential consequences of releasing large numbers of triploid grass carp in Guntersville Reservoir, Alabama. However, the assessment of potential impacts indicated that moderate, incremental stockings combined with monitoring of vegetation and biological resources are necessary to control the effects of grass carp and achieve desirable, intermediate plant densities.

Bain, Mark B.

1993-03-01

233

The eggshell features and clutch viability of the broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) are associated with the egg burden of organochlorine compounds.  

PubMed

Organochlorine compounds (OCCs) are toxic and have been identified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The broad-snouted Caiman (Caiman latirostris) is an oviparous species widely distributed in South America with potential to accumulate OCCs. The eggshell is formed during passage of the eggs through the oviduct. Since the oviduct is a target of hormone actions, exposure to OCCs could modify eggshell quality, thus affecting clutch viability. Eight clutches were collected from wetlands of Parana River tributaries, in north-eastern Argentina. Two to four eggs per clutch were used to establish the burden of OCCs, eggshell thickness and eggshell porosity. The remaining eggs were incubated in controlled conditions. Ten days after hatching, hatchling survival was assessed. Organochlorine pesticide residues (OCPs) were found in all clutches, while polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were present in all but one clutch. The principal contributors to the OCP burden were members of the DDT family and oxychlordane. Eggshell thickness was 400.9±6.0 ?m and, unexpectedly, no association between eggshell thickness and the OCC burden was found. The number of pores in the outer surface was 25.3±4.3 pores/cm². A significant inverse correlation between porosity and OCC burden was found (Pearson r= -0.81, p= 0.01). Furthermore, a decrease in caiman survival with decreased pore density was observed (Pearson r= 0.73, p= 0.04). Our findings highlight another potential negative impact of current and past use of OCCs on wildlife species. PMID:24054891

Stoker, C; Zayas, M A; Ferreira, M A; Durando, M; Galoppo, G H; Rodríguez, H A; Repetti, M R; Beldoménico, H R; Caldini, E G; Luque, E H; Muñoz-de-Toro, M

2013-12-01

234

Oligochitosan stimulated phagocytic activity of macrophages from blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) associated with respiratory burst coupled with nitric oxide production.  

PubMed

The immunostimulating effects of oligochitosan have been proven in several fish, however, the mechanisms underlying the stimulation are not characterized. In the present study, the effects of oligochitosan were investigated using macrophages isolated from blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). The results showed that the phagocytic activity of the macrophages was enhanced by the addition of oligochitosan in vitro and in vivo. The two of the most important antimicrobial pathways of macrophages, NADPH oxidase and iNOS pathways were included for further studies. The amounts of superoxide anion and the mRNAs of the five subunits of NADPH oxidase genes were significantly enhanced in the oligochitosan-treated macrophages and macrophages isolated from fish fed with feed containing oligochitosan. In addition, the NO production, iNOS activity and iNOS gene expression were all significantly increased in the presence of oligochitosan. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of the TNF-? and IL-1? were also significantly increased in the macrophages derived from fish fed with oligochitosan. In conclusion, the stimulation effects of oligochitosan on the phagocytic activity of the fish macrophages were associated with respiratory burst coupled with nitric oxide production. PMID:24968077

Liu, Lichun; Zhou, Yang; Zhao, Xiaoheng; Wang, Hong; Wang, Li; Yuan, Gailing; Asim, Muhammad; Wang, Weimin; Zeng, Lingbing; Liu, Xiaoling; Lin, Li

2014-11-01

235

Fish Hook Injury: Removal by ''Push Through and Cut Off'' Technique: A Case Report and Brief Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Fishing is a leisure activity for some people around the world. Accidently the fish hook can get hooked in the hand. If the hook is barbed, removal becomes difficult. We report a case of such a injury in the hand and discuss the technique for its removal with a brief review of the literature. Case Presentation: A thirty-two year old male accidently suffered a fishhook injury to his hand. He came to the orthopaedic ward two hours after the incident with pain; the fish hook was hanging from the hand. Unsuccessful attempts to remove it were made by his relatives. A push-through and cut-off technique was used for removal of barbed hook. Discussion: Barbed hooks are to be removed atraumatically with controlled incision over properly anaesthetised skin. Proper wound management and prophylactic antibiotics suitable for treatment of Aeromonas species should be initiated to prevent complications. PMID:25032153

Ahmad Khan, Hayat; Kamal, Younis; Lone, Ansar ul Haq

2014-01-01

236

Case report of right hamate hook fracture in a patient with previous fracture history of left hamate hook: is it hamate bipartite?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hamate hook fracture is a common fracture in golfers and others who play sports that involve rackets or sticks such as tennis or hockey. This patient had a previous hamate fracture in the opposing wrist along with potential features of hamate bipartite. CASE PRESENTATION: A 19 year old male presented with a complaint of right wrist pain on the

Marion W Evans Jr; Micheal L Gilbert; Sandra Norton

2006-01-01

237

THE USE OF A HOOK-PLATE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF ACROMIOCLAVICULAR INJURIES. REPORT OF TEN CASES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hook-plate is a clavicular small fragment AO plate with a hook engaging below the acromion. It is pri- marily used to secure the ligament repair in the treat- ment of displaced acromioclavicular joint disloca- tions. We have used the hook-plate in conjunction with a Weaver-Dunn procedure to secure the repair in seven patients. In another three we used this

A. A. FARAJ; B. KETZER

2001-01-01

238

Sky-hook control of nonlinear quarter car model traversing rough road matching performance of LQR control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control of the stationary random response of a two degree of freedom (dof) quarter car vehicle model with nonlinear passive elements traversing a homogenous rough road with sky-hook damper control strategy is considered. The sky-hook damper control strategy is realized through a feedback control scheme. The parameters of the sky-hook damper are optimally determined by equating the control force

L. V. V. Gopala Rao; S. Narayanan

2009-01-01

239

Closeup of QF-106 release hook for Eclipse program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

View of the release hook on the QF-106 that allowed the pilot to release the tow rope extending from the C-141A tow plane in the Eclipse project. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

1997-01-01

240

Effect of Cadmium Chloride on Metallothionein Levels in Carp  

PubMed Central

Due to anthropogenic activities, heavy metals still represent a threat for various trophic levels. If aquatic animals are exposed to heavy metals, we can obviously observe considerable toxicity. It is well known that organisms treated with heavy metals synthesize low molecular mass compounds rich in cysteine. In this work the effects of cadmium chloride (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5 mg/L) on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was investigated. We determined cadmium content in tissue of muscle, liver and kidney by atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization and content of metallothionein (MT) in the same tissues by the Brdicka reaction. Electrochemical methods can be considered as suitable and sensitive tools for MT determination in carp tissues. Results of our study showed a gradually enhancing of cadmium content in muscle with time and dose of cadmium chloride in water. MT levels in liver reached both high levels (above 130 ng/g) in fish exposed to 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg/L and low level (to 50 ng/g) in fish exposed to 10 and 12.5 mg/L of cadmium chloride. This finding confirms that the synthesis of metallothioneins and binding capacity of these proteins is restricted. PMID:22408554

Kovarova, Jana; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech; Harustiakova, Danka; Celechovska, Olga; Svobodova, Zdenka

2009-01-01

241

Arthroscopic evaluation for omalgia patients undergoing the clavicular hook plate fixation of distal clavicle fractures  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study is to investigate the anatomic changes in the shoulder joints responsible for omalgia after the clavicular hook plate fixation under arthroscope. Methods Arthroscopic examination was carried out for 12 omalgia patients who underwent clavicular hook plate fixation due to distal clavicle fractures. Functional outcome of shoulder was measured by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score before and after the withdrawal of the fixation plate. Results The rotator cuff compression by the clavicular hook was arthroscopically observed in 11 of the 12 cases. The JOA scores of the shoulder were significantly improved at 1 month after the withdrawal of the fixation plate (pain, 28?±?2.4 vs. 15?±?5.2; function, 19.2?±?1.0 vs. 11.7?±?1.9; range of movements, 26.8?±?2.6 vs. 14.8?±?3.4) compared with before. Conclusions The impingement of the hook to the rotator cuff may be the main cause for the omalgia. The appropriate hook and plate that fit to the curve of the clavicle as well as the acromion are necessary to decrease the severity of omalgia. PMID:24917508

2014-01-01

242

Asymptotic Structure in the Classically Forbidden Region of the Hooke's Atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two-electron Hooke's atom — a quantum mechanical system with two electrons bound in a harmonic potential — is well known for its exact analytical properties at certain oscillator strengths. The Hooke's atoms with more than two electrons offer more scope for valuable practical applications. In this work, we study the asymptotic structure of these Hooke's atoms in the classically forbidden region. The leading-order term of the long-range expression for the KS exchange-correlation potential vxc(r) is shown to be -1/r. The second and third higher order terms are also exactly obtained. Various components of vxc(r) are also studied. It is shown that the leading term of O(1/r) in vxc(r) is due to the pure Pauli correlation, while the leading contribution of the Coulomb correlation is of O(1/r3). Neither of them makes contribution to the term of O(1/r2), which is shown to be solely due to the kinetic correlation effect. Results for the two-electron Hooke's atom were obtained before in the literature. Our results reduce to those of the two-electron Hooke's atom as a special case.

Wang, Xue-Mei

2013-05-01

243

The history and evolution of surgical instruments. VII. Spring forceps (tweezers), hooks and simple retractors.  

PubMed Central

Instruments manufactured by bending a basic metal strip or rod, either about its middle to create spring forceps (tweezers), or towards one extremity to create hooks and retractors are related structures. Spring forceps depend on tension mediated at the bend (hoop) or fixed end which is transmitted as dynamic 'spring' to the jaws, whereas the bend of hooks and retractors remains fixed and static. If such instruments refine the digital postures of pinch, pincer and retraction during surgery, they have not supplanted these manual actions entirely. After a brief historical introduction, the structure, modifications, functions and controls of spring forceps are analysed. Importantly, this instrument enjoys both right and left-handed functions, some of which are ancient, some transient as haemostats and needle-holders, and some, including left-handed dissection, surprisingly recent. Hooks are sharp or blunt and, among other functions, pre-date the left-handed spring forceps for dissection; in general hooks function as retractors. Hand-held retractors are enlarged blunt hooks, the wide retracting contact surface reducing trauma to wound margins and viscera. The physical effort of employing these retractors deep in body cavities is abated by applying them autostatically around a square or circular frame. Images Figure 1 PMID:8943642

Kirkup, J.

1996-01-01

244

The Rad50 hook domain regulates DNA damage signaling and tumorigenesis.  

PubMed

The Mre11 complex (Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1) is a central component of the DNA damage response (DDR), governing both double-strand break repair and DDR signaling. Rad50 contains a highly conserved Zn(2+)-dependent homodimerization interface, the Rad50 hook domain. Mutations that inactivate the hook domain produce a null phenotype. In this study, we analyzed mutants with reduced hook domain function in an effort to stratify hook-dependent Mre11 complex functions. One of these alleles, Rad50(46), conferred reduced Zn(2+) affinity and dimerization efficiency. Homozygous Rad50(46/46) mutations were lethal in mice. However, in the presence of wild-type Rad50, Rad50(46) exerted a dominant gain-of-function phenotype associated with chronic DDR signaling. At the organismal level, Rad50(+/46) exhibited hydrocephalus, liver tumorigenesis, and defects in primitive hematopoietic and gametogenic cells. These outcomes were dependent on ATM, as all phenotypes were mitigated in Rad50(+/46) Atm(+/-) mice. These data reveal that the murine Rad50 hook domain strongly influences Mre11 complex-dependent DDR signaling, tissue homeostasis, and tumorigenesis. PMID:24532689

Roset, Ramon; Inagaki, Akiko; Hohl, Marcel; Brenet, Fabienne; Lafrance-Vanasse, Julien; Lange, Julian; Scandura, Joseph M; Tainer, John A; Keeney, Scott; Petrini, John H J

2014-03-01

245

The Rad50 hook domain regulates DNA damage signaling and tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

The Mre11 complex (Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1) is a central component of the DNA damage response (DDR), governing both double-strand break repair and DDR signaling. Rad50 contains a highly conserved Zn2+-dependent homodimerization interface, the Rad50 hook domain. Mutations that inactivate the hook domain produce a null phenotype. In this study, we analyzed mutants with reduced hook domain function in an effort to stratify hook-dependent Mre11 complex functions. One of these alleles, Rad5046, conferred reduced Zn2+ affinity and dimerization efficiency. Homozygous Rad5046/46 mutations were lethal in mice. However, in the presence of wild-type Rad50, Rad5046 exerted a dominant gain-of-function phenotype associated with chronic DDR signaling. At the organismal level, Rad50+/46 exhibited hydrocephalus, liver tumorigenesis, and defects in primitive hematopoietic and gametogenic cells. These outcomes were dependent on ATM, as all phenotypes were mitigated in Rad50+/46 Atm+/? mice. These data reveal that the murine Rad50 hook domain strongly influences Mre11 complex-dependent DDR signaling, tissue homeostasis, and tumorigenesis. PMID:24532689

Roset, Ramon; Inagaki, Akiko; Hohl, Marcel; Brenet, Fabienne; Lafrance-Vanasse, Julien; Lange, Julian; Scandura, Joseph M.; Tainer, John A.; Keeney, Scott; Petrini, John H.J.

2014-01-01

246

Microtubule-dependent endosomal sorting of clathrin-independent cargo by Hook1  

PubMed Central

Many plasma membrane (PM) proteins enter cells nonselectively through clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE). Here, we present evidence that cytoplasmic sequences in three CIE cargo proteins—CD44, CD98, and CD147—were responsible for the rapid sorting of these proteins into endosomal tubules away from endosomes associated with early endosomal antigen 1 (EEA1). We found that Hook1, a microtubule- and cargo-tethering protein, recognized the cytoplasmic tail of CD147 to help sort it and CD98 into Rab22a-dependent tubules associated with recycling. Depletion of Hook1 from cells altered trafficking of CD44, CD98, and CD147 toward EEA1 compartments and impaired the recycling of CD98 back to the PM. In contrast, another CIE cargo protein, major histocompatibility complex class I, which normally traffics to EEA1 compartments, was not affected by depletion of Hook1. Loss of Hook1 also led to an inhibition of cell spreading, implicating a role for Hook1 sorting of specific CIE cargo proteins away from bulk membrane and back to the PM. PMID:23589492

Maldonado-Baez, Lymarie; Cole, Nelson B.; Kramer, Helmut

2013-01-01

247

76 FR 15857 - Injurious Wildlife Species; Listing the Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) as Injurious Fish  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 16 [Docket No. FWS-R3-FHC-2010-0094...Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) as Injurious Fish AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final...

2011-03-22

248

Asian carp farming systems: towards a typology and increased resource use efficiency  

E-print Network

of the fundamental choice of system. Keywords: carp, freshwater aquaculture, integra- ted systems, resource use Research, 2002, 33, 403±413 � 2002 Blackwell Science Ltd 403 #12;services (waste assimilation) (Beveridge

Lorenzen, Kai

249

Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 is Expressed in Osteoblasts and Regulated by PTH  

PubMed Central

Bone mass is dependent on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and life-span of osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. Intermittent administration of PTH increases bone mass but the mechanism of action are complex and incompletely understood. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including cell growth and differentiation factors. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism, we investigated involvement of CARP-1 in PTH signaling in osteoblasts. Immunostaining studies revealed presence of CARP-1 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while a minimal to absent levels were noted in the chondrocytes of femora from 10-12-week old mice. Treatment of 7-day differentiated MC3T3-E1 clone-4 (MC-4) mouse osteoblastic cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts with PTH for 30 min to 5 hr followed by Western blot analysis showed 2-3 fold down-regulation of CARP-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the respective vehicle treated control cells. H-89, a Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, suppressed PTH action on CARP-1 protein expression indicating PKA-dependent mechanism. PMA, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonist, mimicked PTH action, and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203×, partially blocked PTH-dependent downregulation of CARP-1, implying involvement of PKC. U0126, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Kinase (MEK) inhibitor, failed to interfere with CARP-1 suppression by PTH. In contrast, SB203580, p38 inhibitor, attenuated PTH down-regulation of CARP-1 suggesting that PTH utilized an Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase (ERK)-independent but p38 dependent pathway to regulate CARP-1 protein expression in osteoblasts. Immunofluorescence staining of differentiated osteoblasts further revealed nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of CARP-1 protein following PTH treatment. Collectively, our studies identified CARP-1 for the first time in osteoblasts and suggest its potential role in PTH signaling and bone anabolic action. PMID:23764399

Sharma, Sonali; Mahalingam, Chandrika D; Das, Varsha; Jamal, Shazia; Levi, Edi; Rishi, Arun K; Datta, Nabanita S

2013-01-01

250

Isolation and expression analyses of the Sox9a gene in triploid crucian carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the evolutional significance of Sox9 in fish, we isolated and characterized Sox9a cDNA and genomic clones in triploid crucian carp. The cDNA encoded a protein of 457 amino acids with an HMG box and showed\\u000a more than 60% amino acid sequence identity with known vertebrate Sox9 proteins. Triploid crucian carp and vertebrate Sox9s showed similar gene structure, and

Xinhong Guo; Jinpeng Yan; Shaojun Liu; Bing Xiang; Yun Liu

2010-01-01

251

The biology of free-ranging grass carp in East Texas river and bay systems  

E-print Network

periods in the Amur Basin (Stanley et, al. 1978). Mean water temperatures in the lower Trinity River during July 1993 were within specified ranges (Shireman and Smith 1983) for spawning and incubation of grass carp eggs. Significant decreases... periods in the Amur Basin (Stanley et, al. 1978). Mean water temperatures in the lower Trinity River during July 1993 were within specified ranges (Shireman and Smith 1983) for spawning and incubation of grass carp eggs. Significant decreases...

Elder, Howard Stanton

2012-06-07

252

A tale of four “carp:” Invasion potential and ecological niche modeling  

E-print Network

of Asia from the Amur River Basin to the West River, including areas in China, Russia, and Northern Indochina [53]. The native range for tench includes Europe and parts of western Asia [52,64]. Because native range limits for common carp are poorly..., Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Texas [30]; evidence of reproduction has been recorded from the Mississippi River drainage of all of these states except Texas [47]. Grass carp have already adversely affected U.S. ecosystems in several areas...

DeVaney, Shannon C.; McNyset, Kristina M.; Williams, Justin B.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Wiley, Edward O.

2009-05-06

253

Occurrence of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda, Bothriocephallidea) in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in the Changjiang River drainage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bothriocephalus acheilognathi is a potentially serious pathogen in wild or cultured fish in worldwide distribution. We examined 58-farmed grass carp from Nanchang in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River drainage, from which 20.7% were found to harbor the parasite with an infection intensity of 36.9±54.7. The parasites were identified based on morphology and rDNA ITS sequence analysis. The present report represents the first record of the parasite in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in the river drainage.

Xi, Bingwen; Wang, Guitang; Xie, Jun

2011-05-01

254

The complete nucleotide sequence and gene organization of carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) mitochondrial genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete sequence of the carp mitochondrial genome of 16,575 base pairs has been determined. The carp mitochondrial genome encodes the same set of genes (13 proteins, 2 rRNAs, and 22 tRNAs) as do other vertebrate mitochondrial DNAs. Comparison of this teleostean mitochondrial genome with those of other vertebrates reveals a similar gene order and compact genomic organization. The codon

Yea-sha Chang; Fore-lien Huang; Tung-bin Lo

1994-01-01

255

"Invasive potential of common carp (*Cyprinus carpio*) and Nile tilapia (*Oreochromis niloticus*) in American freshwater systems"  

E-print Network

Invasive potential of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)in American freshwater systems Luis Zambrano, Enrique Martínez-Meyer, Naercio Menezes, and A. Townsend Peterson Abstract: Nonnative fish introductions... disrupt ecosystem processes and can drive native species to local extinction. Two of the most widespread, introduced species are the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Eurasia and the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from Africa. In North and South...

Zambrano, Luis; Martí nez-Meyer, Enrique; Menezes, Naercio; Peterson, A. Townsend

2006-07-25

256

An in vivo study of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) liver during prolonged hypoxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypoxia induced apoptosis has been studied extensively in many mammalian cell lines but there are only a few studies using whole animal models. We investigated the response of the intact liver to hypoxia in a hypoxia tolerant fish, the carp (Cyprinus carpio, L). We exposed carp to hypoxia for up to 42 days, using oxygen level (0.5 mgO2\\/L) that were slightly higher

W. L. Poon; C. Y. Hung; K. Nakano; D. J. Randall

2007-01-01

257

Temperature-Induced Changes in Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Sensitivity in Carp Melanotropes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates whether thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH) and N-acetyl ?-endorphin (NAc ?-END), or the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3?-triiodothyronine (T3) are involved in the physiological response to temperature changes in the poikilotherm common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Carps were either subjected to a rapid cold exposure or acclimated over time to three different temperatures. Acute cold exposure

Erwin H. van den Burg; Juriaan R. Metz; H. Alec Ross; Veerle M. Darras; Sjoerd E. Wendelaar Bonga; Gert Flik

2003-01-01

258

Identification of differentially expressed genes in Con A-activated Carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) leucocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cDNA library was constructed from the message RNA (mRNA) obtained from Con A-induced head kidney (HK) leucocytes of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Differential screening of the cDNA was carried out by hybridization against the total cDNA probes from normal, Con A-uninduced HK leucocytes or Con A-induced HK leucocytes of carp. The differential expression patterns of certain cDNA clones were

Z. Yin; J. Y. He; Z. Gong; T. J. Lam; Y. M. Sin

1999-01-01

259

Sample digestion for determining chloramphenicol residues in carp serum and muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloramphenicol (CAP) residues in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were investigated after intramuscular injection of a single-dose of 80 mg\\/kgbw. CAP concentrations in carp serum and muscle\\u000a with and without addition of ?-glucuronidase were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection.\\u000a The results showed that CAP-glucuronide (CAP-G), an important conjugate of CAP in the metabolic process and potentially toxic\\u000a to

Zhi-Yong Huang; Qing-Pi Yan; Qiang Zhang; Ai-Hong Peng

2009-01-01

260

Chemoprotection of lipoic acid against microcystin-induced toxicosis in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio, Cyprinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluated the chemoprotective effect of lipoic acid (LA) against microcystin (MC) toxicity in carp Cyprinus carpio. To determine the LA dose and the time necessary for the induction of three different classes (alpha, mu and pi) of glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene transcription, carp were i.p. injected with 40mg\\/kg lipoic acid solution. A group was killed 24h after the

Lílian L. Amado; Márcia L. Garcia; Talita C. B. Pereira; João S. Yunes; Maurício R. Bogo; José M. Monserrat

2011-01-01

261

Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin residue reduction through cooking\\/processing of restructured carp fillets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restructured carp fillets were used to study the potential of reducing dioxin levels during cooking. Carp from Saginaw Bay were mechanically deboned and washed. Samples were analyzed for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) by selected ion monitoring GC-MS. Half was spiked to obtain levels of approximately 100 pptr. Fillets (7.5 cm in diameter) were roasted covered and uncovered at 177°C to end internal

N. C. Stachiw; M. E. Zabik; A. M. Booren; M. J. Zabik

2009-01-01

262

Identification and Profiling of MicroRNAs from Skeletal Muscle of the Common Carp  

PubMed Central

The common carp is one of the most important cultivated species in the world of freshwater aquaculture. The cultivation of this species is particularly productive due to its high skeletal muscle mass; however, the molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle development in the common carp remain unknown. It has been shown that a class of non-coding ?22 nucleotide RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in vertebrate development. They regulate gene expression through sequence-specific interactions with the 3? untranslated regions (UTRs) of target mRNAs and thereby cause translational repression or mRNA destabilization. Intriguingly, the role of miRNAs in the skeletal muscle development of the common carp remains unknown. In this study, a small-RNA cDNA library was constructed from the skeletal muscle of the common carp, and Solexa sequencing technology was used to perform high throughput sequencing of the library. Subsequent bioinformatics analysis identified 188 conserved miRNAs and 7 novel miRNAs in the carp skeletal muscle. The miRNA expression profiling showed that, miR-1, miR-133a-3p, and miR-206 were specifically expressed in muscle-containing organs, and that miR-1, miR-21, miR-26a, miR-27a, miR-133a-3p, miR-206, miR-214 and miR-222 were differentially expressed in the process of skeletal muscle development of the common carp. This study provides a first identification and profiling of miRNAs related to the muscle biology of the common carp. Their identification could provide clues leading towards a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of carp skeletal muscle development. PMID:22303472

Li, Yunchao; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Liang, Yang; Sun, Xiaowen; Teng, Chun-Bo

2012-01-01

263

Generation of the first BAC-based physical map of the common carp genome  

PubMed Central

Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), a member of Cyprinidae, is the third most important aquaculture species in the world with an annual global production of 3.4 million metric tons, accounting for nearly 14% of the all freshwater aquaculture production in the world. Apparently genomic resources are needed for this species in order to study its performance and production traits. In spite of much progress, no physical maps have been available for common carp. The objective of this project was to generate a BAC-based physical map using fluorescent restriction fingerprinting. Result The first generation of common carp physical map was constructed using four- color High Information Content Fingerprinting (HICF). A total of 72,158 BAC clones were analyzed that generated 67,493 valid fingerprints (5.5 × genome coverage). These BAC clones were assembled into 3,696 contigs with the average length of 476 kb and a N50 length of 688 kb, representing approximately 1.76 Gb of the common carp genome. The largest contig contained 171 BAC clones with the physical length of 3.12 Mb. There are 761 contigs longer than the N50, and these contigs should be the most useful resource for future integrations with linkage map and whole genome sequence assembly. The common carp physical map is available at http://genomics.cafs.ac.cn/fpc/WebAGCoL/Carp/WebFPC/. Conclusion The reported common carp physical map is the first physical map of the common carp genome. It should be a valuable genome resource facilitating whole genome sequence assembly and characterization of position-based genes important for aquaculture traits. PMID:22044723

2011-01-01

264

Bilateral Three-Level Lumbar Spondylolysis Repaired by Hook-Screw Technique  

PubMed Central

We report a case of bilateral three-level lumbar spondylolysis that was directly repaired by use of hook-screw technique. The patient complained of low back pain for 2 years that progressively worsened and was exacerbated with standing and walking. He also mentioned bilateral sciatalgia. The neurological examination was normal. Interestingly, we found bilateral lumbar spondylolysis in L3, L4, and L5 levels in imaging studies. After proving that spondylolysis was the source of the low back pain by local anesthetic agent injection, we used a direct technique for correction of spondylolysis by use of a hook-screw device plus decortications of lysis area and iliac crest autograft. We assessed the patient after surgery to evaluate pain recovery and fusion rate. The results were favorable and proved the efficacy of the hook-screw technique for treatment of symptomatic multilevel lumbar spondylolysis. PMID:24353947

Sharifi, Guive; Jahanbakhshi, Amin; Daneshpajouh, Behnam; Rahimizadeh, Abolfazl

2012-01-01

265

[Comparative analysis of variability of three mitochondrial genes of cytochrome oxidase complex (cox1, cox2, and cox3) in wild and domestic carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)].  

