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Sample records for horizontally transferred genes

  1. Horizontal gene transfer in plants.

    PubMed

    Gao, Caihua; Ren, Xiaodong; Mason, Annaliese S; Liu, Honglei; Xiao, Meili; Li, Jiana; Fu, Donghui

    2014-03-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) describes the transmission of genetic material across species boundaries. HGT often occurs in microbic and eukaryotic genomes. However, the pathways by which HGTs occur in multicellular eukaryotes, especially in plants, are not well understood. We systematically summarized more than ten possible pathways for HGT. The intimate contact which frequently occurs in parasitism, symbiosis, pathogen, epiphyte, entophyte, and grafting interactions could promote HGTs between two species. Besides these direct transfer methods, genes can be exchanged with a vector as a bridge: possible vectors include pollen, fungi, bacteria, viruses, viroids, plasmids, transposons, and insects. HGT, especially when involving horizontal transfer of transposable elements, is recognized as a significant force propelling genomic variation and biological innovation, playing an important functional and evolutionary role in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes. We proposed possible mechanisms by which HGTs can occur, which is useful in understanding the genetic information exchange among distant species or distant cellular components. PMID:24132513

  2. Horizontal gene transfer, genome innovation and evolution.

    PubMed

    Gogarten, J Peter; Townsend, Jeffrey P

    2005-09-01

    To what extent is the tree of life the best representation of the evolutionary history of microorganisms? Recent work has shown that, among sets of prokaryotic genomes in which most homologous genes show extremely low sequence divergence, gene content can vary enormously, implying that those genes that are variably present or absent are frequently horizontally transferred. Traditionally, successful horizontal gene transfer was assumed to provide a selective advantage to either the host or the gene itself, but could horizontally transferred genes be neutral or nearly neutral? We suggest that for many prokaryotes, the boundaries between species are fuzzy, and therefore the principles of population genetics must be broadened so that they can be applied to higher taxonomic categories. PMID:16138096

  3. Horizontal gene transfer between bacteria and animals.

    PubMed

    Dunning Hotopp, Julie C

    2011-04-01

    Horizontal gene transfer is increasingly described between bacteria and animals. Such transfers that are vertically inherited have the potential to influence the evolution of animals. One classic example is the transfer of DNA from mitochondria and chloroplasts to the nucleus after the acquisition of these organelles by eukaryotes. Even today, many of the described instances of bacteria-to-animal transfer occur as part of intimate relationships such as those of endosymbionts and their invertebrate hosts, particularly insects and nematodes, while numerous transfers are also found in asexual animals. Both of these observations are consistent with modern evolutionary theory, in particular the serial endosymbiotic theory and Muller's ratchet. Although it is tempting to suggest that these particular lifestyles promote horizontal gene transfer, it is difficult to ascertain given the nonrandom sampling of animal genome sequencing projects and the lack of a systematic analysis of animal genomes for such transfers. PMID:21334091

  4. High expression hampers horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Park, Chungoo; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2012-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), the movement of genetic material from one species to another, is a common phenomenon in prokaryotic evolution. Although the rate of HGT is known to vary among genes, our understanding of the cause of this variation, currently summarized by two rules, is far from complete. The first rule states that informational genes, which are involved in DNA replication, transcription, and translation, have lower transferabilities than operational genes. The second rule asserts that protein interactivity negatively impacts gene transferability. Here, we hypothesize that high expression hampers HGT, because the fitness cost of an HGT to the recipient, arising from the 1) energy expenditure in transcription and translation, 2) cytotoxic protein misfolding, 3) reduction in cellular translational efficiency, 4) detrimental protein misinteraction, and 5) disturbance of the optimal protein concentration or cell physiology, increases with the expression level of the transferred gene. To test this hypothesis, we examined laboratory and natural HGTs to Escherichia coli. We observed lower transferabilities of more highly expressed genes, even after controlling the confounding factors from the two established rules and the genic GC content. Furthermore, expression level predicts gene transferability better than all other factors examined. We also confirmed the significant negative impact of gene expression on the rate of HGTs to 127 of 133 genomes of eubacteria and archaebacteria. Together, these findings establish the gene expression level as a major determinant of horizontal gene transferability. They also suggest that most successful HGTs are initially slightly deleterious, fixed because of their negligibly low costs rather than high benefits to the recipient. PMID:22436996

  5. Horizontal Gene Transfer, Dispersal and Haloarchaeal Speciation

    PubMed Central

    Papke, R. Thane; Corral, Paulina; Ram-Mohan, Nikhil; de la Haba, Rafael R.; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; Makkay, Andrea; Ventosa, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The Halobacteria are a well-studied archaeal class and numerous investigations are showing how their diversity is distributed amongst genomes and geographic locations. Evidence indicates that recombination between species continuously facilitates the arrival of new genes, and within species, it is frequent enough to spread acquired genes amongst all individuals in the population. To create permanent independent diversity and generate new species, barriers to recombination are probably required. The data support an interpretation that rates of evolution (e.g., horizontal gene transfer and mutation) are faster at creating geographically localized variation than dispersal and invasion are at homogenizing genetic differences between locations. Therefore, we suggest that recurrent episodes of dispersal followed by variable periods of endemism break the homogenizing forces of intrapopulation recombination and that this process might be the principal stimulus leading to divergence and speciation in Halobacteria. PMID:25997110

  6. Horizontal gene transfer from Agrobacterium to plants

    PubMed Central

    Matveeva, Tatiana V.; Lutova, Ludmila A.

    2014-01-01

    Most genetic engineering of plants uses Agrobacterium mediated transformation to introduce novel gene content. In nature, insertion of T-DNA in the plant genome and its subsequent transfer via sexual reproduction has been shown in several species in the genera Nicotiana and Linaria. In these natural examples of horizontal gene transfer from Agrobacterium to plants, the T-DNA donor is assumed to be a mikimopine strain of A. rhizogenes. A sequence homologous to the T-DNA of the Ri plasmid of Agrobacterium rhizogenes was found in the genome of untransformed Nicotiana glauca about 30 years ago, and was named “cellular T-DNA” (cT-DNA). It represents an imperfect inverted repeat and contains homologs of several T-DNA oncogenes (NgrolB, NgrolC, NgORF13, NgORF14) and an opine synthesis gene (Ngmis). A similar cT-DNA has also been found in other species of the genus Nicotiana. These presumably ancient homologs of T-DNA genes are still expressed, indicating that they may play a role in the evolution of these plants. Recently T-DNA has been detected and characterized in Linaria vulgaris and L. dalmatica. In Linaria vulgaris the cT-DNA is present in two copies and organized as a tandem imperfect direct repeat, containing LvORF2, LvORF3, LvORF8, LvrolA, LvrolB, LvrolC, LvORF13, LvORF14, and the Lvmis genes. All L. vulgaris and L. dalmatica plants screened contained the same T-DNA oncogenes and the mis gene. Evidence suggests that there were several independent T-DNA integration events into the genomes of these plant genera. We speculate that ancient plants transformed by A. rhizogenes might have acquired a selective advantage in competition with the parental species. Thus, the events of T-DNA insertion in the plant genome might have affected their evolution, resulting in the creation of new plant species. In this review we focus on the structure and functions of cT-DNA in Linaria and Nicotiana and discuss their possible evolutionary role. PMID:25157257

  7. Horizontal gene transfer of stress resistance genes through plasmid transport.

    PubMed

    Shoeb, Erum; Badar, Uzma; Akhter, Jameela; Shams, Hina; Sultana, Maria; Ansari, Maqsood A

    2012-03-01

    The horizontal gene transfer of plasmid-determined stress tolerance was achieved under lab conditions. Bacterial isolates, Enterobacter cloacae (DGE50) and Escherichia coli (DGE57) were used throughout the study. Samples were collected from contaminated marine water and soil to isolate bacterial strains having tolerance against heavy metals and antimicrobial agents. We have demonstrated plasmid transfer, from Amp(+)Cu(+)Zn(-) strain (DGE50) to Amp(-)Cu(-)Zn(+) strain (DGE57), producing Amp(+)Cu(+)Zn(+) transconjugants (DGE(TC50→57)) and Amp(+)Cu(-)Zn(+) transformants (DGE(TF50→57)). DGE57 did not carry any plasmid, therefore, it can be speculated that zinc tolerance gene in DGE57 is located on chromosome. DGE50 was found to carry three plasmids, out of which two were transferred through conjugation into DGE57, and only one was transferred through transformation. Plasmid transferred through transformation was one out of the two transferred through conjugation. Through the results of transformation it was revealed that the genes of copper and ampicillin tolerance in DGE50 were located on separate plasmids, since only ampicillin tolerance genes were transferred through transformation as a result of one plasmid transfer. By showing transfer of plasmids under lab conditions and monitoring retention of respective phenotype via conjugation and transformation, it is very well demonstrated how multiple stress tolerant strains are generated in nature. PMID:22805823

  8. Global Analysis of Horizontal Gene Transfer in Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The co-occurrence of microbes within plants and other specialized niches may facilitate horizontal gene transfer (HGT) affecting host-pathogen interactions. We recently identified fungal-to-fungal HGTs involving metabolic gene clusters. For a global analysis of HGTs in the maize pathogen Fusarium ve...

  9. Evolution of and horizontal gene transfer in the Endornavirus genus.

    PubMed

    Song, Dami; Cho, Won Kyong; Park, Sang-Ho; Jo, Yeonhwa; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2013-01-01

    The transfer of genetic information between unrelated species is referred to as horizontal gene transfer. Previous studies have demonstrated that both retroviral and non-retroviral sequences have been integrated into eukaryotic genomes. Recently, we identified many non-retroviral sequences in plant genomes. In this study, we investigated the evolutionary origin and gene transfer of domains present in endornaviruses which are double-stranded RNA viruses. Using the available sequences for endornaviruses, we found that Bell pepper endornavirus-like sequences homologous to the glycosyltransferase 28 domain are present in plants, fungi, and bacteria. The phylogenetic analysis revealed the glycosyltransferase 28 domain of Bell pepper endornavirus may have originated from bacteria. In addition, two domains of Oryza sativa endornavirus, a glycosyltransferase sugar-binding domain and a capsular polysaccharide synthesis protein, also exhibited high similarity to those of bacteria. We found evidence that at least four independent horizontal gene transfer events for the glycosyltransferase 28 domain have occurred among plants, fungi, and bacteria. The glycosyltransferase sugar-binding domains of two proteobacteria may have been horizontally transferred to the genome of Thalassiosira pseudonana. Our study is the first to show that three glycome-related viral genes in the genus Endornavirus have been acquired from marine bacteria by horizontal gene transfer. PMID:23667703

  10. Evolution of and Horizontal Gene Transfer in the Endornavirus Genus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-Ho; Jo, Yeonhwa; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2013-01-01

    The transfer of genetic information between unrelated species is referred to as horizontal gene transfer. Previous studies have demonstrated that both retroviral and non-retroviral sequences have been integrated into eukaryotic genomes. Recently, we identified many non-retroviral sequences in plant genomes. In this study, we investigated the evolutionary origin and gene transfer of domains present in endornaviruses which are double-stranded RNA viruses. Using the available sequences for endornaviruses, we found that Bell pepper endornavirus-like sequences homologous to the glycosyltransferase 28 domain are present in plants, fungi, and bacteria. The phylogenetic analysis revealed the glycosyltransferase 28 domain of Bell pepper endornavirus may have originated from bacteria. In addition, two domains of Oryza sativa endornavirus, a glycosyltransferase sugar-binding domain and a capsular polysaccharide synthesis protein, also exhibited high similarity to those of bacteria. We found evidence that at least four independent horizontal gene transfer events for the glycosyltransferase 28 domain have occurred among plants, fungi, and bacteria. The glycosyltransferase sugar-binding domains of two proteobacteria may have been horizontally transferred to the genome of Thalassiosira pseudonana. Our study is the first to show that three glycome-related viral genes in the genus Endornavirus have been acquired from marine bacteria by horizontal gene transfer. PMID:23667703

  11. Detection of horizontal gene transfers from phylogenetic comparisons.

    PubMed

    Pylro, Victor Satler; Vespoli, Luciano de Souza; Duarte, Gabriela Frois; Yotoko, Karla Suemy Clemente

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial phylogenies have become one of the most important challenges for microbial ecology. This field started in the mid-1970s with the aim of using the sequence of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (16S) tool to infer bacterial phylogenies. Phylogenetic hypotheses based on other sequences usually give conflicting topologies that reveal different evolutionary histories, which in some cases may be the result of horizontal gene transfer events. Currently, one of the major goals of molecular biology is to understand the role that horizontal gene transfer plays in species adaptation and evolution. In this work, we compared the phylogenetic tree based on 16S with the tree based on dszC, a gene involved in the cleavage of carbon-sulfur bonds. Bacteria of several genera perform this survival task when living in environments lacking free mineral sulfur. The biochemical pathway of the desulphurization process was extensively studied due to its economic importance, since this step is expensive and indispensable in fuel production. Our results clearly show that horizontal gene transfer events could be detected using common phylogenetic methods with gene sequences obtained from public sequence databases. PMID:22675653

  12. Horizontal functional gene transfer from bacteria to fishes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bao-Fa; Li, Tong; Xiao, Jin-Hua; Jia, Ling-Yi; Liu, Li; Zhang, Peng; Murphy, Robert W.; He, Shun-Min; Huang, Da-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Invertebrates can acquire functional genes via horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from bacteria but fishes are not known to do so. We provide the first reliable evidence of one HGT event from marine bacteria to fishes. The HGT appears to have occurred after emergence of the teleosts. The transferred gene is expressed and regulated developmentally. Its successful integration and expression may change the genetic and metabolic repertoire of fishes. In addition, this gene contains conserved domains and similar tertiary structures in fishes and their putative donor bacteria. Thus, it may function similarly in both groups. Evolutionary analyses indicate that it evolved under purifying selection, further indicating its conserved function. We document the first likely case of HGT of functional gene from prokaryote to fishes. This discovery certifies that HGT can influence vertebrate evolution. PMID:26691285

  13. Detection of homologous horizontal gene transfer in SNP data

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-07-23

    We study the detection of mutations, sequencing errors, and homologous horizontal gene transfers (HGT) in a set of closely related microbial genomes. We base the model on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP's) and break the genomes into blocks to handle the rearrangement problem. Then we apply a synamic programming algorithm to model whether changes within each block are likely a result of mutations, sequencing errors, or HGT.

  14. Horizontal gene transfer in eukaryotes: The weak-link model

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jinling

    2013-01-01

    The significance of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in eukaryotic evolution remains controversial. Although many eukaryotic genes are of bacterial origin, they are often interpreted as being derived from mitochondria or plastids. Because of their fixed gene pool and gene loss, however, mitochondria and plastids alone cannot adequately explain the presence of all, or even the majority, of bacterial genes in eukaryotes. Available data indicate that no insurmountable barrier to HGT exists, even in complex multicellular eukaryotes. In addition, the discovery of both recent and ancient HGT events in all major eukaryotic groups suggests that HGT has been a regular occurrence throughout the history of eukaryotic evolution. A model of HGT is proposed that suggests both unicellular and early developmental stages as likely entry points for foreign genes into multicellular eukaryotes. PMID:24037739

  15. Detecting Horizontal Gene Transfer between Closely Related Taxa.

    PubMed

    Adato, Orit; Ninyo, Noga; Gophna, Uri; Snir, Sagi

    2015-10-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), the transfer of genetic material between organisms, is crucial for genetic innovation and the evolution of genome architecture. Existing HGT detection algorithms rely on a strong phylogenetic signal distinguishing the transferred sequence from ancestral (vertically derived) genes in its recipient genome. Detecting HGT between closely related species or strains is challenging, as the phylogenetic signal is usually weak and the nucleotide composition is normally nearly identical. Nevertheless, there is a great importance in detecting HGT between congeneric species or strains, especially in clinical microbiology, where understanding the emergence of new virulent and drug-resistant strains is crucial, and often time-sensitive. We developed a novel, self-contained technique named Near HGT, based on the synteny index, to measure the divergence of a gene from its native genomic environment and used it to identify candidate HGT events between closely related strains. The method confirms candidate transferred genes based on the constant relative mutability (CRM). Using CRM, the algorithm assigns a confidence score based on "unusual" sequence divergence. A gene exhibiting exceptional deviations according to both synteny and mutability criteria, is considered a validated HGT product. We first employed the technique to a set of three E. coli strains and detected several highly probable horizontally acquired genes. We then compared the method to existing HGT detection tools using a larger strain data set. When combined with additional approaches our new algorithm provides richer picture and brings us closer to the goal of detecting all newly acquired genes in a particular strain. PMID:26439115

  16. Detecting Horizontal Gene Transfer between Closely Related Taxa

    PubMed Central

    Adato, Orit; Ninyo, Noga; Gophna, Uri; Snir, Sagi

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), the transfer of genetic material between organisms, is crucial for genetic innovation and the evolution of genome architecture. Existing HGT detection algorithms rely on a strong phylogenetic signal distinguishing the transferred sequence from ancestral (vertically derived) genes in its recipient genome. Detecting HGT between closely related species or strains is challenging, as the phylogenetic signal is usually weak and the nucleotide composition is normally nearly identical. Nevertheless, there is a great importance in detecting HGT between congeneric species or strains, especially in clinical microbiology, where understanding the emergence of new virulent and drug-resistant strains is crucial, and often time-sensitive. We developed a novel, self-contained technique named Near HGT, based on the synteny index, to measure the divergence of a gene from its native genomic environment and used it to identify candidate HGT events between closely related strains. The method confirms candidate transferred genes based on the constant relative mutability (CRM). Using CRM, the algorithm assigns a confidence score based on “unusual” sequence divergence. A gene exhibiting exceptional deviations according to both synteny and mutability criteria, is considered a validated HGT product. We first employed the technique to a set of three E. coli strains and detected several highly probable horizontally acquired genes. We then compared the method to existing HGT detection tools using a larger strain data set. When combined with additional approaches our new algorithm provides richer picture and brings us closer to the goal of detecting all newly acquired genes in a particular strain. PMID:26439115

  17. Dynamic monitoring of horizontal gene transfer in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, H. Y.; Masiello, C. A.; Silberg, J. J.; Bennett, G. N.

    2015-12-01

    Soil microbial gene expression underlies microbial behaviors (phenotypes) central to many aspects of C, N, and H2O cycling. However, continuous monitoring of microbial gene expression in soils is challenging because genetically-encoded reporter proteins widely used in the lab are difficult to deploy in soil matrices: for example, green fluorescent protein cannot be easily visualized in soils, even in the lab. To address this problem we have developed a reporter protein that releases small volatile gases. Here, we applied this gas reporter in a proof-of-concept soil experiment, monitoring horizontal gene transfer, a microbial activity that alters microbial genotypes and phenotypes. Horizontal gene transfer is central to bacterial evolution and adaptation and is relevant to problems such as the spread of antibiotic resistance, increasing metal tolerance in superfund sites, and bioremediation capability of bacterial consortia. This process is likely to be impacted by a number of matrix properties not well-represented in the petri dish, such as microscale variations in water, nutrients, and O2, making petri-dish experiments a poor proxy for environmental processes. We built a conjugation system using synthetic biology to demonstrate the use of gas-reporting biosensors in safe, lab-based biogeochemistry experiments, and here we report the use of these sensors to monitor horizontal gene transfer in soils. Our system is based on the F-plasmid conjugation in Escherichia coli. We have found that the gas signal reports on the number of cells that acquire F-plasmids (transconjugants) in a loamy Alfisol collected from Kellogg Biological Station. We will report how a gas signal generated by transconjugants varies with the number of F-plasmid donor and acceptor cells seeded in a soil, soil moisture, and soil O2 levels.

  18. Horizontal Gene Transfer Contributes to the Evolution of Arthropod Herbivory

    PubMed Central

    Wybouw, Nicky; Pauchet, Yannick; Heckel, David G.; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Within animals, evolutionary transition toward herbivory is severely limited by the hostile characteristics of plants. Arthropods have nonetheless counteracted many nutritional and defensive barriers imposed by plants and are currently considered as the most successful animal herbivores in terrestrial ecosystems. We gather a body of evidence showing that genomes of various plant feeding insects and mites possess genes whose presence can only be explained by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). HGT is the asexual transmission of genetic information between reproductively isolated species. Although HGT is known to have great adaptive significance in prokaryotes, its impact on eukaryotic evolution remains obscure. Here, we show that laterally transferred genes into arthropods underpin many adaptations to phytophagy, including efficient assimilation and detoxification of plant produced metabolites. Horizontally acquired genes and the traits they encode often functionally diversify within arthropod recipients, enabling the colonization of more host plant species and organs. We demonstrate that HGT can drive metazoan evolution by uncovering its prominent role in the adaptations of arthropods to exploit plants. PMID:27307274

  19. Horizontal Gene Transfer Contributes to the Evolution of Arthropod Herbivory.

    PubMed

    Wybouw, Nicky; Pauchet, Yannick; Heckel, David G; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Within animals, evolutionary transition toward herbivory is severely limited by the hostile characteristics of plants. Arthropods have nonetheless counteracted many nutritional and defensive barriers imposed by plants and are currently considered as the most successful animal herbivores in terrestrial ecosystems. We gather a body of evidence showing that genomes of various plant feeding insects and mites possess genes whose presence can only be explained by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). HGT is the asexual transmission of genetic information between reproductively isolated species. Although HGT is known to have great adaptive significance in prokaryotes, its impact on eukaryotic evolution remains obscure. Here, we show that laterally transferred genes into arthropods underpin many adaptations to phytophagy, including efficient assimilation and detoxification of plant produced metabolites. Horizontally acquired genes and the traits they encode often functionally diversify within arthropod recipients, enabling the colonization of more host plant species and organs. We demonstrate that HGT can drive metazoan evolution by uncovering its prominent role in the adaptations of arthropods to exploit plants. PMID:27307274

  20. Adaptive Horizontal Gene Transfers between Multiple Cheese-Associated Fungi.

    PubMed

    Ropars, Jeanne; Rodríguez de la Vega, Ricardo C; López-Villavicencio, Manuela; Gouzy, Jérôme; Sallet, Erika; Dumas, Émilie; Lacoste, Sandrine; Debuchy, Robert; Dupont, Joëlle; Branca, Antoine; Giraud, Tatiana

    2015-10-01

    Domestication is an excellent model for studies of adaptation because it involves recent and strong selection on a few, identified traits [1-5]. Few studies have focused on the domestication of fungi, with notable exceptions [6-11], despite their importance to bioindustry [12] and to a general understanding of adaptation in eukaryotes [5]. Penicillium fungi are ubiquitous molds among which two distantly related species have been independently selected for cheese making-P. roqueforti for blue cheeses like Roquefort and P. camemberti for soft cheeses like Camembert. The selected traits include morphology, aromatic profile, lipolytic and proteolytic activities, and ability to grow at low temperatures, in a matrix containing bacterial and fungal competitors [13-15]. By comparing the genomes of ten Penicillium species, we show that adaptation to cheese was associated with multiple recent horizontal transfers of large genomic regions carrying crucial metabolic genes. We identified seven horizontally transferred regions (HTRs) spanning more than 10 kb each, flanked by specific transposable elements, and displaying nearly 100% identity between distant Penicillium species. Two HTRs carried genes with functions involved in the utilization of cheese nutrients or competition and were found nearly identical in multiple strains and species of cheese-associated Penicillium fungi, indicating recent selective sweeps; they were experimentally associated with faster growth and greater competitiveness on cheese and contained genes highly expressed in the early stage of cheese maturation. These findings have industrial and food safety implications and improve our understanding of the processes of adaptation to rapid environmental changes. PMID:26412136

  1. HGTree: database of horizontally transferred genes determined by tree reconciliation

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyeonsoo; Sung, Samsun; Kwon, Taehyung; Seo, Minseok; Caetano-Anollés, Kelsey; Choi, Sang Ho; Cho, Seoae; Nasir, Arshan; Kim, Heebal

    2016-01-01

    The HGTree database provides putative genome-wide horizontal gene transfer (HGT) information for 2472 completely sequenced prokaryotic genomes. This task is accomplished by reconstructing approximate maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees for each orthologous gene and corresponding 16S rRNA reference species sets and then reconciling the two trees under parsimony framework. The tree reconciliation method is generally considered to be a reliable way to detect HGT events but its practical use has remained limited because the method is computationally intensive and conceptually challenging. In this regard, HGTree (http://hgtree.snu.ac.kr) represents a useful addition to the biological community and enables quick and easy retrieval of information for HGT-acquired genes to better understand microbial taxonomy and evolution. The database is freely available and can be easily scaled and updated to keep pace with the rapid rise in genomic information. PMID:26578597

  2. Horizontal gene transfer in the human gastrointestinal tract: potential spread of antibiotic resistance genes

    PubMed Central

    Huddleston, Jennifer R

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial infections are becoming increasingly difficult to treat due to widespread antibiotic resistance among pathogens. This review aims to give an overview of the major horizontal transfer mechanisms and their evolution and then demonstrate the human lower gastrointestinal tract as an environment in which horizontal gene transfer of resistance determinants occurs. Finally, implications for antibiotic usage and the development of resistant infections and persistence of antibiotic resistance genes in populations as a result of horizontal gene transfer in the large intestine will be discussed. PMID:25018641

  3. Evidence of horizontal gene transfer between obligate leaf nodule symbionts.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Carbó, Marta; Sieber, Simon; Dessein, Steven; Wicker, Thomas; Verstraete, Brecht; Gademann, Karl; Eberl, Leo; Carlier, Aurelien

    2016-09-01

    Bacteria of the genus Burkholderia establish an obligate symbiosis with plant species of the Rubiaceae and Primulaceae families. The bacteria, housed within the leaves, are transmitted hereditarily and have not yet been cultured. We have sequenced and compared the genomes of eight bacterial leaf nodule symbionts of the Rubiaceae plant family. All of the genomes exhibit features consistent with genome erosion. Genes potentially involved in the biosynthesis of kirkamide, an insecticidal C7N aminocyclitol, are conserved in most Rubiaceae symbionts. However, some have partially lost the kirkamide pathway due to genome erosion and are unable to synthesize the compound. Kirkamide synthesis is therefore not responsible for the obligate nature of the symbiosis. More importantly, we find evidence of intra-clade horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events affecting genes of the secondary metabolism. This indicates that substantial gene flow can occur at the early stages following host restriction in leaf nodule symbioses. We propose that host-switching events and plasmid conjugative transfers could have promoted these HGTs. This genomic analysis of leaf nodule symbionts gives, for the first time, new insights in the genome evolution of obligate symbionts in their early stages of the association with plants. PMID:26978165

  4. Adaptive Horizontal Gene Transfers between Multiple Cheese-Associated Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Ropars, Jeanne; Rodríguez de la Vega, Ricardo C.; López-Villavicencio, Manuela; Gouzy, Jérôme; Sallet, Erika; Dumas, Émilie; Lacoste, Sandrine; Debuchy, Robert; Dupont, Joëlle; Branca, Antoine; Giraud, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    Summary Domestication is an excellent model for studies of adaptation because it involves recent and strong selection on a few, identified traits [1–5]. Few studies have focused on the domestication of fungi, with notable exceptions [6–11], despite their importance to bioindustry [12] and to a general understanding of adaptation in eukaryotes [5]. Penicillium fungi are ubiquitous molds among which two distantly related species have been independently selected for cheese making—P. roqueforti for blue cheeses like Roquefort and P. camemberti for soft cheeses like Camembert. The selected traits include morphology, aromatic profile, lipolytic and proteolytic activities, and ability to grow at low temperatures, in a matrix containing bacterial and fungal competitors [13–15]. By comparing the genomes of ten Penicillium species, we show that adaptation to cheese was associated with multiple recent horizontal transfers of large genomic regions carrying crucial metabolic genes. We identified seven horizontally transferred regions (HTRs) spanning more than 10 kb each, flanked by specific transposable elements, and displaying nearly 100% identity between distant Penicillium species. Two HTRs carried genes with functions involved in the utilization of cheese nutrients or competition and were found nearly identical in multiple strains and species of cheese-associated Penicillium fungi, indicating recent selective sweeps; they were experimentally associated with faster growth and greater competitiveness on cheese and contained genes highly expressed in the early stage of cheese maturation. These findings have industrial and food safety implications and improve our understanding of the processes of adaptation to rapid environmental changes. PMID:26412136

  5. Synthetic Fatty Acids Prevent Plasmid-Mediated Horizontal Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Getino, María; Sanabria-Ríos, David J.; Fernández-López, Raúl; Campos-Gómez, Javier; Sánchez-López, José M.; Fernández, Antonio; Carballeira, Néstor M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial conjugation constitutes a major horizontal gene transfer mechanism for the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes among human pathogens. Antibiotic resistance spread could be halted or diminished by molecules that interfere with the conjugation process. In this work, synthetic 2-alkynoic fatty acids were identified as a novel class of conjugation inhibitors. Their chemical properties were investigated by using the prototype 2-hexadecynoic acid and its derivatives. Essential features of effective inhibitors were the carboxylic group, an optimal long aliphatic chain of 16 carbon atoms, and one unsaturation. Chemical modification of these groups led to inactive or less-active derivatives. Conjugation inhibitors were found to act on the donor cell, affecting a wide number of pathogenic bacterial hosts, including Escherichia, Salmonella, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter spp. Conjugation inhibitors were active in inhibiting transfer of IncF, IncW, and IncH plasmids, moderately active against IncI, IncL/M, and IncX plasmids, and inactive against IncP and IncN plasmids. Importantly, the use of 2-hexadecynoic acid avoided the spread of a derepressed IncF plasmid into a recipient population, demonstrating the feasibility of abolishing the dissemination of antimicrobial resistances by blocking bacterial conjugation. PMID:26330514

  6. Interaction between Conjugative and Retrotransposable Elements in Horizontal Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Novikova, Olga; Smith, Dorie; Hahn, Ingrid; Beauregard, Arthur; Belfort, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    Mobile genetic elements either encode their own mobilization machineries or hijack them from other mobile elements. Multiple classes of mobile elements often coexist within genomes and it is unclear whether they have the capacity to functionally interact and even collaborate. We investigate the possibility that molecular machineries of disparate mobile elements may functionally interact, using the example of a retrotransposon, in the form of a mobile group II intron, found on a conjugative plasmid pRS01 in Lactococcus lactis. This intron resides within the pRS01 ltrB gene encoding relaxase, the enzyme required for nicking the transfer origin (oriT) for conjugal transmission of the plasmid into a recipient cell. Here, we show that relaxase stimulates both the frequency and diversity of retrotransposition events using a retromobility indicator gene (RIG), and by developing a high-throughput genomic retrotransposition detection system called RIG-Seq. We demonstrate that LtrB relaxase not only nicks ssDNA of its cognate oriT in a sequence- and strand-specific manner, but also possesses weak off-target activity. Together, the data support a model in which the two different mobile elements, one using an RNA-based mechanism, the other using DNA-based transfer, do functionally interact. Intron splicing facilitates relaxase expression required for conjugation, whereas relaxase introduces spurious nicks in recipient DNA that stimulate both the frequency of intron mobility and the density of events. We hypothesize that this functional interaction between the mobile elements would promote horizontal conjugal gene transfer while stimulating intron dissemination in the donor and recipient cells. PMID:25474706

  7. Estimating the Frequency of Horizontal Gene Transfer Using Phylogenetic Models of Gene Gain and Loss.

    PubMed

    Zamani-Dahaj, Seyed Alireza; Okasha, Mohamed; Kosakowski, Jakub; Higgs, Paul G

    2016-07-01

    We analyze patterns of gene presence and absence in a maximum likelihood framework with rate parameters for gene gain and loss. Standard methods allow independent gains and losses in different parts of a tree. While losses of the same gene are likely to be frequent, multiple gains need to be considered carefully. A gene gain could occur by horizontal transfer or by origin of a gene within the lineage being studied. If a gene is gained more than once, then at least one of these gains must be a horizontal transfer. A key parameter is the ratio of gain to loss rates, a/v We consider the limiting case known as the infinitely many genes model, where a/v tends to zero and a gene cannot be gained more than once. The infinitely many genes model is used as a null model in comparison to models that allow multiple gains. Using genome data from cyanobacteria and archaea, it is found that the likelihood is significantly improved by allowing for multiple gains, but the average a/v is very small. The fraction of genes whose presence/absence pattern is best explained by multiple gains is only 15% in the cyanobacteria and 20% and 39% in two data sets of archaea. The distribution of rates of gene loss is very broad, which explains why many genes follow a treelike pattern of vertical inheritance, despite the presence of a significant minority of genes that undergo horizontal transfer. PMID:27189546

  8. Microbial Evolution Is in the Cards: Horizontal Gene Transfer in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagle, Jeanne; Hay, Anthony G.

    2007-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer, the exchange of genetic material between bacteria, is a potentially important factor in the degradation of synthetic compounds introduced to the environment and in the acquisition of other characteristics including antibiotic resistance. This game-based activity illustrates the role of horizontal gene transfer in the…

  9. Horizontal gene transfer in the acquisition of novel traits by metazoans

    PubMed Central

    Boto, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer is accepted as an important evolutionary force modulating the evolution of prokaryote genomes. However, it is thought that horizontal gene transfer plays only a minor role in metazoan evolution. In this paper, I critically review the rising evidence on horizontally transferred genes and on the acquisition of novel traits in metazoans. In particular, I discuss suspected examples in sponges, cnidarians, rotifers, nematodes, molluscs and arthropods which suggest that horizontal gene transfer in metazoans is not simply a curiosity. In addition, I stress the scarcity of studies in vertebrates and other animal groups and the importance of forthcoming studies to understand the importance and extent of horizontal gene transfer in animals. PMID:24403327

  10. Widespread impact of horizontal gene transfer on plant colonization of land

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Jipei; Hu, Xiangyang; Sun, Hang; Yang, Yongping; Huang, Jinling

    2012-01-01

    In complex multicellular eukaryotes such as animals and plants, horizontal gene transfer is commonly considered rare with very limited evolutionary significance. Here we show that horizontal gene transfer is a dynamic process occurring frequently in the early evolution of land plants. Our genome analyses of the moss Physcomitrella patens identified 57 families of nuclear genes that were acquired from prokaryotes, fungi or viruses. Many of these gene families were transferred to the ancestors of green or land plants. Available experimental evidence shows that these anciently acquired genes are involved in some essential or plant-specific activities such as xylem formation, plant defence, nitrogen recycling as well as the biosynthesis of starch, polyamines, hormones and glutathione. These findings suggest that horizontal gene transfer had a critical role in the transition of plants from aquatic to terrestrial environments. On the basis of these findings, we propose a model of horizontal gene transfer mechanism in nonvascular and seedless vascular plants. PMID:23093189

  11. Migration and horizontal gene transfer divide microbial genomes into multiple niches.

    PubMed

    Niehus, Rene; Mitri, Sara; Fletcher, Alexander G; Foster, Kevin R

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer is central to microbial evolution, because it enables genetic regions to spread horizontally through diverse communities. However, how gene transfer exerts such a strong effect is not understood. Here we develop an eco-evolutionary model and show how genetic transfer, even when rare, can transform the evolution and ecology of microbes. We recapitulate existing models, which suggest that asexual reproduction will overpower horizontal transfer and greatly limit its effects. We then show that allowing immigration completely changes these predictions. With migration, the rates and impacts of horizontal transfer are greatly increased, and transfer is most frequent for loci under positive natural selection. Our analysis explains how ecologically important loci can sweep through competing strains and species. In this way, microbial genomes can evolve to become ecologically diverse where different genomic regions encode for partially overlapping, but distinct, ecologies. Under these conditions ecological species do not exist, because genes, not species, inhabit niches. PMID:26592443

  12. Migration and horizontal gene transfer divide microbial genomes into multiple niches

    PubMed Central

    Niehus, Rene; Mitri, Sara; Fletcher, Alexander G.; Foster, Kevin R.

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer is central to microbial evolution, because it enables genetic regions to spread horizontally through diverse communities. However, how gene transfer exerts such a strong effect is not understood. Here we develop an eco-evolutionary model and show how genetic transfer, even when rare, can transform the evolution and ecology of microbes. We recapitulate existing models, which suggest that asexual reproduction will overpower horizontal transfer and greatly limit its effects. We then show that allowing immigration completely changes these predictions. With migration, the rates and impacts of horizontal transfer are greatly increased, and transfer is most frequent for loci under positive natural selection. Our analysis explains how ecologically important loci can sweep through competing strains and species. In this way, microbial genomes can evolve to become ecologically diverse where different genomic regions encode for partially overlapping, but distinct, ecologies. Under these conditions ecological species do not exist, because genes, not species, inhabit niches. PMID:26592443

  13. Horizontal Gene Transfer and the Genomics of Enterococcal Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Kelli L.; Kos, Veronica N.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Enterococci are Gram-positive bacteria that normally colonize gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. They are of growing concern because of their ability to cause antibiotic resistant hospital infections. Antibiotic resistance has been acquired, and has disseminated throughout enterococci, via horizontal transfer of mobile genetic elements. This transmission has been mediated mainly by conjugative plasmids of the pheromone-responsive and broad host range incompatibility group 18 type. Genome sequencing is revealing the extent of diversity of these and other mobile elements in enterococci, as well as the extent of recombination and rearrangement resulting in new phenotypes. Pheromone-responsive plasmids were recently shown to promote genome plasticity in antibiotic resistant Enterococcus faecalis, and their involvement has been implicated in E. faecium as well. Further, incompatibility group 18 plasmids have recently played an important role in mediating transfer of vancomycin resistance from enterococci to methicillin resistant strains of S. aureus. PMID:20837397

  14. Statistical Mechanics of Horizontal Gene Transfer in Evolutionary Ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chia, Nicholas; Goldenfeld, Nigel

    2011-04-01

    The biological world, especially its majority microbial component, is strongly interacting and may be dominated by collective effects. In this review, we provide a brief introduction for statistical physicists of the way in which living cells communicate genetically through transferred genes, as well as the ways in which they can reorganize their genomes in response to environmental pressure. We discuss how genome evolution can be thought of as related to the physical phenomenon of annealing, and describe the sense in which genomes can be said to exhibit an analogue of information entropy. As a direct application of these ideas, we analyze the variation with ocean depth of transposons in marine microbial genomes, predicting trends that are consistent with recent observations using metagenomic surveys.

  15. Indications for Acquisition of Reductive Dehalogenase Genes through Horizontal Gene Transfer by Dehalococcoides ethenogenes Strain 195

    PubMed Central

    Regeard, Christophe; Maillard, Julien; Dufraigne, Christine; Deschavanne, Patrick; Holliger, Christof

    2005-01-01

    The genome of Dehalococcoides ethenogenes strain 195, an anaerobic dehalorespiring bacterium, contains 18 copies of putative reductive dehalogenase genes, including the well-characterized tceA gene, whose gene product functions as the key enzyme in the environmentally important dehalorespiration process. The genome of D. ethenogenes was analyzed using a bioinformatic tool based on the frequency of oligonucleotides. The results in the form of a genomic signature revealed several local disruptions of the host signature along the genome sequence. These fractures represent DNA segments of potentially foreign origin, so-called atypical regions, which may have been acquired by an ancestor through horizontal gene transfer. Most interestingly, 15 of the 18 reductive dehalogenase genes, including the tceA gene, were found to be located in these regions, strongly indicating the foreign nature of the dehalorespiration activity. The GC content and the presence of recombinase genes within some of these regions corroborate this hypothesis. A hierarchical classification of the atypical regions containing the reductive dehalogenase genes indicated that these regions were probably acquired by several gene transfer events. PMID:15932990

  16. Genome-wide experimental determination of barriers to horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Sorek, Rotem; Zhu, Yiwen; Creevey, Christopher J; Francino, M Pilar; Bork, Peer; Rubin, Edward M

    2007-11-30

    Horizontal gene transfer, in which genetic material is transferred from the genome of one organism to that of another, has been investigated in microbial species mainly through computational sequence analyses. To address the lack of experimental data, we studied the attempted movement of 246,045 genes from 79 prokaryotic genomes into Escherichia coli and identified genes that consistently fail to transfer. We studied the mechanisms underlying transfer inhibition by placing coding regions from different species under the control of inducible promoters. Our data suggest that toxicity to the host inhibited transfer regardless of the species of origin and that increased gene dosage and associated increased expression may be a predominant cause for transfer failure. Although these experimental studies examined transfer solely into E. coli, a computational analysis of gene-transfer rates across available bacterial and archaeal genomes supports that the barriers observed in our study are general across the tree of life. PMID:17947550

  17. Genome-wide experimental determination of barriers to horizontal gene transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, Edward; Sorek, Rotem; Zhu, Yiwen; Creevey, Christopher J.; Francino, M. Pilar; Bork, Peer; Rubin, Edward M.

    2007-09-24

    Horizontal gene transfer, in which genetic material is transferred from the genome of one organism to another, has been investigated in microbial species mainly through computational sequence analyses. To address the lack of experimental data, we studied the attempted movement of 246,045 genes from 79 prokaryotic genomes into E. coli and identified genes that consistently fail to transfer. We studied the mechanisms underlying transfer inhibition by placing coding regions from different species under the control of inducible promoters. Their toxicity to the host inhibited transfer regardless of the species of origin and our data suggest that increased gene dosage and associated increased expression is a predominant cause for transfer failure. While these experimental studies examined transfer solely into E. coli, a computational analysis of gene transfer rates across available bacterial and archaeal genomes indicates that the barriers observed in our study are general across the tree of life.

  18. Horizontal transference of S-layer genes within Thermus thermophilus.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Herrero, L A; Olabarría, G; Castón, J R; Lasa, I; Berenguer, J

    1995-01-01

    The S-layers of Thermus thermophilus HB27 and T. thermophilus HB8 are composed of protein units of 95 kDa (P95) and 100 kDa (P100), respectively. We have selected S-layer deletion mutants from both strains by complete replacement of the slpA gene. Mutants of the two strains showed similar defects in growth and morphology and overproduced an external cell envelope inside of which cells remained after division. However, the nature of this external layer is strain specific, being easily stained and regular in the HB8 delta slpA derivative and amorphous and poorly stained in the HB27 delta slpA strain. The addition of chromosomic DNA from T. thermophilus HB8 to growing cultures of T. thermophilus HB27 delta slpA led to the selection of a new strain, HB27C8, which expressed a functional S-layer composed of the P100 protein. Conversely, the addition of chromosomic DNA from T. thermophilus HB27 to growing cultures of T. thermophilus HB8 delta slpA allowed the isolation of strain HB8C27, which expressed a functional S-layer composed of the P95 protein. The driving force which selected the transference of the S-layer genes in these experiments was the difference in growth rates, one of the main factors leading to selection in natural environments. PMID:7559330

  19. Extensive Intra-Kingdom Horizontal Gene Transfer Converging on a Fungal Fructose Transporter Gene

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Marco A.; Gonçalves, Carla; Sampaio, José Paulo; Gonçalves, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Comparative genomics revealed in the last decade a scenario of rampant horizontal gene transfer (HGT) among prokaryotes, but for fungi a clearly dominant pattern of vertical inheritance still stands, punctuated however by an increasing number of exceptions. In the present work, we studied the phylogenetic distribution and pattern of inheritance of a fungal gene encoding a fructose transporter (FSY1) with unique substrate selectivity. 109 FSY1 homologues were identified in two sub-phyla of the Ascomycota, in a survey that included 241 available fungal genomes. At least 10 independent inter-species instances of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) involving FSY1 were identified, supported by strong phylogenetic evidence and synteny analyses. The acquisition of FSY1 through HGT was sometimes suggestive of xenolog gene displacement, but several cases of pseudoparalogy were also uncovered. Moreover, evidence was found for successive HGT events, possibly including those responsible for transmission of the gene among yeast lineages. These occurrences do not seem to be driven by functional diversification of the Fsy1 proteins because Fsy1 homologues from widely distant lineages, including at least one acquired by HGT, appear to have similar biochemical properties. In summary, retracing the evolutionary path of the FSY1 gene brought to light an unparalleled number of independent HGT events involving a single fungal gene. We propose that the turbulent evolutionary history of the gene may be linked to the unique biochemical properties of the encoded transporter, whose predictable effect on fitness may be highly variable. In general, our results support the most recent views suggesting that inter-species HGT may have contributed much more substantially to shape fungal genomes than heretofore assumed. PMID:23818872

  20. Horizontally transferred genes in the genome of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years, as the development of next-generation sequencing technology, a growing number of genes have been reported as being horizontally transferred from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, most of them involving arthropods. As a member of the phylum Arthropoda, the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei has to adapt to the complex water environments with various symbiotic or parasitic microorganisms, which provide a platform for horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Results In this study, we analyzed the genome-wide HGT events in L. vannamei. Through homology search and phylogenetic analysis, followed by experimental PCR confirmation, 14 genes with HGT event were identified: 12 of them were transferred from bacteria and two from fungi. Structure analysis of these genes showed that the introns of the two fungi-originated genes were substituted by shrimp DNA fragment, two genes transferred from bacteria had shrimp specific introns inserted in them. Furthermore, around other three bacteria-originated genes, there were three large DNA segments inserted into the shrimp genome. One segment was a transposon that fully transferred, and the other two segments contained only coding regions of bacteria. Functional prediction of these 14 genes showed that 6 of them might be related to energy metabolism, and 4 others related to defense of the organism. Conclusions HGT events from bacteria or fungi were happened in the genome of L. vannamei, and these horizontally transferred genes can be transcribed in shrimp. This is the first time to report the existence of horizontally transferred genes in shrimp. Importantly, most of these genes are exposed to a negative selection pressure and appeared to be functional. PMID:23914989

  1. Horizontal gene transfer of a Chlamydial tRNA-guanine transglycosylase gene to eukaryotic microbes.

    PubMed

    Manna, Sam; Harman, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    tRNA-guanine transglycosylases are found in all domains of life and mediate the base exchange of guanine with queuine in the anticodon loop of tRNAs. They can also regulate virulence in bacteria such as Shigella flexneri, which has prompted the development of drugs that inhibit the function of these enzymes. Here we report a group of tRNA-guanine transglycosylases in eukaryotic microbes (algae and protozoa) which are more similar to their bacterial counterparts than previously characterized eukaryotic tRNA-guanine transglycosylases. We provide evidence demonstrating that the genes encoding these enzymes were acquired by these eukaryotic lineages via horizontal gene transfer from the Chlamydiae group of bacteria. Given that the S. flexneri tRNA-guanine transglycosylase can be targeted by drugs, we propose that the bacterial-like tRNA-guanine transglycosylases could potentially be targeted in a similar fashion in pathogenic amoebae that possess these enzymes such as Acanthamoeba castellanii. This work also presents ancient prokaryote-to-eukaryote horizontal gene transfer events as an untapped resource of potential drug target identification in pathogenic eukaryotes. PMID:26435002

  2. Amoebozoa possess lineage-specific globin gene repertoires gained by individual horizontal gene transfers.

    PubMed

    Dröge, Jasmin; Buczek, Dorota; Suzuki, Yutaka; Makałowski, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The Amoebozoa represent a clade of unicellular amoeboid organisms that display a wide variety of lifestyles, including free-living and parasitic species. For example, the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has the ability to aggregate into a multicellular fruiting body upon starvation, while the pathogenic amoeba Entamoeba histolytica is a parasite of humans. Globins are small heme proteins that are present in almost all extant organisms. Although several genomes of amoebozoan species have been sequenced, little is known about the phyletic distribution of globin genes within this phylum. Only two flavohemoglobins (FHbs) of D. discoideum have been reported and characterized previously while the genomes of Entamoeba species are apparently devoid of globin genes. We investigated eleven amoebozoan species for the presence of globin genes by genomic and phylogenetic in silico analyses. Additional FHb genes were identified in the genomes of four social amoebas and the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum. Moreover, a single-domain globin (SDFgb) of Hartmannella vermiformis, as well as two truncated hemoglobins (trHbs) of Acanthamoeba castellanii were identified. Phylogenetic evidence suggests that these globin genes were independently acquired via horizontal gene transfer from some ancestral bacteria. Furthermore, the phylogenetic tree of amoebozoan FHbs indicates that they do not share a common ancestry and that a transfer of FHbs from bacteria to amoeba occurred multiple times. PMID:25013378

  3. Applying horizontal gene transfer phenomena to enhance non-viral gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Elmer, Jacob J.; Christensen, Matthew D.; Rege, Kaushal

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is widespread amongst prokaryotes, but eukaryotes tend to be far less promiscuous with their genetic information. However, several examples of HGT from pathogens into eukaryotic cells have been discovered and mimicked to improve non-viral gene delivery techniques. For example, several viral proteins and DNA sequences have been used to significantly increase cytoplasmic and nuclear gene delivery. Plant genetic engineering is routinely performed with the pathogenic bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens and similar pathogens (e.g. Bartonella henselae) may also be able to transform human cells. Intracellular parasites like Trypanosoma cruzi may also provide new insights into overcoming cellular barriers to gene delivery. Finally, intercellular nucleic acid transfer between host cells will also be briefly discussed. This article will review the unique characteristics of several different viruses and microbes and discuss how their traits have been successfully applied to improve non-viral gene delivery techniques. Consequently, pathogenic traits that originally caused diseases may eventually be used to treat many genetic diseases. PMID:23994344

  4. Complexity of genetic sequences modified by horizontal gene transfer and degraded-DNA uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremberger, George; Dehipawala, S.; Nguyen, A.; Cheung, E.; Sullivan, R.; Holden, T.; Lieberman, D.; Cheung, T.

    2015-09-01

    Horizontal gene transfer has been a major vehicle for efficient transfer of genetic materials among living species and could be one of the sources for noncoding DNA incorporation into a genome. Our previous study of lnc- RNA sequence complexity in terms of fractal dimension and information entropy shows a tight regulation among the studied genes in numerous diseases. The role of sequence complexity in horizontal transferred genes was investigated with Mealybug in symbiotic relation with a 139K genome microbe and Deinococcus radiodurans as examples. The fractal dimension and entropy showed correlation R-sq of 0.82 (N = 6) for the studied Deinococcus radiodurans sequences. For comparison the Deinococcus radiodurans oxidative stress tolerant catalase and superoxide dismutase genes under extracellular dGMP growth condition showed R-sq ~ 0.42 (N = 6); and the studied arsenate reductase horizontal transferred genes for toxicity survival in several microorganisms showed no correlation. Simulation results showed that R-sq < 0.4 would be improbable at less than one percent chance, suggestive of additional selection pressure when compared to the R-sq ~ 0.29 (N = 21) in the studied transferred genes in Mealybug. The mild correlation of R-sq ~ 0.5 for fractal dimension versus transcription level in the studied Deinococcus radiodurans sequences upon extracellular dGMP growth condition would suggest that lower fractal dimension with less electron density fluctuation favors higher transcription level.

  5. Horizontal gene transfer and the evolution of transcriptionalregulation in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Morgan N.; Dehal, Paramvir S.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2007-12-20

    Background: Most bacterial genes were acquired by horizontalgene transfer from other bacteria instead of being inherited bycontinuous vertical descent from an ancient ancestor}. To understand howthe regulation of these {acquired} genes evolved, we examined theevolutionary histories of transcription factors and of regulatoryinteractions from the model bacterium Escherichia coli K12. Results:Although most transcription factors have paralogs, these usually arose byhorizontal gene transfer rather than by duplication within the E. colilineage, as previously believed. In general, most neighbor regulators --regulators that are adjacent to genes that they regulate -- were acquiredby horizontal gene transfer, while most global regulators evolvedvertically within the gamma-Proteobacteria. Neighbor regulators wereoften acquired together with the adjacent operon that they regulate, sothe proximity might be maintained by repeated transfers (like "selfishoperons"). Many of the as-yet-uncharacterized (putative) regulators havealso been acquired together with adjacent genes, so we predict that theseare neighbor regulators as well. When we analyzed the histories ofregulatory interactions, we found that the evolution of regulation byduplication was rare, and surprisingly, many of the regulatoryinteractions that are shared between paralogs result from convergentevolution. Another surprise was that horizontally transferred genes aremore likely than other genes to be regulated by multiple regulators, andmost of this complex regulation probably evolved after the transfer.Conclusions: Our results highlight the rapid evolution of niche-specificgene regulation in bacteria.

  6. Horizontal gene transfer and gene dosage drives adaptation to wood colonization in a tree pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Braham; Feau, Nicolas; Aerts, Andrea L.; Beauseigle, Stéphanie; Bernier, Louis; Copeland, Alex; Foster, Adam; Gill, Navdeep; Henrissat, Bernard; Herath, Padmini; LaButti, Kurt M.; Levasseur, Anthony; Lindquist, Erika A.; Majoor, Eline; Ohm, Robin A.; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L.; Pribowo, Amadeus; Saddler, John N.; Sakalidis, Monique L.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Tanguay, Philippe; Hamelin, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    Some of the most damaging tree pathogens can attack woody stems, causing lesions (cankers) that may be lethal. To identify the genomic determinants of wood colonization leading to canker formation, we sequenced the genomes of the poplar canker pathogen, Mycosphaerella populorum, and the closely related poplar leaf pathogen, M. populicola. A secondary metabolite cluster unique to M. populorum is fully activated following induction by poplar wood and leaves. In addition, genes encoding hemicellulose-degrading enzymes, peptidases, and metabolite transporters were more abundant and were up-regulated in M. populorum growing on poplar wood-chip medium compared with M. populicola. The secondary gene cluster and several of the carbohydrate degradation genes have the signature of horizontal transfer from ascomycete fungi associated with wood decay and from prokaryotes. Acquisition and maintenance of the gene battery necessary for growth in woody tissues and gene dosage resulting in gene expression reconfiguration appear to be responsible for the adaptation of M. populorum to infect, colonize, and cause mortality on poplar woody stems. PMID:25733908

  7. Horizontal gene transfer and gene dosage drives adaptation to wood colonization in a tree pathogen.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Braham; Feau, Nicolas; Aerts, Andrea L; Beauseigle, Stéphanie; Bernier, Louis; Copeland, Alex; Foster, Adam; Gill, Navdeep; Henrissat, Bernard; Herath, Padmini; LaButti, Kurt M; Levasseur, Anthony; Lindquist, Erika A; Majoor, Eline; Ohm, Robin A; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L; Pribowo, Amadeus; Saddler, John N; Sakalidis, Monique L; de Vries, Ronald P; Grigoriev, Igor V; Goodwin, Stephen B; Tanguay, Philippe; Hamelin, Richard C

    2015-03-17

    Some of the most damaging tree pathogens can attack woody stems, causing lesions (cankers) that may be lethal. To identify the genomic determinants of wood colonization leading to canker formation, we sequenced the genomes of the poplar canker pathogen, Mycosphaerella populorum, and the closely related poplar leaf pathogen, M. populicola. A secondary metabolite cluster unique to M. populorum is fully activated following induction by poplar wood and leaves. In addition, genes encoding hemicellulose-degrading enzymes, peptidases, and metabolite transporters were more abundant and were up-regulated in M. populorum growing on poplar wood-chip medium compared with M. populicola. The secondary gene cluster and several of the carbohydrate degradation genes have the signature of horizontal transfer from ascomycete fungi associated with wood decay and from prokaryotes. Acquisition and maintenance of the gene battery necessary for growth in woody tissues and gene dosage resulting in gene expression reconfiguration appear to be responsible for the adaptation of M. populorum to infect, colonize, and cause mortality on poplar woody stems. PMID:25733908

  8. The Fusarium graminearum Genome Reveals More Secondary Metabolite Gene Clusters and Hints of Horizontal Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Philip; Münsterkötter, Martin; Mewes, Hans-Werner; Schmeitzl, Clemens; Varga, Elisabeth; Berthiller, Franz; Adam, Gerhard; Güldener, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Fungal secondary metabolite biosynthesis genes are of major interest due to the pharmacological properties of their products (like mycotoxins and antibiotics). The genome of the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum codes for a large number of candidate enzymes involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis. However, the chemical nature of most enzymatic products of proteins encoded by putative secondary metabolism biosynthetic genes is largely unknown. Based on our analysis we present 67 gene clusters with significant enrichment of predicted secondary metabolism related enzymatic functions. 20 gene clusters with unknown metabolites exhibit strong gene expression correlation in planta and presumably play a role in virulence. Furthermore, the identification of conserved and over-represented putative transcription factor binding sites serves as additional evidence for cluster co-regulation. Orthologous cluster search provided insight into the evolution of secondary metabolism clusters. Some clusters are characteristic for the Fusarium phylum while others show evidence of horizontal gene transfer as orthologs can be found in representatives of the Botrytis or Cochliobolus lineage. The presented candidate clusters provide valuable targets for experimental examination. PMID:25333987

  9. Horizontal gene transfer of an entire metabolic pathway between a eukaryotic alga and its DNA virus.

    PubMed

    Monier, Adam; Pagarete, António; de Vargas, Colomban; Allen, Michael J; Read, Betsy; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Ogata, Hiroyuki

    2009-08-01

    Interactions between viruses and phytoplankton, the main primary producers in the oceans, affect global biogeochemical cycles and climate. Recent studies are increasingly revealing possible cases of gene transfers between cyanobacteria and phages, which might have played significant roles in the evolution of cyanobacteria/phage systems. However, little has been documented about the occurrence of horizontal gene transfer in eukaryotic phytoplankton/virus systems. Here we report phylogenetic evidence for the transfer of seven genes involved in the sphingolipid biosynthesis pathway between the cosmopolitan eukaryotic microalga Emiliania huxleyi and its large DNA virus EhV. PCR assays indicate that these genes are prevalent in E. huxleyi and EhV strains isolated from different geographic locations. Patterns of protein and gene sequence conservation support that these genes are functional in both E. huxleyi and EhV. This is the first clear case of horizontal gene transfer of multiple functionally linked enzymes in a eukaryotic phytoplankton-virus system. We examine arguments for the possible direction of the gene transfer. The virus-to-host direction suggests the existence of ancient viruses that controlled the complex metabolic pathway in order to infect primitive eukaryotic cells. In contrast, the host-to-virus direction suggests that the serial acquisition of genes involved in the same metabolic pathway might have been a strategy for the ancestor of EhVs to stay ahead of their closest relatives in the great evolutionary race for survival. PMID:19451591

  10. Horizontal gene transfer of an entire metabolic pathway between a eukaryotic alga and its DNA virus

    PubMed Central

    Monier, Adam; Pagarete, António; de Vargas, Colomban; Allen, Michael J.; Read, Betsy; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Ogata, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Interactions between viruses and phytoplankton, the main primary producers in the oceans, affect global biogeochemical cycles and climate. Recent studies are increasingly revealing possible cases of gene transfers between cyanobacteria and phages, which might have played significant roles in the evolution of cyanobacteria/phage systems. However, little has been documented about the occurrence of horizontal gene transfer in eukaryotic phytoplankton/virus systems. Here we report phylogenetic evidence for the transfer of seven genes involved in the sphingolipid biosynthesis pathway between the cosmopolitan eukaryotic microalga Emiliania huxleyi and its large DNA virus EhV. PCR assays indicate that these genes are prevalent in E. huxleyi and EhV strains isolated from different geographic locations. Patterns of protein and gene sequence conservation support that these genes are functional in both E. huxleyi and EhV. This is the first clear case of horizontal gene transfer of multiple functionally linked enzymes in a eukaryotic phytoplankton–virus system. We examine arguments for the possible direction of the gene transfer. The virus-to-host direction suggests the existence of ancient viruses that controlled the complex metabolic pathway in order to infect primitive eukaryotic cells. In contrast, the host-to-virus direction suggests that the serial acquisition of genes involved in the same metabolic pathway might have been a strategy for the ancestor of EhVs to stay ahead of their closest relatives in the great evolutionary race for survival. PMID:19451591

  11. Nanoalumina promotes the horizontal transfer of multiresistance genes mediated by plasmids across genera

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Zhigang; Yu, Yunmei; Chen, Zhaoli; Jin, Min; Yang, Dong; Zhao, Zuguo; Wang, Jingfeng; Shen, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xinwei; Qian, Di; Huang, Aihua; Zhang, Buchang; Li, Jun-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide public health concern. Conjugative transfer between closely related strains or species of bacteria is an important method for the horizontal transfer of multidrug-resistance genes. The extent to which nanomaterials are able to cause an increase in antibiotic resistance by the regulation of the conjugative transfer of antibiotic-resistance genes in bacteria, especially across genera, is still unknown. Here we show that nanomaterials in water can significantly promote the horizontal conjugative transfer of multidrug-resistance genes mediated by the RP4, RK2, and pCF10 plasmids. Nanoalumina can promote the conjugative transfer of the RP4 plasmid from Escherichia coli to Salmonella spp. by up to 200-fold compared with untreated cells. We also explored the mechanisms behind this phenomenon and demonstrate that nanoalumina is able to induce oxidative stress, damage bacterial cell membranes, enhance the expression of mating pair formation genes and DNA transfer and replication genes, and depress the expression of global regulatory genes that regulate the conjugative transfer of RP4. These findings are important in assessing the risk of nanomaterials to the environment, particularly from water and wastewater treatment systems, and in the estimation of the effect of manufacture and use of nanomaterials on the environment. PMID:22411796

  12. Multiple Inter-Kingdom Horizontal Gene Transfers in the Evolution of the Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen; Su, Bing

    2012-01-01

    Pepcase is a gene encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase that exists in bacteria, archaea and plants,playing an important role in plant metabolism and development. Most plants have two or more pepcase genes belonging to two gene sub-families, while only one gene exists in other organisms. Previous research categorized one plant pepcase gene as plant-type pepcase (PTPC) while the other as bacteria-type pepcase (BTPC) because of its similarity with the pepcase gene found in bacteria. Phylogenetic reconstruction showed that PTPC is the ancestral lineage of plant pepcase, and that all bacteria, protistpepcase and BTPC in plants are derived from a lineage of pepcase closely related with PTPC in algae. However, their phylogeny contradicts the species tree and traditional chronology of organism evolution. Because the diversification of bacteria occurred much earlier than the origin of plants, presumably all bacterialpepcase derived from the ancestral PTPC of algal plants after divergingfrom the ancestor of vascular plant PTPC. To solve this contradiction, we reconstructed the phylogeny of pepcase gene family. Our result showed that both PTPC and BTPC are derived from an ancestral lineage of gamma-proteobacteriapepcases, possibly via an ancient inter-kingdom horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from bacteria to the eukaryotic common ancestor of plants, protists and cellular slime mold. Our phylogenetic analysis also found 48other pepcase genes originated from inter-kingdom HGTs. These results imply that inter-kingdom HGTs played important roles in the evolution of the pepcase gene family and furthermore that HGTsare a more frequent evolutionary event than previouslythought. PMID:23251445

  13. Multiple inter-kingdom horizontal gene transfers in the evolution of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene family.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yingmei; Cai, Jing; Wang, Wen; Su, Bing

    2012-01-01

    Pepcase is a gene encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase that exists in bacteria, archaea and plants,playing an important role in plant metabolism and development. Most plants have two or more pepcase genes belonging to two gene sub-families, while only one gene exists in other organisms. Previous research categorized one plant pepcase gene as plant-type pepcase (PTPC) while the other as bacteria-type pepcase (BTPC) because of its similarity with the pepcase gene found in bacteria. Phylogenetic reconstruction showed that PTPC is the ancestral lineage of plant pepcase, and that all bacteria, protistpepcase and BTPC in plants are derived from a lineage of pepcase closely related with PTPC in algae. However, their phylogeny contradicts the species tree and traditional chronology of organism evolution. Because the diversification of bacteria occurred much earlier than the origin of plants, presumably all bacterialpepcase derived from the ancestral PTPC of algal plants after divergingfrom the ancestor of vascular plant PTPC. To solve this contradiction, we reconstructed the phylogeny of pepcase gene family. Our result showed that both PTPC and BTPC are derived from an ancestral lineage of gamma-proteobacteriapepcases, possibly via an ancient inter-kingdom horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from bacteria to the eukaryotic common ancestor of plants, protists and cellular slime mold. Our phylogenetic analysis also found 48other pepcase genes originated from inter-kingdom HGTs. These results imply that inter-kingdom HGTs played important roles in the evolution of the pepcase gene family and furthermore that HGTsare a more frequent evolutionary event than previouslythought. PMID:23251445

  14. Decreasing the effects of horizontal gene transfer on bacterial phylogeny: the Escherichia coli case study.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Páramo, Patricia; Sabbagh, Audrey; Darlu, Pierre; Pradillon, Olivier; Vaury, Christelle; Denamur, Erick; Lecointre, Guillaume

    2004-01-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions of bacterial species from DNA sequences are hampered by the existence of horizontal gene transfer. One possible way to overcome the confounding influence of such movement of genes is to identify and remove sequences which are responsible for significant character incongruence when compared to a reference dataset free of horizontal transfer (e.g., multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, restriction fragment length polymorphism, or random amplified polymorphic DNA) using the incongruence length difference (ILD) test of Farris et al. [Cladistics 10 (1995) 315]. As obtaining this "whole genome dataset" prior to the reconstruction of a phylogeny is clearly troublesome, we have tested alternative approaches allowing the release from such reference dataset, designed for a species with modest level of horizontal gene transfer, i.e., Escherichia coli. Eleven different genes available or sequenced in this work were studied in a set of 30 E. coli reference (ECOR) strains. Either using ILD to test incongruence between each gene against the all remaining (in this case 10) genes in order to remove sequences responsible for significant incongruence, or using just a simultaneous analysis without removals, gave robust phylogenies with slight topological differences. The use of the ILD test remains a suitable method for estimating the level of horizontal gene transfer in bacterial species. Supertrees also had suitable properties to extract the phylogeny of strains, because the way they summarize taxonomic congruence clearly limits the impact of individual gene transfers on the global topology. Furthermore, this work allowed a significant improvement of the accuracy of the phylogeny within E. coli. PMID:15022774

  15. Horizontal Gene Transfer of Pectinases from Bacteria Preceded the Diversification of Stick and Leaf Insects

    PubMed Central

    Shelomi, Matan; Danchin, Etienne G. J.; Heckel, David; Wipfler, Benjamin; Bradler, Sven; Zhou, Xin; Pauchet, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    Genes acquired by horizontal transfer are increasingly being found in animal genomes. Understanding their origin and evolution requires knowledge about the phylogenetic relationships from both source and recipient organisms. We used RNASeq data and respective assembled transcript libraries to trace the evolutionary history of polygalacturonase (pectinase) genes in stick insects (Phasmatodea). By mapping the distribution of pectinase genes on a Polyneoptera phylogeny, we identified the transfer of pectinase genes from known phasmatodean gut microbes into the genome of an early euphasmatodean ancestor that took place between 60 and 100 million years ago. This transfer preceded the rapid diversification of the suborder, enabling symbiont-free pectinase production that would increase the insects’ digestive efficiency and reduce dependence on microbes. Bacteria-to-insect gene transfer was thought to be uncommon, however the increasing availability of large-scale genomic data may change this prevailing notion. PMID:27210832

  16. Horizontal Gene Transfer of Pectinases from Bacteria Preceded the Diversification of Stick and Leaf Insects.

    PubMed

    Shelomi, Matan; Danchin, Etienne G J; Heckel, David; Wipfler, Benjamin; Bradler, Sven; Zhou, Xin; Pauchet, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    Genes acquired by horizontal transfer are increasingly being found in animal genomes. Understanding their origin and evolution requires knowledge about the phylogenetic relationships from both source and recipient organisms. We used RNASeq data and respective assembled transcript libraries to trace the evolutionary history of polygalacturonase (pectinase) genes in stick insects (Phasmatodea). By mapping the distribution of pectinase genes on a Polyneoptera phylogeny, we identified the transfer of pectinase genes from known phasmatodean gut microbes into the genome of an early euphasmatodean ancestor that took place between 60 and 100 million years ago. This transfer preceded the rapid diversification of the suborder, enabling symbiont-free pectinase production that would increase the insects' digestive efficiency and reduce dependence on microbes. Bacteria-to-insect gene transfer was thought to be uncommon, however the increasing availability of large-scale genomic data may change this prevailing notion. PMID:27210832

  17. Collective evolution of cyanobacteria and cyanophages mediated by horizontal gene transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Hong-Yan; Rogers, Tim; Goldenfeld, Nigel

    We describe a model for how antagonistic predator-prey coevolution can lead to mutualistic adaptation to an environment, as a result of horizontal gene transfer. Our model is a simple description of ecosystems such as marine cyanobacteria and their predator cyanophages, which carry photosynthesis genes. These genes evolve more rapidly in the virosphere than the bacterial pan-genome, and thus the bacterial population could potentially benefit from phage predation. By modeling both the barrier to predation and horizontal gene transfer, we study this balance between individual sacrifice and collective benefits. The outcome is an emergent mutualistic coevolution of improved photosynthesis capability, benefiting both bacteria and phage. This form of multi-level selection can contribute to niche stratification in the cyanobacteria-phage ecosystem. This work is supported in part by a cooperative agreement with NASA, Grant NNA13AA91A/A0018.

  18. A case of horizontal gene transfer from Wolbachia to Aedes albopictus C6/36 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Qing; He, Ji; Yu, Jing; Ye, Yuting; Zhou, Dan; Sun, Yan; Zhang, Donghui; Ma, Lei; Shen, Bo; Zhu, Changliang

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer plays an essential role in evolution and ecological adaptation, yet this phenomenon has remained controversial, particularly where it occurs between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. There are a handful of reported examples of horizontal gene transfer occurring between prokaryotes and eukaryotes in the literature, with most of these documented cases pertaining to invertebrates and endosymbionts. However, the vast majority of these horizontally transferred genes were either eventually excluded or rapidly became nonfunctional in the recipient genome. In this study, we report the discovery of a horizontal gene transfer from the endosymbiont Wolbachia in the C6/36 cell line derived from the mosquito Aedes albopictus. Moreover, we report that this horizontally transferred gene displayed high transcription level. This finding and the results of further experimentation strongly suggest this gene is functional and has been expressed and translated into a protein in the mosquito host cells. PMID:24812591

  19. Diversity, evolution, and horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in soda lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkart, Holly C.; Storrie-Lombardi, Michael C.

    2007-09-01

    Soap Lake is a hypersaline, alkaline lake in Central Washington State (USA). For the past five years the lake has been the site of an NSF Microbial Observatory project devoted to identifying critical geochemical and microbial characteristics of the monimolimnion sediment and water column, and has demonstrated rich multispecies communities occupy all areas of the lake. Soap Lake and similar soda lakes are subject to repeated transient periods of extreme evaporation characterized by significant repetitive alterations in salinity, pH, and total water volume, yet maintain high genetic and metabolic diversity. It has been argued that this repetitive cycle for salinity, alkalinity, and sulfur concentration has been a major driver for prokaryote evolution and diversity. The rapidity of wet-dry cycling places special demands on genome evolution, requirements that are beyond the relatively conservative eukaryotic evolutionary strategy of serial alteration of existing gene sequences in a relatively stable genome. Although HGT is most likely responsible for adding a significant amount of noise to the genetic record, analysis of HGT activity can also provide us with a much-needed probe for exploration of prokaryotic genome evolution and the origin of diversity. Packaging of genetic information within the protective protein capsid of a bacteriophage would seem preferable to exposing naked DNA to the highly alkaline conditions in the lake. In this study, we present preliminary data demonstrating the presence of a diverse group of phage integrases in Soap Lake. Integrase is the viral enzyme responsible for the insertion of phage DNA into the bacterial host's chromosome. The presence of the integrase sequence in bacterial chromosomes is evidence of lysogeny, and the diversity of integrase sequences reported here suggests a wide variety of temperate phage exist in this system, and are especially active in transition zones.

  20. Horizontal transfer of archaeal genes into the deinococcaceae: detection by molecular and computer-based approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olendzenski, L.; Liu, L.; Zhaxybayeva, O.; Murphey, R.; Shin, D. G.; Gogarten, J. P.

    2000-01-01

    Members of the Deinococcaceae (e.g., Thermus, Meiothermus, Deinococcus) contain A/V-ATPases typically found in Archaea or Eukaryotes which were probably acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Two methods were used to quantify the extent to which archaeal or eukaryotic genes have been acquired by this lineage. Screening of a Meiothermus ruber library with probes made against Thermoplasma acidophilum DNA yielded a number of clones which hybridized more strongly than background. One of these contained the prolyl tRNA synthetase (RS) gene. Phylogenetic analysis shows the M. ruber and D. radiodurans prolyl RS to be more closely related to archaeal and eukaryal forms of this gene than to the typical bacterial type. Using a bioinformatics approach, putative open reading frames (ORFs) from the prerelease version of the D. radiodurans genome were screened for genes more closely related to archaeal or eukaryotic genes. Putative ORFs were searched against representative genomes from each of the three domains using automated BLAST. ORFs showing the highest matches against archaeal and eukaryotic genes were collected and ranked. Among the top-ranked hits were the A/V-ATPase catalytic and noncatalytic subunits and the prolyl RS genes. Using phylogenetic methods, ORFs were analyzed and trees assessed for evidence of horizontal gene transfer. Of the 45 genes examined, 20 showed topologies in which D. radiodurans homologues clearly group with eukaryotic or archaeal homologues, and 17 additional trees were found to show probable evidence of horizontal gene transfer. Compared to the total number of ORFs in the genome, those that can be identified as having been acquired from Archaea or Eukaryotes are relatively few (approximately 1%), suggesting that interdomain transfer is rare.