PubMed

For the first time, we studied the polymorphism of three mitochondrial genes of the cytochrome oxidase complex (cox1, cox2, and cox3) in natural populations of wild carp living in the Volga, Amur, and Don River Basins, as well as in European Hungarian carp and two pedigree lines of Ropsha carp of domestic breeding. The highest level of nucleotide and haplotype diversity in the studied samples was detected for the cox1 gene (pi = 0.61, h = 100%). Two lines of the Ropsha carp (pi = 0.61, h = 100%) and the Far East population of Amur wild carp from Shershikh strait (Am: pi = 0.20, h = 70%) were the most polymorphic for three genes. The second sample of Amur wild carp from the Amur River (Ac), as well as the samples of Volga and Don wild carp and Hungarian carp had lower values of variability. The presence of two main genealogical lines of the wild carp and carp was demonstrated based on the total sequence of three genes, as well as the corresponding amino acid sequences in the studied area. One of these lines (line I) is typical of the sample of Amur wild carp (Am) and three members of the Ropsha carp. Line II is developed by sequences of Volga, Don, and Amur wild carp (Ac), as well as European Hungarian carp and seven other members of the Ropsha carp. Three to four sublines, which differ in nucleotide and amino acid substitutions, were found within the lines. Possible reasons for the origin of genomic variability in wild carp, as well as in European and Russian breeds of carp, are discussed. PMID:23516901

Torgunakova, O A; Egorova, T A; Semenova, S K

2012-12-01

266

Demasculinisation of sexually mature male common carp, Cyprinus carpio, exposed to 4- tert-pentylphenol during spermatogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexually mature male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed for a 3-month period to sublethal concentrations of 4-tert-pentylphenol (TPP) and to 17?-estradiol (E2) during spermatogenesis. This was part of a broad research programme investigating the effects of TPP on the life stages of the carp which might prove susceptible to endocrine disruption. Exposure of adult male carp to the pseudo-estrogen

Sylvia Gimeno; Hans Komen; Susan Jobling; John Sumpter; Tim Bowmer

1998-01-01

267

The Economic Impact of Restricting Use of Black Carp for Snail Control on Hybrid Striped Bass Farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus have been used in the U.S. for several decades for snail control in fish ponds. Recent concerns over the potential environmental effects of escaped fish have resulted in proposals to list black carp as an injurious species. A mixed-integer programming model was extended to evaluate the farm-level economic effects of restricting access to black carp for

Yong-Suhk Wui; Carole R. Engle

2007-01-01

268

Genomic insight into the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) genome by sequencing analysis of BAC-end sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Common carp is one of the most important aquaculture teleost fish in the world. Common carp and other closely related Cyprinidae\\u000a species provide over 30% aquaculture production in the world. However, common carp genomic resources are still relatively\\u000a underdeveloped. BAC end sequences (BES) are important resources for genome research on BAC-anchored genetic marker development,\\u000a linkage map and physical map integration,

Peng Xu; Jiongtang Li; Yan Li; Runzi Cui; Jintu Wang; Jian Wang; Yan Zhang; Zixia Zhao; Xiaowen Sun

2011-01-01

269

Transcriptome analysis reveals the time of the fourth round of genome duplication in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

PubMed Central

Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is thought to have undergone one extra round of genome duplication compared to zebrafish. Transcriptome analysis has been used to study the existence and timing of genome duplication in species for which genome sequences are incomplete. Large-scale transcriptome data for the common carp genome should help reveal the timing of the additional duplication event. Results We have sequenced the transcriptome of common carp using 454 pyrosequencing. After assembling the 454 contigs and the published common carp sequences together, we obtained 49,669 contigs and identified genes using homology searches and an ab initio method. We identified 4,651 orthologous pairs between common carp and zebrafish and found 129,984 paralogous pairs within the common carp. An estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that common carp and zebrafish diverged 120 million years ago (MYA). We identified one round of genome duplication in common carp and estimated that it had occurred 5.6 to 11.3 MYA. In zebrafish, no genome duplication event after speciation was observed, suggesting that, compared to zebrafish, common carp had undergone an additional genome duplication event. We annotated the common carp contigs with Gene Ontology terms and KEGG pathways. Compared with zebrafish gene annotations, we found that a set of biological processes and pathways were enriched in common carp. Conclusions The assembled contigs helped us to estimate the time of the fourth-round of genome duplication in common carp. The resource that we have built as part of this study will help advance functional genomics and genome annotation studies in the future. PMID:22424280

2012-01-01

270

Development of an antimycin-impregnated bait for controlling common carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The common carp Cyprinus carpio is a major problem for fisheries and wildlife managers because its feeding behavior causes degradation of valuable fish and waterfowl habitat. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an antimycin-impregnated bait for control of common carp. The toxic bait contained fish meal, a binder, antimycin, and water. The ingredients were mixed together and made into pellets. This bait was force-fed to common carp or administered in a pond environment, where fish voluntarily fed on the bait. The lowest lethal dose in the forcefeeding study was 0.346 mg antimycin/kg of fish and doses that exceeded 0.811 mg antimycin/kg were toxic to all fish. On three occasions, adult common carp held in 0.004-ha concrete ponds were offered 10 g of toxic bait containing 5.0, 7.5, and 10 mg antimycin/g of bait and the mean mortalities 96 h later were 21, 35, and 51%, respectively. Three tests were conducted in 0.04-ha earthen ponds each containing 100 adult common carp; these fish were offered 50 g of the toxic bait that contained 10 mg antimycin/g, and the mean mortalities (96 h) were 19, 32, and 74%. Toxic baits should be used in conjunction with other management techniques, and only when common carp are congregated and actively feeding, and when few nontarget bottom- feeding species are present.

Rach, J.J.; Luoma, J.A.; Marking, L.L.

1994-01-01

271

Sensitivity of adult, embryonic, and larval carp Cyprinus carpio to copper  

SciTech Connect

The copper sensitivity of adult, embryonic, and larval stages of carp Cyprinus carpio was determined using flow-through bioassay methods. Carp adults, embryos, and larvae were exposed continuously to copper concentrations that ranged from those producing an immediate effect to those producing none. Carp embryos were obtained after we induced adults to spawn. Exposure of embryos began at 4 to 6, 8 to 10, and 20 to 24 h after fertilization and continued until hatching. Exposure of larvae began 6 to 8 h after hatching and continued until yolk sac absorption. From the family of curves of cumulative mortality versus duration of exposure, median lethal times were determined and used to construct comparative toxicity curves. The 24-h LC50s show the order of acute copper sensitivity of carp life-history stages, measured in micrograms per liter, as; larvae (180 ..mu..g/L) > embryos (240 ..mu..g/L) > adults (540 ..mu..g/L). Estimated incipient lethal concentrations give the order of subacute copper sensitivity of carp life-history stages as: larvae (110 ..mu..g/L) > adult (120 ..mu..g/L) > embryo (230 ..mu..g/L). The sensitivity of carp embryos to copper changed as embryogenesis progressed; for example, embryos were approximately twice as sensitive before as after blastopore closure. 70 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

Harrison, F.L.; Rice, D.W. Jr.

1981-03-01

272

Sequence analysis and subcellular localization of crucian carp Carassius auratus viperin.  

PubMed

Human viperin is known as an interferon (IFN)-inducible antiviral protein and localizes to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via its N-terminal amphipathic ?-helix. Little is known about subcellular localization of fish viperin. Herein, we characterized subcellular localization of a fish viperin from crucian carp Carassius auratus. Crucian carp viperin is nearly identical to the other viperin proteins in sequence, with the exception of the first N-terminal 70 amino acids that are defined as N-terminal variable domain including an amphipathic ?-helix. In addition to N-terminal variable domain, crucian carp viperin protein harbors a conserved middle radical SAM domain and a conserved C-terminal domain. Subcellular localization analyses indicate that crucian carp viperin is a cytoplasmic protein associated with ER. Sequence analyses reveal that amino acids 1-74 forms an amphipathic ?-helix domain that drives ER-localization of crucian carp viperin. In addition, Coimmunoprecipitation assays show that crucian carp viperin proteins are able to self-associate. These results together indicate that similar to mammalian homologs, fish viperins likely play important roles in IFN response. PMID:24825429

Wang, Bing; Zhang, Yi-Bing; Liu, Ting-Kai; Gui, Jian-Fang

2014-08-01

273

Automation Hooks Architecture for Flexible Test Orchestration - Concept Development and Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Automation Hooks Architecture Trade Study for Flexible Test Orchestration sought a standardized data-driven alternative to conventional automated test programming interfaces. The study recommended composing the interface using multicast DNS (mDNS/SD) service discovery, Representational State Transfer (Restful) Web Services, and Automatic Test Markup Language (ATML). We describe additional efforts to rapidly mature the Automation Hooks Architecture candidate interface definition by validating it in a broad spectrum of applications. These activities have allowed us to further refine our concepts and provide observations directed toward objectives of economy, scalability, versatility, performance, severability, maintainability, scriptability and others.

Lansdowne, C. A.; Maclean, John R.; Winton, Chris; McCartney, Pat

2011-01-01

274

A four-dimensional Hooke's law can encompass linear elasticity and inertia  

E-print Network

The question is examined, whether the formally straightforward extension of Hooke's time-honoured stress-strain relation to the four dimensions of special and of general relativity can make physical sense. The four-dimensional Hooke's law is found able to account for the inertia of matter; in the flat space, slow motion approximation the field equations for the ``displacement'' four-vector field can encompass both linear elasticity and inertia. In this limit one just recovers the equations of motion of the classical theory of elasticity.

Antoci, S

1999-01-01

275

A four-dimensional Hooke's law can encompass linear elasticity and inertia  

E-print Network

The question is examined, whether the formally straightforward extension of Hooke's time-honoured stress-strain relation to the four dimensions of special and of general relativity can make physical sense. The four-dimensional Hooke's law is found able to account for the inertia of matter; in the flat space, slow motion approximation the field equations for the ``displacement'' four-vector field can encompass both linear elasticity and inertia. In this limit one just recovers the equations of motion of the classical theory of elasticity.

S. Antoci; L. Mihich

1999-06-23

276

Biomechanical comparison of different combinations of hook and screw in one spine motion unit - an experiment in porcine model  

PubMed Central

Background The biomechanical performance of the hooks and screws in spinal posterior instrumentation is not well-characterized. Screw-bone interface failure at the uppermost and lowermost vertebrae is not uncommon. Some have advocated for the use of supplement hooks to prevent screw loosening. However, studies describing methods for combined hook and screw systems that fully address the benefits of these systems are lacking. Thus, the choice of which implant to use in a given case is often based solely on a surgeon’s experience instead of on the biomechanical features and advantages of each device. Methods We conducted a biomechanical comparison of devices instrumented with different combinations of hooks and screws. Thirty-six fresh low thoracic porcine spines were assigned to three groups (12 per group) according to the configuration used for of fixation: (1) pedicle screw; (2) lamina hook and (3) combination of pedicle screw and lamina hook. Axial pullout tests backward on transverse plane in the direction normal to the rods were performed using a material testing machine and a specially designed grip with self-aligned function. Results The pullout force for the pedicle screws group was significantly greater than for the hooks and the combination (p?hooks and the combination (p?>?0.05). Conclusions Pedicle screws achieve the maximal pullout strength for spinal posterior instrumentation. PMID:24913189

2014-01-01

277

77 FR 29362 - Sunoco, Inc., R&M Refining Division, Marcus Hook, PA; Sunoco, Inc., 10 Industrial Hwy, MS4...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TA-W-81,145; TA-W-81,145A] Sunoco, Inc., R&M Refining Division, Marcus Hook, PA; Sunoco, Inc., 10 Industrial...applicable to workers and former workers of Sunoco, Inc., Refining Division, Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania...

2012-05-17

278

Pathology associated with retained fishing hooks in blue sharks, Prionace glauca (L.), with implications for their conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fishing hooks retained from previous capture events were found in 6 of 211 blue sharks, Prionace glauca (L.), landed in the summers of 1999 and 2000 by recreational fishermen off Long Island (New York, USA). The hooks were embedded within the distal oesophagus (n ¼ 3), or perforated the gastric wall (n ¼ 3) and lacerated the liver (n ¼

J Borucinska; N Kohler; L Natanson; G Skomal

2002-01-01

279

Responses of the swimbladder of the carp to sound stimulation.  

PubMed

The oscillations of the swimbladder anterior chamber of the carp (Cyprinus carpio) following stimulation with tones of 300-1500 Hz were studied by the method of holographic interferometry. The oscillation amplitude appeared to be maximal at frequencies close to the resonance frequency of an air bladder of equivalent volume as well as at frequencies corresponding approximately to the second and third harmonics of the resonance frequency. A change in the frequency of the sound signal or in the instantaneous pressure amplitude could result in spatial displacement of the oscillation centers on the swimbladder wall. The interference picture which resulted from recording the swimbladder oscillations over the tested frequency range was not observed on the holograms recorded within 20-24 h after the fish had been killed. PMID:6746428

Altman, J A; Butusov, M M; Vaitulevich, S F; Sokolov, A V

1984-05-01

280

8. Simplification of the Equations of Hooke's Law 15 In these equations a..{ ay,az) is the normal stress acting on a plane  

E-print Network

· 8. Simplification of the Equations of Hooke's Law 15 In these equations a..{ ay,az) is the normal as coefficients of elasticity. 8. Simplification of the Equations of Hooke's Law as a Consequence of Crystal Symmetry The equations expressing Hooke's law can be greatly simplified if the symmetry of crystals

Cambridge, University of

281

Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 is Expressed inOsteoblasts and Regulated by PTH  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •CARP-1 is identified for the first time in bone cells. •PTH downregulates CARP-1 expression in differentiated osteoblasts. •PTH displaces CARP-1 from nucleus to the cytoplasm in differentiated osteoblasts. •Downregulation of CARP-1 by PTH involves PKA, PKC and P-p38 MAPK pathways. -- Abstract: Bone mass is dependent on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and life-span of osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. Intermittent administration of PTH increases bone mass but the mechanism of action are complex and incompletely understood. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including cell growth and differentiation factors. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism, we investigated involvement of CARP-1 in PTH signaling in osteoblasts. Immunostaining studies revealed presence of CARP-1 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while a minimal to absent levels were noted in the chondrocytes of femora from 10 to 12-week old mice. Treatment of 7-day differentiated MC3T3-E1 clone-4 (MC-4) mouse osteoblastic cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts with PTH for 30 min to 5 h followed by Western blot analysis showed 2- to 3-fold down-regulation of CARP-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the respective vehicle treated control cells. H-89, a Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, suppressed PTH action on CARP-1 protein expression indicating PKA-dependent mechanism. PMA, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonist, mimicked PTH action, and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, partially blocked PTH-dependent downregulation of CARP-1, implying involvement of PKC. U0126, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Kinase (MEK) inhibitor, failed to interfere with CARP-1 suppression by PTH. In contrast, SB203580, p38 inhibitor, attenuated PTH down-regulation of CARP-1 suggesting that PTH utilized an Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase (ERK)-independent but p38 dependent pathway to regulate CARP-1 protein expression in osteoblasts. Immunofluorescence staining of differentiated osteoblasts further revealed nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of CARP-1 protein following PTH treatment. Collectively, our studies identified CARP-1 for the first time in osteoblasts and suggest its potential role in PTH signaling and bone anabolic action.

Sharma, Sonali; Mahalingam, Chandrika D.; Das, Varsha [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)] [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Jamal, Shazia [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)] [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Levi, Edi [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States) [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Rishi, Arun K. [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States) [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); VA Medical Center, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Datta, Nabanita S., E-mail: ndatta@med.wayne.edu [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Cardiovascular Research Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)

2013-07-12

282

Using ecological niche-based modeling techniques to predict the establishment, abundance1 and relative impacts of introduced species: application to the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)2  

E-print Network

and relative impacts of introduced species: application to the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)2 3 Stefanie A as well as the32 abundance of a widespread aquatic NIS, common carp (Cyprinus carpio). We then tested the recipient systems.45 46 Keywords: Non-indigenous species, impact, Cyprinus carpio, common carp, ecological

Leung, Brian

283

Tracks in the Sand: Hooke's Pendulum "Cum Grano Salis"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history of science remembers more than just formal facts about scientific discoveries. These side stories are often inspiring. One of them, the story of an unfulfilled death wish of Jacob Bernoulli regarding spirals, inspired us to look around ourselves. And we saw natural spirals around us, which led to the creation of a Hooke's…

Babovic, Vukota; Babovic, Miloš

2014-01-01

284

76 FR 11961 - Safety Zone, Dredging Operations; Delaware River, Marcus Hook, PA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...temporary safety zone on the waters of the Delaware River while the Dredge Pullen conducts dredging operations at the Sunoco Marcus Hook...hazards associated with dredging. Background On March 3, the Dredge Pullen will begin dredging in the vicinity of Sunoco...

2011-03-04

285

Model of hydrogen atom for twisted acceleration-enlarged Newton-Hooke space-times  

E-print Network

We define the model of hydrogen atom for twist-deformed acceleration-enlarged Newton-Hooke space-time. Further, using time-dependent perturbation theory, we find in first step of iteration procedure the solution of corresponding Schroedinger equation as well as the probability of transition between two different energy-eigenstates.

Marcin Daszkiewicz

2013-12-09

286

Risk Factors and Consequences of Unwanted Sex among University Students: Hooked up, Alcohol, and Stress Response  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first study of unwanted sexual experiences in the collegiate "hooking-up" culture. In a representative sample of 178 students at a small liberal arts university. Twenty-three percent of women and 7% of men surveyed reported one or more experiences of unwanted sexual intercourse. Seventy-eight percent of unwanted vaginal, anal, and oral…

Flack, William F., Jr.; Daubman, Kimberly A.; Caron, Marcia L.; Asadorian, Jenica A.; D'Aureli, Nicole R.; Gigliotti, Shannon N.; Hall, Anna T.; Kiser, Sarah; Stine, Erin R.

2007-01-01

287

46 CFR 7.35 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Cape May, NJ.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.35 Sandy Hook, NJ to Cape May, NJ. (a) A line drawn from Shark River Inlet North Breakwater Light “2” to Shark River Inlet South Breakwater Light “1”. (b) A line drawn from Manasquan Inlet North...

2012-10-01

288

46 CFR 7.35 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Cape May, NJ.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.35 Sandy Hook, NJ to Cape May, NJ. (a) A line drawn from Shark River Inlet North Breakwater Light “2” to Shark River Inlet South Breakwater Light “1”. (b) A line drawn from Manasquan Inlet North...

2013-10-01

289

46 CFR 7.35 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Cape May, NJ.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.35 Sandy Hook, NJ to Cape May, NJ. (a) A line drawn from Shark River Inlet North Breakwater Light “2” to Shark River Inlet South Breakwater Light “1”. (b) A line drawn from Manasquan Inlet North...

2011-10-01

290

Latitude Hooks and Azimuth Kings: How To Build and Use 18 Traditional Navigational Tools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains directions for building and using 18 different traditional navigational tools. Each of the devices discussed has at one time or another been used for the practical business of navigation. Devices featured in this book include the Latitude Hook, Kamal, Astrolabe, Quadrant, Astronomical Ring, Sundial, Nocturnal, Cross Staff,…

Fisher, Dennis

291

EFFECT OF A SUDDEN LEVEL FLUCTUATION ON HOOK FORMATION DURING CONTINUOUS CASTING OF  

E-print Network

Keywords: Continuous casting, Mold oscillation, Oscillation marks, Hook, Ultra-low carbon steel, Negative continuous casting of steel slabs forms periodic surface depressions called oscillation marks, which) carbon steel slabs cast at POSCO 727 Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes

Thomas, Brian G.

292

Size-related Hooking Mortality of Incidentally Caught Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha  

E-print Network

Size-related Hooking Mortality of Incidentally Caught Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha To rebuild depressed and declining chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tsha wytscha, stocks of the northeastern Pacific rim, the Pacific Salmon Com mission has established limits on the numbers of chinook salmon

293

Management and Ecological Note Effects of hook type on injury and capture  

E-print Network

). Because of the interspecific variation in feeding mode, mouth morphology, gape size and angling techniques of low food value (Cooke, Philipp, Dunmall & Schreer 2001). All fish were angled from Lake Opinicon, Cooke, Schreer & McKinley 2001). Ease of hook removal was categorized using slight modifications

Cooke, Steven J.

294

Cheating, Hooking Up, and Attention to Romantic Alternatives among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While numerous studies have emphasized more situational factors related to cheating, hooking up, and attention to romantic alternatives (e.g., alcohol use, need fulfillment, opportunity), the present findings support Finkel el al.'s (2012) argument for greater attentiveness to personal factors intrinsic to the individual that may influence…

Buri, John R.; Cromett, Cristina E.; Pappas, Sarah J.

2014-01-01

295

The stabilization of a north-seeking platform using a dynamically tuned Hooke's joint gyroscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper shows that the ideally tuned Hooke's joint gyroscope is capable of operating as a gyrocompass. The dynamic response of the compass is examined in detail and its accuracy as a north-seeking device is assessed. It is shown that small amounts of mistuning will result in gross errors. The need for precision tuning is eliminated by supporting the gyroscope

J. S. Burdess; C. H. J. Fox

1980-01-01

296

Changes in Oregon white oak ( Quercus garryana Dougl. ex Hook.) following release from overtopping conifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oregon white oak or Garry oak (Quercus garryana Dougl. ex Hook.) is a shade-intolerant, deciduous species that has been overtopped by conifers during the past century in parts of its range due to an altered disturbance regime. We examined the response of suppressed Oregon white oak trees in western Washington, USA, to three levels of release from overtopping Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga

Warren D. Devine; Constance A. Harrington

2006-01-01

297

46 CFR 7.35 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Cape May, NJ.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.35 Sandy Hook, NJ to Cape May, NJ. (a) A line drawn from Shark River Inlet North Breakwater Light “2” to Shark River Inlet South Breakwater Light “1”. (b) A line drawn from Manasquan Inlet North...