  1. Horizontal Gene Transfers from Bacteria to Entamoeba Complex: A Strategy for Dating Events along Species Divergence.

    PubMed

    Romero, Miguel; Cerritos, R; Ximenez, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer has proved to be relevant in eukaryotic evolution, as it has been found more often than expected and related to adaptation to certain niches. A relatively large list of laterally transferred genes has been proposed and evaluated for the parasite Entamoeba histolytica. The goals of this work were to elucidate the importance of lateral gene transfer along the evolutionary history of some members of the genus Entamoeba, through identifying donor groups and estimating the divergence time of some of these events. In order to estimate the divergence time of some of the horizontal gene transfer events, the dating of some Entamoeba species was necessary, following an indirect dating strategy based on the fossil record of plausible hosts. The divergence between E. histolytica and E. nuttallii probably occurred 5.93 million years ago (Mya); this lineage diverged from E. dispar 9.97 Mya, while the ancestor of the latter separated from E. invadens 68.18 Mya. We estimated times for 22 transferences; the most recent occurred 31.45 Mya and the oldest 253.59 Mya. Indeed, the acquisition of genes through lateral transfer may have triggered a period of adaptive radiation, thus playing a major role in the evolution of the Entamoeba genus. PMID:27239333

  2. Horizontal Gene Transfers from Bacteria to Entamoeba Complex: A Strategy for Dating Events along Species Divergence

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Miguel; Ximenez, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer has proved to be relevant in eukaryotic evolution, as it has been found more often than expected and related to adaptation to certain niches. A relatively large list of laterally transferred genes has been proposed and evaluated for the parasite Entamoeba histolytica. The goals of this work were to elucidate the importance of lateral gene transfer along the evolutionary history of some members of the genus Entamoeba, through identifying donor groups and estimating the divergence time of some of these events. In order to estimate the divergence time of some of the horizontal gene transfer events, the dating of some Entamoeba species was necessary, following an indirect dating strategy based on the fossil record of plausible hosts. The divergence between E. histolytica and E. nuttallii probably occurred 5.93 million years ago (Mya); this lineage diverged from E. dispar 9.97 Mya, while the ancestor of the latter separated from E. invadens 68.18 Mya. We estimated times for 22 transferences; the most recent occurred 31.45 Mya and the oldest 253.59 Mya. Indeed, the acquisition of genes through lateral transfer may have triggered a period of adaptive radiation, thus playing a major role in the evolution of the Entamoeba genus. PMID:27239333

  3. Multiple Phenotypic Changes Associated with Large-Scale Horizontal Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Kevin; Smith, Brian A.; Moore, Autumn F.; Maitland, Shannon; Fanger, Chris; Murillo, Rachel; Baltrus, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer often leads to phenotypic changes within recipient organisms independent of any immediate evolutionary benefits. While secondary phenotypic effects of horizontal transfer (i.e., changes in growth rates) have been demonstrated and studied across a variety of systems using relatively small plasmids and phage, little is known about the magnitude or number of such costs after the transfer of larger regions. Here we describe numerous phenotypic changes that occur after a large-scale horizontal transfer event (∼1 Mb megaplasmid) within Pseudomonas stutzeri including sensitization to various stresses as well as changes in bacterial behavior. These results highlight the power of horizontal transfer to shift pleiotropic relationships and cellular networks within bacterial genomes. They also provide an important context for how secondary effects of transfer can bias evolutionary trajectories and interactions between species. Lastly, these results and system provide a foundation to investigate evolutionary consequences in real time as newly acquired regions are ameliorated and integrated into new genomic contexts. PMID:25048697

  4. Enhanced Horizontal Transfer of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Freshwater Microcosms Induced by an Ionic Liquid

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing; Mao, Daqing; Mu, Quanhua; Luo, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The spread and propagation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) is a worldwide public health concern. Ionic liquids (ILs), considered as “environmentally friendly” replacements for industrial organic solvents, have been widely applied in modern industry. However, few data have been collected regarding the potential ecological and environmental risks of ILs, which are important for preparing for their potential discharge into the environment. In this paper, the IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIm][PF6]) (0.001-5.0 g/L) was tested for its effects on facilitating ARGs horizontal transfer mediated by plasmid RP4 in freshwater microcosms. In the horizontal transfer microcosms, the transfer frequency of plasmid RP4 was significantly enhanced (60-fold higher than untreated groups) by the IL [BMIm][PF6] (1.0 g/L). Meanwhile, two strains of opportunistic pathogen Acinetobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. were isolated among the transconjugants, illustrating plasmid RP4 mediated horizontal transfer of ARGs occurred in pathogen. This could increase the risk of ARGs dissemination to human pathogens and pose great threat to public health. The cause that [BMIm[PF6] enhanced the transfer frequency of plasmid RP4 was proposed by suppressed cell membrane barrier and enhanced cell membrane permeability, which was evidenced by flow cytometry (FCM). This is the first report that some ILs facilitate horizontal transfer of plasmid RP4 which is widely distributed in the environment and thus add the adverse effects of the environmental risk of ILs. PMID:25951456

  5. Two Horizontally Transferred Xenobiotic Resistance Gene Clusters Associated with Detoxification of Benzoxazolinones by Fusarium Species

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Anthony E.; Davis, C. Britton; Gao, Minglu; Gold, Scott E.; Mitchell, Trevor R.; Proctor, Robert H.; Stewart, Jane E.; Snook, Maurice E.

    2016-01-01

    Microbes encounter a broad spectrum of antimicrobial compounds in their environments and often possess metabolic strategies to detoxify such xenobiotics. We have previously shown that Fusarium verticillioides, a fungal pathogen of maize known for its production of fumonisin mycotoxins, possesses two unlinked loci, FDB1 and FDB2, necessary for detoxification of antimicrobial compounds produced by maize, including the γ-lactam 2-benzoxazolinone (BOA). In support of these earlier studies, microarray analysis of F. verticillioides exposed to BOA identified the induction of multiple genes at FDB1 and FDB2, indicating the loci consist of gene clusters. One of the FDB1 cluster genes encoded a protein having domain homology to the metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) superfamily. Deletion of this gene (MBL1) rendered F. verticillioides incapable of metabolizing BOA and thus unable to grow on BOA-amended media. Deletion of other FDB1 cluster genes, in particular AMD1 and DLH1, did not affect BOA degradation. Phylogenetic analyses and topology testing of the FDB1 and FDB2 cluster genes suggested two horizontal transfer events among fungi, one being transfer of FDB1 from Fusarium to Colletotrichum, and the second being transfer of the FDB2 cluster from Fusarium to Aspergillus. Together, the results suggest that plant-derived xenobiotics have exerted evolutionary pressure on these fungi, leading to horizontal transfer of genes that enhance fitness or virulence. PMID:26808652

  6. Two Horizontally Transferred Xenobiotic Resistance Gene Clusters Associated with Detoxification of Benzoxazolinones by Fusarium Species.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Anthony E; Davis, C Britton; Gao, Minglu; Gold, Scott E; Mitchell, Trevor R; Proctor, Robert H; Stewart, Jane E; Snook, Maurice E

    2016-01-01

    Microbes encounter a broad spectrum of antimicrobial compounds in their environments and often possess metabolic strategies to detoxify such xenobiotics. We have previously shown that Fusarium verticillioides, a fungal pathogen of maize known for its production of fumonisin mycotoxins, possesses two unlinked loci, FDB1 and FDB2, necessary for detoxification of antimicrobial compounds produced by maize, including the γ-lactam 2-benzoxazolinone (BOA). In support of these earlier studies, microarray analysis of F. verticillioides exposed to BOA identified the induction of multiple genes at FDB1 and FDB2, indicating the loci consist of gene clusters. One of the FDB1 cluster genes encoded a protein having domain homology to the metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) superfamily. Deletion of this gene (MBL1) rendered F. verticillioides incapable of metabolizing BOA and thus unable to grow on BOA-amended media. Deletion of other FDB1 cluster genes, in particular AMD1 and DLH1, did not affect BOA degradation. Phylogenetic analyses and topology testing of the FDB1 and FDB2 cluster genes suggested two horizontal transfer events among fungi, one being transfer of FDB1 from Fusarium to Colletotrichum, and the second being transfer of the FDB2 cluster from Fusarium to Aspergillus. Together, the results suggest that plant-derived xenobiotics have exerted evolutionary pressure on these fungi, leading to horizontal transfer of genes that enhance fitness or virulence. PMID:26808652

  7. Parallel Evolution and Horizontal Gene Transfer of the pst Operon in Firmicutes from Oligotrophic Environments

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Letelier, Alejandra; Olmedo, Gabriela; Eguiarte, Luis E.; Martinez-Castilla, Leon; Souza, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    The high affinity phosphate transport system (pst) is crucial for phosphate uptake in oligotrophic environments. Cuatro Cienegas Basin (CCB) has extremely low P levels and its endemic Bacillus are closely related to oligotrophic marine Firmicutes. Thus, we expected the pst operon of CCB to share the same evolutionary history and protein similarity to marine Firmicutes. Orthologs of the pst operon were searched in 55 genomes of Firmicutes and 13 outgroups. Phylogenetic reconstructions were performed for the pst operon and 14 concatenated housekeeping genes using maximum likelihood methods. Conserved domains and 3D structures of the phosphate-binding protein (PstS) were also analyzed. The pst operon of Firmicutes shows two highly divergent clades with no correlation to the type of habitat nor a phylogenetic congruence, suggesting horizontal gene transfer. Despite sequence divergence, the PstS protein had a similar 3D structure, which could be due to parallel evolution after horizontal gene transfer events. PMID:21461370

  8. Parallel Evolution and Horizontal Gene Transfer of the pst Operon in Firmicutes from Oligotrophic Environments.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Letelier, Alejandra; Olmedo, Gabriela; Eguiarte, Luis E; Martinez-Castilla, Leon; Souza, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    The high affinity phosphate transport system (pst) is crucial for phosphate uptake in oligotrophic environments. Cuatro Cienegas Basin (CCB) has extremely low P levels and its endemic Bacillus are closely related to oligotrophic marine Firmicutes. Thus, we expected the pst operon of CCB to share the same evolutionary history and protein similarity to marine Firmicutes. Orthologs of the pst operon were searched in 55 genomes of Firmicutes and 13 outgroups. Phylogenetic reconstructions were performed for the pst operon and 14 concatenated housekeeping genes using maximum likelihood methods. Conserved domains and 3D structures of the phosphate-binding protein (PstS) were also analyzed. The pst operon of Firmicutes shows two highly divergent clades with no correlation to the type of habitat nor a phylogenetic congruence, suggesting horizontal gene transfer. Despite sequence divergence, the PstS protein had a similar 3D structure, which could be due to parallel evolution after horizontal gene transfer events. PMID:21461370

  9. Detecting horizontal gene transfer with T-REX and RHOM programs.

    PubMed

    Li, Zuofeng; Wang, Li; Zhong, Yang

    2005-12-01

    As the Human Genome Project and other genome projects experience remarkable success and a flood of biological data is produced by means of high-throughout sequencing techniques, detection of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) becomes a promising field in bioinformatics. This review describes two freeware programs: T-REX for MS Windows and RHOM for Linux. T-REX is a graphical user interface program that offers functions to reconstruct the HGT network among the donor and receptor hosts from the gene and species distance matrices. RHOM is a set of command-line driven programs used to detect HGT in genomes. While T-REX impresses with a user-friendly interface and drawing of the reticulation network, the strength of RHOM is an extensive statistical framework of genome and the graphical display of the estimated sequence position probabilities for the candidate horizontally transferred genes. PMID:16420738

  10. Cross-species gene-family fluctuations reveal the dynamics of horizontal transfers

    PubMed Central

    Grilli, Jacopo; Romano, Mariacristina; Bassetti, Federico; Cosentino Lagomarsino, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Prokaryotes vary their protein repertoire mainly through horizontal transfer and gene loss. To elucidate the links between these processes and the cross-species gene-family statistics, we perform a large-scale data analysis of the cross-species variability of gene-family abundance (the number of members of the family found on a given genome). We find that abundance fluctuations are related to the rate of horizontal transfers. This is rationalized by a minimal theoretical model, which predicts this link. The families that are not captured by the model show abundance profiles that are markedly peaked around a mean value, possibly because of specific abundance selection. Based on these results, we define an abundance variability index that captures a family's evolutionary behavior (and thus some of its relevant functional properties) purely based on its cross-species abundance fluctuations. Analysis and model, combined, show a quantitative link between cross-species family abundance statistics and horizontal transfer dynamics, which can be used to analyze genome ‘flux’. Groups of families with different values of the abundance variability index correspond to genome sub-parts having different plasticity in terms of the level of horizontal exchange allowed by natural selection. PMID:24829449

  11. HGT-Finder: A New Tool for Horizontal Gene Transfer Finding and Application to Aspergillus genomes

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Marcus; Ekstrom, Alex; Li, Xueqiong; Yin, Yanbin

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a fast-track mechanism that allows genetically unrelated organisms to exchange genes for rapid environmental adaptation. We developed a new phyletic distribution-based software, HGT-Finder, which implements a novel bioinformatics algorithm to calculate a horizontal transfer index and a probability value for each query gene. Applying this new tool to the Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus nidulans genomes, we found 273, 542, and 715 transferred genes (HTGs), respectively. HTGs have shorter length, higher guanine-cytosine (GC) content, and relaxed selection pressure. Metabolic process and secondary metabolism functions are significantly enriched in HTGs. Gene clustering analysis showed that 61%, 41% and 74% of HTGs in the three genomes form physically linked gene clusters (HTGCs). Overlapping manually curated, secondary metabolite gene clusters (SMGCs) with HTGCs found that 9 of the 33 A. fumigatus SMGCs and 31 of the 65 A. nidulans SMGCs share genes with HTGCs, and that HTGs are significantly enriched in SMGCs. Our genome-wide analysis thus presented very strong evidence to support the hypothesis that HGT has played a very critical role in the evolution of SMGCs. The program is freely available at http://cys.bios.niu.edu/HGTFinder/HGTFinder.tar.gz. PMID:26473921

  12. Rare Events of Intragenus and Intraspecies Horizontal Transfer of the 16S rRNA Gene

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ren-Mao; Cai, Lin; Zhang, Wei-Peng; Cao, Hui-Luo; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of operational genes has been widely reported in prokaryotic organisms. However, informational genes such as those involved in transcription and translation processes are very difficult to be horizontally transferred, as described by Woese’s complexity hypothesis. Here, we analyzed all of the completed prokaryotic genome sequences (2,143 genomes) in the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) database, scanned for genomes with high intragenomic heterogeneity of 16S rRNA gene copies, and explored potential HGT events of ribosomal RNA genes based on the phylogeny, genomic organization, and secondary structures of the ribosomal RNA genes. Our results revealed 28 genomes with relatively high intragenomic heterogeneity of multiple 16S rRNA gene copies (lowest pairwise identity <98.0%), and further analysis revealed HGT events and potential donors of the heterogeneous copies (such as HGT from Chlamydia suis to Chlamydia trachomatis) and mutation events of some heterogeneous copies (such as Streptococcus suis JS14). Interestingly, HGT of the 16S rRNA gene only occurred at intragenus or intraspecies levels, which is quite different from the HGT of operational genes. Our results improve our understanding regarding the exchange of informational genes. PMID:26220935

  13. Role of horizontal gene transfer in the evolution of photosynthetic eukaryotes and their plastids.

    PubMed

    Keeling, Patrick J

    2009-01-01

    Plastids are the organelles derived from a cyanobacterium through endosymbiosis. Unlike mitochondria, plastids are not found in all eukaryotes, but their evolution has an added layer of complexity since plastids have moved between eukaryotic lineages by secondary and tertiary endosymbiotic events. This complex history, together with the genetic integration between plastids and their host, has led to many opportunities for gene flow between phylogenetically distinct lineages. Some intracellular transfers do not lead to a protein functioning in a new environment, but many others do and the protein makeup of many plastids appears to have been influenced by exogenous sources as well. Here, different evolutionary sources and cellular destinations of gene flow that has affected the plastid lineage are reviewed. Most horizontal gene transfer (HGT) affecting the modern plastid has taken place via the host nucleus, in the form of genes for plastid-targeted proteins. The impact of this varies greatly from lineage to lineage, but in some cases such transfers can be as high as one fifth of analyzed genes. More rarely, genes have also been transferred to the plastid genome itself, and plastid genes have also been transferred to other non-plant, non-algal lineages. Overall, the proteome of many plastids has emerged as a mosaic of proteins from many sources, some from within the same cell (e.g., cytosolic genes or genes left over from the replacement of an earlier plastid), some from the plastid of other algal lineages, and some from completely unrelated sources. PMID:19271204

  14. An ancient horizontal gene transfer between mosquito and the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis.

    PubMed

    Woolfit, Megan; Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Iñaki; McGraw, Elizabeth A; O'Neill, Scott L

    2009-02-01

    The extent and biological relevance of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in eukaryotic evolution remain highly controversial. Recent studies have demonstrated frequent and large-scale HGT from endosymbiotic bacteria to their hosts, but the great majority of these transferred genes rapidly become nonfunctional in the recipient genome. Here, we investigate an ancient HGT between a host metazoan and an endosymbiotic bacterium, Wolbachia pipientis. The transferred gene has so far been found only in mosquitoes and Wolbachia. In mosquitoes, it is a member of a gene family encoding candidate receptors required for malaria sporozoite invasion of the mosquito salivary gland. The gene copy in Wolbachia has substantially diverged in sequence from the mosquito homolog, is evolving under purifying selection, and is expressed, suggesting that this gene is also functional in the bacterial genome. Several lines of evidence indicate that the gene may have been transferred from eukaryotic host to bacterial endosymbiont. Regardless of the direction of transfer, however, these results demonstrate that interdomain HGT may give rise to functional, persistent, and possibly evolutionarily significant new genes. PMID:18988686

  15. Emergence of collective territorial defense in bacterial communities: horizontal gene transfer can stabilize microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Juhász, János; Kertész-Farkas, Attila; Szabó, Dóra; Pongor, Sándor

    2014-01-01

    Multispecies bacterial communities such as the microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract can be remarkably stable and resilient even though they consist of cells and species that compete for resources and also produce a large number of antimicrobial agents. Computational modeling suggests that horizontal transfer of resistance genes may greatly contribute to the formation of stable and diverse communities capable of protecting themselves with a battery of antimicrobial agents while preserving a varied metabolic repertoire of the constituent species. In other words horizontal transfer of resistance genes makes a community compatible in terms of exoproducts and capable to maintain a varied and mature metagenome. The same property may allow microbiota to protect a host organism, or if used as a microbial therapy, to purge pathogens and restore a protective environment. PMID:24755769

  16. Horizontal Transfer of a Nitrate Assimilation Gene Cluster and Ecological Transitions in Fungi: A Phylogenetic Study

    PubMed Central

    Slot, Jason C.; Hibbett, David S.

    2007-01-01

    High affinity nitrate assimilation genes in fungi occur in a cluster (fHANT-AC) that can be coordinately regulated. The clustered genes include nrt2, which codes for a high affinity nitrate transporter; euknr, which codes for nitrate reductase; and NAD(P)H-nir, which codes for nitrite reductase. Homologs of genes in the fHANT-AC occur in other eukaryotes and prokaryotes, but they have only been found clustered in the oomycete Phytophthora (heterokonts). We performed independent and concatenated phylogenetic analyses of homologs of all three genes in the fHANT-AC. Phylogenetic analyses limited to fungal sequences suggest that the fHANT-AC has been transferred horizontally from a basidiomycete (mushrooms and smuts) to an ancestor of the ascomycetous mold Trichoderma reesei. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences from diverse eukaryotes and eubacteria, and cluster structure, are consistent with a hypothesis that the fHANT-AC was assembled in a lineage leading to the oomycetes and was subsequently transferred to the Dikarya (Ascomycota+Basidiomycota), which is a derived fungal clade that includes the vast majority of terrestrial fungi. We propose that the acquisition of high affinity nitrate assimilation contributed to the success of Dikarya on land by allowing exploitation of nitrate in aerobic soils, and the subsequent transfer of a complete assimilation cluster improved the fitness of T. reesei in a new niche. Horizontal transmission of this cluster of functionally integrated genes supports the “selfish operon” hypothesis for maintenance of gene clusters. PMID:17971860

  17. Exploration of horizontal gene transfer between transplastomic tobacco and plant-associated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Demanèche, Sandrine; Monier, Jean-Michel; Dugat-Bony, Eric; Simonet, Pascal

    2011-10-01

    The likelihood of gene transfer from transgenic plants to bacteria is dependent on the transgene copy number and on the presence of homologous sequences for recombination. The large number of chloroplast genomes in a plant cell as well as the prokaryotic origin of the transgene may thus significantly increase the likelihood of gene transfer from transplastomic plants to bacteria. In order to assess the probability of such a transfer, bacterial isolates, screened for their ability to colonize decaying tobacco plant tissue and possessing DNA sequence similarity to the chloroplastic genes accD and rbcL flanking the transgene (aadA), were tested for their ability to take up extracellular DNA (broad host-range pBBR1MCS-3-derived plasmid, transplastomic plant DNA and PCR products containing the genes accD-aadA-rbcL) by natural or electrotransformation. The results showed that among the 16 bacterial isolates tested, six were able to accept foreign DNA and acquire the spectinomycin resistance conferred by the aadA gene on plasmid, but none of them managed to integrate transgenic DNA in their chromosome. Our results provide no indication that the theoretical gene transfer-enhancing properties of transplastomic plants cause horizontal gene transfer at rates above those found in other studies with nuclear transgenes. PMID:21564143

  18. Evolution and Horizontal Transfer of dUTPase-Encoding Genes in Viruses and Their Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Baldo, Angela M.; McClure, Marcella A.

    1999-01-01

    dUTPase is a ubiquitous and essential enzyme responsible for regulating cellular levels of dUTP. The dut gene exists as single, tandemly duplicated, and tandemly triplicated copies. Crystallized single-copy dUTPases have been shown to assemble as homotrimers. dUTPase is encoded as an auxiliary gene in a number of virus genomes. The origin of viral dut genes has remained unresolved since their initial discovery. A comprehensive analysis of dUTPase amino acid sequence relationships was performed to explore the evolutionary dynamics of dut in viruses and their hosts. Our data set, comprised of 24 host and 51 viral sequences, includes representative sequences from available eukaryotes, archaea, eubacteria cells, and viruses, including herpesviruses. These amino acid sequences were aligned by using a hidden Markov model approach developed to align divergent data. Known secondary structures from single-copy crystals were mapped onto the aligned duplicate and triplicate sequences. We show how duplicated dUTPases might fold into a monomer, and we hypothesize that triplicated dUTPases also assemble as monomers. Phylogenetic analysis revealed at least five viral dUTPase sequence lineages in well-supported monophyletic clusters with eukaryotic, eubacterial, and archaeal hosts. We have identified all five as strong examples of horizontal transfer as well as additional potential transfer of dut genes among eubacteria, between eubacteria and viruses, and between retroviruses. The evidence for horizontal transfers is particularly interesting since eukaryotic dut genes have introns, while DNA virus dut genes do not. This implies that an intermediary retroid agent facilitated the horizontal transfer process between host mRNA and DNA viruses. PMID:10438861

  19. Horizontal gene transfer and nucleotide compositional anomaly in large DNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Monier, Adam; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Ogata, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    Background DNA viruses have a wide range of genome sizes (5 kb up to 1.2 Mb, compared to 0.16 Mb to 1.5 Mb for obligate parasitic bacteria) that do not correlate with their virulence or the taxonomic distribution of their hosts. The reasons for such large variation are unclear. According to the traditional view of viruses as gifted "gene pickpockets", large viral genome sizes could originate from numerous gene acquisitions from their hosts. We investigated this hypothesis by studying 67 large DNA viruses with genome sizes larger than 150 kb, including the recently characterized giant mimivirus. Given that horizontally transferred DNA often have anomalous nucleotide compositions differing from the rest of the genome, we conducted a detailed analysis of the inter- and intra-genome compositional properties of these viruses. We then interpreted their compositional heterogeneity in terms of possible causes, including strand asymmetry, gene function/expression, and horizontal transfer. Results We first show that the global nucleotide composition and nucleotide word usage of viral genomes are species-specific and distinct from those of their hosts. Next, we identified compositionally anomalous (cA) genes in viral genomes, using a method based on Bayesian inference. The proportion of cA genes is highly variable across viruses and does not exhibit a significant correlation with genome size. The vast majority of the cA genes were of unknown function, lacking homologs in the databases. For genes with known homologs, we found a substantial enrichment of cA genes in specific functional classes for some of the viruses. No significant association was found between cA genes and compositional strand asymmetry. A possible exogenous origin for a small fraction of the cA genes could be confirmed by phylogenetic reconstruction. Conclusion At odds with the traditional dogma, our results argue against frequent genetic transfers to large DNA viruses from their modern hosts. The large

  20. Horizontal transfer of the msp130 gene supported the evolution of metazoan biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Ettensohn, Charles A

    2014-05-01

    It is widely accepted that biomineralized structures appeared independently in many metazoan clades during the Cambrian. How this occurred, and whether it involved the parallel co-option of a common set of biochemical and developmental pathways (i.e., a shared biomineralization "toolkit"), are questions that remain unanswered. Here, I provide evidence that horizontal gene transfer supported the evolution of biomineralization in some metazoans. I show that Msp130 proteins, first described as proteins expressed selectively by the biomineral-forming primary mesenchyme cells of the sea urchin embryo, have a much wider taxonomic distribution than was previously appreciated. Msp130 proteins are present in several invertebrate deuterostomes and in one protostome clade (molluscs). Surprisingly, closely related proteins are also present in many bacteria and several algae, and I propose that msp130 genes were introduced into metazoan lineages via multiple, independent horizontal gene transfer events. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the introduction of an ancestral msp130 gene occurred in the sea urchin lineage more than 250 million years ago and that msp130 genes underwent independent, parallel duplications in each of the metazoan phyla in which these genes are found. PMID:24735463

  1. Plant expansins in bacteria and fungi: evolution by horizontal gene transfer and independent domain fusion.

    PubMed

    Nikolaidis, Nikolas; Doran, Nicole; Cosgrove, Daniel J

    2014-02-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has been described as a common mechanism of transferring genetic material between prokaryotes, whereas genetic transfers from eukaryotes to prokaryotes have been rarely documented. Here we report a rare case of HGT in which plant expansin genes that code for plant cell-wall loosening proteins were transferred from plants to bacteria, fungi, and amoebozoa. In several cases, the species in which the expansin gene was found is either in intimate association with plants or is a known plant pathogen. Our analyses suggest that at least two independent genetic transfers occurred from plants to bacteria and fungi. These events were followed by multiple HGT events within bacteria and fungi. We have also observed that in bacteria expansin genes have been independently fused to DNA fragments that code for an endoglucanase domain or for a carbohydrate binding module, pointing to functional convergence at the molecular level. Furthermore, the functional similarities between microbial expansins and their plant xenologs suggest that these proteins mediate microbial-plant interactions by altering the plant cell wall and therefore may provide adaptive advantages to these species. The evolution of these nonplant expansins represents a unique case in which bacteria and fungi have found innovative and adaptive ways to interact with and infect plants by acquiring genes from their host. This evolutionary paradigm suggests that despite their low frequency such HGT events may have significantly contributed to the evolution of prokaryotic and eukaryotic species. PMID:24150040

  2. Prokaryotic genes in eukaryotic genome sequences: when to infer horizontal gene transfer and when to suspect an actual microbe.

    PubMed

    Artamonova, Irena I; Lappi, Tanya; Zudina, Liudmila; Mushegian, Arcady R

    2015-07-01

    Assessment of phylogenetic positions of predicted gene and protein sequences is a routine step in any genome project, useful for validating the species' taxonomic position and for evaluating hypotheses about genome evolution and function. Several recent eukaryotic genome projects have reported multiple gene sequences that were much more similar to homologues in bacteria than to any eukaryotic sequence. In the spirit of the times, horizontal gene transfer from bacteria to eukaryotes has been invoked in some of these cases. Here, we show, using comparative sequence analysis, that some of those bacteria-like genes indeed appear likely to have been horizontally transferred from bacteria to eukaryotes. In other cases, however, the evidence strongly indicates that the eukaryotic DNA sequenced in the genome project contains a sample of non-integrated DNA from the actual bacteria, possibly providing a window into the host microbiome. Recent literature suggests also that common reagents, kits and laboratory equipment may be systematically contaminated with bacterial DNA, which appears to be sampled by metagenome projects non-specifically. We review several bioinformatic criteria that help to distinguish putative horizontal gene transfers from the admixture of genes from autonomously replicating bacteria in their hosts' genome databases or from the reagent contamination. PMID:25919787

  3. The influence of horizontal gene transfer on the mean fitness of unicellular populations in static environments.

    PubMed

    Raz, Yoav; Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2010-05-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is believed to be a major source of genetic variation, particularly for prokaryotes. It is believed that horizontal gene transfer plays a major role in shaping bacterial genomes and is also believed to be responsible for the relatively rapid dissemination and acquisition of new, adaptive traits across bacterial strains. Despite the importance of horizontal gene transfer as a major source of genetic variation, the bulk of research on theoretical evolutionary dynamics and population genetics has focused on point mutations (sometimes coupled with gene duplication events) as the main engine of genomic change. Here, we seek to specifically model HGT processes in bacterial cells, by developing a mathematical model describing the influence that conjugation-mediated HGT has on the mutation-selection balance in an asexually reproducing population of unicellular, prokaryotic organisms. It is assumed that mutation-selection balance is reached in the presence of a fixed background concentration of antibiotic, to which the population must become resistant to survive. We find that HGT has a nontrivial effect on the mean fitness of the population. However, one of the central results that emerge from our analysis is that, at mutation-selection balance, conjugation-mediated HGT has a slightly deleterious effect on the mean fitness of a population. Therefore, we conclude that HGT does not confer a selection advantage in static environments. Rather, its advantage must lie in its ability to promote faster adaptation in dynamic environments, an interpretation that is consistent with the observation that HGT can be promoted by environmental stresses on a population. PMID:20194966

  4. Horizontal gene transfers and cell fusions in microbiology, immunology and oncology (Review).

    PubMed

    Sinkovics, Joseph G

    2009-09-01

    Evolving young genomes of archaea, prokaryota and unicellular eukaryota were wide open for the acceptance of alien genomic sequences, which they often preserved and vertically transferred to their descendants throughout three billion years of evolution. Established complex large genomes, although seeded with ancestral retroelements, have come to regulate strictly their integrity. However, intruding retroelements, especially the descendents of Ty3/Gypsy, the chromoviruses, continue to find their ways into even the most established genomes. The simian and hominoid-Homo genomes preserved and accommodated a large number of endogenous retroviral genomic segments. These retroelements may mature into exogenous retroviruses, or into functional new genes. Phages and viruses have been instrumental in incorporating and transferring host cell genes. These events profoundly influenced and altered the course of evolution. Horizontal (lateral) gene transfers (HGT) overwhelmed the genomes of the ancient protocells and the evolving unicellular microorganisms, actually leading to their Cambrian explosion. While the rigidly organized genomes of multicellular organisms increasingly resist H/LGT, de-differentiated cells assuming the metabolism of their onto- or phylogenetic ancestors, open up widely to the practice of H/LGT by direct transfer, or to transfers mediated by viruses, or by cell fusions. This activity is intensified in malignantly transformed cells, thus rendering these subjects receptive to therapy with oncolytic viruses and with viral vectors of tumor-suppressive or immunogenic genetic materials. Naturally formed hybrids of dendritic and tumor cells are often tolerogenic, whereas laboratory products of these unisons may be immunogenic in the hosts of origin. As human breast cancer stem cells are induced by a treacherous class of CD8+ T cells to undergo epithelial to mesenchymal (ETM) transition and to yield to malignant transformation by the omnipresent proto

  5. Horizontal gene transfer events reshape the global landscape of arm race between viruses and homo sapiens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong-Sheng; Wu, Yi-Quan; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, San-Jie; Chen, Shan-Ze

    2016-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) drives the evolution of recipient organism particularly if it provides a novel function which enhances the fitness or its adaption to the environment. Virus-host co-evolution is attractive for studying co-evolutionary processes, since viruses strictly replicate inside of the host cells and thus their evolution is inexorably tangled with host biology. HGT, as a mechanism of co-evolution between human and viruses, has been widely documented, however, the roles HGT play during the interaction between human and viruses are still in their infancy. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis on the genes horizontally transferred between viruses and their corresponding human hosts. Our study suggests that the HGT genes in human are predominantly enriched in immune related GO terms while viral HGT genes are tend to be encoded by viruses which promote the invasion of immune system of hosts. Based on our results, it gives us a hint about the evolution trajectory of HGT events. Overall, our study suggests that the HGT between human and viruses are highly relevant to immune interaction and probably reshaped the arm race between hosts and viruses. PMID:27270140

  6. Horizontal gene transfer events reshape the global landscape of arm race between viruses and homo sapiens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dong-Sheng; Wu, Yi-Quan; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, San-Jie; Chen, Shan-Ze

    2016-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) drives the evolution of recipient organism particularly if it provides a novel function which enhances the fitness or its adaption to the environment. Virus-host co-evolution is attractive for studying co-evolutionary processes, since viruses strictly replicate inside of the host cells and thus their evolution is inexorably tangled with host biology. HGT, as a mechanism of co-evolution between human and viruses, has been widely documented, however, the roles HGT play during the interaction between human and viruses are still in their infancy. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis on the genes horizontally transferred between viruses and their corresponding human hosts. Our study suggests that the HGT genes in human are predominantly enriched in immune related GO terms while viral HGT genes are tend to be encoded by viruses which promote the invasion of immune system of hosts. Based on our results, it gives us a hint about the evolution trajectory of HGT events. Overall, our study suggests that the HGT between human and viruses are highly relevant to immune interaction and probably reshaped the arm race between hosts and viruses. PMID:27270140

  7. Operon Formation is Driven by Co-Regulation and Not by Horizontal Gene Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Morgan N.; Huang, Katherine H.; Arkin, Adam P.; Alm, Eric J.

    2005-04-12

    Although operons are often subject to horizontal gene transfer (HGT), non-HGT genes are particularly likely to be in operons. To resolve this apparent discrepancy and to determine whether HGT is involved in operon formation, we examined the evolutionary history of the genes and operons in Escherichia coli K12. We show that genes that have homologs in distantly related bacteria but not in close relatives of E. coli (indicating HGTi) form new operons at about the same rates as native genes. Furthermore, genes in new operons are no more likely than other genes to have phylogenetic trees that are inconsistent with the species tree. In contrast, essential genes and ubiquitous genes without paralogs (genes believed to undergo HGT rarely) often form new operons. We conclude that HGT is not associated with operon formation, but instead promotes the prevalence of pre-existing operons. To explain operon formation, we propose that new operons reduce the amount of regulatory information required to specify optimal expression patterns. Consistent with this hypothesis, operons have greater amounts of conserved regulatory sequences than do individually transcribed genes.

  8. Phylogenomic analysis demonstrates a pattern of rare and ancient horizontal gene transfer between plants and fungi.

    PubMed

    Richards, Thomas A; Soanes, Darren M; Foster, Peter G; Leonard, Guy; Thornton, Christopher R; Talbot, Nicholas J

    2009-07-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) describes the transmission of genetic material across species boundaries and is an important evolutionary phenomenon in the ancestry of many microbes. The role of HGT in plant evolutionary history is, however, largely unexplored. Here, we compare the genomes of six plant species with those of 159 prokaryotic and eukaryotic species and identify 1689 genes that show the highest similarity to corresponding genes from fungi. We constructed a phylogeny for all 1689 genes identified and all homolog groups available from the rice (Oryza sativa) genome (3177 gene families) and used these to define 14 candidate plant-fungi HGT events. Comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of these 14 data sets, using methods that account for site rate heterogeneity, demonstrated support for nine HGT events, demonstrating an infrequent pattern of HGT between plants and fungi. Five HGTs were fungi-to-plant transfers and four were plant-to-fungi HGTs. None of the fungal-to-plant HGTs involved angiosperm recipients. These results alter the current view of organismal barriers to HGT, suggesting that phagotrophy, the consumption of a whole cell by another, is not necessarily a prerequisite for HGT between eukaryotes. Putative functional annotation of the HGT candidate genes suggests that two fungi-to-plant transfers have added phenotypes important for life in a soil environment. Our study suggests that genetic exchange between plants and fungi is exceedingly rare, particularly among the angiosperms, but has occurred during their evolutionary history and added important metabolic traits to plant lineages. PMID:19584142

  9. Horizontal Transfer of Plasmid-Mediated Cephalosporin Resistance Genes in the Intestine of Houseflies (Musca domestica).

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Akira; Usui, Masaru; Okubo, Torahiko; Tamura, Yutaka

    2016-06-01

    Houseflies are a mechanical vector for various types of bacteria, including antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (ARB). If the intestine of houseflies is a suitable site for the transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs), houseflies could also serve as a biological vector for ARB. To clarify whether cephalosporin resistance genes are transferred efficiently in the housefly intestine, we compared with conjugation experiments in vivo (in the intestine) and in vitro by using Escherichia coli with eight combinations of four donor and two recipient strains harboring plasmid-mediated cephalosporin resistance genes and chromosomal-encoded rifampicin resistance genes, respectively. In the in vivo conjugation experiment, houseflies ingested donor strains for 6 hr and then recipient strains for 3 hr, and 24 hr later, the houseflies were surface sterilized and analyzed. In vitro conjugation experiments were conducted using the broth-mating method. In 3/8 combinations, the in vitro transfer frequency (Transconjugants/Donor) was ≥1.3 × 10(-4); the in vivo transfer rates of cephalosporin resistance genes ranged from 2.0 × 10(-4) to 5.7 × 10(-5). Moreover, cephalosporin resistance genes were transferred to other species of enteric bacteria of houseflies such as Achromobacter sp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens. These results suggest that houseflies are not only a mechanical vector for ARB but also a biological vector for the occurrence of new ARB through the horizontal transfer of ARGs in their intestine. PMID:26683492

  10. Bacterial α2-macroglobulins: colonization factors acquired by horizontal gene transfer from the metazoan genome?

    PubMed Central

    Budd, Aidan; Blandin, Stephanie; Levashina, Elena A; Gibson, Toby J

    2004-01-01

    Background Invasive bacteria are known to have captured and adapted eukaryotic host genes. They also readily acquire colonizing genes from other bacteria by horizontal gene transfer. Closely related species such as Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter hepaticus, which exploit different host tissues, share almost none of their colonization genes. The protease inhibitor α2-macroglobulin provides a major metazoan defense against invasive bacteria, trapping attacking proteases required by parasites for successful invasion. Results Database searches with metazoan α2-macroglobulin sequences revealed homologous sequences in bacterial proteomes. The bacterial α2-macroglobulin phylogenetic distribution is patchy and violates the vertical descent model. Bacterial α2-macroglobulin genes are found in diverse clades, including purple bacteria (proteobacteria), fusobacteria, spirochetes, bacteroidetes, deinococcids, cyanobacteria, planctomycetes and thermotogae. Most bacterial species with bacterial α2-macroglobulin genes exploit higher eukaryotes (multicellular plants and animals) as hosts. Both pathogenically invasive and saprophytically colonizing species possess bacterial α2-macroglobulins, indicating that bacterial α2-macroglobulin is a colonization rather than a virulence factor. Conclusions Metazoan α2-macroglobulins inhibit proteases of pathogens. The bacterial homologs may function in reverse to block host antimicrobial defenses. α2-macroglobulin was probably acquired one or more times from metazoan hosts and has then spread widely through other colonizing bacterial species by more than 10 independent horizontal gene transfers. yfhM-like bacterial α2-macroglobulin genes are often found tightly linked with pbpC, encoding an atypical peptidoglycan transglycosylase, PBP1C, that does not function in vegetative peptidoglycan synthesis. We suggest that YfhM and PBP1C are coupled together as a periplasmic defense and repair system. Bacterial α2-macroglobulins might

  11. Horizontal gene transfer: essentiality and evolvability in prokaryotes, and roles in evolutionary transitions.

    PubMed

    Koonin, Eugene V

    2016-01-01

    The wide spread of gene exchange and loss in the prokaryotic world has prompted the concept of 'lateral genomics' to the point of an outright denial of the relevance of phylogenetic trees for evolution. However, the pronounced coherence congruence of the topologies of numerous gene trees, particularly those for (nearly) universal genes, translates into the notion of a statistical tree of life (STOL), which reflects a central trend of vertical evolution. The STOL can be employed as a framework for reconstruction of the evolutionary processes in the prokaryotic world. Quantitatively, however, horizontal gene transfer (HGT) dominates microbial evolution, with the rate of gene gain and loss being comparable to the rate of point mutations and much greater than the duplication rate. Theoretical models of evolution suggest that HGT is essential for the survival of microbial populations that otherwise deteriorate due to the Muller's ratchet effect. Apparently, at least some bacteria and archaea evolved dedicated vehicles for gene transfer that evolved from selfish elements such as plasmids and viruses. Recent phylogenomic analyses suggest that episodes of massive HGT were pivotal for the emergence of major groups of organisms such as multiple archaeal phyla as well as eukaryotes. Similar analyses appear to indicate that, in addition to donating hundreds of genes to the emerging eukaryotic lineage, mitochondrial endosymbiosis severely curtailed HGT. These results shed new light on the routes of evolutionary transitions, but caution is due given the inherent uncertainty of deep phylogenies. PMID:27508073

  12. Horizontal gene transfer: essentiality and evolvability in prokaryotes, and roles in evolutionary transitions

    PubMed Central

    Koonin, Eugene V.

    2016-01-01

    The wide spread of gene exchange and loss in the prokaryotic world has prompted the concept of ‘lateral genomics’ to the point of an outright denial of the relevance of phylogenetic trees for evolution. However, the pronounced coherence congruence of the topologies of numerous gene trees, particularly those for (nearly) universal genes, translates into the notion of a statistical tree of life (STOL), which reflects a central trend of vertical evolution. The STOL can be employed as a framework for reconstruction of the evolutionary processes in the prokaryotic world. Quantitatively, however, horizontal gene transfer (HGT) dominates microbial evolution, with the rate of gene gain and loss being comparable to the rate of point mutations and much greater than the duplication rate. Theoretical models of evolution suggest that HGT is essential for the survival of microbial populations that otherwise deteriorate due to the Muller’s ratchet effect. Apparently, at least some bacteria and archaea evolved dedicated vehicles for gene transfer that evolved from selfish elements such as plasmids and viruses. Recent phylogenomic analyses suggest that episodes of massive HGT were pivotal for the emergence of major groups of organisms such as multiple archaeal phyla as well as eukaryotes. Similar analyses appear to indicate that, in addition to donating hundreds of genes to the emerging eukaryotic lineage, mitochondrial endosymbiosis severely curtailed HGT. These results shed new light on the routes of evolutionary transitions, but caution is due given the inherent uncertainty of deep phylogenies. PMID:27508073

  13. Recent Origin of the Methacrylate Redox System in Geobacter sulfurreducens AM-1 through Horizontal Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Arkhipova, Oksana V.; Meer, Margarita V.; Mikoulinskaia, Galina V.; Zakharova, Marina V.; Galushko, Alexander S.; Kondrashov, Fyodor A.

    2015-01-01

    The origin and evolution of novel biochemical functions remains one of the key questions in molecular evolution. We study recently emerged methacrylate reductase function that is thought to have emerged in the last century and reported in Geobacter sulfurreducens strain AM-1. We report the sequence and study the evolution of the operon coding for the flavin-containing methacrylate reductase (Mrd) and tetraheme cytochrome с (Mcc) in the genome of G. sulfurreducens AM-1. Different types of signal peptides in functionally interlinked proteins Mrd and Mcc suggest a possible complex mechanism of biogenesis for chromoproteids of the methacrylate redox system. The homologs of the Mrd and Mcc sequence found in δ-Proteobacteria and Deferribacteres are also organized into an operon and their phylogenetic distribution suggested that these two genes tend to be horizontally transferred together. Specifically, the mrd and mcc genes from G. sulfurreducens AM-1 are not monophyletic with any of the homologs found in other Geobacter genomes. The acquisition of methacrylate reductase function by G. sulfurreducens AM-1 appears linked to a horizontal gene transfer event. However, the new function of the products of mrd and mcc may have evolved either prior or subsequent to their acquisition by G. sulfurreducens AM-1. PMID:25962149

  14. Evidence for extensive horizontal gene transfer from the draft genome of a tardigrade

    PubMed Central

    Boothby, Thomas C.; Tenlen, Jennifer R.; Smith, Frank W.; Wang, Jeremy R.; Patanella, Kiera A.; Osborne Nishimura, Erin; Tintori, Sophia C.; Li, Qing; Jones, Corbin D.; Yandell, Mark; Glasscock, Jarret; Goldstein, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), or the transfer of genes between species, has been recognized recently as more pervasive than previously suspected. Here, we report evidence for an unprecedented degree of HGT into an animal genome, based on a draft genome of a tardigrade, Hypsibius dujardini. Tardigrades are microscopic eight-legged animals that are famous for their ability to survive extreme conditions. Genome sequencing, direct confirmation of physical linkage, and phylogenetic analysis revealed that a large fraction of the H. dujardini genome is derived from diverse bacteria as well as plants, fungi, and Archaea. We estimate that approximately one-sixth of tardigrade genes entered by HGT, nearly double the fraction found in the most extreme cases of HGT into animals known to date. Foreign genes have supplemented, expanded, and even replaced some metazoan gene families within the tardigrade genome. Our results demonstrate that an unexpectedly large fraction of an animal genome can be derived from foreign sources. We speculate that animals that can survive extremes may be particularly prone to acquiring foreign genes. PMID:26598659

  15. Evidence for extensive horizontal gene transfer from the draft genome of a tardigrade.

    PubMed

    Boothby, Thomas C; Tenlen, Jennifer R; Smith, Frank W; Wang, Jeremy R; Patanella, Kiera A; Osborne Nishimura, Erin; Tintori, Sophia C; Li, Qing; Jones, Corbin D; Yandell, Mark; Messina, David N; Glasscock, Jarret; Goldstein, Bob

    2015-12-29

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), or the transfer of genes between species, has been recognized recently as more pervasive than previously suspected. Here, we report evidence for an unprecedented degree of HGT into an animal genome, based on a draft genome of a tardigrade, Hypsibius dujardini. Tardigrades are microscopic eight-legged animals that are famous for their ability to survive extreme conditions. Genome sequencing, direct confirmation of physical linkage, and phylogenetic analysis revealed that a large fraction of the H. dujardini genome is derived from diverse bacteria as well as plants, fungi, and Archaea. We estimate that approximately one-sixth of tardigrade genes entered by HGT, nearly double the fraction found in the most extreme cases of HGT into animals known to date. Foreign genes have supplemented, expanded, and even replaced some metazoan gene families within the tardigrade genome. Our results demonstrate that an unexpectedly large fraction of an animal genome can be derived from foreign sources. We speculate that animals that can survive extremes may be particularly prone to acquiring foreign genes. PMID:26598659

  16. Negative Feedback and Transcriptional Overshooting in a Regulatory Network for Horizontal Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Lopez, Raul; del Campo, Irene; Revilla, Carlos; Cuevas, Ana; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a major force driving bacterial evolution. Because of their ability to cross inter-species barriers, bacterial plasmids are essential agents for HGT. This ability, however, poses specific requisites on plasmid physiology, in particular the need to overcome a multilevel selection process with opposing demands. We analyzed the transcriptional network of plasmid R388, one of the most promiscuous plasmids in Proteobacteria. Transcriptional analysis by fluorescence expression profiling and quantitative PCR revealed a regulatory network controlled by six transcriptional repressors. The regulatory network relied on strong promoters, which were tightly repressed in negative feedback loops. Computational simulations and theoretical analysis indicated that this architecture would show a transcriptional burst after plasmid conjugation, linking the magnitude of the feedback gain with the intensity of the transcriptional burst. Experimental analysis showed that transcriptional overshooting occurred when the plasmid invaded a new population of susceptible cells. We propose that transcriptional overshooting allows genome rebooting after horizontal gene transfer, and might have an adaptive role in overcoming the opposing demands of multilevel selection. PMID:24586200

  17. A gene horizontally transferred from bacteria protects arthropods from host plant cyanide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Tirry, Luc; Stevens, Christian; Grbić, Miodrag; Feyereisen, René; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Cyanogenic glucosides are among the most widespread defense chemicals of plants. Upon plant tissue disruption, these glucosides are hydrolyzed to a reactive hydroxynitrile that releases toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Yet many mite and lepidopteran species can thrive on plants defended by cyanogenic glucosides. The nature of the enzyme known to detoxify HCN to β-cyanoalanine in arthropods has remained enigmatic. Here we identify this enzyme by transcriptome analysis and functional expression. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the gene is a member of the cysteine synthase family horizontally transferred from bacteria to phytophagous mites and Lepidoptera. The recombinant mite enzyme had both β-cyanoalanine synthase and cysteine synthase activity but enzyme kinetics showed that cyanide detoxification activity was strongly favored. Our results therefore suggest that an ancient horizontal transfer of a gene originally involved in sulfur amino acid biosynthesis in bacteria was co-opted by herbivorous arthropods to detoxify plant produced cyanide. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02365.001 PMID:24843024

  18. A gene horizontally transferred from bacteria protects arthropods from host plant cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Tirry, Luc; Stevens, Christian; Grbić, Miodrag; Feyereisen, René; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Cyanogenic glucosides are among the most widespread defense chemicals of plants. Upon plant tissue disruption, these glucosides are hydrolyzed to a reactive hydroxynitrile that releases toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Yet many mite and lepidopteran species can thrive on plants defended by cyanogenic glucosides. The nature of the enzyme known to detoxify HCN to β-cyanoalanine in arthropods has remained enigmatic. Here we identify this enzyme by transcriptome analysis and functional expression. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the gene is a member of the cysteine synthase family horizontally transferred from bacteria to phytophagous mites and Lepidoptera. The recombinant mite enzyme had both β-cyanoalanine synthase and cysteine synthase activity but enzyme kinetics showed that cyanide detoxification activity was strongly favored. Our results therefore suggest that an ancient horizontal transfer of a gene originally involved in sulfur amino acid biosynthesis in bacteria was co-opted by herbivorous arthropods to detoxify plant produced cyanide.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02365.001. PMID:24843024

  19. Horizontal Gene Transfer Regulation in Bacteria as a “Spandrel” of DNA Repair Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Saliou; Mercier, Anne; Bertolla, Franck; Calteau, Alexandra; Gueguen, Laurent; Perrière, Guy; Vogel, Timothy M.; Simonet, Pascal

    2007-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is recognized as the major force for bacterial genome evolution. Yet, numerous questions remain about the transferred genes, their function, quantity and frequency. The extent to which genetic transformation by exogenous DNA has occurred over evolutionary time was initially addressed by an in silico approach using the complete genome sequence of the Ralstonia solanacearum GMI1000 strain. Methods based on phylogenetic reconstruction of prokaryote homologous genes families detected 151 genes (13.3%) of foreign origin in the R. solanacearum genome and tentatively identified their bacterial origin. These putative transfers were analyzed in comparison to experimental transformation tests involving 18 different genomic DNA positions in the genome as sites for homologous or homeologous recombination. Significant transformation frequency differences were observed among these positions tested regardless of the overall genomic divergence of the R. solanacearum strains tested as recipients. The genomic positions containing the putative exogenous DNA were not systematically transformed at the highest frequencies. The two genomic “hot spots”, which contain recA and mutS genes, exhibited transformation frequencies from 2 to more than 4 orders of magnitude higher than positions associated with other genes depending on the recipient strain. These results support the notion that the bacterial cell is equipped with active mechanisms to modulate acquisition of new DNA in different genomic positions. Bio-informatics study correlated recombination “hot-spots” to the presence of Chi-like signature sequences with which recombination might be preferentially initiated. The fundamental role of HGT is certainly not limited to the critical impact that the very rare foreign genes acquired mainly by chance can have on the bacterial adaptation potential. The frequency to which HGT with homologous and homeologous DNA happens in the environment might have led

  20. Evolution of substrate specificity in a recipient's enzyme following horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Noda-García, Lianet; Camacho-Zarco, Aldo R; Medina-Ruíz, Sofía; Gaytán, Paul; Carrillo-Tripp, Mauricio; Fülöp, Vilmos; Barona-Gómez, Francisco

    2013-09-01

    Despite the prominent role of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in shaping bacterial metabolism, little is known about the impact of HGT on the evolution of enzyme function. Specifically, what is the influence of a recently acquired gene on the function of an existing gene? For example, certain members of the genus Corynebacterium have horizontally acquired a whole l-tryptophan biosynthetic operon, whereas in certain closely related actinobacteria, for example, Mycobacterium, the trpF gene is missing. In Mycobacterium, the function of the trpF gene is performed by a dual-substrate (βα)8 phosphoribosyl isomerase (priA gene) also involved in l-histidine (hisA gene) biosynthesis. We investigated the effect of a HGT-acquired TrpF enzyme upon PriA's substrate specificity in Corynebacterium through comparative genomics and phylogenetic reconstructions. After comprehensive in vivo and enzyme kinetic analyses of selected PriA homologs, a novel (βα)8 isomerase subfamily with a specialized function in l-histidine biosynthesis, termed subHisA, was confirmed. X-ray crystallography was used to reveal active-site mutations in subHisA important for narrowing of substrate specificity, which when mutated to the naturally occurring amino acid in PriA led to gain of function. Moreover, in silico molecular dynamic analyses demonstrated that the narrowing of substrate specificity of subHisA is concomitant with loss of ancestral protein conformational states. Our results show the importance of HGT in shaping enzyme evolution and metabolism. PMID:23800623

  1. Horizontal Transfer of Tetracycline Resistance Genes in the Subsurface of a Poultry Farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Y.; Ward, M.; Hilpert, M.

    2008-12-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are considered to be important man-made reservoirs of antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes. At a poultry farm, we, together with Mr.~James Doolittle from USDA, measured the apparent subsurface electrical conductivity (ECa) using a EM38 meter. The resulting ECaR) associated with the poultry farm due to the fact that tetracycline (Tc) is one of the most frequently used antibiotics in food animal production and therefore is probably used at this farm. Soil and aquifer samples were taken from the farm. TcR bacteria were detected, with higher concentrations in the top layer of soil than in the aquifer. TcR bacteria were then enriched from a soil sample, and two classes of TcR genes were detected: tet(M) genes encoding ribosomal protection proteins and tet(L) genes encoding tet efflux pumps. Sequences of the PCR products were compared to known tet(M) and tet(L) genes in GenBank using BLASTN. Phylogenetic trees were also built based on the sequence information. The tet(M) genes found in our soil sample were highly similar to those located on transposons. In a soil microcosm experiment, we used the aforementioned soil sample as incubation medium as well as genetic donor (TcR soil bacteria), and a green fluorescent strain of E. coli as a model genetic recipient to study horizontal transfer of TcR genes from soil bacteria to naïve bacteria. Concentrations of inoculated E. coli were continuously monitored for 15 days, TcR E. coli isolated, and colony PCR performed. The tet(M) genes were found to be transferred to naïve E. coli. The highest horizontal transfer ratio, 0.62 transconjugant per recipient, was observed when Tc was supplemented to a soil microcosm at a concentration of 140 μg/kg soil. Modeling is also ongoing to obtain a better understanding of this complex phenomenon.

  2. Novel recA-Independent Horizontal Gene Transfer in Escherichia coli K-12

    PubMed Central

    Kingston, Anthony W.; Raleigh, Elisabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    In bacteria, mechanisms that incorporate DNA into a genome without strand-transfer proteins such as RecA play a major role in generating novelty by horizontal gene transfer. We describe a new illegitimate recombination event in Escherichia coli K-12: RecA-independent homologous replacements, with very large (megabase-length) donor patches replacing recipient DNA. A previously uncharacterized gene (yjiP) increases the frequency of RecA-independent replacement recombination. To show this, we used conjugal DNA transfer, combining a classical conjugation donor, HfrH, with modern genome engineering methods and whole genome sequencing analysis to enable interrogation of genetic dependence of integration mechanisms and characterization of recombination products. As in classical experiments, genomic DNA transfer begins at a unique position in the donor, entering the recipient via conjugation; antibiotic resistance markers are then used to select recombinant progeny. Different configurations of this system were used to compare known mechanisms for stable DNA incorporation, including homologous recombination, F’-plasmid formation, and genome duplication. A genome island of interest known as the immigration control region was specifically replaced in a minority of recombinants, at a frequency of 3 X 10-12 CFU/recipient per hour. PMID:26162088

  3. Novel recA-Independent Horizontal Gene Transfer in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Kingston, Anthony W; Roussel-Rossin, Chloé; Dupont, Claire; Raleigh, Elisabeth A

    2015-01-01

    In bacteria, mechanisms that incorporate DNA into a genome without strand-transfer proteins such as RecA play a major role in generating novelty by horizontal gene transfer. We describe a new illegitimate recombination event in Escherichia coli K-12: RecA-independent homologous replacements, with very large (megabase-length) donor patches replacing recipient DNA. A previously uncharacterized gene (yjiP) increases the frequency of RecA-independent replacement recombination. To show this, we used conjugal DNA transfer, combining a classical conjugation donor, HfrH, with modern genome engineering methods and whole genome sequencing analysis to enable interrogation of genetic dependence of integration mechanisms and characterization of recombination products. As in classical experiments, genomic DNA transfer begins at a unique position in the donor, entering the recipient via conjugation; antibiotic resistance markers are then used to select recombinant progeny. Different configurations of this system were used to compare known mechanisms for stable DNA incorporation, including homologous recombination, F'-plasmid formation, and genome duplication. A genome island of interest known as the immigration control region was specifically replaced in a minority of recombinants, at a frequency of 3 X 10(-12) CFU/recipient per hour. PMID:26162088

  4. Bacteriophages Isolated from Chicken Meat and the Horizontal Transfer of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes.

    PubMed

    Shousha, Amira; Awaiwanont, Nattakarn; Sofka, Dmitrij; Smulders, Frans J M; Paulsen, Peter; Szostak, Michael P; Humphrey, Tom; Hilbert, Friederike

    2015-07-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in microbes poses a global and increasing threat to public health. The horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes was thought to be due largely to conjugative plasmids or transposons, with only a minor part being played by transduction through bacteriophages. However, whole-genome sequencing has recently shown that the latter mechanism could be highly important in the exchange of antimicrobial resistance genes between microorganisms and environments. The transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes by phages could underlie the origin of resistant bacteria found in food. We show that chicken meat carries a number of phages capable of transferring antimicrobial resistance. Of 243 phages randomly isolated from chicken meat, about a quarter (24.7%) were able to transduce resistance to one or more of the five antimicrobials tested into Escherichia coli ATCC 13706 (DSM 12242). Resistance to kanamycin was transduced the most often, followed by that to chloramphenicol, with four phages transducing tetracycline resistance and three transducing ampicillin resistance. Phages able to transduce antimicrobial resistance were isolated from 44% of the samples of chicken meat that we tested. The statistically significant (P = 0.01) relationship between the presence of phages transducing kanamycin resistance and E. coli isolates resistant to this antibiotic suggests that transduction may be an important mechanism for transferring kanamycin resistance to E. coli. It appears that the transduction of resistance to certain antimicrobials, e.g., kanamycin, not only is widely distributed in E. coli isolates found on meat but also could represent a major mechanism for resistance transfer. The result is of high importance for animal and human health. PMID:25934615

  5. Bacteriophages Isolated from Chicken Meat and the Horizontal Transfer of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes

    PubMed Central

    Shousha, Amira; Awaiwanont, Nattakarn; Sofka, Dmitrij; Smulders, Frans J. M.; Paulsen, Peter; Szostak, Michael P.; Humphrey, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in microbes poses a global and increasing threat to public health. The horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes was thought to be due largely to conjugative plasmids or transposons, with only a minor part being played by transduction through bacteriophages. However, whole-genome sequencing has recently shown that the latter mechanism could be highly important in the exchange of antimicrobial resistance genes between microorganisms and environments. The transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes by phages could underlie the origin of resistant bacteria found in food. We show that chicken meat carries a number of phages capable of transferring antimicrobial resistance. Of 243 phages randomly isolated from chicken meat, about a quarter (24.7%) were able to transduce resistance to one or more of the five antimicrobials tested into Escherichia coli ATCC 13706 (DSM 12242). Resistance to kanamycin was transduced the most often, followed by that to chloramphenicol, with four phages transducing tetracycline resistance and three transducing ampicillin resistance. Phages able to transduce antimicrobial resistance were isolated from 44% of the samples of chicken meat that we tested. The statistically significant (P = 0.01) relationship between the presence of phages transducing kanamycin resistance and E. coli isolates resistant to this antibiotic suggests that transduction may be an important mechanism for transferring kanamycin resistance to E. coli. It appears that the transduction of resistance to certain antimicrobials, e.g., kanamycin, not only is widely distributed in E. coli isolates found on meat but also could represent a major mechanism for resistance transfer. The result is of high importance for animal and human health. PMID:25934615

  6. Putative cross-kingdom horizontal gene transfer in sponge (Porifera) mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Rot, Chagai; Goldfarb, Itay; Ilan, Micha; Huchon, Dorothée

    2006-01-01

    Background The mitochondrial genome of Metazoa is usually a compact molecule without introns. Exceptions to this rule have been reported only in corals and sea anemones (Cnidaria), in which group I introns have been discovered in the cox1 and nad5 genes. Here we show several lines of evidence demonstrating that introns can also be found in the mitochondria of sponges (Porifera). Results A 2,349 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gene was sequenced from the sponge Tetilla sp. (Spirophorida). This fragment suggests the presence of a 1143 bp intron. Similar to all the cnidarian mitochondrial introns, the putative intron has group I intron characteristics. The intron is present in the cox1 gene and encodes a putative homing endonuclease. In order to establish the distribution of this intron in sponges, the cox1 gene was sequenced from several representatives of the demosponge diversity. The intron was found only in the sponge order Spirophorida. A phylogenetic analysis of the COI protein sequence and of the intron open reading frame suggests that the intron may have been transmitted horizontally from a fungus donor. Conclusion Little is known about sponge-associated fungi, although in the last few years the latter have been frequently isolated from sponges. We suggest that the horizontal gene transfer of a mitochondrial intron was facilitated by a symbiotic relationship between fungus and sponge. Ecological relationships are known to have implications at the genomic level. Here, an ecological relationship between sponge and fungus is suggested based on the genomic analysis. PMID:16972986

  7. No evidence for extensive horizontal gene transfer in the genome of the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini

    PubMed Central

    Koutsovoulos, Georgios; Laetsch, Dominik R.; Stevens, Lewis; Daub, Jennifer; Conlon, Claire; Maroon, Habib; Thomas, Fran; Aboobaker, Aziz A.

    2016-01-01

    Tardigrades are meiofaunal ecdysozoans that are key to understanding the origins of Arthropoda. Many species of Tardigrada can survive extreme conditions through cryptobiosis. In a recent paper [Boothby TC, et al. (2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112(52):15976–15981], the authors concluded that the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini had an unprecedented proportion (17%) of genes originating through functional horizontal gene transfer (fHGT) and speculated that fHGT was likely formative in the evolution of cryptobiosis. We independently sequenced the genome of H. dujardini. As expected from whole-organism DNA sampling, our raw data contained reads from nontarget genomes. Filtering using metagenomics approaches generated a draft H. dujardini genome assembly of 135 Mb with superior assembly metrics to the previously published assembly. Additional microbial contamination likely remains. We found no support for extensive fHGT. Among 23,021 gene predictions we identified 0.2% strong candidates for fHGT from bacteria and 0.2% strong candidates for fHGT from nonmetazoan eukaryotes. Cross-comparison of assemblies showed that the overwhelming majority of HGT candidates in the Boothby et al. genome derived from contaminants. We conclude that fHGT into H. dujardini accounts for at most 1–2% of genes and that the proposal that one-sixth of tardigrade genes originate from functional HGT events is an artifact of undetected contamination. PMID:27035985

  8. Characterization of horizontally transferred β-fructofuranosidase (ScrB) genes in Agrilus planipennis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, C; Doucet, D; Mittapalli, O

    2014-12-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an important invasive insect pest of Fraxinus spp. that feeds on host tissues containing high levels of sucrose. However, little is known about how it digests sucrose. Here, using larval midgut transcriptome data and preliminary genome sequence efforts, two β-fructofuranosidase-encoding ScrB genes, AplaScrB-1 and AplaScrB-2, were identified, and proved to reside within the A. planipennis genome. Homology and phylogenetic analysis revealed that they were acquired by A. planipennis via horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from bacteria, possibly an event independent from that reported in bark beetles (eg ScrB genes). Microsynteny between A. planipennis DNA scaffold #2042940, which hosts AplaScrB-1, and a region in the Tribolium castaneum chromosome LG4 suggested that A. planipennis gained this gene after the separation of Buprestidae and Tenebrionidae. Although both of the putative AplaScrB proteins have conserved β-fructofuranosidase motifs, only AplaScrB-2 was predicted to be a secretory protein. Expression of AplaScrB-1 seemed constitutive during development and in all tissues examined, whereas AplaScrB-2 showed a peak expression in adults and in the midgut. We propose that acquisition of these genes by A. planipennis from bacteria is adaptive, and specifically AplaScrB-2 is involved in breaking down dietary sucrose to obtain energy for development. PMID:25224649

  9. Ancient horizontal transfer of transaldolase-like protein gene and its role in plant vascular development.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zefeng; Zhou, Yong; Huang, Jinling; Hu, Yunyun; Zhang, Enying; Xie, Zhengwen; Ma, Sijia; Gao, Yun; Song, Song; Xu, Chenwu; Liang, Guohua

    2015-04-01

    A major event in land plant evolution is the origin of vascular tissues, which ensure the long-distance transport of water, nutrients and organic compounds. However, the molecular basis for the origin and evolution of plant vascular tissues remains largely unknown. Here, we investigate the evolution of the land plant TAL-type transaldolase (TAL) gene and its potential function in rice (Oryza sativa) based on phylogenetic analyses and transgenic experiments, respectively. TAL genes are only present in land plants and bacteria. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that land plant TAL genes are derived from Actinobacteria through an ancient horizontal gene transfer (HGT) event. Further evidence reveals that land plant TAL genes have undergone positive selection and gained several introns following its acquisition by the most recent common ancestor of land plants. Transgenic plant experiments show that rice TAL is specifically expressed in vascular tissues and that knockdown of TAL expression leads to changes in both the number and pattern of vascular bundles. Our findings show that the ancient HGT of TAL from bacteria probably plays an important role in plant vascular development and adaptation to land environments. PMID:25420550

  10. No evidence for extensive horizontal gene transfer in the genome of the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini.

    PubMed

    Koutsovoulos, Georgios; Kumar, Sujai; Laetsch, Dominik R; Stevens, Lewis; Daub, Jennifer; Conlon, Claire; Maroon, Habib; Thomas, Fran; Aboobaker, Aziz A; Blaxter, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Tardigrades are meiofaunal ecdysozoans that are key to understanding the origins of Arthropoda. Many species of Tardigrada can survive extreme conditions through cryptobiosis. In a recent paper [Boothby TC, et al. (2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112(52):15976-15981], the authors concluded that the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini had an unprecedented proportion (17%) of genes originating through functional horizontal gene transfer (fHGT) and speculated that fHGT was likely formative in the evolution of cryptobiosis. We independently sequenced the genome of H. dujardini As expected from whole-organism DNA sampling, our raw data contained reads from nontarget genomes. Filtering using metagenomics approaches generated a draft H. dujardini genome assembly of 135 Mb with superior assembly metrics to the previously published assembly. Additional microbial contamination likely remains. We found no support for extensive fHGT. Among 23,021 gene predictions we identified 0.2% strong candidates for fHGT from bacteria and 0.2% strong candidates for fHGT from nonmetazoan eukaryotes. Cross-comparison of assemblies showed that the overwhelming majority of HGT candidates in the Boothby et al. genome derived from contaminants. We conclude that fHGT into H. dujardini accounts for at most 1-2% of genes and that the proposal that one-sixth of tardigrade genes originate from functional HGT events is an artifact of undetected contamination. PMID:27035985

  11. The tryptophanase gene cluster of Haemophilus influenzae type b: evidence for horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Martin, K; Morlin, G; Smith, A; Nordyke, A; Eisenstark, A; Golomb, M

    1998-01-01

    Among strains of Haemophilus influenzae, the ability to catabolize tryptophan (as detected by indole production) varies and is correlated with pathogenicity. Tryptophan catabolism is widespread (70 to 75%) among harmless respiratory isolates but is nearly universal (94 to 100%) among strains causing serious disease, including meningitis. As a first step in investigating the relationship between tryptophan catabolism and virulence, we have identified genes in pathogenic H. influenzae which are homologous to the tryptophanase (tna) operon of Escherichia coli. The tna genes are located on a 3.1-kb fragment between nlpD and mutS in the H. influenzae type b (Eagan) genome, are flanked by 43-bp direct repeats of an uptake signal sequence downstream from nlpD, and appear to have been inserted as a mobile unit within this sequence. The organization of this insertion is reminiscent of pathogenicity islands. The tna cluster is found at the same map location in all indole-positive strains of H. influenzae surveyed and is absent from reference type d and e genomes. In contrast to H. influenzae, most other Haemophilus species lack tna genes. Phylogenetic comparisons suggest that the tna cluster was acquired by intergeneric lateral transfer, either by H. influenzae or a recent ancestor, and that E. coli may have acquired its tnaA gene from a related source. Genomes of virulent H. influenzae resemble those of pathogenic enterics in having an island of laterally transferred DNA next to mutS. PMID:9422600

  12. Genome-Wide Molecular Clock and Horizontal Gene Transfer in Bacterial Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Novichkov, Pavel S.; Omelchenko, Marina V.; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Mironov, Andrei A.; Wolf, Yuri I.; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a simple theoretical framework for identifying orthologous sets of genes that deviate from a clock-like model of evolution. The approach used is based on comparing the evolutionary distances within a set of orthologs to a standard intergenomic distance, which was defined as the median of the distribution of the distances between all one-to-one orthologs. Under the clock-like model, the points on a plot of intergenic distances versus intergenomic distances are expected to fit a straight line. A statistical technique to identify significant deviations from the clock-like behavior is described. For several hundred analyzed orthologous sets representing three well-defined bacterial lineages, the α-Proteobacteria, the γ-Proteobacteria, and the Bacillus-Clostridium group, the clock-like null hypothesis could not be rejected for ∼70% of the sets, whereas the rest showed substantial anomalies. Subsequent detailed phylogenetic analysis of the genes with the strongest deviations indicated that over one-half of these genes probably underwent a distinct form of horizontal gene transfer, xenologous gene displacement, in which a gene is displaced by an ortholog from a different lineage. The remaining deviations from the clock-like model could be explained by lineage-specific acceleration of evolution. The results indicate that although xenologous gene displacement is a major force in bacterial evolution, a significant majority of orthologous gene sets in three major bacterial lineages evolved in accordance with the clock-like model. The approach described here allows rapid detection of deviations from this mode of evolution on the genome scale. PMID:15375139

  13. Origin of Ecdysosteroid UDP-glycosyltransferases of Baculoviruses through Horizontal Gene Transfer from Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Austin L.