2010-10-01

298

Hooking up in Young Adulthood: A Review of Factors Influencing the Sexual Behavior of College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hooking up, or casual "no strings attached" sexual encounters, has become the normative heterosexual relationship on college campuses. This phenomenon has only recently received public attention. Many citizens have become alarmed that this trend is indicative of moral decline in our culture, a reflection of our hypersexualized media, and a…

Stinson, Rebecca D.

2010-01-01

299

Phytologia (December 2009) 91(3) 361 JUNIPERUS RECURVA VAR. UNCINATA, THE HOOKED  

E-print Network

Phytologia (December 2009) 91(3) 361 JUNIPERUS RECURVA VAR. UNCINATA, THE HOOKED BRANCHLET JUNIPER of sequence data from nrDNA and cpDNA (petN-psbM) of Juniperus indica, J. i. var. caespitosa, J. i. var hybridization. Phytologia 91(3): 361-382 (December, 2009). KEY WORDS: Juniperus indica, J. i. var. caespitosa, J

Adams, Robert P.

300

Assessing supply and demand chain leagility according to Hooke's law for a single-agent scenario  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper supposes and presents an approach for evaluating the degree of leagility of supply and demand chains. Therefore the authors are modeling the supply and demand chain, using the cognitions and outcomes of Robert Hooke's law of elasticity, upon the similarities between springs and supply or demand chain echelons, basically founded on the mutual ability to connect, to adapt,

E. Muller; N. Nikoghosyan; A. Rutsch; C.-A. Schumann

2009-01-01

301

Research on Resilient Supply Chain on the Basis of Hooke's Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper focused on enterprise and industry level to analyze the resilience of supply chain and point out the resilience analysis thought based on Hooke's law. The analysis result is that the supply chain resilience at industry level is much better than enterprise level. The order of supply chain resilience at enterprise level is: cross expansion type, vertical expansion type,

Cheng Guoping; Zhu Xinqiu

2010-01-01

302

Factors Influencing the Hooking Mortality of Walleyes Caught by Recreational Anglers on Mille Lacs, Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent implementation of size-based regulations in recreational fisheries for walleye Sander vitreus have led to more released walleyes and presumably to more losses of released fish. We conducted this study to estimate hooking mortality in Mille Lacs, Minnesota, and to determine factors that influence the survival of released walleyes. Volunteers and Minnesota Department of Natural Resources employees sampled walleyes with

Keith A. Reeves; Richard E. Bruesewitz

2007-01-01

303

Hooking Up in Young Adulthood: A Review of Factors Influencing the Sexual Behavior of College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hooking up, or casual “no strings attached” sexual encounters, has become the normative heterosexual relationship on college campuses. This phenomenon has only recently received public attention. Many citizens have become alarmed that this trend is indicative of moral decline in our culture, a reflection of our hypersexualized media, and a promotion of sexual irresponsibility. However, this is not necessarily so,

Rebecca D. Stinson

2010-01-01

304

Hook-ups: How Youth Learn Through Creating Physical Computer Interfaces  

E-print Network

reserved. Signature of Author Program in Media Arts and Sciences May 6, 2005 Certified by Mitchel Resnick Accepted by Andrew B. Lippman Chairperson Departmental Committee on Graduate Studies #12;2 #12;Hook design for children. Thesis supervisor: Mitchel Resnick Title: LEGO Papert Associate Professor of Media

305

Laterally oscillated and force-balanced micro vibratory rate gyroscope supported by fish hook shape springs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new concept micro vibratory rate gyroscope supported by fish hook shape springs, where the oscillating position sensing and force balancing take place on the wafer surface, has been developed. The gyroscope consists of: a grid-type planar mass; LT shape position sense electrodes for detecting the Coriolis motion; pairs of force-balancing electrodes to improve the linearity and dynamic range; prominence

K. Y. Park; C. W. Lee; Y. S. Oh; Y. H. Cho

1997-01-01

306

Effects of gustatory stimulants upon the olfactory epithelium of the bullfrog and the carp.  

PubMed

Effects of various gustatory stimulants upon the olfactory spithelia were examined in the olfactory bulb of the bullfrog and the carp. 1. The olfactory epithelia of the two animals responded to the salty, bitter- and acid-tasting substances, but not to the sweet ones. 2. The olfactory epithelium of the bullfrog responded immediately to sodium solutions of high concentrations (the "initial response"), but the response to those of low concentrations showed long latency (the "delayed response"). In the carp, the "initial response" was found, while the "delayed response" was not in most cases. A "negative" delayed response was found only infrequently. 3. Responses only to high alkali or acid solutions were found in the two animals. 4. When 0.05 M NaCl was added to HCl solutions, an enhancing effect was found in the bullfrog, while a reducing effect occurred in the carp. On the contrary, when 0.05 M NaCl was added to NaOH solutions, an enhancing effect occurred in the carp, while no consistent result was founding the bullfrog. 5. Many amino acids were effective stimuli in the bullfrog, but only betaine and 1-aspartic acid were found effective in the carp. 6. Changes in temperatures beyond 35 degrees C or under 10 degrees C elicited responses. Mechanical stimuli were effective in the carp, but not in the bullfrog. 7. The "water response" was found in the bullfrog, but not in the carp. 8. Sensitivities of the olfactory epithelia of the two animals were compared and discussed. PMID:308564

Takagi, S F; Iino, M; Yarita, H

1978-01-01

307

Transcriptome analysis of head kidney in grass carp and discovery of immune-related genes  

PubMed Central

Background Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is one of the most economically important freshwater fish, but its production is often affected by diseases that cause serious economic losses. To date, no good breeding varieties have been obtained using the oriented cultivation technique. The ability to identify disease resistance genes in grass carp is important to cultivate disease-resistant varieties of grass carp. Results In this study, we constructed a non-normalized cDNA library of head kidney in grass carp, and, after clustering and assembly, we obtained 3,027 high-quality unigenes. Solexa sequencing was used to generate sequence tags from the transcriptomes of the head kidney in grass carp before and after grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection. After processing, we obtained 22,144 tags that were differentially expressed by more than 2-fold between the uninfected and infected groups. 679 of the differentially expressed tags (3.1%) mapped to 483 of the unigenes (16.0%). The up-regulated and down-regulated unigenes were annotated using gene ontology terms; 16 were annotated as immune-related and 42 were of unknown function having no matches to any of the sequences in the databases that were used in the similarity searches. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed four unknown unigenes that showed significant responses to the viral infection. Based on domain structure predictions, one of these sequences was found to encode a protein that contained two transmembrane domains and, therefore, may be a transmembrane protein. Here, we proposed that this novel unigene may encode a virus receptor or a protein that mediates the immune signalling pathway at the cell surface. Conclusion This study enriches the molecular basis data of grass carp and further confirms that, based on fish tissue-specific EST databases, transcriptome analysis is an effective route to discover novel functional genes. PMID:22776770

2012-01-01

308

Duplication and differentiation of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) myoglobin genes revealed by BAC analysis.  

PubMed

Two distinct myoglobin (mb) transcripts have been reported in common carp, Cyprinus carpio, which is a hypoxia-tolerant fish living in habitats with greatly fluctuant dissolved oxygen levels. Recombinant protein analysis has shown functional specialization of the two mb transcripts. In this work, analysis for mb-containing bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones indicated different genome loci for common carp myoglobin-1 (mb-1) and myoglobin-2 (mb-2) genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that mb-1 and mb-2 are located on separate chromosomes. In both of the mb-1 and mb-2 containing BAC clones, gene synteny was well conserved with the homologous region on zebrafish chromosome 1, supporting that the common carp specific mb-2 gene originated from the recent whole genome duplication event in cyprinid lineage. Transcription factor binding sites search indicated that both common carp mb genes lacked specificity Protein 1 (Sp1) and myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) binding sites, which mediated muscle-specific and calcium-dependent expression in the well-studied mb promoters. Potential hypoxia response elements (HREs) were predicted in the regulatory region of common carp mb genes. These characteristics of common carp mb gene regulatory region well interpreted the hypoxia-inducible, non-muscle expression pattern of mb-1. In the case of mb-2, a 10 bp insertion to the binding site of upstream stimulatory factor (USF), which was a co-factor of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), might cause the non-response to hypoxia treatment of mb-2. The case of common carp mb gene duplication and subsequent differentiation in expression pattern and protein function provided an example for adaptive evolution toward aquatic hypoxia tolerance. PMID:25026501

Zhao, Zi-Xia; Xu, Peng; Cao, Ding-Chen; Kuang, You-Yi; Deng, Hai-Xia; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Li-Ming; Li, Jiong-Tang; Xu, Jian; Sun, Xiao-Wen

2014-09-15

309

Identification and characterization of microRNAs in the spleen of common carp immune organ.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the regulation of many fundamental biological processes in eukaryotes; however, miRNAs associated with immune functions in the common carp have not been reported. In this study, a small-RNA cDNA library was constructed from the spleen of the common carp. A total of 10,603,456 high-quality clean reads, representing 293,603 unique sequences, were obtained from the small-cDNA library using the Solexa sequencing. By the bioinformatic analysis, 194 conserved miRNAs and 12 novel miRNAs were identified in the carp spleen. The abundant miRNAs principally belong to 30 miRNA gene families such as let-7, mir-10, mir-15, mir-30, and so on. The conservation analysis showed that 23 families were present both in protostomes and deuterostomes, 46 families were conserved only in vertebrates, and 5 families (mir-430, mir-722, mir-724, mir-734, and mir-738) were identified only in fish species. Furthermore, GO enrichment analysis and KEGG pathway analysis suggested that miRNAs expressed in the spleen of common carp are involved in immune system development, lymphoid organ development, lymphocyte activation, immune response, B cell receptor signaling pathway, T cell receptor signaling pathway, Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, and so on. This study described the miRNA transcriptome in spleen tissue for the first time in the common carp. The results expand the number of known common carp miRNAs and provides a meaningful framework to understand the common carp immune system and defense mechanisms. PMID:24819892

Li, Guoxi; Zhao, Yinli; Wen, Lin; Liu, Zhonghu; Yan, Fengbin; Gao, Chunsheng

2014-10-01

310

A Tale of Four "Carp": Invasion Potential and Ecological Niche Modeling  

PubMed Central

Background Invasive species are a serious problem in ecosystems, but are difficult to eradicate once established. Predictive methods can be key in determining which areas are of concern regarding invasion by such species to prevent establishment [1]. We assessed the geographic potential of four Eurasian cyprinid fishes (common carp, tench, grass carp, black carp) as invaders in North America via ecological niche modeling (ENM). These “carp” represent four stages of invasion of the continent (a long-established invader with a wide distribution, a long-established invader with a limited distribution, a spreading invader whose distribution is expanding, and a newly introduced potential invader that is not yet established), and as such illustrate the progressive reduction of distributional disequilibrium over the history of species' invasions. Methodology/Principal Findings We used ENM to estimate the potential distributional area for each species in North America using models based on native range distribution data. Environmental data layers for native and introduced ranges were imported from state, national, and international climate and environmental databases. Models were evaluated using independent validation data on native and invaded areas. We calculated omission error for the independent validation data for each species: all native range tests were highly successful (all omission values <7%); invaded-range predictions were predictive for common and grass carp (omission values 8.8 and 19.8%, respectively). Model omission was high for introduced tench populations (54.7%), but the model correctly identified some areas where the species has been successful; distributional predictions for black carp show that large portions of eastern North America are at risk. Conclusions/Significance ENMs predicted potential ranges of carp species accurately even in regions where the species have not been present until recently. ENM can forecast species' potential geographic ranges with reasonable precision and within the short screening time required by proposed U.S. invasive species legislation. PMID:19421314

DeVaney, Shannon C.; McNyset, Kristina M.; Williams, Justin B.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Wiley, Edward O.

2009-01-01

311

Effects of water hardness on size and hatching success of silver carp eggs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eggs of silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix absorb water after release from the female, causing them to become turgid and to increase substantially in size. The volume of water that diffuses within an egg is most likely determined by (1) the difference in ionic concentration between the egg and the water that surrounds it and (2) the elasticity of the egg membrane. Prior observations suggest that silver carp eggs may swell and burst in soft waters. If water hardness affects silver carp reproductive success in nonnative ecosystems, this abiotic factor could limit silver carp distribution or abundance. In this study, we tested the effect of water hardness on silver carp egg enlargement and hatching success. Groups of newly fertilized silver carp eggs were placed in water at one of five nominal water hardness levels (50, 100, 150, 200, or 250 mg/L as CaCO3) for 1 h to harden (absorb water after fertilization). Egg groups were then placed in separate incubation vessels housed in two recirculation systems that were supplied with either soft (50 mg/L as CaCO3) or hard (250 mg/L as CaCO3) water to evaluate hatching success. Tests were terminated within 24 h after viable eggs had hatched. Eggs that were initially placed in 50-mg/L water to harden were larger (i.e., swelled more) and had a greater probability of hatch than eggs hardened in other water hardness levels. Unlike the effect of water hardness during egg hardening, the water hardness during incubation appeared to have no effect on egg hatching success. Our research suggests that water hardness may not be a limiting factor in the reproduction, recruitment, and range expansion of silver carp in North America.

Rach, Jeff J.; Sass, Greg G.; Luoma, James A.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

2010-01-01

312

Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in north Croatia after the Chernobyl accident  

E-print Network

Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carps decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of 137Cs in carps was estimated to be about 1 year for 1987-2002 period and 5 years for 1993-2005 period. The observed 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio in carps has been found to be similar to the ratio that has been observed in other environmental samples. Concentration factor for carps (wet weight) was roughly estimated to be 128 +/- 74 Lkg-1, which is in reasonable agreement with model prediction based on K+ concentrations in water. Estimated annual effective doses received by 134Cs and 137Cs intake due to consumption of carps for an adult member of Croatian population are small, per caput dose for the 1987 - 2005 estimated to be 0.5 +/- 0.2 microSv. Due to minor freshwater fish consumption in Croatia and low radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps, it can be concluded that carps consumption was no...

Franic, Z

2007-01-01

313

Effects of ions on the motility of fresh and demembranate spermatozoa of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) and paddlefish ( Polyodon spathula )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study was summarize the factors activating and\\/or inhibiting the motility of intact and\\/or demembranated spermatozoa of common carp and paddlefish as teleostean and chondrostean models using methods of sperm demembranation. The movement of spermatozoa of cyprinids species, common carp, is influenced by osmotic pressure or high concentration of ions. The movements of spermatozoa of chrondrostean species, paddlefish,

O. Linhart; J. Cosson; S. D. Mims; M. Rodina; D. Gela; W. L. Shelton

2003-01-01

314

A comparison of trace element concentrations in cultured and wild carp ( Cyprinus carpio) of Lake Kasumigaura, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of 13 elements were determined in the muscle, liver, intestine, kidney, and gonads of cultured and wild carp caught at two sites in Lake Kasumigaura, Japan, between September 1994 and September 1995. Despite having a reputation for being heavily polluted, the carp were not heavily burdened with metals. Our results suggest that despite their dietary differences, the wild

M. G. M Alam; A Tanaka; G Allinson; L. J. B Laurenson; F Stagnitti; E. T Snow

2002-01-01

315

Precision of Five Structures for Estimating Age of Common Carp QUINTON E. PHELPS,* KRIS R. EDWARDS, AND DAVID W. WILLIS  

E-print Network

been validated as an accurate structure for estimating age of common carp Cyprinus carpio. However be time consuming, and fish sacrifice may not be feasible in certain situations. The common carp Cyprinus carpio was among the first fish species for which age estimation techniques were used (Carlander 1987

316

Ectoparasitic protozoa fauna of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) caught in the Sinop region of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ectoparasitic protozoan fauna resident on farmed and wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) from two localities in the Sinop region of Turkey were investigated during the period June 1994–May 1995. Following the investigation of 125 common carp, Trichodina acuta Lom, 1961, Trichodina mutabilis Kazubski and Migala, 1968, Trichodina nigra Lom, 1960, Trichodinella subtilis Lom, 1959, Apiosoma piscicola Blanchard,

A. Özer; O. Erdem

1998-01-01

317

Antioxidant response modulated by copper in healthy or parasitized carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) by Ptychobothrium sp. (Cestoda).  

PubMed

An increased antioxidant response (catalase, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GRd) activities in liver and GST activity in head kidney) was observed in carp parasitized by Ptychobothrium sp. compared to healthy fish. In case of a copper contamination of these fish, the decrease in enzymatic activities observed was less pronounced in parasitized than in healthy carp. PMID:12383935

Dautremepuits, C; Betoulle, S; Vernet, G

2002-10-10

318

LARVAL ASIAN CARP IN THE UPPER AND MIDDLE MISSISSIPPI RIVER: AN INDEX OF ESTABLISHMENT AND DISPERSAL POTENTIAL  

E-print Network

LARVAL ASIAN CARP IN THE UPPER AND MIDDLE MISSISSIPPI RIVER: AN INDEX OF ESTABLISHMENT AND MIDDLE MISSISSIPPI RIVER: AN INDEX OF ESTABLISHMENT AND DISPERSAL POTENTIAL by Adam M. Lohmeyer A Thesis University Carbondale. TITLE: LARVAL ASIAN CARP IN THE UPPER AND MIDDLE MISSISSIPPI RIVER: AN INDEX

319

Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.  

PubMed

In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided. PMID:23472178

Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Lodge, David M; Hunter, Margaret E; Nico, Leo G

2013-01-01

320

Microsatellite genetic diversity and differentiation of native and introduced grass carp populations in three continents  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater species native to China, has been introduced to about 100 countries/regions and poses both biological and environmental challenges to the receiving ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation in grass carp from three introduced river systems (Mississippi River Basin in US, Danube River in Hungary, and Tone River in Japan) as well as its native ranges (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur Rivers) in China using 21 novel microsatellite loci. The allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, and within-population gene diversity were found to be lower in the introduced populations than in the native populations, presumably due to the small founder population size of the former. Significant genetic differentiation was found between all pairwise populations from different rivers. Both principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed obvious genetic distinction between the native and introduced populations. Interestingly, genetic bottlenecks were detected in the Hungarian and Japanese grass carp populations, but not in the North American population, suggesting that the Mississippi River Basin grass carp has experienced rapid population expansion with potential genetic diversification during the half-century since its introduction. Consequently, the combined forces of the founder effect, introduction history, and rapid population expansion help explaining the observed patterns of genetic diversity within and among both native and introduced populations of the grass carp.

Chapman, Duane C.; Chen, Qin; Wang, Chenghui; Zhao, Jinlian; Lu, Guoqing; Zsigmond, Jeney; Li, Sifa

2012-01-01

321

Microsatellite genetic diversity and differentiation of native and introduced grass carp populations in three continents.  

PubMed

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater species native to China, has been introduced to about 100 countries/regions and poses both biological and environmental challenges to the receiving ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation in grass carp from three introduced river systems (Mississippi River Basin in US, Danube River in Hungary, and Tone River in Japan) as well as its native ranges (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur Rivers) in China using 21 novel microsatellite loci. The allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, and within-population gene diversity were found to be lower in the introduced populations than in the native populations, presumably due to the small founder population size of the former. Significant genetic differentiation was found between all pairwise populations from different rivers. Both principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed obvious genetic distinction between the native and introduced populations. Interestingly, genetic bottlenecks were detected in the Hungarian and Japanese grass carp populations, but not in the North American population, suggesting that the Mississippi River Basin grass carp has experienced rapid population expansion with potential genetic diversification during the half-century since its introduction. Consequently, the combined forces of the founder effect, introduction history, and rapid population expansion help explaining the observed patterns of genetic diversity within and among both native and introduced populations of the grass carp. PMID:22740170

Chen, Qin; Wang, Chenghui; Lu, Guoqing; Zhao, Jinliang; Chapman, Duane C; Zsigmond, Jeney; Li, Sifa

2012-06-01

322

[An investigation of metazoan parasites of common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in Lake Eber, Afyon, Turkey.].  

PubMed

In this study, metazoan parasites of the following fish species were investigated in Lake Eber (Afyon) from July 2002-2003. At the end of this research, 2 species of Monogenea (Gyrodactylus elegans, Dactylogyrus extensus) were found on the gills and fins of the fishes; 1 species of Digenea (Posthodiplostomum cuticola), on skin and fins; 1 species of Cestoda (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) in the intestines; and 1 species of Arthropoda (Argulus foliaceus), the skin, gills and fins of fish. The distribution of these parasites in various fish species are given below: The distribution of these parasites are as follows: 3456 Gyrodactylus elegans in 51 specimens of common carp (67.1% prevalence, 67.75+/-162.52 parasite/fish); 2980 Dactylogyrus extensus (73.6%, 53.21+/-52.95) in 56 specimens of common carp; 55 Posthodiplostomum cuticola (18.4%, 3.93+/-5.42) in 14 specimens of common carp; 1240 Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (43.4%, 37.55+/-53.98) in 33 specimens of common carp and 6 Argulus foliaceus (6.5%, 1.20+/-0.44); in 5 specimens of common carp. PMID:17160824

Oztürk, M O?uz

2005-01-01

323

Accumulation and effects of metals in caged carp and resident roach along a metal pollution gradient.  

PubMed

Metal accumulation and effects on plasma Ca(2+), alanine transaminase (ALT) and fish condition factor were examined in caged carp (Cyprinus carpio) and resident roach (Rutilus rutilus) at four locations along the Grote Nete River system (Belgium). Cadmium and zinc accumulation were found in carp and roach, with highest concentrations at the most contaminated site (dissolved Cd: 1.82 microg/l, Zn: 967 microg/l). On the tissue level, highest cadmium concentrations were measured in kidneys of carp and roach, followed by gills, intestine and liver, while low concentrations were observed in carcass and muscle. For zinc, a similar pattern was observed (intestine>kidney>gills>liver>carcass>muscle). Comparison between species showed higher cadmium concentrations in feral roach, while zinc levels were lower, owing to the high zinc concentrations in control carp. Furthermore, comparison of metal concentrations between two sampling periods (2005 and 2000-2001) revealed a drastic decrease in cadmium concentration in gills, liver and muscle of roach, similar to the reduction in waterborne cadmium concentrations, while differences for zinc were much less pronounced. In addition to metal accumulation, increased metallothionein concentrations (approximately 2x) were found in carp and roach, while no metal-related effects were found on ALT, Ca(2+)or condition factor. However, negative effects on fish community structure, as assessed by the index of biotic integrity (IBI), were found along the pollution gradient and indicated long-term adverse effects of metal pollution. PMID:18061244

Reynders, H; Bervoets, L; Gelders, M; De Coen, W M; Blust, R

2008-02-25

324

Tissue-Specific Fatty Acids Response to Different Diets in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA) to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively) in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue) of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO) with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption. PMID:24733499

Böhm, Markus; Schultz, Sebastian; Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Kainz, Martin J.

2014-01-01

325

Assimilation efficiencies of Cd and Zn in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio): effects of metal concentration, temperature and prey type.  

PubMed

The impact of several factors on the assimilation efficiency (AE) of Cd and Zn from food in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied. Tested prey species were midge larvae (Chironomus riparius), zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and oligochaetes (Tubifex tubifex). The Cd load of the larvae did not affect the Cd AE in the carp. The Zn AE however, was negatively related to the Zn load of the prey. Food quantity and starvation of the carp did not significantly affect the Cd AE. For Zn, a significant decrease in AE was found when carp were fed ad libitum. Decreasing the temperature from 25 degrees C to 15 degrees C did not influence the Cd AE, while for Zn a significant decrease of the AE was measured. Carp assimilated Cd from both zebra mussels and oligochaetes with a significantly lower efficiency in comparison to the midge larvae, although Zn AEs was prey independent. PMID:16764974

Van Campenhout, K; Bervoets, L; Blust, R

2007-02-01

326

Assessment of synthetic organic compounds, and endocrinology and histology of carp in Lake Mead  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated the presence and biologic effects of synthetic organic compounds transported by Las Vegas Wash to Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Water, bottom sediment, and carp (Cyprinus carpio) were analyzed for synthetic organic compounds. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used to sample the water column. Blood samples were collected from Carp for analysis of sex steroid hormones and vitellogenin. Samples of external abnormalities and organs (liver, gill, kidney, small intestine, and gonad) were collected for histologic analysis. Compounds known to affect endocrine systems (PAHs, phthalate esters, PCBs, dioxins and furans) were detected in SPMD, bottom-sediment, and/or carp samples. The number and concentrations of compounds generally were greater in samples from Las Vegas Wash and Bay, than in samples from Callville Bay, a reference site in Lake Mead. High levels of PAHs detected in SPMDs from Callville Bay could indicate the existence of contaminant sources other than Las Vegas Wash.

Bevans, H.; Goodbred, S.; Miesner, J.

1995-12-31

327

Autoradiographic localization of gonadotrophin receptors in ovaries of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

SciTech Connect

Binding sites for carp gonadotrophin have been located in carp ovaries using (/sup 125/I)labeled gonadotrophin and autoradiography. The radioactive gonadotrophin was displaced from tissue by unlabeled gonadotrophin or carp hypophysial homogenate in a dose-dependent fashion. No binding of gonadotrophin was found in previtellogenic oocytes but binding appeared with the first indications of vitellogenesis. In the smaller vitellogenic oocytes binding was uniformly distributed in the follicular envelope, but in the largest oocytes binding was restricted to the interstitial tissue. In these more mature oocytes gonadotrophin was also found within the oocyte and appeared to migrate toward the nucleus. The relationship between binding location, steroidogenesis, and oocyte maturation is discussed. We found no evidence for specific binding of (/sup 125/I)thyroxine under comparable conditions.

Bieniarz, K.; Kime, D.E.

1986-10-01

328

Recognition of surface antigens on spermatozoa of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., Teleostei) using monoclonal antibodies and scanning electron microscopy.  

PubMed

The distribution of antigenic determinants, recognized by seven anti-carp spermatozoa monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and two anti-carp spermatogonia MAbs were studied using fresh, unfixed carp spermatozoa. The location of the antigenic determinants was analysed in light- and in scanning electron microscopy, in the latter with the backscattered imaging mode. With all seven anti-carp spermatozoa MAbs a similar regular distribution of the immuno-gold labeling was present on heads, midpieces and tails of carp spermatozoa, whereas with the anti-carp spermatogonia MAbs only low or no labeling was observed. The regular distribution of antigenic determinants, as observed with the anti-spermatozoa MAbs in carp, is in agreement with data on agglutination of spermatozoa by autoantibodies in Salmo gairdneri and data on distribution of antigenic sites on spermatozoa in Xenopus laevis. It differs from data in mammals in which the presence of specialized domains on spermatozoa was shown. These results are discussed. PMID:7536015

van Winkoop, A; Dulos, G J; Timmermans, L P

1995-01-01

329

Intensity of parasitic infestation in silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix.  

PubMed

Silver carp, Hypopthalmichthys molitrix is one of the most economically valuable fish species in Bangladesh. However, its production is often hindered by parasite-induced mortality. The present study reports the intensity of parasitic infestation in 216 specimens of H. molitrix collected from different fish markets in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh. Nine different parasite species (Trichodina pediculatus, Dactylogyrus vastator, Ichthyophthirius multifilis, Gyrodactylus elegans, Lernaea sp., Apiosoma sp., Myxobolus rohitae, Camallanus ophiocephali, and Pallisentis ophiocephali) were recovered from the gill, skin, stomach, and intestine of host fish. The highest level of infection was observed for host skin, while lower levels were observed for host gill, stomach, and intestine. The results also revealed that the intensity of parasite infection in different organs of H. molitrix varied with the season. In particular, the highest levels of infection were recorded during the winter period (November-February), when fish are most susceptible to parasites. The findings of the study will help in the management and conservation of H. molitrix. PMID:23225858

Alam, M M; Khan, M A; Hussain, M A; Moumita, D; Mazlan, A G; Simon, K D

2012-12-01

330

Effects of cylindrospermopsin on a common carp leucocyte cell line.  

PubMed

Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cytotoxin produced by different cyanobacterial species, increasingly detected in water reservoirs worldwide. There is very little information available concerning the effects of the toxin on fish immune cells. The aim of the study was to elucidate the potential impact of cylindrospermopsin on the selected parameters of a common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) leucocyte cell line (CLC). The cells were incubated with the cyanotoxin at concentrations of 10, 1 or 0.1?µg?ml(-1) for up to 48?h. Cell viability and proliferation, apoptosis/necrosis induction, cell morphology and phagocytic activity were determined. The two higher toxin concentrations occurred to be evidently cytotoxic in a time-dependent manner and influenced all studied parameters. The lowest used concentration had no effects on cell viability and cell number; however, a strong reduction of bacteria uptake after 24-h exposure was detected. The obtained results indicate that cylindrospermopsin may interfere with the basic functions of fish phagocytic cells and as a consequence influence the fish immunity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24477983

Sieroslawska, Anna; Rymuszka, Anna

2015-01-01

331

Cloning and preliminary functional studies of the JAM-A gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).  

PubMed

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is a very important aquaculture species in China and other South-East Asian countries; however, disease outbreaks in this species are frequent, resulting in huge economic losses. Grass carp hemorrhage caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is one of the most serious diseases. Junction adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) is the mammalian receptor for reovirus, and has been well studied. However, the JAM-A gene in grass carp has not been studied so far. In this study, we cloned and elucidated the structure of the JAM-A gene in grass carp (GcJAM-A) and then studied its functions during grass carp hemorrhage. GcJAM-A is composed of 10 exons and 9 introns, and its full-length cDNA is 1833 bp long, with an 888 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a 295 amino acid protein. The GcJAM-A protein is predicted to contain a typical transmembrane domain. Maternal expression pattern of GcJAM-A is observed during early embryogenesis, while zygote expression occurs at 8 h after hatching. GcJAM-A is expressed strongly in the gill, liver, intestine and kidney, while it is expressed poorly in the blood, brain, spleen and head kidney. Moreover, lower expression is observed in the gill, liver, intestine, brain, spleen and kidney of 30-month-old individuals, compared with 6-month-old. In a GcJAM-A-knockdown cell line (CIK) infected with GCRV, the expression of genes involved in the interferon and apoptosis pathways was significantly inhibited. These results suggest that GcJAM-A could be a receptor for GCRV. We have therefore managed to characterize the GcJAM-A gene and provide evidence for its role as a receptor for GCRV. PMID:23542603

Du, Fukuan; Su, Jianguo; Huang, Rong; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

2013-06-01

332

Binational ecological risk assessment of bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) for the Great Lakes Basin.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bigheaded carps (Bighead and Silver carps) are considered a potential threat to the Great Lakes basin. A binational ecological risk assessment was conducted to provide scientifically defensible advice for managers and decision-makers in Canada and the United States. This risk assessment looked at the likelihood of arrival, survival, establishment, and spread of bigheaded carps to obtain an overall probability of introduction. Arrival routes assessed were physical connections and human-mediated releases. The risk assessment ranked physical connections (specifically the Chicago Area Waterway System) as the most likely route for arrival into the Great Lakes basin. Results of the risk assessment show that there is enough food and habitat for bigheaded carp survival in the Great Lakes, especially in Lake Erie and productive embayments in the other lakes. Analyses of tributaries around the Canadian Great Lakes and the American waters of Lake Erie indicate that there are many suitable tributaries for bigheaded carp spawning. Should bigheaded carps establish in the Great Lakes, their spread would not likely be limited and several ecological consequences can be expected to occur. These consequences include competition for planktonic food leading to reduced growth rates, recruitment and abundance of planktivores. Subsequently this would lead to reduced stocks of piscivores and abundance of fishes with pelagic, early life stages. Overall risk is highest for lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie, followed by Lake Ontario then Lake Superior. To avoid the trajectory of the invasion process and prevent or minimize anticipated consequences, it is important to continue to focus efforts on reducing the probability of introduction of these species at either the arrival, survival, establishment, or spread stage (depending on location).

Cudmore, B.; Mandrak, N. E.; Dettmers, J.; Chapman, D. C.; Kolar, C. S.

2012-01-01

333

Risky Situation or Harmless Fun? A Qualitative Examination of College Women’s Bad Hook-up and Rape Scripts  

Microsoft Academic Search

College students appear to be increasingly engaging in casual, non-committed sexual relationships, which may represent potential\\u000a situations in which sexual assaults occur. The current study sought to assess if college students regard rape as a potential\\u000a outcome of hooking up through examination of students’ rape and hook-up scripts. A multi-ethnic sample of 109 US college women\\u000a (54% European American, 19%

Heather Littleton; Holly Tabernik; Erika J. Canales; Tamika Backstrom

2009-01-01

334

By Hook or by Crook: Multifaceted DNA-Binding Properties of MeCP2  

PubMed Central

Two new studies reveal novel DNA-binding properties of MeCP2, mutations of which cause Rett syndrome. Baker et al. report critical roles for the AT-hook domain of MeCP2 in chromatin organization and clinical features of Rett syndrome. Mellén et al. find the methyl-CpG-binding domain of MeCP2 interacts with hydroxymethyl-CpG. PMID:23452844

Shin, Jaehoon; Ming, Guo-li; Song, Hongjun

2014-01-01

335

High-pressure mechanical instability in close-packed Hooke's-law crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lattice dynamics and molecular dynamics are used to study close-packed crystals with pairwise-additive Hooke's-law interparticle potentials. Lattice dynamics describes a mechanical soft-mode instability at high pressure. In two dimensions molecular dynamics reveals that a thermodynamic transition, from the triangular close-packed lattice to the square lattice, occurs before the soft-mode instability density is reached. Similar phenomena occur in the three-dimensional close-packed

Anthony J. C. Ladd; William G. Hoover

1981-01-01

336

High-pressure mechanical instability in close-packed Hooke's-law crystals  

SciTech Connect

Lattice dynamics and molecular dynamics are used to study close-packed crystals with pairwise-additive Hooke's-law interparticle potentials. Lattice dynamics describes a mechanical soft-mode instability at high pressure. In two dimensions molecular dynamics reveals that a thermodynamic transition, from the triangular close-packed lattice to the square lattice, occurs before the soft-mode instability density is reached. Similar phenomena occur in the three-dimensional close-packed lattices.

Ladd, A.J.C.; Hoover, W.G.

1981-01-15

337

Wave functions and two-electron probability distributions of the Hooke's-law atom and helium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hooke's-law atom (hookium) provides an exactly soluble model for a two-electron atom in which the nuclear-electron Coulombic attraction has been replaced by a harmonic one. Starting from the known exact position-space wave function for the ground state of hookium, we present the momentum-space wave function. We also look at the intracules, two-electron probability distributions, for hookium in position, momentum,

Darragh P. ONeill; Peter M. W. Gill

2003-01-01

338

Perturbation Enerigies for the Hooke's Law Model of the Two-Electron Atom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rayleigh–Schro¨dlinger perturbation energies E(n) for the ground state of the Hooke's law model atom are calculated through tenth order. The E(n) are expressed as singly infinite sums whose terms are obtained from recurrence relations. Very slow convergence limited the method to E(10) and below. The results are compared with those of Midtdal (1965) for heliumlike atoms, and it appears

John M. Benson; W. Byers Brown

1970-01-01

339

Entanglement in Hooke's Law Atoms: an Effect of the Dimensionality of the Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a singlet ground-state of the D-dimensional Hooke's law model for D = 1, 2, 3. We explore an effect of the dimensionality of the space D on the entanglement in the whole range of the repulsive interaction. Among other features, it is found that there exists a critical interaction strength above which for D = 3 the amount of entanglement contained in the singlet ground-state becomes larger than that for D = 2.

Ko?cik, Przemys?aw; Hassanabadi, Hassan

2012-02-01

340

The He isoelectronic series and the Hooke's law model: Correlation measures and modifications of Collins' conjecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently developed concept of a correlation entropy, S, as a quantitative measure of the correlation strength present in a correlated quantum many-body state is applied to the ground states of the He isoelectronic series He(Z) with varying nuclear charge Z and of the Hooke's law model HLM(omega) with varying oscillator frequency omega. S is constructed from the natural orbital

Paul Ziesche; Vedene H. Smith; Minhhuy Hô; Sven P. Rudin; Peter Gersdorf; Manfred Taut

1999-01-01

341

Perturbation Theory of the Hooke's Law Model for the Two-Electron Atom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hooke model for the two-electron atom replaces the electron–nuclear interaction by a harmonic oscillator potential, but retains the Coulomb repulsion of the electrons. The first-order perturbation equation for the electron repulsion is solved analytically, and the exact first-, second-, and third-order perturbation energies are obtained. A similar Z?1 perturbation treatment is carried out for the Hartree–Fock equation and other

Ronald J. White; W. Byers Brown

1970-01-01

342

DNA binding properties of TAF1 isoforms with two AT-hooks.  

PubMed

TATA-binding protein-associated factor 1 (TAF1) is an essential component of the general transcription factor IID (TFIID), which nucleates assembly of the preinitiation complex for transcription by RNA polymerase II. TATA-binding protein and TAF1.TAF2 heterodimers are the only components of TFIID shown to bind specific DNA sequences (the TATA box and initiator, respectively), raising the question of how TFIID localizes to gene promoters that lack binding sites for these proteins. Here we demonstrate that Drosophila TAF1 protein isoforms TAF1-2 and TAF1-4 directly bind DNA independently of TAF2. DNA binding by TAF1 isoforms is mediated by cooperative interactions of two identical AT-hook motifs, one of which is encoded by an alternatively spliced exon. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that TAF1-2 bound the minor groove of adenine-thymine-rich DNA with a preference for the sequence AAT. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis of the alternatively spliced AT-hook indicated that Lys and Arg residues made essential DNA contacts, whereas Gly and Pro residues within the Arg-Gly-Arg-Pro core sequence were less important for DNA binding, suggesting that AT-hooks are more divergent than previously predicted. TAF1-2 bound with variable affinity to the transcription start site of several Drosophila genes, and binding to the hsp70 promoter was reduced by mutation of a single base pair at the transcription start site. Collectively, these data indicate that AT-hooks serve to anchor TAF1 isoforms to the minor groove of adenine-thymine-rich Drosophila gene promoters and suggest a model in which regulated expression of TAF1 isoforms by alternative splicing contributes to gene-specific transcription. PMID:16893881

Metcalf, Chad E; Wassarman, David A

2006-10-01

343

Purification and Characterization of Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase lsoforms from the Periderm of Eucalyptus gunnii Hook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, EC 1.1.1.195) isoforms were purified from the periderm (containing both suberized and lignified cell layers) of Eucalyptus gunnii Hook stems. lwo isoforms (CAD 1P and CAD 2P) were initially characterized, and the major form, CAD 2P, was resolved into three further isoforms by ion- exchange chromatography. Crude extracts contained two aliphatic alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) and one

Simon William Hawkins; Alain Michel Boudet

1994-01-01

344

Hook is an adapter that coordinates kinesin-3 and dynein cargo attachment on early endosomes  

PubMed Central

Bidirectional membrane trafficking along microtubules is mediated by kinesin-1, kinesin-3, and dynein. Several organelle-bound adapters for kinesin-1 and dynein have been reported that orchestrate their opposing activity. However, the coordination of kinesin-3/dynein-mediated transport is not understood. In this paper, we report that a Hook protein, Hok1, is essential for kinesin-3– and dynein-dependent early endosome (EE) motility in the fungus Ustilago maydis. Hok1 binds to EEs via its C-terminal region, where it forms a complex with homologues of human fused toes (FTS) and its interactor FTS- and Hook-interacting protein. A highly conserved N-terminal region is required to bind dynein and kinesin-3 to EEs. To change the direction of EE transport, kinesin-3 is released from organelles, and dynein binds subsequently. A chimaera of human Hook3 and Hok1 rescues the hok1 mutant phenotype, suggesting functional conservation between humans and fungi. We conclude that Hok1 is part of an evolutionarily conserved protein complex that regulates bidirectional EE trafficking by controlling attachment of both kinesin-3 and dynein. PMID:24637326

Bielska, Ewa; Schuster, Martin; Roger, Yvonne; Berepiki, Adokiye; Soanes, Darren M.; Talbot, Nicholas J.

2014-01-01

345

Antigenic analysis of grass carp reovirus using single-chain variable fragment antibody against IgM from Ctenopharyngodon idella.  

PubMed

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an important species of freshwater aquaculture fish in China. However, grass carp reovirus (GCRV) can cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in yearling populations. Until now, a strategy to define the antigenic capacity of the virus's structural proteins for preparing an effective vaccine has not been available. In this study, some single-chain variable fragment antibodies (scFv), which could specifically recognize grass carp IgM, were selected from a constructed mouse naïve antibody phage display cDNA library. The identified scFv C1B3 clone was shown to possess relatively higher specific binding activity to grass carp IgM. Furthermore, ELISA analysis indicated that the IgM level in serum from virus-infected grass carp was more than two times higher than that of the control group at 5-7 days post infection. Moreover, Western blot analysis demonstrated that the outer capsid protein VP7 has a specific immuno-binding-reaction with the serum IgM from virus-infected grass carp. Our results suggest that VP7 can induce a stronger immune response in grass carp than the other GCRV structural proteins, which implies that VP7 protein could be used as a preferred immunogen for vaccine design. PMID:23314868

Chen, CongLin; Sun, XiaoYun; Liao, LanJie; Luo, ShaoXiang; Li, ZhouQuan; Zhang, XiaoHua; Wang, YaPing; Guo, QionLin; Fang, Qin; Dai, HePing

2013-01-01

346

Isolation and expression analyses of the Sox9a gene in triploid crucian carp.  

PubMed

To investigate the evolutional significance of Sox9 in fish, we isolated and characterized Sox9a cDNA and genomic clones in triploid crucian carp. The cDNA encoded a protein of 457 amino acids with an HMG box and showed more than 60% amino acid sequence identity with known vertebrate Sox9 proteins. Triploid crucian carp and vertebrate Sox9s showed similar gene structure, and two introns in the coding region were located at conserved positions. On the basis of the amino acid sequences, Sox9a can be categorized into the same subgroup of Sox-E proteins as Sox8, 9, and 10. Interestingly, the expression of triploid crucian carp Sox9a was predominantly observed not in the ovary but in the testis by Northern blot and RT-PCR analysis. The expression analysis of Sox9a suggested that it may seldom contribute to the formation of normal functions of spermatozoa, but it may play an important role in the development of testicular tubules. Besides the testicular expression, Sox9a was also shown to be expressed in many other tissues including the brain, kidney, and heart of triploid crucian carp, indicating that Sox9 may have unique functions in some specific tissues during development. PMID:20467853

Guo, Xinhong; Yan, Jinpeng; Liu, Shaojun; Xiang, Bing; Liu, Yun

2010-06-01

347

LINKING SILVER CARP HABITAT SELECTION TO PHYTOPLANKTON CONSUMPTION IN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER  

E-print Network

in the past decade. As this species advances towards Lake Michigan, the threat of their invasion, the invasive silver carp (Hypothalmichthys molitrix) has migrated into the native waters of 16 states dispersal. They have the potential to compete with native species for critical habitat and food, which

348

Establishment and evaluation of a new model for studying lipogenesis in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) preadipocytes.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to establish and evaluate a new model for studying lipogenesis in grass carp preadipocytes. The morphology characteristic from preadipocytes to mature adipocytes was observed with the microscopic morphology, and the proliferation kinetics of cells was tested by cell counting. In addition, the nature and differentiation degree of cells were evaluated using Oil Red O staining, lipase activity determination, and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) assay. Morphologically, grass carp preadipocytes started to attach and grow on day 3, then they resembled fibroblasts, and most underwent attachment, proliferation, and growth arrest with subsequent accumulation of intracellular lipid droplets before becoming mature adipocytes. Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity was increased gradually during the progress of culture. Analysis of RT-PCR confirmed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? expression patterns were consistent with my observations regarding GPDH activity. In summary, grass carp preadipocytes cultured with 10% FBS at 28°C in a humidified 5% CO2 atmosphere have high proliferation potential. Furthermore, the cells synthesize a range of markers that are consistent with this cell type. We conclude therefore that the grass carp preadipocytes described here have high capacity for lipogenesis and may, therefore, represent a unique tool for studying fish fat cell development and metabolism. PMID:22179677

Li, Ying

2012-01-01

349

Freshwater fungi isolated from eggs of the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal infection in the eggs of freshwater fish is well known as a problematic disease. We had a chance to examine fungal infection in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) eggs at fish farms in Khon Kaen province, northeast Thailand, in February 2002, attempting to isolate fungi from eggs with fungal infection at three fish farms (A, B, and C). Nineteen

Kanit Chukanhom; Kishio Hatai

2004-01-01

350

Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission 2008 Approved Triploid Grass Carp Dealers  

E-print Network

(740)622-0681 227-08 Fish Haven Farm Richard G. Musa 978 Owego Road Candor NY 13743 (607)659-3474 219. Robert P. Jones 3433 Church Street Newton OH 45244 (513)561-2615 221-08 Keo Fish Farms, Inc. MarthaPennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission 2008 Approved Triploid Grass Carp Dealers Dealer Name Contact

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

351

Isolation of enriched carp spermatogonial stem cells from Labeo rohita testis for in vitro propagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro culture system for spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) is a powerful tool for exploring molecular mechanisms of male gametogenesis and gene manipulation. Very little information is available for fish SSC biology. Our aim was to isolate highly pure SSCs from the testis of commercially important farmed carp, Labeo rohita. The minced testis of L. rohita was dissociated with

R. P. Panda; H. K. Barman; C. Mohapatra

2011-01-01

352

Genetic variability in reared stocks of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) based on allozymes and microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic variability of cultured stocks of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied using two types of genetic markers: allozymes and microsatellites. A comparative analysis was investigated between six strains from extensive aquaculture in two French regions (Dombes and Forez) and five strains from the Czech Republic stemming from artificial selection and maintained in the Research Center of Vodnany. Observed

Jean François Desvignes; Jean Laroche; Jean Dominique Durand; Yvette Bouvet

2001-01-01

353

Uptake and Tissue Distribution of Dietary and Aqueous Cadmium by Carp ( Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess whether contaminated prey can be a major source of Cd for fish. For this purpose, the uptake and tissue distribution of dietary and aqueous cadmium by the carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied. The fish were exposed to either Cd-contaminated food or Cd-contaminated water for 4 weeks in laboratory experiments. When exposed to

M. H. Kraal; M. H. S. Kraak; C. J. Degroot; C. Davids

1995-01-01

354

Fat absorption by the enterocytes of the carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the carp, the absorption of fat from the food occurs at the level of the enterocytes of the proximal region of the intestine. The absorbed fat gives rise to the presence of two forms of inclusions: lipid particles and lipid droplets. These two forms, whose precise significance is unknown, definitely play different roles in fat absorption. Only lipid particles

J. Noaillac-Depeyre; N. Gas

1974-01-01

355

Evoked potentials to electrical stimulation of the facial nerve in the carp tectum mesencephali  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tectal evoked potentials to stimulation of the facial nerve, containing afferent fibers of nonolfactory chemoreception, in the carp are positive evoked potentials with a latent period of 5 to 25 msec which show no phase shift as the microelectrode is advanced to a depth of 600 µ. Depending on the amplitude and latency of evoked potentials seven active zones differing

N. E. Vasilevskaya; L. N. Stankevich

1976-01-01

356

COMPUTER-ASSISTED MOTION ANALYSIS OF SPERM FROM THE COMMON CARP  

EPA Science Inventory

Computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) technology was applied to the measurement of sperm motility parameters in the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Activated sperm were videotaped at 200 frames s-1 and analysed with the CellTrak/S CASA research system. The percentage of motile cel...

357

Effects of atrazine and chlorpyrifos on cytochrome P450 in common carp liver.  

PubMed

Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF), widely used in agriculture, have resulted in a series of toxicological and environmental problems. We investigated the activities of the biotransformation enzymes ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (PROD), total cytochrome P450 (CYP), CYP1A mRNA level and level of tissue ATR, CPF, and their metabolites in the liver of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after a 40-d exposure to CPF and ATR, alone or in combination, and a 20-d recovery. In the present study, juvenile common carp was exposed to ATR (at concentrations of 4.28, 42.8 and 428 ?g L(-1)), CPF (1.16, 11.6 and 116 ?g L(-1)), and ATR/CPF mixture (at concentrations of 1.13, 11.3 and 113 ?g L(-1)). A general increasing trend for the activity of the biotransformation enzymes (EROD and PROD), CYP and CYP1A mRNA level was observed in the liver of common carp exposed to ATR, CPF and the ATR/CPF mixture. In addition, ATR, CPF, and their metabolites demonstrated a high accumulation in the liver. These results demonstrated that the CYP system in fish could be used as a biomarkers in evaluating the impact of ATR and CPF exposure on the common carp. PMID:24530164

Xing, Houjuan; Zhang, Ziwei; Yao, Haidong; Liu, Tao; Wang, Liangliang; Xu, Shiwen; Li, Shu

2014-06-01

358

MONTHLY VARIATION IN SPERM MOTILITY IN COMMON CARP ASSESSED USING COMPUTER-ASSISTED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA)  

EPA Science Inventory

Sperm motility variables from the milt of the common carp Cyprinus carpio were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system across several months (March-August 1992) known to encompass the natural spawning period. Two-year-old pond-raised males obtained each mo...