    2014-01-01

    Baculoviruses infecting Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) encodes an enzyme known as ecdysosteroid UDP-glycosyltransferase (EGT), which inactivates insect host ecdysosteroid hormones, thereby preventing molt and pupation and permitting a build-up of the viral population within the host. Baculovirus EGT shows evidence of homology to insect UDP-glycosyltransferases, and a phylogenetic analysis supported the closest relative of baculovirus EGT are the UGT33 and UGT34 families of lepidopteran UDP-glycosyltransferases. The phylogenetic analysis thus supported that baculovirus EGT arose by horizontal gene transfer of a UDP-glycosyltransferase from a lepidopteran host, an event that occurred 70 million years ago at the earliest but possibly much more recently. Three amino acid replacements unique to baculovirus EGTs and conserved in all available baculovirus sequences were identified in the N-terminal region of the molecule. Because of their conservation, these amino acids are candidates for playing an important functional role in baculovirus EGT function. PMID:24834437

  14. Regulation of competence-mediated horizontal gene transfer in the natural habitat of Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Lisa C; Blokesch, Melanie

    2016-04-01

    The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae is an autochthonous inhabitant of aquatic environments where it often interacts with zooplankton and their chitinous molts. Chitin induces natural competence for transformation in V. cholerae, a key mode of horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Recent comparative genomic analyses were indicative of extensive HGT in this species. However, we can still expand our understanding of the complex regulatory network that drives competence in V. cholerae. Here, we present recent advances, including the elucidation of bipartite competence regulation mediated by QstR, the inclusion of the type VI secretion system in the competence regulon of pandemic O1 El Tor strains, and the identification of TfoS as a transcriptional regulator that links chitin to competence induction in V. cholerae. PMID:26615332

  15. Extensive Horizontal Gene Transfer during Staphylococcus aureus Co-colonization In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Alex J.; Loeffler, Anette; Witney, Adam A.; Gould, Katherine A.; Lloyd, David H.; Lindsay, Jodi A.

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal and major pathogen of humans and animals. Comparative genomics of S. aureus populations suggests that colonization of different host species is associated with carriage of mobile genetic elements (MGE), particularly bacteriophages and plasmids capable of encoding virulence, resistance, and immune evasion pathways. Antimicrobial-resistant S. aureus of livestock are a potential zoonotic threat to human health if they adapt to colonize humans efficiently. We utilized the technique of experimental evolution and co-colonized gnotobiotic piglets with both human- and pig-associated variants of the lineage clonal complex 398, and investigated growth and genetic changes over 16 days using whole genome sequencing. The human isolate survived co-colonization on piglets more efficiently than in vitro. During co-colonization, transfer of MGE from the pig to the human isolate was detected within 4 h. Extensive and repeated transfer of two bacteriophages and three plasmids resulted in colonization with isolates carrying a wide variety of mobilomes. Whole genome sequencing of progeny bacteria revealed no acquisition of core genome polymorphisms, highlighting the importance of MGE. Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage recombination and integration into novel sites was detected experimentally for the first time. During colonization, clones coexisted and diversified rather than a single variant dominating. Unexpectedly, each piglet carried unique populations of bacterial variants, suggesting limited transmission of bacteria between piglets once colonized. Our data show that horizontal gene transfer occurs at very high frequency in vivo and significantly higher than that detectable in vitro. PMID:25260585

  16. Cancer Progression Mediated by Horizontal Gene Transfer in an In Vivo Model

    PubMed Central

    Trejo-Becerril, Catalina; Pérez-Cárdenas, Enrique; Taja-Chayeb, Lucía; Anker, Philippe; Herrera-Goepfert, Roberto; Medina-Velázquez, Luis A.; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Pérez-Montiel, Delia; Chávez-Blanco, Alma; Cruz-Velázquez, Judith; Díaz-Chávez, José; Gaxiola, Miguel; Dueñas-González, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    It is known that cancer progresses by vertical gene transfer, but this paradigm ignores that DNA circulates in higher organisms and that it is biologically active upon its uptake by recipient cells. Here we confirm previous observations on the ability of cell-free DNA to induce in vitro cell transformation and tumorigenesis by treating NIH3T3 recipient murine cells with serum of colon cancer patients and supernatant of SW480 human cancer cells. Cell transformation and tumorigenesis of recipient cells did not occur if serum and supernatants were depleted of DNA. It is also demonstrated that horizontal cancer progression mediated by circulating DNA occurs via its uptake by recipient cells in an in vivo model where immunocompetent rats subjected to colon carcinogenesis with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine had increased rate of colonic tumors when injected in the dorsum with human SW480 colon carcinoma cells as a source of circulating oncogenic DNA, which could be offset by treating these animals with DNAse I and proteases. Though the contribution of biologically active molecules other than DNA for this phenomenon to occur cannot be ruled out, our results support the fact that cancer cells emit into the circulation biologically active DNA to foster tumor progression. Further exploration of the horizontal tumor progression phenomenon mediated by circulating DNA is clearly needed to determine whether its manipulation could have a role in cancer therapy. PMID:23285175

  17. Protein Homeostasis Imposes a Barrier on Functional Integration of Horizontally Transferred Genes in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sanchari; Manhart, Michael; Choi, Jeong-Mo; Mu, Wanmeng; Zhou, Jingwen; Shakhnovich, Eugene I.

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) plays a central role in bacterial evolution, yet the molecular and cellular constraints on functional integration of the foreign genes are poorly understood. Here we performed inter-species replacement of the chromosomal folA gene, encoding an essential metabolic enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), with orthologs from 35 other mesophilic bacteria. The orthologous inter-species replacements caused a marked drop (in the range 10–90%) in bacterial growth rate despite the fact that most orthologous DHFRs are as stable as E.coli DHFR at 37°C and are more catalytically active than E. coli DHFR. Although phylogenetic distance between E. coli and orthologous DHFRs as well as their individual molecular properties correlate poorly with growth rates, the product of the intracellular DHFR abundance and catalytic activity (k cat/KM), correlates strongly with growth rates, indicating that the drop in DHFR abundance constitutes the major fitness barrier to HGT. Serial propagation of the orthologous strains for ~600 generations dramatically improved growth rates by largely alleviating the fitness barriers. Whole genome sequencing and global proteome quantification revealed that the evolved strains with the largest fitness improvements have accumulated mutations that inactivated the ATP-dependent Lon protease, causing an increase in the intracellular DHFR abundance. In one case DHFR abundance increased further due to mutations accumulated in folA promoter, but only after the lon inactivating mutations were fixed in the population. Thus, by apparently distinguishing between self and non-self proteins, protein homeostasis imposes an immediate and global barrier to the functional integration of foreign genes by decreasing the intracellular abundance of their products. Once this barrier is alleviated, more fine-tuned evolution occurs to adjust the function/expression of the transferred proteins to the constraints imposed by the intracellular

  18. Dissemination of Antimicrobial Resistance in Microbial Ecosystems through Horizontal Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    von Wintersdorff, Christian J. H.; Penders, John; van Niekerk, Julius M.; Mills, Nathan D.; Majumder, Snehali; van Alphen, Lieke B.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.; Wolffs, Petra F. G.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria has been a rising problem for public health in recent decades. It is becoming increasingly recognized that not only antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) encountered in clinical pathogens are of relevance, but rather, all pathogenic, commensal as well as environmental bacteria—and also mobile genetic elements and bacteriophages—form a reservoir of ARGs (the resistome) from which pathogenic bacteria can acquire resistance via horizontal gene transfer (HGT). HGT has caused antibiotic resistance to spread from commensal and environmental species to pathogenic ones, as has been shown for some clinically important ARGs. Of the three canonical mechanisms of HGT, conjugation is thought to have the greatest influence on the dissemination of ARGs. While transformation and transduction are deemed less important, recent discoveries suggest their role may be larger than previously thought. Understanding the extent of the resistome and how its mobilization to pathogenic bacteria takes place is essential for efforts to control the dissemination of these genes. Here, we will discuss the concept of the resistome, provide examples of HGT of clinically relevant ARGs and present an overview of the current knowledge of the contributions the various HGT mechanisms make to the spread of antibiotic resistance. PMID:26925045

  19. Phylogenomic species tree estimation in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting and horizontal gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Species tree estimation is challenged by gene tree heterogeneity resulting from biological processes such as duplication and loss, hybridization, incomplete lineage sorting (ILS), and horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Mathematical theory about reconstructing species trees in the presence of HGT alone or ILS alone suggests that quartet-based species tree methods (known to be statistically consistent under ILS, or under bounded amounts of HGT) might be effective techniques for estimating species trees when both HGT and ILS are present. Results We evaluated several publicly available coalescent-based methods and concatenation under maximum likelihood on simulated datasets with moderate ILS and varying levels of HGT. Our study shows that two quartet-based species tree estimation methods (ASTRAL-2 and weighted Quartets MaxCut) are both highly accurate, even on datasets with high rates of HGT. In contrast, although NJst and concatenation using maximum likelihood are highly accurate under low HGT, they are less robust to high HGT rates. Conclusion Our study shows that quartet-based species-tree estimation methods can be highly accurate under the presence of both HGT and ILS. The study suggests the possibility that some quartet-based methods might be statistically consistent under phylogenomic models of gene tree heterogeneity with both HGT and ILS. PMID:26450506

  20. Adaptive horizontal transfer of a bacterial gene to an invasive insect pest of coffee.

    PubMed

    Acuña, Ricardo; Padilla, Beatriz E; Flórez-Ramos, Claudia P; Rubio, José D; Herrera, Juan C; Benavides, Pablo; Lee, Sang-Jik; Yeats, Trevor H; Egan, Ashley N; Doyle, Jeffrey J; Rose, Jocelyn K C

    2012-03-13

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) involves the nonsexual transmission of genetic material across species boundaries. Although often detected in prokaryotes, examples of HGT involving animals are relatively rare, and any evolutionary advantage conferred to the recipient is typically obscure. We identified a gene (HhMAN1) from the coffee berry borer beetle, Hypothenemus hampei, a devastating pest of coffee, which shows clear evidence of HGT from bacteria. HhMAN1 encodes a mannanase, representing a class of glycosyl hydrolases that has not previously been reported in insects. Recombinant HhMAN1 protein hydrolyzes coffee berry galactomannan, the major storage polysaccharide in this species and the presumed food of H. hampei. HhMAN1 was found to be widespread in a broad biogeographic survey of H. hampei accessions, indicating that the HGT event occurred before radiation of the insect from West Africa to Asia and South America. However, the gene was not detected in the closely related species H. obscurus (the tropical nut borer or "false berry borer"), which does not colonize coffee beans. Thus, HGT of HhMAN1 from bacteria represents a likely adaptation to a specific ecological niche and may have been promoted by intensive agricultural practices. PMID:22371593

  1. Dissemination of Antimicrobial Resistance in Microbial Ecosystems through Horizontal Gene Transfer.

    PubMed

    von Wintersdorff, Christian J H; Penders, John; van Niekerk, Julius M; Mills, Nathan D; Majumder, Snehali; van Alphen, Lieke B; Savelkoul, Paul H M; Wolffs, Petra F G

    2016-01-01

    The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria has been a rising problem for public health in recent decades. It is becoming increasingly recognized that not only antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) encountered in clinical pathogens are of relevance, but rather, all pathogenic, commensal as well as environmental bacteria-and also mobile genetic elements and bacteriophages-form a reservoir of ARGs (the resistome) from which pathogenic bacteria can acquire resistance via horizontal gene transfer (HGT). HGT has caused antibiotic resistance to spread from commensal and environmental species to pathogenic ones, as has been shown for some clinically important ARGs. Of the three canonical mechanisms of HGT, conjugation is thought to have the greatest influence on the dissemination of ARGs. While transformation and transduction are deemed less important, recent discoveries suggest their role may be larger than previously thought. Understanding the extent of the resistome and how its mobilization to pathogenic bacteria takes place is essential for efforts to control the dissemination of these genes. Here, we will discuss the concept of the resistome, provide examples of HGT of clinically relevant ARGs and present an overview of the current knowledge of the contributions the various HGT mechanisms make to the spread of antibiotic resistance. PMID:26925045

  2. Adaptive horizontal transfer of a bacterial gene to an invasive insect pest of coffee

    PubMed Central

    Acuña, Ricardo; Padilla, Beatriz E.; Flórez-Ramos, Claudia P.; Rubio, José D.; Herrera, Juan C.; Benavides, Pablo; Lee, Sang-Jik; Yeats, Trevor H.; Egan, Ashley N.; Doyle, Jeffrey J.; Rose, Jocelyn K. C.

    2012-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) involves the nonsexual transmission of genetic material across species boundaries. Although often detected in prokaryotes, examples of HGT involving animals are relatively rare, and any evolutionary advantage conferred to the recipient is typically obscure. We identified a gene (HhMAN1) from the coffee berry borer beetle, Hypothenemus hampei, a devastating pest of coffee, which shows clear evidence of HGT from bacteria. HhMAN1 encodes a mannanase, representing a class of glycosyl hydrolases that has not previously been reported in insects. Recombinant HhMAN1 protein hydrolyzes coffee berry galactomannan, the major storage polysaccharide in this species and the presumed food of H. hampei. HhMAN1 was found to be widespread in a broad biogeographic survey of H. hampei accessions, indicating that the HGT event occurred before radiation of the insect from West Africa to Asia and South America. However, the gene was not detected in the closely related species H. obscurus (the tropical nut borer or “false berry borer”), which does not colonize coffee beans. Thus, HGT of HhMAN1 from bacteria represents a likely adaptation to a specific ecological niche and may have been promoted by intensive agricultural practices. PMID:22371593

  3. Single cell genomics indicates horizontal gene transfer and viral infections in a deep subsurface Firmicutes population.

    PubMed

    Labonté, Jessica M; Field, Erin K; Lau, Maggie; Chivian, Dylan; Van Heerden, Esta; Wommack, K Eric; Kieft, Thomas L; Onstott, Tullis C; Stepanauskas, Ramunas

    2015-01-01

    A major fraction of Earth's prokaryotic biomass dwells in the deep subsurface, where cellular abundances per volume of sample are lower, metabolism is slower, and generation times are longer than those in surface terrestrial and marine environments. How these conditions impact biotic interactions and evolutionary processes is largely unknown. Here we employed single cell genomics to analyze cell-to-cell genome content variability and signatures of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and viral infections in five cells of Candidatus Desulforudis audaxviator, which were collected from a 3 km-deep fracture water in the 2.9 Ga-old Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa. Between 0 and 32% of genes recovered from single cells were not present in the original, metagenomic assembly of Desulforudis, which was obtained from a neighboring subsurface fracture. We found a transposable prophage, a retron, multiple clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and restriction-modification systems, and an unusually high frequency of transposases in the analyzed single cell genomes. This indicates that recombination, HGT and viral infections are prevalent evolutionary events in the studied population of microorganisms inhabiting a highly stable deep subsurface environment. PMID:25954269

  4. Horizontal Gene Transfer and Redundancy of Tryptophan Biosynthetic Enzymes in Dinotoms

    PubMed Central

    Imanian, Behzad; Keeling, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    A tertiary endosymbiosis between a dinoflagellate host and diatom endosymbiont gave rise to “dinotoms,” cells with a unique nuclear and mitochondrial redundancy derived from two evolutionarily distinct eukaryotic lineages. To examine how this unique redundancy might have affected the evolution of metabolic systems, we investigated the transcription of genes involved in biosynthesis of the amino acid tryptophan in three species, Durinskia baltica, Kryptoperidinium foliaceum, and Glenodinium foliaceum. From transcriptome sequence data, we recovered two distinct sets of protein-coding transcripts covering the entire tryptophan biosynthetic pathway. Phylogenetic analyses suggest a diatom origin for one set of the proteins, which we infer to be expressed in the endosymbiont, and that the other arose from multiple horizontal gene transfer events to the dinoflagellate ancestor of the host lineage. This is the first indication that these cells retain redundant sets of transcripts and likely metabolic pathways for the biosynthesis of small molecules and extend their redundancy to their two distinct nuclear genomes. PMID:24448981

  5. Think laterally: horizontal gene transfer from symbiotic microbes may extend the phenotype of marine sessile hosts

    PubMed Central

    Degnan, Sandie M.

    2014-01-01

    Since the origin of the animal kingdom, marine animals have lived in association with viruses, prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes, often as symbionts. This long and continuous interaction has provided ample opportunity not only for the evolution of intimate interactions such as sharing of metabolic pathways, but also for horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of non-metazoan genes into metazoan genomes. The number of demonstrated cases of inter-kingdom HGT is currently small, such that it is not yet widely appreciated as a significant player in animal evolution. Sessile marine invertebrates that vertically inherit bacterial symbionts, that have no dedicated germ line, or that bud or excise pluripotent somatic cells during their life history may be particularly receptive to HGT from their symbionts. Closer scrutiny of the growing number of genomes being accrued for these animals may thus reveal HGT as a regular source of novel variation that can function to extend the host phenotype metabolically, morphologically, or even behaviorally. Taxonomic identification of symbionts will help to address the intriguing question of whether past HGT events may constrain contemporary symbioses. PMID:25477875

  6. Single cell genomics indicates horizontal gene transfer and viral infections in a deep subsurface Firmicutes population

    PubMed Central

    Labonté, Jessica M.; Field, Erin K.; Lau, Maggie; Chivian, Dylan; Van Heerden, Esta; Wommack, K. Eric; Kieft, Thomas L.; Onstott, Tullis C.; Stepanauskas, Ramunas

    2015-01-01

    A major fraction of Earth's prokaryotic biomass dwells in the deep subsurface, where cellular abundances per volume of sample are lower, metabolism is slower, and generation times are longer than those in surface terrestrial and marine environments. How these conditions impact biotic interactions and evolutionary processes is largely unknown. Here we employed single cell genomics to analyze cell-to-cell genome content variability and signatures of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and viral infections in five cells of Candidatus Desulforudis audaxviator, which were collected from a 3 km-deep fracture water in the 2.9 Ga-old Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa. Between 0 and 32% of genes recovered from single cells were not present in the original, metagenomic assembly of Desulforudis, which was obtained from a neighboring subsurface fracture. We found a transposable prophage, a retron, multiple clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and restriction-modification systems, and an unusually high frequency of transposases in the analyzed single cell genomes. This indicates that recombination, HGT and viral infections are prevalent evolutionary events in the studied population of microorganisms inhabiting a highly stable deep subsurface environment. PMID:25954269

  7. Visual evidence of horizontal gene transfer between plants and bacteria in the phytosphere of transplastomic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Pontiroli, Alessandra; Rizzi, Aurora; Simonet, Pascal; Daffonchio, Daniele; Vogel, Timothy M; Monier, Jean-Michel

    2009-05-01

    Plant surfaces, colonized by numerous and diverse bacterial species, are often considered hot spots for horizontal gene transfer (HGT) between plants and bacteria. Plant DNA released during the degradation of plant tissues can persist and remain biologically active for significant periods of time, suggesting that soil or plant-associated bacteria could be in direct contact with plant DNA. In addition, nutrients released during the decaying process may provide a copiotrophic environment conducive for opportunistic microbial growth. Using Acinetobacter baylyi strain BD413 and transplastomic tobacco plants harboring the aadA gene as models, the objective of this study was to determine whether specific niches could be shown to foster bacterial growth on intact or decaying plant tissues, to develop a competence state, and to possibly acquire exogenous plant DNA by natural transformation. Visualization of HGT in situ was performed using A. baylyi strain BD413(rbcL-DeltaPaadA::gfp) carrying a promoterless aadA::gfp fusion. Both antibiotic resistance and green fluorescence phenotypes were restored in recombinant bacterial cells after homologous recombination with transgenic plant DNA. Opportunistic growth occurred on decaying plant tissues, and a significant proportion of the bacteria developed a competence state. Quantification of transformants clearly supported the idea that the phytosphere constitutes a hot spot for HGT between plants and bacteria. The nondisruptive approach used to visualize transformants in situ provides new insights into environmental factors influencing HGT for plant tissues. PMID:19329660

  8. No evidence of inhibition of horizontal gene transfer by CRISPR-Cas on evolutionary timescales.

    PubMed

    Gophna, Uri; Kristensen, David M; Wolf, Yuri I; Popa, Ovidiu; Drevet, Christine; Koonin, Eugene V

    2015-09-01

    The CRISPR (clustered, regularly, interspaced, short, palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated genes) systems of archaea and bacteria provide adaptive immunity against viruses and other selfish elements and are believed to curtail horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Limiting acquisition of new genetic material could be one of the sources of the fitness cost of CRISPR-Cas maintenance and one of the causes of the patchy distribution of CRISPR-Cas among bacteria, and across environments. We sought to test the hypothesis that the activity of CRISPR-Cas in microbes is negatively correlated with the extent of recent HGT. Using three independent measures of HGT, we found no significant dependence between the length of CRISPR arrays, which reflects the activity of the immune system, and the estimated number of recent HGT events. In contrast, we observed a significant negative dependence between the estimated extent of HGT and growth temperature of microbes, which could be explained by the lower genetic diversity in hotter environments. We hypothesize that the relevant events in the evolution of resistance to mobile elements and proclivity for HGT, to which CRISPR-Cas systems seem to substantially contribute, occur on the population scale rather than on the timescale of species evolution. PMID:25710183

  9. No evidence of inhibition of horizontal gene transfer by CRISPR–Cas on evolutionary timescales

    PubMed Central

    Gophna, Uri; Kristensen, David M; Wolf, Yuri I; Popa, Ovidiu; Drevet, Christine; Koonin, Eugene V

    2015-01-01

    The CRISPR (clustered, regularly, interspaced, short, palindromic repeats)–Cas (CRISPR-associated genes) systems of archaea and bacteria provide adaptive immunity against viruses and other selfish elements and are believed to curtail horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Limiting acquisition of new genetic material could be one of the sources of the fitness cost of CRISPR–Cas maintenance and one of the causes of the patchy distribution of CRISPR–Cas among bacteria, and across environments. We sought to test the hypothesis that the activity of CRISPR–Cas in microbes is negatively correlated with the extent of recent HGT. Using three independent measures of HGT, we found no significant dependence between the length of CRISPR arrays, which reflects the activity of the immune system, and the estimated number of recent HGT events. In contrast, we observed a significant negative dependence between the estimated extent of HGT and growth temperature of microbes, which could be explained by the lower genetic diversity in hotter environments. We hypothesize that the relevant events in the evolution of resistance to mobile elements and proclivity for HGT, to which CRISPR–Cas systems seem to substantially contribute, occur on the population scale rather than on the timescale of species evolution. PMID:25710183

  10. Horizontal gene transfer confers fermentative metabolism in the respiratory-deficient plant trypanosomatid Phytomonas serpens.

    PubMed

    Ienne, Susan; Pappas, Georgios; Benabdellah, Karim; González, Antonio; Zingales, Bianca

    2012-04-01

    Among trypanosomatids, the genus Phytomonas is the only one specifically adapted to infect plants. These hosts provide a particular habitat with a plentiful supply of carbohydrates. Phytomonas sp. lacks a cytochrome-mediated respiratory chain and Krebs cycle, and ATP production relies predominantly on glycolysis. We have characterised the complete gene encoding a putative pyruvate/indolepyruvate decarboxylase (PDC/IPDC) (548 amino acids) of P. serpens, that displays high amino acid sequence similarity with phytobacteria and Leishmania enzymes. No orthologous PDC/IPDC genes were found in Trypanosoma cruzi or T. brucei. Conservation of the PDC/IPDC gene sequence was verified in 14 Phytomonas isolates. A phylogenetic analysis shows that Phytomonas protein is robustly monophyletic with Leishmania spp. and C. fasciculata enzymes. In the trees this clade appears as a sister group of indolepyruvate decarboxylases of γ-proteobacteria. This supports the proposition that a horizontal gene transfer event from a donor phytobacteria to a recipient ancestral trypanosome has occurred prior to the separation between Phytomonas, Leishmania and Crithidia. We have measured the PDC activity in P. serpens cell extracts. The enzyme has a Km value for pyruvate of 1.4mM. The acquisition of a PDC, a key enzyme in alcoholic fermentation, explains earlier observations that ethanol is one of the major end-products of glucose catabolism under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. This represents an alternative and necessary route to reoxidise part of the NADH produced in the highly demanding glycolytic pathway and highlights the importance of this type of event in metabolic adaptation. PMID:22293462

  11. Horizontal gene transfer confers adaptive advantages to phytopathogenic fungi: a case study of catalase-peroxidase in Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), the exchange and stable integration of genetic material between different evolutionary lineages, is widely observed in fungi. We hypothesize that successful stabilization of HGT elements provides adaptive advantages (e.g., virulence). Catalase/peroxidases (KatGs) are ...

  12. Lightning-triggered electroporation and electrofusion as possible contributors to natural horizontal gene transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotnik, Tadej

    2013-09-01

    Phylogenetic studies show that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a significant contributor to genetic variability of prokaryotes, and was perhaps even more abundant during the early evolution. Hitherto, research of natural HGT has mainly focused on three mechanisms of DNA transfer: conjugation, natural competence, and viral transduction. This paper discusses the feasibility of a fourth such mechanism - cell electroporation and/or electrofusion triggered by atmospheric electrostatic discharges (lightnings). A description of electroporation as a phenomenon is followed by a review of experimental evidence that electroporation of prokaryotes in aqueous environments can result in release of non-denatured DNA, as well as uptake of DNA from the surroundings and transformation. Similarly, a description of electrofusion is followed by a review of experiments showing that prokaryotes devoid of cell wall can electrofuse into hybrids expressing the genes of their both precursors. Under sufficiently fine-tuned conditions, electroporation and electrofusion are efficient tools for artificial transformation and hybridization, respectively, but the quantitative analysis developed here shows that conditions for electroporation-based DNA release, DNA uptake and transformation, as well as for electrofusion are also present in many natural aqueous environments exposed to lightnings. Electroporation is thus a plausible contributor to natural HGT among prokaryotes, and could have been particularly important during the early evolution, when the other mechanisms might have been scarcer or nonexistent. In modern prokaryotes, natural absence of the cell wall is rare, but it is reasonable to assume that the wall has formed during a certain stage of evolution, and at least prior to this, electrofusion could also have contributed to natural HGT. The concluding section outlines several guidelines for assessment of the feasibility of lightning-triggered HGT.

  13. Comparative Metagenomics Reveals Host Specific Metavirulomes and Horizontal Gene Transfer Elements in the Chicken Cecum Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Ani; Brulc, Jennifer M.; Wilson, Melissa K.; Law, Bibiana F.; Theoret, James R.; Joens, Lynn A.; Konkel, Michael E.; Angly, Florent; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A.; Edwards, Robert A.; Nelson, Karen E.; White, Bryan A.

    2008-01-01

    mobile DNA elements are a major functional component of cecal microbiomes, thus contributing to horizontal gene transfer and functional microbiome evolution. Moreover, the metavirulomes of these microbiomes appear to associate by host environment. These data have implications for defining core and variable microbiome content in a host species. Furthermore, this suggests that the evolution of host specific metavirulomes is a contributing factor in disease resistance to zoonotic pathogens. PMID:18698407

  14. Molecular evidence for ongoing complementarity and horizontal gene transfer in endosymbiotic systems of mealybugs

    PubMed Central

    López-Madrigal, Sergio; Beltrà, Aleixandre; Resurrección, Serena; Soto, Antonia; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés; Gil, Rosario

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular bacterial supply of essential amino acids is common among sap-feeding insects, thus complementing the scarcity of nitrogenous compounds in plant phloem. This is also the role of the two mealybug endosymbiotic systems whose genomes have been sequenced. In the nested endosymbiotic system from Planococcus citri (Pseudococcinae), “Candidatus Tremblaya princeps” and “Candidatus Moranella endobia” cooperate to synthesize essential amino acids, while in Phenacoccus avenae (Phenacoccinae) this function is performed by its single endosymbiont “Candidatus Tremblaya phenacola.” However, little is known regarding the evolution of essential amino acid supplementation strategies in other mealybug systems. To address this knowledge gap, we screened for the presence of six selected loci involved in essential amino acid biosynthesis in five additional mealybug species. We found evidence of ongoing complementarity among endosymbionts from insects of subfamily Pseudococcinae, as well as horizontal gene transfer affecting endosymbionts from insects of family Phenacoccinae, providing a more comprehensive picture of the evolutionary history of these endosymbiotic systems. Additionally, we report two diagnostic motifs to help identify invasive mealybug species. PMID:25206351

  15. Population-Dynamic Modeling of Bacterial Horizontal Gene Transfer by Natural Transformation.

    PubMed

    Mao, Junwen; Lu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Natural transformation is a major mechanism of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and plays an essential role in bacterial adaptation, evolution, and speciation. Although its molecular underpinnings have been increasingly revealed, natural transformation is not well characterized in terms of its quantitative ecological roles. Here, by using Neisseria gonorrhoeae as an example, we developed a population-dynamic model for natural transformation and analyzed its dynamic characteristics with nonlinear tools and simulations. Our study showed that bacteria capable of natural transformation can display distinct population behaviors ranging from extinction to coexistence and to bistability, depending on their HGT rate and selection coefficient. With the model, we also illustrated the roles of environmental DNA sources-active secretion and passive release-in impacting population dynamics. Additionally, by constructing and utilizing a stochastic version of the model, we examined how noise shapes the steady and dynamic behaviors of the system. Notably, we found that distinct waiting time statistics for HGT events, namely a power-law distribution, an exponential distribution, and a mix of the both, are associated with the dynamics in the regimes of extinction, coexistence, and bistability accordingly. This work offers a quantitative illustration of natural transformation by revealing its complex population dynamics and associated characteristics, therefore advancing our ecological understanding of natural transformation as well as HGT in general. PMID:26745428

  16. Complete genome sequence of Brachyspira intermedia reveals unique genomic features in Brachyspira species and phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Brachyspira spp. colonize the intestines of some mammalian and avian species and show different degrees of enteropathogenicity. Brachyspira intermedia can cause production losses in chickens and strain PWS/AT now becomes the fourth genome to be completed in the genus Brachyspira. Results 15 classes of unique and shared genes were analyzed in B. intermedia, B. murdochii, B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli. The largest number of unique genes was found in B. intermedia and B. murdochii. This indicates the presence of larger pan-genomes. In general, hypothetical protein annotations are overrepresented among the unique genes. A 3.2 kb plasmid was found in B. intermedia strain PWS/AT. The plasmid was also present in the B. murdochii strain but not in nine other Brachyspira isolates. Within the Brachyspira genomes, genes had been translocated and also frequently switched between leading and lagging strands, a process that can be followed by different AT-skews in the third positions of synonymous codons. We also found evidence that bacteriophages were being remodeled and genes incorporated into them. Conclusions The accessory gene pool shapes species-specific traits. It is also influenced by reductive genome evolution and horizontal gene transfer. Gene-transfer events can cross both species and genus boundaries and bacteriophages appear to play an important role in this process. A mechanism for horizontal gene transfer appears to be gene translocations leading to remodeling of bacteriophages in combination with broad tropism. PMID:21816042

  17. Spontaneously induced prophages in Lactobacillus gasseri contribute to horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Baugher, J L; Durmaz, E; Klaenhammer, T R

    2014-06-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri is an endogenous species of the human gastrointestinal tract and vagina. With recent advances in microbial taxonomy, phylogenetics, and genomics, L. gasseri is recognized as an important commensal and is increasingly being used in probiotic formulations. L. gasseri strain ADH is lysogenic and harbors two inducible prophages. In this study, prophage adh was found to spontaneously induce in broth cultures to populations of ∼ 10(7) PFU/ml by stationary phase. The adh prophage-cured ADH derivative NCK102 was found to harbor a new, second inducible phage, vB_Lga_jlb1 (jlb1). Phage jlb1 was sequenced and found to be highly similar to the closely related phage LgaI, which resides as two tandem prophages in the neotype strain L. gasseri ATCC 33323. The common occurrence of multiple prophages in L. gasseri genomes, their propensity for spontaneous induction, and the high degree of homology among phages within multiple species of Lactobacillus suggest that temperate bacteriophages likely contribute to horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in commensal lactobacilli. In this study, the host ranges of phages adh and jlb1 were determined against 16 L. gasseri strains. The transduction range and the rate of spontaneous transduction were investigated in coculture experiments to ascertain the degree to which prophages can promote HGT among a variety of commensal and probiotic lactobacilli. Both adh and jlb1 particles were confirmed to mediate plasmid transfer. As many as ∼10(3) spontaneous transductants/ml were obtained. HGT by transducing phages of commensal lactobacilli may have a significant impact on the evolution of bacteria within the human microbiota. PMID:24682298

  18. Phylogeny Reconstruction with Alignment-Free Method That Corrects for Horizontal Gene Transfer.

    PubMed

    Bromberg, Raquel; Grishin, Nick V; Otwinowski, Zbyszek

    2016-06-01

    Advances in sequencing have generated a large number of complete genomes. Traditionally, phylogenetic analysis relies on alignments of orthologs, but defining orthologs and separating them from paralogs is a complex task that may not always be suited to the large datasets of the future. An alternative to traditional, alignment-based approaches are whole-genome, alignment-free methods. These methods are scalable and require minimal manual intervention. We developed SlopeTree, a new alignment-free method that estimates evolutionary distances by measuring the decay of exact substring matches as a function of match length. SlopeTree corrects for horizontal gene transfer, for composition variation and low complexity sequences, and for branch-length nonlinearity caused by multiple mutations at the same site. We tested SlopeTree on 495 bacteria, 73 archaea, and 72 strains of Escherichia coli and Shigella. We compared our trees to the NCBI taxonomy, to trees based on concatenated alignments, and to trees produced by other alignment-free methods. The results were consistent with current knowledge about prokaryotic evolution. We assessed differences in tree topology over different methods and settings and found that the majority of bacteria and archaea have a core set of proteins that evolves by descent. In trees built from complete genomes rather than sets of core genes, we observed some grouping by phenotype rather than phylogeny, for instance with a cluster of sulfur-reducing thermophilic bacteria coming together irrespective of their phyla. The source-code for SlopeTree is available at: http://prodata.swmed.edu/download/pub/slopetree_v1/slopetree.tar.gz. PMID:27336403

  19. Phylogeny Reconstruction with Alignment-Free Method That Corrects for Horizontal Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Grishin, Nick V.; Otwinowski, Zbyszek

    2016-01-01

    Advances in sequencing have generated a large number of complete genomes. Traditionally, phylogenetic analysis relies on alignments of orthologs, but defining orthologs and separating them from paralogs is a complex task that may not always be suited to the large datasets of the future. An alternative to traditional, alignment-based approaches are whole-genome, alignment-free methods. These methods are scalable and require minimal manual intervention. We developed SlopeTree, a new alignment-free method that estimates evolutionary distances by measuring the decay of exact substring matches as a function of match length. SlopeTree corrects for horizontal gene transfer, for composition variation and low complexity sequences, and for branch-length nonlinearity caused by multiple mutations at the same site. We tested SlopeTree on 495 bacteria, 73 archaea, and 72 strains of Escherichia coli and Shigella. We compared our trees to the NCBI taxonomy, to trees based on concatenated alignments, and to trees produced by other alignment-free methods. The results were consistent with current knowledge about prokaryotic evolution. We assessed differences in tree topology over different methods and settings and found that the majority of bacteria and archaea have a core set of proteins that evolves by descent. In trees built from complete genomes rather than sets of core genes, we observed some grouping by phenotype rather than phylogeny, for instance with a cluster of sulfur-reducing thermophilic bacteria coming together irrespective of their phyla. The source-code for SlopeTree is available at: http://prodata.swmed.edu/download/pub/slopetree_v1/slopetree.tar.gz. PMID:27336403

  20. The Evolutionary Fate of the Horizontally Transferred Agrobacterial Mikimopine Synthase Gene in the Genera Nicotiana and Linaria

    PubMed Central

    Talianova, Martina; Vyskot, Boris

    2014-01-01

    Few cases of spontaneously horizontally transferred bacterial genes into plant genomes have been described to date. The occurrence of horizontally transferred genes from the T-DNA of Agrobacterium rhizogenes into the plant genome has been reported in the genus Nicotiana and in the species Linaria vulgaris. Here we compare patterns of evolution in one of these genes (a gene encoding mikimopine synthase, mis) following three different events of horizontal gene transfer (HGT). As this gene plays an important role in Agrobacterium, and there are known cases showing that genes from pathogens can acquire plant protection function, we hypothesised that in at least some of the studied species we will find signs of selective pressures influencing mis sequence. The mikimopine synthase (mis) gene evolved in a different manner in the branch leading to Nicotiana tabacum and N. tomentosiformis, in the branch leading to N. glauca and in the genus Linaria. Our analyses of the genus Linaria suggest that the mis gene began to degenerate soon after the HGT. In contrast, in the case of N. glauca, the mis gene evolved under significant selective pressures. This suggests a possible role of mikimopine synthase in current N. glauca and its ancestor(s). In N. tabacum and N. tomentosiformis, the mis gene has a common frameshift mutation that disrupted its open reading frame. Interestingly, our results suggest that in spite of the frameshift, the mis gene could evolve under selective pressures. This sequence may still have some regulatory role at the RNA level as suggested by coverage of this sequence by small RNAs in N. tabacum. PMID:25420106

  1. Survival of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria and Horizontal Gene Transfer Control Antibiotic Resistance Gene Content in Anaerobic Digesters

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jennifer H.; Novak, John T.; Knocke, William R.; Pruden, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Understanding fate of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) vs. their antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during wastewater sludge treatment is critical in order to reduce the spread of antibiotic resistance through process optimization. Here, we spiked high concentrations of tetracycline-resistant bacteria, isolated from mesophilic (Iso M1-1—a Pseudomonas sp.) and thermophilic (Iso T10—a Bacillus sp.) anaerobic digested sludge, into batch digesters and monitored their fate by plate counts and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) of their corresponding tetracycline ARGs. In batch studies, spiked ARB plate counts returned to baseline (thermophilic) or 1-log above baseline (mesophilic) while levels of the ARG present in the spiked isolate [tet(G)] remained high in mesophilic batch reactors. To compare results under semi-continuous flow conditions with natural influent variation, tet(O), tet(W), and sul1 ARGs, along with the intI1 integrase gene, were monitored over a 9-month period in the raw feed sludge and effluent sludge of lab-scale thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic digesters. sul1 and intI1 in mesophilic and thermophilic digesters correlated positively (Spearman rho = 0.457–0.829, P < 0.05) with the raw feed sludge. There was no correlation in tet(O) or tet(W) ratios in raw sludge and mesophilic digested sludge or thermophilic digested sludge (Spearman rho = 0.130–0.486, P = 0.075–0.612). However, in the thermophilic digester, the tet(O) and tet(W) ratios remained consistently low over the entire monitoring period. We conclude that the influent sludge microbial composition can influence the ARG content of a digester, apparently as a result of differential survival or death of ARBs or horizontal gene transfer of genes between raw sludge ARBs and the digester microbial community. Notably, mesophilic digestion was more susceptible to ARG intrusion than thermophilic digestion, which may be attributed to a higher rate of ARB survival and

  2. Survival of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria and Horizontal Gene Transfer Control Antibiotic Resistance Gene Content in Anaerobic Digesters.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jennifer H; Novak, John T; Knocke, William R; Pruden, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Understanding fate of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) vs. their antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during wastewater sludge treatment is critical in order to reduce the spread of antibiotic resistance through process optimization. Here, we spiked high concentrations of tetracycline-resistant bacteria, isolated from mesophilic (Iso M1-1-a Pseudomonas sp.) and thermophilic (Iso T10-a Bacillus sp.) anaerobic digested sludge, into batch digesters and monitored their fate by plate counts and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) of their corresponding tetracycline ARGs. In batch studies, spiked ARB plate counts returned to baseline (thermophilic) or 1-log above baseline (mesophilic) while levels of the ARG present in the spiked isolate [tet(G)] remained high in mesophilic batch reactors. To compare results under semi-continuous flow conditions with natural influent variation, tet(O), tet(W), and sul1 ARGs, along with the intI1 integrase gene, were monitored over a 9-month period in the raw feed sludge and effluent sludge of lab-scale thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic digesters. sul1 and intI1 in mesophilic and thermophilic digesters correlated positively (Spearman rho = 0.457-0.829, P < 0.05) with the raw feed sludge. There was no correlation in tet(O) or tet(W) ratios in raw sludge and mesophilic digested sludge or thermophilic digested sludge (Spearman rho = 0.130-0.486, P = 0.075-0.612). However, in the thermophilic digester, the tet(O) and tet(W) ratios remained consistently low over the entire monitoring period. We conclude that the influent sludge microbial composition can influence the ARG content of a digester, apparently as a result of differential survival or death of ARBs or horizontal gene transfer of genes between raw sludge ARBs and the digester microbial community. Notably, mesophilic digestion was more susceptible to ARG intrusion than thermophilic digestion, which may be attributed to a higher rate of ARB survival and/or horizontal gene

  3. Contribution of Multiple Inter-Kingdom Horizontal Gene Transfers to Evolution and Adaptation of Amphibian-Killing Chytrid, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Baofa; Li, Tong; Xiao, Jinhua; Liu, Li; Zhang, Peng; Murphy, Robert W.; He, Shunmin; Huang, Dawei

    2016-01-01

    Amphibian populations are experiencing catastrophic declines driven by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Although horizontal gene transfer (HGT) facilitates the evolution and adaptation in many fungi by conferring novel function genes to the recipient fungi, inter-kingdom HGT in Bd remains largely unexplored. In this study, our investigation detects 19 bacterial genes transferred to Bd, including metallo-beta-lactamase and arsenate reductase that play important roles in the resistance to antibiotics and arsenates. Moreover, three probable HGT gene families in Bd are from plants and one gene family coding the ankyrin repeat-containing protein appears to come from oomycetes. The observed multi-copy gene families associated with HGT are probably due to the independent transfer events or gene duplications. Five HGT genes with extracellular locations may relate to infection, and some other genes may participate in a variety of metabolic pathways, and in doing so add important metabolic traits to the recipient. The evolutionary analysis indicates that all the transferred genes evolved under purifying selection, suggesting that their functions in Bd are similar to those of the donors. Collectively, our results indicate that HGT from diverse donors may be an important evolutionary driver of Bd, and improve its adaptations for infecting and colonizing host amphibians.

  4. Horizontal gene transfer from Bacteria to rumen Ciliates indicates adaptation to their anaerobic, carbohydrates-rich environment

    PubMed Central

    Ricard, Guénola; McEwan, Neil R; Dutilh, Bas E; Jouany, Jean-Pierre; Macheboeuf, Didier; Mitsumori, Makoto; McIntosh, Freda M; Michalowski, Tadeusz; Nagamine, Takafumi; Nelson, Nancy; Newbold, Charles J; Nsabimana, Eli; Takenaka, Akio; Thomas, Nadine A; Ushida, Kazunari; Hackstein, Johannes HP; Huynen, Martijn A

    2006-01-01

    Background The horizontal transfer of expressed genes from Bacteria into Ciliates which live in close contact with each other in the rumen (the foregut of ruminants) was studied using ciliate Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs). More than 4000 ESTs were sequenced from representatives of the two major groups of rumen Cilates: the order Entodiniomorphida (Entodinium simplex, Entodinium caudatum, Eudiplodinium maggii, Metadinium medium, Diploplastron affine, Polyplastron multivesiculatum and Epidinium ecaudatum) and the order Vestibuliferida, previously called Holotricha (Isotricha prostoma, Isotricha intestinalis and Dasytricha ruminantium). Results A comparison of the sequences with the completely sequenced genomes of Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes, followed by large-scale construction and analysis of phylogenies, identified 148 ciliate genes that specifically cluster with genes from the Bacteria and Archaea. The phylogenetic clustering with bacterial genes, coupled with the absence of close relatives of these genes in the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, indicates that they have been acquired via Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) after the colonization of the gut by the rumen Ciliates. Conclusion Among the HGT candidates, we found an over-representation (>75%) of genes involved in metabolism, specifically in the catabolism of complex carbohydrates, a rich food source in the rumen. We propose that the acquisition of these genes has greatly facilitated the Ciliates' colonization of the rumen providing evidence for the role of HGT in the adaptation to new niches. PMID:16472398

  5. The chloroplast genome of the diatom Seminavis robusta: new features introduced through multiple mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Brembu, Tore; Winge, Per; Tooming-Klunderud, Ave; Nederbragt, Alexander J; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Bones, Atle M

    2014-08-01

    The chloroplasts of heterokont algae such as diatoms are the result of a secondary endosymbiosis event, in which a red alga was engulfed by a non-photosynthetic eukaryote. The diatom chloroplast genomes sequenced to date show a high degree of similarity, but some examples of gene replacement or introduction of genes through horizontal gene transfer are known. The evolutionary origin of the gene transfers is unclear. We have sequenced and characterised the complete chloroplast genome and a putatively chloroplast-associated plasmid of the pennate diatom Seminavis robusta. The chloroplast genome contains two introns, a feature that has not previously been found in diatoms. The group II intron of atpB appears to be recently transferred from a Volvox-like green alga. The S. robusta chloroplast genome (150,905 bp) is the largest diatom chloroplast genome characterised to date, mainly due to the presence of four large gene-poor regions. Open reading frames (ORFs) encoded by the gene-poor regions show similarity to putative proteins encoded by the chloroplast genomes of different heterokonts, as well as the plasmids pCf1 and pCf2 found in the diatom Cylindrotheca fusiformis. A tyrosine recombinase and a serine recombinase are encoded by the S. robusta chloroplast genome, indicating a possible mechanism for the introduction of novel genes. A plasmid with similarity to pCf2 was also identified. Phylogenetic analyses of three ORFs identified on pCf2 suggest that two of them are part of an operon-like gene cluster conserved in bacteria. Several genetic elements have moved through horizontal gene transfer between the chloroplast genomes of different heterokonts. Two recombinases are likely to promote such gene insertion events, and the plasmid identified may act as vectors in this process. The copy number of the plasmid was similar to that of the plastid genome indicating a plastid localization. PMID:24365712

  6. Extensive horizontal gene transfer, duplication, and loss of chlorophyll synthesis genes in the algae

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hunsperger, Heather M.; Randhawa, Tejinder; Cattolico, Rose Ann

    2015-02-10

    Two non-homologous, isofunctional enzymes catalyze the penultimate step of chlorophyll a synthesis in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms such as cyanobacteria, eukaryotic algae and land plants: the light independent (LIPOR) and light-dependent (POR) protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases. Whereas the distribution of these enzymes in cyanobacteria and land plants is well understood, the presence, loss, duplication, and replacement of these genes have not been surveyed in the polyphyletic and remarkably diverse eukaryotic algal lineages.

  7. Role of horizontal gene transfer as a control on the coevolution of ribosomal proteins and the genetic code

    SciTech Connect

    Woese, Carl R.; Goldenfeld, Nigel; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

    2011-03-31

    Our main goal is to develop the conceptual and computational tools necessary to understand the evolution of the universal processes of translation and replication and to identify events of horizontal gene transfer that occurred within the components. We will attempt to uncover the major evolutionary transitions that accompanied the development of protein synthesis by the ribosome and associated components of the translation apparatus. Our project goes beyond standard genomic approaches to explore homologs that are represented at both the structure and sequence level. Accordingly, use of structural phylogenetic analysis allows us to probe further back into deep evolutionary time than competing approaches, permitting greater resolution of primitive folds and structures. Specifically, our work focuses on the elements of translation, ranging from the emergence of the canonical genetic code to the evolution of specific protein folds, mediated by the predominance of horizontal gene transfer in early life. A unique element of this study is the explicit accounting for the impact of phenotype selection on translation, through a coevolutionary control mechanism. Our work contributes to DOE mission objectives through: (1) sophisticated computer simulation of protein dynamics and evolution, and the further refinement of techniques for structural phylogeny, which complement sequence information, leading to improved annotation of genomic databases; (2) development of evolutionary approaches to exploring cellular function and machinery in an integrated way; and (3) documentation of the phenotype interaction with translation over evolutionary time, reflecting the system response to changing selection pressures through horizontal gene transfer.

  8. Natural horizontal transfer of a naphthalene dioxygenase gene between bacteria native to a coal tar-contaminated field site.

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, J B; Stuart-Keil, K G; Ghiorse, W C; Madsen, E L

    1997-01-01

    Horizontal transfer of genes responsible for pollutant biodegradation may play a key role in the evolution of bacterial populations and the adaptation of microbial communities to environmental contaminants. However, field evidence for horizontal gene transfer between microorganisms has traditionally been very difficult to obtain. In this study, the sequences of the 16S rRNA and naphthalene dioxygenase iron-sulfur protein (nahAc) genes of nine naphthalene-degrading bacteria isolated from a coal tar waste-contaminated site, as well as a naphthalene-degrading bacterium from a contaminated site in Washington state and two archetypal naphthalene-degrading strains, were compared. Seven strains from the study site had a single nahAc allele, whereas the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the strains differed by as much as 7.9%. No nahAc alleles from the site were identical to those of the archetypal strains, although the predominant allele was closely related to that of Pseudomonas putida NCIB 9816-4, isolated in the British Isles. However, one site-derived nahAc allele was identical to that of the Washington state strain. Lack of phylogenetic congruence of the nahAc and 16S rRNA genes indicates that relatively recent in situ horizontal transfer of the nahAc gene has occurred, possibly as a direct or indirect consequence of pollutant contamination. Alkaline lysis plasmid preparations and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis have revealed the presence of plasmids ranging in size from 70 to 88 kb in all site isolates. Southern hybridizations with a 407-bp nahAc probe have suggested that the nahAc gene is plasmid borne in all the site isolates but one, a strain isolated from subsurface sediment 400 m upstream from the source of the other site isolates. In this strain and in the naphthalene-degrading strain from Washington state, nahAc appears to be chromosomally located. In addition, one site isolate may carry nahAc on both chromosome and plasmid. Within the group of bacteria with

  9. Pangenome Evidence for Extensive Interdomain Horizontal Transfer Affecting Lineage Core and Shell Genes in Uncultured Planktonic Thaumarchaeota and Euryarchaeota

    PubMed Central

    Deschamps, Philippe; Zivanovic, Yvan; Moreira, David; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; López-García, Purificación

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is an important force in evolution, which may lead, among other things, to the adaptation to new environments by the import of new metabolic functions. Recent studies based on phylogenetic analyses of a few genome fragments containing archaeal 16S rRNA genes and fosmid-end sequences from deep-sea metagenomic libraries have suggested that marine planktonic archaea could be affected by high HGT frequency. Likewise, a composite genome of an uncultured marine euryarchaeote showed high levels of gene sequence similarity to bacterial genes. In this work, we ask whether HGT is frequent and widespread in genomes of these marine archaea, and whether HGT is an ancient and/or recurrent phenomenon. To answer these questions, we sequenced 997 fosmid archaeal clones from metagenomic libraries of deep-Mediterranean waters (1,000 and 3,000 m depth) and built comprehensive pangenomes for planktonic Thaumarchaeota (Group I archaea) and Euryarchaeota belonging to the uncultured Groups II and III Euryarchaeota (GII/III-Euryarchaeota). Comparison with available reference genomes of Thaumarchaeota and a composite marine surface euryarchaeote genome allowed us to define sets of core, lineage-specific core, and shell gene ortholog clusters for the two archaeal lineages. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of all gene clusters showed that 23.9% of marine Thaumarchaeota genes and 29.7% of GII/III-Euryarchaeota genes had been horizontally acquired from bacteria. HGT is not only extensive and directional but also ongoing, with high HGT levels in lineage-specific core (ancient transfers) and shell (recent transfers) genes. Many of the acquired genes are related to metabolism and membrane biogenesis, suggesting an adaptive value for life in cold, oligotrophic oceans. We hypothesize that the acquisition of an important amount of foreign genes by the ancestors of these archaeal groups significantly contributed to their divergence and ecological success. PMID:24923324

  10. Microsporidia: Eukaryotic Intracellular Parasites Shaped by Gene Loss and Horizontal Gene Transfers.

    PubMed

    Corradi, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Microsporidia are eukaryotic parasites of many animals that appear to have adapted to an obligate intracellular lifestyle by modifying the morphology and content of their cells. Living inside other cells, they have lost many, or all, metabolic functions, resulting in genomes that are always gene poor and often very small. The minute content of microsporidian genomes led many to assume that these parasites are biochemically static and uninteresting. However, recent studies have demonstrated that these organisms can be surprisingly complex and dynamic. In this review I detail the most significant recent advances in microsporidian genomics and discuss how these have affected our understanding of many biological aspects of these peculiar eukaryotic intracellular pathogens. PMID:26195306

  11. Highly variable individual donor cell fates characterize robust horizontal gene transfer of an integrative and conjugative element.

    PubMed

    Delavat, François; Mitri, Sara; Pelet, Serge; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2016-06-14

    Horizontal gene transfer is an important evolutionary mechanism for bacterial adaptation. However, given the typical low transfer frequencies in a bacterial population, little is known about the fate and interplay of donor cells and the mobilized DNA during transfer. Here we study transfer of an integrative and conjugative element (ICE) among individual live bacterial cells. ICEs are widely distributed mobile DNA elements that are different than plasmids because they reside silent in the host chromosome and are maintained through vertical descent. Occasionally, ICEs become active, excise, and transmit their DNA to a new recipient, where it is reintegrated. We develop a fluorescent tool to differentiate excision, transfer, and reintegration of a model ICE named ICEclc (for carrying the clc genes for chlorocatechol metabolism) among single Pseudomonas cells by using time-lapse microscopy. We find that ICEclc activation is initiated in stationary phase cells, but excision and transfer predominantly occur only when such cells have been presented with new nutrients. Donors with activated ICE develop a number of different states, characterized by reduced cell division rates or growth arrest, persistence, or lysis, concomitant with ICE excision, and likely, ICE loss or replication. The donor cell state transitions can be described by using a stochastic model, which predicts that ICE fitness is optimal at low initiation rates in stationary phase. Despite highly variable donor cell fates, ICE transfer is remarkably robust overall, with 75% success after excision. Our results help to better understand ICE behavior and shed a new light on bacterial cellular differentiation during horizontal gene transfer. PMID:27247406

  12. Highly variable individual donor cell fates characterize robust horizontal gene transfer of an integrative and conjugative element

    PubMed Central

    Delavat, François; Mitri, Sara; Pelet, Serge; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2016-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer is an important evolutionary mechanism for bacterial adaptation. However, given the typical low transfer frequencies in a bacterial population, little is known about the fate and interplay of donor cells and the mobilized DNA during transfer. Here we study transfer of an integrative and conjugative element (ICE) among individual live bacterial cells. ICEs are widely distributed mobile DNA elements that are different than plasmids because they reside silent in the host chromosome and are maintained through vertical descent. Occasionally, ICEs become active, excise, and transmit their DNA to a new recipient, where it is reintegrated. We develop a fluorescent tool to differentiate excision, transfer, and reintegration of a model ICE named ICEclc (for carrying the clc genes for chlorocatechol metabolism) among single Pseudomonas cells by using time-lapse microscopy. We find that ICEclc activation is initiated in stationary phase cells, but excision and transfer predominantly occur only when such cells have been presented with new nutrients. Donors with activated ICE develop a number of different states, characterized by reduced cell division rates or growth arrest, persistence, or lysis, concomitant with ICE excision, and likely, ICE loss or replication. The donor cell state transitions can be described by using a stochastic model, which predicts that ICE fitness is optimal at low initiation rates in stationary phase. Despite highly variable donor cell fates, ICE transfer is remarkably robust overall, with 75% success after excision. Our results help to better understand ICE behavior and shed a new light on bacterial cellular differentiation during horizontal gene transfer. PMID:27247406

  13. Gene Loss and Horizontal Gene Transfer Contributed to the Genome Evolution of the Extreme Acidophile “Ferrovum”

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich, Sophie R.; González, Carolina; Poehlein, Anja; Tischler, Judith S.; Daniel, Rolf; Schlömann, Michael; Holmes, David S.; Mühling, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD), associated with active and abandoned mining sites, is a habitat for acidophilic microorganisms that gain energy from the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds and ferrous iron and that thrive at pH below 4. Members of the recently proposed genus “Ferrovum” are the first acidophilic iron oxidizers to be described within the Betaproteobacteria. Although they have been detected as typical community members in AMD habitats worldwide, knowledge of their phylogenetic and metabolic diversity is scarce. Genomics approaches appear to be most promising in addressing this lacuna since isolation and cultivation of “Ferrovum” has proven to be extremely difficult and has so far only been successful for the designated type strain “Ferrovum myxofaciens” P3G. In this study, the genomes of two novel strains of “Ferrovum” (PN-J185 and Z-31) derived from water samples of a mine water treatment plant were sequenced. These genomes were compared with those of “Ferrovum” sp. JA12 that also originated from the mine water treatment plant, and of the type strain (P3G). Phylogenomic scrutiny suggests that the four strains represent three “Ferrovum” species that cluster in two groups (1 and 2). Comprehensive analysis of their predicted metabolic pathways revealed that these groups harbor characteristic metabolic profiles, notably with respect to motility, chemotaxis, nitrogen metabolism, biofilm formation and their potential strategies to cope with the acidic environment. For example, while the “F. myxofaciens” strains (group 1) appear to be motile and diazotrophic, the non-motile group 2 strains have the predicted potential to use a greater variety of fixed nitrogen sources. Furthermore, analysis of their genome synteny provides first insights into their genome evolution, suggesting that horizontal gene transfer and genome reduction in the group 2 strains by loss of genes encoding complete metabolic pathways or physiological features

  14. Monitoring of horizontal gene transfer from agricultural microorganisms to soil bacteria and analysis of microbial community in soils.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Eun; Moon, Jae Sun; Choi, Won Sik; Lee, Sang Han; Kim, Sung Uk

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the possibility of horizontal gene transfer between agricultural microorganisms and soil microorganisms in the environment, Bacillus subtilis KB producing iturin and the PGPR recombinant strain Pseudomonas fluorescens MX1 were used as model microorganisms. The soil samples of cucumber or tomato plants cultivated in pots and the greenhouse for a six month period were investigated by PCR, real-time PCR, Southern hybridization, and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprinting. Our data from Southern blotting and TRFLP patterns suggest that the model bacteria do not give significant impacts on the other bacteria in the pots and greenhouse during cultivation. PMID:22534306

  15. Gene Activation through the Modulation of Nucleoid Structures by a Horizontally Transferred Regulator, Pch, in Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Naoki; Oshima, Taku; Ueda, Takeshi; Ogasawara, Naotake; Tobe, Toru

    2016-01-01

    The horizontally transferred chromosomal segments, which are the main source of genetic diversity among bacterial pathogens, are bound by the nucleoid protein H-NS, resulting in the formation of a nucleoprotein complex and the silencing of gene expression. The de-silencing or activation of virulence genes necessary for the colonization of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli is achieved mainly by the action of two regulators, Pch and Ler, which are encoded by horizontally transferred elements. Although Ler has been shown to activate transcription by counteracting H-NS silencing, the mechanism for Pch is poorly understood. We show here that Pch activates the LEE1 promoter and also enhances the Ler-mediated activation of other LEE promoters. Transcriptional activation was completely dependent on repression by the H-NS/StpA/Hha/YdgT complex, indicating that Pch-derived activation was achieved by alleviating H-NS-mediated silencing. Expression of pch reduced the binding of H-NS at LEE1 promoter and altered the nucleoprotein complex. Furthermore, in vitro reconstruction of the protein-DNA complex on LEE1 promoter DNA confirmed the exclusive effect of Pch on H-NS binding. These results demonstrated that Pch is another anti-silencing regulator and a modulator of H-NS-containing nucleoprotein complexes. Thus, the anti-silencing mechanism plays a key role in the coordinated regulation of virulence genes in EHEC. PMID:26901318

  16. Gene Activation through the Modulation of Nucleoid Structures by a Horizontally Transferred Regulator, Pch, in Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Naoki; Oshima, Taku; Ueda, Takeshi; Ogasawara, Naotake; Tobe, Toru

    2016-01-01

    The horizontally transferred chromosomal segments, which are the main source of genetic diversity among bacterial pathogens, are bound by the nucleoid protein H-NS, resulting in the formation of a nucleoprotein complex and the silencing of gene expression. The de-silencing or activation of virulence genes necessary for the colonization of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli is achieved mainly by the action of two regulators, Pch and Ler, which are encoded by horizontally transferred elements. Although Ler has been shown to activate transcription by counteracting H-NS silencing, the mechanism for Pch is poorly understood. We show here that Pch activates the LEE1 promoter and also enhances the Ler-mediated activation of other LEE promoters. Transcriptional activation was completely dependent on repression by the H-NS/StpA/Hha/YdgT complex, indicating that Pch-derived activation was achieved by alleviating H-NS-mediated silencing. Expression of pch reduced the binding of H-NS at LEE1 promoter and altered the nucleoprotein complex. Furthermore, in vitro reconstruction of the protein-DNA complex on LEE1 promoter DNA confirmed the exclusive effect of Pch on H-NS binding. These results demonstrated that Pch is another anti-silencing regulator and a modulator of H-NS-containing nucleoprotein complexes. Thus, the anti-silencing mechanism plays a key role in the coordinated regulation of virulence genes in EHEC. PMID:26901318

  17. Evidence for Natural Horizontal Transfer of the pcpB Gene in the Evolution of Polychlorophenol-Degrading Sphingomonads

    PubMed Central

    Tiirola, Marja A.; Wang, Hong; Paulin, Lars; Kulomaa, Markku S.

    2002-01-01

    The chlorophenol degradation pathway in Sphingobium chlorophenolicum is initiated by the pcpB gene product, pentachlorophenol-4-monooxygenase. The distribution of the gene was studied in a phylogenetically diverse group of polychlorophenol-degrading bacteria isolated from contaminated groundwater in Kärkölä, Finland. All the sphingomonads isolated were shown to share pcpB gene homologs with 98.9 to 100% sequence identity. The gene product was expressed when the strains were induced by 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol. A comparative analysis of the 16S rDNA and pcpB gene trees suggested that a recent horizontal transfer of the pcpB gene was involved in the evolution of the catabolic pathway in the Kärkölä sphingomonads. The full-length Kärkölä pcpB gene allele had approximately 70% identity with the three pcpB genes previously sequenced from sphingomonads. It was very closely related to the environmental clones obtained from chlorophenol-enriched soil samples (M. Beaulieu, V. Becaert, L. Deschenes, and R. Villemur, Microbiol. Ecol. 40:345-355, 2000). The gene was not present in polychlorophenol-degrading nonsphingomonads isolated from the Kärkölä source. PMID:12200305

  18. Genome of the facultative scuticociliatosis pathogen Pseudocohnilembus persalinus provides insight into its virulence through horizontal gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Jie; Wang, Guangying; Cheng, Jun; Tian, Miao; Pan, Xuming; Warren, Alan; Jiang, Chuanqi; Yuan, Dongxia; Miao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Certain ciliates of the subclass Scuticociliatia (scuticociliates) are facultative parasites of fishes in which they cause a suite of diseases collectively termed scuticociliatosis. Hitherto, comparatively little was known about genetics and genomics of scuticociliates or the mechanism of scuticociliatosis. In this study, a laboratory culture of the facultatively pathogenic scuticociliate Pseudocohnilembus persalinus was established and its genome sequenced, giving the first genome of a marine ciliate. Genome-wide horizontal gene transfer (HGT) analysis showed P. persalinus has acquired many unique prokaryote-derived genes that potentially contribute to the virulence of this organism, including cell adhesion, hemolysis and heme utilization genes. These findings give new insights into our understanding of the pathology of scuticociliates. PMID:26486372

  19. Horizontal gene transfer from macrophages to ischemic muscles upon delivery of naked DNA with Pluronic block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Vivek; Gaymalov, Zagit; Alakhova, Daria; Gupta, Richa; Zucker, Irving H; Kabanov, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    Intramuscular administration of plasmid DNA (pDNA) with non-ionic Pluronic block copolymers increases gene expression in injected muscles and lymphoid organs. We studied the role of immune cells in muscle transfection upon inflammation. Local inflammation in murine hind limb ischemia model (MHLIM) drastically increased DNA, RNA and expressed protein levels in ischemic muscles injected with pDNA/Pluronic. The systemic inflammation (MHLIM or peritonitis) also increased expression of pDNA/Pluronic in the muscles. When pDNA/Pluronic was injected in ischemic muscles the reporter gene, Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) co-localized with desmin(+) muscle fibers and CD11b(+) macrophages (MØs), suggesting transfection of MØs along with the muscle cells. P85 enhanced (∼ 4 orders) transfection of MØs with pDNA in vitro. Moreover, adoptively transferred MØs were shown to pass the transgene to inflamed muscle cells in MHLIM. Using a co-culture of myotubes (MTs) and transfected MØs expressing a reporter gene under constitutive (cmv-luciferase) or muscle specific (desmin-luciferase) promoter we demonstrated that P85 enhances horizontal gene transfer from MØ to MTs. Therefore, MØs can play an important role in muscle transfection with pDNA/Pluronic during inflammation, with both inflammation and Pluronic contributing to the increased gene expression. pDNA/Pluronic has potential for therapeutic gene delivery in muscle pathologies that involve inflammation. PMID:26480472

  20. Genetic Diversity and Horizontal Transfer of Genes Involved in Oxidation of Reduced Phosphorus Compounds by Alcaligenes faecalis WM2072

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Marlena M.; Metcalf, William W.

    2005-01-01

    Enrichment was performed to isolate organisms that could utilize reduced phosphorus compounds as their sole phosphorus sources. One isolate that grew well with either hypophosphite or phosphite was identified by 16S rRNA gene analysis as a strain of Alcaligenes faecalis. The genes required for oxidation of hypophosphite and phosphite by this organism were identified by using transposon mutagenesis and include homologs of the ptxD and htxA genes of Pseudomonas stutzeri WM88, which encode an NAD-dependent phosphite dehydrogenase (PtxD) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent hypophosphite dioxygenase (HtxA). This organism also has the htxB, htxC, and htxD genes that comprise an ABC-type transporter, presumably for hypophosphite and phosphite transport. The role of these genes in reduced phosphorus metabolism was confirmed by analyzing the growth of mutants in which these genes were deleted. Sequencing data showed that htxA, htxB, htxC, and htxD are virtually identical to their homologs in P. stutzeri at the DNA level, indicating that horizontal gene transfer occurred. However, A. faecalis ptxD is very different from its P. stutzeri homolog and represents a new ptxD lineage. Therefore, this gene has ancient evolutionary roots in bacteria. These data suggest that there is strong evolutionary selection for the ability of microorganisms to oxidize hypophosphite and phosphite. PMID:15640200

  1. Root parasitic plant Orobanche aegyptiaca and shoot parasitic plant Cuscuta australis obtained Brassicaceae-specific strictosidine synthase-like genes by horizontal gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Besides gene duplication and de novo gene generation, horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is another important way of acquiring new genes. HGT may endow the recipients with novel phenotypic traits that are important for species evolution and adaption to new ecological niches. Parasitic systems expectedly allow the occurrence of HGT at relatively high frequencies due to their long-term physical contact. In plants, a number of HGT events have been reported between the organelles of parasites and the hosts, but HGT between host and parasite nuclear genomes has rarely been found. Results A thorough transcriptome screening revealed that a strictosidine synthase-like (SSL) gene in the root parasitic plant Orobanche aegyptiaca and the shoot parasitic plant Cuscuta australis showed much higher sequence similarities with those in Brassicaceae than with those in their close relatives, suggesting independent gene horizontal transfer events from Brassicaceae to these parasites. These findings were strongly supported by phylogenetic analysis and their identical unique amino acid residues and deletions. Intriguingly, the nucleus-located SSL genes in Brassicaceae belonged to a new member of SSL gene family, which were originated from gene duplication. The presence of introns indicated that the transfer occurred directly by DNA integration in both parasites. Furthermore, positive selection was detected in the foreign SSL gene in O. aegyptiaca but not in C. australis. The expression of the foreign SSL genes in these two parasitic plants was detected in multiple development stages and tissues, and the foreign SSL gene was induced after wounding treatment in C. australis stems. These data imply that the foreign genes may still retain certain functions in the recipient species. Conclusions Our study strongly supports that parasitic plants can gain novel nuclear genes from distantly related host species by HGT and the foreign genes may execute certain functions in the new hosts

  2. Multiple Origins of Eukaryotic cox15 Suggest Horizontal Gene Transfer from Bacteria to Jakobid Mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    He, Ding; Fu, Cheng-Jie; Baldauf, Sandra L

    2016-01-01

    The most gene-rich and bacterial-like mitochondrial genomes known are those of Jakobida (Excavata). Of these, the most extreme example to date is the Andalucia godoyi mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), including a cox15 gene encoding the respiratory enzyme heme A synthase (HAS), which is nuclear-encoded in nearly all other mitochondriate eukaryotes. Thus cox15 in eukaryotes appears to be a classic example of mitochondrion-to-nucleus (endosymbiotic) gene transfer, with A. godoyi uniquely retaining the ancestral state. However, our analyses reveal two highly distinct HAS types (encoded by cox15-1 and cox15-2 genes) and identify A. godoyi mitochondrial cox15-encoded HAS as type-1 and all other eukaryotic cox15-encoded HAS as type-2. Molecular phylogeny places the two HAS types in widely separated clades with eukaryotic type-2 HAS clustering with the bulk of α-proteobacteria (>670 sequences), whereas A. godoyi type-1 HAS clusters with an eclectic set of bacteria and archaea including two α-proteobacteria missing from the type-2 clade. This wide phylogenetic separation of the two HAS types is reinforced by unique features of their predicted protein structures. Meanwhile, RNA-sequencing and genomic analyses fail to detect either cox15 type in the nuclear genome of any jakobid including A. godoyi. This suggests that not only is cox15-1 a relatively recent acquisition unique to the Andalucia lineage but also the jakobid last common ancestor probably lacked both cox15 types. These results indicate that uptake of foreign genes by mtDNA is more taxonomically widespread than previously thought. They also caution against the assumption that all α-proteobacterial-like features of eukaryotes are ancient remnants of endosymbiosis. PMID:26412445

  3. Evolution of the syntrophic interaction between Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Methanosarcina barkeri: involvement of an ancient horizontal gene transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Scholten, Johannes C.; Culley, David E.; Brockman, Fred J.; Wu, Gang; Zhang, Weiwen

    2007-01-05

    The sulfate reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio vulgaris and the methanogenic archaea Methanosarcina barkeri can grow syntrophically on lactate. In this study, three functionally unknown genes of D. vulgaris, DVU2103, DVU2104 and DVU2108, were found to be up-regulated 2-4 fold following the lifestyle shift from syntroph to sulfatereducer; moreover, none of these genes were regulated when D. vulgaris was grown alone in various pure culture conditions. These results suggest that these genes may play roles related to the lifestyle change of D. vulgaris from syntroph to sulfate reducer. This hypothesis is further supported by phylogenomic analyses showing that homologies of these genes were only narrowly present in several groups of bacteria, most of which are restricted to a syntrophic life-style, such as Pelobacter carbinolicus, Syntrophobacter fumaroxidans, Syntrophomonas wolfei and Syntrophus aciditrophicus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the genes tended to be clustered with archaeal genera, and they were rooted on archaeal species in the phylogenetic trees, suggesting that they originated from an archaeal methanogen and were horizontally transferred to a common ancestor of delta- Proteobacteria, Clostridia and Thermotogae. While lost in most species during evolution, these genes appear to have been retained in bacteria capable of syntrophic relationships, probably due to their providing a selective advantage. In addition, no significant bias in codon and amino acid usages was detected between these genes and the rest of the D. vulgaris genome, suggesting these gene transfers may have occurred early in the evolutionary history so that sufficient time has elapsed to allow an adaptation to the codon and amino acid usages of D. vulgaris. This report provides novel insights into the origin and evolution of bacterial genes involved in the syntrophic lifestyle.

  4. The horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes is enhanced by ionic liquid with different structure of varying alkyl chain length

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing; Lu, Qian; Mao, Daqing; Cui, Yuxiao; Luo, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have become a global health concern. In our previous study, an ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIm][PF6]) had been proven to facilitate the dissemination of ARGs in the environment. However, enhanced alkyl group chain length or the substitution of alkyl groups with the cation ring corresponded with increased antimicrobial effects. In this study, we investigated how different structures of ILs with 4, 6, and 8 C atoms in the longer alkyl chain on the imidazolium cations facilitated the dissemination of ARGs. The promotion of plasmid RP4 transfer frequency decreased with [CnMIM][BF4] increasing the alkyl chain length from 4 carbon atoms to 8 carbon atoms on the imidazolium cations, which is observed with [BMIM][BF4] (n = 4, 5.9 fold) > HMIM][BF4] (n = 6, 2.2 fold) > [OMIM][BF4] (n = 8, 1.7 fold). This illustrates that [CnMIM][BF4] with increasing the alkyl chain length exert decreasing ability in facilitating plasmid RP4 horizontal transfer, which is possibly related to IL-structure dependent toxicity. The IL-structure dependent plasmid RP4 transfer frequency was attributable to bacterial cell membrane permeability weaken with increasing alkyl chain length of [CnMIM][PF4], which was evidenced by flow cytometry. In freshwater microcosm, [CnMIm][BF4] promoted the relative abundance of the sulI and intI genes for 4.6 folds, aphA and traF for 5.2 folds higher than the untreated groups, promoting the propagation of ARGs in the aquatic environment. This is the first report that ILs with different structure of varying alkyl chain length facilitate horizontal transfer of plasmid RP4 which is widely distributed in the environment, and thus add the adverse effects of the environmental risk of ILs. PMID:26379641

  5. Genome analysis and gene nblA identification of Microcystis aeruginosa myovirus (MaMV-DC) reveal the evidence for horizontal gene transfer events between cyanomyovirus and host.