359

The bioaccumulation and biotransformation of synthetic estrogen quinestrol in crucian carp.  

PubMed

The occurrence and fate of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in aquatic species have attracted close attention during the last decades. In this study, the bioaccumulation and biotransformation of synthetic estrogen quinestrol, one of the typical EDCs, in the plasma and liver of crucian carp, were investigated by a newly developed and validated reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescent detection method. Crucian carp were exposed to quinestrol in concentration of 2, 10, 50, 100 ?g/L (5.49, 27.43, 137.17, 274.34 nmol/L) for 60 days. After 60 days' exposure, the concentrations of quinestrol found in liver and plasma were in the range of 0.25-0.69 mg/kg and 0.19-0.30 mg/L respectively, positively correlated with the exposure concentrations ranged 2-100 ?g/L (5.49-274.34 nmol/L). There was a negative correlation between the bio-accumulation ratios and the exposure concentrations of quinestrol. 17?-Ethinylestradiol was also found in liver and plasma, and the concentrations were 0.02-0.19 mg/kg and 0.37-0.96 mg/L, respectively. The results indicated that quinestrol can be accumulated and transformed to 17?-ethinylestradiol in crucian carp. Moreover, exposure to quinestrol caused oxidative damages to crucian carp and the content of malondialdehyde increased in all treatment concentrations. PMID:24997302

Geng, Qianqian; Li, Pingliang; Zhang, Wenbing; Deng, Yufang; Duan, Yongheng; Cao, Yongsong

2014-10-01

360

Bioaccumulation of micropollutants and biomarker responses in caged carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

At four different aquatic sites in Flanders (Belgium) with different types and degrees of contamination, juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed in cages for 4 weeks. After exposure, metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were analyzed in the tissues of the carp. Besides pollutant accumulation, several effects were measured as well. Condition measures such as changes in weight, condition factor (CF), and hepatosomatic index (HSI) were assessed. In addition, activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and a set of blood biochemical parameters were measured. At all sites, accumulation of metals in the fish tissues was observed. Levels of cadmium and lead at some of the exposure sites were higher than the levels at the start and comparable to levels in fish from moderately metal-contaminated sites. For most organic pollutants, however, levels were not significantly higher than at the start. Only for two PCB congeners, levels had slightly increased but were still lower than levels in carp captured at noncontaminated sites. Although food limitation probably caused some of the observed effects, significant relationships were found between metal load in tissues and CF, AChE, plasma osmolality and HSI. This study shows that caged carp might be useful for the assessment of bioaccumulation and some effects of micropollutants in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:19038452

Bervoets, Lieven; Van Campenhout, Karen; Reynders, Hans; Knapen, Dries; Covaci, Adrian; Blust, Ronny

2009-03-01

361

POTENTIAL OF CARP TO BIOACTIVATE BENZO[A]PYRENE TO METABOLITES THAT BIND TO DNA  

EPA Science Inventory

We have investigated the formation of DNA adducts in starved, fed, and 5,6-benzoflavone-pretreated carp following i.p. administration of benzo(a)pyrene. 32p-postlabeling analysis of the liver DNAs showed the presence of one predominant (>92%) adduct in all three groups. ochromato...

362

Comparative study of carp otolith hardness: Lapillus and asteriscus Dongni Ren a  

E-print Network

Comparative study of carp otolith hardness: Lapillus and asteriscus Dongni Ren a , Marc André nano- and micro-indentation: asteriscus and lapillus. The hardness, modulus, and creep of asteriscus (vaterite crystals) and lapillus (aragonite crystals) are compared. The hardness and modulus of lapillus

Meyers, Marc A.

363

Ovarian differentiation in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) in relation to growth rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth rate is influenced by density-dependent factors and in turn may affect the ontogeny of some systems. Population density gradients were established in common carp nursery ponds to develop differential growth rates. Ovarian development at the anatomical and cytological stages of differentiation were examined in relation to growth. Size at the end of 66 ± 2 and 155 ± 5-day

William L. Shelton; Venkatesh Wanniasingham; Ana E. Hiott

1995-01-01

364

Toxic and Feeding Deterrent Effects of Native Aquatic Macrophytes on Exotic Grass Carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Declines of amphibians have been attributed to many factors including habitat degradation. The introduction of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) as a biological agent for aquatic plant control in ponds and lakes managed narrowly for human recreation has likely contributed to amphibian declines through massive plant removal and associated habitat simplification and thus degradation. This research examined the interactions among grass

Joseph E. Murphy; Kimberlee B. Beckmen; Julie K. Johnson; Rhian B. Cope; Todd Lawmaster; Val R. Beasley

2002-01-01

365

Fluctuations in gonadotropin and ovarian steroids during the annual cycle and spawning of the common carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the paper is to describe the annual changes in hormones associated with reproduction in the female carp under the conditions prevailing in the Israeli fish culture. Fish were sampled monthly throughout 1984; gonadosomatic index (GSI) was calculated and the diameter of ovarian follicles was measured. Gonadotropin (GTH) content in the pituitary and the circulating GTH, estradiol,

Zvi Yaron; Berta Levavi-Zermonsky

1986-01-01

366

Gonadosomatic Index and Testis Morphology of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Rivers Contaminated with Estrogenic Chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the effect of estrogenic chemicals on fish, the gonadosomatic index (GSI = (testis weight\\/body weight) × 100) and testis histology of mature common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from 2 contaminated sites (Ishizu and Wada rivers, Osaka) and a control site were examined between June 1998 and March 2001. The concentration of nonylphenol, bisphenol A and 17?-estradiol in the Ishizu

Amin HASSANIN; Sachi KUWAHARA; Yasuhiro TSUKAMOTO; Kazushige OGAWA; Kazuya HIRAMATSU; Fumihiko SASAKI

2002-01-01

367

26 BULL;ETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION SHAD-EATCHING-AND CARP CULTURE.  

E-print Network

. The hatching capacity, which is nom four mil- lion, mill be increased to nine million a week. The additional matter. While they suit the cold mountain streams, they do not suitthe middle or lower streams; aud whilethe carp cannot be recommended especially for mountain streams, there is not a mountain farm that does

368

Stress Responses and Changes in Protein Metabolism in Carp Cyprinus carpio during Cadmium Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress responses and changes in protein metabolism were studied in common carp Cyprinus carpio exposed to 0, 0.8, 4, and 20 ?M cadmium (Cd) over a 29-day period. Blood and other tissue samples were taken after 4 and 29 days of exposure. The highest Cd concentration proved to be lethal to the fish, resulting in 100% mortality after 21 days

Hans De Smet; Ronny Blust

2001-01-01

369

What can numerical computation do for the history of science? (a study of an orbit drawn by Newton in a letter to Hooke)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a letter to Robert Hooke, Isaac Newton drew the orbit of a mass moving under a constant attracting central force. The drawing of the orbit may indicate how and when Newton developed dynamic categories. Some historians claim that Newton used a method contrived by Hooke; others that he used some method of curvature. We prove that Hooke’s method is a second-order symplectic area-preserving algorithm, and the method of curvature is a first-order algorithm without special features; then we integrate the Hamiltonian equations. Integration by the method of curvature can also be done, exploring the geometric properties of curves. We compare three methods: Hooke’s method, the method of curvature and a first-order method. A fourth-order algorithm sets a standard of comparison. We analyze which of these methods best explains Newton’s drawing.

Cardozo Dias, Penha Maria; Stuchi, T. J.

2013-11-01

370

What can Numerical Computation do for the History of Science? (Study of an Orbit Drawn by Newton on a Letter to Hooke)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): On a letter to Robert Hooke, Isaac Newton drew the orbit of a mass moving under a constant attracting central force. How he drew the orbit may indicate how and when he developed dynamic categories. Some historians claim that Newton used a method contrived by Hooke; others that he used some method of curvature. We prove geometrically: Hooke’s method is a second order symplectic area preserving algorithm, and the method of curvature is a first order algorithm without special features; then we integrate the hamiltonian equations. Integration by the method of curvature can also be done exploring geometric properties of curves. We compare three methods: Hooke’s method, the method of curvature and a first order method. A fourth order algorithm sets a standard of comparison. We analyze which of these methods best explains Newton’s drawing.

Stuchi, Teresa; Cardozo Dias, P.

2013-05-01

371

Analysis of the Skin Transcriptome in Two Oujiang Color Varieties of Common Carp  

PubMed Central

Background Body color and coloration patterns are important phenotypic traits to maintain survival and reproduction activities. The Oujiang color varieties of common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. color), with a narrow distribution in Zhejiang Province of China and a history of aquaculture for over 1,200 years, consistently exhibit a variety of body color patterns. The molecular mechanism underlying diverse color patterns in these variants is unknown. To the practical end, it is essential to develop molecular markers that can distinguish different phenotypes and assist selective breeding. Methodology/Principal Findings In this exploratory study, we conducted Roche 454 transcriptome sequencing of two pooled skin tissue samples of Oujiang common carp, which correspond to distinct color patterns, red with big black spots (RB) and whole white (WW), and a total of 737,525 sequence reads were generated. The reads obtained in this study were co-assembled jointly with common carp Roche 454 sequencing reads downloaded from NCBI SRA database, resulting in 43,923 isotigs and 546,676 singletons. Over 31 thousand (31,445; 71.6%) isotigs were found with significant BLAST matches (E<1e-10) to the nr protein database, which corresponds to 12,597 annotated zebrafish genes. A total of 70,947 isotigs and singletons (transcripts) were annotated with Gene Ontology, and 60,221 transcripts were found with corresponding EC numbers. Out of 145 zebrafish pigmentation genes, orthologs for 117 were recovered in Oujiang color carp transcriptome, including 18 found only among singletons. Our transcriptome analysis revealed over 52,902 SNPs in Oujiang common carp, and identified 63 SNP markers that are putatively unique either for RB or WW. Conclusions The transcriptome of Oujiang color varieties of common carp obtained through this study, along with the pigmentation genes recovered and the color pattern-specific molecular markers developed, will facilitate future research on the molecular mechanism of color patterns and promote aquaculture of Oujiang color varieties of common carp through molecular marker assisted-selective breeding. PMID:24603653

Wang, Chenghui; Wachholtz, Michael; Wang, Jun; Liao, Xiaolin; Lu, Guoqing

2014-01-01

372

Dietary lipid requirement on non-specific immune responses in juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the dietary lipid requirement and its effects on liver oxidative status and non-specific immune responses of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Purified diets with five dietary lipid levels (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%, fish oil/corn oil = 1:1) were each fed to triplicate groups of grass carp (mean initial weight: 6.57 ± 0.01 g) in a recirculating rearing system maintained at 27.5 ± 0.5 °C for 10 weeks. Percent weight gain was highest (P < 0.05) with 5% lipid and lowest in fish fed the lipid free control diet. Feed efficiency (FE) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in fish followed the same pattern of percent weight gain. Fish fed with lipid containing diets had better non-specific immune response indexes (e.g. phagocytic activity, plasma peroxidase and lysozyme activity) and low-level of liver oxidation status than fish fed with the control diet. But excess dietary lipid supplement would bring over metabolic burden to liver. After the feeding trial, fish were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish fed control diet obtained significantly (P < 0.05) lower survival rate. The survival rate was highest with 7.5% lipid. The results of this study indicated that proper dietary lipid supplementation enhanced the immune response of grass carp and improved the survival rate in the bacterial challenge, but excess dietary lipid may elevate liver oxidation rates of grass carp. Analysis by second-order regression of percent weight gain indicated that the optimal dietary lipid level in juvenile grass carp (6.6-35.5 g) is about 6.5%. PMID:23416225

Jin, Yan; Tian, Li-xia; Zeng, Shuai-lin; Xie, Shi-wei; Yang, Hui-jun; Liang, Gui-ying; Liu, Yong-jian

2013-05-01

373

The Relationship between the Distribution of Common Carp and Their Environmental DNA in a Small Lake  

PubMed Central

Although environmental DNA (eDNA) has been used to infer the presence of rare aquatic species, many facets of this technique remain unresolved. In particular, the relationship between eDNA and fish distribution is not known. We examined the relationship between the distribution of fish and their eDNA (detection rate and concentration) in a lake. A quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for a region within the cytochrome b gene of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio or ‘carp’), an ubiquitous invasive fish, was developed and used to measure eDNA in Lake Staring (MN, USA), in which both the density of carp and their distribution have been closely monitored for several years. Surface water, sub-surface water, and sediment were sampled from 22 locations in the lake, including areas frequently used by carp. In water, areas of high carp use had a higher rate of detection and concentration of eDNA, but there was no effect of fish use on sediment eDNA. The detection rate and concentration of eDNA in surface and sub-surface water were not significantly different (p?0.5), indicating that eDNA did not accumulate in surface water. The detection rate followed the trend: high-use water > low-use water > sediment. The concentration of eDNA in sediment samples that were above the limit of detection were several orders of magnitude greater than water on a per mass basis, but a poor limit of detection led to low detection rates. The patchy distribution of eDNA in the water of our study lake suggests that the mechanisms that remove eDNA from the water column, such as decay and sedimentation, are rapid. Taken together, these results indicate that effective eDNA sampling methods should be informed by fish distribution, as eDNA concentration was shown to vary dramatically between samples taken less than 100 m apart. PMID:25383965

Eichmiller, Jessica J.; Bajer, Przemyslaw G.; Sorensen, Peter W.

2014-01-01

374

Molecular cloning, characterization and expression of cathepsin D from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).  

PubMed

Cathepsin D is a lysosomal aspartic proteinase which participates in various degradation functions within the cell. In this current study, we cloned and characterized the complete cDNA of grass carp cathepsin D through 5'- and 3'-RACE. The cathepsin D contained a 56 bp 5' terminal untranslated region (5'-UTR), a 1197 bp open reading frame encoding 398 amino acids, and a 394 bp 3'-UTR. Grass carp cathepsin D shared high similarity with those from other species, and showed the highest amino acid identity of 91% to Danio rerio. Unlike many other organisms, the grass carp cathepsin D contains only one N-glycosylation site closest to the N-terminal. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that Cathepsin D expressed in all twelve tissues (bladder, brain, liver, heart, gill, muscle, fin, eye, intestines, spleen, gonad and head kidney). The relative expression levels of Cathepsin D in gonad and liver were 26.58 and 24.95 times as much as those in fin, respectively. The expression level of Cathepsin D in muscle approximately 16-fold higher, in intestines and spleen were 12-fold higher. The cathepsin D expression showed an upward trend during embryonic development. After challenged with Aeromonas hydrophil, the expression of grass carp cathepsin D gene showed significant changes in the four test tissues (liver, head kidney, spleen and intestines). The fact that the bacterial infection can obviously improve the cathepsin D expression in immune-related organs, may suggest that cathepsin D plays an important role in the innate immune response of grass carp. PMID:23009921

Dong, Zhong-dian; Zhang, Jiao; Ji, Xiang-shan; Zhou, Fen-na; Fu, Yong; Chen, Weiyun; Zeng, Yong-qing; Li, Tong-ming; Wang, Hui

2012-11-01

375

Identification of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) microRNAs and microRNA-related SNPs  

PubMed Central

Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) exist pervasively across viruses, plants and animals and play important roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of genes. In the common carp, miRNA targets have not been investigated. In model species, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported to impair or enhance miRNA regulation as well as to alter miRNA biogenesis. SNPs are often associated with diseases or traits. To date, no studies into the effects of SNPs on miRNA biogenesis and regulation in the common carp have been reported. Results Using homology-based prediction combined with small RNA sequencing, we have identified 113 common carp mature miRNAs, including 92 conserved miRNAs and 21 common carp specific miRNAs. The conserved miRNAs had significantly higher expression levels than the specific miRNAs. The miRNAs were clustered into three phylogenetic groups. Totally 394 potential miRNA binding sites in 206 target mRNAs were predicted for 83 miRNAs. We identified 13 SNPs in the miRNA precursors. Among them, nine SNPs had the potential to either increase or decrease the energy of the predicted secondary structures of the precursors. Further, two SNPs in the 3’ untranslated regions of target genes were predicted to either disturb or create miRNA-target interactions. Conclusions The common carp miRNAs and their target genes reported here will help further our understanding of the role of miRNAs in gene regulation. The analysis of the miRNA-related SNPs and their effects provided insights into the effects of SNPs on miRNA biogenesis and function. The resource data generated in this study will help advance the study of miRNA function and phenotype-associated miRNA identification. PMID:22908890

2012-01-01

376

Intraspecific Scaling of the Resting and Maximum Metabolic Rates of the Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus)  

PubMed Central

The question of how the scaling of metabolic rate with body mass (M) is achieved in animals is unresolved. Here, we tested the cell metabolism hypothesis and the organ size hypothesis by assessing the mass scaling of the resting metabolic rate (RMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR), erythrocyte size, and the masses of metabolically active organs in the crucian carp (Carassius auratus). The M of the crucian carp ranged from 4.5 to 323.9 g, representing an approximately 72-fold difference. The RMR and MMR increased with M according to the allometric equations RMR?=?0.212M0.776 and MMR?=?0.753M0.785. The scaling exponents for RMR (br) and MMR (bm) obtained in crucian carp were close to each other. Thus, the factorial aerobic scope remained almost constant with increasing M. Although erythrocyte size was negatively correlated with both mass-specific RMR and absolute RMR adjusted to M, it and all other hematological parameters showed no significant relationship with M. These data demonstrate that the cell metabolism hypothesis does not describe metabolic scaling in the crucian carp, suggesting that erythrocyte size may not represent the general size of other cell types in this fish and the metabolic activity of cells may decrease as fish grows. The mass scaling exponents of active organs was lower than 1 while that of inactive organs was greater than 1, which suggests that the mass scaling of the RMR can be partly due to variance in the proportion of active/inactive organs in crucian carp. Furthermore, our results provide additional evidence supporting the correlation between locomotor capacity and metabolic scaling. PMID:24376588

Huang, Qingda; Zhang, Yurong; Liu, Shuting; Wang, Wen; Luo, Yiping

2013-01-01

377

Effects of nitrite exposure on blood respiratory properties, acid-base and electrolyte regulation in the carp ( Cyprinus carpio )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult carp were subjected to 1 mM environmental nitrite for 48 h and nitrite uptake and changes in blood respiratory properties, extracellular electrolyte composition and acid-base status were examined.

Frank B. Jensen; Niels A. Andersen; Norbert Heisler

1987-01-01

378

Absorption of bioactive human growth hormone after oral administration in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) and its enhancement by deoxycholate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant human growth hormone was administered orally to carp and serum levels of absorbed bioactive hormone were investigated using a highly sensitive Nb2 rat lymphoma cell bioassay and radioimmumoassay. Serum levels of bioactive hGH reached maximum values 30 min after oral intubation and then gradually decreased. Co-administration of the hormone with deoxycholate to fasted carp resulted in up to a

Yitzhak Hertz; Amir Tchelet; Zecharia Madar; Arieh Gertler

1991-01-01

379

Study of bioaccumulation of copper in liver and muscle of common carp Cyprinus carpio after copper sulfate bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common carp were exposed to two routine therapeutic concentrations of copper sulfate (10?mg\\/l in 1?h and 1?mg\\/l in 24?h).\\u000a At different times after the copper sulfate bath (1, 2, 3, 7, 14 and 30 days), the copper concentrations in liver and muscle\\u000a of carp was determined by means of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that the concentration of

R. Peyghan; M. Razijalaly; M. Baiat; A. Rasekh

2003-01-01

380

Anaesthesia of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) with 2-phenoxyethanol: Acute Toxicity and Effects on Biochemical Blood Profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Velí‰ek J., Z. Svobodová: Anaesthesia of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) with 2-phenoxyethanol: Acute Toxicity and Effects on Biochemical Blood Profile. Acta Vet. Brno 2004, 73: 247-252. The aim of the present study was to assess acute toxicity of the 2-phenoxyethanol anaesthetic in carp, and assess changes in their tissues using the biochemical blood profiles. Acute toxicity values of 2-phenoxyethanol

Z. SVOBODOVÁ

2004-01-01

381

Organophosphate and Carbamate Insecticides in Agricultural Waters and Cholinesterase (ChE) Inhibition in Common Carp ( Cyprinus carpio )  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was used as a biomarker for assessing exposure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides from irrigated agricultural waters. Carp were collected from a lake (Royal\\u000a Lake) that receives most of its water from irrigation return flows and from a reference lake (Billy Clapp Lake) outside of\\u000a the irrigation system. Results indicated that

S. J. Gruber; M. D. Munn

1998-01-01

382

Evaluation of Emamectin Benzoate for the Control of Experimentally Induced Infestations of Argulus sp. in Goldfish and Koi Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of 0.2% emamectin benzoate (SLICE; Intervet\\/ Schering-Plough Animal Health, Roseland, New Jersey) administered in top-dressed, pelleted commercial fish feed was evaluated for control of freshwater Argulus sp. in goldfish Carassius auratus and koi carp, a variant of common carp Cyprinus carpio, in freshwater aquaria at 24–25°C. Sixteen individually housed goldfish were each exposed to 37 Argulus. The number

Shari K. Hanson; Jeffrey E. Hill; Craig A. Watson; Roy P. E. Yanong; Richard Endris

2011-01-01

383

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas, New York  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Red HookIBay Ridge project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from these two areas to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Sediment samples were collected from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas. Tests and analyses were conducted. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests. Twenty-four individual sediment core samples were collected from these two areas and analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Three composite sediment samples, representing Red Hook Channel and the two Bay Ridge Reaches to be dredged, were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the three Red Hook Bay Ridge sediment composites, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed. Bioaccumulation tests were also conducted.

Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

1996-09-01

384

Structural and genetic analysis of a mutant of Rhodobacter sphaeroides WS8 deficient in hook length control.  

PubMed Central

Motility in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides is achieved by the unidirectional rotation of a single subpolar flagellum. In this study, transposon mutagenesis was used to obtain nonmotile flagellar mutants from this bacterium. We report here the isolation and characterization of a mutant that shows a polyhook phenotype. Morphological characterization of the mutant was done by electron microscopy. Polyhooks were obtained by shearing and were used to purify the hook protein monomer (FlgE). The apparent molecular mass of the hook protein was 50 kDa. N-terminal amino acid sequencing and comparisons with the hook proteins of other flagellated bacteria indicated that the Rhodobacter hook protein has consensus sequences common to axial flagellar components. A 25-kb fragment from an R. sphaeroides WS8 cosmid library restored wild-type flagellation and motility to the mutant. Using DNA adjacent to the inserted transposon as a probe, we identified a 4.6-kb SalI restriction fragment that contained the gene responsible for the polyhook phenotype. Nucleotide sequence analysis of this region revealed an open reading frame with a deduced amino acid sequence that was 23.4% identical to that of FliK of Salmonella typhimurium, the polypeptide responsible for hook length control in that enteric bacterium. The relevance of a gene homologous to fliK in the uniflagellated bacterium R. sphaeroides is discussed. PMID:9352903

Gonzalez-Pedrajo, B; Ballado, T; Campos, A; Sockett, R E; Camarena, L; Dreyfus, G

1997-01-01

385

Antagonists of Anaphase-promoting Complex (APC)-2-Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 Interaction Are Novel Regulators of Cell Growth and Apoptosis*  

PubMed Central

CARP-1/CCAR1, a perinuclear phosphoprotein, is a regulator of cell growth and apoptosis signaling. Although CARP-1 is a regulator of chemotherapy-dependent apoptosis, it is also a part of the NF-?B proteome and a co-activator of steroid/thyroid nuclear receptors as well as ?-catenin signaling. Our yeast two-hybrid screen revealed CARP-1 binding with the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome E3 ubiquitin ligase component APC-2 protein. CARP-1 also binds with anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome co-activators Cdc20 and Cdh1. Following mapping of the minimal epitopes involved in CARP-1 binding with APC-2, a fluorescence polarization assay was established that indicated a dissociation constant (Kd) of 480 nm for CARP-1/APC-2 binding. Fluorescence polarization assay-based high throughput screening of a chemical library yielded several small molecule antagonists of CARP-1/APC-2 binding, termed CARP-1 functional mimetics. CFM-4 (1(2-chlorobenzyl)-5?-phenyl-3?H-spiro[indoline-3,2?-[1,3,4]thiadiazol]-2-one), a lead compound, binds with and stimulates CARP-1 expression. CFM-4 prevents CARP-1 binding with APC-2, causes G2M cell cycle arrest, and induces apoptosis with an IC50 range of 10–15 ?m. Apoptosis signaling by CFM-4 involves activation of caspase-8 and -9 and caspase-mediated ubiquitin-proteasome pathway-independent loss of cyclin B1 and Cdc20 proteins. Depletion of CARP-1, however, interferes with CFM-4-dependent cell growth inhibition, activation of caspases, and apoptosis. Because CFM-4 also suppresses growth of drug-resistant human breast cancer cells without affecting the growth of human breast epithelial MCF-10A cells, elevating CARP-1 by CFM-4 and consequent apoptosis could in principle be exploited to further elucidate, and perhaps effectively target, often deregulated cell cycle pathways in pathological conditions, including cancer. PMID:21903591

Puliyappadamba, Vineshkumar Thidil; Wu, Wenjuan; Bevis, Debra; Zhang, Liyue; Polin, Lisa; Kilkuskie, Robert; Finley, Russell L.; Larsen, Scott D.; Levi, Edi; Miller, Fred R.; Wali, Anil; Rishi, Arun K.