    PubMed

    Ou, Tong; Gao, Xiao-Chan; Li, San-Hua; Zhang, Qi-Ya

    2015-12-01

    The genome sequence, genetic characterization and nblA gene function of Microcystis aeruginosa myovirus isolated from Lake Dianchi in China (MaMV-DC) have been analysed. The genome DNA is 169 223 bp long, with 170 predicted protein-coding genes (001L–170L) and a tRNA gene. About one-sixth of these genes have homologues in the host cyanobacteria M. aeruginosa. The genome carries a gene homologous to host nblA, which encodes a protein involved in the degradation of cyanobacterial phycobilisome. Its expression during MaMV-DC infection was confirmed by reverse transcriptase PCR and Western blot detection and abundant expression was companied by the significant decline of phycocyanin content and massive release of progeny MaMV-DC. In addition, expressing MaMV-DC nblA reduced the phycocyanin peak and the phycocyanin to chlorophyll ratio in model cyanobacteria. These results confirm that horizontal gene transfer events have occurred between cyanobacterial host and cyanomyovirus and suggest that MaMV-DC carrying host-derived genes (such as 005L, that codes for NblA) is responsible for more efficient expression of cyanophage genes and release of progeny cyanophage. This study provides novel insight into the horizontal gene transfer in cyanophage and the interactions between cyanophage and their host. PMID:26399243

  6. {open_quotes}Horizontal{close_quotes} gene transfer from a transgenic potato line to a bacterial pathogen (Erwinia chrysanthemi) occurs - if at all - at an extremely low frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, K.; Fuetterer, J.; Potrykus, I.

    1995-10-01

    The frequency of possible {open_quotes}horizontal{close_quotes} gene transfer between a plant and a tightly associated bacterial pathogen was studied in a model system consisting of transgenic Solanum tuberosum, containing a {beta}-lactamase gene linked to a pBR322 origin of replication, and Erwinia chrysanthemi. This experimental system offers optimal conditions for the detection of possible horizontal gene transfer events, even when they occur at very low frequency. Horizontal gene transfer was not detected under conditions mimicking a {open_quotes}natural{close_quotes} infection. The gradual, stepwise alteration of artificial, positive control conditions to idealized natural conditions, however, allowed the characterization of factors that affected gene transfer, and revealed a gradual decrease of the gene transfer frequency from 6.3 x 10{sup -2} under optimal control conditions to a calculated 2.0 x 10{sub -17} under idealized natural conditions. These data, in combination with other published studies, argue that horizontal gene transfer is so rare as to be essentially irrelevant to any realistic assessment of the risk involved in release experiments involving transgenic plants. 22 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Comparative genomics analysis of pKF3-94 in Klebsiella pneumoniae reveals plasmid compatibility and horizontal gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Jianchao; Wu, Songquan; Zhang, Kaibo; Wang, Ziqiang; Zhu, Wen; Zhu, Mei; Zhang, Ying; Cheng, Cong; Wang, Huifeng; Tou, Huifen; Zhu, Chuanxin; Li, Peizhen; Ying, Jun; Xu, Teng; Yi, Huiguang; Li, Jinsong; Ni, Liyan; Xu, Zuyuan; Bao, Qiyu; Lu, Junwan

    2015-01-01

    In order to get insights into plasmid evolution and the dissemination of multidrug resistance, we performed extensive comparative genomics analyses of the Klebsiella pneumoniae plasmid pKF3-94 and some of its related plasmids. pKF3-94 is one of three plasmids isolated from the K. pneumoniae strain KF3. Of the 144 putative genes it harbors, 69 can be functionally assigned to be involved in transfer conjugation, transfer leading, antimicrobial resistance, transposon function, and plasmid replication. Comparison of plasmid replicon sequence types revealed that pKF3-94 carries two replicons that are distinct from those carried on the two sibling K. pneumonia plasmids pKF3-70 and pKF3-140, thereby allowing pKF3-94 to coexist with these latter plasmids in the same host cell. Comparative genomics analyses further showed that pKF3-94 is more similar to plasmids pK1HV and pC15-k, which were isolated from different K. pneumonia strains, than to pKF3-70 and pKF3-140. Interestingly, pK1HV contains a unique 49 kb region rich in mobile genetic elements and drug resistance genes, while pKF3-94 and pC15-k share a 15 kb homology region partitioned into a region rich in drug resistance genes and one containing a replicon. It is conceivable, therefore, that pK1HV and pC15-k have both arisen from a common pKF3-94-like plasmid. The comparisons lend further support for the role horizontal gene transfer plays in genome evolution and in the dissemination of genetic elements including drug resistance genes. PMID:26347723

  8. A Complete Set of Flagellar Genes Acquired by Horizontal Transfer Coexists with the Endogenous Flagellar System in Rhodobacter sphaeroides▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Sebastian; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; Fabela, Salvador; Osorio, Aurora; Dreyfus, Georges; Vinuesa, Pablo; Camarena, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Bacteria swim in liquid environments by means of a complex rotating structure known as the flagellum. Approximately 40 proteins are required for the assembly and functionality of this structure. Rhodobacter sphaeroides has two flagellar systems. One of these systems has been shown to be functional and is required for the synthesis of the well-characterized single subpolar flagellum, while the other was found only after the genome sequence of this bacterium was completed. In this work we found that the second flagellar system of R. sphaeroides can be expressed and produces a functional flagellum. In many bacteria with two flagellar systems, one is required for swimming, while the other allows movement in denser environments by producing a large number of flagella over the entire cell surface. In contrast, the second flagellar system of R. sphaeroides produces polar flagella that are required for swimming. Expression of the second set of flagellar genes seems to be positively regulated under anaerobic growth conditions. Phylogenic analysis suggests that the flagellar system that was initially characterized was in fact acquired by horizontal transfer from a γ-proteobacterium, while the second flagellar system contains the native genes. Interestingly, other α-proteobacteria closely related to R. sphaeroides have also acquired a set of flagellar genes similar to the set found in R. sphaeroides, suggesting that a common ancestor received this gene cluster. PMID:17293429

  9. Two recombination-dependent DNA replication pathways of bacteriophage T4, and their roles in mutagenesis and horizontal gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    Mosig, Gisela; Gewin, John; Luder, Andreas; Colowick, Nancy; Vo, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Two major pathways of recombination-dependent DNA replication, “join-copy” and “join-cut-copy,” can be distinguished in phage T4: join-copy requires only early and middle genes, but two late proteins, endonuclease VII and terminase, are uniquely important in the join-cut-copy pathway. In wild-type T4, timing of these pathways is integrated with the developmental program and related to transcription and packaging of DNA. In primase mutants, which are defective in origin-dependent lagging-strand DNA synthesis, the late pathway can bypass the lack of primers for lagging-strand DNA synthesis. The exquisitely regulated synthesis of endo VII, and of two proteins from its gene, explains the delay of recombination-dependent DNA replication in primase (as well as topoisomerase) mutants, and the temperature-dependence of the delay. Other proteins (e.g., the single-stranded DNA binding protein and the products of genes 46 and 47) are important in all recombination pathways, but they interact differently with other proteins in different pathways. These homologous recombination pathways contribute to evolution because they facilitate acquisition of any foreign DNA with limited sequence homology during horizontal gene transfer, without requiring transposition or site-specific recombination functions. Partial heteroduplex repair can generate what appears to be multiple mutations from a single recombinational intermediate. The resulting sequence divergence generates barriers to formation of viable recombinants. The multiple sequence changes can also lead to erroneous estimates in phylogenetic analyses. PMID:11459968

  10. Natural transformation as a mechanism of horizontal gene transfer among environmental Aeromonas species.

    PubMed

    Huddleston, Jennifer R; Brokaw, Joshua M; Zak, John C; Jeter, Randall M

    2013-06-01

    Aeromonas species are common inhabitants of aquatic environments and relevant as human pathogens. Their potential as pathogens may be related in part to lateral transfer of genes associated with toxin production, biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance, and other virulence determinants. Natural transformation has not been characterized in aeromonads. DNA from wild-type, prototrophic strains that had been isolated from environmental sources was used as donor DNA in transformation assays with auxotrophs as the recipients. Competence was induced in 20% nutrient broth during the stationary phase of growth. Optimal transformation assay conditions for one chosen isolate were in Tris buffer with magnesium or calcium, pH 5-8, and a saturating concentration of 0.5 μg of DNA per assay (3.3 ng of DNA μl⁻¹) at 30°C. Sodium was also required and could not be replaced with ammonium, potassium, or lithium. The maximal transformation frequency observed was 1.95 × 10⁻³ transformants (recipient cell)⁻¹. A survey of environmental Aeromonas auxotrophic recipients (n=37), assayed with donor DNA from other wild-type environmental aeromonads under optimal assay conditions, demonstrated that 73% were able to act as recipients, and 100% were able to act as donors to at least some other aeromonads. Three different transformation groups were identified based on each isolates' ability to transform other strains with its DNA. The transformation groups roughly corresponded to phylogenetic groups. These results demonstrate that natural transformation is a general property of Aeromonas environmental isolates with implications for the genetic structures of coincident Aeromonas populations. PMID:23541366

  11. GTOs and HGT: genes are older than expected and can be installed by horizontal gene transfer, especially with help from viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyce, Brig

    2012-10-01

    The origin of life on Earth took a puzzlingly short time. Panspermia is appealing because it means that the origin of life need not be confined to a few million years on one planet. Similar puzzles arise in the evolution of higher life forms. Punctuated equilibrium, for example, seems to violate the darwinian account of gradual evolution by trial-and-error, a few DNA nucleotides at a time. The strong version of panspermia alleviates this puzzle as well. If all of life comes ultimately from space, genes may appear to be older than necessary, evolution by the acquisition of whole genes or suites of genes, by horizontal gene transfer (HGT), becomes much more important, and punctuated equilibrium is not surprising. Does evidence support this supposition? How common are old genes? How important is HGT versus the gradual composition of genetic programs? We will look at these questions.

  12. Evidence for horizontal gene transfer between Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Chlamydia phage

    PubMed Central

    Rosenwald, Anne G; Murray, Bradley; Toth, Theodore; Madupu, Ramana; Kyrillos, Alexandra; Arora, Gaurav

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia-infecting bacteriophages, members of the Microviridae family, specifically the Gokushovirinae subfamily, are small (4.5–5 kb) single-stranded circles with 8–10 open-reading frames similar to E. coli phage ϕX174. Using sequence information found in GenBank, we examined related genes in Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Chlamydia-infecting bacteriophages. The 5 completely sequenced C. pneumoniae strains contain a gene orthologous to a phage gene annotated as the putative replication initiation protein (PRIP, also called VP4), which is not found in any other members of the Chlamydiaceae family sequenced to date. The C. pneumoniae strain infecting koalas, LPCoLN, in addition contains another region orthologous to phage sequences derived from the minor capsid protein gene, VP3. Phylogenetically, the phage PRIP sequences are more diverse than the bacterial PRIP sequences; nevertheless, the bacterial sequences and the phage sequences each cluster together in their own clade. Finally, we found evidence for another Microviridae phage-related gene, the major capsid protein gene, VP1 in a number of other bacterial species and 2 eukaryotes, the woodland strawberry and a nematode. Thus, we find considerable evidence for DNA sequences related to genes found in bacteriophages of the Microviridae family not only in a variety of prokaryotic but also eukaryotic species. PMID:26713222

  13. Ecological Overlap and Horizontal Gene Transfer in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis

    PubMed Central

    Méric, Guillaume; Miragaia, Maria; de Been, Mark; Yahara, Koji; Pascoe, Ben; Mageiros, Leonardos; Mikhail, Jane; Harris, Llinos G.; Wilkinson, Thomas S.; Rolo, Joana; Lamble, Sarah; Bray, James E.; Jolley, Keith A.; Hanage, William P.; Bowden, Rory; Maiden, Martin C.J.; Mack, Dietrich; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Feil, Edward J.; Corander, Jukka; Sheppard, Samuel K.

    2015-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis represent major causes of severe nosocomial infection, and are associated with high levels of mortality and morbidity worldwide. These species are both common commensals on the human skin and in the nasal pharynx, but are genetically distinct, differing at 24% average nucleotide divergence in 1,478 core genes. To better understand the genome dynamics of these ecologically similar staphylococcal species, we carried out a comparative analysis of 324 S. aureus and S. epidermidis genomes, including 83 novel S. epidermidis sequences. A reference pan-genome approach and whole genome multilocus-sequence typing revealed that around half of the genome was shared between the species. Based on a BratNextGen analysis, homologous recombination was found to have impacted on 40% of the core genes in S. epidermidis, but on only 24% of the core genes in S. aureus. Homologous recombination between the species is rare, with a maximum of nine gene alleles shared between any two S. epidermidis and S. aureus isolates. In contrast, there was considerable interspecies admixture of mobile elements, in particular genes associated with the SaPIn1 pathogenicity island, metal detoxification, and the methicillin-resistance island SCCmec. Our data and analysis provide a context for considering the nature of recombinational boundaries between S. aureus and S. epidermidis and, the selective forces that influence realized recombination between these species. PMID:25888688

  14. Regions of Unusual Statistical Properties as Tools in the Search for Horizontally Transferred Genes in Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putonti, Catherine; Chumakov, Sergei; Chavez, Arturo; Luo, Yi; Graur, Dan; Fox, George E.; Fofanov, Yuriy

    2006-09-01

    The observed diversity of statistical characteristics along genomic sequences is the result of the influences of a variety of ongoing processes including horizontal gene transfer, gene loss, genome rearrangements, and evolution. The rate at which various processes affect the genome typically varies between different genomic regions. Thus, variations in statistical properties seen in different regions of a genome are often associated with its evolution and functional organization. Analysis of such properties is therefore relevant to many ongoing biomedical research efforts. Similarity Plot or S-plot is a Windows-based application for large-scale comparisons and 2D visualization of similarities between genomic sequences. This application combines two approaches wildly used in genomics: window analysis of statistical characteristics along genomes and dot-plot visual representation. S-plot is effective in detecting highly similar regions between two genomes. Within a single genome, S-plot has the ability to identify highly dissimilar regions displaying unusual compositional properties. The application was used to perform a comparative analysis of 50+ microbial genomes as well as many eukaryote genomes including human, rat, mouse, and drosophila. We illustrate the uses of S-Plot in a comparison involving Escherichia coli K12 and E. coli O157:H7.

  15. Visual Evidence of Horizontal Gene Transfer between Plants and Bacteria in the Phytosphere of Transplastomic Tobacco▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Pontiroli, Alessandra; Rizzi, Aurora; Simonet, Pascal; Daffonchio, Daniele; Vogel, Timothy M.; Monier, Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    Plant surfaces, colonized by numerous and diverse bacterial species, are often considered hot spots for horizontal gene transfer (HGT) between plants and bacteria. Plant DNA released during the degradation of plant tissues can persist and remain biologically active for significant periods of time, suggesting that soil or plant-associated bacteria could be in direct contact with plant DNA. In addition, nutrients released during the decaying process may provide a copiotrophic environment conducive for opportunistic microbial growth. Using Acinetobacter baylyi strain BD413 and transplastomic tobacco plants harboring the aadA gene as models, the objective of this study was to determine whether specific niches could be shown to foster bacterial growth on intact or decaying plant tissues, to develop a competence state, and to possibly acquire exogenous plant DNA by natural transformation. Visualization of HGT in situ was performed using A. baylyi strain BD413(rbcL-ΔPaadA::gfp) carrying a promoterless aadA::gfp fusion. Both antibiotic resistance and green fluorescence phenotypes were restored in recombinant bacterial cells after homologous recombination with transgenic plant DNA. Opportunistic growth occurred on decaying plant tissues, and a significant proportion of the bacteria developed a competence state. Quantification of transformants clearly supported the idea that the phytosphere constitutes a hot spot for HGT between plants and bacteria. The nondisruptive approach used to visualize transformants in situ provides new insights into environmental factors influencing HGT for plant tissues. PMID:19329660

  16. Analysis of Ten Brucella Genomes Reveals Evidence for Horizontal Gene Transfer Despite a Preferred Intracellular Lifestyle▿ §

    PubMed Central

    Wattam, Alice R.; Williams, Kelly P.; Snyder, Eric E.; Almeida, Nalvo F.; Shukla, Maulik; Dickerman, A. W.; Crasta, O. R.; Kenyon, R.; Lu, J.; Shallom, J. M.; Yoo, H.; Ficht, T. A.; Tsolis, R. M.; Munk, C.; Tapia, R.; Han, C. S.; Detter, J. C.; Bruce, D.; Brettin, T. S.; Sobral, Bruno W.; Boyle, Stephen M.; Setubal, João C.

    2009-01-01

    The facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen Brucella infects a wide range of warm-blooded land and marine vertebrates and causes brucellosis. Currently, there are nine recognized Brucella species based on host preferences and phenotypic differences. The availability of 10 different genomes consisting of two chromosomes and representing six of the species allowed for a detailed comparison among themselves and relatives in the order Rhizobiales. Phylogenomic analysis of ortholog families shows limited divergence but distinct radiations, producing four clades as follows: Brucella abortus-Brucella melitensis, Brucella suis-Brucella canis, Brucella ovis, and Brucella ceti. In addition, Brucella phylogeny does not appear to reflect the phylogeny of Brucella species' preferred hosts. About 4.6% of protein-coding genes seem to be pseudogenes, which is a relatively large fraction. Only B. suis 1330 appears to have an intact β-ketoadipate pathway, responsible for utilization of plant-derived compounds. In contrast, this pathway in the other species is highly pseudogenized and consistent with the “domino theory” of gene death. There are distinct shared anomalous regions (SARs) found in both chromosomes as the result of horizontal gene transfer unique to Brucella and not shared with its closest relative Ochrobactrum, a soil bacterium, suggesting their acquisition occurred in spite of a predominantly intracellular lifestyle. In particular, SAR 2-5 appears to have been acquired by Brucella after it became intracellular. The SARs contain many genes, including those involved in O-polysaccharide synthesis and type IV secretion, which if mutated or absent significantly affect the ability of Brucella to survive intracellularly in the infected host. PMID:19346311

  17. Against All Odds: Trehalose-6-Phosphate Synthase and Trehalase Genes in the Bdelloid Rotifer Adineta vaga Were Acquired by Horizontal Gene Transfer and Are Upregulated during Desiccation

    PubMed Central

    Hespeels, Boris; Li, Xiang; Flot, Jean-François; Pigneur, Lise-Marie; Malaisse, Jeremy; Da Silva, Corinne; Van Doninck, Karine

    2015-01-01

    The disaccharide sugar trehalose is essential for desiccation resistance in most metazoans that survive dryness; however, neither trehalose nor the enzymes involved in its metabolism have ever been detected in bdelloid rotifers despite their extreme resistance to desiccation. Here we screened the genome of the bdelloid rotifer Adineta vaga for genes involved in trehalose metabolism. We discovered a total of four putative trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) and seven putative trehalase (TRE) gene copies in the genome of this ameiotic organism; however, no trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) gene or domain was detected. The four TPS copies of A. vaga appear more closely related to plant and fungi proteins, as well as to some protists, whereas the seven TRE copies fall in bacterial clades. Therefore, A. vaga likely acquired its trehalose biosynthesis and hydrolysis genes by horizontal gene transfers. Nearly all residues important for substrate binding in the predicted TPS domains are highly conserved, supporting the hypothesis that several copies of the genes might be functional. Besides, RNAseq library screening showed that trehalase genes were highly expressed compared to TPS genes, explaining probably why trehalose had not been detected in previous studies of bdelloids. A strong overexpression of their TPS genes was observed when bdelloids enter desiccation, suggesting a possible signaling role of trehalose-6-phosphate or trehalose in this process. PMID:26161530

  18. The Ordospora colligata Genome: Evolution of Extreme Reduction in Microsporidia and Host-To-Parasite Horizontal Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Pombert, Jean-François; Haag, Karen Luisa; Beidas, Shadi; Ebert, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT  Microsporidia are a group of obligate intracellular parasites that are best known for their unique infection mechanism and their unparalleled levels of genomic reduction and compaction. We sequenced the genome of Ordospora colligata, a gut parasite of the microcrustacean Daphnia sp. and the closest known relative to the microsporidia characterized by the most extreme genomic reduction, the model genus Encephalitozoon. We found that the O. colligata genome is as compact as those of Encephalitozoon spp., featuring few introns and a similar complement of about 2,000 genes, altogether showing that the extreme reduction took place before the origin of Encephalitozoon spp. and their adaptation to vertebrate hosts. We also found that the O. colligata genome has acquired by horizontal transfer from its animal host a septin that is structurally analogous to septin 7, a protein that plays a major role in the endocytosis-based invasion mechanism of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Microsporidian invasion is most often characterized by injection through a projectile tube, but microsporidia are also known to invade cells by inducing endocytosis. Given the function of septins in other systems, we hypothesize that the acquired septin could help O. colligata induce its uptake by mimicking host receptors. Importance The smallest known eukaryotic genomes are found in members of the Encephalitozoon genus of microsporidian parasites. Their extreme compaction, however, is not characteristic of the group, whose genomes can differ by an order of magnitude. The processes and evolutionary forces that led the Encephalitozoon genomes to shed so much of their ancestral baggage are unclear. We sequenced the genome of Ordospora colligata, a parasite of the water flea Daphnia sp. and the closest known relative of Encephalitozoon species, and show that this extreme reduction predated the split between the two lineages. We also found that O. colligata has acquired a septin gene

  19. Occurrence of Horizontal Gene Transfer of PIB-type ATPase Genes among Bacteria Isolated from the Uranium Rich Deposit of Domiasiat in North East India

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Celin; Joshi, Santa Ram

    2012-01-01

    Uranium (U) tolerant aerobic heterotrophs were isolated from the subsurface soils of one of the pre-mined U-rich deposits at Domiasiat located in the north-eastern part of India. On screening of genomic DNA from 62 isolates exhibiting superior U and heavy metal tolerance, 32 isolates were found to be positive for PIB-type ATPase genes. Phylogenetic incongruence and anomalous DNA base compositions revealed the acquisition of PIB-type ATPase genes by six isolates through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Three of these instances of HGT appeared to have occurred at inter-phylum level and the other three instances indicated to have taken place at intra-phylum level. This study provides an insight into one of the possible survival strategies that bacteria might employ to adapt to environments rich in uranium and heavy metals. PMID:23133569

  20. Horizontal gene transfer promoted evolution of the ability to propagate under anaerobic conditions in yeasts.

    PubMed

    Gojković, Z; Knecht, W; Zameitat, E; Warneboldt, J; Coutelis, J-B; Pynyaha, Y; Neuveglise, C; Møller, K; Löffler, M; Piskur, J

    2004-05-01

    The ability to propagate under anaerobic conditions is an essential and unique trait of brewer's or baker's yeast ( Saccharomyces cervisiae). To understand the evolution of facultative anaerobiosis we studied the dependence of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis, more precisely the fourth enzymic activity catalysed by dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODase), on the enzymes of the respiratory chain in several yeast species. While the majority of yeasts possess a mitochondrial DHODase, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a cytoplasmatic enzyme, whose activity is independent of the presence of oxygen. From the phylogenetic point of view, this enzyme is closely related to a bacterial DHODase from Lactococcus lactis. Here we show that S. kluyveri, which separated from the S. cerevisiae lineage more than 100 million years ago, represents an evolutionary intermediate, having both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial DHODases. We show that these two S. kluyveri enzymes, and their coding genes, differ in their dependence on the presence of oxygen. Only the cytoplasmic DHODase promotes growth in the absence of oxygen. Apparently a Saccharomyces yeast progenitor which had a eukaryotic-like mitochondrial DHODase acquired a bacterial gene for DHODase, which subsequently allowed cell growth gradually to become independent of oxygen. PMID:15014982

  1. Mutational robustness of 16S ribosomal RNA, shown by experimental horizontal gene transfer in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kitahara, Kei; Yasutake, Yoshiaki; Miyazaki, Kentaro

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial ribosome consists of three rRNA molecules and 57 proteins and plays a crucial role in translating mRNA-encoded information into proteins. Because of the ribosome’s structural and mechanistic complexity, it is believed that each ribosomal component coevolves to maintain its function. Unlike 5S rRNA, 16S and 23S rRNAs appear to lack mutational robustness, because they form the structural core of the ribosome. However, using Escherichia coli Δ7 (null mutant of operons) as a host, we have recently shown that an active hybrid ribosome whose 16S rRNA has been specifically substituted with that from non–E. coli bacteria can be reconstituted in vivo. To investigate the mutational robustness of 16S rRNA and the structural basis for its functionality, we used a metagenomic approach to screen for 16S rRNA genes that complement the growth of E. coli Δ7. Various functional genes were obtained from the Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria lineages. Despite the large sequence diversity (80.9–99.0% identity with E. coli 16S rRNA) of the functional 16S rRNA molecules, the doubling times (DTs) of each mutant increased only modestly with decreasing sequence identity (average increase in DT, 4.6 s per mutation). The three-dimensional structure of the 30S ribosome showed that at least 40.7% (628/1,542) of the nucleotides were variable, even at ribosomal protein-binding sites, provided that the secondary structures were properly conserved. Our results clearly demonstrate that 16S rRNA functionality largely depends on the secondary structure but not on the sequence itself. PMID:23112186

  2. A unique horizontal gene transfer event has provided the octocoral mitochondrial genome with an active mismatch repair gene that has potential for an unusual self-contained function

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The mitochondrial genome of the Octocorallia has several characteristics atypical for metazoans, including a novel gene suggested to function in DNA repair. This mtMutS gene is favored for octocoral molecular systematics, due to its high information content. Several hypotheses concerning the origins of mtMutS have been proposed, and remain equivocal, although current weight of support is for a horizontal gene transfer from either an epsilonproteobacterium or a large DNA virus. Here we present new and compelling evidence on the evolutionary origin of mtMutS, and provide the very first data on its activity, functional capacity and stability within the octocoral mitochondrial genome. Results The mtMutS gene has the expected conserved amino acids, protein domains and predicted tertiary protein structure. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that mtMutS is not a member of the MSH family and therefore not of eukaryotic origin. MtMutS clusters closely with representatives of the MutS7 lineage; further support for this relationship derives from the sharing of a C-terminal endonuclease domain that confers a self-contained mismatch repair function. Gene expression analyses confirm that mtMutS is actively transcribed in octocorals. Rates of mitochondrial gene evolution in mtMutS-containing octocorals are lower than in their hexacoral sister-group, which lacks the gene, although paradoxically the mtMutS gene itself has higher rates of mutation than other octocoral mitochondrial genes. Conclusions The octocoral mtMutS gene is active and codes for a protein with all the necessary components for DNA mismatch repair. A lower rate of mitochondrial evolution, and the presence of a nicking endonuclease domain, both indirectly support a theory of self-sufficient DNA mismatch repair within the octocoral mitochondrion. The ancestral affinity of mtMutS to non-eukaryotic MutS7 provides compelling support for an origin by horizontal gene transfer. The immediate vector of transmission

  3. Evolution of a Sigma Factor: An All-In-One of Gene Duplication, Horizontal Gene Transfer, Purifying Selection, and Promoter Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    López-Leal, Gamaliel; Cevallos, Miguel A.; Castillo-Ramírez, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Sigma factors are an essential part of bacterial gene regulation and have been extensively studied as far as their molecular mechanisms and protein structure are concerned. However, their molecular evolution, especially for the alternative sigma factors, is poorly understood. Here, we analyze the evolutionary forces that have shaped the rpoH sigma factors within the alphaproteobacteria. We found that an ancient duplication gave rise to two major groups of rpoH sigma factors and that after this event horizontal gene transfer (HGT) occurred in rpoH1 group. We also noted that purifying selection has differentially affected distinct parts of the gene; singularly, the gene segment that encodes the region 4.2, which interacts with the −35 motif of the RpoH-dependent genes, has been under relaxed purifying selection. Furthermore, these two major groups are clearly differentiated from one another regarding their promoter selectivity, as rpoH1 is under the transcriptional control of σ70 and σ32, whereas rpoH2 is under the transcriptional control of σ24. Our results suggest a scenario in which HGT, gene loss, variable purifying selection and clear promoter specialization occurred after the ancestral duplication event. More generally, our study offers insights into the molecular evolution of alternative sigma factors and highlights the importance of analyzing not only the coding regions but also the promoter regions. PMID:27199915

  4. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Holoparasite Cistanche deserticola (Orobanchaceae) Reveals Gene Loss and Horizontal Gene Transfer from Its Host Haloxylon ammodendron (Chenopodiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Qin; Ren, Zhumei; Zhao, Jiayuan; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Hasegawa, Masami; Crabbe, M. James C; Li, Jianqiang; Zhong, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Background The central function of chloroplasts is to carry out photosynthesis, and its gene content and structure are highly conserved across land plants. Parasitic plants, which have reduced photosynthetic ability, suffer gene losses from the chloroplast (cp) genome accompanied by the relaxation of selective constraints. Compared with the rapid rise in the number of cp genome sequences of photosynthetic organisms, there are limited data sets from parasitic plants. Principal Findings/Significance Here we report the complete sequence of the cp genome of Cistanche deserticola, a holoparasitic desert species belonging to the family Orobanchaceae. The cp genome of C. deserticola is greatly reduced both in size (102,657 bp) and in gene content, indicating that all genes required for photosynthesis suffer from gene loss and pseudogenization, except for psbM. The striking difference from other holoparasitic plants is that it retains almost a full set of tRNA genes, and it has lower dN/dS for most genes than another close holoparasitic plant, E. virginiana, suggesting that Cistanche deserticola has undergone fewer losses, either due to a reduced level of holoparasitism, or to a recent switch to this life history. We also found that the rpoC2 gene was present in two copies within C. deserticola. Its own copy has much shortened and turned out to be a pseudogene. Another copy, which was not located in its cp genome, was a homolog of the host plant, Haloxylon ammodendron (Chenopodiaceae), suggesting that it was acquired from its host via a horizontal gene transfer. PMID:23554920

  5. Finite population analysis of the effect of horizontal gene transfer on the origin of an universal and optimal genetic code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Neha; Vishwa Bandhu, Ashutosh; Sengupta, Supratim

    2016-06-01

    The origin of a universal and optimal genetic code remains a compelling mystery in molecular biology and marks an essential step in the origin of DNA and protein based life. We examine a collective evolution model of genetic code origin that allows for unconstrained horizontal transfer of genetic elements within a finite population of sequences each of which is associated with a genetic code selected from a pool of primordial codes. We find that when horizontal transfer of genetic elements is incorporated in this more realistic model of code-sequence coevolution in a finite population, it can increase the likelihood of emergence of a more optimal code eventually leading to its universality through fixation in the population. The establishment of such an optimal code depends on the probability of HGT events. Only when the probability of HGT events is above a critical threshold, we find that the ten amino acid code having a structure that is most consistent with the standard genetic code (SGC) often gets fixed in the population with the highest probability. We examine how the threshold is determined by factors like the population size, length of the sequences and selection coefficient. Our simulation results reveal the conditions under which sharing of coding innovations through horizontal transfer of genetic elements may have facilitated the emergence of a universal code having a structure similar to that of the SGC.

  6. Finite population analysis of the effect of horizontal gene transfer on the origin of an universal and optimal genetic code.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neha; Bandhu, Ashutosh Vishwa; Sengupta, Supratim

    2016-01-01

    The origin of a universal and optimal genetic code remains a compelling mystery in molecular biology and marks an essential step in the origin of DNA and protein based life. We examine a collective evolution model of genetic code origin that allows for unconstrained horizontal transfer of genetic elements within a finite population of sequences each of which is associated with a genetic code selected from a pool of primordial codes. We find that when horizontal transfer of genetic elements is incorporated in this more realistic model of code-sequence coevolution in a finite population, it can increase the likelihood of emergence of a more optimal code eventually leading to its universality through fixation in the population. The establishment of such an optimal code depends on the probability of HGT events. Only when the probability of HGT events is above a critical threshold, we find that the ten amino acid code having a structure that is most consistent with the standard genetic code (SGC) often gets fixed in the population with the highest probability. We examine how the threshold is determined by factors like the population size, length of the sequences and selection coefficient. Our simulation results reveal the conditions under which sharing of coding innovations through horizontal transfer of genetic elements may have facilitated the emergence of a universal code having a structure similar to that of the SGC. PMID:27232957

  7. Evolution of the Glx-tRNA synthetase family: the glutaminyl enzyme as a case of horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Lamour, V; Quevillon, S; Diriong, S; N'Guyen, V C; Lipinski, M; Mirande, M

    1994-01-01

    An important step ensuring the fidelity in protein biosynthesis is the aminoacylation of tRNAs by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. The accuracy of this process rests on a family of 20 enzymes, one for each amino acid. One exception is the formation of Gln-tRNA(Gln) that can be accomplished by two different pathways: aminoacylation of tRNA(Gln) with Gln by glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase (GlnRS; EC 6.1.1.18) or transamidation of Glu from Glu-tRNA(Gln) mischarged by glutamyl-tRNA synthetase (GluRS; EC 6.1.1.17). The latter pathway is widespread among bacteria and organelles that, accordingly, lack GlnRS. However, some bacterial species, such as Escherichia coli, do possess a GlnRS activity, which is responsible for Gln-tRNA(Gln) formation. In the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, both GluRS and GlnRS activities can be detected. To gain more insight into the evolutionary relationship between GluRS and GlnRS enzyme species, we have now isolated and characterized a human cDNA encoding GlnRS. The deduced amino acid sequence shows a strong similarity with other known GlnRSs and with eukaryotic GluRSs. A molecular phylogenetic analysis was conducted on the 14 GlxRS (GluRS or GlnRS) sequences available to date. Our data suggest that bacterial GlnRS has a eukaryotic origin and was acquired by a mechanism of horizontal gene transfer. Images PMID:8078941

  8. The Complete Genome Sequence of Plodia Interpunctella Granulovirus: Evidence for Horizontal Gene Transfer and Discovery of an Unusual Inhibitor-of-Apoptosis Gene.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Robert L; Rowley, Daniel L; Funk, C Joel

    2016-01-01

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a common pest of stored goods with a worldwide distribution. The complete genome sequence for a larval pathogen of this moth, the baculovirus Plodia interpunctella granulovirus (PiGV), was determined by next-generation sequencing. The PiGV genome was found to be 112, 536 bp in length with a 44.2% G+C nucleotide distribution. A total of 123 open reading frames (ORFs) and seven homologous regions (hrs) were identified and annotated. Phylogenetic inference using concatenated alignments of 36 baculovirus core genes placed PiGV in the "b" clade of viruses from genus Betabaculovirus with a branch length suggesting that PiGV represents a distinct betabaculovirus species. In addition to the baculovirus core genes and orthologues of other genes found in other betabaculovirus genomes, the PiGV genome sequence contained orthologues of the bidensovirus NS3 gene, as well as ORFs that occur in alphabaculoviruses but not betabaculoviruses. While PiGV contained an orthologue of inhibitor of apoptosis-5 (iap-5), an orthologue of inhibitor of apoptosis-3 (iap-3) was not present. Instead, the PiGV sequence contained an ORF (PiGV ORF81) encoding an IAP homologue with sequence similarity to insect cellular IAPs, but not to viral IAPs. Phylogenetic analysis of baculovirus and insect IAP amino acid sequences suggested that the baculovirus IAP-3 genes and the PiGV ORF81 IAP homologue represent different lineages arising from more than one acquisition event. The presence of genes from other sources in the PiGV genome highlights the extent to which baculovirus gene content is shaped by horizontal gene transfer. PMID:27472489

  9. The Complete Genome Sequence of Plodia Interpunctella Granulovirus: Evidence for Horizontal Gene Transfer and Discovery of an Unusual Inhibitor-of-Apoptosis Gene

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Robert L.; Rowley, Daniel L.; Funk, C. Joel

    2016-01-01

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a common pest of stored goods with a worldwide distribution. The complete genome sequence for a larval pathogen of this moth, the baculovirus Plodia interpunctella granulovirus (PiGV), was determined by next-generation sequencing. The PiGV genome was found to be 112, 536 bp in length with a 44.2% G+C nucleotide distribution. A total of 123 open reading frames (ORFs) and seven homologous regions (hrs) were identified and annotated. Phylogenetic inference using concatenated alignments of 36 baculovirus core genes placed PiGV in the “b” clade of viruses from genus Betabaculovirus with a branch length suggesting that PiGV represents a distinct betabaculovirus species. In addition to the baculovirus core genes and orthologues of other genes found in other betabaculovirus genomes, the PiGV genome sequence contained orthologues of the bidensovirus NS3 gene, as well as ORFs that occur in alphabaculoviruses but not betabaculoviruses. While PiGV contained an orthologue of inhibitor of apoptosis-5 (iap-5), an orthologue of inhibitor of apoptosis-3 (iap-3) was not present. Instead, the PiGV sequence contained an ORF (PiGV ORF81) encoding an IAP homologue with sequence similarity to insect cellular IAPs, but not to viral IAPs. Phylogenetic analysis of baculovirus and insect IAP amino acid sequences suggested that the baculovirus IAP-3 genes and the PiGV ORF81 IAP homologue represent different lineages arising from more than one acquisition event. The presence of genes from other sources in the PiGV genome highlights the extent to which baculovirus gene content is shaped by horizontal gene transfer. PMID:27472489

  10. The Secreted Proteins of Achlya hypogyna and Thraustotheca clavata Identify the Ancestral Oomycete Secretome and Reveal Gene Acquisitions by Horizontal Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Misner, Ian; Blouin, Nic; Leonard, Guy; Richards, Thomas A.; Lane, Christopher E.

    2015-01-01

    Saprotrophic and parasitic microorganisms secrete proteins into the environment to breakdown macromolecules and obtain nutrients. The molecules secreted are collectively termed the “secretome” and the composition and function of this set of proteins varies depending on the ecology, life cycle, and environment of an organism. Beyond the function of nutrient acquisition, parasitic lineages must also secrete molecules to manipulate their host. Here, we use a combination of de novo genome and transcriptome sequencing and bioinformatic identification of signal peptides to identify the putative secreted proteome of two oomycetes, the facultative parasite Achlya hypogyna and free-living Thraustotheca clavata. By comparing the secretomes of these saprolegnialean oomycetes with that of eight other oomycetes, we were able to characterize the evolution of this protein set across the oomycete clade. These species span the last common ancestor of the two major oomycete families allowing us to identify the ancestral secretome. This putative ancestral secretome consists of at least 84 gene families. Only 11 of these gene families are conserved across all 10 secretomes analyzed and the two major branches in the oomycete radiation. Notably, we have identified expressed elicitin-like effector genes in the saprotrophic decomposer, T. clavata. Phylogenetic analyses show six novel horizontal gene transfers to the oomycete secretome from bacterial and fungal donor lineages, four of which are specific to the Saprolegnialeans. Comparisons between free-living and pathogenic taxa highlight the functional changes of oomycete secretomes associated with shifts in lifestyle. PMID:25527045

  11. Molecular and biochemical characterization of an endo-β-1,3-glucanase from the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus acquired by horizontal gene transfer from bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    We report the cloning and functional characterization of an endo-β-1,3-glucanase from the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus acquired by horizontal gene transfer from bacteria. This is the first gene of this type from any nematode species. We show that a similar cDNA is also present in another closely related species B. mucronatus, but that similar sequences are not present in any other nematode studied to date. The B. xylophilus gene is expressed solely in the oesophageal gland cells of the nematode and the protein is present in the nematode's secretions. The deduced amino acid sequence of the gene is very similar to glycosyl hydrolase family 16 proteins. The recombinant protein, expressed in Escherichia coli, preferentially hydrolysed the β-1,3-glucan laminarin, and had very low levels of activity on β-1,3-1,4-glucan, lichenan and barley β-glucan. Laminarin was degraded in an endoglucanase mode by the enzyme. The optimal temperature and pH for activity of the recombinant enzyme were 65 °C and pH 4.9. The protein is probably important in allowing the nematodes to feed on fungi. Sequence comparisons suggest that the gene encoding the endo-β-1,3-glucanase was acquired by horizontal gene transfer from bacteria. B. xylophilus therefore contains genes that have been acquired by this process from both bacteria and fungi. These findings support the idea that multiple independent horizontal gene transfer events have helped in shaping the evolution of several different life strategies in nematodes. PMID:15727561

  12. Molecular and biochemical characterization of an endo-beta-1,3-glucanase from the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus acquired by horizontal gene transfer from bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Taisei; Shibuya, Hajime; Jones, John T

    2005-07-01

    We report the cloning and functional characterization of an endo-beta-1,3-glucanase from the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus acquired by horizontal gene transfer from bacteria. This is the first gene of this type from any nematode species. We show that a similar cDNA is also present in another closely related species B. mucronatus, but that similar sequences are not present in any other nematode studied to date. The B. xylophilus gene is expressed solely in the oesophageal gland cells of the nematode and the protein is present in the nematode's secretions. The deduced amino acid sequence of the gene is very similar to glycosyl hydrolase family 16 proteins. The recombinant protein, expressed in Escherichia coli, preferentially hydrolysed the beta-1,3-glucan laminarin, and had very low levels of activity on beta-1,3-1,4-glucan, lichenan and barley beta-glucan. Laminarin was degraded in an endoglucanase mode by the enzyme. The optimal temperature and pH for activity of the recombinant enzyme were 65 degrees C and pH 4.9. The protein is probably important in allowing the nematodes to feed on fungi. Sequence comparisons suggest that the gene encoding the endo-beta-1,3-glucanase was acquired by horizontal gene transfer from bacteria. B. xylophilus therefore contains genes that have been acquired by this process from both bacteria and fungi. These findings support the idea that multiple independent horizontal gene transfer events have helped in shaping the evolution of several different life strategies in nematodes. PMID:15727561

  13. Widespread horizontal transfer of retrotransposons.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Ali Morton; Kortschak, R Daniel; Gardner, Michael G; Bertozzi, Terry; Adelson, David L

    2013-01-15

    In higher organisms such as vertebrates, it is generally believed that lateral transfer of genetic information does not readily occur, with the exception of retroviral infection. However, horizontal transfer (HT) of protein coding repetitive elements is the simplest way to explain the patchy distribution of BovB, a long interspersed element (LINE) about 3.2 kb long, that has been found in ruminants, marsupials, squamates, monotremes, and African mammals. BovB sequences are a major component of some of these genomes. Here we show that HT of BovB is significantly more widespread than believed, and we demonstrate the existence of two plausible arthropod vectors, specifically reptile ticks. A phylogenetic tree built from BovB sequences from species in all of these groups does not conform to expected evolutionary relationships of the species, and our analysis indicates that at least nine HT events are required to explain the observed topology. Our results provide compelling evidence for HT of genetic material that has transformed vertebrate genomes. PMID:23277587

  14. [Plasmid pJP4 mediated gene horizontal transfer in a biofilm system and its effect on 2, 4-D degradation].

    PubMed

    Quan, Xiang-Chun; Tang, Hua; Hu, Li-Juan; Wang, Ran; Zhang, Ning

    2009-09-15

    With plasmid pJP4 (which contains functional gene cluster (tfd) encoding 2,4-D degradation) carrying genetic microorganism Pseudomonas putida SM1443:: gfp2x (pJP4:: dsRed) as the donor strain, events of plasmid mediated gene horizontal transfer and its effect on 2,4-D degradation was investigated in a biofilm system operated under fed-batch mode. The surviving status of the functional gene element in the gene-augmented system and effects of gene-augmentation on microbial community structure were also investigated. Results showed that introduction of pJP4 carrying strain to the biofilm system with 2, 4-D (initial concentration at 170 mg/L +/- 10 mg/L) as the sole carbon source could enhance the degradation of 2, 4-D. Enhancement was slight during the initial stage of operation, but it increased with increasing of fed batch runs. Difference in 2, 4-D average degradation rate between gene-augmented system and the control system achieved up to 13.3 mg/(L x h) at most. Through detecting functional gene tfdB and reporter gene gfp, pJP4 mediated gene horizontal transfer to the bacteria on biofilm was further approved. Effects of gene augmentation on microbial community structure was analyzed by PCR-DGGE analysis, and results showed that relatively higher stability of microbial community was maintained for the gene-augmented biofilm system compared to the control system when facing 2,4-D shock loadings. PMID:19927832

  15. Distinguishing effects of ultraviolet exposure and chlorination on the horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mei-Ting; Yuan, Qing-Bin; Yang, Jian

    2015-05-01

    Growing attention has been paid to the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in wastewater microbial communities; however, the disinfection processes, as microbial control technologies, have not been evaluated for their impacts on ARGs transfer. In this study, the effects of ultraviolet (UV) disinfection and chlorination on the frequency of ARGs transfer have been explored based on the conjugative transfer model between Gram-negative strains of E. coli. The results indicated that UV disinfection and chlorination exhibit distinct influences on the conjugative transfer. Low UV doses (up to 8 mJ/cm2) had little influence on the frequency of conjugative transfer, and UV exposure only decreased the bacterial number but did not change the cell permeability. By comparison, low chlorine doses (up to 40 mg Cl min/L) significantly promoted the frequency of conjugative transfer by 2-5-fold. The generated chloramine stimulated the bacteria and improved the cell permeability. More pilus were induced on the surface of conjugative cells, which acted as pathways for ARGs transfer. The frequency of ARG transfers was greatly suppressed by high doses of UV (>10 mJ/cm2) or chlorine (>80 mg Cl min/L). PMID:25853586

  16. Distribution of tetracycline resistance genes in anaerobic treatment of waste sludge: The role of pH in regulating tetracycline resistant bacteria and horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haining; Chen, Yinguang; Zheng, Xiong; Su, Yinglong; Wan, Rui; Yang, Shouye

    2016-10-01

    Although pH value has been widely regarded as an important factor that affects resource recovery of waste sludge, the potential influence of diverse pHs on the distribution of tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) during sludge anaerobic treatment is largely unknown. Here we reported that in the range of pH 4-10, 0.58-1.18 log unit increase of target TRGs was observed at pH 4, compared with that at pH 7, while 0.70-1.31 log unit further removal were obtained at pH 10. Mechanism study revealed that varied pHs not only altered the community structures of tetracycline resistant bacteria (TRB), but also changed their relative abundances, benefitting the propagation (acidic pHs) or attenuation (alkaline pHs) of TRB. Further investigation indicated that the amount and gene-possessing abilities of key genetic vectors for horizontal TRGs transfer were greatly promoted at acidic pHs but restricted under alkaline conditions. PMID:27485281

  17. Draft genome sequence of the male-killing Wolbachia strain wBol1 reveals recent horizontal gene transfers from diverse sources

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis causes diverse and sometimes dramatic phenotypes in its invertebrate hosts. Four Wolbachia strains sequenced to date indicate that the constitution of the genome is dynamic, but these strains are quite divergent and do not allow resolution of genome diversification over shorter time periods. We have sequenced the genome of the strain wBol1-b, found in the butterfly Hypolimnas bolina, which kills the male offspring of infected hosts during embyronic development and is closely related to the non-male-killing strain wPip from Culex pipiens. Results The genomes of wBol1-b and wPip are similar in genomic organisation, sequence and gene content, but show substantial differences at some rapidly evolving regions of the genome, primarily associated with prophage and repetitive elements. We identified 44 genes in wBol1-b that do not have homologs in any previously sequenced strains, indicating that Wolbachia’s non-core genome diversifies rapidly. These wBol1-b specific genes include a number that have been recently horizontally transferred from phylogenetically distant bacterial taxa. We further report a second possible case of horizontal gene transfer from a eukaryote into Wolbachia. Conclusions Our analyses support the developing view that many endosymbiotic genomes are highly dynamic, and are exposed and receptive to exogenous genetic material from a wide range of sources. These data also suggest either that this bacterial species is particularly permissive for eukaryote-to-prokaryote gene transfers, or that these transfers may be more common than previously believed. The wBol1-b-specific genes we have identified provide candidates for further investigations of the genomic bases of phenotypic differences between closely-related Wolbachia strains. PMID:23324387

  18. Horizontal transfer of supernumerary chromosomes in fungi.

    PubMed

    van der Does, H Charlotte; Rep, Martijn

    2012-01-01

    Several species of filamentous fungi contain so-called dispensable or supernumerary chromosomes. These chromosomes are dispensable for the fungus to survive, but may carry genes required for specialized functions, such as infection of a host plant. It has been shown that at least some dispensable chromosomes are able to transfer horizontally (i.e., in the absence of a sexual cycle) from one fungal strain to another. In this paper, we describe a method by which this can be shown. Horizontal chromosome transfer (HCT) occurs during co-incubation of two strains. To document the actual occurrence of HCT, it is necessary to select for HCT progeny. This is accomplished by transforming two different drug-resistance genes into the two parent strains before their co-incubation. In one of the strains (the "donor"), a drug-resistance gene should be integrated in a chromosome of which the propensity for HCT is under investigation. In the "tester" or "recipient" strain, another drug-resistance gene should be integrated somewhere in the core genome. In this way, after co-incubation, HCT progeny can be selected on plates containing both drugs. HCT can be initiated with equal amounts of asexual spores of both strains, plated on regular growth medium for the particular fungus, followed by incubation until new asexual spores are formed. The new asexual spores are then harvested and plated on plates containing both drugs. Double drug-resistant colonies that appear should carry at least one chromosome from each parental strain. Finally, double drug-resistant strains need to be analysed to assess whether HCT has actually occurred. This can be done by various genome mapping methods, like CHEF-gels, AFLP, RFLP, PCR markers, optical maps, or even complete genome sequencing. PMID:22183669

  19. Horizontal gene transfer and the rock record: comparative genomics of phylogenetically distant bacteria that induce wrinkle structure formation in modern sediments.

    PubMed

    Flood, B E; Bailey, J V; Biddle, J F

    2014-03-01

    Wrinkle structures are sedimentary features that are produced primarily through the trapping and binding of siliciclastic sediments by mat-forming micro-organisms. Wrinkle structures and related sedimentary structures in the rock record are commonly interpreted to represent the stabilizing influence of cyanobacteria on sediments because cyanobacteria are known to produce similar textures and structures in modern tidal flat settings. However, other extant bacteria such as filamentous representatives of the family Beggiatoaceae can also interact with sediments to produce sedimentary features that morphologically resemble many of those associated with cyanobacteria-dominated mats. While Beggiatoa spp. and cyanobacteria are metabolically and phylogenetically distant, genomic analyses show that the two groups share hundreds of homologous genes, likely as the result of horizontal gene transfer. The comparative genomics results described here suggest that some horizontally transferred genes may code for phenotypic traits such as filament formation, chemotaxis, and the production of extracellular polymeric substances that potentially underlie the similar biostabilizing influences of these organisms on sediments. We suggest that the ecological utility of certain basic life modes such as the construction of mats and biofilms, coupled with the lateral mobility of genes in the microbial world, introduces an element of uncertainty into the inference of specific phylogenetic origins from gross morphological features preserved in the ancient rock record. PMID:24382125

  20. Horizontal gene transfer as adaptive response to heavy metal stress in subsurface microbial communities. Final report for period October 15, 1997 - October 15, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Smets, B. F.

    2001-12-21

    Horizontal gene transfer as adaptive response to heavy metal stress in the presence of heavy metal stress was evaluated in oligotrophic subsurface soil laboratory scale microcosms. Increasing levels of cadmium (10, 100 and 1000 mM) were applied and an E. coli donor was used to deliver the target plasmids, pMOL187 and pMOL222, which contained the czc and ncc operons, and the helper plasmid RP4. Plasmid transfer was evaluated through monitoring of the heavy metal resistance and presence of the genes. The interactive, clearly revealed, effect of biological and chemical external factors on the extent of plasmid-DNA propagation in microbial communities in contaminated soil environments was observed in this study. Additionally, P.putida LBJ 415 carrying a suicide construct was used to evaluate selective elimination of a plasmid donor.

  1. [Construction of Bacillus thuringiensis labeled recombinant strain and horizontal transfer of its cry1Ac10 gene].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qin; Sun, Ming; Li, Lin; Yang, Zaiqing; Yu, Ziniu

    2005-01-01

    A recombinant plasmid pBMBZGC10 was obtained by the ligation of gfp-cry1Ac10 fusion gene and vector plasmid pAD4412, which was then introduced by gene pulser into acrystalliferous strain CryB, and a recombinant strain CryB(pBMBZGC10) was obtained. Different fermentative solutions of recombinant strain were used for multi-spraying on Brassica pekinesis, Ipomoea aquatica and Lycopersicon esculentum leaves. The results of fluorescent detection and PCR amplification revealed that cry1Ac10 gene did not transfer into indigenous bacteria, actinomyces and fungi in test soil, and could not be detected in roots, stems and leaves of test plants. PMID:15852975

  2. Development and applications of a DNA labeling method with magnetic nanoparticles to study the role of horizontal gene transfer events between bacteria in soil pollutant bioremediation processes.

    PubMed

    Pivetal, J; Frénéa-Robin, M; Haddour, N; Vézy, C; Zanini, L F; Ciuta, G; Dempsey, N M; Dumas-Bouchiat, F; Reyne, G; Bégin-Colin, S; Felder-Flesh, D; Ghobril, C; Pourroy, G; Simonet, P

    2015-12-01

    Horizontal gene transfers are critical mechanisms of bacterial evolution and adaptation that are involved to a significant level in the degradation of toxic molecules such as xenobiotic pesticides. However, understanding how these mechanisms are regulated in situ and how they could be used by man to increase the degradation potential of soil microbes is compromised by conceptual and technical limitations. This includes the physical and chemical complexity and heterogeneity in such environments leading to an extreme bacterial taxonomical diversity and a strong redundancy of genes and functions. In addition, more than 99 % of soil bacteria fail to develop colonies in vitro, and even new DNA-based investigation methods (metagenomics) are not specific and sensitive enough to consider lysis recalcitrant bacteria and those belonging to the rare biosphere. The objective of the ANR funded project “Emergent” was to develop a new culture independent approach to monitor gene transfer among soil bacteria by labeling plasmid DNA with magnetic nanoparticles in order to specifically capture and isolate recombinant cells using magnetic microfluidic devices. We showed the feasibility of the approach by using electrotransformation to transform a suspension of Escherichia coli cells with biotin-functionalized plasmid DNA molecules linked to streptavidin-coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles. Our results have demonstrated that magnetically labeled cells could be specifically retained on micromagnets integrated in a microfluidic channel and that an efficient selective separation can be achieved with the microfluidic device. Altogether, the project offers a promising alternative to traditional culture-based approaches for deciphering the extent of horizontal gene transfer events mediated by electro or natural genetic transformation mechanisms in complex environments such as soil. PMID:26498963

  3. Two C or not two C: recurrent disruption of Zn-ribbons, gene duplication, lineage-specific gene loss, and horizontal gene transfer in evolution of bacterial ribosomal proteins

    PubMed Central

    Makarova, Kira S; Ponomarev, Vladimir A; Koonin, Eugene V

    2001-01-01

    Background Ribosomal proteins are encoded in all genomes of cellular life forms and are, generally, well conserved during evolution. In prokaryotes, the genes for most ribosomal proteins are clustered in several highly conserved operons, which ensures efficient co-regulation of their expression. Duplications of ribosomal-protein genes are infrequent, and given their coordinated expression and functioning, it is generally assumed that ribosomal-protein genes are unlikely to undergo horizontal transfer. However, with the accumulation of numerous complete genome sequences of prokaryotes, several paralogous pairs of ribosomal protein genes have been identified. Here we analyze all such cases and attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary history of these ribosomal proteins. Results Complete bacterial genomes were searched for duplications of ribosomal proteins. Ribosomal proteins L36, L33, L31, S14 are each duplicated in several bacterial genomes and ribosomal proteins L11, L28, L7/L12, S1, S15, S18 are so far duplicated in only one genome each. Sequence analysis of the four ribosomal proteins, for which paralogs were detected in several genomes, two of the ribosomal proteins duplicated in one genome (L28 and S18), and the ribosomal protein L32 showed that each of them comes in two distinct versions. One form contains a predicted metal-binding Zn-ribbon that consists of four conserved cysteines (in some cases replaced by histidines), whereas, in the second form, these metal-chelating residues are completely or partially replaced. Typically, genomes containing paralogous genes for these ribosomal proteins encode both versions, designated C+ and C-, respectively. Analysis of phylogenetic trees for these seven ribosomal proteins, combined with comparison of genomic contexts for the respective genes, indicates that in most, if not all cases, their evolution involved a duplication of the ancestral C+ form early in bacterial evolution, with subsequent alternative loss of the C

  4. Multiple Horizontal Gene Transfer Events and Domain Fusions Have Created Novel Regulatory and Metabolic Networks in the Oomycete Genome

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Paul Francis; Schlosser, Laura Rose; Onasch, Katherine Diane; Wittenschlaeger, Tom; Austin, Ryan; Provart, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Complex enzymes with multiple catalytic activities are hypothesized to have evolved from more primitive precursors. Global analysis of the Phytophthora sojae genome using conservative criteria for evaluation of complex proteins identified 273 novel multifunctional proteins that were also conserved in P. ramorum. Each of these proteins contains combinations of protein motifs that are not present in bacterial, plant, animal, or fungal genomes. A subset of these proteins were also identified in the two diatom genomes, but the majority of these proteins have formed after the split between diatoms and oomycetes. Documentation of multiple cases of domain fusions that are common to both oomycetes and diatom genomes lends additional support for the hypothesis that oomycetes and diatoms are monophyletic. Bifunctional proteins that catalyze two steps in a metabolic pathway can be used to infer the interaction of orthologous proteins that exist as separate entities in other genomes. We postulated that the novel multifunctional proteins of oomycetes could function as potential Rosetta Stones to identify interacting proteins of conserved metabolic and regulatory networks in other eukaryotic genomes. However ortholog analysis of each domain within our set of 273 multifunctional proteins against 39 sequenced bacterial and eukaryotic genomes, identified only 18 candidate Rosetta Stone proteins. Thus the majority of multifunctional proteins are not Rosetta Stones, but they may nonetheless be useful in identifying novel metabolic and regulatory networks in oomycetes. Phylogenetic analysis of all the enzymes in three pathways with one or more novel multifunctional proteins was conducted to determine the probable origins of individual enzymes. These analyses revealed multiple examples of horizontal transfer from both bacterial genomes and the photosynthetic endosymbiont in the ancestral genome of Stramenopiles. The complexity of the phylogenetic origins of these metabolic pathways and

  5. Pervasive Horizontal Transfer of Rolling-Circle Transposons among Animals

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jainy; Schaack, Sarah; Pritham, Ellen J.

    2010-01-01

    Horizontal transfer (HT) of genes is known to be an important mechanism of genetic innovation, especially in prokaryotes. The impact of HT of transposable elements (TEs), however, has only recently begun to receive widespread attention and may be significant due to their mutagenic potential, inherent mobility, and abundance. Helitrons, also known as rolling-circle transposons, are a distinctive subclass of TE with a unique transposition mechanism. Here, we describe the first evidence for the repeated HT of four different families of Helitrons in an unprecedented array of organisms, including mammals, reptiles, fish, invertebrates, and insect viruses. The Helitrons present in these species have a patchy distribution and are closely related (80–98% sequence identity), despite the deep divergence times among hosts. Multiple lines of evidence indicate the extreme conservation of sequence identity is not due to selection, including the highly fragmented nature of the Helitrons identified and the lack of any signatures of selection at the nucleotide level. The presence of horizontally transferred Helitrons in insect viruses, in particular, suggests that this may represent a potential mechanism of transfer in some taxa. Unlike genes, Helitrons that have horizontally transferred into new host genomes can amplify, in some cases reaching up to several hundred copies and representing a substantial fraction of the genome. Because Helitrons are known to frequently capture and amplify gene fragments, HT of this unique group of DNA transposons could lead to horizontal gene transfer and incur dramatic shifts in the trajectory of genome evolution. PMID:20693155

  6. Variation suggestive of horizontal gene transfer at a lipopolysaccharide (lps) biosynthetic locus in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the bacterial leaf blight pathogen of rice

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Prabhu B; Sonti, Ramesh V

    2004-01-01

    Background In animal pathogenic bacteria, horizontal gene transfer events (HGT) have been frequently observed in genomic regions that encode functions involved in biosynthesis of the outer membrane located lipopolysaccharide (LPS). As a result, different strains of the same pathogen can have substantially different lps biosynthetic gene clusters. Since LPS is highly antigenic, the variation at lps loci is attributed to be of advantage in evading the host immune system. Although LPS has been suggested as a potentiator of plant defense responses, interstrain variation at lps biosynthetic gene clusters has not been reported for any plant pathogenic bacterium. Results We report here the complete sequence of a 12.2 kb virulence locus of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) encoding six genes whose products are homologous to functions involved in LPS biosynthesis and transport. All six open reading frames (ORFs) have atypical G+C content and altered codon usage, which are the hallmarks of genomic islands that are acquired by horizontal gene transfer. The lps locus is flanked by highly conserved genes, metB and etfA, respectively encoding cystathionine gamma lyase and electron transport flavoprotein. Interestingly, two different sets of lps genes are present at this locus in the plant pathogens, Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac). The genomic island is present in a number of Xoo strains from India and other Asian countries but is not present in two strains, one from India (BXO8) and another from Nepal (Nepal624) as well as the closely related rice pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoor). TAIL-PCR analysis indicates that sequences related to Xac are present at the lps locus in both BXO8 and Nepal624. The Xoor strain has a hybrid lps gene cluster, with sequences at the metB and etfA ends, being most closely related to sequences from Xac and the tomato pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato respectively

  7. Horizontal transfer of DNA methylation patterns into bacterial chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung-Eun; Lin, Chris; Lim, Han N

    2016-05-19

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is the non-inherited acquisition of novel DNA sequences. HGT is common and important in bacteria because it enables the rapid generation of new phenotypes such as antibiotic resistance. Here we show that in vivo and in vitro DNA methylation patterns can be horizontally transferred into bacterial chromosomes to program cell phenotypes. The experiments were performed using a synthetic system in Escherichia coli where different DNA methylation patterns within the cis-regulatory sequence of the agn43 gene turn on or off a fluorescent reporter (CFP). With this system we demonstrated that DNA methylation patterns not only accompany the horizontal transfer of genes into the bacterial cytoplasm but can be transferred into chromosomes by: (i) bacteriophage P1 transduction; and (ii) transformation of extracellular synthetic DNA. We also modified the experimental system by replacing CFP with the SgrS small RNA, which regulates glucose and methyl α-D-glucoside uptake, and showed that horizontally acquired DNA methylation patterns can increase or decrease cell fitness. That is, horizontally acquired DNA methylation patterns can result in the selection for and against cells that have HGT. Findings from these proof-of-concept experiments have applications in synthetic biology and potentially broad implications for bacterial adaptation and evolution. PMID:27084942

  8. Horizontal transfer of DNA methylation patterns into bacterial chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jung-Eun; Lin, Chris; Lim, Han N.

    2016-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is the non-inherited acquisition of novel DNA sequences. HGT is common and important in bacteria because it enables the rapid generation of new phenotypes such as antibiotic resistance. Here we show that in vivo and in vitro DNA methylation patterns can be horizontally transferred into bacterial chromosomes to program cell phenotypes. The experiments were performed using a synthetic system in Escherichia coli where different DNA methylation patterns within the cis-regulatory sequence of the agn43 gene turn on or off a fluorescent reporter (CFP). With this system we demonstrated that DNA methylation patterns not only accompany the horizontal transfer of genes into the bacterial cytoplasm but can be transferred into chromosomes by: (i) bacteriophage P1 transduction; and (ii) transformation of extracellular synthetic DNA. We also modified the experimental system by replacing CFP with the SgrS small RNA, which regulates glucose and methyl α-D-glucoside uptake, and showed that horizontally acquired DNA methylation patterns can increase or decrease cell fitness. That is, horizontally acquired DNA methylation patterns can result in the selection for and against cells that have HGT. Findings from these proof-of-concept experiments have applications in synthetic biology and potentially broad implications for bacterial adaptation and evolution. PMID:27084942

  9. Deep sequencing revealed molecular signature of horizontal gene transfer of plant like transcripts in the mosquito Anopheles culicifacies: an evolutionary puzzle

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Punita; Das De, Tanwee; Sharma, Swati; Kumar Mishra, Ashwani; Thomas, Tina; Verma, Sonia; Kumari, Vandana; Lata, Suman; Singh, Namita; Valecha, Neena; Chand Pandey, Kailash; Dixit, Rajnikant

    2015-01-01

    In prokaryotes, horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has been regarded as an important evolutionary drive to acquire and retain beneficial genes for their survival in diverse ecologies. However, in eukaryotes, the functional role of HGTs remains questionable, although current genomic tools are providing increased evidence of acquisition of novel traits within non-mating metazoan species. Here, we provide another transcriptomic evidence for the acquisition of massive plant genes in the mosquito, Anopheles culicifacies. Our multiple experimental validations including genomic PCR, RT-PCR, real-time PCR, immuno-blotting and immuno-florescence microscopy, confirmed that plant like transcripts (PLTs) are of mosquito origin and may encode functional proteins. A comprehensive molecular analysis of the PLTs and ongoing metagenomic analysis of salivary microbiome provide initial clues that mosquitoes may have survival benefits through the acquisition of nuclear as well as chloroplast encoded plant genes. Our findings of PLTs further support the similar questionable observation of HGTs in other higher organisms, which is still a controversial and debatable issue in the community of evolutionists. We believe future understanding of the underlying mechanism of the feeding associated molecular responses may shed new insights in the functional role of PLTs in the mosquito. PMID:26998230

  10. Horizontal Gene Transfer from Bacteria Has Enabled the Plant-Parasitic Nematode Globodera pallida to Feed on Host-Derived Sucrose.

    PubMed

    Danchin, Etienne G J; Guzeeva, Elena A; Mantelin, Sophie; Berepiki, Adokiye; Jones, John T

    2016-06-01

    The evolution of plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN) is unusual in that these organisms have acquired a range of genes from bacteria via horizontal gene transfer (HGT). The proteins encoded by most of these genes are involved in metabolism of various components of the plant cell wall during invasion of the host. Recent genome sequencing projects for PPN have shown that Glycosyl Hydrolase Family 32 (GH32) sequences are present in several PPN species. These sequences are absent from almost all other animals. Here, we show that the GH32 sequences from an economically important cyst nematode species, Globodera pallida are functional invertases, are expressed during feeding and are restricted in expression to the nematode digestive system. These data are consistent with a role in metabolizing host-derived sucrose. In addition, a detailed phylogenetic analysis shows that the GH32 sequences from PPN and those present in some insect species have distinct bacterial origins and do not therefore derive from a gene present in the last common ancestor of ecdysozoan species. HGT has therefore played at least two critical roles in the evolution of PPN, enabling both invasion of the host and feeding on the main translocation carbohydrate of the plant. PMID:26915958

  11. Deep sequencing revealed molecular signature of horizontal gene transfer of plant like transcripts in the mosquito Anopheles culicifacies: an evolutionary puzzle.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Punita; Das De, Tanwee; Sharma, Swati; Kumar Mishra, Ashwani; Thomas, Tina; Verma, Sonia; Kumari, Vandana; Lata, Suman; Singh, Namita; Valecha, Neena; Chand Pandey, Kailash; Dixit, Rajnikant

    2015-01-01

    In prokaryotes, horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has been regarded as an important evolutionary drive to acquire and retain beneficial genes for their survival in diverse ecologies. However, in eukaryotes, the functional role of HGTs remains questionable, although current genomic tools are providing increased evidence of acquisition of novel traits within non-mating metazoan species. Here, we provide another transcriptomic evidence for the acquisition of massive plant genes in the mosquito, Anopheles culicifacies. Our multiple experimental validations including genomic PCR, RT-PCR, real-time PCR, immuno-blotting and immuno-florescence microscopy, confirmed that plant like transcripts (PLTs) are of mosquito origin and may encode functional proteins. A comprehensive molecular analysis of the PLTs and ongoing metagenomic analysis of salivary microbiome provide initial clues that mosquitoes may have survival benefits through the acquisition of nuclear as well as chloroplast encoded plant genes. Our findings of PLTs further support the similar questionable observation of HGTs in other higher organisms, which is still a controversial and debatable issue in the community of evolutionists. We believe future understanding of the underlying mechanism of the feeding associated molecular responses may shed new insights in the functional role of PLTs in the mosquito. PMID:26998230

  12. The Widespread Multidrug-Resistant Serotype O12 Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clone Emerged through Concomitant Horizontal Transfer of Serotype Antigen and Antibiotic Resistance Gene Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Thrane, Sandra Wingaard; Taylor, Véronique L.; Freschi, Luca; Kukavica-Ibrulj, Irena; Boyle, Brian; Laroche, Jérôme; Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Lévesque, Roger C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The O-specific antigen (OSA) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide is highly varied by sugar identity, side chains, and bond between O-repeats. These differences classified P. aeruginosa into 20 distinct serotypes. In the past few decades, O12 has emerged as the predominant serotype in clinical settings and outbreaks. These serotype O12 isolates exhibit high levels of resistance to various classes of antibiotics. Here, we explore how the P. aeruginosa OSA biosynthesis gene clusters evolve in the population by investigating the association between the phylogenetic relationships among 83 P. aeruginosa strains and their serotypes. While most serotypes were closely linked to the core genome phylogeny, we observed horizontal exchange of OSA biosynthesis genes among phylogenetically distinct P. aeruginosa strains. Specifically, we identified a “serotype island” ranging from 62 kb to 185 kb containing the P. aeruginosa O12 OSA gene cluster, an antibiotic resistance determinant (gyrAC248T), and other genes that have been transferred between P. aeruginosa strains with distinct core genome architectures. We showed that these genes were likely acquired from an O12 serotype strain that is closely related to P. aeruginosa PA7. Acquisition and recombination of the “serotype island” resulted in displacement of the native OSA gene cluster and expression of the O12 serotype in the recipients. Serotype switching by recombination has apparently occurred multiple times involving bacteria of various genomic backgrounds. In conclusion, serotype switching in combination with acquisition of an antibiotic resistance determinant most likely contributed to the dissemination of the O12 serotype in clinical settings. PMID:26396243

  13. Birth, death and horizontal transfer of the fumonisin biosynthetic gene cluster during the evolutionary diversification of Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In fungi, genes required for synthesis of secondary metabolites are often clustered. The FUM gene cluster is required for synthesis of a family of toxic secondary metabolites, fumonisins, produced by species of Fusarium in the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex (GFSC). Fumonisins are a health and ...

  14. Evidence for birth-and-death evolution and horizontal transfer of the fumonisin mycotoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In fungi, genes required for synthesis of secondary metabolites are often clustered. The FUM gene cluster is required for synthesis of fumonisins, a family of toxic secondary metabolites produced predominantly by species in the Fusarium (Gibberella) fujikuroi species complex (FFSC). Fumonisins are a...