2011-01-01

386

Insertional Inactivation of Treponema denticola tap1 Results in a Nonmotile Mutant with Elongated Flagellar Hooks  

PubMed Central

The treponemal fla operon is comprised of numerous motility-related genes; however, the initial gene of this operon, tap1, has no known function. A recently developed system to generate specific mutants in Treponema denticola was utilized to determine if Tap1 was essential for motility. T. denticola tap1 and flanking DNA were identified, cloned, and sequenced, and a suicide plasmid that contained tap1 interrupted with an erythromycin resistance cassette (ermF and ermAM) was constructed. Because of potential polar effects from this cassette, a second plasmid that contained tap1 interrupted with a modified erythromycin resistance cassette that lacked the putative ermF transcription terminator was constructed. Electroporation-mediated allelic exchange incorporated the interrupted tap1 genes into the T. denticola chromosome, creating Tap1-deficient mutants. Reverse transcriptase PCR revealed that the erythromycin resistance cassette within tap1 did not terminate fla operon transcription in either mutant. Moreover, the phenotypes of the two mutants were indistinguishable. These mutants lacked motion in liquid culture, were unable to spread on agar plates, and lacked flagellar filaments as determined by electron microscopy. Immunoblots revealed a marked reduction in detectable FlaB flagellar filament protein compared to that of wild type; however, flaB RNA was easily detectable, and transcription levels did not appear to be altered. The basis for the lack of filament protein expression is unknown. Immunoblotting also showed that the flagellar hook protein (FlgE) was synthesized in the Tap1-deficient mutant; however, electron microscopy revealed that the mutant possessed unusual elongated hooks of variable lengths. We propose that treponemal Tap1 is analogous to FliK, which is involved in monitoring the flagellar hook length of Salmonella typhimurium. PMID:10368149

Limberger, Ronald J.; Slivienski, Linda L.; Izard, Jacques; Samsonoff, William A.

1999-01-01

387

Chemical characteristics of Delaware River water, Trenton, New Jersey, to Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This progress report gives the results of an investigation of the quality of water in the Delaware River from Trenton, N. J. to Marcus Hook, Pa., for the period August 1949 to December 1952. The Delaware River is the principal source of water for the many industries and municipal water supplies along this reach of the river and both industries and municipalities use it for the disposal of their wastes. Consequently, a study of the quality of the water and variations in the quality caused by changes in streamflow, tidal effects, pollution and other factors is important to the many users. In both New Jersey and Pennsylvania steps are being taken to abate pollution, thus it is of more than passing interest to measure the effects of waste treatment on the quality of the Delaware River water. At average or higher rates of streamflow the mineral content of the water increases slightly from Trenton to Marcus Hook. There is little variation in the concentration of dissolved minerals from bank to bank or from top to bottom of the river. At times of protracted low rates of flow the effect of ocean water mixing with the river water may be noted as far upstream as Philadelphia. At such times the salinity is often greater near the bottom of the river than near the top. The increase in chloride concentration upstream from Philadelphia is small compared to the rapid increase downstream from Philadelphia. Temperatures of offshore water vary with the season, but on a given day are substantially uniform throughout the reach of the river from Trenton to Marcus Hook. The water contains less dissolved oxygen as it flows downstream indicating that oxygen is being consumed by oxidizable matter. From Philadelphia downstream there are periods, especially in late summer, when the dissolved oxygen is barely sufficient to meet the oxygen demands of the pollution load.

Durfor, Charles N.; Keighton, W.B.

1954-01-01

388

"Hook"-calibration of GeneChip-microarrays: Chip characteristics and expression measures  

PubMed Central

Background Microarray experiments rely on several critical steps that may introduce biases and uncertainty in downstream analyses. These steps include mRNA sample extraction, amplification and labelling, hybridization, and scanning causing chip-specific systematic variations on the raw intensity level. Also the chosen array-type and the up-to-dateness of the genomic information probed on the chip affect the quality of the expression measures. In the accompanying publication we presented theory and algorithm of the so-called hook method which aims at correcting expression data for systematic biases using a series of new chip characteristics. Results In this publication we summarize the essential chip characteristics provided by this method, analyze special benchmark experiments to estimate transcript related expression measures and illustrate the potency of the method to detect and to quantify the quality of a particular hybridization. It is shown that our single-chip approach provides expression measures responding linearly on changes of the transcript concentration over three orders of magnitude. In addition, the method calculates a detection call judging the relation between the signal and the detection limit of the particular measurement. The performance of the method in the context of different chip generations and probe set assignments is illustrated. The hook method characterizes the RNA-quality in terms of the 3'/5'-amplification bias and the sample-specific calling rate. We show that the proper judgement of these effects requires the disentanglement of non-specific and specific hybridization which, otherwise, can lead to misinterpretations of expression changes. The consequences of modifying probe/target interactions by either changing the labelling protocol or by substituting RNA by DNA targets are demonstrated. Conclusion The single-chip based hook-method provides accurate expression estimates and chip-summary characteristics using the natural metrics given by the hybridization reaction with the potency to develop new standards for microarray quality control and calibration. PMID:18759984

Binder, Hans; Krohn, Knut; Preibisch, Stephan

2008-01-01

389

Dietary taurine can improve the hypoxia-tolerance but not the growth performance in juvenile grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary taurine, as a feed additive, on the hypoxia-tolerance and growth performance of the juvenile grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus, one of the most important and intensively cultured freshwater fish, with the largest production in China. Graded levels of taurine (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 g kg(-1) dry diet) were fed to grass carp juveniles (mean weight: 5.26 ± 0.03 g) for 8 weeks. The survival time during acute hypoxia increased as dietary levels of taurine increased, with the highest dose of taurine resulting in the best acute hypoxia-tolerance. The erythrocyte osmotic fragility in grass carp was significantly improved when dietary taurine level was at least 1.5 g kg(-1) diet and can be improved much more when dietary taurine level was up to 2.5 g kg(-1) diet. A significant correlation between hemolysis rate of the erythrocyte osmotic fragility test and the survival time of acute hypoxia (r = -0.873, P = 0.023 < 0.05) strongly suggested that the biomembrane stabilization function of taurine may contribute to its role of enhancing acute hypoxia-tolerance in grass carp. Dietary taurine cannot improve growth performance of grass carp, but it can increase the value of mesenteric fat index, indicating that dietary taurine influences the lipid metabolism. This study provides valuable information to improve hypoxia-tolerance of grass carp. PMID:23277098

Yang, Huijun; Tian, Lixia; Huang, Junwa; Liang, Guiying; Liu, Yongjian

2013-10-01

390

[The dynamics of the ectoparasite count and the protein level in the blood serum of infested carp under experimental conditions].  

PubMed

Carps of one and two years age used for laboratory experiments were collected in winter time. 7 groups of carps of one year age were examined each 10th day during 70 days and 5 groups of two years age were examined each 15 days during 75 days. In carps of one year age the increase of different parasites was observed in different time: Dactylogyrus extensus--after 40 and 70 days, Icthyophthirius multifiliis--after 50 days, Trichodina sp.--after 60 days. In carps of two years age the increase of all parasite groups observed after 45 days, extremely great number of D. extensus was recorded after 60-70 days. Contents of proteins in a blood plasma of both age groups of carps is reliably decreased when the number of parasites is increased. Fluctuations of parasite abundance on the body and gills and some morphophysiological indices in carps of one year age in a control and in conditions of starvation were examined. PMID:10206854

Kurovskaia, L Ia

1998-01-01

391

Conformal Newton-Hooke algebras, Niederer's transformation and Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator  

E-print Network

Dynamical systems invariant under the action of the l-conformal Newton-Hooke algebras are constructed by the method of nonlinear realizations. The relevant first order Lagrangians together with the corresponding Hamiltonians are found. The relation to the Galajinsky and Masterov [Phys. Lett. B 723 (2013) 190] approach as well as the higher derivatives formulation is discussed. The generalized Niederer's transformation are presented which relate the systems under consideration to those invariant under the action of the l-conformal Galilei algebra [Nucl. Phys. B 876 (2013) 309]. As a nice application of these results an analogue of Niederer's transformation, on the Hamiltonian level, for the Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator is constructed.

Andrzejewski, K

2014-01-01

392

Conformal Newton-Hooke algebras, Niederer's transformation and Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator  

E-print Network

Dynamical systems invariant under the action of the l-conformal Newton-Hooke algebras are constructed by the method of nonlinear realizations. The relevant first order Lagrangians together with the corresponding Hamiltonians are found. The relation to the Galajinsky and Masterov [Phys. Lett. B 723 (2013) 190] approach as well as the higher derivatives formulation is discussed. The generalized Niederer's transformation are presented which relate the systems under consideration to those invariant under the action of the l-conformal Galilei algebra [Nucl. Phys. B 876 (2013) 309]. As a nice application of these results an analogue of Niederer's transformation, on the Hamiltonian level, for the Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator is constructed.

K. Andrzejewski

2014-09-13

393

Lateral malleolus hook plate for comminuted Weber A and B fractures: A retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Background: The goal of managing the comminuted fracture of lateral malleolus is to restore length, rotation and alignment which might be more challenging with extensive comminution around the area of the distal tip. The common osteosynthesis techniques such as the one-third tubular plate, tension band wiring, K-wires, screws, or intramedullary nail may be insufficient in cases with a comminuted lateral malleolus. The anatomical hook plate is an alternative implant in such cases. We present our results of the comminuted lateral malleolar fractures (Weber A, B), managed by open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with an anatomical hook plate of lateral malleolus (Königsee Implant Company, Germany). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 20 patients of comminuted fracture of distal lateral malleolus between 2008 and 2010. There were 12 males and 8 females, right side was involved in 18 patients and left in 2. The mean age was 51.9 years (range 18-75 years). The fractures were categorized by Denis-Weber classification type A (n=1), B1 (n=1), B2 (n=13) and B3 (n=5). Nineteen cases were of closed injury and one of open injury (Gustilo Anderson type II). These patients underwent ORIF with a lateral malleolus anatomical hook plate. Followup including radiographs and clinical examinations were performed. The American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle hindfoot scores were documented at followups. Results: The mean followup was 21.4 months (range 16-27 months). The average AOFAS score was 94.3 (range 78-100) points. A stable anatomic reduction and bony union were obtained in all the cases. The average time was 3.1 months (range 2.5-4 months). Four cases had complications like posttraumatic osteoarthritis, hardware impingement and superficial wound infection. Conclusion: A reasonably good stability can be obtained in distal most comminuted fractures of lateral malleolus with a lateral malleolus anatomical hook plate. We believe this method to be a reasonable treatment option for a distal lateral comminuted malleolar fracture when other common fixations are insufficient to fix the fragments. PMID:23960280

Zhenhua, Fang; Waizy, Hazibullah; Ming, Xie; Wusheng, Kan

2013-01-01

394

How reflected wave fronts dynamically establish Hooke's law in a spring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple benchtop experiment in which a moving cart collides with a fixed spring is described. Force-time and force-distance data recorded during the collision display the transit of compression wave fronts through the spring following impact. These data can be used by students to develop a computational model of the dynamics of this simple mass-spring-sensor system using a simple application of the wave equation and thereby develop an intriguing picture of how a spring realizes Hooke's law approximately in this dynamic physical problem.

Fahy, Stephen; O'Riordan, John; O'Sullivan, Colm; Twomey, Patrick

2012-03-01

395

Electron correlation in Hooke's law atom in the high-density limit.  

PubMed

Closed-form expressions for the first three terms in the perturbation expansion of the exact energy and Hartree-Fock energy of the lowest singlet and triplet states of the Hooke's law atom are found. These yield elementary formulas for the exact correlation energies (-49.7028 and -5.807 65 mE(h)) of the two states in the high-density limit and lead to a pair of necessary conditions on the exact correlation kernel G(w) in Hartree-Fock-Wigner theory. PMID:15836115

Gill, P M W; O'Neill, D P

2005-03-01

396

Delaware River water quality Bristol to Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania, August 1949 to December 1963  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the 14-year period from August 1949 to July 1963, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Philadelphia, collected samples of river water once each month in the 43-mile reach of the Delaware River from Bristol to Marcus Hook, Pa., and daily at Trenton, 10 miles upstream from Bristol. This part of the Delaware is an estuary into which salt water is brought by tides; fresh water flows into the estuary at Trenton, NJ, and farther downstream from the Schuylkill River and other tributaries of the Delaware. In March, April, and May, when fresh-water flow is high, the average concentration of dissolved solids in the water at Bristol was 76 ppm (parts per million), and at Marcus Hook 112 PPM In August and September, streamflow is lower, and the average concentration of dissolved solids increased to 117 PPM at Bristol and 804 PPM at Marcus Hook. Major salinity invasions of the Delaware River occurred in 1949, 1953, 1954, 1957, and 1963. In each of these years the fresh-water flow into the tidal river at Trenton was low during the period from July to October. The greatest dissolved-solids concentrations in these monthly samples were 160 PPM at Bristol and 4,000 PPM at Marcus Hook. At times the dissolved-oxygen concentration of the river water has become dangerously low, especially in that reach of the river between Wharton Street and League Island. At the Benjamin Franklin Bridge, one-third of the samples of river water were less than 30 percent saturated with oxygen; however, no trend, either for better or for worse, was apparent during the 14-year period. It is useful now to summarize these monthly analyses for the period 1949-63 even though a much more detailed description of water quality in this reach of the estuary will soon become available through the use of recording instrumental conditions. This compendium of water-quality data is useful as an explicit statement of water quality during the 14-year study period and is valuable for directing attention to water-quality problems for selecting instrument sites, and for making comparative studies with the more detailed information which is already being obtained with the aid of recording instruments.

Keighton, W.B.

1965-01-01

397

Rectus sheath hooking: alternative method of abdominal wall lifting and fixing for laparoscopy: a pilot cadaver bio-mechanical study.  

PubMed

Four bio-mechanical tests were used to study properties of the rectus sheath for laparoscopic abdominal access procedure and to provide surgical exposure by the ChulaLift gasless retractor. The profile of forces and displacement showed how some patients were good candidates for the gasless operation. The lifting weight should not excess 10 kg for minimal harm and optimal exposure. The rectus hooking could be an alternative choice for abdominal wall fixing during the first trocar entry. One-cm width hooking, the rectus sheath could withstand 18-20 kg lifting force. The exposure provided by the gasless technique was narrow between the lateral ports compared to the conventional technique. The rectus sheath could be hooked to provide effective fixing of the area to be penetrated by the first trocar, and this fascial layer could be lifted to produce exposure in the gasless technique. PMID:12188429

Tansatit, Tanvaa; Wisawasukmongchol, Wirach; Bunyavejchevin, Suvit; Rodanant, Oralux; Jongsakul, Teerachote; Chamsuwan, Supoj; Tansrisawad, Nat; Hoonwijit, Udomsak

2002-06-01

398

Predictors of hooking up sexual behaviors and emotional reactions among U.S. college students.  

PubMed

The present study examined factors associated with engaging in oral and vaginal sex and condom use during the most recent hookup, a term that refers to a range of physically intimate behaviors outside of a committed relationship, among college students. In addition, this research aimed to evaluate factors associated with experiencing positive and negative affect resulting from the most recent hookup. A random sample (N = 1,468) of undergraduates (56.4% female) completed a Web-based survey that was comprised of measures of drinking and sexual behavior. Participants (n = 824; 56.1%) who indicated they had ever hooked up were included in data analysis. Findings indicated that sex, partner type, alcohol use, attitudes towards hooking up, and attitudes towards sexual activity during hookups explained significant variance for oral sex, vaginal sex, condom use, and positive and negative affect related to the most recent hookup experience. Clinical implications regarding the role of situational stressors, such as the impact on affect following a hookup, and ways to reduce risks associated with stressors are discussed. PMID:21796484

Lewis, Melissa A; Granato, Hollie; Blayney, Jessica A; Lostutter, Ty W; Kilmer, Jason R

2012-10-01

399

Kohn's theorem, Larmor's equivalence principle and the Newton-Hooke group  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: > We show that non-relativistic electrons moving in a magnetic field with trapping potential admits as relativity group the Newton-Hooke group. > We use this fact to give a group theoretic interpretation of Kohn's theorem and to obtain the spectrum. > We obtain the lightlike lift of the system exhibiting showing it coincides with the Nappi-Witten spacetime. - Abstract: We consider non-relativistic electrons, each of the same charge to mass ratio, moving in an external magnetic field with an interaction potential depending only on the mutual separations, possibly confined by a harmonic trapping potential. We show that the system admits a 'relativity group' which is a one-parameter family of deformations of the standard Galilei group to the Newton-Hooke group which is a Wigner-Inoenue contraction of the de Sitter group. This allows a group-theoretic interpretation of Kohn's theorem and related results. Larmor's theorem is used to show that the one-parameter family of deformations are all isomorphic. We study the 'Eisenhart' or 'lightlike' lift of the system, exhibiting it as a pp-wave. In the planar case, the Eisenhart lift is the Brdicka-Eardley-Nappi-Witten pp-wave solution of Einstein-Maxwell theory, which may also be regarded as a bi-invariant metric on the Cangemi-Jackiw group.

Gibbons, G.W., E-mail: gwg1@amtp.cam.ac.uk [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge University, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 OWA (United Kingdom); Pope, C.N. [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge University, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 OWA (United Kingdom); George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States)

2011-07-15

400

Fractures of the distal third of the clavicle treated by hook plating  

PubMed Central

We retrospectively assessed the union and shoulder function following hook plate fixation in 18 patients with Neer type 2 fractures of the lateral end of the clavicle. The average age was 40 (range 22–62) years, and the mean follow-up was 25 (range 6–48) months. Fifteen patients had acute fractures and the rest were non-unions. Complications included two non-unions, one following a deep infection. There were no iatrogenic fractures. Acromial osteolysis was seen in five patients who had their plates in situ. The average pain score at rest was 1 (range 0–4), and the average pain score on abduction was 2.2 (range 0–5). The average Constant score was 88.5 (range 63–100). Patients were asked to rate their shoulder function; three rated it as normal, 11 as nearly normal and one as not normal. Hook plate fixation appears to be a valuable method of stabilising Neer type 2 fractures of the clavicle, resulting in high union rates and good shoulder function. These plates need to be removed after union to prevent acromial osteolysis. PMID:16235083

Motkur, P.; Qamar, A.; Drew, S.; Turner, S.M.

2005-01-01

401

A Segunda Lei da Termodinamica na formulacao da Lei de Hooke  

E-print Network

Hooke's Law is analyzed taking the Second Law of Thermodynamics into consideration. It is shown that the energy of a spring isn't always 1/2 k xx - this value is actually the energy of the spring plus the energy of the atmosphere that surrounds it. On a quasi-isentropic aproximation in which the dynamic force is approximately the same as the static force, k is not a constant. Only by considering an ideal spring where k is constant and only on a static regime, can we say the energy is 1/2 k xx. For any dynamic regime of such an ideal spring, the energy of the spring is a function of its temperature and therefore is different from 1/2 k xx. If any given mass is moving attached to an ideal spring, the movement will eventually cease even if such movement occurs in vacuum. The dynamic force is not the static force kx. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is essential in order to formulate Hooke's Law.

De Abreu, R

2002-01-01

402

A Segunda Lei da Termodinamica na formulacao da Lei de Hooke  

E-print Network

Hooke's Law is analyzed taking the Second Law of Thermodynamics into consideration. It is shown that the energy of a spring isn't always 1/2 k xx - this value is actually the energy of the spring plus the energy of the atmosphere that surrounds it. On a quasi-isentropic aproximation in which the dynamic force is approximately the same as the static force, k is not a constant. Only by considering an ideal spring where k is constant and only on a static regime, can we say the energy is 1/2 k xx. For any dynamic regime of such an ideal spring, the energy of the spring is a function of its temperature and therefore is different from 1/2 k xx. If any given mass is moving attached to an ideal spring, the movement will eventually cease even if such movement occurs in vacuum. The dynamic force is not the static force kx. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is essential in order to formulate Hooke's Law.

Rodrigo de Abreu

2002-10-23

403

Out-of-sample validation for structured expert judgment of Asian carp establishment in Lake Erie.  