  15. Interspecies Dissemination of a Mobilizable Plasmid Harboring blaIMP-19 and the Possibility of Horizontal Gene Transfer in a Single Patient.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masaki; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Gomi, Ryota; Matsuda, Tomonari; Tanaka, Michio; Nagao, Miki; Takakura, Shunji; Uemoto, Shinji; Ichiyama, Satoshi

    2016-09-01

    Carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli have been a global concern over the past 2 decades because these organisms can cause severe infections with high mortality rates. Carbapenemase genes are often carried by mobile genetic elements, and resistance plasmids can be transferred through conjugation. We conducted whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to demonstrate that the same plasmid harboring a metallo-β-lactamase gene was detected in two different species isolated from a single patient. Metallo-β-lactamase-producing Achromobacter xylosoxidans (KUN4507), non-metallo-β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KUN4843), and metallo-β-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae (KUN5033) were sequentially isolated from a single patient and then analyzed in this study. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, molecular typing (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing), and conjugation analyses were performed by conventional methods. Phylogenetic and molecular clock analysis of K. pneumoniae isolates were performed with WGS, and the nucleotide sequences of plasmids detected from these isolates were determined using WGS. Conventional molecular typing revealed that KUN4843 and KUN5033 were identical, whereas the phylogenetic tree analysis revealed a slight difference. These two isolates were separated from the most recent common ancestor 0.74 years before they were isolated. The same resistance plasmid harboring blaIMP-19 was detected in metallo-β-lactamase-producing A. xylosoxidans and K. pneumoniae Although this plasmid was not self-transferable, the conjugation of this plasmid from A. xylosoxidans to non-metallo-β-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae was successfully performed. The susceptibility patterns for metallo-β-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae and the transconjugant were similar. These findings supported the possibility of the horizontal transfer of plasmid-borne blaIMP-19 from A. xylosoxidans to K. pneumoniae in a single patient. PMID:27381397

  16. Widespread and frequent horizontal transfers of transposable elements in plants.

    PubMed

    El Baidouri, Moaine; Carpentier, Marie-Christine; Cooke, Richard; Gao, Dongying; Lasserre, Eric; Llauro, Christel; Mirouze, Marie; Picault, Nathalie; Jackson, Scott A; Panaud, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    Vertical, transgenerational transmission of genetic material occurs through reproduction of living organisms. In addition to vertical inheritance, horizontal gene transfer between reproductively isolated species has recently been shown to be an important, if not dominant, mechanism in the evolution of prokaryotic genomes. In contrast, only a few horizontal transfer (HT) events have been characterized so far in eukaryotes and mainly concern transposable elements (TEs). Whether these are frequent and have a significant impact on genome evolution remains largely unknown. We performed a computational search for highly conserved LTR retrotransposons among 40 sequenced eukaryotic genomes representing the major plant families. We found that 26 genomes (65%) harbor at least one case of horizontal TE transfer (HTT). These transfers concern species as distantly related as palm and grapevine, tomato and bean, or poplar and peach. In total, we identified 32 cases of HTTs, which could translate into more than 2 million among the 13,551 monocot and dicot genera. Moreover, we show that these TEs have remained functional after their transfer, occasionally causing a transpositional burst. This suggests that plants can frequently exchange genetic material through horizontal transfers and that this mechanism may be important in TE-driven genome evolution. PMID:24518071

  17. The stability and degradation of dietary DNA in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals: implications for horizontal gene transfer and the biosafety of GMOs.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, Aurora; Raddadi, Noura; Sorlini, Claudia; Nordgrd, Lise; Nielsen, Kaare Magne; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    The fate of dietary DNA in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of animals has gained renewed interest after the commercial introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMO). Among the concerns regarding GM food, are the possible consequences of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of recombinant dietary DNA to bacteria or animal cells. The exposure of the GIT to dietary DNA is related to the extent of food processing, food composition, and to the level of intake. Animal feeding studies have demonstrated that a minor amount of fragmented dietary DNA may resist the digestive process. Mammals have been shown to take up dietary DNA from the GIT, but stable integration and expression of internalized DNA has not been demonstrated. Despite the ability of several bacterial species to acquire external DNA by natural transformation, in vivo transfer of dietary DNA to bacteria in the intestine has not been detected in the few experimental studies conducted so far. However, major methodological limitations and knowledge gaps of the mechanistic aspects of HGT calls for methodological improvements and further studies to understand the fate of various types of dietary DNA in the GIT. PMID:22059960

  18. Examining marginal sequence similarities between bacterial type III secretion system components and Trypanosoma cruzi surface proteins: horizontal gene transfer or convergent evolution?

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Danielle C. F.; Silva, Richard C.; Ferreira, Renata C.; Briones, Marcelo R. S.

    2013-01-01

    The cell invasion mechanism of Trypanosoma cruzi has similarities with some intracellular bacterial taxa especially regarding calcium mobilization. This mechanism is not observed in other trypanosomatids, suggesting that the molecules involved in this type of cell invasion were a product of (1) acquisition by horizontal gene transfer (HGT); (2) secondary loss in the other trypanosomatid lineages of the mechanism inherited since the bifurcation Bacteria-Neomura (1.9 billion to 900 million years ago); or (3) de novo evolution from non-homologous proteins via convergent evolution. Similar to T. cruzi, several bacterial genera require increased host cell cytosolic calcium for intracellular invasion. Among intracellular bacteria, the mechanism of host cell invasion of genus Salmonella is the most similar to T. cruzi. The invasion of Salmonella occurs by contact with the host's cell surface and is mediated by the type III secretion system (T3SS) that promotes the contact-dependent translocation of effector proteins directly into host's cell cytoplasm. Here we provide evidence of distant sequence similarities and structurally conserved domains between T. cruzi and Salmonella spp T3SS proteins. Exhaustive database searches were directed to a wide range of intracellular bacteria and trypanosomatids, exploring sequence patterns for comparison of structural similarities and Bayesian phylogenies. Based on our data we hypothesize that T. cruzi acquired genes for calcium mobilization mediated invasion by ancient HGT from ancestral Salmonella lineages. PMID:23967008

  19. Horizontal Gene Exchange in Environmental Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Aminov, Rustam I.

    2011-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) plays an important role in the evolution of life on the Earth. This view is supported by numerous occasions of HGT that are recorded in the genomes of all three domains of living organisms. HGT-mediated rapid evolution is especially noticeable among the Bacteria, which demonstrate formidable adaptability in the face of recent environmental changes imposed by human activities, such as the use of antibiotics, industrial contamination, and intensive agriculture. At the heart of the HGT-driven bacterial evolution and adaptation are highly sophisticated natural genetic engineering tools in the form of a variety of mobile genetic elements (MGEs). The main aim of this review is to give a brief account of the occurrence and diversity of MGEs in natural ecosystems and of the environmental factors that may affect MGE-mediated HGT. PMID:21845185

  20. Divergent properties and phylogeny of cyanobacterial 5-enol-pyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthases: evidence for horizontal gene transfer in the Nostocales.

    PubMed

    Forlani, Giuseppe; Bertazzini, Michele; Barillaro, Donatella; Rippka, Rosmarie

    2015-01-01

    As it represents the target of the successful herbicide glyphosate, great attention has been paid to the shikimate pathway enzyme 5-enol-pyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase. However, inconsistent results have been reported concerning the sensitivity of the enzyme from cyanobacteria, and consequent inhibitory effects on cyanobacterial growth. The properties of EPSP synthase were investigated in a set of 42 strains representative of the large morphological diversity of these prokaryotes. Publicly available protein sequences were analyzed, and related to enzymatic features. In most cases, the native protein showed an unusual homodimeric composition and a general sensitivity to micromolar doses of glyphosate. By contrast, eight out of 15 Nostocales strains were found to possess a monomeric EPSP synthase, whose activity was inhibited only at concentrations exceeding 1 mM. Sequence analysis showed that these two forms are only distantly related, the latter clustering separately in a clade composed of diverse bacterial phyla. The results are consistent with the occurrence of a horizontal gene transfer event involving an evolutionarily distant organism. Moreover, data suggest that the existence of class I (glyphosate-sensitive) and class II (glyphosate-tolerant) EPSP synthases representing two distinct phylogenetic clades is an oversimplification because of the limited number of analyzed samples. PMID:25229999

  1. Health Considerations Regarding Horizontal Transfer of Microbial Transgenes Present in Genetically Modified Crops

    PubMed Central

    Kleter, Gijs A.

    2005-01-01

    The potential effects of horizontal gene transfer on human health are an important item in the safety assessment of genetically modified organisms. Horizontal gene transfer from genetically modified crops to gut microflora most likely occurs with transgenes of microbial origin. The characteristics of microbial transgenes other than antibiotic-resistance genes in market-approved genetically modified crops are reviewed. These characteristics include the microbial source, natural function, function in genetically modified crops, natural prevalence, geographical distribution, similarity to other microbial genes, known horizontal transfer activity, selective conditions and environments for horizontally transferred genes, and potential contribution to pathogenicity and virulence in humans and animals. The assessment of this set of data for each of the microbial genes reviewed does not give rise to health concerns. We recommend including the above-mentioned items into the premarket safety assessment of genetically modified crops carrying transgenes other than those reviewed in the present study. PMID:16489267

  2. Promiscuous DNA: horizontal transfer of transposable elements and why it matters for eukaryotic evolution.

    PubMed

    Schaack, Sarah; Gilbert, Clément; Feschotte, Cédric

    2010-09-01

    Horizontal transfer is the passage of genetic material between genomes by means other than parent-to-offspring inheritance. Although the transfer of genes is thought to be crucial in prokaryotic evolution, few instances of horizontal gene transfer have been reported in multicellular eukaryotes; instead, most cases involve transposable elements. With over 200 cases now documented, it is possible to assess the importance of horizontal transfer for the evolution of transposable elements and their host genomes. We review criteria for detecting horizontal transfers and examine recent examples of the phenomenon, shedding light on its mechanistic underpinnings, including the role of host-parasite interactions. We argue that the introduction of transposable elements by horizontal transfer in eukaryotic genomes has been a major force propelling genomic variation and biological innovation. PMID:20591532

  3. Promiscuous DNA: horizontal transfer of transposable elements and why it matters for eukaryotic evolution

    PubMed Central

    Schaack, Sarah; Gilbert, Clément; Feschotte, Cédric

    2010-01-01

    Horizontal transfer is the passage of genetic material between genomes by means other than parent-to-offspring inheritance. Although the transfer of genes is thought to be crucial in prokaryotic evolution, few instances of horizontal gene transfer have been reported in multicellular eukaryotes; instead, most cases involve transposable elements. With over 200 cases now documented, it is possible to assess the importance of horizontal transfer for the evolution of transposable elements and their host genomes. We review criteria for detecting horizontal transfers and examine recent examples of the phenomenon, shedding light on its mechanistic underpinnings, including the role of host-parasite interactions. We argue that the introduction of transposable elements by horizontal transfer in eukaryotic genomes has been a major force propelling genomic variation and biological innovation. PMID:20591532

  4. Horizontal Transfer of Small RNAs to and from Plants

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lu; Luan, Yu-Shi

    2015-01-01

    Genetic information is traditionally thought to be transferred from parents to offspring. However, there is evidence indicating that gene transfer can also occur from microbes to higher species, such as plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates. This horizontal transfer can be carried out by small RNAs (sRNAs). sRNAs have been recently reported to move across kingdoms as mobile signals, spreading silencing information toward targeted genes. sRNAs, especially microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), are non-coding molecules that control gene expression at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. Some sRNAs act in a cross-kingdom manner between animals and their parasites, but little is known about such sRNAs associated with plants. In this report, we provide a brief introduction to miRNAs that are transferred from plants to mammals/viruses and siRNAs that are transferred from microbes to plants. Both miRNAs and siRNAs can exert corresponding functions in the target organisms. Additionally, we provide information concerning a host-induced gene silencing system as a potential application that utilizes the transgenic trafficking of RNA molecules to silence the genes of interacting organisms. Moreover, we lay out the controversial views regarding cross-kingdom miRNAs and call for better methodology and experimental design to confirm this unique function of miRNAs. PMID:26697056

  5. Horizontal Transfer of Small RNAs to and from Plants.

    PubMed

    Han, Lu; Luan, Yu-Shi

    2015-01-01

    Genetic information is traditionally thought to be transferred from parents to offspring. However, there is evidence indicating that gene transfer can also occur from microbes to higher species, such as plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates. This horizontal transfer can be carried out by small RNAs (sRNAs). sRNAs have been recently reported to move across kingdoms as mobile signals, spreading silencing information toward targeted genes. sRNAs, especially microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), are non-coding molecules that control gene expression at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. Some sRNAs act in a cross-kingdom manner between animals and their parasites, but little is known about such sRNAs associated with plants. In this report, we provide a brief introduction to miRNAs that are transferred from plants to mammals/viruses and siRNAs that are transferred from microbes to plants. Both miRNAs and siRNAs can exert corresponding functions in the target organisms. Additionally, we provide information concerning a host-induced gene silencing system as a potential application that utilizes the transgenic trafficking of RNA molecules to silence the genes of interacting organisms. Moreover, we lay out the controversial views regarding cross-kingdom miRNAs and call for better methodology and experimental design to confirm this unique function of miRNAs. PMID:26697056

  6. Characterization of a Novel Megabirnavirus from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Reveals Horizontal Gene Transfer from Single-Stranded RNA Virus to Double-Stranded RNA Virus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Minghong; Wang, Yong; Sun, Xiangzhong; Cheng, Jiasen; Fu, Yanping; Liu, Huiquan; Jiang, Daohong; Ghabrial, Said A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycoviruses have been detected in all major groups of filamentous fungi, and their study represents an important branch of virology. Here, we characterized a novel double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycovirus, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum megabirnavirus 1 (SsMBV1), in an apparently hypovirulent strain (SX466) of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Two similarly sized dsRNA segments (L1- and L2-dsRNA), the genome of SsMBV1, are packaged in rigid spherical particles purified from strain SX466. The full-length cDNA sequence of L1-dsRNA/SsMBV1 comprises two large open reading frames (ORF1 and ORF2), which encode a putative coat protein and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the RdRp domain clearly indicates that SsMBV1 is related to Rosellinia necatrix megabirnavirus 1 (RnMBV1). L2-dsRNA/SsMBV1 comprises two nonoverlapping ORFs (ORFA and ORFB) encoding two hypothetical proteins with unknown functions. The 5′-terminal regions of L1- and L2-dsRNA/SsMBV1 share strictly conserved sequences and form stable stem-loop structures. Although L2-dsRNA/SsMBV1 is dispensable for replication, genome packaging, and pathogenicity of SsMBV1, it enhances transcript accumulation of L1-dsRNA/SsMBV1 and stability of virus-like particles (VLPs). Interestingly, a conserved papain-like protease domain similar to a multifunctional protein (p29) of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 was detected in the ORFA-encoded protein of L2-dsRNA/SsMBV1. Phylogenetic analysis based on the protease domain suggests that horizontal gene transfer may have occurred from a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) virus (hypovirus) to a dsRNA virus, SsMBV1. Our results reveal that SsMBV1 has a slight impact on the fundamental biological characteristics of its host regardless of the presence or absence of L2-dsRNA/SsMBV1. IMPORTANCE Mycoviruses are widespread in all major fungal groups, and they possess diverse genomes of mostly ssRNA and dsRNA and, recently, circular ssDNA. Here, we have characterized

  7. Evolutionary genomics of mycovirus-related dsRNA viruses reveals cross-family horizontal gene transfer and evolution of diverse viral lineages

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Double-stranded (ds) RNA fungal viruses are typically isometric single-shelled particles that are classified into three families, Totiviridae, Partitiviridae and Chrysoviridae, the members of which possess monopartite, bipartite and quadripartite genomes, respectively. Recent findings revealed that mycovirus-related dsRNA viruses are more diverse than previously recognized. Although an increasing number of viral complete genomic sequences have become available, the evolution of these diverse dsRNA viruses remains to be clarified. This is particularly so since there is little evidence for horizontal gene transfer (HGT) among dsRNA viruses. Results In this study, we report the molecular properties of two novel dsRNA mycoviruses that were isolated from a field strain of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Sunf-M: one is a large monopartite virus representing a distinct evolutionary lineage of dsRNA viruses; the other is a new member of the family Partitiviridae. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis and genome comparison revealed that there are at least ten monopartite, three bipartite, one tripartite and three quadripartite lineages in the known dsRNA mycoviruses and that the multipartite lineages have possibly evolved from different monopartite dsRNA viruses. Moreover, we found that homologs of the S7 Domain, characteristic of members of the genus phytoreovirus in family Reoviridae are widely distributed in diverse dsRNA viral lineages, including chrysoviruses, endornaviruses and some unclassified dsRNA mycoviruses. We further provided evidence that multiple HGT events may have occurred among these dsRNA viruses from different families. Conclusions Our study provides an insight into the phylogeny and evolution of mycovirus-related dsRNA viruses and reveals that the occurrence of HGT between different virus species and the development of multipartite genomes during evolution are important macroevolutionary mechanisms in dsRNA viruses. PMID:22716092

  8. Wolbachia co-infection in a hybrid zone: discovery of horizontal gene transfers from two Wolbachia supergroups into an animal genome.

    PubMed

    Funkhouser-Jones, Lisa J; Sehnert, Stephanie R; Martínez-Rodríguez, Paloma; Toribio-Fernández, Raquel; Pita, Miguel; Bella, José L; Bordenstein, Seth R

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid zones and the consequences of hybridization have contributed greatly to our understanding of evolutionary processes. Hybrid zones also provide valuable insight into the dynamics of symbiosis since each subspecies or species brings its unique microbial symbionts, including germline bacteria such as Wolbachia, to the hybrid zone. Here, we investigate a natural hybrid zone of two subspecies of the meadow grasshopper Chorthippus parallelus in the Pyrenees Mountains. We set out to test whether co-infections of B and F Wolbachia in hybrid grasshoppers enabled horizontal transfer of phage WO, similar to the numerous examples of phage WO transfer between A and B Wolbachia co-infections. While we found no evidence for transfer between the divergent co-infections, we discovered horizontal transfer of at least three phage WO haplotypes to the grasshopper genome. Subsequent genome sequencing of uninfected grasshoppers uncovered the first evidence for two discrete Wolbachia supergroups (B and F) contributing at least 448 kb and 144 kb of DNA, respectively, into the host nuclear genome. Fluorescent in situ hybridization verified the presence of Wolbachia DNA in C. parallelus chromosomes and revealed that some inserts are subspecies-specific while others are present in both subspecies. We discuss our findings in light of symbiont dynamics in an animal hybrid zone. PMID:26664808

  9. Wolbachia co-infection in a hybrid zone: discovery of horizontal gene transfers from two Wolbachia supergroups into an animal genome

    PubMed Central

    Sehnert, Stephanie R.; Martínez-Rodríguez, Paloma; Toribio-Fernández, Raquel; Pita, Miguel; Bella, José L.; Bordenstein, Seth R.

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid zones and the consequences of hybridization have contributed greatly to our understanding of evolutionary processes. Hybrid zones also provide valuable insight into the dynamics of symbiosis since each subspecies or species brings its unique microbial symbionts, including germline bacteria such as Wolbachia, to the hybrid zone. Here, we investigate a natural hybrid zone of two subspecies of the meadow grasshopper Chorthippus parallelus in the Pyrenees Mountains. We set out to test whether co-infections of B and F Wolbachia in hybrid grasshoppers enabled horizontal transfer of phage WO, similar to the numerous examples of phage WO transfer between A and B Wolbachia co-infections. While we found no evidence for transfer between the divergent co-infections, we discovered horizontal transfer of at least three phage WO haplotypes to the grasshopper genome. Subsequent genome sequencing of uninfected grasshoppers uncovered the first evidence for two discrete Wolbachia supergroups (B and F) contributing at least 448 kb and 144 kb of DNA, respectively, into the host nuclear genome. Fluorescent in situ hybridization verified the presence of Wolbachia DNA in C. parallelus chromosomes and revealed that some inserts are subspecies-specific while others are present in both subspecies. We discuss our findings in light of symbiont dynamics in an animal hybrid zone. PMID:26664808

  10. Lack of evidence for horizontal transfer of the lac operon into Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Stoebel, Daniel M

    2005-03-01

    The idea that Escherichia coli gained the lac operon via horizontal transfer, allowing it to invade a new niche and form a new species, has become a paradigmatic example of bacterial nonpathogenic adaptation and speciation catalyzed by horizontal transfer. Surprisingly, empirical evidence for this event is essentially nonexistent. To see whether horizontal transfer occurred, I compared a phylogeny of 14 Enterobacteriaceae based on two housekeeping genes to a phylogeny of a part of their lac operon. Although several species in this clade appear to have acquired some or all of the operon via horizontal transfer, there is no evidence of horizontal transfer into E. coli. It is not clear whether the horizontal transfer events for which there is evidence were adaptive because those species which have acquired the operon are not thought to live in high lactose environments. I propose that vertical transmission from the common ancestor of the Enterobacteriaceae, with subsequent loss of these genes in many species can explain much of the patchy distribution of lactose use in this clade. Finally, I argue that we need new, well-supported examples of horizontal transfer spurring niche expansion and speciation, particularly in nonpathogenic cases, before we can accept claims that horizontal transfer is a hallmark of bacterial adaptation. PMID:15563718

  11. High Temperature in Combination with UV Irradiation Enhances Horizontal Transfer of stx2 Gene from E. coli O157:H7 to Non-Pathogenic E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Wan-Fu; Du, Min; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Background Shiga toxin (stx) genes have been transferred to numerous bacteria, one of which is E. coli O157:H7. It is a common belief that stx gene is transferred by bacteriophages, because stx genes are located on lambdoid prophages in the E. coli O157:H7 genome. Both E. coli O157:H7 and non-pathogenic E. coli are highly enriched in cattle feedlots. We hypothesized that strong UV radiation in combination with high temperature accelerates stx gene transfer into non-pathogenic E. coli in feedlots. Methodology/Principal Findings E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 strain were subjected to different UV irradiation (0 or 0.5 kJ/m2) combination with different temperature (22, 28, 30, 32, and 37°C) treatments, and the activation of lambdoid prophages was analyzed by plaque forming unit while induction of Stx2 prophages was quantified by quantitative real-time PCR. Data showed that lambdoid prophages in E. coli O157:H7, including phages carrying stx2, were activated under UV radiation, a process enhanced by elevated temperature. Consistently, western blotting analysis indicated that the production of Shiga toxin 2 was also dramatically increased by UV irradiation and high temperature. In situ colony hybridization screening indicated that these activated Stx2 prophages were capable of converting laboratory strain of E. coli K12 into new Shiga toxigenic E. coli, which were further confirmed by PCR and ELISA analysis. Conclusions/Significance These data implicate that high environmental temperature in combination with UV irradiation accelerates the spread of stx genes through enhancing Stx prophage induction and Stx phage mediated gene transfer. Cattle feedlot sludge are teemed with E. coli O157:H7 and non-pathogenic E. coli, and is frequently exposed to UV radiation via sunlight, which may contribute to the rapid spread of stx gene to non-pathogenic E. coli and diversity of shiga toxin producing E. coli. PMID:22347461

  12. An Operon of Three Transcriptional Regulators Controls Horizontal Gene Transfer of the Integrative and Conjugative Element ICEclc in Pseudomonas knackmussii B13

    PubMed Central

    Pradervand, Nicolas; Sulser, Sandra; Delavat, François; Miyazaki, Ryo; Lamas, Iker; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2014-01-01

    The integrative and conjugative element ICEclc is a mobile genetic element in Pseudomonas knackmussii B13, and an experimental model for a widely distributed group of elements in Proteobacteria. ICEclc is transferred from specialized transfer competent cells, which arise at a frequency of 3-5% in a population at stationary phase. Very little is known about the different factors that control the transfer frequency of this ICE family. Here we report the discovery of a three-gene operon encoded by ICEclc, which exerts global control on transfer initiation. The operon consists of three consecutive regulatory genes, encoding a TetR-type repressor MfsR, a MarR-type regulator and a LysR-type activator TciR. We show that MfsR autoregulates expression of the operon, whereas TciR is a global activator of ICEclc gene expression, but no clear role was yet found for MarR. Deletion of mfsR increases expression of tciR and marR, causing the proportion of transfer competent cells to reach almost 100% and transfer frequencies to approach 1 per donor. mfsR deletion also caused a two orders of magnitude loss in population viability, individual cell growth arrest and loss of ICEclc. This indicates that autoregulation is an important feature maintaining ICE transfer but avoiding fitness loss. Bioinformatic analysis showed that the mfsR-marR-tciR operon is unique for ICEclc and a few highly related ICE, whereas tciR orthologues occur more widely in a large variety of suspected ICE among Proteobacteria. PMID:24945944

  13. Horizontal DNA transfer from bacteria to eukaryotes and a lesson from experimental transfers.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Katsunori; Moriguchi, Kazuki; Yamamoto, Shinji

    2015-12-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is widespread among bacteria and plays a key role in genome dynamics. HGT is much less common in eukaryotes, but is being reported with increasing frequency in eukaryotes. The mechanism as to how eukaryotes acquired genes from distantly related organisms remains obscure yet. This paper cites examples of bacteria-derived genes found in eukaryotic organisms, and then describes experimental DNA transports to eukaryotes by bacterial type 4 secretion systems in optimized conditions. The mechanisms of the latter are efficient, quite reproducible in vitro and predictable, and thereby would provide insight into natural HGT and to the development of new research tools. PMID:26291765

  14. Horizontal transfer of transposons between and within crustaceans and insects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Horizontal transfer of transposable elements (HTT) is increasingly appreciated as an important source of genome and species evolution in eukaryotes. However, our understanding of HTT dynamics is still poor in eukaryotes because the diversity of species for which whole genome sequences are available is biased and does not reflect the global eukaryote diversity. Results In this study we characterized two Mariner transposable elements (TEs) in the genome of several terrestrial crustacean isopods, a group of animals particularly underrepresented in genome databases. The two elements have a patchy distribution in the arthropod tree and they are highly similar (>93% over the entire length of the element) to insect TEs (Diptera and Hymenoptera), some of which were previously described in Ceratitis rosa (Crmar2) and Drosophila biarmipes (Mariner-5_Dbi). In addition, phylogenetic analyses and comparisons of TE versus orthologous gene distances at various phylogenetic levels revealed that the taxonomic distribution of the two elements is incompatible with vertical inheritance. Conclusions We conclude that the two Mariner TEs each underwent at least three HTT events. Both elements were transferred once between isopod crustaceans and insects and at least once between isopod crustacean species. Crmar2 was also transferred between tephritid and drosophilid flies and Mariner-5 underwent HT between hymenopterans and dipterans. We demonstrate that these various HTTs took place recently (most likely within the last 3 million years), and propose iridoviruses and/or Wolbachia endosymbionts as potential vectors of these transfers. PMID:24472097

  15. 13. DETAIL OF BEVEL GEAR TRANSFERRING HORIZONTAL DRIVE FROM MAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL OF BEVEL GEAR TRANSFERRING HORIZONTAL DRIVE FROM MAIN WATERWHEEL SHAFT TO VERTICAL SHAFT DRIVING COFFEE HUSKING MILL ON SECOND FLOOR - Hacienda Cafetalera Santa Clara, Coffee Mill, KM 19, PR Route 372, Hacienda La Juanita, Yauco Municipio, PR

  16. Evidence for the recent horizontal transfer of long terminal repeat retrotransposon

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, I. King; Matyunina, Lilya V.; McDonald, John F.

    1999-01-01

    The evolutionary dynamics existing between transposable elements (TEs) and their host genomes have been likened to an “arms race.” The selfish drive of TEs to replicate, in turn, elicits the evolution of host-mediated regulatory mechanisms aimed at repressing transpositional activity. It has been postulated that horizontal (cross-species) transfer may be one effective strategy by which TEs and other selfish genes can escape host-mediated silencing mechanisms over evolutionary time; however, to date, the most definitive evidence that TEs horizontally transfer between species has been limited to class II or DNA-type elements. Evidence that the more numerous and widely distributed retroelements may also be horizontally transferred between species has been more ambiguous. In this paper, we report definitive evidence for a recent horizontal transfer of the copia long terminal repeat retrotransposon between Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila willistoni. PMID:10535972

  17. Plasmids Responsible for Horizontal Transfer of Naphthalene Catabolism Genes between Bacteria at a Coal Tar-Contaminated Site Are Homologous to pDTG1 from Pseudomonas putida NCIB 9816-4

    PubMed Central

    Stuart-Keil, K. G.; Hohnstock, A. M.; Drees, K. P.; Herrick, J. B.; Madsen, E. L.

    1998-01-01

    The presence of a highly conserved nahAc allele among phylogenetically diverse bacteria carrying naphthalene-catabolic plasmids provided evidence for in situ horizontal gene transfer at a coal tar-contaminated site (J. B. Herrick, K. G. Stuart-Keil, W. C. Ghiorse, and E. L. Madsen, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:2330–2337, 1997). The objective of the present study was to identify and characterize the different-sized naphthalene-catabolic plasmids in order to determine the probable mechanism of horizontal transfer of the nahAc gene in situ. Filter matings between naphthalene-degrading bacterial isolates and their cured progeny revealed that the naphthalene-catabolic plasmids were self-transmissible. Limited interstrain transfer was also found. Analysis of the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns indicated that catabolic plasmids from 12 site-derived isolates were closely related to each other and to the naphthalene-catabolic plasmid (pDTG1) of Pseudomonas putida NCIB 9816-4, which was isolated decades ago in Bangor, Wales. The similarity among all site-derived naphthalene-catabolic plasmids and pDTG1 was confirmed by using the entire pDTG1 plasmid as a probe in Southern hybridizations. Two distinct but similar naphthalene-catabolic plasmids were retrieved directly from the microbial community indigenous to the contaminated site in a filter mating by using a cured, rifampin-resistant site-derived isolate as the recipient. RFLP patterns and Southern hybridization showed that both of these newly retrieved plasmids, like the isolate-derived plasmids, were closely related to pDTG1. These data indicate that a pDTG1-like plasmid is the mobile genetic element responsible for transferring naphthalene-catabolic genes among bacteria in situ. The pervasiveness and persistence of this naphthalene-catabolic plasmid suggest that it may have played a role in the adaptation of this microbial community to the coal tar contamination at our study site. PMID:9758778

  18. A heat transfer model of a horizontal ground heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, R. E.; Shtern, Yu. I.; Shtern, M. Yu.; Rogachev, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    Ground-source heat pumps are gaining popularity in Eastern Europe, especially those which are using the horizontal ground heat exchanger (GHX). Due to the difficulty of accessing GHX after the installation, materials and the quality of the installation must satisfy the very high requirements. An inaccurate calculation of GHX can be the reason of a scarcity of heat power in a crucial moment. So far, there isn't any appropriate mathematical description of the horizontal GHX which takes into account the mutual influence of GHX pipes on each other. To solve this problem we used the temperature wave approach. As a result, a mathematical model which describes the dependence of the heat transfer rate per unit length of the horizontal GHX pipe on the thermal properties of soil, operating time of GHX and the distance between pipes was obtained. Using this model, heat transfer rates per unit length of a horizontal GHX were plotted as functions of the distance between pipes and operating time. The modeling shows that heat transfer rates decreases rapidly with the distance between pipes lower then 2 meters. After the launch of heat pump, heat power of GHX is reduced during the first 20 - 30 days and get steady after that. The obtained results correlate with experimental data. Therefore the proposed mathematical model can be used to design a horizontal GHX with the optimal characteristics, and predict its capability during operation.

  19. H-NS Facilitates Sequence Diversification of Horizontally Transferred DNAs during Their Integration in Host Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Koichi; Tobe, Toru; Kanai, Akinori; Uyar, Ebru; Ishikawa, Shu; Suzuki, Yutaka; Ogasawara, Naotake; Kurokawa, Ken; Oshima, Taku

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria can acquire new traits through horizontal gene transfer. Inappropriate expression of transferred genes, however, can disrupt the physiology of the host bacteria. To reduce this risk, Escherichia coli expresses the nucleoid-associated protein, H-NS, which preferentially binds to horizontally transferred genes to control their expression. Once expression is optimized, the horizontally transferred genes may actually contribute to E. coli survival in new habitats. Therefore, we investigated whether and how H-NS contributes to this optimization process. A comparison of H-NS binding profiles on common chromosomal segments of three E. coli strains belonging to different phylogenetic groups indicated that the positions of H-NS-bound regions have been conserved in E. coli strains. The sequences of the H-NS-bound regions appear to have diverged more so than H-NS-unbound regions only when H-NS-bound regions are located upstream or in coding regions of genes. Because these regions generally contain regulatory elements for gene expression, sequence divergence in these regions may be associated with alteration of gene expression. Indeed, nucleotide substitutions in H-NS-bound regions of the ybdO promoter and coding regions have diversified the potential for H-NS-independent negative regulation among E. coli strains. The ybdO expression in these strains was still negatively regulated by H-NS, which reduced the effect of H-NS-independent regulation under normal growth conditions. Hence, we propose that, during E. coli evolution, the conservation of H-NS binding sites resulted in the diversification of the regulation of horizontally transferred genes, which may have facilitated E. coli adaptation to new ecological niches. PMID:26789284

  20. Dynamic regions within and horizontal transfer of an otherwise stable gene cluster responsible for synthesis of the Fusarium mycotoxin fusaric acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Fusarium mycotoxin fusaric acid is toxic to plants as well as animals, but its function in the biology of the fungus is not known. Here, we used genome sequencing to survey multiple species in 18 lineages (species complexes) of Fusarium for the presence of the fusaric acid biosynthetic gene (FUB...

  1. Horizontal Transfer of Spinosad in Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Bhatta, D; Henderson, G

    2016-08-01

    Slow-acting and nonrepellent termiticides are possible candidates for nestmate to nestmate transfer called horizontal transfer. For the horizontal transfer study of spinosad, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki was released in sand and soil at 1, 25, and 50 ppm Entrust(®) for 1 h and then mixed with healthy untreated termites for 21 d at the ratio of 1:1. Donor and recipient termites began to contact and groom each other immediately after release. Mortality of termites was recorded at 1, 3, 7, and 14 d after treatment. Spinosad was more effectively transferred in sand than in soil. In sand at 25 and 50 ppm, significantly high mortality of donors and recipients was observed after 7 d. When termites were exposed to treated soil at day 21, all three concentrations resulted in significantly higher mortality compared to the control. In our laboratory study, spinosad was effectively transferred by donor termites. Transfer of spinosad depended on its bioavailability and concentration. Further study is needed to address its effects against C. formosanus under field conditions. PMID:27207263

  2. Horizontal transfer of non-LTR retrotransposons in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Kordis, D; Gubensek, F

    1999-01-01

    Since their discovery in family Bovidae (bovids), Bov-B LINEs, believed to be order-specific SINEs, have been found in all ruminants and recently also in Viperidae snakes. The distribution and the evolutionary relationships of Bov-B LINEs provide an indication of their origin and evolutionary dynamics in different species. The evolutionary origin of Bov-B LINE elements has been shown unequivocally to be in Squamata (squamates). The horizontal transfer of Bov-B LINE elements in vertebrates has been confirmed by their discontinuous phylogenetic distribution in Squamata (Serpentes and two lizard infra-orders) as well as in Ruminantia, by the high level of nucleotide identity, and by their phylogenetic relationships. The direction of horizontal transfer from Squamata to the ancestor of Ruminantia is evident from the genetic distances and discontinuous phylogenetic distribution of Bov-B LINE elements. The ancestral snake lineage (Boidae) has been recognized as a possible donor of Bov-B LINE elements to Ruminantia. The timing of horizontal transfer has been estimated from the distribution of Bov-B LINE elements in Ruminantia and the fossil data of Ruminantia to be 40-50 mya. The phylogenetic relationships of Bov-B LINE elements from the various Squamata species agrees with that of the species phylogeny, suggesting that Bov-B LINE elements have been stably maintained by vertical transmission since the origin of Squamata in the Mesozoic era. PMID:10952205

  3. Global regulation by horizontally transferred regulators establishes the pathogenicity of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Abe, Hiroyuki; Miyahara, Akira; Oshima, Taku; Tashiro, Kosuke; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Kuhara, Satoru; Ogasawara, Naotake; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Tobe, Toru

    2008-02-29

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli is an emerging pathogen that causes diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Much of the genomic information that affects virulence is acquired by horizontal transfer. Genes necessary for attaching and effacing lesions are located in the locus for enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island. LEE gene transcription is positively regulated by Ler, which is also encoded by the LEE, and by Pch regulators, which are encoded at other loci. Here we identified genes whose transcription profiles were similar to those of the LEE genes, by comparing the effects of altering ler and pch transcript levels. We assigned these genes into two classes, according to their transcription profiles. By determining the binding profiles for Ler and Pch, we showed that both were involved in regulating one class of genes, but only Pch was involved in regulating the other class. Binding sites were found in the coding region as well as the promoter region of regulated genes, which include genes common to K12 strains as well as 0157-specific genes, suggesting that both act as a global regulator. These results indicate that Ler and Pch orchestrate the transcription of virulence genes, which are captured by horizontal transfer and scattered throughout the chromosome. PMID:18222925

  4. Horizontal Transfer and Evolution of Prokaryote Transposable Elements in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Clément; Cordaux, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Horizontal transfer (HT) of transposable elements (TEs) plays a key role in prokaryotic evolution, and mounting evidence suggests that it has also had an important impact on eukaryotic evolution. Although many prokaryote-to-prokaryote and eukaryote-to-eukaryote HTs of TEs have been characterized, only few cases have been reported between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Here, we carried out a comprehensive search for all major groups of prokaryotic insertion sequences (ISs) in 430 eukaryote genomes. We uncovered a total of 80 sequences, all deriving from the IS607 family, integrated in the genomes of 14 eukaryote species belonging to four distinct phyla (Amoebozoa, Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, and Stramenopiles). Given that eukaryote IS607-like sequences are most closely related to cyanobacterial IS607 and that their phylogeny is incongruent with that of their hosts, we conclude that the presence of IS607-like sequences in eukaryotic genomes is the result of several HT events. Selection analyses further suggest that our ability to detect these prokaryote TEs today in eukaryotes is because HT of these sequences occurred recently and/or some IS607 elements were domesticated after HT, giving rise to new eukaryote genes. Supporting the recent age of some of these HTs, we uncovered intact full-length, potentially active IS607 copies in the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellani. Overall, our study shows that prokaryote-to-eukaryote HT of TEs occurred at relatively low frequency during recent eukaryote evolution and it sets IS607 as the most widespread TE (being present in prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and viruses). PMID:23563966

  5. An assay for determining minimal concentrations of antibiotics that drive horizontal transfer of resistance.

    PubMed

    Jutkina, Jekaterina; Rutgersson, Carolin; Flach, Carl-Fredrik; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2016-04-01

    Ability to understand the factors driving horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance from unknown, harmless bacteria to pathogens is crucial in order to tackle the growing resistance problem. However, current methods to measure effects of stressors on horizontal gene transfer have limitations and often fall short, as the estimated endpoints can be a mix of both the number of transfer events and clonal growth of transconjugants. Our aim was therefore to achieve a proper strategy for assessing the minimal concentration of a stressor (exemplified by tetracycline) that drives horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance from a complex community to a model pathogen. Conditions were optimized to improve a culture-based approach using the bacterial community of treated sewage effluent as donor, and fluorescent, traceable Escherichia coli as recipient. Reduced level of background resistance, differentiation of isolates as well as decreased risk for measuring effects of selection were achieved through the use of chromogenic medium, optimization of conjugation time as well as applying a different antibiotic for isolation of transconjugants than the one tested for its ability to drive transfer. Using this assay, we showed that a very low concentration of tetracycline, 10μg/L i.e. 150 times below the minimal inhibitory concentration of the recipient, promoted horizontal transfer of multiple antibiotic-resistance determinants. Higher concentrations favoured selection of a tetracycline-resistance phenotype along with a decline in the number of detectable transfer events. The described method can be used to evaluate different environmental conditions and factors that trigger horizontal dissemination of mobile resistance elements, eventually resulting in the formation of drug-resistant pathogens. PMID:26802341

  6. Horizontal Gene Transfer Contributed to the Evolution of Extracellular Surface Structures: The Freshwater Polyp Hydra Is Covered by a Complex Fibrous Cuticle Containing Glycosaminoglycans and Proteins of the PPOD and SWT (Sweet Tooth) Families

    PubMed Central

    Böttger, Angelika; Doxey, Andrew C.; Hess, Michael W.; Pfaller, Kristian; Salvenmoser, Willi; Deutzmann, Rainer; Geissner, Andreas; Pauly, Barbara; Altstätter, Johannes; Münder, Sandra; Heim, Astrid; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; McConkey, Brendan J.; David, Charles N.

    2012-01-01

    The single-cell layered ectoderm of the fresh water polyp Hydra fulfills the function of an epidermis by protecting the animals from the surrounding medium. Its outer surface is covered by a fibrous structure termed the cuticle layer, with similarity to the extracellular surface coats of mammalian epithelia. In this paper we have identified molecular components of the cuticle. We show that its outermost layer contains glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans and we have identified chondroitin and chondroitin-6-sulfate chains. In a search for proteins that could be involved in organising this structure we found PPOD proteins and several members of a protein family containing only SWT (sweet tooth) domains. Structural analyses indicate that PPODs consist of two tandem β-trefoil domains with similarity to carbohydrate-binding sites found in lectins. Experimental evidence confirmed that PPODs can bind sulfated glycans and are secreted into the cuticle layer from granules localized under the apical surface of the ectodermal epithelial cells. PPODs are taxon-specific proteins which appear to have entered the Hydra genome by horizontal gene transfer from bacteria. Their acquisition at the time Hydra evolved from a marine ancestor may have been critical for the transition to the freshwater environment. PMID:23300632

  7. Dogs leaving the ICU carry a very large multi-drug resistant enterococcal population with capacity for biofilm formation and horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Dowd, Scot E; Zurek, Ludek

    2011-01-01

    The enterococcal community from feces of seven dogs treated with antibiotics for 2-9 days in the veterinary intensive care unit (ICU) was characterized. Both, culture-based approach and culture-independent 16S rDNA amplicon 454 pyrosequencing, revealed an abnormally large enterococcal community: 1.4±0.8×10(8) CFU gram(-1) of feces and 48.9±11.5% of the total 16,228 sequences, respectively. The diversity of the overall microbial community was very low which likely reflects a high selective antibiotic pressure. The enterococcal diversity based on 210 isolates was also low as represented by Enterococcus faecium (54.6%) and Enterococcus faecalis (45.4%). E. faecium was frequently resistant to enrofloxacin (97.3%), ampicillin (96.5%), tetracycline (84.1%), doxycycline (60.2%), erythromycin (53.1%), gentamicin (48.7%), streptomycin (42.5%), and nitrofurantoin (26.5%). In E. faecalis, resistance was common to tetracycline (59.6%), erythromycin (56.4%), doxycycline (53.2%), and enrofloxacin (31.9%). No resistance was detected to vancomycin, tigecycline, linezolid, and quinupristin/dalfopristin in either species. Many isolates carried virulence traits including gelatinase, aggregation substance, cytolysin, and enterococcal surface protein. All E. faecalis strains were biofilm formers in vitro and this phenotype correlated with the presence of gelE and/or esp. In vitro intra-species conjugation assays demonstrated that E. faecium were capable of transferring tetracycline, doxycycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, and erythromycin resistance traits to human clinical strains. Multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of E. faecium strains showed very low genotypic diversity. Interestingly, three E. faecium clones were shared among four dogs suggesting their nosocomial origin. Furthermore, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) of nine representative MLVA types revealed that six sequence types (STs) originating from five

  8. Dogs Leaving the ICU Carry a Very Large Multi-Drug Resistant Enterococcal Population with Capacity for Biofilm Formation and Horizontal Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Dowd, Scot E.; Zurek, Ludek

    2011-01-01

    The enterococcal community from feces of seven dogs treated with antibiotics for 2–9 days in the veterinary intensive care unit (ICU) was characterized. Both, culture-based approach and culture-independent 16S rDNA amplicon 454 pyrosequencing, revealed an abnormally large enterococcal community: 1.4±0.8×108 CFU gram−1 of feces and 48.9±11.5% of the total 16,228 sequences, respectively. The diversity of the overall microbial community was very low which likely reflects a high selective antibiotic pressure. The enterococcal diversity based on 210 isolates was also low as represented by Enterococcus faecium (54.6%) and Enterococcus faecalis (45.4%). E. faecium was frequently resistant to enrofloxacin (97.3%), ampicillin (96.5%), tetracycline (84.1%), doxycycline (60.2%), erythromycin (53.1%), gentamicin (48.7%), streptomycin (42.5%), and nitrofurantoin (26.5%). In E. faecalis, resistance was common to tetracycline (59.6%), erythromycin (56.4%), doxycycline (53.2%), and enrofloxacin (31.9%). No resistance was detected to vancomycin, tigecycline, linezolid, and quinupristin/dalfopristin in either species. Many isolates carried virulence traits including gelatinase, aggregation substance, cytolysin, and enterococcal surface protein. All E. faecalis strains were biofilm formers in vitro and this phenotype correlated with the presence of gelE and/or esp. In vitro intra-species conjugation assays demonstrated that E. faecium were capable of transferring tetracycline, doxycycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, and erythromycin resistance traits to human clinical strains. Multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of E. faecium strains showed very low genotypic diversity. Interestingly, three E. faecium clones were shared among four dogs suggesting their nosocomial origin. Furthermore, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) of nine representative MLVA types revealed that six sequence types (STs) originating from five

  9. Phage-mediated Shiga toxin (Stx) horizontal gene transfer and expression in non-Shiga toxigenic Enterobacter and Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Rowaida K S; Skinner, Craig; Patfield, Stephanie; He, Xiaohua

    2016-07-01

    Enterobacter cloacae M12X01451 strain recently identified from a clinical specimen produces a new Stx1 subtype (Stx1e) that was not neutralized by existing anti-Stx1 monoclonal antibodies. Acquisition of stx by Ent. cloacae is rare and origin/stability of stx1e in M12X01451 is not known. In this study, we confirmed the ability of Stx1a- and Stx1e-converting phages from an Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain RM8530 and M12X01451 respectively to infect several E. coli and Ent. cloacae strains. stx1e was detected in 97.5% and 72.5% of progenies of strains lysogenized by stx1e phage after 10 (T10) and 20 (T20) subcultures, versus 65% and 17.5% for stx1a gene. Infection of M12X01451 and RM8530 with each other's phages generated double lysogens containing both phages. stx1a was lost after T10, whereas the stx1e was maintained even after T20 in M12X01451 lysogens. In RM8530 lysogens, the acquired stx1e was retained with no mutations, but 20% of stx1a was lost after T20 ELISA and western blot analyses demonstrated that Stx1e was produced in all strains lysogenized by stx1e phage; however, Stx1a was not detected in any lysogenized strain. The study results highlight the potential risks of emerging Stx-producing strains via bacteriophages either in the human gastrointestinal tract or in food production environments, which are matters of great concern and may have serious impacts on human health. PMID:27109772

  10. Acquisition through Horizontal Gene Transfer of Plasmid pSMA198 by Streptococcus macedonicus ACA-DC 198 Points towards the Dairy Origin of the Species

    PubMed Central

    Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Anastasiou, Rania; Maistrou, Eleni; Plakas, Thomas; Papandreou, Nikos C.; Hamodrakas, Stavros J.; Ferreira, Stéphanie; Supply, Philip; Renault, Pierre; Pot, Bruno; Tsakalidou, Effie

    2015-01-01

    Background Streptococcus macedonicus is an intriguing streptococcal species whose most frequent source of isolation is fermented foods similarly to Streptococcus thermophilus. However, S. macedonicus is closely related to commensal opportunistic pathogens of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed the pSMA198 plasmid isolated from the dairy strain Streptococcus macedonicus ACA-DC 198 in order to provide novel clues about the main ecological niche of this bacterium. pSMA198 belongs to the narrow host range pCI305/pWV02 family found primarily in lactococci and to the best of our knowledge it is the first such plasmid to be reported in streptococci. Comparative analysis of the pSMA198 sequence revealed a high degree of similarity with plasmids isolated from Lactococcus lactis strains deriving from milk or its products. Phylogenetic analysis of the pSMA198 Rep showed that the vast majority of closely related proteins derive from lactococcal dairy isolates. Additionally, cloning of the pSMA198 ori in L. lactis revealed a 100% stability of replication over 100 generations. Both pSMA198 and the chromosome of S. macedonicus exhibit a high percentage of potential pseudogenes, indicating that they have co-evolved under the same gene decay processes. We identified chromosomal regions in S. macedonicus that may have originated from pSMA198, also supporting a long co-existence of the two replicons. pSMA198 was also found in divergent biotypes of S. macedonicus and in strains isolated from dispersed geographic locations (e.g. Greece and Switzerland) showing that pSMA198’s acquisition is not a recent event. Conclusions/Significance Here we propose that S. macedonicus acquired plasmid pSMA198 from L. lactis via an ancestral genetic exchange event that took place most probably in milk or dairy products. We provide important evidence that point towards the dairy origin of this species. PMID:25584532

  11. Evidence for horizontal transfer of a recently active Academ transposon.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H-H; Shen, Y-H; Xiong, X-M; Han, M-J; Qi, D-W; Zhang, X-G

    2016-06-01

    Horizontal transfer (HT), the exchange of genetic material between species, plays important roles in transposon biology and genome evolution. In this study, we provide the first documented example of a new Academ transposon involved in recent and distant HTs into the genomes of species belonging to seven different orders of insects: Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Neuroptera, Embioptera, Dermaptera, Trichoptera and Zoraptera. These results suggest that HT of DNA transposons amongst insects has occurred on a broader scale than previously appreciated. The Academ transposon discovered in the Lepidoptera and parasitic wasps is of particular interest because the intimate association between wasps and their lepidopteran hosts might provide an opportunity for HT of transposons. PMID:26959720

  12. Natural convection heat transfer within horizontal spent nuclear fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Canaan, R.E.

    1995-12-01

    Natural convection heat transfer is experimentally investigated in an enclosed horizontal rod bundle, which characterizes a spent nuclear fuel assembly during dry storage and/or transport conditions. The basic test section consists of a square array of sixty-four stainless steel tubular heaters enclosed within a water-cooled rectangular copper heat exchanger. The heaters are supplied with a uniform power generation per unit length while the surrounding enclosure is maintained at a uniform temperature. The test section resides within a vacuum/pressure chamber in order to subject the assembly to a range of pressure statepoints and various backfill gases. The objective of this experimental study is to obtain convection correlations which can be used in order to easily incorporate convective effects into analytical models of horizontal spent fuel systems, and also to investigate the physical nature of natural convection in enclosed horizontal rod bundles in general. The resulting data consist of: (1) measured temperatures within the assembly as a function of power, pressure, and backfill gas; (2) the relative radiative contribution for the range of observed temperatures; (3) correlations of convective Nusselt number and Rayleigh number for the rod bundle as a whole; and (4) correlations of convective Nusselt number as a function of Rayleigh number for individual rods within the array.

  13. Heat Transfer from a Horizontal Cylinder Rotating in Oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seban, R. A.; Johnson, H. A.

    1959-01-01

    Measurements of the heat transfer from a horizontal cylinder rotating about its axis have been made with oil as the surrounding fluid to provide an addition to the heat-transfer results for this system heretofore available only for air. The results embrace a Prandtl number range from about 130 to 660, with Reynolds numbers up to 3 x 10(exp 4), and show an increasing dependence of free-convection heat transfer on rotation as the Prandtl number is increased by reducing the oil temperature. Some correlation of this effect, which agrees with the prior results for air, has been achieved. At higher rotative speeds the flow becomes turbulent, the free- convection effect vanishes, and the results with oil can be correlated generally with those for air and with mass-transfer results for even higher Prandtl numbers. For this system, however, the analogy calculations which have successfully related the heat transfer to the friction for pipe flows at high Prandtl numbers fail.

  14. Effects of stress and other environmental factors on horizontal plasmid transfer assessed by direct quantification of discrete transfer events.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Anders R; Kroer, Niels

    2007-03-01

    Selection pressure may affect the horizontal transfer of plasmids. The inability to distinguish between gene transfer and the growth of transconjugants complicates testing. We have developed a method that enables the quantification of discrete transfer events. It uses large numbers of replicate matings (192 or 384) in microtiter wells and the counting of transfer-positive and transfer-negative wells. We applied the method to study the transfer of the IncP1 plasmid pRO103 between Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida strains. pRO103 encodes resistance to mercury and tetracycline and partial degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The results showed positive correlation between transfer and donor metabolic activity, and an optimal temperature for transfer of 29 degrees C. On stimulation of donor activity, the optimal temperature was decreased to 24.5 degrees C. HgCl(2) above 1.0 microg L(-1) negatively affected transfer, whereas 2,4-D up to 0.3 mM had no effect. The negative effect of mercury was shown to be a result of stressing of the recipient. No effects of mercury on transfer could be detected by traditional filter mating. Thus, the method is superior to filter mating and, as the experimental design allows the manipulation of individual parameters, it is ideal for the assessment and comparison of effects of environmental factors on plasmid transfer. PMID:17100984

  15. Enhanced boiling heat transfer in horizontal test bundles

    SciTech Connect

    Trewin, R.R.; Jensen, M.K.; Bergles, A.E.

    1994-08-01

    Two-phase flow boiling from bundles of horizontal tubes with smooth and enhanced surfaces has been investigated. Experiments were conducted in pure refrigerant R-113, pure R-11, and mixtures of R-11 and R-113 of approximately 25, 50, and 75% of R-113 by mass. Tests were conducted in two staggered tube bundles consisting of fifteen rows and five columns laid out in equilateral triangular arrays with pitch-to-diameter ratios of 1.17 and 1.5. The enhanced surfaces tested included a knurled surface (Wolverine`s Turbo-B) and a porous surface (Linde`s High Flux). Pool boiling tests were conducted for each surface so that reference values of the heat transfer coefficient could be obtained. Boiling heat transfer experiments in the tube bundles were conducted at pressures of 2 and 6 bar, heat flux values from 5 to 80 kW/m{sup 2}s, and qualities from 0% to 80%, Values of the heat transfer coefficients for the enhanced surfaces were significantly larger than for the smooth tubes and were comparable to the values obtained in pool boiling. It was found that the performance of the enhanced tubes could be predicted using the pool boiling results. The degradation in the smooth tube heat transfer coefficients obtained in fluid mixtures was found to depend on the difference between the molar concentration in the liquid and vapor.

  16. Evolution of glyoxylate cycle enzymes in Metazoa: evidence of multiple horizontal transfer events and pseudogene formation

    PubMed Central

    Kondrashov, Fyodor A; Koonin, Eugene V; Morgunov, Igor G; Finogenova, Tatiana V; Kondrashova, Marie N

    2006-01-01

    Background The glyoxylate cycle is thought to be present in bacteria, protists, plants, fungi, and nematodes, but not in other Metazoa. However, activity of the glyoxylate cycle enzymes, malate synthase (MS) and isocitrate lyase (ICL), in animal tissues has been reported. In order to clarify the status of the MS and ICL genes in animals and get an insight into their evolution, we undertook a comparative-genomic study. Results Using sequence similarity searches, we identified MS genes in arthropods, echinoderms, and vertebrates, including platypus and opossum, but not in the numerous sequenced genomes of placental mammals. The regions of the placental mammals' genomes expected to code for malate synthase, as determined by comparison of the gene orders in vertebrate genomes, show clear similarity to the opossum MS sequence but contain stop codons, indicating that the MS gene became a pseudogene in placental mammals. By contrast, the ICL gene is undetectable in animals other than the nematodes that possess a bifunctional, fused ICL-MS gene. Examination of phylogenetic trees of MS and ICL suggests multiple horizontal gene transfer events that probably went in both directions between several bacterial and eukaryotic lineages. The strongest evidence was obtained for the acquisition of the bifunctional ICL-MS gene from an as yet unknown bacterial source with the corresponding operonic organization by the common ancestor of the nematodes. Conclusion The distribution of the MS and ICL genes in animals suggests that either they encode alternative enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle that are not orthologous to the known MS and ICL or the animal MS acquired a new function that remains to be characterized. Regardless of the ultimate solution to this conundrum, the genes for the glyoxylate cycle enzymes present a remarkable variety of evolutionary events including unusual horizontal gene transfer from bacteria to animals. Reviewers Arcady Mushegian (Stowers Institute for Medical

  17. Comparative Pathogenomics Reveals Horizontally Acquired Novel Virulence Genes in Fungi Infecting Cereal Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Donald M.; McDonald, Megan C.; Covarelli, Lorenzo; Solomon, Peter S.; Rusu, Anca G.; Marshall, Mhairi; Kazan, Kemal; Chakraborty, Sukumar; McDonald, Bruce A.; Manners, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Comparative analyses of pathogen genomes provide new insights into how pathogens have evolved common and divergent virulence strategies to invade related plant species. Fusarium crown and root rots are important diseases of wheat and barley world-wide. In Australia, these diseases are primarily caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium pseudograminearum. Comparative genomic analyses showed that the F. pseudograminearum genome encodes proteins that are present in other fungal pathogens of cereals but absent in non-cereal pathogens. In some cases, these cereal pathogen specific genes were also found in bacteria associated with plants. Phylogenetic analysis of selected F. pseudograminearum genes supported the hypothesis of horizontal gene transfer into diverse cereal pathogens. Two horizontally acquired genes with no previously known role in fungal pathogenesis were studied functionally via gene knockout methods and shown to significantly affect virulence of F. pseudograminearum on the cereal hosts wheat and barley. Our results indicate using comparative genomics to identify genes specific to pathogens of related hosts reveals novel virulence genes and illustrates the importance of horizontal gene transfer in the evolution of plant infecting fungal pathogens. PMID:23028337

  18. Microwave radiative transfer through horizontally inhomogeneous precipitating clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberti, Laura; Haferman, Jeff; Kummerow, Christian

    1994-01-01

    Recent advances in cloud microphysical models have led to realistic three-dimensional distributions of cloud constituents. Radiative transfer schemes can make use of this detailed knowledge in order to study the effects of horizontal as well as vertical inhomogeneities within clouds. This study looks specifically at the differences between three-dimensional radiative transfer results and those obtained by plane parallel, independent pixel approximations in the microwave spectrum. A three-dimensional discrete ordinates method as well as a backward Monte Carlo method are used to calculate realistic radiances emerging from the cloud. Analyses between these models and independent pixel approximations reveal that plane parallel approximations introduce two distinct types of errors. The first error is physical in nature and is related to the fact that plane parallel approximations do not allow energy to leak out of dense areas into surrouding areas. In general, it was found that these errors are quite small for emission-dominated frequencies (37 GHz and lower) and that physical errors are highly pronounced only at scattering frequencies (85 GHz) where large deviations and biases up to 8 K averaged over the entire cloud were found. The second error is more geometric in nature and is related to the fact that plane parallel approximations cannot accommodate physical boundaries in the horizontal dimension for off-nadir viewing angles. The geometric errors were comparable in magnitude for all frequencies. Their magnitude, however, depends on a number of factors including the scheme used to deal with the edge, the nature of the surface, and the viewing angle.

  19. Ribonucleotide reduction - horizontal transfer of a required function spans all three domains

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ribonucleotide reduction is the only de novo pathway for synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides, the building blocks of DNA. The reaction is catalysed by ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs), an ancient enzyme family comprised of three classes. Each class has distinct operational constraints, and are broadly distributed across organisms from all three domains, though few class I RNRs have been identified in archaeal genomes, and classes II and III likewise appear rare across eukaryotes. In this study, we examine whether this distribution is best explained by presence of all three classes in the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA), or by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of RNR genes. We also examine to what extent environmental factors may have impacted the distribution of RNR classes. Results Our phylogenies show that the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor (LECA) possessed a class I RNR, but that the eukaryotic class I enzymes are not directly descended from class I RNRs in Archaea. Instead, our results indicate that archaeal class I RNR genes have been independently transferred from bacteria on two occasions. While LECA possessed a class I RNR, our trees indicate that this is ultimately bacterial in origin. We also find convincing evidence that eukaryotic class I RNR has been transferred to the Bacteroidetes, providing a stunning example of HGT from eukaryotes back to Bacteria. Based on our phylogenies and available genetic and genomic evidence, class II and III RNRs in eukaryotes also appear to have been transferred from Bacteria, with subsequent within-domain transfer between distantly-related eukaryotes. Under the three-domains hypothesis the RNR present in the last common ancestor of Archaea and eukaryotes appears, through a process of elimination, to have been a dimeric class II RNR, though limited sampling of eukaryotes precludes a firm conclusion as the data may be equally well accounted for by HGT. Conclusions Horizontal gene transfer has clearly played an

  20. Found and Lost: The Fates of Horizontally Acquired Genes in Arthropod-Symbiotic Spiroplasma

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Wen-Sui; Gasparich, Gail E.; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is an important mechanism that contributed to biological diversity, particularly in bacteria. Through acquisition of novel genes, the recipient cell may change its ecological preference and the process could promote speciation. In this study, we determined the complete genome sequence of two Spiroplasma species for comparative analyses and inferred the putative gene gains and losses. Although most Spiroplasma species are symbionts of terrestrial insects, Spiroplasma eriocheiris has evolved to be a lethal pathogen of freshwater crustaceans. We found that approximately 7% of the genes in this genome may have originated from HGT and these genes expanded the metabolic capacity of this organism. Through comparison with the closely related Spiroplasma atrichopogonis, as well as other more divergent lineages, our results indicated that these HGT events could be traced back to the most recent common ancestor of these two species. However, most of these horizontally acquired genes have been pseudogenized in S. atrichopogonis, suggesting that they did not contribute to the fitness of this lineage that maintained the association with terrestrial insects. Thus, accumulation of small deletions that disrupted these foreign genes was not countered by natural selection. On the other hand, the long-term survival of these horizontally acquired genes in the S. eriocheiris genome hinted that they might play a role in the ecological shift of this species. Finally, the implications of these findings and the conflicts among gene content, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and serological typing, are discussed in light of defining bacterial species. PMID:26254485

  1. Horizontal transfer of an adaptive chimeric photoreceptor from bryophytes to ferns.

    PubMed

    Li, Fay-Wei; Villarreal, Juan Carlos; Kelly, Steven; Rothfels, Carl J; Melkonian, Michael; Frangedakis, Eftychios; Ruhsam, Markus; Sigel, Erin M; Der, Joshua P; Pittermann, Jarmila; Burge, Dylan O; Pokorny, Lisa; Larsson, Anders; Chen, Tao; Weststrand, Stina; Thomas, Philip; Carpenter, Eric; Zhang, Yong; Tian, Zhijian; Chen, Li; Yan, Zhixiang; Zhu, Ying; Sun, Xiao; Wang, Jun; Stevenson, Dennis W; Crandall-Stotler, Barbara J; Shaw, A Jonathan; Deyholos, Michael K; Soltis, Douglas E; Graham, Sean W; Windham, Michael D; Langdale, Jane A; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Mathews, Sarah; Pryer, Kathleen M

    2014-05-01

    Ferns are well known for their shade-dwelling habits. Their ability to thrive under low-light conditions has been linked to the evolution of a novel chimeric photoreceptor--neochrome--that fuses red-sensing phytochrome and blue-sensing phototropin modules into a single gene, thereby optimizing phototropic responses. Despite being implicated in facilitating the diversification of modern ferns, the origin of neochrome has remained a mystery. We present evidence for neochrome in hornworts (a bryophyte lineage) and demonstrate that ferns acquired neochrome from hornworts via horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Fern neochromes are nested within hornwort neochromes in our large-scale phylogenetic reconstructions of phototropin and phytochrome gene families. Divergence date estimates further support the HGT hypothesis, with fern and hornwort neochromes diverging 179 Mya, long after the split between the two plant lineages (at least 400 Mya). By analyzing the draft genome of the hornwort Anthoceros punctatus, we also discovered a previously unidentified phototropin gene that likely represents the ancestral lineage of the neochrome phototropin module. Thus, a neochrome originating in hornworts was transferred horizontally to ferns, where it may have played a significant role in the diversification of modern ferns. PMID:24733898

  2. Horizontal transfer of an adaptive chimeric photoreceptor from bryophytes to ferns

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fay-Wei; Villarreal, Juan Carlos; Kelly, Steven; Rothfels, Carl J.; Melkonian, Michael; Frangedakis, Eftychios; Ruhsam, Markus; Sigel, Erin M.; Der, Joshua P.; Pittermann, Jarmila; Burge, Dylan O.; Pokorny, Lisa; Larsson, Anders; Chen, Tao; Weststrand, Stina; Thomas, Philip; Carpenter, Eric; Zhang, Yong; Tian, Zhijian; Chen, Li; Yan, Zhixiang; Zhu, Ying; Sun, Xiao; Wang, Jun; Stevenson, Dennis W.; Crandall-Stotler, Barbara J.; Shaw, A. Jonathan; Deyholos, Michael K.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Graham, Sean W.; Windham, Michael D.; Langdale, Jane A.; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Mathews, Sarah; Pryer, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Ferns are well known for their shade-dwelling habits. Their ability to thrive under low-light conditions has been linked to the evolution of a novel chimeric photoreceptor—neochrome—that fuses red-sensing phytochrome and blue-sensing phototropin modules into a single gene, thereby optimizing phototropic responses. Despite being implicated in facilitating the diversification of modern ferns, the origin of neochrome has remained a mystery. We present evidence for neochrome in hornworts (a bryophyte lineage) and demonstrate that ferns acquired neochrome from hornworts via horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Fern neochromes are nested within hornwort neochromes in our large-scale phylogenetic reconstructions of phototropin and phytochrome gene families. Divergence date estimates further support the HGT hypothesis, with fern and hornwort neochromes diverging 179 Mya, long after the split between the two plant lineages (at least 400 Mya). By analyzing the draft genome of the hornwort Anthoceros punctatus, we also discovered a previously unidentified phototropin gene that likely represents the ancestral lineage of the neochrome phototropin module. Thus, a neochrome originating in hornworts was transferred horizontally to ferns, where it may have played a significant role in the diversification of modern ferns. PMID:24733898

  3. Unsupervised learning in detection of gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Hamel, L; Nahar, N; Poptsova, M S; Zhaxybayeva, O; Gogarten, J P

    2008-01-01

    The tree representation as a model for organismal evolution has been in use since before Darwin. However, with the recent unprecedented access to biomolecular data, it has been discovered that, especially in the microbial world, individual genes making up the genome of an organism give rise to different and sometimes conflicting evolutionary tree topologies. This discovery calls into question the notion of a single evolutionary tree for an organism and gives rise to the notion of an evolutionary consensus tree based on the evolutionary patterns of the majority of genes in a genome embedded in a network of gene histories. Here, we discuss an approach to the analysis of genomic data of multiple genomes using bipartition spectral analysis and unsupervised learning. An interesting observation is that genes within genomes that have evolutionary tree topologies, which are in substantial conflict with the evolutionary consensus tree of an organism, point to possible horizontal gene transfer events which often delineate significant evolutionary events. PMID:18509479

  4. compartment transfer rates in horizontal flow constructed wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Uli; Oswald, Sascha; Thullner, Martin; Grathwohl, Peter

    2010-05-01

    A conceptual computer model has been constructed to simulate the compartment transfer rates in horizontal flow constructed wetlands. The model accounts for flow and transport in the variably saturated porous medium as well as biogeochemical change reactions. The most concentrated contaminants such as BTEX, MTBE and gasoline hydrocarbons and dissolved as well as mineral phase electron acceptors are considered. Also of major interest are reduced species with high oxygen demand such as ammonium. The influence of marsh plants on microbial activity, gas transport, water balance and contaminant fate in general is matter of current investigation. The constructed wetlands consist of a coarse sand or fine gravel porous medium. Marsh plants were introduced after installation, however, a number of control basins are operated unplanted. Water levels and through flow rates are adjusted to optimize the remediation efficiency. The system is likely to be neither reaction nor mixing limited, thus both, values of dispersivity and degradation kinetics may be crucial for remediation efficiency. Biogeochemical modelling is able to delineate in detail (i) the zonation of processes, (ii) temporal variation (breakthrough curves) and (iii) mass balance information. The contributions of biodegradation and volatilisation and the influence of plants (compartment transfer) can generally best be evaluated by the component's mass balance. More efficient mixing is expected in the wetlands with open water body which leads to both, more biodegradation and volatilisation. An important task is to quantify the role of plants and root systems for contaminant attenuation in constructed wetlands. The long term goal of investigation is to allow for predictions for the design of large scale compartment transfer wetlands that may be applied to remediate the site as a whole.

  5. Multiple recent horizontal transfers of a large genomic region in cheese making fungi

    PubMed Central

    Cheeseman, Kevin; Ropars, Jeanne; Renault, Pierre; Dupont, Joëlle; Gouzy, Jérôme; Branca, Antoine; Abraham, Anne-Laure; Ceppi, Maurizio; Conseiller, Emmanuel; Debuchy, Robert; Malagnac, Fabienne; Goarin, Anne; Silar, Philippe; Lacoste, Sandrine; Sallet, Erika; Bensimon, Aaron; Giraud, Tatiana; Brygoo, Yves

    2014-01-01

    While the extent and impact of horizontal transfers in prokaryotes are widely acknowledged, their importance to the eukaryotic kingdom is unclear and thought by many to be anecdotal. Here we report multiple recent transfers of a huge genomic island between Penicillium spp. found in the food environment. Sequencing of the two leading filamentous fungi used in cheese making, P. roqueforti and P. camemberti, and comparison with the penicillin producer P. rubens reveals a 575 kb long genomic island in P. roqueforti—called Wallaby—present as identical fragments at non-homologous loci in P. camemberti and P. rubens. Wallaby is detected in Penicillium collections exclusively in strains from food environments. Wallaby encompasses about 250 predicted genes, some of which are probably involved in competition with microorganisms. The occurrence of multiple recent eukaryotic transfers in the food environment provides strong evidence for the importance of this understudied and probably underestimated phenomenon in eukaryotes. PMID:24407037

  6. Evidence for horizontal transfer of Wolbachia by a Drosophila mite.

    PubMed

    Brown, Amy N; Lloyd, Vett K

    2015-07-01

    Mites are common ectoparasites of Drosophila and have been implicated in bacterial and mobile element invasion of Drosophila stocks. The obligate endobacterium, Wolbachia, has widespread effects on gene expression in their arthropod hosts and alters host reproduction to enhance its survival and propagation, often with deleterious effects in Drosophila hosts. To determine whether Wolbachia could be transferred between Drosophila melanogaster laboratory stocks by the mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae, mites were introduced to Wolbachia-infected Drosophila vials. These vials were kept adjacent to mite-free and Wolbachia-uninfected Drosophila stock vials. The Wolbachia infection statuses of the infected and uninfected flies were checked from generation 1 to 5. Results indicate that Wolbachia DNA could be amplified from mites infesting Wolbachia-infected fly stocks and infection in the previously uninfected stocks arose within generation 1 or 2, concomitant with invasion of mites from the Wolbachia-infected stock. A possible mechanism for the transfer of Wolbachia from flies to mites and vice versa, can be inferred from time-lapse photography of fly and mite interactions. We demonstrated that mites ingest Drosophila corpses, including Wolbachia-infected corpses, and Drosophila larva ingest mites, providing possible sources of Wolbachia infection and transfer. This research demonstrated that T. putrescentiae white mites can facilitate Wolbachia transfer between Drosophila stocks and that this may occur by ingestion of infected corpses. Mite-vectored Wolbachia transfer allows for rapid establishment of Wolbachia infection within a new population. This mode of Wolbachia introduction may be relevant in nature as well as in the laboratory, and could have a variety of biological consequences. PMID:25921489

  7. Reverse transcriptase-related enzymes are associated with horizontal chromosome transfer in an asexual pathogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Supernumerary chromosomes have been shown to transfer horizontally from one isolate to another. However, the mechanism by which horizontal chromosome transfer (HCT) occurs is unknown. In this study, we compared the genomes of 11 isolates comprising six Fusarium species that cause soybean sudden dea...