PubMed

Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is used to quantify the uncertainty of nonindigenous fish (bighead carp [Hypophthalmichthys nobilis] and silver carp [H. molitrix]) establishment in Lake Erie. The classical model for structured expert judgment model is applied. Forming a weighted combination (called a decision maker) of experts' distributions, with weights derived from performance on a set of calibration variables from the experts' field, exhibits greater statistical accuracy and greater informativeness than simple averaging with equal weights. New methods of cross validation are applied and suggest that performance characteristics relative to equal weighting could be predicted with a small number (1-2) of calibration variables. The performance-based decision maker is somewhat degraded on out-of-sample prediction, but remained superior to the equal weight decision maker in terms of statistical accuracy and informativeness. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2014;10:522-528. © 2014 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. PMID:25044130

Cooke, Roger M; Wittmann, Marion E; Lodge, David M; Rothlisberger, John D; Rutherford, Edward S; Zhang, Hongyan; Mason, Doran M

2014-10-01

404

Size-structured effects of common carp on reproduction of pond-breeding amphibians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of fish in driving amphibian communities has been widely recognized. However, little is known about size-structured\\u000a interactions between amphibian and fish populations. This study compared the taxonomic occurrence and densities of larval\\u000a amphibians between unstocked ponds and ponds stocked with different age cohorts of common carp Cyprinus carpio differing in average body size. The average total densities of

Janusz Kloskowski

2009-01-01

405

Growth performance in clonal crucian carp, Carassius langsdorfii. Effects of genetic difference and feeding history  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clonal crucian carp was used to assess the relative importance of disproportional food acquisition and genetic differences in ‘growth depensation’ i.e. increased variation in size-frequency distribution over time. When larval feeding was limited on the 5th, 9th, and both the 5th and 9th days after hatching in a clonal population, subsequent growth was significantly retarded compared to the group recently

Tetsuya Umino; Katsutoshi Arai; Heisuke Nakagawa

1997-01-01

406

Cloning and expression of carp acetylcholinesterase gene in Pichia pastoris and characterization of the recombinant enzyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gene encoding acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was cloned from common carp muscle tissue. The full-length cDNA was 2368bp that contains a coding region of 1902bp, corresponding to a protein of 634 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a significant homology with those of ichthyic AChEs and several common features among them, including T peptide encoded by exon T in

Ryohei Sato; Toru Matsumoto; Norio Hidaka; Yasuko Imai; Katsumasa Abe; Shouji Takahashi; Ryo-hei Yamada; Yoshio Kera

2009-01-01

407

Genetic characterization of wild and domesticated common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) populations from Uzbekistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

One domesticated and five wild common carp populations from Uzbekistan have been genetically characterized by examining variability at 22 allozyme loci. The observed level of polymorphism was high (1.4–1.7 alleles per locus, 26.3–42.1% polymorphic loci and expected heterozygosities from 0.098 to 0.146) and similar to that previously found in German or East Asian populations. The Uzbek wild populations, with the

Asiya Murakaeva; Klaus Kohlmann; Petra Kersten; Bakhtiyar Kamilov; Damir Khabibullin

2003-01-01

408

Sexually disrupting effects of nonylphenol and diethylstilbestrol on male silver carp ( Carassius auratus) in aquatic microcosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on detected nonylphenol (NP) levels in aquaculture water, this study investigated sexually disrupting effects in mature male silver carp (Carassius auratus) exposed to NP and a positive control diethylstilbestrol (DES). The combined evidences of steroid hormone (17?-estradiol, estrone and testosterone) levels and hispathological pictures showed that NP (?10?g\\/L) and DES could exert estrogenic effects through indirect mechanisms [i.e. increased

Lihua Yang; Li Lina; Shaoping Weng; Zhiqin Feng; Tiangang Luan

2008-01-01

409

Suitability of genetically modified soybean meal in a dietary ingredient for common carp Cyprinus carpio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of genetically modified (GM) soybean meal (SBM) in a feed ingredient on growth performance of common carp was investigated\\u000a in comparison to nonGM SBM. GM SBM was included at 34 and 48% in two experimental diets that were formulated with fish meal\\u000a (FM) to obtain approximately 38% protein in diet. Two other experimental diets were formulated to contain

Indra Suharman; Shuichi Satoh; Yutaka Haga; Toshio Takeuchi; Ikuo Hirono; Takashi Aoki

2010-01-01

410

Purification and Characterization of Myofibril-bound Serine Proteinase from Carp Cyprinus carpio Ordinary Muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. A novel myofibril-bound serine proteinase (MBP) has been purified from ordinary muscle of the carp Cyprinus carpio. 2. It was solubilized from the myofibril fraction with acid treatment (under the conditions of 0.6 M KCl, pH 4.0), then purified by column chromatographic steps on Ultrogel AcA 54, and Arginine-Sepharose 4B. 3. The purified enzyme revealed a single protein band

Kiyoshi Osatomi; Hiroshi Sasai; Minjie Cao; Kenji Hara; Tadashi Ishihara

1997-01-01

411

Biosynthesis of fatty acids by the carp, Cyprinus carpio L., in relation to environmental temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incorporation in vivo of sodium 1-14C-acetate into different lipid classes and fatty acids of total lipids and phospholipids of warm adapted and cold adapted\\u000a carp livers was studied at 5 C and 22 C, respectively. The fatty acid composition of total lipids and phospholipids was also\\u000a determined. The level of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in both total lipid and

Tibor Farkas; ISTVAN CSENGERI

1976-01-01

412

Identification and expression profiling analysis of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella LGP2 cDNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

LGP2 (laboratory of genetics and physiology 2), a homologue of RIG-I (Retinoic acid inducible gene-I) and MDA5 (Melanoma differentiation associated gene 5) without the CARD (caspase activation and recruitment domain) required for signaling, plays a pivotal role in modulating signaling by RIG-I and MDA5 for interferon (IFN) synthesis. In this study, a novel LGP2 gene from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

Teng Huang; Jianguo Su; Jianfu Heng; Jie Dong; Rongfang Zhang; Huiming Zhu

2010-01-01

413

REGULATORY EFFECT OF DOPAMINE ON SPATIAL PROPERTIES OF HORIZONTAL CELLS IN CARP RETINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three types of light-induced response (L-, RG-, and YRB-type S-potentials) recorded from isolated retinas of the carp (Cyprinus carpio) were identified by their spectral response and later by morphological localization of the recording sites marked with an intracellular Lucifer Yellow (LY). Horizontal cells in a given layer, generating one of the above response types, are electrically coupled via gap junctions,

TSUNENOBU TERANISHI; KOROKU NEGISHI; SATORU KATO

414

CARP-1 Functional Mimetics: A Novel Class of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Medulloblastoma Cell Growth  

PubMed Central

Medulloblastomas (MBs) constitute an aggressive class of intracranial pediatric tumors. Current multimodality treatments for MBs include surgery, ionizing radiation, and chemotherapy. Toxic side effects of therapies coupled with high incidence of recurrence and the metastatic spread warrant development of more effective, less toxic therapies for this disease. CARP-1/CCAR1 is a peri-nuclear phospho-protein that is a co-activator of the cell cycle regulatory anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) E3 ligase. CARP-1 functional mimetics (CFMs) are a novel class of small molecule compounds that interfere with CARP-1 binding with APC/C subunit APC-2, and suppress growth of a variety of cancer cells in part by promoting apoptosis. Here we investigated MB growth inhibitory potential of the CFMs and found that CFM-4 inhibits growth of MB cells in part by inducing CARP-1 expression, promoting PARP cleavage, activating pro-apoptotic stress-activated protein kinases (SAPK) p38 and JNK, and apoptosis. Gene-array-based analysis of the CFM-4-treated Daoy MB cells indicated down-regulation of a number of key cell growth and metastasis-promoting genes including cell motility regulating small GTP binding protein p21Rac1, and extracellular matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-10. Moreover, CFM-4 treatment stimulated expression of a number of molecules such as neurotrophin (NTF)3, and NF-?B signaling inhibitors ABIN1 and 2 proteins. Overexpression of NTF3 resulted in reduced MB cell viability while knock-down of NTF3 interfered with CFM-4-dependent loss of viability. CFMs also attenuated biological properties of the MB cells by blocking their abilities to migrate, form colonies in suspension, and invade through the matrix-coated membranes. Together our data support anti-MB properties of CFM-4, and provide a proof-of-concept basis for further development of CFMs as potential anti-cancer agents for MBs. PMID:23826121

Cheryan, Vino T.; Muthu, Magesh; Zoheir, Khairy M. A.; Alafeefy, Ahmed M.; Abd-Allah, Adel R.; Levi, Edi; Tarca, Adi L.; Polin, Lisa A.; Rishi, Arun K.

2013-01-01

415

Brackishwater carp culture in potentially waterlogged areas using animal wastes as pond fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the possibilities of utilizing drainage effluents (salinity range 5.0–12.5‰), fish culture experiments were carried out. Experiments on polyculture using cow dung (24 000 kg ha-1 y-1) as pond fertilizer were conducted at five different salinity levels (0.3–8.5‰). Studies have revealed that carp perform well in salinities up to 7.5‰ and reasonably high fish production has been

S. K. Garg

1996-01-01

416

Physical and chemical changes of silver carp sausages during fermentation with Pediococcus pentosaceus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in protein composition and physicochemical properties of silver carp sausages during fermentation were investigated. As fermentation progressed, the amount of salt-soluble and water-soluble proteins decreased gradually with a concomitant increase in insoluble proteins and non-protein constituents. The rapid reduction in pH to 4.5 within 48h of fermentation coincided with a progressive increase in titratable acidity. The increasing content of

Yanshun Xu; Wenshui Xia; Fang Yang; Xiaohua Nie

2010-01-01

417

Food Provisioning in Red-Necked Grebes ( Podiceps Grisegena ) at Common Carp ( Cyprinus Carpio ) Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parental feeding patterns were studied in red-necked grebe (Podiceps grisegena) broods throughout the entire period of parental care in a common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fish-pond area in SE Poland in 1993–2002. Fish formed a substantial part of prey provided to the flightless young from their second week of life. Although the numbers of large invertebrates and tadpoles, the alternative prey

Janusz Kloskowski

2004-01-01

418

Molecular analysis of silver crucian carp ( Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch) clones by SCAR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) molecular markers specific for one, two or three clones have been identified from five gynogenetic clones of silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch) using RAPD markers developed earlier. In this study, three RAPD markers (RA1-PA, RA2-EF and RA4-D) produced by Opj-1, and two RAPD DNA fragments (RA3-PAD and RA5-D) produced by Opj-7, were selected

Li Zhou; Yang Wang; Jian-Fang Gui

2001-01-01

419

The Acute Toxicity of Praziquantel to Grass Carp and Golden Shiners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute toxicity and highest nonlethal concentration of praziquantel (LC0) were determined in the laboratory for grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella and golden shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas, two cyprinids known to harbor the Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Praziquantel is an anthelmintic used to treat fish with tapeworms. The 24-h and 96-h LC50 values were 55.1 and 49.7 mg\\/L for golden shiners (1.3

Andrew J. Mitchell; Melissa S. Hobbs

2007-01-01

420

PCR-DGGE analysis of bacterial communities in funazushi , fermented crucian carp with rice, during fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Funazushi (fermented Crucian Carp with rice) is a fermented fish product found only around Lake Biwa in Shiga Prefecture, Japan. It\\u000a is characterized by a unique cheese-like flavor and characteristic sour taste. We analyzed the changes in the microbial community\\u000a during funazushi fermentation by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA fragments (PCR-DGGE) and by plate counts.\\u000a The plate

Tateo Fujii; Shoko Watanabe; Masako Horikoshi; Hajime Takahashi; Bon Kimura

2011-01-01

421

Invasive Species Fact Sheets: Carp, Snail, Aphid, Comb Jelly, Chocolate Vine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource from ATEEC provides a number of fact sheets on invasive species which may be printed out or used as presentation material. The species described here are the big head carp, the giant African snail, the balsam wooly aphid, the comb jelly and the chocolate vine. The lesson plan is available for download as a PDF; users must create a free, quick login with ATEEC to access the materials.

2013-06-17

422

Development of a Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator to evaluate the transport and dispersion of Asian carp eggs in rivers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Asian carp are migrating towards the Great Lakes and are threatening to invade this ecosystem, hence there is an immediate need to control their population. The transport of Asian carp eggs in potential spawning rivers is an important factor in its life history and recruitment success. An understanding of the transport, development, and fate of Asian carp eggs has the potential to create prevention, management, and control strategies before the eggs hatch and develop the ability to swim. However, there is not a clear understanding of the hydrodynamic conditions at which the eggs are transported and kept in suspension. This knowledge is imperative because of the current assumption that suspension is required for the eggs to survive. Herein, FluEgg (Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator), a three-dimensional Lagrangian model capable of evaluating the influence of flow velocity, shear dispersion and turbulent diffusion on the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs is presented. The model's variables include not only biological behavior (growth rate, density changes) but also the physical characteristics of the flow field, such as mean velocities and eddy diffusivities. The performance of the FluEgg model was evaluated using observed data from published flume experiments conducted in China with water-hardened Asian carp eggs as subjects. FluEgg simulations show a good agreement with the experimental data. The model was also run with observed data from the Sandusky River in Ohio to provide a real-world demonstration case. This research will support the identification of critical hydrodynamic conditions (e.g., flow velocity, depth, and shear velocity) to maintain eggs in suspension, assist in the evaluation of suitable spawning rivers for Asian carp populations and facilitate the development of prevention, control and management strategies for Asian carp species in rivers and water bodies.

Garcia, Tatiana; Jackson, P. Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Valocchi, Albert J.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

2013-01-01

423

Hydroxylated PAHs alter the synthesis of androgens and estrogens in subcellular fractions of carp gonads.  

PubMed

Four different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene) and their hydroxylated metabolites (1-hydroxynaphthalene, 9-hydroxy-phenanthrene, 1-hydroxypyrene, 1-hydroxychrysene) were investigated for their ability to alter the synthesis of steroids by testes and ovaries of the carp Cyprinus carpio. Parental compounds had no significant effect on C17,20-lyase (CYP17), CYP11? and 11?-HSD catalyzed activities, all of them involved in the synthesis of active androgens in carp testes. Conversely, hydroxylated metabolites significantly inhibited C17,20-lyase and CYP11? activities; the strongest inhibitor was 9-hydroxyphenanthrene with IC50s of 10.8 and 31.3 ?M for CYP17 and CYP11?, respectively. As for the biosynthesis of estrogens, only 9-hydroxyphenanthrene had a significant inhibitory effect on ovarian CYP19 activity (IC50: 4.3 ?M). The study highlights the potential of hydroxylated-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and particularly 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, to disrupt the synthesis of androgens and estrogens in carp gonads. PMID:23376527

Fernandes, Denise; Porte, Cinta

2013-03-01

424

Effects of cyhalothrin-based pesticide on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60?g L(-1)) on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250? ? g?L(-1) (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15? ? g?L(-1) gamma-cyhalothrin). All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50? ? g?L(-1) died soon after hatching; at 25? ? g?L(-1), 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5? ? g?L(-1) showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes. PMID:24860807

Richterová, Zuzana; Máchová, Jana; Stará, Alžb?ta; Tumová, Jitka; Velíšek, Josef; Sev?íková, Marie; Svobodová, Zde?ka

2014-01-01

425

Biomarker Benchmarks: Reproductive and Endocrine Biomarkers in Largemouth Bass and Common Carp from United States Waters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a national database and report on endocrine and reproductive condition in two species of fish collected in U.S. streams and rivers. This information provides scientists with a national basis for comparing results of endocrine measurements in fish from individual sites throughout the country, so that scientists can better ascertain normal levels of biomarkers. The database includes information on several measures of reproductive and endocrine condition for common carp and largemouth bass. Data summaries are provided by reproductive season and geographic region. A national-scale reconnaissance investigation was initiated in 1994 by the USGS that utilized a suite of biological assays (biomarkers) as indicators of reproductive health, and potentially, endocrine disruption in two widely distributed species of teleost (bony) fish, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and common carp (Cyrinus carpio). The suite of assays included plasma sex-steroid hormones, stage of gonadal development, and plasma vitellogenin, an egg protein that indicates exposure to estrogenic compounds when found in male fish. More than 2,200 common carp and 650 largemouth bass were collected at 119 rivers and streams (fig. 1).

Goodbred, Steven L.; Smith, Stephen B.; Greene, Patricia S.; Rauschenberger, Richard H.; Bartish, Timothy M.

2007-01-01

426

Ultrastructure of blood vessels in the head kidney of the carp, Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed Central

The ultrastructural features of blood vessels were examined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy in the perfused and nonperfused head kidney of the carp. They consisted mainly of the sinusoidal capillaries, arterioles, veins and portal veins. The sinusoidal capillaries were composed of endothelial cells that frequently exhibited large pores and an indistinct basal lamina. Some endothelial cells were trabecular in shape and protruded into the lumen. The reticular cells frequently attached to the outside of the endothelial cells, and macrophages were located on the luminal and abluminal surfaces of the endothelial cells. The arterioles possessed continuous endothelial cells with a thick basal lamina, continuous smooth muscle layers and a thick adventitia with collagen fibres and reticular cells. The veins were characterised by fenestrated endothelial cells and thin connective tissue. The portal veins were composed of continuous electron-lucent endothelial cells and thick layers of reticular cells and collagen fibres. The differences between the endothelial cells in each blood vessel probably reflect the various functions of the carp head kidney. The ultrastructural features of the sinusoids and the portal veins resemble those of lymphatic vessels of mammals and appear to relate to macrophage and lymphoid cell migration and proliferation in the carp head kidney. Images Fig. 2 Figs 3,4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:7649788

Imagawa, T; Kitagawa, H; Uehara, M

1994-01-01

427

Ontogeny of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) innate immune system.  

PubMed

The ontogeny of the teleost innate immune system was studied in carp using cellular, histological and quantitative molecular techniques. Carp myeloid cells first appeared ventro-lateral of the aorta at 2 days post fertilization (the start of hatching), and subsequently around the sinuses of the vena cardinalis (or posterior blood islet), head kidney and trunk kidney. In addition, the hematopoietic tissue around the sinuses of the vena cardinalis transformed into that of the trunk kidney, which is the first description of the ontogeny of the trunk kidney hematopoietic tissue in teleosts. The mAb's used in this study reacted with carp myeloid surface molecules that are already transcribed and processed from the first appearance of myeloid cells, and thus serve a significant role in unraveling ontogenetic processes of teleost immunology. Finally, this study associated the first appearance of myeloid cells with an immune response on the molecular level: 2 days post fertilization embryos responded to LPS injection with upregulation of interleukin 1-beta, inducible nitric oxide synthase and serum amyloid A, and down-regulation of complement factor 3 and alpha2-macroglobulin, implying a functional embryonic innate defense system. PMID:16406121

Huttenhuis, Heidi B T; Taverne-Thiele, Anja J; Grou, Cláudia P O; Bergsma, Jorrit; Saeij, Jeroen P J; Nakayasu, Chihaya; Rombout, Jan H W M

2006-01-01

428

Comparison of intestinal bacterial communities in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, from two different habitats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intestinal bacteria of vertebrates form a close relationship with their host. External and internal conditions of the host, including its habitat, affect the intestinal bacterial community. Similarly, the intestinal bacterial community can, in turn, influence the host, particularly with respect to disease resistance. We compared the intestinal bacterial communities of grass carp that were collected from farm-ponds or a lake. We conducted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified 16S rRNA genes, from which 66 different operational taxonomic units were identified. Using both the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means clustering and principal component analysis ordination, we found that the intestinal bacterial communities from the two groups of pond fish were clustered together and inset into the clusters of wild fish, except for DF-7, and there was no significant correlation between genetic diversity of grass carp and their intestinal bacterial communities (Mantel one-tailed test, R=0.157, P=0.175). Cetobacterium appeared more frequently in the intestine of grass carp collected from pond. A more thorough understanding of the role played by intestinal microbiota on fish health would be of considerable benefit to the aquaculture industry.

Ni, Jiajia; Yu, Yuhe; Zhang, Tanglin; Gao, Lei

2012-09-01

429

Protective effect of shrimp carotenoids against ammonia stress in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

This study is aimed at evaluating the protective effect of shrimp carotenoids on ammonia stress in common carp. Crude carotenoid extract from shrimp exoskeleton, astaxanthin and astaxanthin ester fractionated from crude extract was fed to the common carp fingerlings at 100 and 200ppm concentration by incorporating carotenoids into feed. Experimental and control fish were then exposed to sublethal dose of ammonia. Serum total antioxidant status (TAS), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase were measured to determine the effect of dietary carotenoid on defense status of fish. Activities of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were measured to determine the protective effect of carotenoids against tissue damage caused by the ammonia stress. TAS, catalase and SOD activity was higher in tissues from fish fed with the diet containing astaxanthin rich and astaxanthin ester rich extract compared to fish fed with control diet. TAS reduced in the tissues considerably after exposure to ammonia. However, TAS was still higher in tissues from fish fed with carotenoid containing diet than in tissues from fish fed with control diet. Eventhough there was an increase in the activities of ALT and AST due to stress by ammonia toxicity in all groups, fish fed with astaxanthin extract had lower activities and also prevented lipid peroxidation in the tissues. In conclusion, shrimp carotenoid increased the resistance of common carp fingerlings to ammonia induced stress. PMID:25011116

Rama, Sowmya; Manjabhat, Sachindra N

2014-09-01

430

Bioavailability and bioaccumulation of sediment-bound polychlorinated biphenyls to carp.  

PubMed

The relative bioavailability of sediment-bound polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs 138, 153, and 180) from a local contaminated site was examined using an in vivo carp model. Surface sediment from the PCB-contaminated site and spiked canola oil containing equivalent masses of PCBs were respectively incorporated in the sediment-dosed diets and oil-dosed diets at 3 dose levels resulting in 6 experimental diets. Juvenile carps (n?=?90) were divided in 18 tanks (5 fish?×?6 treatments?×?3 tanks). Fish were fed the control diet during the adaptation period (15 d). Next, 1 fish was sampled in each tank and muscle tissues were combined in control groups. During the exposure period (15 d), the remaining fish were fed with 1 of the 6 experimental diets. At the end of the experiment, fish were sampled and muscle tissues were combined for each tank. The PCBs were monitored in feed and fish muscle. For both the contaminated sediment and spiked canola oil groups, concentrations of PCBs 138, 153, and 180 in muscle linearly increased with concentrations in food, with similar intercepts and slopes. In the present study, the sediment-bound PCBs were as bioavailable as those spiked into canola oil and fed to carp in a standard diet. PMID:24677303

Gaillard, Juliette; Banas, Damien; Thomas, Marielle; Fournier, Agnès; Feidt, Cyril

2014-06-01

431

CXC chemokines and leukocyte chemotaxis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

CXC chemokines, structurally recognizable by the position of four conserved cysteine residues, are prominent mediators of chemotaxis. Here we report a novel carp CXC chemokine obtained through homology cloning and compare it with fish orthologues genes and with a second, recently elucidated, carp CXC chemokine. Phylogenetic analyses clearly show that neither CXC chemokine resembles any of the mammalian CXC chemokines in particular. However, basal expression is most prominent in immune organs like anterior kidney and spleen, suggesting involvement in the immune response. Furthermore we show that anterior kidney phagocyte-enriched leukocyte suspensions express both chemokines and that this expression is upregulated by brief (4 h) stimulation with PMA, but not lipopolysaccharide. Neutrophilic granulocyte-enriched leukocytes display chemotaxis to human recombinant CXCL8 (hrCXCL8; interleukin-8), confirming CXC chemokine mediated chemotaxis of neutrophilic granulocytes in teleost fish. Factors secreted from carp phagocytes are also capable of inducing chemotaxis and secretion of these factors into culture supernatants is upregulated by PMA. Finally we demonstrate involvement of both CXC chemokines as well as CXCR1 and CXCR2 in acute Argulus japonicus infection. Collectively the data presented implicate the involvement of CXC chemokines in chemotaxis of fish neutrophils in a fashion that shares characteristics with the mammalian situation. However, the CXC chemokines involved differ enough from those involved in neutrophil chemotaxis in mammals to warrant their own nomenclature. PMID:12880637

Huising, Mark O; Stolte, Ellen; Flik, Gert; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M Lidy

2003-12-01

432

Effects of carbofuran and deltamethrin on acetylcholinesterase activity in brain and muscle of the common carp.  

PubMed

This work investigated the effect from exposure to insecticides carbofuran and deltamethrin on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain and muscle of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Both pesticides were evaluated through two separate experiments, and carp were exposed in a semi-static system to three different concentrations of carbofuran (10, 50, and 100 ?g/L) and deltamethrin (0.08, 0.4, and 0.8 ?g/L) during a month with sampling times at 0, 4, 15, and 30 days (n = 7 from each aquarium). AChE activity was significantly inhibited in both organs of carps exposed to carbofuran at all sampling times depending on dose and time, reaching inhibition values of 73.5 and 67.1%, in brain and muscle tissues respectively, after 30 days with the highest concentration. On the contrary, AChE activity was not significantly affected after deltamethrin exposure at all concentrations and times of the assay. This study shows that the measurement of brain and muscle AChE activity in Cyprinus carpio is a useful biomarker of carbamates exposure and/or effects, but has no application with pyrethroids. PMID:22422543

Ensibi, Cherif; Hernández-Moreno, David; Míguez Santiyán, M Prado; Daly Yahya, Mohamed Néjib; Rodríguez, Francisco Soler; Pérez-López, Marcos

2014-04-01

433

Effects of Cyhalothrin-Based Pesticide on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60?g L?1) on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250??g?L?1 (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15??g?L?1 gamma-cyhalothrin). All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50??g?L?1 died soon after hatching; at 25??g?L?1, 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5??g?L?1 showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes. PMID:24860807

Richterova, Zuzana; Machova, Jana; Stara, Alzbeta; Tumova, Jitka; Velisek, Josef; Sevcikova, Marie; Svobodova, Zdenka

2014-01-01

434

A comparison of complete mitochondrial genomes of silver carp hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp hypophthalmichthys nobilis: Implications for their taxonomic relationship and phylogeny  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Based upon morphological characters, Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (or Aristichthys nobilis) have been classified into either the same genus or two distinct genera. Consequently, the taxonomic relationship of the two species at the generic level remains equivocal. This issue is addressed by sequencing complete mitochondrial genomes of H. molitrix and H. nobilis, comparing their mitogenome organization, structure and sequence similarity, and conducting a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of cyprinid species. As with other cyprinid fishes, the mitogenomes of the two species were structurally conserved, containing 37 genes including 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNAs) genes and a putative control region (D-loop). Sequence similarity between the two mitogenomes varied in different genes or regions, being highest in the tRNA genes (98??8%), lowest in the control region (89??4%) and intermediate in the protein-coding genes (94??2%). Analyses of the sequence comparison and phylogeny using concatenated protein sequences support the view that the two species belong to the genus Hypophthalmichthys. Further studies using nuclear markers and involving more closely related species, and the systematic combination of traditional biology and molecular biology are needed in order to confirm this conclusion. ?? 2009 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

Li, S.-F.; Xu, J.-W.; Yang, Q.-L.; Wang, C.H.; Chen, Q.; Chapman, D.C.; Lu, G.