  8. Prevalence of sulfonamide-resistant bacteria, resistance genes and integron-associated horizontal gene transfer in natural water bodies and soils adjacent to a swine feedlot in northern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jih-Tay; Chen, Chia-Yang; Young, Chu-Wen; Chao, Wei-Liang; Li, Mao-Hao; Liu, Yung-Hsin; Lin, Chu-Ming; Ying, Chingwen

    2014-07-30

    Antibiotics are commonly used in swine feed to treat and prevent disease, as well as to promote growth. Antibiotics released into the environment via wastewater could accelerate the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance genes in the surrounding environment. In this study, we quantified the occurrence of sulfonamides, sulfonamide-resistant microorganisms and resistance genes in the wastewater from a swine farm in northern Taiwan and its surrounding natural water bodies and soils. Sulfonamide levels were similar in the receiving downstream and upstream river water. However, the prevalence of sulfonamide-resistant bacteria and resistance genes, as analyzed by cultivation-dependent and -independent molecular approaches, was significantly greater in the downstream compared to the upstream river water samples. Barcoded-pyrosequencing revealed a highly diverse bacterial community structure in each sample. However, the sequence identity of the sulfonamide resistance gene sul1 in the wastewater and downstream environment samples was nearly identical (99-100%). The sul1 gene, which is genetically linked to class 1 integrons, was dominant in the downstream water bodies and soils. In conclusion, the increased prevalence of sulfonamide resistance genes in the wastewater from a swine farm, independent of the persistent presence of sulfonamides, could be a potential source of resistant gene pools in the surrounding environment. PMID:24637153

  9. Horizontal Transfer of Genetic Material among Saccharomyces Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Marinoni, Gaelle; Manuel, Martine; Petersen, Randi Føns; Hvidtfeldt, Jeanne; Sulo, Pavol; Piškur, Jure

    1999-01-01

    isolates could mate freely in nature, horizontal transfer of genetic material could have occurred during the evolution of modern yeast species. PMID:10515941

  10. Lateral gene transfer in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Andersson, J O

    2005-06-01

    Lateral gene transfer -- the transfer of genetic material between species -- has been acknowledged as a major mechanism in prokaryotic genome evolution for some time. Recently accumulating data indicate that the process also occurs in the evolution of eukaryotic genomes. However, there are large rate variations between groups of eukaryotes; animals and fungi seem to be largely unaffected, with a few exceptions, while lateral gene transfer frequently occurs in protists with phagotrophic lifestyles, possibly with rates comparable to prokaryotic organisms. Gene transfers often facilitate the acquisition of functions encoded in prokaryotic genomes by eukaryotic organisms, which may enable them to colonize new environments. Transfers between eukaryotes also occur, mainly into larger phagotrophic eukaryotes that ingest eukaryotic cells, but also between plant lineages. These findings have implications for eukaryotic genomic research in general, and studies of the origin and phylogeny of eukaryotes in particular. PMID:15761667

  11. Gene Transfer into Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Sarah E.; Westfall, Margaret V.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional methods for DNA transfection are often inefficient and toxic for terminally differentiated cells, such as cardiac myocytes. Vector-based gene transfer is an efficient approach for introducing exogenous cDNA into these types of primary cell cultures. In this chapter, separate protocols for adult rat cardiac myocyte isolation and gene transfer with recombinant adenovirus are provided and are routinely utilized for studying the effects of sarcomeric proteins on myofilament function. PMID:25836585

  12. Gene transfer for erythropoiesis enhancement.

    PubMed

    Naffakh, N; Danos, O

    1996-08-01

    The spectrum of anemias treated with recombinant human erythropoietin is rapidly broadening. Lifelong treatment with very high doses is now under evaluation for beta-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. These indications make it worthwhile to search for methods that will allow a permanent systemic delivery of the hormone. Here, we review experimental gene-transfer-based procedures for erythropoietin delivery in vivo. In mice, both ex vivo and direct in vivo approaches for gene transfer have resulted in the long-term production of therapeutic levels of the hormone. Gene transfer of erythropoietin could become a viable alternative to the injection of the purified recombinant protein once reliable procedures for controlling transgene expression are available. PMID:8796920

  13. Gene transfer: transduction.

    PubMed

    Frangipani, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriophages able to propagate on Pseudomonas strains are very common and can be easily isolated from natural environments or lysogenic strains. The development of transducing systems has allowed bacterial geneticists to perform chromosome analyses and mutation mapping. Moreover, these systems have also been proved to be a successful tool for molecular microbiologists to introduce a foreign gene or a mutation into the chromosome of a bacterial cell. This chapter provides a description of the phage methodology illustrated by Adams in 1959 and applicable to strain PAO1 derivatives. PMID:24818891

  14. Foamy virus vectors for gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    Trobridge, Grant D.

    2009-01-01

    Foamy virus (FV) vectors are efficient gene delivery vehicles that have shown great promise for gene therapy in preclinical animal models. FVs or spumaretroviruses are not endemic in humans, but are prevalent in nonhuman primates and in other mammals. They have evolved means for efficient horizontal transmission in their host species without pathology. FV vectors have several unique properties that make them well-suited for therapeutic gene transfer including a desirable safety profile, a broad tropism, a large transgene capacity, and the ability to persist in quiescent cells. They mediate efficient and stable gene transfer to hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in mouse models, and in the canine large animal model. Analysis of FV vector integration sites in vitro and in hematopoietic repopulating cells shows they have a unique integration profile, and suggests they may be safer than gammaretroviruses or lentiviral vectors. Here properties of FVs relevant to the safety and efficacy of FV vectors are discussed. The development of FV vector systems is described, and studies evaluating their potential in vitro, and in small and large animal models is reviewed. PMID:19743892

  15. Selective pressure against horizontally acquired prokaryotic genes as a driving force of plastid evolution.

    PubMed

    Llorente, Briardo; de Souza, Flavio S J; Soto, Gabriela; Meyer, Cristian; Alonso, Guillermo D; Flawiá, Mirtha M; Bravo-Almonacid, Fernando; Ayub, Nicolás D; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The plastid organelle comprises a high proportion of nucleus-encoded proteins that were acquired from different prokaryotic donors via independent horizontal gene transfers following its primary endosymbiotic origin. What forces drove the targeting of these alien proteins to the plastid remains an unresolved evolutionary question. To better understand this process we screened for suitable candidate proteins to recapitulate their prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition. Here we identify the ancient horizontal transfer of a bacterial polyphenol oxidase (PPO) gene to the nuclear genome of an early land plant ancestor and infer the possible mechanism behind the plastidial localization of the encoded enzyme. Arabidopsis plants expressing PPO versions either lacking or harbouring a plastid-targeting signal allowed examining fitness consequences associated with its subcellular localization. Markedly, a deleterious effect on plant growth was highly correlated with PPO activity only when producing the non-targeted enzyme, suggesting that selection favoured the fixation of plastid-targeted protein versions. Our results reveal a possible evolutionary mechanism of how selection against heterologous genes encoding cytosolic proteins contributed in incrementing plastid proteome complexity from non-endosymbiotic gene sources, a process that may also impact mitochondrial evolution. PMID:26750147

  16. Selective pressure against horizontally acquired prokaryotic genes as a driving force of plastid evolution

    PubMed Central

    Llorente, Briardo; de Souza, Flavio S. J.; Soto, Gabriela; Meyer, Cristian; Alonso, Guillermo D.; Flawiá, Mirtha M.; Bravo-Almonacid, Fernando; Ayub, Nicolás D.; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The plastid organelle comprises a high proportion of nucleus-encoded proteins that were acquired from different prokaryotic donors via independent horizontal gene transfers following its primary endosymbiotic origin. What forces drove the targeting of these alien proteins to the plastid remains an unresolved evolutionary question. To better understand this process we screened for suitable candidate proteins to recapitulate their prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition. Here we identify the ancient horizontal transfer of a bacterial polyphenol oxidase (PPO) gene to the nuclear genome of an early land plant ancestor and infer the possible mechanism behind the plastidial localization of the encoded enzyme. Arabidopsis plants expressing PPO versions either lacking or harbouring a plastid-targeting signal allowed examining fitness consequences associated with its subcellular localization. Markedly, a deleterious effect on plant growth was highly correlated with PPO activity only when producing the non-targeted enzyme, suggesting that selection favoured the fixation of plastid-targeted protein versions. Our results reveal a possible evolutionary mechanism of how selection against heterologous genes encoding cytosolic proteins contributed in incrementing plastid proteome complexity from non-endosymbiotic gene sources, a process that may also impact mitochondrial evolution. PMID:26750147

  17. A functional difference between native and horizontally acquired genes in bdelloid rotifers.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Elton G G; Crisp, Alastair; Broadbent, Sarah E; Carrillo, Martina; Boschetti, Chiara; Tunnacliffe, Alan

    2016-09-15

    The form of RNA processing known as SL trans-splicing involves the transfer of a short conserved sequence, the spliced leader (SL), from a noncoding SL RNA to the 5' ends of mRNA molecules. SL trans-splicing occurs in several animal taxa, including bdelloid rotifers (Rotifera, Bdelloidea). One striking feature of these aquatic microinvertebrates is the large proportion of foreign genes, i.e. those acquired by horizontal gene transfer from other organisms, in their genomes. However, whether such foreign genes behave similarly to native genes has not been tested in bdelloids or any other animal. We therefore used a combination of experimental and computational methods to examine whether transcripts of foreign genes in bdelloids were SL trans-spliced, like their native counterparts. We found that many foreign transcripts contain SLs, use similar splice acceptor sequences to native genes, and are able to undergo alternative trans-splicing. However, a significantly lower proportion of foreign mRNAs contains SL sequences than native transcripts. This demonstrates a novel functional difference between foreign and native genes in bdelloids and suggests that SL trans-splicing is not essential for the expression of foreign genes, but is acquired during their domestication. PMID:27312952

  18. Gene transfer in intact animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, M. J.; Stang, H.; Mercola, K.; Morse, L.; Ruprecht, R.; Browne, J.; Salser, W.

    1980-04-01

    Resistance to methotrexate was induced in bone marrow cells of mice by transformation in vitro with DNA from a drug-resistant cell line. Transformed cells were injected in vivo and haematopoietic cells expressing resistance were selected by drug treatment of recipients. Transformed cells had elevated levels of dihydrofolate reductase and demonstrated a proliferative advantage over untransformed cells, indicating successful gene transfer.

  19. Horizontally acquired genes in early-diverging pathogenic fungi enable the use of host nucleosides and nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Alexander, William G; Wisecaver, Jennifer H; Rokas, Antonis; Hittinger, Chris Todd

    2016-04-12

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) among bacteria, archaea, and viruses is widespread, but the extent of transfers from these lineages into eukaryotic organisms is contentious. Here we systematically identify hundreds of genes that were likely acquired horizontally from a variety of sources by the early-diverging fungal phyla Microsporidia and Cryptomycota. Interestingly, the Microsporidia have acquired via HGT several genes involved in nucleic acid synthesis and salvage, such as those encoding thymidine kinase (TK), cytidylate kinase, and purine nucleotide phosphorylase. We show that these HGT-derived nucleic acid synthesis genes tend to function at the interface between the metabolic networks of the host and pathogen. Thus, these genes likely play vital roles in diversifying the useable nucleic acid components available to the intracellular parasite, often through the direct capture of resources from the host. Using an in vivo viability assay, we also demonstrate that one of these genes, TK, encodes an enzyme that is capable of activating known prodrugs to their active form, which suggests a possible treatment route for microsporidiosis. We further argue that interfacial genes with well-understood activities, especially those horizontally transferred from bacteria or viruses, could provide medical treatments for microsporidian infections. PMID:27035945

  20. Repeated horizontal transfer of a DNA transposon in mammals and other tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Pace, John K; Gilbert, Clément; Clark, Marlena S; Feschotte, Cédric

    2008-11-01

    Horizontal transfer (HT) is central to the evolution of prokaryotic species. Selfish and mobile genetic elements, such as phages, plasmids, and transposons, are the primary vehicles for HT among prokaryotes. In multicellular eukaryotes, the prevalence and evolutionary significance of HT remain unclear. Here, we identified a set of DNA transposon families dubbed SPACE INVADERS (or SPIN) whose consensus sequences are approximately 96% identical over their entire length (2.9 kb) in the genomes of murine rodents (rat/mouse), bushbaby (prosimian primate), little brown bat (laurasiatherian), tenrec (afrotherian), opossum (marsupial), and two non-mammalian tetrapods (anole lizard and African clawed frog). In contrast, SPIN elements were undetectable in other species represented in the sequence databases, including 19 other mammals with draft whole-genome assemblies. This patchy distribution, coupled with the extreme level of SPIN identity in widely divergent tetrapods and the overall lack of selective constraint acting on these elements, is incompatible with vertical inheritance, but strongly indicative of multiple horizontal introductions. We show that these germline infiltrations likely occurred around the same evolutionary time (15-46 mya) and spawned some of the largest bursts of DNA transposon activity ever recorded in any species lineage (nearly 100,000 SPIN copies per haploid genome in tenrec). The process also led to the emergence of a new gene in the murine lineage derived from a SPIN transposase. In summary, HT of DNA transposons has contributed significantly to shaping and diversifying the genomes of multiple mammalian and tetrapod species. PMID:18936483

  1. Horizontal transfers of two types of puf operons among phototrophic members of the Roseobacter clade.

    PubMed

    Koblížek, Michal; Moulisová, Vladimíra; Muroňová, Markéta; Oborník, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    The Roseobacter clade represents one of the most important bacterial groups in marine environments. While some of its members are heterotrophs, many Roseobacter clade members contain bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers. We investigated the phylogeny of pufL and pufM genes encoding the L and M subunits of reaction centers using available genomic data and our own cultured species. Interestingly, phylogeny of pufL and pufM genes largely deviated from 16S rRNA-based phylogeny. The sequences split into two clearly distinct clades. While most of the studied species contained pufL and pufM sequences related to those found in Roseobacter litoralis, some of the marine species contained sequences related to the freshwater Rhodobacter species. In addition, genomic data documents that Roseobacter-type centers contain cytochrome c subunits (pufC gene product), whereas Rhodobacter-type centers incorporate PufX proteins. This indicates that the two forms of the reaction centers are not only distinct phylogenetically, but also structurally. The large deviation of pufL and pufM phylogeny from 16S phylogeny indicates multiple horizontal transfers of the puf operon among members of the order Rhodobacterales. PMID:25090942

  2. Tropical Africa as a cradle for horizontal transfers of transposable elements between species of the genera Drosophila and Zaprionus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We have recently reported numerous cases of horizontal transfers of transposable elements between species of drosophilids. These studies revealed a substantial number of horizontal transfers between species of the subgroup melanogaster of the genus Drosophila and between these species and species of the genus Zaprionus. In this review, these transfers and similar, previously reported events are discussed and reanalysed to portray the interrelationships between the species that allowed the occurrence of so many horizontal transfers. The paper also addresses problems that may arise in drawing inferences about the time period during which the horizontal transfers occurred and the factors that may be associated with these transfers are discussed. PMID:22312591

  3. Fiscal Transfers, Horizontal Equity and Post Secondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hum, Derek; Strain, Frank

    1988-01-01

    An amendment to the Canada Assistance Plan, a national-provincial cost-sharing arrangement, is suggested. The adjustment would ensure that citizens in all provinces have access to comparable services and bear comparable tax burdens by allowing greater fiscal transfers to provinces with greater need and/or smaller tax bases. (Author/MSE)

  4. Parameterization of the three-dimensional room transfer function in horizontal plane.

    PubMed

    Bu, Bing; Abhayapala, Thushara D; Bao, Chang-chun; Zhang, Wen

    2015-09-01

    This letter proposes an efficient parameterization of the three-dimensional room transfer function (RTF) which is robust for the position variations of source and receiver in respective horizontal planes. Based on azimuth harmonic analysis, the proposed method exploits the underlying properties of the associated Legendre functions to remove a portion of the spherical harmonic coefficients of RTF which have no contribution in the horizontal plane. This reduction leads to a flexible measuring-point structure consisting of practical concentric circular arrays to extract horizontal plane RTF coefficients. The accuracy of the above parameterization is verified through numerical simulations. PMID:26428827

  5. The plant GABA signaling downregulates horizontal transfer of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens virulence plasmid.

    PubMed

    Lang, Julien; Gonzalez-Mula, Almudena; Taconnat, Ludivine; Clement, Gilles; Faure, Denis

    2016-05-01

    In the tumor-inducing (Ti) Agrobacterium tumefaciens, quorum sensing activates the horizontal transfer of the virulent Ti plasmid. In pure culture, this process can be impaired by the A. tumefaciens BlcC lactonase, whose expression is induced by gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA). It was therefore hypothesized that host GABA content might modulate quorum sensing and virulence gene dissemination during A. tumefaciens infection. We examined GABA metabolism and transport in Arabidopsis thaliana tumors combining transcriptomic, metabolomic and histological approaches. In addition, using genetically modified plants and bacteria, we evaluated the impact of plant host GABA content on Ti plasmid dissemination. The results showed that GABA and free proline, which acts as an antagonist of GABA uptake in A. tumefaciens, accumulated in wild-type tumors relative to uninfected plant tissues. Moreover, comparisons of tumors induced on Col-0 and her1 plants showed that the increase in the plant GABA : proline ratio was associated with both the upregulated expression of the blcC gene and the decreased dissemination of Ti plasmid in tumor-colonizing A. tumefaciens populations. This work demonstrates experimentally that the variation in the GABA content in plant tumors can interfere with the dissemination of A. tumefaciens Ti plasmids, and therefore highlights plant GABA content as an important trait in the struggle against pathogenic bacteria. PMID:26714842

  6. The Genetic Analysis of an Acinetobacter johnsonii Clinical Strain Evidenced the Presence of Horizontal Genetic Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Montaña, Sabrina; Schramm, Sareda T. J.; Traglia, German Matías; Chiem, Kevin; Parmeciano Di Noto, Gisela; Almuzara, Marisa; Barberis, Claudia; Vay, Carlos; Quiroga, Cecilia; Tolmasky, Marcelo E.; Iriarte, Andrés; Ramírez, María Soledad

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter johnsonii rarely causes human infections. While most A. johnsonii isolates are susceptible to virtually all antibiotics, strains harboring a variety of β-lactamases have recently been described. An A. johnsonii Aj2199 clinical strain recovered from a hospital in Buenos Aires produces PER-2 and OXA-58. We decided to delve into its genome by obtaining the whole genome sequence of the Aj2199 strain. Genome comparison studies on Aj2199 revealed 240 unique genes and a close relation to strain WJ10621, isolated from the urine of a patient in China. Genomic analysis showed evidence of horizontal genetic transfer (HGT) events. Forty-five insertion sequences and two intact prophages were found in addition to several resistance determinants such as blaPER-2, blaOXA-58, blaTEM-1, strA, strB, ereA, sul1, aacC2 and a new variant of blaOXA-211, called blaOXA-498. In particular, blaPER-2 and blaTEM-1 are present within the typical contexts previously described in the Enterobacteriaceae family. These results suggest that A. johnsonii actively acquires exogenous DNA from other bacterial species and concomitantly becomes a reservoir of resistance genes. PMID:27548264

  7. The Genetic Analysis of an Acinetobacter johnsonii Clinical Strain Evidenced the Presence of Horizontal Genetic Transfer.

    PubMed

    Montaña, Sabrina; Schramm, Sareda T J; Traglia, German Matías; Chiem, Kevin; Parmeciano Di Noto, Gisela; Almuzara, Marisa; Barberis, Claudia; Vay, Carlos; Quiroga, Cecilia; Tolmasky, Marcelo E; Iriarte, Andrés; Ramírez, María Soledad

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter johnsonii rarely causes human infections. While most A. johnsonii isolates are susceptible to virtually all antibiotics, strains harboring a variety of β-lactamases have recently been described. An A. johnsonii Aj2199 clinical strain recovered from a hospital in Buenos Aires produces PER-2 and OXA-58. We decided to delve into its genome by obtaining the whole genome sequence of the Aj2199 strain. Genome comparison studies on Aj2199 revealed 240 unique genes and a close relation to strain WJ10621, isolated from the urine of a patient in China. Genomic analysis showed evidence of horizontal genetic transfer (HGT) events. Forty-five insertion sequences and two intact prophages were found in addition to several resistance determinants such as blaPER-2, blaOXA-58, blaTEM-1, strA, strB, ereA, sul1, aacC2 and a new variant of blaOXA-211, called blaOXA-498. In particular, blaPER-2 and blaTEM-1 are present within the typical contexts previously described in the Enterobacteriaceae family. These results suggest that A. johnsonii actively acquires exogenous DNA from other bacterial species and concomitantly becomes a reservoir of resistance genes. PMID:27548264

  8. Inference of Horizontal Genetic Transfer from Molecular Data: An Approach Using the Bootstrap

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, J. G.; Hartl, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    Inconsistencies in taxonomic relationships implicit in different sets ofnucleic acid sequences potentially result from horizontal transfer ofgenetic material between genomes. A nonparametric method is proposed todetermine whether such inconsistencies are statistically significant. Asimilarity coefficient is calculated from ranked pairwise identities andevaluated against a distribution of similarity coefficients generatedfrom resampled data. Subsequent analyses of partial data sets, obtainedby the elimination of individual taxa, identify particular taxa to whichthe significance may be attributed, and can sometimes help indistinguishing horizontal genetic transfer from inconsistencies due toconvergent evolution or variation in evolutionary rate. The method wassuccessfully applied to data sets that were not found to be significantlydifferent with existing methods that use comparisons of phylogenetictrees. The new statistical framework is also applicable to the inferenceof horizontal transfer from restriction fragment length polymorphismdistributions and proteinsequences. PMID:1628816

  9. Specific Gene Repression by CRISPRi System Transferred through Bacterial Conjugation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In microbial communities, bacterial populations are commonly controlled using indiscriminate, broad range antibiotics. There are few ways to target specific strains effectively without disrupting the entire microbiome and local environment. Here, we use conjugation, a natural DNA horizontal transfer process among bacterial species, to deliver an engineered CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) system for targeting specific genes in recipient Escherichia coli cells. We show that delivery of the CRISPRi system is successful and can specifically repress a reporter gene in recipient cells, thereby establishing a new tool for gene regulation across bacterial cells and potentially for bacterial population control. PMID:25409531

  10. Horizontal transfer of a non-autonomous Helitron among insect and viral genomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The movement of genetic material among species by horizontal transfer (HT) influences genome evolution through the modification of structure and function. Helitrons are a relatively new lineage of DNA-based (class II) transposable elements (TEs) that propagate by rolling-circle replication and are ...

  11. Mechanisms for horizontal transfer of methoprene from treated to untreated Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were performed to determine the relative impact of different mechanisms of horizontal transfer of methoprene by Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle. Insects exposed to 5 methoprene treated developmental stages (late-stage larvae, pupae, or adults) resulted in 100% mortalit...

  12. Horizontal transfer of methoprene by Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and T. confusum Jacquelin du Val

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In food facilities the majority of insect populations typically occur within hidden locations with limited direct exposure to insecticides, but there is potential for dispersing insects to transport insecticides into hidden areas and transfer insecticide to other individuals (i.e., horizontal transf...

  13. Transferred interbacterial antagonism genes augment eukaryotic innate immune function

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Seemay; Daugherty, Matthew D.; Peterson, S. Brook; Biboy, Jacob; Yang, Youyun; Jutras, Brandon L.; Fritz-Laylin, Lillian K.; Ferrin, Michael A.; Harding, Brittany N.; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine; Yang, X. Frank; Vollmer, Waldemar; Malik, Harmit S.

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) allows organisms to rapidly acquire adaptive traits1. Though documented instances of HGT from bacteria to eukaryotes remain rare, bacteria represent a rich source of new functions potentially available for co-option2. One benefit that genes of bacterial origin could provide to eukaryotes is the capacity to produce anti-bacterials, which have evolved in prokaryotes as the result of eons of interbacterial competition. The type VI secretion amidase effector (Tae) proteins are potent bacteriocidal enzymes that degrade the cell wall when delivered into competing bacterial cells by the type VI secretion system (T6SS)3. Here we show that tae genes have been transferred to eukaryotes on at least six occasions, and that the resulting domesticated amidase effector (dae) genes have been preserved for hundreds of millions of years via purifying selection. We show that the dae genes acquired eukaryotic secretion signals, are expressed within recipient organisms, and encode active antibacterial toxins that possess substrate specificity matching extant Tae proteins of the same lineage. Finally, we show that a dae gene in the deer tick Ixodes scapularis limits proliferation of Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease. Our work demonstrates that a family of horizontally acquired toxins honed to mediate interbacterial antagonism confers previously undescribed antibacterial capacity to eukaryotes. We speculate that the selective pressure imposed by competition between bacteria has produced a reservoir of genes encoding diverse antimicrobial functions that are tailored for facile co-option by eukaryotic innate immune systems. PMID:25470067

  14. Forced convection heat transfer of subcooled liquid hydrogen in horizontal tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsumoto, Hideki; Shirai, Yasuyuki; Shiotsu, Masahiro; Hata, Koichi; Naruo, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Inatani, Yoshifumi; Kinoshita, K.

    2012-06-01

    Forced flow heat transfers of liquid hydrogen through horizontally-mounted tubes with the diameter of 3.0 mm and 6.0 mm were measured at the pressure of 0.7 MPa for various inlet temperatures and flow velocities. The measured non-boiling heat transfer coefficients agree with those by the Dittus-Boelter correlation. The heat fluxes at the onset of nucleate boiling and the departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) heat fluxes, where the heat transfer continuously changes to film boiling regime, are higher for higher flow velocity, larger subcooling and larger tube diameter. The DNB heat fluxes for the horizontally-mounted tube are slightly lower than those for the vertically-mounted tube, although the effect of the tube attitude direction disappears for a small tube diameter. The measured DNB heat fluxes agree with the correlation for vertically-mounted tubes.

  15. Unusual horizontal transfer of a long interspersed nuclear element between distant vertebrate classes.

    PubMed

    Kordis, D; Gubensek, F

    1998-09-01

    We have shown previously by Southern blot analysis that Bov-B long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) are present in different Viperidae snake species. To address the question as to whether Bov-B LINEs really have been transmitted horizontally between vertebrate classes, the analysis has been extended to a larger number of vertebrate, invertebrate, and plant species. In this paper, the evolutionary origin of Bov-B LINEs is shown unequivocally to be in Squamata. The previously proposed horizontal transfer of Bov-B LINEs in vertebrates has been confirmed by their discontinuous phylogenetic distribution in Squamata (Serpentes and two lizard infra-orders) as well as in Ruminantia, by the high level of nucleotide identity, and by their phylogenetic relationships. The horizontal transfer of Bov-B LINEs from Squamata to the ancestor of Ruminantia is evident from the genetic distances and discontinuous phylogenetic distribution. The ancestor of Colubroidea snakes is a possible donor of Bov-B LINEs to Ruminantia. The timing of horizontal transfer has been estimated from the distribution of Bov-B LINEs in Ruminantia and the fossil data of Ruminantia to be 40-50 My ago. The phylogenetic relationships of Bov-B LINEs from the various Squamata species agrees with that of the species phylogeny, suggesting that Bov-B LINEs have been maintained stably by vertical transmission since the origin of Squamata in the Mesozoic era. PMID:9724768

  16. Prediction of condensation heat transfer of low GWP refrigerants inside smooth horizontal tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Md. Anowar; Afroz, Hasan M. M.; Talukder, Shaon; Miyara, Akio

    2016-07-01

    The present research work observed the experimental and analytical results of two phase condensation heat transfer of the refrigerants R1234ze(E), R32, R410A, and R1234ze(E)/R32 mixtures inside a smooth horizontal tube. A water heated double tube horizontal heat exchanger with effective length of 3.6m and inner diameter of 4.35mm is used to take place the experiment. Mass flux and the saturation temperature are the design variables under which the experiment is carried out whose values varying from the range 160 to 400 Kg m-2s-1 and 30°C to 45°C, respectively. A new correlation for pure refrigerant has been proposed to predict the heat transfer inside a smooth horizontal tube by investigating the experimental data. The newly proposed correlation and some other existing correlations of condensation heat transfer for pure refrigerant have been used to predict the condensation heat transfer of R1234ze(E), R32, R410A and dimethyl ether (DME) and compared the results. The comparison allows that the proposed model of pure refrigerant offered a better performance for all the refrigerants. All the experimental data can be predicted within a 10.2% mean deviation by using the proposed correlation.

  17. An Ancient Transkingdom Horizontal Transfer of Penelope-Like Retroelements from Arthropods to Conifers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xuan; Faridi, Nurul; Casola, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Comparative genomics analyses empowered by the wealth of sequenced genomes have revealed numerous instances of horizontal DNA transfers between distantly related species. In eukaryotes, repetitive DNA sequences known as transposable elements (TEs) are especially prone to move across species boundaries. Such horizontal transposon transfers, or HTTs, are relatively common within major eukaryotic kingdoms, including animals, plants, and fungi, while rarely occurring across these kingdoms. Here, we describe the first case of HTT from animals to plants, involving TEs known as Penelope-like elements, or PLEs, a group of retrotransposons closely related to eukaryotic telomerases. Using a combination of in situ hybridization on chromosomes, polymerase chain reaction experiments, and computational analyses we show that the predominant PLE lineage, EN(+)PLEs, is highly diversified in loblolly pine and other conifers, but appears to be absent in other gymnosperms. Phylogenetic analyses of both protein and DNA sequences reveal that conifers EN(+)PLEs, or Dryads, form a monophyletic group clustering within a clade of primarily arthropod elements. Additionally, no EN(+)PLEs were detected in 1,928 genome assemblies from 1,029 nonmetazoan and nonconifer genomes from 14 major eukaryotic lineages. These findings indicate that Dryads emerged following an ancient horizontal transfer of EN(+)PLEs from arthropods to a common ancestor of conifers approximately 340 Ma. This represents one of the oldest known interspecific transmissions of TEs, and the most conspicuous case of DNA transfer between animals and plants. PMID:27190138

  18. An Ancient Transkingdom Horizontal Transfer of Penelope-Like Retroelements from Arthropods to Conifers

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xuan; Faridi, Nurul; Casola, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Comparative genomics analyses empowered by the wealth of sequenced genomes have revealed numerous instances of horizontal DNA transfers between distantly related species. In eukaryotes, repetitive DNA sequences known as transposable elements (TEs) are especially prone to move across species boundaries. Such horizontal transposon transfers, or HTTs, are relatively common within major eukaryotic kingdoms, including animals, plants, and fungi, while rarely occurring across these kingdoms. Here, we describe the first case of HTT from animals to plants, involving TEs known as Penelope-like elements, or PLEs, a group of retrotransposons closely related to eukaryotic telomerases. Using a combination of in situ hybridization on chromosomes, polymerase chain reaction experiments, and computational analyses we show that the predominant PLE lineage, EN(+)PLEs, is highly diversified in loblolly pine and other conifers, but appears to be absent in other gymnosperms. Phylogenetic analyses of both protein and DNA sequences reveal that conifers EN(+)PLEs, or Dryads, form a monophyletic group clustering within a clade of primarily arthropod elements. Additionally, no EN(+)PLEs were detected in 1,928 genome assemblies from 1,029 nonmetazoan and nonconifer genomes from 14 major eukaryotic lineages. These findings indicate that Dryads emerged following an ancient horizontal transfer of EN(+)PLEs from arthropods to a common ancestor of conifers approximately 340 Ma. This represents one of the oldest known interspecific transmissions of TEs, and the most conspicuous case of DNA transfer between animals and plants. PMID:27190138

  19. Horizontal transfer of chromosomal DNA between the marine bacterium Vibrio furnissii and Escherichia coli revealed by sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Charbit, A; Autret, N

    1998-01-01

    Previous in silico analysis of the 67.4-76.0 minutes region of the Escherichia coli genome led to the identification of a gene cluster (named aga) comprising five genes encoding homologs of the mannose transporter of E. coli, a member of the sugar-specific phosphoenolypyruvate/sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS). In the present work, we compared the aga gene cluster of E. coli, which has been considered to be involved in N-acetylgalactosamine or N-acetylmannosamine transport and metabolism, to the region comprising the recently identified mannose transporter of the marine bacterium Vibrio furnissii. Our analysis revealed that the proteins encoded by three genes (agaV, agaW, and agaA), located in the proximal portion of the aga gene cluster, shared striking similarities with the proteins encoded by the manX (IIBMan), manY (IICMan), and manD (a putative deacetylase) genes of V. furnissii, respectively (70%-82.3% identity among the three pairs of proteins). Moreover, we found that the two following aga genes (agaS and agaY) were homologous to the sequences flanking the mannose operon of V. furnissii. These observations strongly support the idea of a horizontal transfer of the chromosomally encoded man operon of V. furnissii into the E. coli genome. PMID:9697096

  20. Horizontal DNA Transfer Mechanisms of Bacteria as Weapons of Intragenomic Conflict.

    PubMed

    Croucher, Nicholas J; Mostowy, Rafal; Wymant, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Bentley, Stephen D; Fraser, Christophe

    2016-03-01

    Horizontal DNA transfer (HDT) is a pervasive mechanism of diversification in many microbial species, but its primary evolutionary role remains controversial. Much recent research has emphasised the adaptive benefit of acquiring novel DNA, but here we argue instead that intragenomic conflict provides a coherent framework for understanding the evolutionary origins of HDT. To test this hypothesis, we developed a mathematical model of a clonally descended bacterial population undergoing HDT through transmission of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and genetic transformation. Including the known bias of transformation toward the acquisition of shorter alleles into the model suggested it could be an effective means of counteracting the spread of MGEs. Both constitutive and transient competence for transformation were found to provide an effective defence against parasitic MGEs; transient competence could also be effective at permitting the selective spread of MGEs conferring a benefit on their host bacterium. The coordination of transient competence with cell-cell killing, observed in multiple species, was found to result in synergistic blocking of MGE transmission through releasing genomic DNA for homologous recombination while simultaneously reducing horizontal MGE spread by lowering the local cell density. To evaluate the feasibility of the functions suggested by the modelling analysis, we analysed genomic data from longitudinal sampling of individuals carrying Streptococcus pneumoniae. This revealed the frequent within-host coexistence of clonally descended cells that differed in their MGE infection status, a necessary condition for the proposed mechanism to operate. Additionally, we found multiple examples of MGEs inhibiting transformation through integrative disruption of genes encoding the competence machinery across many species, providing evidence of an ongoing "arms race." Reduced rates of transformation have also been observed in cells infected by MGEs that

  1. Horizontal DNA Transfer Mechanisms of Bacteria as Weapons of Intragenomic Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Croucher, Nicholas J.; Mostowy, Rafal; Wymant, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Bentley, Stephen D.; Fraser, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Horizontal DNA transfer (HDT) is a pervasive mechanism of diversification in many microbial species, but its primary evolutionary role remains controversial. Much recent research has emphasised the adaptive benefit of acquiring novel DNA, but here we argue instead that intragenomic conflict provides a coherent framework for understanding the evolutionary origins of HDT. To test this hypothesis, we developed a mathematical model of a clonally descended bacterial population undergoing HDT through transmission of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and genetic transformation. Including the known bias of transformation toward the acquisition of shorter alleles into the model suggested it could be an effective means of counteracting the spread of MGEs. Both constitutive and transient competence for transformation were found to provide an effective defence against parasitic MGEs; transient competence could also be effective at permitting the selective spread of MGEs conferring a benefit on their host bacterium. The coordination of transient competence with cell–cell killing, observed in multiple species, was found to result in synergistic blocking of MGE transmission through releasing genomic DNA for homologous recombination while simultaneously reducing horizontal MGE spread by lowering the local cell density. To evaluate the feasibility of the functions suggested by the modelling analysis, we analysed genomic data from longitudinal sampling of individuals carrying Streptococcus pneumoniae. This revealed the frequent within-host coexistence of clonally descended cells that differed in their MGE infection status, a necessary condition for the proposed mechanism to operate. Additionally, we found multiple examples of MGEs inhibiting transformation through integrative disruption of genes encoding the competence machinery across many species, providing evidence of an ongoing “arms race.” Reduced rates of transformation have also been observed in cells infected by MGEs that

  2. Evidence for horizontal transfer of mitochondrial DNA to the plastid genome in a bamboo genus

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Yu-Xiao; Guo, Zhen-Hua; Li, De-Zhu

    2015-01-01

    In flowering plants, three genomes (nuclear, mitochondrial, and plastid) coexist and intracellular horizontal transfer of DNA is prevalent, especially from the plastid to the mitochondrion genome. However, the plastid genomes are generally conserved in evolution and have long been considered immune to foreign DNA. Recently, the opposite direction of DNA transfer from the mitochondrial to the plastid genome has been reported in two eudicot lineages. Here we sequenced 6 plastid genomes of bamboos, three of which are neotropical woody species and three are herbaceous ones. Several unusual features were found, including the duplication of trnT-GGU and loss of one copy of rps19 due to contraction of inverted repeats (IRs). The most intriguing was the ~2.7 kb insertion in the plastid IR regions in the three herbaceous bamboos. Furthermore, the insertion was documented to be horizontally transferred from the mitochondrial to the plastid genome. Our study provided evidence of the mitochondrial-to-plastid DNA transfer in the monocots, demonstrating again that this rare event does occur in other angiosperm lineages. However, the mechanism underlying the transfer remains obscure, and more studies in other plants may elucidate it in the future. PMID:26100509

  3. Radiative and free-convective heat transfer from a finite horizontal plate inside an enclosure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrycak, Peter; Sandman, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental and analytical investigation of heat transfer from a horizontal, thin, square plate inside of an enclosure was carried out. Experimental results were obtained from both the upward-facing and the downward-facing sides of the heated plate. Starting with the integrated momentum and energy equations, approximate solutions were obtained for heat transfer in the laminar and the turbulent regime that correlate well with experimental data. Radiative heat transfer correction was given special attention. Effects of the enclosure-related recirculation of the test fluid, as well as effects of simultaneous heat transfer on both sides of the plate, caused an early transition, and indicated a high level of internal turbulence.

  4. Numerical investigation of supercritical LNG convective heat transfer in a horizontal serpentine tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Chang-Liang; Ren, Jing-Jie; Dong, Wen-Ping; Bi, Ming-Shu

    2016-09-01

    The submerged combustion vaporizer (SCV) is indispensable general equipment for liquefied natural gas (LNG) receiving terminals. In this paper, numerical simulation was conducted to get insight into the flow and heat transfer characteristics of supercritical LNG on the tube-side of SCV. The SST model with enhanced wall treatment method was utilized to handle the coupled wall-to-LNG heat transfer. The thermal-physical properties of LNG under supercritical pressure were used for this study. After the validation of model and method, the effects of mass flux, outer wall temperature and inlet pressure on the heat transfer behaviors were discussed in detail. Then the non-uniformity heat transfer mechanism of supercritical LNG and effect of natural convection due to buoyancy change in the tube was discussed based on the numerical results. Moreover, different flow and heat transfer characteristics inside the bend tube sections were also analyzed. The obtained numerical results showed that the local surface heat transfer coefficient attained its peak value when the bulk LNG temperature approached the so-called pseudo-critical temperature. Higher mass flux could eliminate the heat transfer deteriorations due to the increase of turbulent diffusion. An increase of outer wall temperature had a significant influence on diminishing heat transfer ability of LNG. The maximum surface heat transfer coefficient strongly depended on inlet pressure. Bend tube sections could enhance the heat transfer due to secondary flow phenomenon. Furthermore, based on the current simulation results, a new dimensionless, semi-theoretical empirical correlation was developed for supercritical LNG convective heat transfer in a horizontal serpentine tube. The paper provided the mechanism of heat transfer for the design of high-efficiency SCV.

  5. Lateral Gene Transfer from the Dead

    PubMed Central

    Szöllősi, Gergely J.; Tannier, Eric; Lartillot, Nicolas; Daubin, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    In phylogenetic studies, the evolution of molecular sequences is assumed to have taken place along the phylogeny traced by the ancestors of extant species. In the presence of lateral gene transfer, however, this may not be the case, because the species lineage from which a gene was transferred may have gone extinct or not have been sampled. Because it is not feasible to specify or reconstruct the complete phylogeny of all species, we must describe the evolution of genes outside the represented phylogeny by modeling the speciation dynamics that gave rise to the complete phylogeny. We demonstrate that if the number of sampled species is small compared with the total number of existing species, the overwhelming majority of gene transfers involve speciation to and evolution along extinct or unsampled lineages. We show that the evolution of genes along extinct or unsampled lineages can to good approximation be treated as those of independently evolving lineages described by a few global parameters. Using this result, we derive an algorithm to calculate the probability of a gene tree and recover the maximum-likelihood reconciliation given the phylogeny of the sampled species. Examining 473 near-universal gene families from 36 cyanobacteria, we find that nearly a third of transfer events (28%) appear to have topological signatures of evolution along extinct species, but only approximately 6% of transfers trace their ancestry to before the common ancestor of the sampled cyanobacteria. [Gene tree reconciliation; lateral gene transfer; macroevolution; phylogeny.] PMID:23355531

  6. The Role of Vertical and Horizontal Transfer in the Evolutionary Dynamics of PIF-Like Transposable Elements in Triticeae

    PubMed Central

    Markova, Dragomira N.; Mason-Gamer, Roberta J.

    2015-01-01

    PIF-like transposable elements are members of the PIF/Harbinger superfamily of DNA transposons found in the genomes of many plants, animals, and fungi. The evolution of the gene that encodes the transposase responsible for mobilizing PIF-like elements has been studied in both plants and animals, but the elements' history in flowering plants remains poorly known. In this work, we describe the phylogenetic distribution and evolution of PIF-like elements in the genomes of 21 diploid species from the wheat tribe, Triticeae, and we present the first convincing evidence of horizontal transfer of PIF elements in plant genomes. A phylogenetic analysis of 240 PIF sequences based on the conserved region of the transposase domain revealed at least four main transposase lineages. Their complex evolutionary history can be best explained by a combination of vertical transmission with differential evolutionary success among lineages, and occasional horizontal transfer between phylogenetically distant Triticeae genera. In addition, we identified 127 potentially functional transposase sequences indicating possible recent activity of PIF. PMID:26355747

  7. The Role of Vertical and Horizontal Transfer in the Evolutionary Dynamics of PIF-Like Transposable Elements in Triticeae.

    PubMed

    Markova, Dragomira N; Mason-Gamer, Roberta J

    2015-01-01

    PIF-like transposable elements are members of the PIF/Harbinger superfamily of DNA transposons found in the genomes of many plants, animals, and fungi. The evolution of the gene that encodes the transposase responsible for mobilizing PIF-like elements has been studied in both plants and animals, but the elements' history in flowering plants remains poorly known. In this work, we describe the phylogenetic distribution and evolution of PIF-like elements in the genomes of 21 diploid species from the wheat tribe, Triticeae, and we present the first convincing evidence of horizontal transfer of PIF elements in plant genomes. A phylogenetic analysis of 240 PIF sequences based on the conserved region of the transposase domain revealed at least four main transposase lineages. Their complex evolutionary history can be best explained by a combination of vertical transmission with differential evolutionary success among lineages, and occasional horizontal transfer between phylogenetically distant Triticeae genera. In addition, we identified 127 potentially functional transposase sequences indicating possible recent activity of PIF. PMID:26355747

  8. Natural convection heat transfer from a horizontal wavy surface in a porous enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, P.V.S.N.; Kumar, B.V.R.; Singh, P.

    1997-02-07

    The effect of surface undulations on the natural convection heat transfer from an isothermal surface in a Darcian fluid-saturated porous enclosure has been numerically analyzed using the finite element method on a graded nonuniform mesh system. The flow-driving Rayleigh number Ra together with the geometrical parameters of wave amplitude a, wave phase {phi}, and the number of waves N considered in the horizontal dimension of the cavity are found to influence the flow and heat transfer process in the enclosure. For Ra around 50 and above, the phenomenon of flow separation and reattachment is noticed on the walls of the enclosure. A periodic shift in the reattachment point from the bottom wall to the adjacent walls in the clockwise direction, leading to the manifestation of cycles of unicellular and bicellular clockwise and counterclockwise flows, is observed, with the phase varying between 0{degree} and 350{degree}. The counterflow in the secondary circulation zone is intensified with the increase in the value of Ra. The counterflow on the wavy wall hinders the heat transfer into the system. An increase in either wave amplitude or the number of waves considered per unit length decreases the global heat flux into the system. Only marginal changes in global heat flux are noticed with increasing Ra. On the whole, the comparison of global heat flux results in the wavy wall case with those of the horizontal flat wall case shows that, in a porous enclosure, the wavy wall reduces the heat transfer into the system.

  9. Recurrent Horizontal Transfers of Chapaev Transposons in Diverse Invertebrate and Vertebrate Animals

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hua-Hao; Feschotte, Cédric; Han, Min-Jin; Zhang, Ze

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal transfer (HT) of a transposable element (TE) into a new genome is regarded as an important force to drive genome variation and biological innovation. In addition, HT also plays an important role in the persistence of TEs in eukaryotic genomes. Here, we provide the first documented example for the repeated HT of three families of Chapaev transposons in a wide range of animal species, including mammals, reptiles, jawed fishes, lampreys, insects, and in an insect bracovirus. Multiple alignments of the Chapaev transposons identified in these species revealed extremely high levels of nucleotide sequence identity (79–99%), which are inconsistent with vertical evolution given the deep divergence time separating these host species. Rather, the discontinuous distribution amongst species and lack of purifying selection acting on these transposons strongly suggest that they were independently and horizontally transferred into these species lineages. The detection of Chapaev transposons in an insect bracovirus indicated that these viruses might act as a possible vector for the horizontal spread of Chapaev transposons. One of the Chapaev families was also shared by lampreys and some of their common hosts (such as sturgeon and paddlefish), which suggested that parasite–host interaction might facilitate HTs. PMID:24868016

  10. Horizontal transfer of DNA from the mitochondrial to the plastid genome and its subsequent evolution in milkweeds (apocynaceae).

    PubMed

    Straub, Shannon C K; Cronn, Richard C; Edwards, Christopher; Fishbein, Mark; Liston, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of DNA from the plastid to the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of higher plants is a common phenomenon; however, plastid genomes (plastomes) are highly conserved and have generally been regarded as impervious to HGT. We sequenced the 158 kb plastome and the 690 kb mitochondrial genome of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca [Apocynaceae]) and found evidence of intracellular HGT for a 2.4-kb segment of mitochondrial DNA to the rps2-rpoC2 intergenic spacer of the plastome. The transferred region contains an rpl2 pseudogene and is flanked by plastid sequence in the mitochondrial genome, including an rpoC2 pseudogene, which likely provided the mechanism for HGT back to the plastome through double-strand break repair involving homologous recombination. The plastome insertion is restricted to tribe Asclepiadeae of subfamily Asclepiadoideae, whereas the mitochondrial rpoC2 pseudogene is present throughout the subfamily, which confirms that the plastid to mitochondrial HGT event preceded the HGT to the plastome. Although the plastome insertion has been maintained in all lineages of Asclepiadoideae, it shows minimal evidence of transcription in A. syriaca and is likely nonfunctional. Furthermore, we found recent gene conversion of the mitochondrial rpoC2 pseudogene in Asclepias by the plastid gene, which reflects continued interaction of these genomes. PMID:24029811

  11. Horizontal Transfer of DNA from the Mitochondrial to the Plastid Genome and Its Subsequent Evolution in Milkweeds (Apocynaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Straub, Shannon C.K.; Cronn, Richard C.; Edwards, Christopher; Fishbein, Mark; Liston, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of DNA from the plastid to the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of higher plants is a common phenomenon; however, plastid genomes (plastomes) are highly conserved and have generally been regarded as impervious to HGT. We sequenced the 158 kb plastome and the 690 kb mitochondrial genome of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca [Apocynaceae]) and found evidence of intracellular HGT for a 2.4-kb segment of mitochondrial DNA to the rps2–rpoC2 intergenic spacer of the plastome. The transferred region contains an rpl2 pseudogene and is flanked by plastid sequence in the mitochondrial genome, including an rpoC2 pseudogene, which likely provided the mechanism for HGT back to the plastome through double-strand break repair involving homologous recombination. The plastome insertion is restricted to tribe Asclepiadeae of subfamily Asclepiadoideae, whereas the mitochondrial rpoC2 pseudogene is present throughout the subfamily, which confirms that the plastid to mitochondrial HGT event preceded the HGT to the plastome. Although the plastome insertion has been maintained in all lineages of Asclepiadoideae, it shows minimal evidence of transcription in A. syriaca and is likely nonfunctional. Furthermore, we found recent gene conversion of the mitochondrial rpoC2 pseudogene in Asclepias by the plastid gene, which reflects continued interaction of these genomes. PMID:24029811

  12. Frequent, independent transfers of a catabolic gene from bacteria to contrasted filamentous eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Bruto, Maxime; Prigent-Combaret, Claire; Luis, Patricia; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Muller, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Even genetically distant prokaryotes can exchange genes between them, and these horizontal gene transfer events play a central role in adaptation and evolution. While this was long thought to be restricted to prokaryotes, certain eukaryotes have acquired genes of bacterial origin. However, gene acquisitions in eukaryotes are thought to be much less important in magnitude than in prokaryotes. Here, we describe the complex evolutionary history of a bacterial catabolic gene that has been transferred repeatedly from different bacterial phyla to stramenopiles and fungi. Indeed, phylogenomic analysis pointed to multiple acquisitions of the gene in these filamentous eukaryotes—as many as 15 different events for 65 microeukaryotes. Furthermore, once transferred, this gene acquired introns and was found expressed in mRNA databases for most recipients. Our results show that effective inter-domain transfers and subsequent adaptation of a prokaryotic gene in eukaryotic cells can happen at an unprecedented magnitude. PMID:24990676

  13. Heat Transfer of HC290-OIL Mixtures in a Horizontal Condensing Micro-Fin Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, M. W.; Dong, M. L.; Li, Y.

    Heat transfer coefficients was experimentally determined for a horizontal micro-fin tube (2m in length, 11.44mm ID) with HC290-oil mixtures. The oil is Suniso 3GS, which is a widely used oil in refrigerant systems. The micro-fin tube is a internally enhanced tube, which has 60 fins with a height of 0.25mm and 20° spiral angle. The condensation temperatures varied from 40° to 45° and the refrigerant mass flux was varied from 40kg/(m2s) to 220kg/(m2s). The results showed that the mean condensation heat transfer coefficients on the test section (inlet vapor quality 1, outlet vapor quality 0.1~0.25) decreased as the oil concentrations were increased and the condensation temperature had negligible effect on the heat transfer coefficients.

  14. Numerical Study on the Heat Transfer of Carbon Dioxide in Horizontal Straight Tubes under Supercritical Pressure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Cooling heat transfer of supercritical CO2 in horizontal straight tubes with wall is numerically investigated by using FLUENT. The results show that almost all models are able to present the trend of heat transfer qualitatively, and the stand k-ε with enhanced wall treatment model shows the best agreement with the experimental data, followed by LB low Re turbulence model. Then further studies are discussed on velocity, temperature and turbulence distributions. The parameters which are defined as the criterion of buoyancy effect on convection heat transfer are introduced to judge the condition of the fluid. The relationships among the inlet temperature, outlet temperature, the mass flow rate, the heat flux and the diameter are discussed and the difference between the cooling and heating of CO2 are compared. PMID:27458729

  15. Horizontal versus vertical charge and energy transfer in hybrid assemblies of semiconductor nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Gotesman, Gilad; Guliamov, Rahamim

    2012-01-01

    Summary We studied the photoluminescence and time-resolved photoluminescence from self-assembled bilayers of donor and acceptor nanoparticles (NPs) adsorbed on a quartz substrate through organic linkers. Charge and energy transfer processes within the assemblies were investigated as a function of the length of the dithiolated linker (DT) between the donors and acceptors. We found an unusual linker-length-dependency in the emission of the donors. This dependency may be explained by charge and energy transfer processes in the vertical direction (from the donors to the acceptors) that depend strongly on charge transfer processes occurring in the horizontal plane (within the monolayer of the acceptor), namely, parallel to the substrate. PMID:23019559

  16. Numerical Study on the Heat Transfer of Carbon Dioxide in Horizontal Straight Tubes under Supercritical Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Cooling heat transfer of supercritical CO2 in horizontal straight tubes with wall is numerically investigated by using FLUENT. The results show that almost all models are able to present the trend of heat transfer qualitatively, and the stand k−ε with enhanced wall treatment model shows the best agreement with the experimental data, followed by LB low Re turbulence model. Then further studies are discussed on velocity, temperature and turbulence distributions. The parameters which are defined as the criterion of buoyancy effect on convection heat transfer are introduced to judge the condition of the fluid. The relationships among the inlet temperature, outlet temperature, the mass flow rate, the heat flux and the diameter are discussed and the difference between the cooling and heating of CO2 are compared. PMID:27458729

  17. Gene transfer from a parasitic flowering plant to a fern

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Charles C; Anderson, William R; Wurdack, Kenneth J

    2005-01-01

    The rattlesnake fern (Botrychium virginianum (L.) Sw.) is obligately mycotrophic and widely distributed across the northern hemisphere. Three mitochondrial gene regions place this species with other ferns in Ophioglossaceae, while two regions place it as a member of the largely parasitic angiosperm order Santalales (sandalwoods and mistletoes). These discordant phylogenetic placements suggest that part of the genome in B. virginianum was acquired by horizontal gene transfer (HGT), perhaps from root-parasitic Loranthaceae. These transgenes are restricted to B. virginianum and occur across the range of the species. Molecular and life-history traits indicate that the transfer preceded the global expansion of B. virginianum, and that the latter may have happened very rapidly. This is the first report of HGT from an angiosperm to a fern, through either direct parasitism or the mediation of interconnecting fungal symbionts. PMID:16191635

  18. Multiple horizontally acquired genes from fungal and prokaryotic donors encode cellulolytic enzymes in the bdelloid rotifer Adineta ricciae.

    PubMed

    Szydlowski, L; Boschetti, C; Crisp, A; Barbosa, E G G; Tunnacliffe, A

    2015-07-25

    The bdelloid rotifer, Adineta ricciae, an anhydrobiotic microinvertebrate, exhibits a high rate of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), with as much as 10% of its transcriptome being of foreign origin. Approximately 80% of these foreign transcripts are involved in metabolic processes, and therefore bdelloids represent a useful model for assessing the contribution of HGT to biochemical diversity. To validate this concept, we focused on cellulose digestion, an unusual activity in animals, which is represented by at least 16 genes encoding cellulolytic enzymes in A. ricciae. These genes have been acquired from a variety of different donor organisms among the bacteria and fungi, demonstrating that bdelloids use diverse genetic resources to construct a novel biochemical pathway. A variable complement of the cellulolytic gene set was found in five other bdelloid species, indicating a dynamic process of gene acquisition, duplication and loss during bdelloid evolution. For example, in A. ricciae, gene duplications have led to the formation of three copies of a gene encoding a GH45 family glycoside hydrolase, at least one of which encodes a functional enzyme; all three of these gene copies are present in a close relative, Adineta vaga, but only one copy was found in each of four Rotaria species. Furthermore, analysis of expression levels of the cellulolytic genes suggests that a bacterial-origin cellobiase is upregulated upon desiccation. In summary, bdelloid rotifers have apparently developed cellulolytic functions by the acquisition and domestication of multiple foreign genes. PMID:25863176

  19. Horizontal Transfer of Bacterial Symbionts: Heritability and Fitness Effects in a Novel Aphid Host

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Jacob A.; Moran, Nancy A.

    2005-01-01

    Members of several bacterial lineages are known only as symbionts of insects and move among hosts through maternal transmission. Such vertical transfer promotes strong fidelity within these associations, favoring the evolution of microbially mediated effects that improve host fitness. However, phylogenetic evidence indicates occasional horizontal transfer among different insect species, suggesting that some microbial symbionts retain a generalized ability to infect multiple hosts. Here we examine the abilities of three vertically transmitted bacteria from the Gammaproteobacteria to infect and spread within a novel host species, the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Using microinjection, we transferred symbionts from three species of natural aphid hosts into a common host background, comparing transmission efficiencies between novel symbionts and those naturally infecting A. pisum. We also examined the fitness effects of two novel symbionts to determine whether they should persist under natural selection acting at the host level. Our results reveal that these heritable bacteria vary in their capacities to utilize A. pisum as a host. One of three novel symbionts failed to undergo efficient maternal transmission in A. pisum, and one of the two efficiently transmitted bacteria depressed aphid growth rates. Although these findings reveal that negative fitness effects and low transmission efficiency can prevent the establishment of a new infection following horizontal transmission, they also indicate that some symbionts can overcome these obstacles, accounting for their widespread distributions across aphids and related insects. PMID:16332777

  20. Heat transfer in horizontal tubes during two phase natural circulation with presence of noncondensing gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alt, S.; Lischke, W.

    The condensation process of steam inside horizontal tubes during natural circulation gains in importance regarding the reactor safety research for existing and future nuclear power plants. Experimental investigations due to the condensation process were realized with the rig HORUS to study the behaviour of water-steam-gas mixtures in horizontal tubes. The paper includes statements regarding the flow and heat transfer conditions inside the tube and the temperature distribution inside the small tube wall. The experiments showed a blockade of the heat transfer area with Nitrogen which is connected with an increasing primary pressure followed by a compression of the Nitrogen and a reentry of steam into the tube. The experiments serve for the creation of an experimental data base. A model development for calculation of the heat transfer is described. The model was implemented in the German thermal-hydraulic code ATHLET. The comparison of calculated data and the measured parameters of HORUS rig show the code improvement for the simulation of noncondensing gases.

  1. Natural convection heat transfer for a staggered array of heated, horizontal cylinders within a rectangular enclosure

    SciTech Connect

    Triplett, C.E.

    1996-12-01

    This thesis presents the results of an experimental investigation of natural convection heat transfer in a staggered array of heated cylinders, oriented horizontally within a rectangular enclosure. The main purpose of this research was to extend the knowledge of heat transfer within enclosed bundles of spent nuclear fuel rods sealed within a shipping or storage container. This research extends Canaan`s investigation of an aligned array of heated cylinders that thermally simulated a boiling water reactor (BWR) spent fuel assembly sealed within a shipping or storage cask. The results are presented in terms of piecewise Nusselt-Rayleigh number correlations of the form Nu = C(Ra){sup n}, where C and n are constants. Correlations are presented both for individual rods within the array and for the array as a whole. The correlations are based only on the convective component of the heat transfer. The radiative component was calculated with a finite-element code that used measured surface temperatures, rod array geometry, and measured surface emissivities as inputs. The correlation results are compared to Canaan`s aligned array results and to other studies of natural convection in horizontal tube arrays.

  2. Security camera resolution measurements: Horizontal TV lines versus modulation transfer function measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle; Griffin, John Clark

    2015-01-01

    The horizontal television lines (HTVL) metric has been the primary quantity used by division 6000 related to camera resolution for high consequence security systems. This document shows HTVL measurements are fundamen- tally insufficient as a metric to determine camera resolution, and propose a quantitative, standards based methodology by measuring the camera system modulation transfer function (MTF), the most common and accepted metric of res- olution in the optical science community. Because HTVL calculations are easily misinterpreted or poorly defined, we present several scenarios in which HTVL is frequently reported, and discuss their problems. The MTF metric is discussed, and scenarios are presented with calculations showing the application of such a metric.

  3. Heat transfer enhancement of a horizontal microchannel using ferro-nanoparticles injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shams, M.; Tolou, S.

    2012-05-01

    A numerical study of Ferro-nanoparticles dispersion has been performed inside a micro-channel by using two phase method. Euler-Lagrange approach was conducted to simulate the presence of Ferro-nanoparticles in the horizontal micro-channel under laminar flow condition. Considering slip velocity and temperature jump due to the effect of decreasing hydrodynamic diameter of channel, temperature and velocity profiles were evaluated and effect of some different parameters on heat transfer has been discussed. Drag, Gravity and Brownian forces were considered using a Lagrangian approach. Furthermore, in order to consider slip effects in micro-channels, Cunningham slip correction factor has been pondered in correcting drag force influence.

  4. Gene Transfers Between Distantly Related Organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doolittle, Russell F.

    2003-01-01

    With the completion of numerous microbial genome sequences, reports of individual gene transfers between distantly related prokaryotes have become commonplace. On the other hand, transfers between prokaryotes and eukaryotes still excite the imagination. Many of these claims may be premature, but some are certainly valid. In this chapter, the kinds of supporting data needed to propose transfers between distantly related organisms and cite some interesting examples are considered.

  5. Effects of observed horizontal inhomogeneities within cirrus clouds on solar radiative transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschmann, Nicole; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Heymsfield, Andrew J.

    2002-10-01

    In situ microphysical and combined radar and radiometer measurements of 11 cirrus clouds from Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX), European Cloud and Radiation Experiment (EUCREX), investigation of Clouds by Ground-Based and Airborne Radar and Lidar (CARL), and First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Regional Experiment (FIRE) are used to investigate effects of horizontal cloud inhomogeneities on solar radiative transfer. A three-dimensional ray-tracing model (GRIMALDI), based on the Monte Carlo method, is used to calculate upward and downward flux densities and absorption for the spectral range from 0.38 to 4.0 μm. Radiative flux densities are calculated using the inhomogeneous clouds derived from the observations and for horizontally and vertically averaged homogeneous clouds. Horizontally averaged values of radiative flux densities and absorption for heterogeneous clouds can differ by up to 30% from those calculated for the homogeneous clouds for convectively induced tropical cirrus clouds. The midlatitude cases examined tended to be more homogeneous, and hence differences between radiative properties for the homogeneous and heterogeneous clouds did not exceed 10%. For cirrus clouds with mean optical thicknesses smaller than 5 and with relative variances of optical thickness smaller than 0.2, errors caused by the homogeneous assumption are smaller than ±10%.

  6. Heat transfer in porous duct: Effect of horizontal outer wall heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaleed, H. M. T.; Al-Rashed, Abdullah A. A. A.; Athani, Abdulgaphur

    2016-06-01

    Heat transfer in porous medium is one of the important areas of research for last few decades. The current work is considered to investigate the effect of top and bottom wall heating of a square duct that contains porous medium between its inner and outer boundaries. The other six surfaces of duct are cooled to isothermal temperature Tc. The resulting momentum and energy equations that govern the heat and fluid flow behavior in porous medium are solved with the help of finite element method. It is observed that the heat transfer and fluid flow behavior of horizontal wall heating is quite different from other cases being reported in literature. It is found that the fluid flows in multiple circulation cells around corners of the duct giving a unique flow pattern. The isotherms tend to concentrate on lower and upper section of duct with huge middle area of cavity having least thermal energy.

  7. Convective Heat Transfer from Castings of Ice Roughened Surfaces in Horizontal Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dukhan, Nihad; Vanfossen, G. James, Jr.; Masiulaniec, K. Cyril; Dewitt, Kenneth J.

    1995-01-01

    A technique was developed to cast frozen ice shapes that had been grown on a metal surface. This technique was applied to a series of ice shapes that were grown in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel on flat plates. Eight different types of ice growths, characterizing different types of roughness, were obtained from these plates, from which aluminum castings were made. Test strips taken from these castings were outfitted with heat flux gages, such that when placed in a dry wind tunnel, they could be used to experimentally map out the convective heat transfer coefficient in the direction of flow from the roughened surfaces. The effects on the heat transfer coefficient for parallel flow, which simulates horizontal flight, were studied. The results of this investigation can be used to help size heaters for wings, helicopter rotor blades, jet engine intakes, etc., or de-icing for anti-icing applications where the flow is parallel to the iced surface.

  8. Horizontal transfers of feminizing versus non-feminizing Wolbachia strains: from harmless passengers to pathogens.

    PubMed

    Le Clec'h, Winka; Raimond, Maryline; Guillot, Sylvain; Bouchon, Didier; Sicard, Mathieu

    2013-11-01

    The endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis infects various hosts in which it navigates vertically from mothers to offspring. However, horizontal transfers of Wolbachia can occur between hosts. The virulence of the horizontally acquired Wolbachia can change in the new host as it has been illustrated by the case of the feminizing strain wVulC from the woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare that turns to a pathogen when introduced into Porcellio dilatatus dilatatus. In the present study, we aim to show whether symbiotic traits, such as (i) host sex manipulation and (ii) colonization patterns, which differ between eight isopod Wolbachia strains, are connected to their virulence towards the recipient host P. d. dilatatus. Among the transferred Wolbachia, some feminizing strains gradually differing in feminizing intensity in their native hosts induced different levels of pathogenicity to P. d. dilatatus. Not a single feminizing strain passed vertically with high titres to the next generation. The non-feminizing Wolbachia strains, even if they reached high densities in the host, did not impact host life-history traits and some vertically passed with high titres to the offspring. These results suggest that a potential link between the manners Wolbachia manipulates its native host reproduction, its virulence and its ability to vertically infect the offspring. PMID:23802876

  9. Horizontal transfer of RNA and proteins between cells by extracellular microvesicles: 14 years later.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, Mariusz Z; Ratajczak, Janina

    2016-12-01

    Extracellular microvesicles (ExMVs) are part of the cell secretome, and evidence has accumulated for their involvement in several biological processes. Fourteen years ago our team demonstrated for the first time that ExMVs carry functional RNA species and proteins from one cell to another, an observation that opened up the new research field of horizontal transfer of bioactive molecules in cell-to-cell communication. Moreover, the presence of mRNA, noncoding RNA, and miRNA in ExMVs in blood and other biological fluids opened up the possibility of employing ExMVs as new detection markers for pathological processes, and ExMVs became a target for "liquid biopsy" approaches. While ExMV-derived mRNAs may be translated in target cells into appropriate proteins, miRNAs regulate expression of corresponding mRNA species, and both RNA-depended ExMV-mediated mechanisms lead to functional changes in the target cells. Following from this observation, several excellent papers have been published that confirm the existence of the horizontal transfer of RNA. Moreover, in addition to RNA, proteins, bioactive lipids, infectious particles and intact organelles such as mitochondria may follow a similar mechanism. In this review we will summarize the impressive progress in this field-14 years after initial report. PMID:26943717

  10. In vitro gene transfer by electrosonoporation.

    PubMed

    Escoffre, J M; Kaddur, K; Rols, M P; Bouakaz, A

    2010-10-01

    Among the nonviral methods for gene delivery in vitro, electroporation is simple, inexpensive and safe. To upregulate the expression level of transfected gene, we investigated the applicability of electrosonoporation. This approach consists of a combination of electric pulses and ultrasound assisted with gas microbubbles. Cells were first electroporated with plasmid DNA encoding-enhanced green fluorescent protein and then sonoporated in presence of contrast microbubbles. Twenty-four hours later, cells that received electrosonoporation demonstrated a four-fold increase in transfection level and a six-fold increase in transfection efficiency compared with cells having undergone electroporation alone. Although electroporation induced the formation of DNA aggregates into the cell membrane, sonoporation induced its direct propulsion into the cytoplasm. Sonoporation can improve the transfer of electro-induced DNA aggregates by allowing its free and rapid entrance into the cells. These results demonstrated that in vitro gene transfer by electrosonoporation could provide a new potent method for gene transfer. PMID:20850028

  11. An investigation of horizontal transfer of feed introduced DNA to the aerobic microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract of rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Horizontal gene transfer through natural transformation of members of the microbiota of the lower gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of mammals has not yet been described. Insufficient DNA sequence similarity for homologous recombination to occur has been identified as the major barrier to interspecies transfer of chromosomal DNA in bacteria. In this study we determined if regions of high DNA similarity between the genomes of the indigenous bacteria in the GIT of rats and feed introduced DNA could lead to homologous recombination and acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes. Results Plasmid DNA with two resistance genes (nptI and aadA) and regions of high DNA similarity to 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA genes present in a broad range of bacterial species present in the GIT, were constructed and added to standard rat feed. Six rats, with a normal microbiota, were fed DNA containing pellets daily over four days before sampling of the microbiota from the different GI compartments (stomach, small intestine, cecum and colon). In addition, two rats were included as negative controls. Antibiotic resistant colonies growing on selective media were screened for recombination with feed introduced DNA by PCR targeting unique sites in the putatively recombined regions. No transformants were identified among 441 tested isolates. Conclusions The analyses showed that extensive ingestion of DNA (100 μg plasmid) per day did not lead to increased proportions of kanamycin resistant bacteria, nor did it produce detectable transformants among the aerobic microbiota examined for 6 rats (detection limit < 1 transformant per 1,1 × 108 cultured bacteria). The key methodological challenges to HGT detection in animal feedings trials are identified and discussed. This study is consistent with other studies suggesting natural transformation is not detectable in the GIT of mammals. PMID:22463741

  12. The Defective Prophage Pool of Escherichia coli O157: Prophage–Prophage Interactions Potentiate Horizontal Transfer of Virulence Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Asadulghani, Md; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Ooka, Tadasuke; Itoh, Takehiko; Sawaguchi, Akira; Iguchi, Atsushi; Nakayama, Keisuke; Hayashi, Tetsuya

    2009-01-01

    Bacteriophages are major genetic factors promoting horizontal gene transfer (HGT) between bacteria. Their roles in dynamic bacterial genome evolution have been increasingly highlighted by the fact that many sequenced bacterial genomes contain multiple prophages carrying a wide range of genes. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 is the most striking case. A sequenced strain (O157 Sakai) possesses 18 prophages (Sp1–Sp18) that encode numerous genes related to O157 virulence, including those for two potent cytotoxins, Shiga toxins (Stx) 1 and 2. However, most of these prophages appeared to contain multiple genetic defects. To understand whether these defective prophages have the potential to act as mobile genetic elements to spread virulence determinants, we looked closely at the Sp1–Sp18 sequences, defined the genetic defects of each Sp, and then systematically analyzed all Sps for their biological activities. We show that many of the defective prophages, including the Stx1 phage, are inducible and released from O157 cells as particulate DNA. In fact, some prophages can even be transferred to other E. coli strains. We also show that new Stx1 phages are generated by recombination between the Stx1 and Stx2 phage genomes. The results indicate that these defective prophages are not simply genetic remnants generated in the course of O157 evolution, but rather genetic elements with a high potential for disseminating virulence-related genes and other genetic traits to other bacteria. We speculate that recombination and various other types of inter-prophage interactions in the O157 prophage pool potentiate such activities. Our data provide new insights into the potential activities of the defective prophages embedded in bacterial genomes and lead to the formulation of a novel concept of inter-prophage interactions in defective prophage communities. PMID:19412337

  13. Insights into horizontal acquisition patterns of dormancy and reactivation regulon genes in mycobacterial species using a partitioning-based framework.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Varun; Ghosh, Tarini Shankar; Mande, Sharmila S

    2016-09-01

    Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) events, initially thought to be rare in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, have recently been shown to be involved in the acquisition of virulence operons in M. tuberculosis. We have developed a new partitioning framework based HGT prediction algorithm, called Grid3M, and applied the same for the prediction of HGTs in Mycobacteria. Validation and testing using simulated and real microbial genomes indicated better performance of Grid3M as compared with other widely used HGT prediction methods. Specific analysis of the genes belonging to dormancy/reactivation regulons across 14 mycobacterial genomes indicated that horizontal acquisition is specifically restricted to important accessory proteins. The results also revealed Burkholderia species to be a probable source of HGT genes belonging to these regulons. The current study provides a basis for similar analyses investigating the functional/evolutionary aspects of HGT genes in other pathogens. A database of Grid3M predicted HGTs in completely sequenced genomes is available at https://metagenomics.atc.tcs.com/Grid3M/. PMID:27581938

  14. Prediction of Heat Transfer Coefficient for Refrigerant With Oil Contained in Horizontal Evaporator Tuvbes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Takeshi; Yoshida, Suguru

    A method which is generally applicable to predict the axially local (circumferentially averaged) heat transfer coefficient for refrigerant with oil contained flowing in horizontal evaporator tubes was developed by modifying a prediction method for pure refrigerants. The dimensionless correlation for an annular flow regime takes account of the influence of oil on an improvement or a reduction in the heat transfer, in addition to the change of the properties due to the addition of oil. For a separated flow regime, the correlations of the average heat transfer coefficients in the top part and the bottom part and their boundary angle were developed by modifying each correlation for pure refrigerants. The circumferentially averaged heat transfer coefficient for the separated flow regime can be obtained by using the solution of the steady heat conduction equation in the tube wall, to which the values calculated from the above correlations are applied as the boundary conditions at the inside surface of the tube. Which flow regime, annular or separated, prevails can be determined by the correlation of the boundary angle. The present prediction method was confirmed to be applicable to various kinds of refrigerant-oil mixture.

  15. Heat transfer and bubble formation on horizontal copper tubes with different diameters and roughness structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotthoff, Stephan; Gorenflo, Dieter

    2009-05-01

    Heat transfer in flooded evaporators of the refrigeration, air conditioning or process industries is mainly enhanced by modifying the surface structure of evaporator tubes in the micro and/or macro range. To quantify the effect of such modifications, however, the influence of the basic roughness structure on the heated surface has to be separated. Starting from recent publications, experimental results of heat transfer and bubble formation from horizontal copper tubes with different outer diameters (8 or 25 mm) and roughness structures to various boiling liquids are analyzed in this paper to improve our knowledge of the specific events connected with the formation of bubbles at active nucleation sites and their effect on local heat transfer. It is shown that a single, standardized roughness parameter like the (integral) mean roughness height P a is not sufficient to explain the effect of the heating surface structure on nucleate boiling heat transfer. Instead, detailed information on characteristic roughness parameters of the heated surfaces is necessary for the analysis, making it possible to define the size and form of cavities included in the roughness structure and their positions on the surface. An analysis that aims in this direction is given in a separate contribution to this special issue by A. Luke, who prepared the surfaces and provided the basic data on the set of standardized roughness parameters, the probability distributions of which are used in this paper.

  16. Effects of confining walls on heat transfer from a vertical array of isothermal horizontal elliptic cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Yousefi, T.; Paknezhad, M.; Ashjaee, M.; Yazdani, S.

    2009-09-15

    Steady state two-dimensional natural convection heat transfer from the vertical array of five horizontal isothermal elliptic cylinders with vertical major axis which confined between two adiabatic walls has been studied experimentally. Experiments were carried out using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The Rayleigh number based on cylinder major axis was in the range 10{sup 3}{<=}Ra{<=}2.5 x 10{sup 3}, and dimensionless wall spacing 1.5{<=} t/b{<=}9 and infinity. The effect of wall spacing and Rayleigh number on the heat transfer from the individual cylinder and the array were investigated. Experiments are performed for ratio wall spacing to major diameter t/b = 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and infinity. A correlation based on the experimental data for the average Nusselt number of the array as a function of Ra and t/b is presented in the aforementioned ranges. A relation has been derived for optimum wall spacing at which the Nusselt number of the array attains its maximum value. At optimum wall spacing, approximately 10% increase in the heat transfer from the confined array of elliptic cylinders has been observed as compared to the unconfined case. Also, a heat transfer correlation has been proposed for a single elliptic cylinder with vertical major axis and has been compared with earlier works. (author)

  17. Heat and mass transfer characteristics of absorption of R134a into DMAC in a horizontal tube absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harikrishnan, L.; Maiya, M. P.; Tiwari, S.; Wohlfeil, A.; Ziegler, F.

    2009-10-01

    In this paper the heat and mass transfer characteristics of a horizontal tube absorber for the mixture R134a/DMAC in terms of experimentally gained heat and mass transfer coefficients are presented. The heat transfer coefficient is mainly dependent on the solution’s mass flow rate. The mass transfer coefficient is strongly related to the subcooling of the solution. The data are compared to experimental absorption characteristics of water into aqueous lithium bromide in an absorption chiller. The mass transfer coefficients are of similar size whereas the heat transfer coefficients are about one order of magnitude smaller for R134a-DMAC.

  18. Natural convection heat transfer on two horizontal cylinders in liquid sodium

    SciTech Connect

    Hata, K.; Shiotsu, M.; Takeuchi, Y.

    1995-09-01

    Natural convection heat transfer on two horizontal 7.6 mm diameter test cylinders assembled with the ratio of the distance between each cylinder axis to the cylinder diameter, S/D, of 2 in liquid sodium was studied experimentally and theoretically. The heat transfer coefficients on the cylinder surface due to the same heat inputs ranging from 1.0 X 10{sup 7} to 1.0 x 10{sup 9} W/m{sup 3} were obtained experimentally for various setting angeles, {gamma}, between vertical direction and the plane including both of these cylinder axis over the range of zero to 90{degrees}. Theoretical equations for laminar natural convection heat transfer from the two horizontal cylinders were numerically solved for the same conditions as the experimental ones considering the temperature dependence of thermophysical properties concerned. The average Nusselt numbers, Nu, values on the Nu versus modified Rayleigh number, R{sub f}, graph. The experimental values of Nu for the upper cylinder are about 20% lower than those for the lower cylinder at {gamma} = 0{degrees} for the range of R{sub f} tested here. The value of Nu for the upper cylinder becomes higher and approaches that for the lower cylinder with the increase in {gamma} over range of 0 to 90{degrees}. The values of Nu for the lower cylinder at each {gamma} are almost in agreement with those for a single cylinder. The theoretical values of Nu on two cylinders except those for R{sub f}<4 at {gamma} = 0{degrees} are in agreement with the experimental data at each {gamma} with the deviations less than 15%. Correlations for Nu on the upper and lower cylinders were obtained as functions of S/D and {gamma} based n the theoretical solutions for the S/D ranged over 1.5 to 4.0.

  19. Gene transfer mediated by alpha2-macroglobulin.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, H; Huse, K; Birkenmeier, G; Otto, A; Scholz, G H

    1996-01-01

    alpha2-Macroglobulin covalently linked to poly(L)-lysine can be used as a vehicle for receptor-mediated gene transfer. This modified alpha2-macroglobulin maintains its ability to bind to the alpha2-macroglobulin receptor, and was shown to introduce a luciferase reporter gene plasmid into HepG2 human hepatoma cells in vitro. The alpha2-macroglobulin receptor is a very large and multifunctional cell surface receptor, whose rapid and efficient internalization rate makes it attractive for gene therapy, e.g. for hepatic gene targeting via injection into the portal vein. PMID:8871570

  20. Effects of Adding Nanoparticles on Boiling and Condensing Heat Transfer inside a horizontal round tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikholeslami, Mohsen; Sadoughi, Mohammadkazem; Shariatmadar, Hamed; Akhavan-Behabadi, Mohammad Ali

    2015-11-01

    An experimental investigation is performed on heat transfer evaluation of a nano-refrigerant flow during condensation and evaporation inside a horizontal round tube. Experiments are carried out for three working fluid types including: i) pure refrigerant (R600a); ii) refrigerant/lubricant (R600a/oil); and iii) nano-refrigerant: refrigerant/lubricant/nanoparticles (R600a/oil/CuO). Nanoparticles are added to the lubricant and their mixture is mixed with pure refrigerant. Therefore, nano-refrigerants (R600a/oil/CuO) are prepared by dispersing CuO nanoparticles with different fractions of 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% in the baseline mixture (R600a/oil). Effects of different factors including vapor quality, mass flux, and nanoparticles on the heat transfer coefficient are examined for both of condensation and evaporation flows, separately. The results shows that maximum heat transfer augmentation of 79% and 83% are achieved by using the refrigerant/lubricant/nanoparticles mixture, in comparison with the pure refrigerant case in condensation and evaporation, respectively which are occurred for nano-refrigerant with 1.5% mass fraction in both of them.

  1. Horizontal Transfer of Diatomaceous Earth and Botanical Insecticides in the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius L.; Hemiptera: Cimicidae

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Yasmin; Isman, Murray B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Horizontal transfer of insecticide occurs when insects contact or ingest an insecticide, return to an aggregation or a nest, and transfer the insecticide to other conspecific insects through contact. This phenomenon has been reported in a number of insects including social insects, however it has not been reported in bed bugs. Since horizontal transfer can facilitate the spread of insecticide into hard to reach spaces, it could contribute greatly to the management of these public health pests. Methodology/Results To demonstrate horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in C. lectularius, an exposed (donor) bed bug, following a 10-minute acquisition period, was placed with unexposed (recipient) bed bugs. Mortality data clearly demonstrates that diatomaceous earth (DE 51) was actively transferred from a single exposed bug to unexposed bugs in a concentration dependent manner. LC50 values varied from 24.4 mg at 48 h to 5.1 mg at 216 h when a single exposed bed bug was placed with 5 unexposed bed bugs. LT50 values also exhibited a concentration response. LT50 values varied from 1.8 days to 8.4 days when a ‘donor’ bug exposed to 20 and 5 mg of dust respectively was placed with 5 ‘recipient’ bugs. Dust was also actively transferred from adult bed bugs to the nymphs. In addition we observed horizontal transfer of botanical insecticides including neem, ryania, and rotenone to varying degrees. Conclusion/Significance Our data clearly demonstrate horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in the common bed bug, C. lectularius. Use of a fluorescent dust provided visual confirmation that contaminated bed bugs transfer dust to untreated bed bugs in harborage. This result is important because bedbugs live in hard-to-reach places and interaction between conspecifics can be exploited for delivery and dissemination of management products directed at this public health pest. PMID:24086593

  2. Ancient horizontal transfers of retrotransposons between birds and ancestors of human pathogenic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Suh, Alexander; Witt, Christopher C; Menger, Juliana; Sadanandan, Keren R; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Gerth, Michael; Weigert, Anne; McGuire, Jimmy A; Mudge, Joann; Edwards, Scott V; Rheindt, Frank E

    2016-01-01

    Parasite host switches may trigger disease emergence, but prehistoric host ranges are often unknowable. Lymphatic filariasis and loiasis are major human diseases caused by the insect-borne filarial nematodes Brugia, Wuchereria and Loa. Here we show that the genomes of these nematodes and seven tropical bird lineages exclusively share a novel retrotransposon, AviRTE, resulting from horizontal transfer (HT). AviRTE subfamilies exhibit 83-99% nucleotide identity between genomes, and their phylogenetic distribution, paleobiogeography and invasion times suggest that HTs involved filarial nematodes. The HTs between bird and nematode genomes took place in two pantropical waves, >25-22 million years ago (Myr ago) involving the Brugia/Wuchereria lineage and >20-17 Myr ago involving the Loa lineage. Contrary to the expectation from the mammal-dominated host range of filarial nematodes, we hypothesize that these major human pathogens may have independently evolved from bird endoparasites that formerly infected the global breadth of avian biodiversity. PMID:27097561

  3. Ancient horizontal transfers of retrotransposons between birds and ancestors of human pathogenic nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Alexander; Witt, Christopher C.; Menger, Juliana; Sadanandan, Keren R.; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Gerth, Michael; Weigert, Anne; McGuire, Jimmy A.; Mudge, Joann; Edwards, Scott V.; Rheindt, Frank E.

    2016-01-01

    Parasite host switches may trigger disease emergence, but prehistoric host ranges are often unknowable. Lymphatic filariasis and loiasis are major human diseases caused by the insect-borne filarial nematodes Brugia, Wuchereria and Loa. Here we show that the genomes of these nematodes and seven tropical bird lineages exclusively share a novel retrotransposon, AviRTE, resulting from horizontal transfer (HT). AviRTE subfamilies exhibit 83–99% nucleotide identity between genomes, and their phylogenetic distribution, paleobiogeography and invasion times suggest that HTs involved filarial nematodes. The HTs between bird and nematode genomes took place in two pantropical waves, >25–22 million years ago (Myr ago) involving the Brugia/Wuchereria lineage and >20–17 Myr ago involving the Loa lineage. Contrary to the expectation from the mammal-dominated host range of filarial nematodes, we hypothesize that these major human pathogens may have independently evolved from bird endoparasites that formerly infected the global breadth of avian biodiversity. PMID:27097561

  4. Horizontal transfer of aligned Si nanowire arrays and their photoconductive performance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    An easy and low-cost method to transfer large-scale horizontally aligned Si nanowires onto a substrate is reported. Si nanowires prepared by metal-assisted chemical etching were assembled and anchored to fabricate multiwire photoconductive devices with standard Si technology. Scanning electron microscopy images showed highly aligned and successfully anchored Si nanowires. Current-voltage tests showed an approximately twofold change in conductivity between the devices in dark and under laser irradiation. Fully reversible light switching ON/OFF response was also achieved with an ION/IOFF ratio of 230. Dynamic response measurement showed a fast switching feature with response and recovery times of 10.96 and 19.26 ms, respectively. PMID:25520603

  5. Horizontal Gene Acquisitions, Mobile Element Proliferation, and Genome Decay in the Host-Restricted Plant Pathogen Erwinia Tracheiphila.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Lori R; Scully, Erin D; Straub, Timothy J; Park, Jihye; Stephenson, Andrew G; Beattie, Gwyn A; Gleason, Mark L; Kolter, Roberto; Coelho, Miguel C; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Mescher, Mark C; Zhaxybayeva, Olga

    2016-03-01

    Modern industrial agriculture depends on high-density cultivation of genetically similar crop plants, creating favorable conditions for the emergence of novel pathogens with increased fitness in managed compared with ecologically intact settings. Here, we present the genome sequence of six strains of the cucurbit bacterial wilt pathogen Erwinia tracheiphila (Enterobacteriaceae) isolated from infected squash plants in New York, Pennsylvania, Kentucky, and Michigan. These genomes exhibit a high proportion of recent horizontal gene acquisitions, invasion and remarkable amplification of mobile genetic elements, and pseudogenization of approximately 20% of the coding sequences. These genome attributes indicate that E. tracheiphila recently emerged as a host-restricted pathogen. Furthermore, chromosomal rearrangements associated with phage and transposable element proliferation contribute to substantial differences in gene content and genetic architecture between the six E. tracheiphila strains and other Erwinia species. Together, these data lead us to hypothesize that E. tracheiphila has undergone recent evolution through both genome decay (pseudogenization) and genome expansion (horizontal gene transfer and mobile element amplification). Despite evidence of dramatic genomic changes, the six strains are genetically monomorphic, suggesting a recent population bottleneck and emergence into E. tracheiphila's current ecological niche. PMID:26992913

  6. Horizontal Gene Acquisitions, Mobile Element Proliferation, and Genome Decay in the Host-Restricted Plant Pathogen Erwinia Tracheiphila

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Lori R.; Scully, Erin D.; Straub, Timothy J.; Park, Jihye; Stephenson, Andrew G.; Beattie, Gwyn A.; Gleason, Mark L.; Kolter, Roberto; Coelho, Miguel C.; De Moraes, Consuelo M.; Mescher, Mark C.; Zhaxybayeva, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Modern industrial agriculture depends on high-density cultivation of genetically similar crop plants, creating favorable conditions for the emergence of novel pathogens with increased fitness in managed compared with ecologically intact settings. Here, we present the genome sequence of six strains of the cucurbit bacterial wilt pathogen Erwinia tracheiphila (Enterobacteriaceae) isolated from infected squash plants in New York, Pennsylvania, Kentucky, and Michigan. These genomes exhibit a high proportion of recent horizontal gene acquisitions, invasion and remarkable amplification of mobile genetic elements, and pseudogenization of approximately 20% of the coding sequences. These genome attributes indicate that E. tracheiphila recently emerged as a host-restricted pathogen. Furthermore, chromosomal rearrangements associated with phage and transposable element proliferation contribute to substantial differences in gene content and genetic architecture between the six E. tracheiphila strains and other Erwinia species. Together, these data lead us to hypothesize that E. tracheiphila has undergone recent evolution through both genome decay (pseudogenization) and genome expansion (horizontal gene transfer and mobile element amplification). Despite evidence of dramatic genomic changes, the six strains are genetically monomorphic, suggesting a recent population bottleneck and emergence into E. tracheiphila’s current ecological niche. PMID:26992913

  7. Clonal and horizontal spread of the blaOXA-232 gene among Enterobacteriaceae in a Korean hospital.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seok Hoon; Lee, Kyu Man; Lee, Jacob; Bae, Il Kwon; Kim, Jae-Seok; Kim, Han-Sung; Song, Wonkeun

    2015-05-01

    All 16 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates and both Escherichia coli isolates harbored the bla(OXA-232) and bla(CTX-M-15) genes. Furthermore, all 16 K. pneumoniae isolates belonged to a unique pulsed-field gel electrophoresis clone and were assigned to an identical sequence type (ST14). The 2 E. coli isolates were identified as ST131 and ST457. The bla(OXA-232) gene underwent horizontal transfer to E. coli isolates via a conjugative ColE-type plasmid. The introduction of this K. pneumoniae ST14 strain to the Korean hospital was attributed to an index patient who was likely colonized during a prior hospitalization in India. PMID:25702524

  8. Experimental and theoretical study of horizontal tube bundle for passive condensation heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yong Jae

    The research in this thesis supports the design of a horizontal tube bundle condenser for passive heat removal system in nuclear reactors. From nuclear power plant containment, condensation of steam from a steam/noncondensable gas occurs on the primary side and boiling occurs on the secondary side; thus, heat exchanger modeling is a challenge. For the purpose of this experimental study, a six-tube bundle is used, where the outer diameter, inner diameter, and length of each stainless steel tube measures 38.10mm (1.5 inches), 31.75mm (1.25 inches) and 3.96m (156 inches), respectively. The pitch to diameter ratio was determined based on information gathered from literature surveys, and the dimensions were determined from calculations and experimental data. The objective of the calculations, correlations, and experimental data was to obtain complete condensation within the tube bundle. Experimental conditions for the tests in this thesis work were determined from Design Basis Accident (DBA). The applications are for an actual Passive Containment Cooling Systems (PCCS) condenser under postulated accident conditions in future light water reactors. In this research, steady state and transient experiments were performed to investigate the effect of noncondensable gas on steam condensation inside and boiling outside a tube bundle heat exchanger. The condenser tube inlet steam mass flow rate varied from 18.0 to 48.0 g/s, the inlet pressure varied from 100 kPa to 400 kPa, and the inlet noncondensable gas mass fraction varied from 1% to 10%. The effect of the noncondensable gas was examined by comparing the tube centerline temperatures for various inlet and system conditions. As a result, it was determined that the noncondensable gas accumulated near the condensate film causing a decrease of mass and energy transfer. In addition, the effect of the inlet steam flow rate gas was investigated by comparing the tube centerline temperatures, the conclusion being that, as the inlet

  9. Viral Vectors for in Vivo Gene Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thévenot, E.; Dufour, N.; Déglon, N.

    The transfer of DNA into the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell (gene transfer) is a central theme of modern biology. The transfer is said to be somatic when it refers to non-germline organs of a developed individual, and germline when it concerns gametes or the fertilised egg of an animal, with the aim of transmitting the relevant genetic modification to its descendents [1]. The efficient introduction of genetic material into a somatic or germline cell and the control of its expression over time have led to major advances in understanding how genes work in vivo, i.e., in living organisms (functional genomics), but also to the development of innovative therapeutic methods (gene therapy). The efficiency of gene transfer is conditioned by the vehicle used, called the vector. Desirable features for a vector are as follows: Easy to produce high titer stocks of the vector in a reproducible way. Absence of toxicity related to transduction (transfer of genetic material into the target cell, and its expression there) and no immune reaction of the organism against the vector and/or therapeutic protein. Stability in the expression of the relevant gene over time, and the possibility of regulation, e.g., to control expression of the therapeutic protein on the physiological level, or to end expression at the end of treatment. Transduction of quiescent cells should be as efficient as transduction of dividing cells. Vectors currently used fall into two categories: non-viral and viral vectors. In non-viral vectors, the DNA is complexed with polymers, lipids, or cationic detergents (described in Chap. 3). These vectors have a low risk of toxicity and immune reaction. However, they are less efficient in vivo than viral vectors when it comes to the number of cells transduced and long-term transgene expression. (Naked DNA transfer or electroporation is rather inefficient in the organism. This type of gene transfer will not be discussed here, and the interested reader is referred to the

  10. Horizontal Chromosome Transfer, a Mechanism for the Evolution and Differentiation of a Plant-Pathogenic Fungus▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Akagi, Yasunori; Akamatsu, Hajime; Otani, Hiroshi; Kodama, Motoichiro

    2009-01-01

    The tomato pathotype of Alternaria alternata produces host-specific AAL toxin and causes Alternaria stem canker on tomato. A polyketide synthetase (PKS) gene, ALT1, which is involved in AAL toxin biosynthesis, resides on a 1.0-Mb conditionally dispensable chromosome (CDC) found only in the pathogenic and AAL toxin-producing strains. Genomic sequences of ALT1 and another PKS gene, both of which reside on the CDC in the tomato pathotype strains, were compared to those of tomato pathotype strains collected worldwide. This revealed that the sequences of both CDC genes were identical among five A. alternata tomato pathotype strains having different geographical origins. On the other hand, the sequences of other genes located on chromosomes other than the CDC are not identical in each strain, indicating that the origin of the CDC might be different from that of other chromosomes in the tomato pathotype. Telomere fingerprinting and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of the A. alternata strains also indicated that the CDCs in the tomato pathotype strains were identical, although the genetic backgrounds of the strains differed. A hybrid strain between two different pathotypes was shown to harbor the CDCs derived from both parental strains with an expanded range of pathogenicity, indicating that CDCs can be transmitted from one strain to another and stably maintained in the new genome. We propose a hypothesis whereby the ability to produce AAL toxin and to infect a plant could potentially be distributed among A. alternata strains by horizontal transfer of an entire pathogenicity chromosome. This could provide a possible mechanism by which new pathogens arise in nature. PMID:19749175

  11. Effect of different magnetic field distributions on laminar ferroconvection heat transfer in horizontal tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikhnejad, Yahya; Hosseini, Reza; Saffar-avval, Majid

    2015-09-01

    The forced convection heat transfer of ferrofluid steady state laminar flow through a circular axisymmetric horizontal pipe under different magnetic field is the focus of this study. The pipe is under constant heat flux while different linear axial magnetic fields were applied on the ferrofluid with equal magnetic energy. In this scenario, viscosity of ferrofluid is temperature dependent, to capture ferrofluid real behavior a nonlinear Langevin equation was considered for equilibrium magnetization. For this purpose, the set of nonlinear governing PDEs was solved using proper CFD techniques: the finite volume method and SIMPLE algorithm were used to discretize and numerically solve the governing equation in order to obtain thermohydrodynamic flow characteristics. The numerical results show a promising enhancement of up to 135.7% in heat transfer as a consequence of the application of magnetic field. The magnetic field also increases pressure loss of up to 77% along the pipe; but effectiveness (favorable to unfavorable effect ratio) of the magnetic field as a performance index economically justifies its application such that higher magnetic field intensity causes higher effectiveness of up to 1.364.

  12. Indirect Fitness Benefits Enable the Spread of Host Genes Promoting Costly Transfer of Beneficial Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Dimitriu, Tatiana; Misevic, Dusan; Lotton, Chantal; Brown, Sam P.; Lindner, Ariel B.; Taddei, François

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial genes that confer crucial phenotypes, such as antibiotic resistance, can spread horizontally by residing on mobile genetic elements (MGEs). Although many mobile genes provide strong benefits to their hosts, the fitness consequences of the process of transfer itself are less clear. In previous studies, transfer has been interpreted as a parasitic trait of the MGEs because of its costs to the host but also as a trait benefiting host populations through the sharing of a common gene pool. Here, we show that costly donation is an altruistic act when it spreads beneficial MGEs favoured when it increases the inclusive fitness of donor ability alleles. We show mathematically that donor ability can be selected when relatedness at the locus modulating transfer is sufficiently high between donor and recipients, ensuring high frequency of transfer between cells sharing donor alleles. We further experimentally demonstrate that either population structure or discrimination in transfer can increase relatedness to a level selecting for chromosomal transfer alleles. Both mechanisms are likely to occur in natural environments. The simple process of strong dilution can create sufficient population structure to select for donor ability. Another mechanism observed in natural isolates, discrimination in transfer, can emerge through coselection of transfer and discrimination alleles. Our work shows that horizontal gene transfer in bacteria can be promoted by bacterial hosts themselves and not only by MGEs. In the longer term, the success of cells bearing beneficial MGEs combined with biased transfer leads to an association between high donor ability, discrimination, and mobile beneficial genes. However, in conditions that do not select for altruism, host bacteria promoting transfer are outcompeted by hosts with lower transfer rate, an aspect that could be relevant in the fight against the spread of antibiotic resistance. PMID:27270455

  13. Gene Transfers Shaped the Evolution of De Novo NAD+ Biosynthesis in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Ternes, Chad M.; Schönknecht, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    NAD+ is an essential molecule for life, present in each living cell. It can function as an electron carrier or cofactor in redox biochemistry and energetics, and serves as substrate to generate the secondary messenger cyclic ADP ribose and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Although de novo NAD+ biosynthesis is essential, different metabolic pathways exist in different eukaryotic clades. The kynurenine pathway starting with tryptophan was most likely present in the last common ancestor of all eukaryotes, and is active in fungi and animals. The aspartate pathway, detected in most photosynthetic eukaryotes, was probably acquired from the cyanobacterial endosymbiont that gave rise to chloroplasts. An evolutionary analysis of enzymes catalyzing de novo NAD+ biosynthesis resulted in evolutionary trees incongruent with established organismal phylogeny, indicating numerous gene transfers. Endosymbiotic gene transfers probably introduced the aspartate pathway into eukaryotes and may have distributed it among different photosynthetic clades. In addition, several horizontal gene transfers substituted eukaryotic genes with bacterial orthologs. Although horizontal gene transfer is accepted as a key mechanism in prokaryotic evolution, it is supposed to be rare in eukaryotic evolution. The essential metabolic pathway of de novo NAD+ biosynthesis in eukaryotes was shaped by numerous gene transfers. PMID:25169983

  14. Evolutionary Advantage Conferred by an Eukaryote-to-Eukaryote Gene Transfer Event in Wine Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Marsit, Souhir; Mena, Adriana; Bigey, Frédéric; Sauvage, François-Xavier; Couloux, Arnaud; Guy, Julie; Legras, Jean-Luc; Barrio, Eladio; Dequin, Sylvie; Galeote, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    Although an increasing number of horizontal gene transfers have been reported in eukaryotes, experimental evidence for their adaptive value is lacking. Here, we report the recent transfer of a 158-kb genomic region between Torulaspora microellipsoides and Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeasts or closely related strains. This genomic region has undergone several rearrangements in S. cerevisiae strains, including gene loss and gene conversion between two tandemly duplicated FOT genes encoding oligopeptide transporters. We show that FOT genes confer a strong competitive advantage during grape must fermentation by increasing the number and diversity of oligopeptides that yeast can utilize as a source of nitrogen, thereby improving biomass formation, fermentation efficiency, and cell viability. Thus, the acquisition of FOT genes has favored yeast adaptation to the nitrogen-limited wine fermentation environment. This finding indicates that anthropic environments offer substantial ecological opportunity for evolutionary diversification through gene exchange between distant yeast species. PMID:25750179

  15. Lateral gene transfer in the subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Barkay, Tamar; Sobecky, Patricia

    2007-08-27

    Lateral gene transfer (LGT) is an important adaptive mechanism among prokaryotic organisms. This mechanism is particularly important for the response of microorganisms to changing environmental conditions because it facilitates the transfer of a large number of genes and their rapid expression. Together the transferred genes promote rapid genetic and metabolic changes that may enhance survival to newly established and sometimes hostile environmental conditions. The goal of our project was to examine if and how LGT enhances microbial adaptation to toxic heavy metals in subsurface environments that had been contaminated by mixed wastes due to activities associated with the production of nuclear energy and weapons. This task has been accomplished by dividing the project to several sub-tasks. Thus, we: (1) Determined the level of resistance of subsurface bacterial isolates to several toxic metals, all identified as pollutants of concern in subsurface environments; (2) Designed, tested, and applied, a molecular approach that determined whether metal resistance genes had evolved by LGT among subsurface bacteria; and (3) Developed a DNA hybridization array for the identification of broad host range plasmids and of metal resistance plasmids. The results are briefly summarized below with references to published papers and manuscripts in preparation where details about our research can be found. Additional information may be found in copies of our published manuscripts and conference proceedings, and our yearly reports that were submitted through the RIMS system.

  16. Bacterial gene transfer by natural genetic transformation in the environment.

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, M G; Wackernagel, W

    1994-01-01

    Natural genetic transformation is the active uptake of free DNA by bacterial cells and the heritable incorporation of its genetic information. Since the famous discovery of transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae by Griffith in 1928 and the demonstration of DNA as the transforming principle by Avery and coworkers in 1944, cellular processes involved in transformation have been studied extensively by in vitro experimentation with a few transformable species. Only more recently has it been considered that transformation may be a powerful mechanism of horizontal gene transfer in natural bacterial populations. In this review the current understanding of the biology of transformation is summarized to provide the platform on which aspects of bacterial transformation in water, soil, and sediments and the habitat of pathogens are discussed. Direct and indirect evidence for gene transfer routes by transformation within species and between different species will be presented, along with data suggesting that plasmids as well as chromosomal DNA are subject to genetic exchange via transformation. Experiments exploring the prerequisites for transformation in the environment, including the production and persistence of free DNA and factors important for the uptake of DNA by cells, will be compiled, as well as possible natural barriers to transformation. The efficiency of gene transfer by transformation in bacterial habitats is possibly genetically adjusted to submaximal levels. The fact that natural transformation has been detected among bacteria from all trophic and taxonomic groups including archaebacteria suggests that transformability evolved early in phylogeny. Probable functions of DNA uptake other than gene acquisition will be discussed. The body of information presently available suggests that transformation has a great impact on bacterial population dynamics as well as on bacterial evolution and speciation. PMID:7968924

  17. Clinical Applications Involving CNS Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Kantor, Boris; McCown, Thomas; Leone, Paola; Gray, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) have traditionally been the most difficult to treat by traditional pharmacological methods, due mostly to the blood–brain barrier and the difficulties associated with repeated drug administration targeting the CNS. Viral vector gene transfer represents a way to permanently provide a therapeutic protein within the nervous system after a single administration, whether this be a gene replacement strategy for an inherited disorder or a disease-modifying protein for a disease such as Parkinson's. Gene therapy approaches for CNS disorders has evolved considerably over the last two decades. Although a breakthrough treatment has remained elusive, current strategies are now considerably safer and potentially much more effective. This chapter will explore the past, current, and future status of CNS gene therapy, focusing on clinical trials utilizing adeno-associated virus and lentiviral vectors. PMID:25311921

  18. Perinatal Gene Transfer to the Liver

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Tristan R; Rahim, Ahad A; Buckley, Suzanne M.K; Ward, Natalie J; Chan, Jerry K.Y; Howe, Steven J; Waddington, Simon N

    2011-01-01

    The liver acts as a host to many functions hence raising the possibility that any one may be compromised by a single gene defect. Inherited or de novo mutations in these genes may result in relatively mild diseases or be so devastating that death within the first weeks or months of life is inevitable. Some diseases can be managed using conventional medicines whereas others are, as yet, untreatable. In this review we consider the application of early intervention gene therapy in neonatal and fetal preclinical studies. We appraise the tools of this technology, including lentivirus, adenovirus and adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors. We highlight the application of these for a range of diseases including hemophilia, urea cycle disorders such as ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, organic acidemias, lysosomal storage diseases including mucopolysaccharidoses, glycogen storage diseases and bile metabolism. We conclude by assessing the advantages and disadvantages associated with fetal and neonatal liver gene transfer. PMID:21774770

  19. Influence of exogenous melatonin on horizontal transfer of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in experimentally infected sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the current research was to determine if exogenous melatonin would exert a “protective” effect on the gastrointestinal tract of sheep and prevent or reduce the horizontal transfer of E. coli O157:H7 from experimentally-infected to non-infected or “naïve” sheep. Sixteen crossbred ewe...

  20. Influence of mold length and mold heat transfer on horizontal continuous casting of nonferrous alloy rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verwijs, J. P.; Weckman, D. C.

    1988-04-01

    The influence of mold length and mold heat transfer on the conventional hot-top D.C. continuous casting process was studied through numerical simulations and experiments with horizontally cast 20 mm diameter lead and zinc rods. The minimum casting speed was found to be a nonlinear function of the mold length. For short molds, an inverse relationship between mold length and minimum casting speed was observed. However, the minimum casting speed for zinc cast from molds longer than 12 mm was constant at 2.5 mm/s. For lead cast in molds longer than 12 mm, the minimum observed casting speed was constant at 4.0 mm/s. The observed nonlinear relationship between minimum casting speed and mold length was predicted using a numerical model of the process. For this, an analytical expression for the mold boundary conditions was derived which included the influence of gas gap formation between the rod and the mold due to thermoelastic deformations of both the rod and the mold. Correlation between observed and predicted behavior was demonstrated for both the lead and zinc rods. Maximum casting speed was observed to increase with increased mold length; however, this speed was found to be critically dependent on process attributes such as mold and pinch wheel alignment and mold lubrication.

  1. Heat transfer enhancement of PCM melting in 2D horizontal elliptical tube using metallic porous matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jourabian, Mahmoud; Farhadi, Mousa; Rabienataj Darzi, Ahmad Ali

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the melting process of ice as a phase-change material (PCM) saturated with a nickel-steel porous matrix inside a horizontal elliptical tube is investigated. Due to the low thermal conductivity of the PCM, it is motivated to augment the heat transfer performance of the system simultaneously by finding an optimum value of the aspect ratio and impregnating a metallic porous matrix into the base PCM. The lattice Boltzmann method with a double distribution function formulated based on the enthalpy method, is applied at the representative elementary volume scale under the local thermal equilibrium assumption between the PCM and porous matrix in the composite. While reducing or increasing the aspect ratio of the circular tubes leads to the expedited melting, the 90° inclination of each elliptical tube in the case of the pure PCM melting does not affect the melting rate. With the reduction in the porosity, the effective thermal conductivity and melting rate in all tubes promoted. Although the natural convection is fully suppressed due to the significant flow blockage in the porous structure, the melting rates are generally increased in all cases.

  2. Horizontal Gene Acquisition of Liberibacter Plant Pathogens from a Bacteriome-Confined Endosymbiont of Their Psyllid Vector

    PubMed Central

    Oshima, Kenshiro; Inoue, Hiromitsu; Ohkuma, Moriya; Hongoh, Yuichi; Miyagishima, Shin-ya; Hattori, Masahira; Fukatsu, Takema

    2013-01-01

    he Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri is a notorious agricultural pest that transmits the phloem-inhabiting alphaproteobacterial ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ and allied plant pathogens, which cause the devastating citrus disease called Huanglongbing or greening disease. D. citri harbors two distinct bacterial mutualists in the symbiotic organ called bacteriome: the betaproteobacterium ‘Candidatus Profftella armatura’ in the syncytial cytoplasm at the center of the bacteriome, and the gammaproteobacterium ‘Candidatus Carsonella ruddii’ in uninucleate bacteriocytes. Here we report that a putative amino acid transporter LysE of Profftella forms a highly supported clade with proteins of L. asiaticus, L. americanus, and L. solanacearum. L. crescens, the most basal Liberibacter lineage currently known, lacked the corresponding gene. The Profftella-Liberibacter subclade of LysE formed a clade with proteins from betaproteobacteria of the order Burkholderiales, to which Profftella belongs. This phylogenetic pattern favors the hypothesis that the Liberibacter lineage acquired the gene from the Profftella lineage via horizontal gene transfer (HGT) after L. crescens diverged from other Liberibacter lineages. KA/KS analyses further supported the hypothesis that the genes encoded in the Liberibacter genomes are functional. These findings highlight the possible evolutionary importance of HGT between plant pathogens and their insect vector’s symbionts that are confined in the symbiotic organ and seemingly sequestered from external microbial populations. PMID:24349319

  3. Stagnation point flow and heat transfer behavior of Cu-water nanofluid towards horizontal and exponentially stretching/shrinking cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulochana, C.; Sandeep, N.

    2016-03-01

    In this study we analyzed the stagnation point flow and heat transfer behavior of Cu-water nanofluid towards horizontal and exponentially permeable stretching/shrinking cylinders in presence of suction/injection, heat source and shape of nanoparticles. The governing boundary layer equations are transformed to nonlinear ordinary differential equations using similarity transformation which are then solved numerically using bvp4c Matlab package. The influence of non-dimensional governing parameters on the flow field and heat transfer characteristics are discussed and presented through graphs and tables. The study indicates that the solutions for the horizontal and exponential cylinders are non-unique and shape of nanoparticles also influences the rate of heat transfer. Comparisons of the present results with existed studies are presented. Present study has an excellent agreement with the existed studies under some special conditions.

  4. Study on transient characteristics of mist-cooling heat transfer from a horizontal upward-facing surface

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, Hidetoshi; Nishio, Shigefumi )

    1993-04-01

    The effects of cooling rate and thermal conductivity of a heat-transfer plate on mist-cooling heat transfer were investigated experimentally for the high-temperature region. Experiments were conducted for horizontal upward-facing surfaces made of silver, stainless steel, and fused quartz. The experimental conditions of mist flow were as follows: The air velocity V[sub a] = 20 m/s, the temperature of water droplet T[sub l] = 21 C, and the volumetric droplet-flow-rate D = 0.00043-0.00472[sup 3]/(m[sup 2]s). It was found that, in the case where the horizontal surfaces face upward, the thermal properties of surface material does not significantly affect the heat-transfer coefficient, but the cooling rate of the surface affects it if the heat capacity of the surface is less than a critical value.

  5. Kinetics of conjugative gene transfer on surfaces in granular porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massoudieh, A.; Crain, C.; Lambertini, E.; Nelson, K. E.; Barkouki, T.; L'Amoreaux, P.; Loge, F. J.; Ginn, T. R.

    2010-03-01

    The transfer of genetic material among bacteria in the environment can occur both in the planktonic and attached state. Given the propensity of organisms to exist in sessile microbial communities in oligotrophic subsurface conditions, and that such conditions typify the subsurface, this study focuses on exploratory modeling of horizontal gene transfer among surface-associated Escherichiacoli in the subsurface. The mathematics so far used to describe the kinetics of conjugation in biofilms are developed largely from experimental observations of planktonic gene transfer, and are absent of lags or plasmid stability that appear experimentally. We develop a model and experimental system to quantify bacterial filtration and gene transfer in the attached state, on granular porous media. We include attachment kinetics described in Nelson et al. (2007) using the filtration theory approach of Nelson and Ginn (2001, 2005) with motility of E. coli described according to Biondi et al. (1998).

  6. Kinetics of conjugative gene transfer on surfaces in granular porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginn, T.; Massoudieh, A.; Nelson, K.; Mathew, A.; Lambertini, E.

    2005-12-01

    The transfer of genetic material among bacteria in the environment can occur both in the planktonic and attached state. Given the propensity of organisms to exist in sessile microbial communities in oligotrophic conditions, and that such conditions typify the subsurface, this study focuses on exploratory modeling of horizontal gene transfer among surface-associated E. coli in the subsurface. The mathematics so far used to describe the kinetics of conjugation in biofilms are developed largely from experimental observations of planktonic gene transfer, and are absent of lags or plasmid stability that appear experimentally. We develop a model for bacterial filtration and gene transfer in the attached state, for the early stages of biofilm formation using a recently revised filtration theory approach (Nelson and Ginn, 2005) with motility of E. coli described as a continuous time random walk according to data from microflow chamber experiments (Biondi et al., 2002).

  7. Simple rapid method for gene transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Cockburn, A.F.; Meier, H.

    1990-01-30

    The object of the present invention is to provide methods for gene transfer that reduce or eliminate cellular pretreatment steps, e.g., the removal of cell wall by chemical or enzymatic methods, is rapid and can be practiced without the need of additional expensive equipment. Cells, embryos or tissues selected for genetic manipulation are suspended in an Eppendorf tube in an aliquot of the desired genetic material to be transferred to which the resulting mixture is added and is agitated by vortexing from about 30 to about 90 seconds. The cells, embryos or tissue are sedimented and the DNA supernatant removed. After sedimentation, the injected material is resuspended in or on a growth medium to assay for expression.

  8. Gene Transfer between Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium inside Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Gayle C.; Heinemann, Jack A.; Kennedy, Martin A.

    2002-01-01

    Virulence and antibiotic resistance genes transfer between bacteria by bacterial conjugation. Conjugation also mediates gene transfer from bacteria to eukaryotic organisms, including yeast and human cells. Predicting when and where genes transfer by conjugation could enhance our understanding of the risks involved in the release of genetically modified organisms, including those being developed for use as vaccines. We report here that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium conjugated inside cultured human cells. The DNA transfer from donor to recipient bacteria was proportional to the probability that the two types of bacteria occupied the same cell, which was dependent on viable and invasive bacteria and on plasmid tra genes. Based on the high frequencies of gene transfer between bacteria inside human cells, we suggest that such gene transfers occur in situ. The implications of gene transfer between bacteria inside human cells, particularly in the context of antibiotic resistance, are discussed. PMID:11914355

  9. Reducible cationic lipids for gene transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Wetzer, B; Byk, G; Frederic, M; Airiau, M; Blanche, F; Pitard, B; Scherman, D

    2001-01-01

    One of the main challenges of gene therapy remains the increase of gene delivery into eukaryotic cells. We tested whether intracellular DNA release, an essential step for gene transfer, could be facilitated by using reducible cationic DNA-delivery vectors. For this purpose, plasmid DNA was complexed with cationic lipids bearing a disulphide bond. This reduction-sensitive linker is expected to be reduced and cleaved in the reducing milieu of the cytoplasm, thus potentially improving DNA release and consequently transfection. The DNA--disulphide-lipid complexation was monitored by ethidium bromide exclusion, and the size of complexes was determined by dynamic light scattering. It was found that the reduction kinetics of disulphide groups in DNA--lipid complexes depended on the position of the disulphide linker within the lipid molecule. Furthermore, the internal structure of DNA--lipid particles was examined by small-angle X-ray scattering before and after lipid reduction. DNA release from lipid complexes was observed after the reduction of disulphide bonds of several lipids. Cell-transfection experiments suggested that complexes formed with selected reducible lipids resulted in up to 1000-fold higher reporter-gene activity, when compared with their analogues without disulphide bonds. In conclusion, reduction-sensitive groups introduced into cationic lipid backbones potentially allow enhanced DNA release from DNA--lipid complexes after intracellular reduction and represent a tool for improved vectorization. PMID:11389682

  10. Identification of Bari Transposons in 23 Sequenced Drosophila Genomes Reveals Novel Structural Variants, MITEs and Horizontal Transfer.

    PubMed

    Palazzo, Antonio; Lovero, Domenica; D'Addabbo, Pietro; Caizzi, Ruggiero; Marsano, René Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    Bari elements are members of the Tc1-mariner superfamily of DNA transposons, originally discovered in Drosophila melanogaster, and subsequently identified in silico in 11 sequenced Drosophila genomes and as experimentally isolated in four non-sequenced Drosophila species. Bari-like elements have been also studied for their mobility both in vivo and in vitro. We analyzed 23 Drosophila genomes and carried out a detailed characterization of the Bari elements identified, including those from the heterochromatic Bari1 cluster in D. melanogaster. We have annotated 401 copies of Bari elements classified either as putatively autonomous or inactive according to the structure of the terminal sequences and the presence of a complete transposase-coding region. Analyses of the integration sites revealed that Bari transposase prefers AT-rich sequences in which the TA target is cleaved and duplicated. Furthermore evaluation of transposon's co-occurrence near the integration sites of Bari elements showed a non-random distribution of other transposable elements. We also unveil the existence of a putatively autonomous Bari1 variant characterized by two identical long Terminal Inverted Repeats, in D. rhopaloa. In addition, we detected MITEs related to Bari transposons in 9 species. Phylogenetic analyses based on transposase gene and the terminal sequences confirmed that Bari-like elements are distributed into three subfamilies. A few inconsistencies in Bari phylogenetic tree with respect to the Drosophila species tree could be explained by the occurrence of horizontal transfer events as also suggested by the results of dS analyses. This study further clarifies the Bari transposon's evolutionary dynamics and increases our understanding on the Tc1-mariner elements' biology. PMID:27213270

  11. Identification of Bari Transposons in 23 Sequenced Drosophila Genomes Reveals Novel Structural Variants, MITEs and Horizontal Transfer

    PubMed Central

    D’Addabbo, Pietro; Caizzi, Ruggiero

    2016-01-01

    Bari elements are members of the Tc1-mariner superfamily of DNA transposons, originally discovered in Drosophila melanogaster, and subsequently identified in silico in 11 sequenced Drosophila genomes and as experimentally isolated in four non-sequenced Drosophila species. Bari-like elements have been also studied for their mobility both in vivo and in vitro. We analyzed 23 Drosophila genomes and carried out a detailed characterization of the Bari elements identified, including those from the heterochromatic Bari1 cluster in D. melanogaster. We have annotated 401 copies of Bari elements classified either as putatively autonomous or inactive according to the structure of the terminal sequences and the presence of a complete transposase-coding region. Analyses of the integration sites revealed that Bari transposase prefers AT-rich sequences in which the TA target is cleaved and duplicated. Furthermore evaluation of transposon’s co-occurrence near the integration sites of Bari elements showed a non-random distribution of other transposable elements. We also unveil the existence of a putatively autonomous Bari1 variant characterized by two identical long Terminal Inverted Repeats, in D. rhopaloa. In addition, we detected MITEs related to Bari transposons in 9 species. Phylogenetic analyses based on transposase gene and the terminal sequences confirmed that Bari-like elements are distributed into three subfamilies. A few inconsistencies in Bari phylogenetic tree with respect to the Drosophila species tree could be explained by the occurrence of horizontal transfer events as also suggested by the results of dS analyses. This study further clarifies the Bari transposon’s evolutionary dynamics and increases our understanding on the Tc1-mariner elements’ biology. PMID:27213270

  12. Noncognitive Predictors of Academic Performance and Persistence in Horizontal and Vertical Transfer Students by Academic Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    College students increasingly are transferring among institutions of higher education in pursuit of their educational goals. The existing research on transfer students, however, does not adequately explore the unique characteristics of this heterogeneous population. The literature on transfer students suggests that transfer students are at-risk…

  13. Gene therapy: Biological pacemaker created by gene transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miake, Junichiro; Marbán, Eduardo; Nuss, H. Bradley

    2002-09-01

    The pacemaker cells of the heart initiate the heartbeat, sustain the circulation, and dictate the rate and rhythm of cardiac contraction. Circulatory collapse ensues when these specialized cells are damaged by disease, a situation that currently necessitates the implantation of an electronic pacemaker. Here we report the use of viral gene transfer to convert quiescent heart-muscle cells into pacemaker cells, and the successful generation of spontaneous, rhythmic electrical activity in the ventricle in vivo. Our results indicate that genetically engineered pacemakers could be developed as a possible alternative to implantable electronic devices.

  14. Gene duplication and transfer events in plant mitochondria genome

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong Aisheng Peng Rihe; Zhuang Jing; Gao Feng; Zhu Bo; Fu Xiaoyan; Xue Yong; Jin Xiaofen; Tian Yongsheng; Zhao Wei; Yao Quanhong

    2008-11-07

    Gene or genome duplication events increase the amount of genetic material available to increase the genomic, and thereby phenotypic, complexity of organisms during evolution. Gene duplication and transfer events have been important to molecular evolution in all three domains of life, and may be the first step in the emergence of new gene functions. Gene transfer events have been proposed as another accelerator of evolution. The duplicated gene or genome, mainly nuclear, has been the subject of several recent reviews. In addition to the nuclear genome, organisms have organelle genomes, including mitochondrial genome. In this review, we briefly summarize gene duplication and transfer events in the plant mitochondrial genome.

  15. Infectious CTXΦ and the Vibrio Pathogenicity Island Prophage in Vibrio mimicus: Evidence for Recent Horizontal Transfer between V. mimicus and V. cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, E. Fidelma; Moyer, Kathryn E.; Shi, Lei; Waldor, Matthew K.

    2000-01-01

    Vibrio mimicus differs from Vibrio cholerae in a number of genotypic and phenotypic traits but like V. cholerae can give rise to diarrheal disease. We examined clinical isolates of V. mimicus for the presence of CTXΦ, the lysogenic filamentous bacteriophage that carries the cholera toxin genes in epidemic V. cholerae strains. Four V. mimicus isolates were found to contain complete copies of CTXΦ. Southern blot analyses revealed that V. mimicus strain PT5 contains two CTX prophages integrated at different sites within the V. mimicus genome whereas V. mimicus strains PT48, 523-80, and 9583 each contain tandemly arranged copies of CTXΦ. We detected the replicative form of CTXΦ, pCTX, in all four of these V. mimicus isolates. The CTX prophage in strain PT5 was found to produce infectious CTXΦ particles. The nucleotide sequences of CTXΦ genes orfU and zot from V. mimicus strain PT5 and V. cholerae strain N16961 were identical, indicating contemporary horizontal transfer of CTXΦ between these two species. The receptor for CTXΦ, the toxin-coregulated pilus, which is encoded by another lysogenic filamentous bacteriophage, VPIΦ, was also present in the CTXΦ-positive V. mimicus isolates. The nucleotide sequences of VPIΦ genes aldA and toxT from V. mimicus strain PT5 and V. cholerae N16961 were identical, suggesting recent horizontal transfer of this phage between V. mimicus and V. cholerae. In V. mimicus, the vibrio pathogenicity island prophage was integrated in the same chromosomal attachment site as in V. cholerae. These results suggest that V. mimicus may be a significant reservoir for both CTXΦ and VPIΦ and may play an important role in the emergence of new toxigenic V. cholerae isolates. PMID:10678967

  16. Detecting rare gene transfer events in bacterial populations.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Kaare M; Bøhn, Thomas; Townsend, Jeffrey P

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) enables bacteria to access, share, and recombine genetic variation, resulting in genetic diversity that cannot be obtained through mutational processes alone. In most cases, the observation of evolutionary successful HGT events relies on the outcome of initially rare events that lead to novel functions in the new host, and that exhibit a positive effect on host fitness. Conversely, the large majority of HGT events occurring in bacterial populations will go undetected due to lack of replication success of transformants. Moreover, other HGT events that would be highly beneficial to new hosts can fail to ensue due to lack of physical proximity to the donor organism, lack of a suitable gene transfer mechanism, genetic compatibility, and stochasticity in tempo-spatial occurrence. Experimental attempts to detect HGT events in bacterial populations have typically focused on the transformed cells or their immediate offspring. However, rare HGT events occurring in large and structured populations are unlikely to reach relative population sizes that will allow their immediate identification; the exception being the unusually strong positive selection conferred by antibiotics. Most HGT events are not expected to alter the likelihood of host survival to such an extreme extent, and will confer only minor changes in host fitness. Due to the large population sizes of bacteria and the time scales involved, the process and outcome of HGT are often not amenable to experimental investigation. Population genetic modeling of the growth dynamics of bacteria with differing HGT rates and resulting fitness changes is therefore necessary to guide sampling design and predict realistic time frames for detection of HGT, as it occurs in laboratory or natural settings. Here we review the key population genetic parameters, consider their complexity and highlight knowledge gaps for further research. PMID:24432015

  17. Detecting rare gene transfer events in bacterial populations

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Kaare M.; Bøhn, Thomas; Townsend, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) enables bacteria to access, share, and recombine genetic variation, resulting in genetic diversity that cannot be obtained through mutational processes alone. In most cases, the observation of evolutionary successful HGT events relies on the outcome of initially rare events that lead to novel functions in the new host, and that exhibit a positive effect on host fitness. Conversely, the large majority of HGT events occurring in bacterial populations will go undetected due to lack of replication success of transformants. Moreover, other HGT events that would be highly beneficial to new hosts can fail to ensue due to lack of physical proximity to the donor organism, lack of a suitable gene transfer mechanism, genetic compatibility, and stochasticity in tempo-spatial occurrence. Experimental attempts to detect HGT events in bacterial populations have typically focused on the transformed cells or their immediate offspring. However, rare HGT events occurring in large and structured populations are unlikely to reach relative population sizes that will allow their immediate identification; the exception being the unusually strong positive selection conferred by antibiotics. Most HGT events are not expected to alter the likelihood of host survival to such an extreme extent, and will confer only minor changes in host fitness. Due to the large population sizes of bacteria and the time scales involved, the process and outcome of HGT are often not amenable to experimental investigation. Population genetic modeling of the growth dynamics of bacteria with differing HGT rates and resulting fitness changes is therefore necessary to guide sampling design and predict realistic time frames for detection of HGT, as it occurs in laboratory or natural settings. Here we review the key population genetic parameters, consider their complexity and highlight knowledge gaps for further research. PMID:24432015

  18. Phage-mediated horizontal transfer of a Staphylococcus aureus virulence-associated genomic island.

    PubMed

    Moon, Bo Youn; Park, Joo Youn; Hwang, Sun Yung; Robinson, D Ashley; Thomas, Jonathan C; Fitzgerald, J Ross; Park, Yong Ho; Seo, Keun Seok

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen of humans and animals. The capacity of S. aureus to adapt to different host species and tissue types is strongly influenced by the acquisition of mobile genetic elements encoding determinants involved in niche adaptation. The genomic islands νSaα and νSaβ are found in almost all S. aureus strains and are characterized by extensive variation in virulence gene content. However the basis for the diversity and the mechanism underlying mobilization of the genomic islands between strains are unexplained. Here, we demonstrated that the genomic island, νSaβ, encoding an array of virulence factors including staphylococcal superantigens, proteases, and leukotoxins, in addition to bacteriocins, was transferrable in vitro to human and animal strains of multiple S. aureus clones via a resident prophage. The transfer of the νSaβ appears to have been accomplished by multiple conversions of transducing phage particles carrying overlapping segments of the νSaβ. Our findings solve a long-standing mystery regarding the diversification and spread of the genomic island νSaβ, highlighting the central role of bacteriophages in the pathogenic evolution of S. aureus. PMID:25891795

  19. Phage-mediated horizontal transfer of a Staphylococcus aureus virulence-associated genomic island

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Bo Youn; Park, Joo Youn; Hwang, Sun Yung; Robinson, D. Ashley; Thomas, Jonathan C.; Fitzgerald, J. Ross; Park, Yong Ho; Seo, Keun Seok

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen of humans and animals. The capacity of S. aureus to adapt to different host species and tissue types is strongly influenced by the acquisition of mobile genetic elements encoding determinants involved in niche adaptation. The genomic islands νSaα and νSaβ are found in almost all S. aureus strains and are characterized by extensive variation in virulence gene content. However the basis for the diversity and the mechanism underlying mobilization of the genomic islands between strains are unexplained. Here, we demonstrated that the genomic island, νSaβ, encoding an array of virulence factors including staphylococcal superantigens, proteases, and leukotoxins, in addition to bacteriocins, was transferrable in vitro to human and animal strains of multiple S. aureus clones via a resident prophage. The transfer of the νSaβ appears to have been accomplished by multiple conversions of transducing phage particles carrying overlapping segments of the νSaβ. Our findings solve a long-standing mystery regarding the diversification and spread of the genomic island νSaβ, highlighting the central role of bacteriophages in the pathogenic evolution of S. aureus. PMID:25891795

  20. Mainstreams of Horizontal Gene Exchange in Enterobacteria: Consideration of the Outbreak of Enterohemorrhagic E. coli O104:H4 in Germany in 2011

    PubMed Central

    Bezuidt, Oliver; Pierneef, Rian; Mncube, Kingdom; Lima-Mendez, Gipsi; Reva, Oleg N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Escherichia coli O104:H4 caused a severe outbreak in Europe in 2011. The strain TY-2482 sequenced from this outbreak allowed the discovery of its closest relatives but failed to resolve ways in which it originated and evolved. On account of the previous statement, may we expect similar upcoming outbreaks to occur recurrently or spontaneously in the future? The inability to answer these questions shows limitations of the current comparative and evolutionary genomics methods. Principal Findings The study revealed oscillations of gene exchange in enterobacteria, which originated from marine γ-Proteobacteria. These mobile genetic elements have become recombination hotspots and effective ‘vehicles’ ensuring a wide distribution of successful combinations of fitness and virulence genes among enterobacteria. Two remarkable peculiarities of the strain TY-2482 and its relatives were observed: i) retaining the genetic primitiveness by these strains as they somehow avoided the main fluxes of horizontal gene transfer which effectively penetrated other enetrobacteria; ii) acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes in a plasmid genomic island of β-Proteobacteria origin which ontologically is unrelated to the predominant genomic islands of enterobacteria. Conclusions Oscillations of horizontal gene exchange activity were reported which result from a counterbalance between the acquired resistance of bacteria towards existing mobile vectors and the generation of new vectors in the environmental microflora. We hypothesized that TY-2482 may originate from a genetically primitive lineage of E. coli that has evolved in confined geographical areas and brought by human migration or cattle trade onto an intersection of several independent streams of horizontal gene exchange. Development of a system for monitoring the new and most active gene exchange events was proposed. PMID:22022434

  1. VHICA, a New Method to Discriminate between Vertical and Horizontal Transposon Transfer: Application to the Mariner Family within Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wallau, Gabriel Luz; Capy, Pierre; Loreto, Elgion; Le Rouzic, Arnaud; Hua-Van, Aurélie

    2016-04-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are genomic repeated sequences that display complex evolutionary patterns. They are usually inherited vertically, but can occasionally be transmitted between sexually independent species, through so-called horizontal transposon transfers (HTTs). Recurrent HTTs are supposed to be essential in life cycle of TEs, which are otherwise destined for eventual decay. HTTs also impact the host genome evolution. However, the extent of HTTs in eukaryotes is largely unknown, due to the lack of efficient, statistically supported methods that can be applied to multiple species sequence data sets. Here, we developed a new automated method available as a R package "vhica" that discriminates whether a given TE family was vertically or horizontally transferred, and potentially infers donor and receptor species. The method is well suited for TE sequences extracted from complete genomes, and applicable to multiple TEs and species at the same time. We first validated our method using Drosophila TE families with well-known evolutionary histories, displaying both HTTs and vertical transmission. We then tested 26 different lineages of mariner elements recently characterized in 20 Drosophila genomes, and found HTTs in 24 of them. Furthermore, several independent HTT events could often be detected within the same mariner lineage. The VHICA (Vertical and Horizontal Inheritance Consistence Analysis) method thus appears as a valuable tool to analyze the evolutionary history of TEs across a large range of species. PMID:26685176

  2. VHICA, a New Method to Discriminate between Vertical and Horizontal Transposon Transfer: Application to the Mariner Family within Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Wallau, Gabriel Luz; Capy, Pierre; Loreto, Elgion; Le Rouzic, Arnaud; Hua-Van, Aurélie

    2016-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are genomic repeated sequences that display complex evolutionary patterns. They are usually inherited vertically, but can occasionally be transmitted between sexually independent species, through so-called horizontal transposon transfers (HTTs). Recurrent HTTs are supposed to be essential in life cycle of TEs, which are otherwise destined for eventual decay. HTTs also impact the host genome evolution. However, the extent of HTTs in eukaryotes is largely unknown, due to the lack of efficient, statistically supported methods that can be applied to multiple species sequence data sets. Here, we developed a new automated method available as a R package “vhica” that discriminates whether a given TE family was vertically or horizontally transferred, and potentially infers donor and receptor species. The method is well suited for TE sequences extracted from complete genomes, and applicable to multiple TEs and species at the same time. We first validated our method using Drosophila TE families with well-known evolutionary histories, displaying both HTTs and vertical transmission. We then tested 26 different lineages of mariner elements recently characterized in 20 Drosophila genomes, and found HTTs in 24 of them. Furthermore, several independent HTT events could often be detected within the same mariner lineage. The VHICA (Vertical and Horizontal Inheritance Consistence Analysis) method thus appears as a valuable tool to analyze the evolutionary history of TEs across a large range of species. PMID:26685176

  3. Enhancement of nucleate pool boiling heat transfer to dilute binary mixtures using endothermic chemical reactions around the smoothed horizontal cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarafraz, M. M.; Peyghambarzadeh, S. M.; Alavifazel, S. A.

    2012-10-01

    Experimental studies on enhancing the pool boiling heat transfer coefficient of binary dilute mixtures of water/glycerol, water/MEG (Mono-ethylene glycol) and water/DEG (di-ethylene glycol) have been carried out. Some particular endothermic chemical reactions related to ammonium salts were used to enhance the pool boiling heat transfer coefficient, simultaneously with occurrence of pool boiling heat transfer. Accordingly, 100 g of Ammonium nitrate, ammonium perborate and Ammonium sulfate were selected to dissolve into mixtures. High and extreme solution enthalpies of each of these ammonium salt powders are employed to reduce the surface temperature around the horizontal cylinder locally. Results demonstrated that presence of ammonium salts into the mixtures deteriorates the surface temperature of cylinder and as the result, higher pool boiling heat transfer coefficient is reported for tested solutions. Results are also reported and compared for different ammonium salts to find the influence of inducing different enthalpies of solution on pool boiling heat transfer coefficient. Obtained results also indicated that presence of endothermic reaction besides the pool boiling heat transfer enhances the heat transfer coefficients in comparison with nucleate pool boiling phenomenon solely.

  4. Optical gene transfer by femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konig, Karsten; Riemann, Iris; Tirlapur, Uday K.

    2003-07-01

    Targeted transfection of cells is an important technique for gene therapy and related biomedical applications. We delineate how high-intensity (1012 W/cm2) near-infrared (NIR) 80 MHz nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses can create highly localised membrane perforations within a minute focal volume, enabling non-invasive direct transfection of mammalian cells with DNA. We suspended Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO), rat kangaroo kidney epithelial (PtK2) and rat fibroblast cells in 0.5 ml culture medium in a sterile miniaturized cell chamber (JenLab GmbH, Jena, Germany) containing 0.2 μg plasmid DNA vector pEGFP-N1 (4.7 kb), which codes for green fluorescent protein (GFP). The NIR laser beam was introduced into a femtosecond laser scanning microscope (JenLab GmbH, Jena, Germany; focussed on the edge of the cell membrane of a target cell for 16 ms. The integration and expression efficiency of EGFP were assessed in situ by two-photon fluorescence-lifetime imaging using time-correlated single photon counting. The unique capability to transfer foreign DNA safely and efficiently into specific cell types (including stem cells), circumventing mechanical, electrical or chemical means, will have many applications, such as targeted gene therapy and DNA vaccination.

  5. Lentiviral vector gene transfer to porcine airways.

    PubMed

    Sinn, Patrick L; Cooney, Ashley L; Oakland, Mayumi; Dylla, Douglas E; Wallen, Tanner J; Pezzulo, Alejandro A; Chang, Eugene H; McCray, Paul B

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated lentiviral vector development and transduction efficiencies in well-differentiated primary cultures of pig airway epithelia (PAE) and wild-type pigs in vivo. We noted gene transfer efficiencies similar to that observed for human airway epithelia (HAE). Interestingly, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-based vectors transduced immortalized pig cells as well as pig primary cells more efficiently than HIV-1-based vectors. PAE express TRIM5α, a well-characterized species-specific lentiviral restriction factor. We contrasted the restrictive properties of porcine TRIM5α against FIV- and HIV-based vectors using gain and loss of function approaches. We observed no effect on HIV-1 or FIV conferred transgene expression in response to porcine TRIM5α overexpression or knockdown. To evaluate the ability of GP64-FIV to transduce porcine airways in vivo, we delivered vector expressing mCherry to the tracheal lobe of the lung and the ethmoid sinus of 4-week-old pigs. One week later, epithelial cells expressing mCherry were readily detected. Our findings indicate that pseudotyped FIV vectors confer similar tropisms in porcine epithelia as observed in human HAE and provide further support for the selection of GP64 as an appropriate envelope pseudotype for future preclinical gene therapy studies in the porcine model of cystic fibrosis (CF).Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids (2012) 1, e56; doi:10.1038/mtna.2012.47; published online 27 November 2012. PMID:23187455

  6. Plant transformation via pollen tube-mediated gene transfer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic transformation using foreign genes and the subsequent development of transgenic plants has been employed to develop enhanced elite germplasm. Although some skepticism exits regarding pollen tube-mediated gene transfer (PTT), reports demonstrating improved transformation efficiency with PTT ...

  7. Gene Transfer & Hybridization Studies in Hyperthermophilic Species

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Karen E.

    2005-10-14

    A. ABSTRACT The importance of lateral gene transfer (LGT) in the evolution of microbial species has become increasingly evident with each completed microbial genome sequence. Most significantly, the genome of Thermotoga maritima MSB8, a hyperthermophilic bacterium isolated by Karl Stetter and workers from Vulcano Italy in 1986, and sequenced at The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) in Rockville Maryland in 1999, revealed extensive LGT between % . this bacterium and members of the archaeal domain (in particular Archaeoglobus fulgidus, and Pyracoccus frcriosus species). Based on whole genome comparisons, it was estimated that 24% of the genetic information in this organism was acquired by genetic exchange with archaeal species, Independent analyses including periodicity analysis of the T. maritimu genomic DNA sequence, phylogenetic reconstruction based on genes that appear archaeal-like, and codon and amino acid usage, have provided additional evidence for LGT between T. maritima and the archaea. More recently, DiRuggiero and workers have identified a very recent LGT event between two genera of hyperthermophilic archaea, where a nearly identical DNA fragment of 16 kb in length flanked by insertion sequence (IS) elements, exists. Undoubtedly, additional examples of LGT will be identified as more microbial genomes are completed. For the present moment however, the genome sequence of T. maritima and other hyperthermophiles including P. furiosus, Pyrococcus horikoshii, Pyrococcus abyssi, A. fulgidus, and Aquifex aeolicus, have significantly increased out awareness of evolution being a web of life rather than a tree of life, as suggested by single gene phylogenies. In this proposal, we will aim to determine the extent of LGT across the hyperthemophiles, employing iY maritima as the model organism. A variety of biochemical techniques and phylogenetic reconstructions will allow for a detailed and thorough characterization of the extent of LGT in this species. The

  8. ToxR Antagonizes H-NS Regulation of Horizontally Acquired Genes to Drive Host Colonization.

    PubMed

    Kazi, Misha I; Conrado, Aaron R; Mey, Alexandra R; Payne, Shelley M; Davies, Bryan W

    2016-04-01

    The virulence regulator ToxR initiates and coordinates gene expression needed by Vibrio cholerae to colonize the small intestine and cause disease. Despite its prominence in V. cholerae virulence, our understanding of the direct ToxR regulon is limited to four genes: toxT, ompT, ompU and ctxA. Here, we determine ToxR's genome-wide DNA-binding profile and demonstrate that ToxR is a global regulator of both progenitor genome-encoded genes and horizontally acquired islands that encode V. cholerae's major virulence factors and define pandemic lineages. We show that ToxR shares more than a third of its regulon with the histone-like nucleoid structuring protein H-NS, and antagonizes H-NS binding at shared binding locations. Importantly, we demonstrate that this regulatory interaction is the critical function of ToxR in V. cholerae colonization and biofilm formation. In the absence of H-NS, ToxR is no longer required for V. cholerae to colonize the infant mouse intestine or for robust biofilm formation. We further illustrate a dramatic difference in regulatory scope between ToxR and other prominent virulence regulators, despite similar predicted requirements for DNA binding. Our results suggest that factors in addition to primary DNA structure influence the ability of ToxR to recognize its target promoters. PMID:27070545

  9. ToxR Antagonizes H-NS Regulation of Horizontally Acquired Genes to Drive Host Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Kazi, Misha I.; Conrado, Aaron R.; Mey, Alexandra R.; Payne, Shelley M.; Davies, Bryan W.

    2016-01-01

    The virulence regulator ToxR initiates and coordinates gene expression needed by Vibrio cholerae to colonize the small intestine and cause disease. Despite its prominence in V. cholerae virulence, our understanding of the direct ToxR regulon is limited to four genes: toxT, ompT, ompU and ctxA. Here, we determine ToxR’s genome-wide DNA-binding profile and demonstrate that ToxR is a global regulator of both progenitor genome-encoded genes and horizontally acquired islands that encode V. cholerae’s major virulence factors and define pandemic lineages. We show that ToxR shares more than a third of its regulon with the histone-like nucleoid structuring protein H-NS, and antagonizes H-NS binding at shared binding locations. Importantly, we demonstrate that this regulatory interaction is the critical function of ToxR in V. cholerae colonization and biofilm formation. In the absence of H-NS, ToxR is no longer required for V. cholerae to colonize the infant mouse intestine or for robust biofilm formation. We further illustrate a dramatic difference in regulatory scope between ToxR and other prominent virulence regulators, despite similar predicted requirements for DNA binding. Our results suggest that factors in addition to primary DNA structure influence the ability of ToxR to recognize its target promoters. PMID:27070545

  10. Evaluation of correlations of flow boiling heat transfer of R22 in horizontal channels.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhanru; Fang, Xiande; Li, Dingkun

    2013-01-01

    The calculation of two-phase flow boiling heat transfer of R22 in channels is required in a variety of applications, such as chemical process cooling systems, refrigeration, and air conditioning. A number of correlations for flow boiling heat transfer in channels have been proposed. This work evaluates the existing correlations for flow boiling heat transfer coefficient with 1669 experimental data points of flow boiling heat transfer of R22 collected from 18 published papers. The top two correlations for R22 are those of Liu and Winterton (1991) and Fang (2013), with the mean absolute deviation of 32.7% and 32.8%, respectively. More studies should be carried out to develop better ones. Effects of channel dimension and vapor quality on heat transfer are analyzed, and the results provide valuable information for further research in the correlation of two-phase flow boiling heat transfer of R22 in channels. PMID:23956695

  11. Evaluation of Correlations of Flow Boiling Heat Transfer of R22 in Horizontal Channels

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiande; Li, Dingkun

    2013-01-01

    The calculation of two-phase flow boiling heat transfer of R22 in channels is required in a variety of applications, such as chemical process cooling systems, refrigeration, and air conditioning. A number of correlations for flow boiling heat transfer in channels have been proposed. This work evaluates the existing correlations for flow boiling heat transfer coefficient with 1669 experimental data points of flow boiling heat transfer of R22 collected from 18 published papers. The top two correlations for R22 are those of Liu and Winterton (1991) and Fang (2013), with the mean absolute deviation of 32.7% and 32.8%, respectively. More studies should be carried out to develop better ones. Effects of channel dimension and vapor quality on heat transfer are analyzed, and the results provide valuable information for further research in the correlation of two-phase flow boiling heat transfer of R22 in channels. PMID:23956695

  12. The agricultural antibiotic carbadox induces phage-mediated gene transfer in Salmonella

    PubMed Central

    Bearson, Bradley L.; Allen, Heather K.; Brunelle, Brian W.; Lee, In Soo; Casjens, Sherwood R.; Stanton, Thaddeus B.

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotics are used for disease therapeutic or preventative effects in humans and animals, as well as for enhanced feed conversion efficiency in livestock. Antibiotics can also cause undesirable effects in microbial populations, including selection for antibiotic resistance, enhanced pathogen invasion, and stimulation of horizontal gene transfer. Carbadox is a veterinary antibiotic used in the US during the starter phase of swine production for improved feed efficiency and control of swine dysentery and bacterial swine enteritis. Carbadox has been shown in vitro to induce phage-encoded Shiga toxin in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and a phage-like element transferring antibiotic resistance genes in Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, but the effect of carbadox on prophages in other bacteria is unknown. This study examined carbadox exposure on prophage induction and genetic transfer in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, a human foodborne pathogen that frequently colonizes swine without causing disease. S. Typhimurium LT2 exposed to carbadox induced prophage production, resulting in bacterial cell lysis and release of virions that were visible by electron microscopy. Carbadox induction of phage-mediated gene transfer was confirmed by monitoring the transduction of a sodCIII::neo cassette in the Fels-1 prophage from LT2 to a recipient Salmonella strain. Furthermore, carbadox frequently induced generalized transducing phages in multidrug-resistant phage type DT104 and DT120 isolates, resulting in the transfer of chromosomal and plasmid DNA that included antibiotic resistance genes. Our research indicates that exposure of Salmonella to carbadox induces prophages that can transfer virulence and antibiotic resistance genes to susceptible bacterial hosts. Carbadox-induced, phage-mediated gene transfer could serve as a contributing factor in bacterial evolution during animal production, with prophages being a reservoir for bacterial fitness genes in the

  13. Gene transfer in the evolution of parasite nucleotide biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Striepen, Boris; Pruijssers, Andrea J P; Huang, Jinling; Li, Catherine; Gubbels, Marc-Jan; Umejiego, Nwakaso N; Hedstrom, Lizbeth; Kissinger, Jessica C

    2004-03-01

    Nucleotide metabolic pathways provide numerous successful targets for antiparasitic chemotherapy, but the human pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum thus far has proved extraordinarily refractory to classical treatments. Given the importance of this protist as an opportunistic pathogen afflicting immunosuppressed individuals, effective treatments are urgently needed. The genome sequence of C. parvum is approaching completion, and we have used this resource to critically assess nucleotide biosynthesis as a target in C. parvum. Genomic analysis indicates that this parasite is entirely dependent on salvage from the host for its purines and pyrimidines. Metabolic pathway reconstruction and experimental validation in the laboratory further suggest that the loss of pyrimidine de novo synthesis is compensated for by possession of three salvage enzymes. Two of these, uridine kinase-uracil phosphoribosyltransferase and thymidine kinase, are unique to C. parvum within the phylum Apicomplexa. Phylogenetic analysis suggests horizontal gene transfer of thymidine kinase from a proteobacterium. We further show that the purine metabolism in C. parvum follows a highly streamlined pathway. Salvage of adenosine provides C. parvum's sole source of purines. This renders the parasite susceptible to inhibition of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the multistep conversion of AMP to GMP. The inosine 5' monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitors ribavirin and mycophenolic acid, which are already in clinical use, show pronounced anticryptosporidial activity. Taken together, these data help to explain why widely used drugs fail in the treatment of cryptosporidiosis and suggest more promising targets. PMID:14973196

  14. Gene transfer in the evolution of parasite nucleotide biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Striepen, Boris; Pruijssers, Andrea J. P.; Huang, Jinling; Li, Catherine; Gubbels, Marc-Jan; Umejiego, Nwakaso N.; Hedstrom, Lizbeth; Kissinger, Jessica C.