2009-01-01

435

Detection of spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) is a rhabdovirus associated with systemic illness and mortality in cyprinids. Several diagnostic tests are available for detection of SVCV. However, most of these tests are time consuming and are not well adapted for field-based diagnostics. In this study, a diagnostic tool for SVCV detection based on reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) has been developed. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the glycoprotein (G) gene of SVCV North Carolina (NC) isolate, four sets (each set containing two outer and two inner) of primers were designed. Temperature and time conditions were optimized to 65 ??C and 60 min, respectively, for LAMP and RT-LAMP using one primer set. In vitro specificity was evaluated using four different strains of fish rhabdoviruses and RT-LAMP was found to be specific to SVCV. Serial dilutions of SVCV NC isolate was used to evaluate the in vitro sensitivity of RT-LAMP. Sensitivity of the assays was similar to RT-PCR and detected SVCV even at the lowest dilution of 10 1 TCID50 mL-1. The ability of RT-LAMP to detect SVCV from infected carp was also tested and the assay detected SVCV from all infected fish. The isothermal temperature requirements, high specificity and sensitivity, and short incubation time of the RT-LAMP assay make it an excellent choice as a field diagnostic test for SVCV. ?? 2008 The Authors.

Shivappa, R. B.; Savan, R.; Kono, T.; Sakai, M.; Emmenegger, E.; Kurath, G.; Levine, J. F.

2008-01-01

436

The homologue of mannose-binding lectin in the carp family Cyprinidae is expressed at high level in spleen, and the deduced primary structure predicts affinity for galactose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) participates in the innate immune system as an activator of the complement system and as an opsonin after binding to certain carbohydrate structures on microorganisms. We isolated and characterized cDNA transcripts encoding an MBL homologue from three members of the carp family Cyprinidae, the zebrafish Danio rerio, the goldfish Carassius auratus, and the carp Cyprinus carpio. The

Lars Vitved; Uffe Holmskov; Claus Koch; Børge Teisner; Søren Hansen; Karsten Skjødt

2000-01-01

437

Polymorphism in ornamental and common carp strains ( Cyprinus carpio L.) as revealed by AFLP analysis and a new set of microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-seven new microsatellite markers were generated and applied, together with the AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) technique using two different enzyme combinations, to the genetic analysis of two carp species, Cyprinus carpio L. and Ctenopharyngodon idella. The extent of polymorphism and the genetic relationships between nine carp populations were studied. The incidence of microsatellites containing CA and CT motifs was

L. David; P. Rajasekaran; J. Fang; J. Hillel; U. Lavi

2001-01-01

438

Seasonal Prevalence and Intensity of Infestation by the Ectoparasites in Carps Relating to PhysicoChemical Parameters in Some Ponds of Mymensingh and Bogra Districts of Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research work was conducted to find out the seasonal prevalence and intensity of infestation of the ectoparasites of carps in some ponds of Mymensingh and Bogra districts of Bangladesh. Seven species of parasites viz. Trichodina domerguei, Trichodina reticulata, Chilodonella cyprini, Myxobohts koi, Dactylogiroides tripathi, D. extenswi and D. catlarius were found from 640 fry-fingerlings of silver carp, Hypophthalmicthys mohtrix

Abdus Salam Bhuiyan; A. S. M. Musa

2008-01-01

439

Distribution of catch-relaxing peptide (CARP)-like immunoreactive neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system of Helix pomatia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunocytochemistry was performed on the nervous system of Helix by the use of an antibody raised against a myotropic neuropeptide, the catch-relaxing peptide (CARP), isolated from Mytilus edulis. In each ganglion of the central nervous system of Helix pomatia, numerous CARP-immunoreactive cell bodies and a dense immunoreactive fiber system could be observed with a dominancy in the cerebral and pedal

L. Hernádi; Y. Terano; Y. Muneoka; T. Kiss

1995-01-01

440

The impact of the White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla and the Osprey Pandion haliaetus on Estonian Common Carp Cyprinus carpio production: How large is the economic loss?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protected bird species have been suspected to be a cause of a significant economic loss at Estonian fish farms, but its extent has remained unexplored. We counted the number of White-tailed Eagles and Ospreys, and the quantity of fish they take, and analysed the economic loss in five carp farms in 2001-2004. Each of Estonian four larger carp farms was

Joosep Tuvia; Ülo Välia

441

Systematics and conservation of the hook-billed kite including the island taxa from Cuba and Grenada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taxonomic uncertainties within the genus Chondrohierax stem from the high degree of variation in bill size and plumage coloration throughout the geographic range of the single recognized species, hook-billed kite Chondrohierax uncinatus. These uncertainties impede conservation efforts as local populations have declined throughout much of its geographic range from the Neotropics in Central America to northern Argentina and Paraguay, including

J. A. Johnson; R. Thorstrom; D. P. Mindell

2007-01-01

442

Hoisting and Rigging: Pre-use Inspection Criteria for Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices, Slings, and Rigging  

E-print Network

Hoisting and Rigging: Pre-use Inspection Criteria for Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices, Slings, and Rigging Hardware and Accessories URL: http://www-group.slac Department: Field Safety and Building Inspection Program: Hoisting and Rigging Authority: ESH Manual, Chapter

Wechsler, Risa H.

443

High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Triptonide, Triptriolide, and Triptophenolide in Ethyl Acetate Extract of Tripterygium Wilfordii Hook F  

Microsoft Academic Search

To monitor the composition of extracts of the Chinese herbal remedy Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TwHF), a rapid, selective, and sensitive reverse phase HPLC method was developed for the quantitative determination of some of the major or active diterpenoid components, triptonide (1), triptophenolide (2), and triptriolide (3). Ethyl acetate extracts of TwHF were extracted with chloroform, filtered, and then purified

Yanping Mao; John J. Cai; Xuelian Tao; Li Ma; Peter E. Lipsky

1998-01-01

444

Neurotrophic and Neuroprotective Effects of Tripchlorolide, an Extract of Chinese Herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, on Dopaminergic Neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been reported recently that the immunosuppressant FK506 produced neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects on dopaminergic neurons in vitro and in vivo. We investigated whether tripchlorolide, an immunosuppressive extract of Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, could exert similar neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects similar to those of FK506. It was found that tripchlorolide promoted axonal elongation and protected dopaminergic neurons

Feng-Qiao Li; Xiao-Xin Cheng; Xi-Bin Liang; Xin-Hong Wang; Bing Xue; Qi-Hua He; Xiao-Min Wang; Ji-Sheng Han

2003-01-01

445

Effect of Hook Style, Bait Type, and River Location on Trotline Catches of Flathead and Channel Catfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trotlines can be used to provide data on catfish populations, but better understanding of trotline selectivity is needed. We compared differences in the presence or absence of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus and flathead catfish Pylodictis olivaris caught on trotlines among hook types, bait types, substrate types, channel types, water depths, and woody debris complexities in two South Dakota rivers. Channel

John E. Arterburn; Charles R. Berry Jr

2002-01-01

446

Effect of Hook Style, Bait Type, and River Location on Trotline Catches of Flathead and Channel Catfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trotlines can be used to provide data on catfish populations, but better understanding of trotline selectivity is needed. We compared differences in the presence or absence of channel catfish Ictalurus punc- tatus and flathead catfish Pylodictis olivaris caught on trotlines among hook types, bait types, substrate types, channel types, water depths, and woody debris com- plexities in two South Dakota

John E. Arterburn; Charles R. Berry

2002-01-01

447

Effect of fermentation on the seed proteins, nitrogenous constituents, antinutrients and nutritional quality of fluted pumpkin ( Telfairia occidentalis Hook)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of fermentation, for 7 days, on levels of nitrogenous constituents, protein fractions, antinutrients and protein quality of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook) seed was investigated. Protein quality was evaluated using weanling albino rats fed diets which were formulated to supply 10% protein using fermented and unfermented fluted pumpkin seed samples, with casein as a control. The non-protein nitrogen

S. Y. Giami

2004-01-01

448

Winter Catch-and-Release Hooking Mortality of Saugers below Lock and Dam 3 of the Mississippi River  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effect of length and depth of capture of saugers Sander canadensis on winter hooking mortality below Lock and Dam 3 of the Mississippi River (i.e., Pool 4) by catching saugers using the most common recreational fishing gear in these fisheries (jig and plastic, jig and minnow, and jigging spoons) and holding the fish for 72 h in

Jonathan R. Meerbeek; R. John H. Hoxmeier

2011-01-01

449

Comparative analysis of the two?constant generalizations of hooke's law for isotropic elastic materials at finite strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

For ten models of the isothermal behavior of materials, the solutions of boundary-value problems are studied for five types of the experimentally reproducible uniform stress–strain state with unchanged directions of the principal axes. It is found that, for three models, the governing equations are similar to the relations of Hooke's law and valid within the same range of the ratio

A. A. Adamov

2001-01-01

450

Comparative analysis of pedicle screw and hook instrumentation in posterior correction and fusion of idiopathic thoracic scoliosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Posterior correction and fusion with segmental hook instrumentation represent the gold standard in the surgical treatment of progressive idiopathic thoracic scoliosis. However, there is a debate over whether pedicle screws are safe in scoliosis surgery and whether their usage might enable a better curve correction and a shorter fusion length. The details of curve correction, fusion length and complication rate

U. Liljenqvist; U. Lepsien; L. Hackenberg; T. Niemeyer; H. Halm

2002-01-01

451

[A review of the position adopted by patients when acquiring images of the base of the hamate hook].  

PubMed

The hamate bone, one of the carpal (wrist) bones, has a large uncinate process protruding from the palm side. In sports such as golf and tennis, the hamate bone can break if is subjected to a high external force, such as from the handle of a racquet or club. At our hospital we take X-ray images of the hamate bone from two directions: an axial image through the carpal tunnel and an image at the base of the hamate hook (conventional method). While the conventional method makes it easy to create images of the base of the hamate hook, the patient may suffer pain during image-taking because the hamate bone is pulled to cause radial flexion. We therefore investigated a method of imaging that would create three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) images of the base of the hamate hook in which the patient would only have to only rotate the wrist externally and elevate the fore-arm without any radial flexion. Our results suggest that it is possible to obtain images of the base of the hamate hook as clear as those acquired using the conventional method with the patient in a comfortable and painless position taking images at an external rotation angle of 50.3° and a forearm elevation angle of 20.3°. PMID:24953320

Takamatsu, Shunsuke; Miyakawa, Seiichirou; Sato, Hisaya; Suzuki, Wataru; Nishizawa, Takeshi; Nakamura, Masami; Umeda, Hirotaka; Sai, Shogo; Kato, Kyoichi; Nakazawa, Yasuo; Ikeda, Jun

2014-06-01

452

IFN-?-activated lymphocytes boost nitric oxide production in grass carp monocytes/macrophages.  

PubMed

It is well known that IFN-? is a prime activator of nitric oxide (NO) production by monocytes/macrophages in mammals and fish. In parallel, whether IFN-?-activated lymphocytes are associated with NO production remains unclear. In this study, grass carp monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes from head kidney were isolated and effects of recombinant grass carp IFN-? (rgcIFN-?) on NO releases by these two cell populations were determined. Results showed that rgcIFN-? time- and dose-dependently increased NO production by monocytes/macrophages but not lymphocytes, which are consistent with the findings in mammals. Interestingly, rgcIFN-? displayed a greater stimulation on NO production in the co-cultures of monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes when compared with that in the culture of monocytes/macrophages alone. Furthermore, the media harvested from rgcIFN-?-treated lymphocytes were effective in boosting NO release in monocytes/macrophages. These data suggest that secretions from rgcIFN-?-treated lymphocytes may be involved in the NO release by monocytes/macrophages. To address this hypothesis, effect of rgcIFN-? on the gene expression of inflammatory cytokines in grass carp lymphocytes was examined, showing that it consistently stimulated the mRNA expression of grass carp TNF-? and IL-1? but not IFN-?. Furthermore, treatment of rgcIFN-? combined with recombinant grass carp IL-1? (rgcIL-1?) induced a NO production by monocytes/macrophages, which was significantly higher than those induced by either cytokine alone. It provides the evidence that the cytokines secreted by the activated lymphocytes may facilitate the NO production by monocytes/macrophages. Taken together, our findings point out a new mechanism for the involvement of IFN-?-activated lymphocytes in the NO production by monocytes/macrophages in fish. This knowledge not only strengthens the role of IFN-? in immune system but also provides the evidence for the existence of a close relationship between lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages in fish. PMID:24056277

Yang, Kun; Zhang, Shengnan; Chen, Danyan; Zhang, Anying; Wang, Xinyan; Zhou, Hong

2013-11-01

453

The Transcriptomes of the Crucian Carp Complex (Carassius auratus) Provide Insights into the Distinction between Unisexual Triploids and Sexual Diploids  

PubMed Central

Both sexual reproduction and unisexual reproduction are adaptive strategies for species survival and evolution. Unisexual animals have originated largely by hybridization, which tends to elevate their heterozygosity. However, the extent of genetic diversity resulting from hybridization and the genomic differences that determine the type of reproduction are poorly understood. In Carassius auratus, sexual diploids and unisexual triploids coexist. These two forms are similar morphologically but differ markedly in their modes of reproduction. Investigation of their genomic differences will be useful to study genome diversity and the development of reproductive mode. We generated transcriptomes for the unisexual and sexual populations. Genes were identified using homology searches and an ab initio method. Estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that the hybridization of gibel carp occurred 2.2 million years ago. Microsatellite genotyping in each individual from the gibel carp population indicated that most gibel carp genes were not tri-allelic. Molecular function and pathway comparisons suggested few gene expansions between them, except for the progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathway, which is enriched in gibel carp. Differential expression analysis identified highly expressed genes in gibel carp. The transcriptomes provide information on genetic diversity and genomic differences, which should assist future studies in functional genomics. PMID:24871367

Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Jiong-Tang; Kuang, You-Yi; Xu, Ru; Zhao, Zi-Xia; Hou, Guang-Yuan; Liang, Hong-Wei; Sun, Xiao-Wen

2014-01-01

454

Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in agricultural waters and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was used as a biomarker for assessing exposure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides from irrigated agricultural waters. Carp were collected from a lake (Royal Lake) that receives most of its water from irrigation return flows and from a reference lake (Billy Clapp Lake) outside of the irrigation system. Results indicated that the mean whole-brain ChE activity of carp from Royal Lake (3.47 ??mol/min/g tissue) was 34.2% less than that of carp from Billy Clapp Lake (5.27 ??mol/min/g tissue) (p = 0.003). The depressed ChE activity in brain tissue of Royal Lake carp was in response to ChE- inhibiting insecticides detected in water samples in the weeks prior to tissue sampling; the most frequently detected insecticides included chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, carbaryl, and ethoprop. Neither sex nor size appears to be a covariable in the analysis; ChE activity was not correlated with fish length or weight in either lake and there was no significant difference in ChE activity between the two sexes within each lake. Although organophosphate and carbamate insecticides can break down rapidly in the environment, this study suggests that in agricultural regions where insecticides are applied for extended periods of the year, nontarget aquatic biota may be exposed to high levels of ChE-inhibiting insecticides for a period of several months.

Gruber, S. J.; Munn, M. D.

1998-01-01

455

The transcriptomes of the crucian carp complex (Carassius auratus) provide insights into the distinction between unisexual triploids and sexual diploids.  

PubMed

Both sexual reproduction and unisexual reproduction are adaptive strategies for species survival and evolution. Unisexual animals have originated largely by hybridization, which tends to elevate their heterozygosity. However, the extent of genetic diversity resulting from hybridization and the genomic differences that determine the type of reproduction are poorly understood. In Carassius auratus, sexual diploids and unisexual triploids coexist. These two forms are similar morphologically but differ markedly in their modes of reproduction. Investigation of their genomic differences will be useful to study genome diversity and the development of reproductive mode. We generated transcriptomes for the unisexual and sexual populations. Genes were identified using homology searches and an ab initio method. Estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that the hybridization of gibel carp occurred 2.2 million years ago. Microsatellite genotyping in each individual from the gibel carp population indicated that most gibel carp genes were not tri-allelic. Molecular function and pathway comparisons suggested few gene expansions between them, except for the progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathway, which is enriched in gibel carp. Differential expression analysis identified highly expressed genes in gibel carp. The transcriptomes provide information on genetic diversity and genomic differences, which should assist future studies in functional genomics. PMID:24871367

Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Jiong-Tang; Kuang, You-Yi; Xu, Ru; Zhao, Zi-Xia; Hou, Guang-Yuan; Liang, Hong-Wei; Sun, Xiao-Wen

2014-01-01

456

Organic Chemical Concentrations and Reproductive Biomarkers in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Collected from Two Areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, May 1999-May 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, Bureau of Reclamation, and Nevada Department of Wildlife, collected and assessed data to determine the general health and reproductive status of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at two study areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, during May 1999-May 2000. These data will form the basis of interpretations and provide a comparison for continuing studies on the health of the ecosystem in Lake Mead. One study area, Las Vegas Bay, is in the western part of Lake Mead. Las Vegas Bay receives inflows from Las Vegas Wash, which is predominantly tertiary-treated wastewater effluent, and to a lesser extent stormwater runoff from Las Vegas, Henderson, and other nearby communities, and from ground water underlying Las Vegas Valley. The other study area, Overton Arm, is in the northern extent of Lake Mead. Overton Arm receives inflow from the Virgin and Muddy Rivers, which historically are not influenced by wastewater effluent. Both sexes of common carp were collected bimonthly for 12 months using boat-mounted electrofishing gear (a direct electric current is used to temporarily immobilize fish for capture) to determine their health and reproductive status and any relation between these factors and environmental contaminants. This report presents fish tissue chemistry, organic chemical compound concentrations, and biomarker data for 83 male common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, similar organic chemistry results for 15 male common carp, and similar biomarker measures for 80 male common carp collected from Overton Arm. Tissue chemistry results also are presented for 16 female common carp and biomarker measures for 79 female common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, and tissue chemistry results for 15 female common carp and biomarker measures for 81 female common carp collected from Overton Arm. Thirty-three organic chemical compounds plus total concentrations for four groups of compounds (chlordanes, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], brominated diphenyl ethers [BDEs], and triclosans) were analyzed from extracts of whole-body tissue using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in male common carp from Las Vegas Bay during May 1999 through May 2000. All 33 compounds were detected in at least one sample of whole-body tissue from male common carp collected in Las Vegas Bay. In Overton Arm, 37 organic compounds plus total concentrations of three groups of compounds (PCBs, BDEs, and triclosans) were analyzed in male common carp where 20 (54 percent) of the compounds were detected. Sixteen of the 33 compounds detected in male common carp from Las Vegas Bay and 10 compounds detected in males from Overton Arm have the potential to disrupt the endocrine system in fish in Lake Mead. During May and June 1999, the mean concentration of all organic compounds detected in male common carp was 670 micrograms per kilogram from Las Vegas Bay and 109 micrograms per kilogram from Overton Arm. Twenty-seven organic compounds plus total PCBs were analyzed from extracts of whole-body tissue in female common carp collected in Las Vegas Bay and Overton Arm during May 1999. Twenty-four (86 percent) of these compounds were detected in at least one sample of whole-body tissue from female common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay while 10 (36 percent) chemical compounds were detected in female common carp from Overton Arm during that same period. Median concentrations of all chemical compounds were higher in female common carp from Las Vegas Bay compared to those collected from Overton Arm except Dacthal (DCPA), which was similar between sites. Biomarker measures obtained for male and female common carp include gonadosomatic index (percentage of gonad weight to total body weight), plasma vitellogenin (a phospholipid protein normally produced by female common carp and other oviparous fish), and condition factor [body weight/(fork length)3]. Biomarker measures for male c

Goodbred, Steven L.; Leiker, Thomas J.; Pati?o, Reynaldo; Jenkins, Jill A.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Orsak, Erik; Rosen, Michael R.

2007-01-01

457

Detection of environmental DNA of Bigheaded Carps in samples collected from selected locations in the St. Croix River and in the Mississippi River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The use of molecular methods, such as the detection of environmental deoxyribonucleic acid (eDNA), have become an increasingly popular tool in surveillance programs that monitor for the presence of invasive species in aquatic systems. One early application of these methods in aquatic systems was surveillance for DNA of Asian carps (specifically bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix) in water samples taken from the Chicago Area Waterway System. The ability to identify DNA of a species in an environmental sample presents a potentially powerful tool because these sensitive analyses can presumably detect the presence of DNA in water even when the species is not abundant or are difficult to catch or monitor with traditional gear. Prior to research presented in this report, an initial eDNA surveillance effort was completed in selected locations in the Upper Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers in 2011 after the capture of a bighead carp in the St. Croix River near Prescott, WI. Data presented in this report were developed to duplicate the 2011 monitoring results from the Upper Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers and to provide critical insight into the technique to inform future work in these locations. We specifically sought to understand the potential confounding effects of other pathways of eDNA movement (e.g., fish-eating birds, watercraft) on the variation in background DNA by collecting water samples from (1) sites within the St. Croix River and the upper Mississippi River where the DNA of silver carp was previously detected, (2) sites considered to be free of Asian carp, and (3) a site known to have a large population of Asian carp. We also sought to establish a baseline Asian carp eDNA signature to which future eDNA sampling efforts could be compared. All samples taken as part of this effort were processed using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) according to procedures outlined in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Quality Assurance Project Plan with minor deviations designed to enhance the rigor of our data. Presence of DNA in PCR-positive samples was confirmed by Sanger sequencing (forward and reverse) and sequences were considered positive only if sequences (forward and reverse) of ?150 base pairs had a match of ?95% to those of published sequences for bighead carp or silver carp. The DNA of bighead carp and silver carp was not detected in environmental samples collected above and below St. Croix Falls Dam on the St. Croix River, above and below the Coon Rapids Dam and below Lock and Dam 1 on the Upper Mississippi River, and from two negative control lakes, Square Lake and Lake Riley. The DNA of silver carp was detected in environmental samples collected below Lock and Dam 19 at Keokuk, Iowa, a reach of the river with high silver carp abundance. The portion (68%) of environmental samples taken below Lock and Dam 19 that were determined to contain the DNA of silver carp was similar to that reported in the scientific literature for other abundant species. The DNA of bighead carp, however, was not detected in environmental samples collected below Lock and Dam 19, a reach of the river known to have bighead carp. Previous reported detections of the DNA of silver carp in samples collected in 2011 were not replicated in this study. Additional analyses are planned for the DNA extracted from the samples collected in 2012. Those analyses may provide additional information regarding the lack of amplification of bighead carp DNA and the lengths of the sequences of silver carp DNA present in samples taken below Lock and Dam 19. These additional analyses may help inform the use of eDNA monitoring in large, complex systems like the Mississippi River.

Amberg, Jon J.; McCalla, Sunnie G.; Miller, Loren; Sorensen, Peter; Gaikowski, Mark P.

2013-01-01

458

The stabilization of a north-seeking platform using a dynamically tuned Hooke's joint gyroscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper shows that the ideally tuned Hooke's joint gyroscope is capable of operating as a gyrocompass. The dynamic response of the compass is examined in detail and its accuracy as a north-seeking device is assessed. It is shown that small amounts of mistuning will result in gross errors. The need for precision tuning is eliminated by supporting the gyroscope on a single-degree-of-freedom platform. It is shown that if the platform is driven via feedback of the gyrorotor displacement in azimuth then the response of the combined system is essentially that of the ideal gyroscope. The overall system is insensitive to mistuning errors and will automatically align the gyrospin axis with true north irrespective of any initial offset. The effects of damping, mass unbalance, and platform misalignment are assessed.

Burdess, J. S.; Fox, C. H. J.

1980-03-01

459

Concentric ring flywheel with hooked ring carbon fiber separator/torque coupler  

DOEpatents

A concentric ring flywheel with expandable separators, which function as torque couplers, between the rings to take up the gap formed between adjacent rings due to differential expansion between different radius rings during rotation of the flywheel. The expandable separators or torque couplers include a hook-like section at an upper end which is positioned over an inner ring and a shelf-like or flange section at a lower end onto which the next adjacent outer ring is positioned. As the concentric rings are rotated the gap formed by the differential expansion there between is partially taken up by the expandable separators or torque couplers to maintain torque and centering attachment of the concentric rings. 2 figs.

Kuklo, T.C.

1999-07-20

460