    2004-01-01

    Nucleotide metabolic pathways provide numerous successful targets for antiparasitic chemotherapy, but the human pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum thus far has proved extraordinarily refractory to classical treatments. Given the importance of this protist as an opportunistic pathogen afflicting immunosuppressed individuals, effective treatments are urgently needed. The genome sequence of C. parvum is approaching completion, and we have used this resource to critically assess nucleotide biosynthesis as a target in C. parvum. Genomic analysis indicates that this parasite is entirely dependent on salvage from the host for its purines and pyrimidines. Metabolic pathway reconstruction and experimental validation in the laboratory further suggest that the loss of pyrimidine de novo synthesis is compensated for by possession of three salvage enzymes. Two of these, uridine kinase-uracil phosphoribosyltransferase and thymidine kinase, are unique to C. parvum within the phylum Apicomplexa. Phylogenetic analysis suggests horizontal gene transfer of thymidine kinase from a proteobacterium. We further show that the purine metabolism in C. parvum follows a highly streamlined pathway. Salvage of adenosine provides C. parvum's sole source of purines. This renders the parasite susceptible to inhibition of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the multistep conversion of AMP to GMP. The inosine 5′ monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitors ribavirin and mycophenolic acid, which are already in clinical use, show pronounced anticryptosporidial activity. Taken together, these data help to explain why widely used drugs fail in the treatment of cryptosporidiosis and suggest more promising targets. PMID:14973196

  15. Methods for Gene Transfer to the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Kantor, Boris; Bailey, Rachel M.; Wimberly, Keon; Kalburgi, Sahana N.; Gray, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Gene transfer is an increasingly utilized approach for research and clinical applications involving the central nervous system (CNS). Vectors for gene transfer can be as simple as an unmodified plasmid, but more commonly involve complex modifications to viruses to make them suitable gene delivery vehicles. This chapter will explain how tools for CNS gene transfer have been derived from naturally occurring viruses. The current capabilities of plasmid, retroviral, adeno-associated virus, adenovirus, and herpes simplex virus vectors for CNS gene delivery will be described. These include both focal and global CNS gene transfer strategies, with short- or long-term gene expression. As is described in this chapter, an important aspect of any vector is the cis-acting regulatory elements incorporated into the vector genome that control when, where, and how the transgene is expressed. PMID:25311922

  16. Gene transfer system for Rhodopseudomonas viridis.

    PubMed Central

    Lang, F S; Oesterhelt, D

    1989-01-01

    A gene transfer system for Rhodopseudomonas viridis was established which uses conjugation with Escherichia coli S17-I as the donor and mobilizable plasmids as vectors. Initially, plasmids of the incompatibility group P1 (pRK290 and pRK404) were used. The more effective shuttle vectors between E. coli and R. viridis, pKV1 and pKVS1, were derived from plasmid pBR322 and showed the highest conjugation frequency (10(-2] thus far demonstrated in purple bacteria. It was also demonstrated that Rhizobium meliloti can be used as a donor for conjugation with R. viridis. From a genomic cosmid library of R. viridis constructed in the vector pHC79, clones that coded for subunits H (puh operon), L, M and cytochrome c (puf operon) of the photosynthetic reaction center were isolated and characterized. For linkage of the two operons on the genome, cosmids that overlapped with the operon-carrying clones were identified. The relative positions of the two operons could not be determined, but the operons must be more than 100 kilobase pairs apart. Thus, the genomic organization of the reaction center in R. viridis is different from that of Rhodobacter capsulatus, for which a distance of about 39 kilobase pairs was determined. From a spontaneous mutant of R. viridis that is resistant to the herbicide terbutryn, the puf operon was cloned in pKVS1 and transferred by conjugation into R. viridis wild-type cells. The resulting exconjugants were resistant to the herbicide, which demonstrated that the puf operon on pKVS1 constructions was functionally expressed in R. viridis. Images PMID:2666398

  17. Source–sink plasmid transfer dynamics maintain gene mobility in soil bacterial communities

    PubMed Central

    Wood, A. Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer is a fundamental process in bacterial evolution that can accelerate adaptation via the sharing of genes between lineages. Conjugative plasmids are the principal genetic elements mediating the horizontal transfer of genes, both within and between bacterial species. In some species, plasmids are unstable and likely to be lost through purifying selection, but when alternative hosts are available, interspecific plasmid transfer could counteract this and maintain access to plasmid-borne genes. To investigate the evolutionary importance of alternative hosts to plasmid population dynamics in an ecologically relevant environment, we established simple soil microcosm communities comprising two species of common soil bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida, and a mercury resistance (HgR) plasmid, pQBR57, both with and without positive selection [i.e., addition of Hg(II)]. In single-species populations, plasmid stability varied between species: although pQBR57 survived both with and without positive selection in P. fluorescens, it was lost or replaced by nontransferable HgR captured to the chromosome in P. putida. A simple mathematical model suggests these differences were likely due to pQBR57’s lower intraspecific conjugation rate in P. putida. By contrast, in two-species communities, both models and experiments show that interspecific conjugation from P. fluorescens allowed pQBR57 to persist in P. putida via source–sink transfer dynamics. Moreover, the replacement of pQBR57 by nontransferable chromosomal HgR in P. putida was slowed in coculture. Interspecific transfer allows plasmid survival in host species unable to sustain the plasmid in monoculture, promoting community-wide access to the plasmid-borne accessory gene pool and thus potentiating future evolvability. PMID:27385827

  18. Source-sink plasmid transfer dynamics maintain gene mobility in soil bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Hall, James P J; Wood, A Jamie; Harrison, Ellie; Brockhurst, Michael A

    2016-07-19

    Horizontal gene transfer is a fundamental process in bacterial evolution that can accelerate adaptation via the sharing of genes between lineages. Conjugative plasmids are the principal genetic elements mediating the horizontal transfer of genes, both within and between bacterial species. In some species, plasmids are unstable and likely to be lost through purifying selection, but when alternative hosts are available, interspecific plasmid transfer could counteract this and maintain access to plasmid-borne genes. To investigate the evolutionary importance of alternative hosts to plasmid population dynamics in an ecologically relevant environment, we established simple soil microcosm communities comprising two species of common soil bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida, and a mercury resistance (Hg(R)) plasmid, pQBR57, both with and without positive selection [i.e., addition of Hg(II)]. In single-species populations, plasmid stability varied between species: although pQBR57 survived both with and without positive selection in P. fluorescens, it was lost or replaced by nontransferable Hg(R) captured to the chromosome in P. putida A simple mathematical model suggests these differences were likely due to pQBR57's lower intraspecific conjugation rate in P. putida By contrast, in two-species communities, both models and experiments show that interspecific conjugation from P. fluorescens allowed pQBR57 to persist in P. putida via source-sink transfer dynamics. Moreover, the replacement of pQBR57 by nontransferable chromosomal Hg(R) in P. putida was slowed in coculture. Interspecific transfer allows plasmid survival in host species unable to sustain the plasmid in monoculture, promoting community-wide access to the plasmid-borne accessory gene pool and thus potentiating future evolvability. PMID:27385827

  19. Transference effect of vertical and horizontal plyometrics on sprint performance of high-level U-20 soccer players.

    PubMed

    Loturco, Irineu; Pereira, Lucas A; Kobal, Ronaldo; Zanetti, Vinicius; Kitamura, Katia; Abad, Cesar Cavinato Cal; Nakamura, Fabio Y

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adding vertical/horizontal plyometrics to the soccer training routine on jumping and sprinting performance in U-20 soccer players. The vertical jumping group (VJG) performed countermovement jumps (CMJ), while the horizontal jumping group (HJG) executed horizontal jumps (HJ). Training interventions comprised 11 sessions, with volume varying between 32 and 60 jumps per session. The analysis of covariance revealed that CMJ height and peak force improved only in the VJG, and that HJ distance and peak force improved in both groups. Velocity in 20 m (VEL 20 m) did not improve in either group; however, velocity in 10 m (VEL 10 m) presented a moderate positive effect size (ES = 0.66) in the HJG, while the ES was large (1.63) for improvement in the 10-20 m acceleration in the VJG, and it was largely negative (-1.09) in the HJG. The transference effect coefficients (calculated by the equation: TEC = result gain (ES) in untrained exercise/result gain (ES) in trained exercise) between CMJ and VEL 20 m and ACC 10-20 m were 1.31 and 2.75, respectively. The TEC between HJ and VEL 10 m, VEL 20 m and ACC 0-10 m were 0.44, 0.17 and 0.44, respectively. The results presented herein indicate that the plyometric training-axis is decisive in determining neuromechanical training responses in high-level soccer players. PMID:26390150

  20. Problems associated with gene transfer and opportunities for microgravity environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennessen, Daniel J.

    1997-01-01

    The method of crop improvement by gene transfer is becoming increasingly routine with transgenic foods and ornamental crops now being marketed to consumers. However, biological processes of plants, and the physical barriers of current protocols continue to limit the application of gene transfer in many commercial crops. The goal of this paper is to outline the current limitations of gene transfer and to hypothesize possible opportunities for use of microgravity to overcome such limitations. The limitations detailed in this paper include host-range specificity of Agrobacterium mediated transformation, probability of gene insertion, position effects of the inserted genes, gene copy number, stability of foreign gene expression in host plants, and regeneration of recalcitrant plant species. Microgravity offers an opportunity for gene transfer where cell growth kinetics, DNA synthesis, and genetic recombination rates can be altered. Such biological conditions may enhance the ability for recombination of reporter genes and other genes of interest to agriculture. Proposed studies would be useful for understanding instability of foreign gene expression and may lead to stable transformed plants. Other aspects of gene transfer in microgravity are discussed.

  1. Two-phase heat transfer and pressure drop of LNG during saturated flow boiling in a horizontal tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dongsheng; Shi, Yumei

    2013-12-01

    Two-phase heat transfer and pressure drop of LNG (liquefied natural gas) have been measured in a horizontal smooth tube with an inner diameter of 8 mm. The experiments were conducted at inlet pressures from 0.3 to 0.7 MPa with a heat flux of 8-36 kW m-2, and mass flux of 49.2-201.8 kg m-2 s-1. The effect of vapor quality, inlet pressure, heat flux and mass flux on the heat transfer characteristic are discussed. The comparisons of the experimental data with the predicted value by existing correlations are analyzed. Zou et al. (2010) correlation shows the best accuracy with 24.1% RMS deviation among them. Moreover four frictional pressure drop methods are also chosen to compare with the experimental database.

  2. Condensation of refrigerants in horizontal, spirally grooved microfin tubes: Numerical analysis of heat transfer in the annular flow regime

    SciTech Connect

    Nozu, S.; Honda, H.

    2000-02-01

    A method is presented for estimating the condensation heat transfer coefficient in a horizontal, spirally grooved microfin tube. Based on the flow observation study performed by the authors, a laminar film condensation model in the annular flow regime is proposed. The model assumes that all the condensate flow occurs through the grooves. The condensate film is segmented into thin and thick film regions. In the thin film region formed on the fin surface, the condensate is assumed to be drained by the combined surface tension and vapor shear forces. In the thick film region formed in the groove, on the other hand, the condensate is assumed to be driven by the vapor shear force. The present and previous local heat transfer data including four fluids (CFC11, HCFC22, HCFC123, and HFCl34a) and three microfin tubes are found to agree with the present predictions to a mean absolute deviation of 15.1%.

  3. Cospeciation and Horizontal Transmission of Avian Sarcoma and Leukosis Virus gag Genes in Galliform Birds

    PubMed Central

    Dimcheff, Derek E.; Drovetski, Sergei V.; Krishnan, Mallika; Mindell, David P.

    2000-01-01

    In a study of the evolution and distribution of avian retroviruses, we found avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (ASLV) gag genes in 26 species of galliform birds from North America, Central America, eastern Europe, Asia, and Africa. Nineteen of the 26 host species from whom ASLVs were sequenced were not previously known to contain ASLVs. We assessed congruence between ASLV phylogenies based on a total of 110 gag gene sequences and ASLV-host phylogenies based on mitochondrial 12S ribosomal DNA and ND2 sequences to infer coevolutionary history for ASLVs and their hosts. Widespread distribution of ASLVs among diverse, endemic galliform host species suggests an ancient association. Congruent ASLV and host phylogenies for two species of Perdix, two species of Gallus, and Lagopus lagopus and L. mutus also indicate an old association with vertical transmission and cospeciation for these ASLVs and hosts. An inference of horizontal transmission of ASLVs among some members of the Tetraoninae subfamily (grouse and ptarmigan) is supported by ASLV monophyletic groups reflecting geographic distribution and proximity of hosts rather than host species phylogeny. We provide a preliminary phylogenetic taxonomy for the new ASLVs, in which named taxa denote monophyletic groups. PMID:10756010

  4. New flow boiling heat transfer model for hydrocarbons evaporating inside horizontal tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, G. F.; Gong, M. Q.; Wu, J. F.; Zou, X.; Wang, S.

    2014-01-29

    Hydrocarbons have high thermodynamic performances, belong to the group of natural refrigerants, and they are the main components in mixture Joule-Thomson low temperature refrigerators (MJTR). New evaluations of nucleate boiling contribution and nucleate boiling suppression factor in flow boiling heat transfer have been proposed for hydrocarbons. A forced convection heat transfer enhancement factor correlation incorporating liquid velocity has also been proposed. In addition, the comparisons of the new model and other classic models were made to evaluate its accuracy in heat transfer prediction.

  5. Saving your back: How do horizontal patient transfer devices stack up?

    PubMed

    Bacharach, David W; Miller, Kyle; von Duvillard, Serge P

    2016-01-01

    The authors evaluated the use of a new transfer device (roller tray) and compared it with three commonly used devices (slide board, nylon tube, and roller board). Caregivers experienced the greatest low back stress moving patients weighing 70 to 90 kg (approximately 150 to 200 lb). Qualitative data overwhelmingly favored the new roller tray with disposable absorbent underpads over the other devices. Caregivers experienced the greatest L4-5 torque not when transferring the heaviest patients (over 90 kg or approximately 200 lb), but rather when transferring those weighing 70 to 90 kg. These "middle-weight" patients are often moved using only two instead of three caregivers or a lift team, as are used for heavier patients. Caregivers should use three caregivers (two pullers and one pusher) even when patients are medium weight. The researchers' nursing faculty members are enthusiastic about using the new transfer device in their teaching stations. PMID:26692313

  6. Pool boiling heat transfer of water/ γ-alumina micro-fluids around the horizontal cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkhah, V.; Hormozi, F.

    2016-04-01

    A set of experiments was performed to quantify the pool boiling heat transfer coefficient of water/ γ-alumina micro-fluids at mass concentration ranged from 0.1 to 0.4 % of micro-particles with mean size of 1-2 μm. To stabilize the prepared micro-fluid, pH control, stirring and adding the SDS as a surfactant were carried out. Also, thermal conductivity of micro-fluids are measured using KD2 decagon pro. Results showed that micro-fluids have relatively higher thermal conductivity rather than the base fluids. According to the results, there are two distinguishable heat transfer regions namely natural convection and nucleate boiling regions. Influence of some operating parameters such as heat flux, mass concentration of micro-particles and surface fouling resistance on the pool boiling heat transfer coefficient were experimentally studied and briefly discussed. Results demonstrated a significant deterioration of heat transfer coefficient of micro-fluids in comparison with the base fluid over the extended time (1000 min of operation) in nucleate boiling region, while in natural convection region, enhancement of heat transfer coefficient is registered. According to the results, heat transfer coefficient is strongly controlled by/ γ-alumina concentration due to the deposition of micro-particles on the heating section. Rectilinear changes of scale formation with time in term of fouling resistance were clearly seen at regions, where natural convection is a dominant heat transfer mechanism and also for higher heat fluxes at nucleate boiling heat transfer region.

  7. Heat transfer from a horizontal finned tube bundle in bubbling fluidized beds of small and large particles

    SciTech Connect

    Devaru, C.B.; Kolar, A.K.

    1995-12-31

    Steady state average heat transfer coefficient measurements were made by the local thermal simulation technique in a cold, square, bubbling air-fluidized bed (0.305 m x 0.305 m) with immersed horizontal finned tube bundles (in-line and staggered) with integral 60{degree} V-thread. Studies were conducted using beds of small (average particle diameter less than 1 mm) sand particles and of large (average particle diameter greater thin 1 mm) particles (raagi, mustard, millet and coriander). The fin pitch varied from 0.8 to 5.0 mm and the fin height varied from 0.69 to 4.4 mm. The tube pitch ratios used were 1.75 and 3.5. The influence of bed particle diameter, fluidizing velocity, fin pitch, and tube pitch ratio on average heat transfer coefficient was studied. Fin pitch and bed particle diameter are the most significant parameters affecting heat transfer coefficient within the range of experimental conditions. Bed pressure drop depends only on static bed height. New direct correlations, incorporating easily measurable quantities, for average heat transfer coefficient for finned tube bundles (in-line and staggered) are proposed.

  8. Experimental investigation of buoyancy effects on convection heat transfer of supercritical CO2 flow in a horizontal tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimizu, Katsuyoshi; Sadr, Reza

    2016-04-01

    The heat transfer characteristics of supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) turbulent flow were investigated experimentally in a horizontal circular pipe with an inner diameter of 8.7 mm. Local convection coefficients and Nusselt numbers of the flow were obtained at different locations along the pipe with a constant heat flux ranging from 16 to 64 kW/m2. Experiments were performed for fluid mass flow rate ranging from 0.011 to 0.017 kg/s, an inlet fluid temperature ranging from 24 to 28 °C, and a flow pressure ranging from 7.5 to 9.0 MPa to investigate their effects on the convection heat transfer in the pipe. Both enhancement as well as deterioration in the heat transfer coefficient was observed for the flow conditions examined in this work. Experimental results were then compared with the widely used empirical correlation for pipe flow. Three commonly used buoyancy parameters were utilized to investigate their applicability in the present test conditions. Results indicate that all the parameters show a strong presence of buoyancy effects in the present test conditions. The trend and magnitude of these parameters, however, do not agree with the trend and magnitude of heat transfer enhancement and deterioration along the pipe.

  9. Horizontal gene flow from Eubacteria to Archaebacteria and what it means for our understanding of eukaryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Akanni, Wasiu A; Siu-Ting, Karen; Creevey, Christopher J; McInerney, James O; Wilkinson, Mark; Foster, Peter G; Pisani, Davide

    2015-09-26

    The origin of the eukaryotic cell is considered one of the major evolutionary transitions in the history of life. Current evidence strongly supports a scenario of eukaryotic origin in which two prokaryotes, an archaebacterial host and an α-proteobacterium (the free-living ancestor of the mitochondrion), entered a stable symbiotic relationship. The establishment of this relationship was associated with a process of chimerization, whereby a large number of genes from the α-proteobacterial symbiont were transferred to the host nucleus. A general framework allowing the conceptualization of eukaryogenesis from a genomic perspective has long been lacking. Recent studies suggest that the origins of several archaebacterial phyla were coincident with massive imports of eubacterial genes. Although this does not indicate that these phyla originated through the same process that led to the origin of Eukaryota, it suggests that Archaebacteria might have had a general propensity to integrate into their genomes large amounts of eubacterial DNA. We suggest that this propensity provides a framework in which eukaryogenesis can be understood and studied in the light of archaebacterial ecology. We applied a recently developed supertree method to a genomic dataset composed of 392 eubacterial and 51 archaebacterial genera to test whether large numbers of genes flowing from Eubacteria are indeed coincident with the origin of major archaebacterial clades. In addition, we identified two potential large-scale transfers of uncertain directionality at the base of the archaebacterial tree. Our results are consistent with previous findings and seem to indicate that eubacterial gene imports (particularly from δ-Proteobacteria, Clostridia and Actinobacteria) were an important factor in archaebacterial history. Archaebacteria seem to have long relied on Eubacteria as a source of genetic diversity, and while the precise mechanism that allowed these imports is unknown, we suggest that our results

  10. Experimental Study on Cooling Heat Transfer of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Inside Horizontal Micro-Fin Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Ken; Higashiiu, Shinya; Ito, Daisuke; Koyama, Shigeru

    This paper deals with the experimental study on cooling heat transfer of supercritical carbon dioxide inside micro-fin tubes. The geometrical parameters in micro-fin tubes used in the present study are 6.02 mm in outer diameter, 4.76 mm to 5.11 mm in average inner diameter, 0.15 mm to 0.24 mm in fin height, 5 to 25 in helix angle, 46 to 52 in number of fins and 1.4 to 2.3 in area expansion ratio. Heat transfer coefficients were measured at 8-10 MPa in pressure, 360-690 kg/(m2•s) in mass velocity and 20-75 °C in CO2 temperature. The measured heat transfer coefficients of micro-fin tubes were 1.4 to 2 times higher than those of the smooth tube having 4.42 in inner diameter. The predicted heat transfer coefficients using the correlation equation, which was developed for single-phase turbulent fluid flow inside micro-fin-tubes, showed large deviations to the measured values. The new correlation to predict cooling heat transfer coefficient of supercritical carbon dioxide inside micro-fin tubes was developed taking into account the shape of fins based on experimental data empirically. This correlation equation agreed within ±20% of almost all of the experimental data.

  11. A recently transferred cluster of bacterial genes in Trichomonas vaginalis - lateral gene transfer and the fate of acquired genes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lateral Gene Transfer (LGT) has recently gained recognition as an important contributor to some eukaryote proteomes, but the mechanisms of acquisition and fixation in eukaryotic genomes are still uncertain. A previously defined norm for LGTs in microbial eukaryotes states that the majority are genes involved in metabolism, the LGTs are typically localized one by one, surrounded by vertically inherited genes on the chromosome, and phylogenetics shows that a broad collection of bacterial lineages have contributed to the transferome. Results A unique 34 kbp long fragment with 27 clustered genes (TvLF) of prokaryote origin was identified in the sequenced genome of the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. Using a PCR based approach we confirmed the presence of the orthologous fragment in four additional T. vaginalis strains. Detailed sequence analyses unambiguously suggest that TvLF is the result of one single, recent LGT event. The proposed donor is a close relative to the firmicute bacterium Peptoniphilus harei. High nucleotide sequence similarity between T. vaginalis strains, as well as to P. harei, and the absence of homologs in other Trichomonas species, suggests that the transfer event took place after the radiation of the genus Trichomonas. Some genes have undergone pseudogenization and degradation, indicating that they may not be retained in the future. Functional annotations reveal that genes involved in informational processes are particularly prone to degradation. Conclusions We conclude that, although the majority of eukaryote LGTs are single gene occurrences, they may be acquired in clusters of several genes that are subsequently cleansed of evolutionarily less advantageous genes. PMID:24898731

  12. Cotransfer of linked eukaryotic genes and efficient transfer of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase by DNA-mediated gene transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, J L; McBride, O W

    1980-01-01

    The efficiency of DNA-mediated transfer of the gene (hprt) for hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT; IMP: pyrophosphate phosphoribosyltransferase, EC 2.4.2.8) is dependent upon the recipient cell used. hprt has been transferred into mouse TG8 or Chinese hamster CHTG49 cells at a high frequency, similar to the frequency of the gene (tk) for thymidine kinase (TK; ATP:thymidine 5'-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.21) transfer into mouse LMTK- cells (i.e., 10(-6)). In contrast, the frequency of transfer of hprt into mouse A9 cells was about two orders of magnitude less. The identification of efficient recipient cells for hprt transfer permits the use of DNA-mediated transfer as a bioassay for the gene. Cotransfer of the linked tk gene and the gene (galk) for galactokinase (ATP: D-galactose 1-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.6) to LMTK- cells has been detected once among 87 tk transferrents. This suggests that the distance between the tk and galk genes in the Chinese hamster genome may be smaller than was previously thought. Significant differences between chromosome-mediated and DNA-mediated gene transfer were observed with respect to both the size of the transferred functional genetic fragment and the recipient cell specificity. Images PMID:6929511

  13. Use of a commercial heat transfer code to predict horizontally oriented spent fuel rod surface temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Wix, S.D.; Koski, J.A.

    1993-03-01

    Radioactive spent fuel assemblies are a source of hazardous waste that will have to be dealt with in the near future. It is anticipated that the spent fuel assemblies will be transported to disposal sites in spent fuel transportation casks. In order to design a reliable and safe transportation cask, the maximum cladding temperature of the spent fuel rod arrays must be calculated. A comparison between numerical calculations using commercial thermal analysis software packages and experimental data simulating a horizontally oriented spent fuel rod array was performed. Twelve cases were analyzed using air and helium for the fill gas, with three different heat dissipation levels. The numerically predicted temperatures are higher than the experimental data for all levels of heat dissipation with air as the fill gas. The temperature differences are 4{degree}C and 23{degree}C for the low heat dissipation and high heat dissipation, respectively. The temperature predictions using helium as a fill gas are lower for the low and medium heat dissipation levels, but higher at the high heat dissipation. The temperature differences are 1{degree}C and 6{degree}C for the low and medium heat dissipation, respectively. For the high heat dissipation level, the temperature predictions are 16{degree}C higher than the experimental data. Differences between the predicted and experimental temperatures can be attributed to several factors. These factors include experimental uncertainty in the temperature and heat dissipation measurements, actual convection effects not included in the model, and axial heat flow in the experimental data. This work demonstrates that horizontally oriented spent fuel rod surface temperature predictions can be made using existing commercial software packages. This work also shows that end effects will be increasingly important as the amount of dissipated heat increases.

  14. Gene Transfer Strategies to Promote Chondrogenesis and Cartilage Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Im, Gun-Il

    2016-04-01

    Gene transfer has been used experimentally to promote chondrogenesis and cartilage regeneration. While it is controversial to apply gene therapy for nonlethal conditions such as cartilage defect, there is a possibility that the transfer of therapeutic transgenes may dramatically increase the effectiveness of cell therapy and reduce the quantity of cells that are needed to regenerate cartilage. Single or combination of growth factors and transcription factors has been transferred to mesenchymal stem cells or articular chondrocytes using both nonviral and viral approaches. The current challenge for the clinical applications of genetically modified cells is ensuring the safety of gene therapy while guaranteeing effectiveness. Viral gene delivery methods have been mainstays currently with enhanced safety features being recently refined. On the other hand, efficiency has been greatly improved in nonviral delivery. This review summarizes the history and recent update on the gene transfer to enhance chondrogenesis from stem cells or articular chondrocytes. PMID:26414246

  15. Boiling heat transfer of refrigerant R-113 in a small-diameter, horizontal tube

    SciTech Connect

    Wambsganss, M.W.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Tran, T.N.; France, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    Results of a study of boiling heat transfer from refrigerant R-113 in a small-diameter (2.92-mm) tube are reported. Local heat transfer coefficients over a range of heat fluxes, mass fluxes, and equilibrium mass qualities were measured. The measured coefficients were used to evaluate eight different heat transfer correlations, some of which have been developed specifically for refrigerants. High heat fluxes and low flow rates are inherent in small channels, and this combination results in high boiling numbers. The high boiling number of the collected data shows that the nucleation mechanism was dominant. As a result, the two-phase correlations that predicted this dominance also predicted the data best if they also properly modeled the physical parameters. The correlations of Lazarek and Black and of Shah, as modified in this study, predicted the data very well. It is also shown that a simple form, suggested by Stephan and Abdelsalam for nucleate boiling, correlates the data equally well. This study is part of a research program in multiphase flow and heat transfer, with the overall objective of developing validated design correlations and predictive methods that will facilitate the design and optimization of compact heat exchangers for use with environmentally acceptable alternatives for chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants and refrigerant mixtures.

  16. Direct transfer of IL-12 gene into growing Renca tumors.

    PubMed

    Budryk, M; Wilczyńska, U; Szary, J; Szala, S

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the feasibility of transferring naked plasmid DNA containing a therapeutic gene (IL-12) into mice harboring growing Renca tumors. We found that naked DNA transferred into growing Renca and B16(F10) tumors gives higher expression level of reporter gene than complexes of DNA with DDAB/DOPE or DC-Chol/DOPE. Transfer of naked DNA carrying the IL-12 gene into growing Renca tumors causes a distinct therapeutic effect that depends on the time span between inoculation of mice with cancer cells and the beginning of the therapy. Therapy started on day 3 resulted in total cure (100%) of mice. PMID:11051203

  17. LATERAL GENE TRANSFER AND THE HISTORY OF BACTERIAL GENOMES

    SciTech Connect

    Howard Ochman

    2006-02-22

    The aims of this research were to elucidate the role and extent of lateral transfer in the differentiation of bacterial strains and species, and to assess the impact of gene transfer on the evolution of bacterial genomes. The ultimate goal of the project is to examine the dynamics of a core set of protein-coding genes (i.e., those that are distributed universally among Bacteria) by developing conserved primers that would allow their amplification and sequencing in any bacterial taxa. In addition, we adopted a bioinformatic approach to elucidate the extent of lateral gene transfer in sequenced genome.

  18. Analysis of single phase flow pressure drop and heat transfer in a horizontal rifled tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Soo Poey; Wahab, Abas Abdul; Ariffin, Saparudin; Kiow, Lee Woon

    2012-06-01

    Analysis by using Fluent® has been carried out to investigate the pressure drop and heat transfer of single phase flow (Reynolds number ranging from 2.0×104 - 1.4×105) in a 2 meter long of rifled tube and smooth tube which are heated at the outer wall at constant temperature. The rifled tube or also known as spiral internally ribbed tube which is used in this investigation has an outside diameter 45.0 mm and inside equivalent diameter of 33.1 mm while the smooth tube has an outside diameter 45.0 mm and inside diameter 34.1 mm. The working fluid that is used in this investigation is water. In this analysis, realizable k-epsilon model has been chosen to solve the fully developed turbulence flow in both the tubes. The result from simulation shows that the pressure drop in rifled tube is about 1.69-2.0 times higher than in the smooth tube while the heat transfer coefficient of water in the rifle tube is 0.97-1.27 times than in the smooth tube. The high pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient in rifled tube comparing to smooth tube is due to the helical rib in the rifled tube which not only acted as rough surface, but also causes swirling effect near the wall which enhance heat transfer. The present study has proved that although the rifled tube produces high pressure drop but it is good in heat transfer enhancement through the ratio of heat flux to the pumping power. Correlations have been proposed for the single phase friction factor and Nusselt number of the rifled tube.

  19. Intracellular gene transfer: Reduced hydrophobicity facilitates gene transfer for subunit 2 of cytochrome c oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Daley, Daniel O.; Clifton, Rachel; Whelan, James

    2002-01-01

    Subunit 2 of cytochrome c oxidase (Cox2) in legumes offers a rare opportunity to investigate factors necessary for successful gene transfer of a hydrophobic protein that is usually mitochondrial-encoded. We found that changes in local hydrophobicity were necessary to allow import of this nuclear-encoded protein into mitochondria. All legume species containing both a mitochondrial and nuclear encoded Cox2 displayed a similar pattern, with a large decrease in hydrophobicity evident in the first transmembrane region of the nuclear encoded protein compared with the organelle-encoded protein. Mitochondrial-encoded Cox2 could not be imported into mitochondria under the direction of the mitochondrial targeting sequence that readily supports the import of nuclear encoded Cox2. Removal of the first transmembrane region promotes import ability of the mitochondrial-encoded Cox2. Changing just two amino acids in the first transmembrane region of mitochondrial-encoded Cox2 to the corresponding amino acids in the nuclear encoded Cox2 also promotes import ability, whereas changing the same two amino acids in the nuclear encoded Cox2 to what they are in the mitochondrial-encoded copy prevents import. Therefore, changes in amino acids in the mature protein were necessary and sufficient for gene transfer to allow import under the direction of an appropriate signal to achieve the functional topology of Cox2. PMID:12142462

  20. Transfer of antibiotic-resistance genes via phage-related mobile elements.

    PubMed

    Brown-Jaque, Maryury; Calero-Cáceres, William; Muniesa, Maite

    2015-05-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a major concern for society because it threatens the effective prevention of infectious diseases. While some bacterial strains display intrinsic resistance, others achieve antibiotic resistance by mutation, by the recombination of foreign DNA into the chromosome or by horizontal gene acquisition. In many cases, these three mechanisms operate together. Several mobile genetic elements (MGEs) have been reported to mobilize different types of resistance genes and despite sharing common features, they are often considered and studied separately. Bacteriophages and phage-related particles have recently been highlighted as MGEs that transfer antibiotic resistance. This review focuses on phages, phage-related elements and on composite MGEs (phages-MGEs) involved in antibiotic resistance mobility. We review common features of these elements, rather than differences, and provide a broad overview of the antibiotic resistance transfer mechanisms observed in nature, which is a necessary first step to controlling them. PMID:25597519

  1. Ancient gene transfer from algae to animals: Mechanisms and evolutionary significance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is traditionally considered to be rare in multicellular eukaryotes such as animals. Recently, many genes of miscellaneous algal origins were discovered in choanoflagellates. Considering that choanoflagellates are the existing closest relatives of animals, we speculated that ancient HGT might have occurred in the unicellular ancestor of animals and affected the long-term evolution of animals. Results Through genome screening, phylogenetic and domain analyses, we identified 14 gene families, including 92 genes, in the tunicate Ciona intestinalis that are likely derived from miscellaneous photosynthetic eukaryotes. Almost all of these gene families are distributed in diverse animals, suggesting that they were mostly acquired by the common ancestor of animals. Their miscellaneous origins also suggest that these genes are not derived from a particular algal endosymbiont. In addition, most genes identified in our analyses are functionally related to molecule transport, cellular regulation and methylation signaling, suggesting that the acquisition of these genes might have facilitated the intercellular communication in the ancestral animal. Conclusions Our findings provide additional evidence that algal genes in aplastidic eukaryotes are not exclusively derived from historical plastids and thus important for interpreting the evolution of eukaryotic photosynthesis. Most importantly, our data represent the first evidence that more anciently acquired genes might exist in animals and that ancient HGT events have played an important role in animal evolution. PMID:22690978

  2. Inheritance of Pantoea type III secretion systems through both vertical and horizontal transfer.

    PubMed

    Kirzinger, Morgan W B; Butz, Cory J; Stavrinides, John

    2015-12-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is an extracellular apparatus used by many Gram-negative bacteria to deliver effector proteins directly into plant and animal cells, thereby facilitating host-specific association. Strains of the enterobacterial genus, Pantoea, have been isolated from a wide variety of hosts, including plants, insects, and humans, yet it is unclear whether the T3SS may be involved in these associations. In this study, we use comparative genomics and phylogenetic methods to examine the origin and distribution of T3SSs in 35 sequenced environmental and clinical strains of Pantoea. We began our analysis by examining the distribution of the previously characterized plant cell-specific PSI-1 and animal cell-specific PSI-2 of the plant pathogenic Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii DC283 (PstDC283), and showed that both had a somewhat limited distribution. Our analysis, however, identified two variants of a unique plant cell-specific T3SS (PSI-1a and PSI-1b) in six Pantoea strains, including a clinical isolate. Our genome analysis of PstDC283 also identified a third T3SS that we named PSI-3, which has a similar genetic content and organization to the Salmonella, animal cell-specific SPI-2 system. Phylogenetic analysis of all three systems suggests that the PSI-1 system has been inherited vertically, whereas the newly identified PSI-1a and PSI-1b systems have been acquired independently from other genera within the Enterobacteriaceae. PSI-2 appears to have been acquired horizontally as far back as the Erwinia/Pantoea common ancestor, with evidence of more recent horizontal acquisition of the PSI-3 system. Our results suggest that Pantoea is a relatively old plant pathogen that has lost and subsequently regained different plant-associated T3SSs. This work has broad implications for understanding the host-associating capacity of Pantoea strains, and reveals the propensity for Pantoea isolates to exchange pathogenicity determinants with human

  3. Effect of diffusional mass transfer on the performance of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands in tropical climate conditions.

    PubMed

    Njau, K N; Gastory, L; Eshton, B; Katima, J H Y; Minja, R J A; Kimwaga, R; Shaaban, M

    2011-01-01

    The effect of mass transfer on the removal rate constants of BOD5, NH3, NO3 and TKN has been investigated in a Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland (HSSFCW) planted with Phragmites mauritianus. The plug flow model was assumed and the inlet and outlet concentrations were used to determine the observed removal rate constants. Mass transfer effects were studied by assessing the influence of interstitial velocity on pollutant removal rates in CW cells of different widths. The flow velocities varied between 3-46 m/d. Results indicate that the observed removal rate constants are highly influenced by the flow velocity. Correlation of dimensionless groups namely Reynolds Number (Re), Sherwood Number (Sh) and Schmidt Number (Sc) were applied and log-log plots of rate constants against velocity yielded straight lines with values beta = 0.87 for BOD5, 1.88 for NH3, 1.20 for NO3 and 0.94 for TKN. The correlation matched the expected for packed beds although the constant beta was higher than expected for low Reynolds numbers. These results indicate that the design values of rate constants used to size wetlands are influenced by flow velocity. This paper suggests the incorporation of mass transfer into CW design procedures in order to improve the performance of CW systems and reduce land requirements. PMID:22049736

  4. Mixed convection laminar flow and heat transfer of liquids in horizontal internally finned tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Shome, B.

    1998-01-01

    Energy and material savings, as well as economic incentives, have led to concentrated efforts over the past several decades in the field of heat transfer enhancement to produce more efficient and compact heat exchangers. Internally finned tubes are widely used for heat transfer enhancement, particularly in chemical process and petroleum industries. A finned tube heat exchanger with optimum geometry could offer 35--40% increase in heat duty for equal pumping power and size over a smooth tube heat exchanger or a comparable decrease in the heat exchanger size for a given heat duty. Developing mixed convection flow in internally finned tubes with variable viscosity was numerically investigated for a fin geometry range of 8 {le} N {le} 24, 0.1 {le} H {le} 0.3 and an operating condition range of 50 {le} Pr{sub in} {le} 1,250, 0 {le} Ra{sub in} {le} 10{sup 7}, and 0 {le} q{sub w}d/k{sub in} {le} 2,000. The numerical model was validated by comparison with existing numerical and experimental data. Internal finning was found to produce a complex two-cell, buoyancy-induced vortex structure. The results show that coring (retarded velocity in the interfin region) leads to poor heat transfer performance of tubes with large numbers of fins or with tall fins. The overall results indicated that large enhancement in the heat transfer can be obtained in the entrance region. Furthermore, variable viscosity effects are seen to have a pronounced effect on the friction factor and Nusselt number predictions.

  5. Fibrin-mediated lentivirus gene transfer: implications for lentivirus microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Raut, Shruti; Lei, Pedro; Padmashali, Roshan; Andreadis, Stelios T.

    2010-01-01

    We employed fibrin hydrogel as bioactive matrix for lentivirus mediated gene transfer. Fibrin-mediated gene transfer was highly efficient and exhibited strong dependence on fibrinogen concentration. Efficient gene transfer was achieved with fibrinogen concentration between 3.75 – 7.5 mg/mL. Lower fibrinogen concentrations resulted in diffusion of virus out of the gel while higher concentrations led to ineffective fibrin degradation by target cells. Addition of fibrinolytic inhibitors decreased gene transfer in a dose-dependent manner suggesting that fibrin degradation by target cells may be necessary for successful gene delivery. Under these conditions transduction may be limited only to cells interacting with the matrix thereby providing a method for spatially localized gene delivery. Indeed, when lentivirus-containing fibrin microgels were spotted in an array format gene transfer was confined to virus-containing fibrin spots with minimal cross-contamination between neighboring sites. Collectively, our data suggest that fibrin may provide an effective matrix for spatially-localized gene delivery with potential applications in high-throughput lentiviral microarrays and in regenerative medicine. PMID:20153386

  6. Two hAT transposon genes were transferred from Brassicaceae to broomrapes and are actively expressed in some recipients.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ting; Renner, Susanne S; Xu, Yuxing; Qin, Yan; Wu, Jianqiang; Sun, Guiling

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence is pointing to an important role of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in the evolution of higher plants. However, reports of HGTs of transposable elements (TEs) in plants are still scarce, and only one case is known of a class II transposon horizontally transferred between grasses. To investigate possible TE transfers in dicots, we performed transcriptome screening in the obligate root parasite Phelipanche aegyptiaca (Orobanchaceae), data-mining in the draft genome assemblies of four other Orobanchaceae, gene cloning, gene annotation in species with genomic information, and a molecular phylogenetic analysis. We discovered that the broomrape genera Phelipanche and Orobanche acquired two related nuclear genes (christened BO transposase genes), a new group of the hAT superfamily of class II transposons, from Asian Sisymbrieae or a closely related tribe of Brassicaceae, by HGT. The collinearity of the flanking genes, lack of a classic border structure, and low expression levels suggest that BO transposase genes cannot transpose in Brassicaceae, whereas they are highly expressed in P. aegyptiaca. PMID:27452947

  7. Two hAT transposon genes were transferred from Brassicaceae to broomrapes and are actively expressed in some recipients

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ting; Renner, Susanne S.; Xu, Yuxing; Qin, Yan; Wu, Jianqiang; Sun, Guiling

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence is pointing to an important role of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in the evolution of higher plants. However, reports of HGTs of transposable elements (TEs) in plants are still scarce, and only one case is known of a class II transposon horizontally transferred between grasses. To investigate possible TE transfers in dicots, we performed transcriptome screening in the obligate root parasite Phelipanche aegyptiaca (Orobanchaceae), data-mining in the draft genome assemblies of four other Orobanchaceae, gene cloning, gene annotation in species with genomic information, and a molecular phylogenetic analysis. We discovered that the broomrape genera Phelipanche and Orobanche acquired two related nuclear genes (christened BO transposase genes), a new group of the hAT superfamily of class II transposons, from Asian Sisymbrieae or a closely related tribe of Brassicaceae, by HGT. The collinearity of the flanking genes, lack of a classic border structure, and low expression levels suggest that BO transposase genes cannot transpose in Brassicaceae, whereas they are highly expressed in P. aegyptiaca. PMID:27452947

  8. Evidence for the Role of Horizontal Transfer in Generating pVT1, a Large Mosaic Conjugative Plasmid from the Clam Pathogen, Vibrio tapetis

    PubMed Central

    Bidault-Toffin, Adeline; Le Chevalier, Patrick; Bouloc, Philippe; Paillard, Christine; Jacq, Annick

    2011-01-01

    The marine bacterium Vibrio tapetis is the causative agent of the brown ring disease, which affects the clam Ruditapes philippinarum and causes heavy economic losses in North of Europe and in Eastern Asia. Further characterization of V. tapetis isolates showed that all the investigated strains harbored at least one large plasmid. We determined the sequence of the 82,266 bp plasmid pVT1 from the CECT4600T reference strain and analyzed its genetic content. pVT1 is a mosaic plasmid closely related to several conjugative plasmids isolated from Vibrio vulnificus strains and was shown to be itself conjugative in Vibrios. In addition, it contains DNA regions that have similarity with several other plasmids from marine bacteria (Vibrio sp., Shewanella sp., Listonella anguillarum and Photobacterium profundum). pVT1 contains a number of mobile elements, including twelve Insertion Sequences or inactivated IS genes and an RS1 phage element related to the CTXphi phage of V. cholerae. The genetic organization of pVT1 underscores an important role of horizontal gene transfer through conjugative plasmid shuffling and transposition events in the acquisition of new genetic resources and in generating the pVT1 modular organization. In addition, pVT1 presents a copy number of 9, relatively high for a conjugative plasmid, and appears to belong to a new type of replicon, which may be specific to Vibrionaceae and Shewanelleacae. PMID:21326607

  9. Method of insecticide delivery affects horizontal transfer of fipronil in the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    PubMed

    Buczkowski, G; Schal, C

    2001-06-01

    Horizontal transmission of insecticide occurs when foragers contact or ingest an insecticide, return to the aggregation or nest, and translocate the insecticide to the shelter and its vicinity. Relatively more sedentary members of the population then contact or eat the translocated insecticide and die. We evaluated three different methods of delivering fipronil to adult male German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.), for their potential to cause such secondary mortality in various developmental stages of the cockroach. Adult males topically treated with 5 ng of fipronil (approximately LD99) caused low mortality in untreated nymphs and no mortality in untreated adults within the same aggregation. Males exposed to residual fipronil on a glass surface translocated more insecticide, resulting in higher mortality of cockroaches they contacted, but only early instars were affected and no adult mortality was observed. Ingested fipronil bait, however, was most effectively translocated, and caused high mortality of untreated adults and nymphs. Ingestion of fipronil also caused greater secondary kill compared with a topical application of 25 ng, approximately the same amount recovered from the exterior of males that ingested 1 mg of 0.05% fipronil bait. Secondary mortality in the untreated population was significantly affected by the duration of contact between the treated and untreated cockroaches, the quantity and freshness of excretions from the treated insects, and the accessibility of the secretions to untreated cockroaches. The mechanisms that cause secondary kill may include ingestion of excreted fipronil residues, cannibalism of bait-fed cockroaches, as well as contact with fipronil-contaminated substrates. PMID:11425023

  10. The Synergism Between Heat and Mass Transfer Additive and Advanced Surfaces in Aqueous LiBr Horizontal Tube Absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.A.

    1999-03-24

    Experiments were conducted in a laboratory to investigate the absorption of water vapor into a falling-film of aqueous lithium bromide (LiBr). A mini-absorber test stand was used to test smooth tubes and a variety of advanced tube surfaces placed horizontally in a single-row bundle. The bundle had six copper tubes; each tube had an outside diameter of 15.9-mm and a length of 0.32-m. A unique feature of the stand is its ability to operate continuously and support testing of LiBr brine at mass fractions {ge} 0.62. The test stand can also support testing to study the effect of the failing film mass flow rate, the coolant mass flow rate, the coolant temperature, the absorber pressure and the tube spacing. Manufacturers of absorption chillers add small quantities of a heat and mass transfer additive to improve the performance of the absorbers. The additive causes surface stirring which enhances the transport of absorbate into the bulk of the film. Absorption may also be enhanced with advanced tube surfaces that mechanically induce secondary flows in the falling film without increasing the thickness of the film. Several tube geometry's were identified and tested with the intent of mixing the film and renewing the interface with fresh solution from the tube wall. Testing was completed on a smooth tube and several different externally enhanced tube surfaces. Experiments were conducted over the operating conditions of 6.5 mm Hg absorber pressure, coolant temperatures ranging from 20 to 35 C and LiBr mass fractions ranging from 0.60 through 0.62. Initially the effect of tube spacing was investigated for the smooth tube surface, tested with no heat and mass transfer additive. Test results showed the absorber load and the mass absorbed increased as the tube spacing increased because of the improved wetting of the tube bundle. However, tube spacing was not a critical factor if heat and mass transfer additive was active in the mini-absorber. The additive dramatically affected

  11. Phagostimulatory sugars enhance uptake and horizontal transfer of hexaflumuron in the western subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Saran, Raj K; Rust, Michael K

    2008-06-01

    Western subterranean termite, Reticulitermes hesperus Banks (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), workers fed more on paper disks treated with the carbohydrates xylose, ribose, and fructose than on untreated disks. This feeding behavior of termites for certain carbohydrates was used to demonstrate an increase in the uptake and transfer of the insect growth regulator hexaflumuron among termites. The addition of 3% xylose to paper disks significantly increased the uptake of [14C]hexaflumuron and its subsequent transfer to other termites. Similarly, there was a significant increase in mortality of termites fed on paper disks treated with [14C]hexaflumuron (0.1 and 0.5%) in combination with 3% xylose for similar time periods compared with termites feeding on [14C]hexaflumuron (0.1 and 0.5%) alone. Overall percentage of mortality of termites feeding on [14C]hexaflumuron in combination with 3% xylose during the duration of the study (25-30 d) was approximately equal to 70%. PMID:18613589

  12. Steady natural convection heat transfer experiments in a horizontal annulus for the United States Spent Fuel Shipping Cask Technology Program. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, R. D.

    1981-04-01

    This experimental study deals with the measurement of the heat transfer across a horizontal annulus which is formed by an inner hexagonal cylinder and an outer concentric circular cylinder. The geometry simulates, in two dimensions, a liquid metal fast breeder reactor radioactive fuel subassembly inside a shipping container. This geometry is also similar to a radioactive fuel pin inside a horizontal reactor subassembly. The objective of the experiments is to measure the local and mean heat transfer at the surface of the inner hexagonal cylinder.

  13. Experimental and numerical simulations of heat transfers between flowing water and a horizontal frozen porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, N.; Costard, F.; Grenier, C. F.

    2013-12-01

    In permafrost-affected regions, hydrological changes due to global warming are still under investigation. But yet, we can already foresee from recent studies that for example, the variability and intensity of surface/subsurface flow are likely to be affected by permafrost degradation. And the feedback induced by such changes on permafrost degradation is still not clearly assessed. Of particular interest are lake and river-taliks. A talik is a permanently unfrozen zone that lies below rivers or lake. They should play a key role in these interactions given that they are the only paths for groundwater flow in permafrost regions. Thus heat transfers on a regional scale are potentially influenced by groundwater circulation. The aim of our study is therefore to investigate the evolution of river taliks. We developed a multidisciplinary approach coupling field investigation, experimental studies in a cold room and numerical modeling. In Central Yakutia, Siberia, where permafrost is continuous, we recently installed instruments to monitor ground temperature and water pressure in a river talik between two thermokarst lakes. We present here the coupling of numerical modeling and laboratory experiments in order to look after the main parameters controlling river-talik installation. In a cold room at IDES, where a metric scale channel is filled with sand as a porous medium, we are able to control air, water and permafrost temperature, but also water flow, so that we can test various parameter sets for a miniaturized river. These results are confronted with a numerical model developed at the LSCE with Cast3m (www-cast3m.cea.fr), that couples heat and water transfer. In particular, expressions for river-talik heat exchange terms are investigated. A further step will come in the near future with results from field investigation providing the full complexity of a natural system. Keywords: Talik, River, Numerical Modeling, Cold Room, Permafrost.

  14. Exosomes derived from alcohol-treated hepatocytes horizontally transfer liver specific miRNA-122 and sensitize monocytes to LPS.

    PubMed

    Momen-Heravi, Fatemeh; Bala, Shashi; Kodys, Karen; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocyte damage and inflammation in monocytes/macrophages are central to the pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis (AH). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate all of these processes. MiRNA-122 is abundantly expressed in hepatocytes while monocytes/macrophages have low levels. The role of exosomes in AH and possible cross talk between hepatocyte-derived exosomes and immune cells is not explored yet. Here, we show that the number of exosomes significantly increases in the sera of healthy individuals after alcohol binge drinking and in mice after binge or chronic alcohol consumption. Exosomes isolated from sera after alcohol consumption or from in vitro ethanol-treated hepatocytes contained miRNA-122. Exosomes derived from ethanol-treated Huh7.5 cells were taken up by the recipients THP1 monocytes and horizontally transferred a mature form of liver-specific miRNA-122. In vivo, liver mononuclear cells and Kupffer cells from alcohol-fed mice had increased miRNA-122 levels. In monocytes, miRNA-122 transferred via exosomes inhibited the HO-1 pathway and sensitized to LPS stimulation and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Finally, inflammatory effects of exosomes from ethanol-treated hepatocytes were prevented by using RNA interference via exosome-mediated delivery of a miRNA-122 inhibitor. These results demonstrate that first, exosomes mediate communication between hepatocytes and monocytes/macrophages and second, hepatocyte-derived miRNA-122 can reprogram monocytes inducing sensitization to LPS. PMID:25973575

  15. Exosomes derived from alcohol-treated hepatocytes horizontally transfer liver specific miRNA-122 and sensitize monocytes to LPS

    PubMed Central

    Momen-Heravi, Fatemeh; Bala, Shashi; Kodys, Karen; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocyte damage and inflammation in monocytes/macrophages are central to the pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis (AH). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate all of these processes. MiRNA-122 is abundantly expressed in hepatocytes while monocytes/macrophages have low levels. The role of exosomes in AH and possible cross talk between hepatocyte-derived exosomes and immune cells is not explored yet. Here, we show that the number of exosomes significantly increases in the sera of healthy individuals after alcohol binge drinking and in mice after binge or chronic alcohol consumption. Exosomes isolated from sera after alcohol consumption or from in vitro ethanol-treated hepatocytes contained miRNA-122. Exosomes derived from ethanol-treated Huh7.5 cells were taken up by the recipients THP1 monocytes and horizontally transferred a mature form of liver-specific miRNA-122. In vivo, liver mononuclear cells and Kupffer cells from alcohol-fed mice had increased miRNA-122 levels. In monocytes, miRNA-122 transferred via exosomes inhibited the HO-1 pathway and sensitized to LPS stimulation and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Finally, inflammatory effects of exosomes from ethanol-treated hepatocytes were prevented by using RNA interference via exosome-mediated delivery of a miRNA-122 inhibitor. These results demonstrate that first, exosomes mediate communication between hepatocytes and monocytes/macrophages and second, hepatocyte-derived miRNA-122 can reprogram monocytes inducing sensitization to LPS. PMID:25973575

  16. Multiple Horizontal Transfers of Bacteriophage WO and Host Wolbachia in Fig Wasps in a Closed Community

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ningxin; Jia, Sisi; Xu, Heng; Liu, Yong; Huang, Dawei

    2016-01-01

    Wolbachia-bacteriophage WO is a good model system for studying interactions between bacteria and viruses. Previous surveys of insect hosts have been conducted via sampling from open or semi-open communities; however, no studies have reported the infection patterns of phage WO of insects living in a closed community. Figs and fig wasps form a peculiar closed community in which the Ficus tree provides a compact syconium habitat for a variety of fig wasp. Therefore, in this study, we performed a thorough survey of Wolbachia and bacteriophage WO infection patterns in a total of 1406 individuals from 23 fig wasps species living on three different fig tree species. The infection rates of Wolbachia and phage WO were 82.6% (19/23) and 39.1% (9/23), respectively. Additionally, phage WO from fig wasps showed strong insect host specificity based on orf7 sequences from fig wasps and 21 other insect species. Probably due to the physical barrier of fig syconium, most phage WO from fig wasps form a specific clade. Phylogenetic analysis showed the absence of congruence between WO and host Wolbachia, WO and insect host, as well as Wolbachia and fig wasps, suggesting that both Wolbachia and phage WO exchanged frequently and independently within the closed syconium. Thus, the infection pattern of bacteriophage WO from fig wasps appeared quite different from that in other insects living outside, although the effect and the transfer routes of phage WO are unclear, which need to be investigated in the future. PMID:26913026

  17. Multiple Horizontal Transfers of Bacteriophage WO and Host Wolbachia in Fig Wasps in a Closed Community.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ningxin; Jia, Sisi; Xu, Heng; Liu, Yong; Huang, Dawei

    2016-01-01

    Wolbachia-bacteriophage WO is a good model system for studying interactions between bacteria and viruses. Previous surveys of insect hosts have been conducted via sampling from open or semi-open communities; however, no studies have reported the infection patterns of phage WO of insects living in a closed community. Figs and fig wasps form a peculiar closed community in which the Ficus tree provides a compact syconium habitat for a variety of fig wasp. Therefore, in this study, we performed a thorough survey of Wolbachia and bacteriophage WO infection patterns in a total of 1406 individuals from 23 fig wasps species living on three different fig tree species. The infection rates of Wolbachia and phage WO were 82.6% (19/23) and 39.1% (9/23), respectively. Additionally, phage WO from fig wasps showed strong insect host specificity based on orf7 sequences from fig wasps and 21 other insect species. Probably due to the physical barrier of fig syconium, most phage WO from fig wasps form a specific clade. Phylogenetic analysis showed the absence of congruence between WO and host Wolbachia, WO and insect host, as well as Wolbachia and fig wasps, suggesting that both Wolbachia and phage WO exchanged frequently and independently within the closed syconium. Thus, the infection pattern of bacteriophage WO from fig wasps appeared quite different from that in other insects living outside, although the effect and the transfer routes of phage WO are unclear, which need to be investigated in the future. PMID:26913026

  18. Intraspecies Transfer of the Chromosomal Acinetobacter baumannii blaNDM-1 Carbapenemase Gene.

    PubMed

    Krahn, Thomas; Wibberg, Daniel; Maus, Irena; Winkler, Anika; Bontron, Séverine; Sczyrba, Alexander; Nordmann, Patrice; Pühler, Alfred; Poirel, Laurent; Schlüter, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    The species Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most important multidrug-resistant human pathogens. To determine its virulence and antibiotic resistance determinants, the genome of the nosocomial blaNDM-1-positive A. baumannii strain R2090 originating from Egypt was completely sequenced. Genome analysis revealed that strain R2090 is highly related to the community-acquired Australian A. baumannii strain D1279779. The two strains belong to sequence type 267 (ST267). Isolate R2090 harbored the chromosomally integrated transposon Tn125 carrying the carbapenemase gene blaNDM-1 that is not present in the D1279779 genome. To test the transferability of the metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) gene region, the clinical isolate R2090 was mated with the susceptible A. baumannii recipient CIP 70.10, and the carbapenem-resistant derivative R2091 was obtained. Genome sequencing of the R2091 derivative revealed that it had received an approximately 66-kb region comprising the transposon Tn125 embedding the blaNDM-1 gene. This region had integrated into the chromosome of the recipient strain CIP 70.10. From the four known mechanisms for horizontal gene transfer (conjugation, outer membrane vesicle-mediated transfer, transformation, and transduction), conjugation could be ruled out, since strain R2090 lacks any plasmid, and a type IV secretion system is not encoded in its chromosome. However, strain R2090 possesses three putative prophages, two of which were predicted to be complete and therefore functional. Accordingly, it was supposed that the transfer of the resistance gene region from the clinical isolate R2090 to the recipient occurred by general transduction facilitated by one of the prophages present in the R2090 genome. Hence, phage-mediated transduction has to be taken into account for the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes within the species A. baumannii. PMID:26953198

  19. Advancements in gene transfer-based therapy for hemophilia A

    PubMed Central

    Doering, Christopher B; Spencer, H Trent

    2010-01-01

    Gene therapy has promised clinical benefit to those suffering with hemophilia A, but this benefit has not yet been realized. However, during the past two decades, basic and applied gene therapy research has progressed and the goal of gene therapy for hemophilia A is once again in our sights. The hemophilia A patient population suffers from a disease that requires invasive, lifelong management, is exorbitantly expensive to treat, has geographically limited treatment access and can become untreatable due to immune reactions to the treatment product. Subsequent to the cloning of the factor VIII gene and cDNA in the early 1980s, academic and commercial research laboratories began to pursue gene transfer-based therapies to supplement or supplant the available protein replacement therapy. However, to date, clinical trials for gene therapy of hemophilia A have been unsuccessful. Three trials have been conducted with each having tested a different gene-transfer strategy and each demonstrating that there is a considerable barrier to achieving sustained expression of therapeutic amounts of factor VIII. Recent progress has been made in gene-transfer technology and, relevant to hemophilia A, towards increasing the biosynthetic efficiency of factor VIII. These advances are now being combined to develop novel strategies to treat and possibly cure hemophilia A. PMID:20577574

  20. Horizontal Transmission of Malignancy: In-Vivo Fusion of Human Lymphomas with Hamster Stroma Produces Tumors Retaining Human Genes and Lymphoid Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, David M.; Gold, David V.; Loo, Meiyu; Liu, Donglin; Chang, Chien-Hsing; Jaffe, Elaine S.

    2013-01-01

    We report the in-vivo fusion of two Hodgkin lymphomas with golden hamster cheek pouch cells, resulting in serially-transplanted (over 5–6 years) GW-532 and GW-584 heterosynkaryon tumor cells displaying both human and hamster DNA (by FISH), lymphoma-like morphology, aggressive metastasis, and retention of 7 human genes (CD74, CXCR4, CD19, CD20, CD71, CD79b, and VIM) out of 24 tested by PCR. The prevalence of B-cell restricted genes (CD19, CD20, and CD79b) suggests that this uniform population may be the clonal initiating (malignant) cells of Hodgkin lymphoma, despite their not showing translation to their respective proteins by immunohistochemical analysis. This is believed to be the first report of in-vivo cell-cell fusion of human lymphoma and rodent host cells, and may be a method to disclose genes regulating both organoid and metastasis signatures, suggesting that the horizontal transfer of tumor DNA to adjacent stromal cells may be implicated in tumor heterogeneity and progression. The B-cell gene signature of the hybrid xenografts suggests that Hodgkin lymphoma, or its initiating cells, is a B-cell malignancy. PMID:23405135

  1. Interkingdom Gene Transfer May Contribute to the Evolution of Phytopathogenicity in Botrytis Cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bo; Zhou, Qing; Xie, Guanlin; Zhang, Guoqing; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wang, Yanli; Sun, Gunchang; Li, Bin; Jin, Gulei

    2012-01-01

    The ascomycete Botrytis cinerea is a phytopathogenic fungus infecting and causing significant yield losses in a number of crops. The genome of B. cinerea has been fully sequenced while the importance of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) to extend the host range in plant pathogenic fungi has been recently appreciated. However, recent data confirm that the B. cinerea fungus shares conserved virulence factors with other fungal plant pathogens with narrow host range. Therefore, interkingdom HGT may contribute to the evolution of phytopathogenicity in B. cinerea. In this study, a stringent genome comparison pipeline was used to identify potential genes that have been obtained by B. cinerea but not by other fungi through interkingdom HGT. This search led to the identification of four genes: a UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT), a lipoprotein and two alpha/beta hydrolase fold proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of the four genes suggests that B. cinerea acquired UGT from plants and the other 3 genes from bacteria. Based on the known gene functions and literature searching, a correlation between gene acquision and the evolution of pathogenicity in B. cinerea can be postulated. PMID:22346340

  2. BuT2 Is a Member of the Third Major Group of hAT Transposons and Is Involved in Horizontal Transfer Events in the Genus Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Rossato, Dirleane Ottonelli; Ludwig, Adriana; Deprá, Maríndia; Loreto, Elgion L. S.; Ruiz, Alfredo; Valente, Vera L. S.

    2014-01-01

    The hAT superfamily comprises a large and diverse array of DNA transposons found in all supergroups of eukaryotes. Here we characterized the Drosophila buzzatii BuT2 element and found that it harbors a five-exon gene encoding a 643-aa putatively functional transposase. A phylogeny built with 85 hAT transposases yielded, in addition to the two major groups already described, Ac and Buster, a third one comprising 20 sequences that includes BuT2, Tip100, hAT-4_BM, and RP-hAT1. This third group is here named Tip. In addition, we studied the phylogenetic distribution and evolution of BuT2 by in silico searches and molecular approaches. Our data revealed BuT2 was, most often, vertically transmitted during the evolution of genus Drosophila being lost independently in several species. Nevertheless, we propose the occurrence of three horizontal transfer events to explain its distribution and conservation among species. Another aspect of BuT2 evolution and life cycle is the presence of short related sequences, which contain similar 5′ and 3′ regions, including the terminal inverted repeats. These sequences that can be considered as miniature inverted repeat transposable elements probably originated by internal deletion of complete copies and show evidences of recent mobilization. PMID:24459285

  3. Evidence of horizontal transfer of non-autonomous Lep1 Helitrons facilitated by host-parasite interactions

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xuezhu; Gao, Jingkun; Li, Fei; Wang, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal transfer (HT) of transposable elements has been recognized to be a major force driving genomic variation and biological innovation of eukaryotic organisms. However, the mechanisms of HT in eukaryotes remain poorly appreciated. The non-autonomous Helitron family, Lep1, has been found to be widespread in lepidopteran species, and showed little interspecific sequence similarity of acquired sequences at 3′ end, which makes Lep1 a good candidate for the study of HT. In this study, we describe the Lep1-like elements in multiple non-lepidopteran species, including two aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum and Aphis gossypii, two parasitoid wasps, Cotesia vestalis, and Copidosoma floridanum, one beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, as well as two bracoviruses in parasitoid wasps, and one intracellular microsporidia parasite, Nosema bombycis. The patchy distribution and high sequence similarity of Lep1-like elements among distantly related lineages as well as incongruence of Lep1-like elements and host phylogeny suggest the occurrence of HT. Remarkably, the acquired sequences of both NbLep1 from N. bombycis and CfLep1 from C. floridanum showed over 90% identity with their lepidopteran host Lep1. Thus, our study provides evidence of HT facilitated by host-parasite interactions. Furthermore, in the context of these data, we discuss the putative directions and vectors of HT of Lep1 Helitrons. PMID:24874102

  4. Evidence of horizontal transfer of non-autonomous Lep1 Helitrons facilitated by host-parasite interactions.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuezhu; Gao, Jingkun; Li, Fei; Wang, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal transfer (HT) of transposable elements has been recognized to be a major force driving genomic variation and biological innovation of eukaryotic organisms. However, the mechanisms of HT in eukaryotes remain poorly appreciated. The non-autonomous Helitron family, Lep1, has been found to be widespread in lepidopteran species, and showed little interspecific sequence similarity of acquired sequences at 3' end, which makes Lep1 a good candidate for the study of HT. In this study, we describe the Lep1-like elements in multiple non-lepidopteran species, including two aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum and Aphis gossypii, two parasitoid wasps, Cotesia vestalis, and Copidosoma floridanum, one beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, as well as two bracoviruses in parasitoid wasps, and one intracellular microsporidia parasite, Nosema bombycis. The patchy distribution and high sequence similarity of Lep1-like elements among distantly related lineages as well as incongruence of Lep1-like elements and host phylogeny suggest the occurrence of HT. Remarkably, the acquired sequences of both NbLep1 from N. bombycis and CfLep1 from C. floridanum showed over 90% identity with their lepidopteran host Lep1. Thus, our study provides evidence of HT facilitated by host-parasite interactions. Furthermore, in the context of these data, we discuss the putative directions and vectors of HT of Lep1 Helitrons. PMID:24874102

  5. Identification of Horizontally-transferred Genomic Islands and Genome Segmentation Points by Using the GC Profile Method

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ren; Ou, Hong-Yu; Gao, Feng; Luo, Hao

    2014-01-01

    The nucleotide composition of genomes undergoes dramatic variations among all three kingdoms of life. GC content, an important characteristic for a genome, is related to many important functions, and therefore GC content and its distribution are routinely reported for sequenced genomes. Traditionally, GC content distribution is assessed by computing GC contents in windows that slide along the genome. Disadvantages of this routinely used window-based method include low resolution and low sensitivity. Additionally, different window sizes result in different GC content distribution patterns within the same genome. We proposed a windowless method, the GC profile, for displaying GC content variations across the genome. Compared to the window-based method, the GC profile has the following advantages: 1) higher sensitivity, because of variation-amplifying procedures; 2) higher resolution, because boundaries between domains can be determined at one single base pair; 3) uniqueness, because the GC profile is unique for a given genome and 4) the capacity to show both global and regional GC content distributions. These characteristics are useful in identifying horizontally-transferred genomic islands and homogenous GC-content domains. Here, we review the applications of the GC profile in identifying genomic islands and genome segmentation points, and in serving as a platform to integrate with other algorithms for genome analysis. A web server generating GC profiles and implementing relevant genome segmentation algorithms is available at: www.zcurve.net. PMID:24822029

  6. Modelling of heat transfer and solidification processes in horizontal twin-roll casting of magnesium AZ31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miehe, A.; Gross, U.

    2012-07-01

    Magnesium is a desirable material for lightweight construction due to its low density and high strength-to-weight ratio. The disadvantage of low cold formability may be overcome for sheet production by combining casting and forming within horizontal twin-roll casting (TRC). During this process, the molten alloy is fed between two counter-rotating rolls water cooled from the inside. In this paper, numerical simulations using the commercial CFD software Star-CCM+ are presented. The code provides the model based on an incompressible, steady-state solver for laminar flow. To describe the solidification, an exponential increase in viscosity for decreasing temperature is employed in addition to the fraction-of-solid approach based on a linear equation for the release of latent heat. The counter-rotating rolls are exposed to a constant heat transfer coefficient and specify the characteristic velocity of the case. Using the full domain for the simulation of the TRC process provides asymmetric velocity profiles resulting in asymmetric temperature profiles and thus temperature differences between the two rolls. Symmetric results should not be enforced by using only half domain as the asymmetric profiles evoke recirculation zones differing in size which might influence the solidification rates.

  7. Modeling distance-dependent individual head-related transfer functions in the horizontal plane using frontal projection headphones.

    PubMed

    Sunder, Kaushik; Gan, Woon-Seng; Tan, Ee-Leng

    2015-07-01

    The veracity of virtual audio is degraded by the use of non-individualized head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) due to the introduction of front-back, elevation confusions, and timbral coloration. Hence, an accurate reproduction of spatial sound demands the use of individualized HRTFs. Measuring distance-dependent individualized HRTFs can be extremely tedious, since it requires precise measurements at several distances in the proximal region (<1 m) for each individual. This paper proposes a technique to model distance-dependent individualized HRTFs in the horizontal plane using "frontal projection headphones playback" that does not require individualized measurements. The frontal projection headphones [Sunder, Tan, and Gan (2013). J. Audio Eng. Soc. 61, 989-1000] project the sound directly onto the pinnae from the front, and thus inherently create listener's idiosyncratic pinna cues at the eardrum. Perceptual experiments were conducted to investigate cues (auditory parallax and interaural level differences) that aid distance perception in anechoic conditions. Interaural level differences were identified as the prominent cue for distance perception and a spherical head model was used to model these distance-dependent features. Detailed psychophysical experiments revealed that the modeled distance-dependent individualized HRTFs exhibited localization performance close to the measured distance-dependent individualized HRTFs for all subjects. PMID:26233016

  8. Otx1 gene-controlled morphogenesis of the horizontal semicircular canal and the origin of the gnathostome characteristics.

    PubMed

    Mazan, S; Jaillard, D; Baratte, B; Janvier, P

    2000-01-01

    The horizontal semicircular canal of the inner ear is a unique feature of gnathostomes and is predated by the two vertical semicircular canals, which are already present in lampreys and some fossil, armored jawless vertebrates regarded as close relatives of gnathostomes. Inactivation in mice of the orthodenticle-related gene Otx1 results in the absence of this structure. In bony fishes and tetrapods (osteichthyans), this gene belongs to a small multigene family comprising at least two orthology classes, Otx1 and Otx2. We report that, as in the mouse, xenopus and zebrafish, Otx1- and Otx2-related genes are present in a chondrichthyan, the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula, with an Otx1 expression domain in the otocyst very similar to those observed in osteichthyans. A strong correlation is thus observed in extant vertebrates between the distribution of the horizontal semicircular canal and the presence of an Otx1 ortholog expressed in the inner ear, which supports the hypothesis that the absence of this characteristic in Otx1-/- mice may correspond to an atavism. The same conclusion applies to two other gnathostome-specific characteristics also deleted in Otx1-/- mice, the utriculosaccular duct and the ciliary process. Together with functional analyses of Otx1 and Otx2 genes in mice and comparative analyses of the Otx gene families characterized in chordates, these discoveries lead to the hypothesis that some of the anatomic characteristics of gnathostomes have appeared quite suddenly and almost simultaneously in vertebrate evolution, possibly as a consequence of gene functional diversifications following duplications of an ancestral chordate gene. PMID:11252561

  9. Experiments on gene transferring to primary hematopoietic cells by liposome.

    PubMed

    Hu, L; Zhang, B

    2000-01-01

    Liposomes have showed many advantages in mediating exogenous gene into many cell types in vitro and in vivo. But few data are available concerning gene transfer into hematopoietic cells. In this report, we described two-marker genes (Neo R and Lac Z) co-transferred into hematopoietic cells of human and mouse by using liposome in vitro. The efficiency of gene transfer was tested by X-gal staining and observation of colony formation. The X-gal blue staining rate of transduced cells was about (13.33 +/- 2.68)% in human and about (16.28 +/- 2.95)% in mouse without G418 selection. After G418 selection, the blue cell rate was (46.06 +/- 3.47)% in human and (43.45 +/- 4.1)% in mouse, which were markedly higher than those before selection, suggesting that high-efficiency gene transfer and expression could be attained in primary hematopoietic cells using this easy and harmless transduction protocol. At the same time, this protocol provided experimental data for clinicians to investigate the biology of marrow reconstitution and trace the origin of relapse after autologous bone marrow transplantation for the patients with leukemia. PMID:12840913

  10. Two-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics and Conduction Simulations of Heat Transfer in Horizontal Window Frames with Internal Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavsen, Arlid; Kohler, Christian; Dalehaug, Arvid; Arasteh, Dariush

    2008-12-01

    compared, at selected locations on the frames. Small differences was found in the results from model to model. Finally, the effectiveness of the ISO cavity radiation algorithms was examined by comparing results from these algorithms to detailed radiation calculations (from both programs). Our results suggest that improvements in cavity heat transfer calculations can be obtained by using detailed radiation modeling (i.e. view-factor or ray-tracing models), and that incorporation of these strategies may be more important for improving the accuracy of results than the use of CFD modeling for horizontal cavities.

  11. Viral mediated gene transfer to sprouting blood vessels during angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Alian, Akram; Eldor, Amiram; Falk, Haya; Panet, Amos

    2002-08-01

    Several experimental systems have been applied to investigate the development of new blood vessels. Angiogenesis can be followed ex-vivo by culturing explants of rat aorta 'rings' in biomatrix gels. This angiogenesis system was modified for the study of viral vector mediated gene transfer, using adenovirus, vaccinia- and retroviral vectors. Two modifications were introduced to the model in order to facilitate efficient viral mediated gene transfer, (i) placing the aorta ring on top of a thin layer of collagen such that the angiogenic tissue will be accessible to the viral vector; and (ii) infection of the aorta rings prior to embedding them into the collagen matrix. While adenovirus and vaccinia vectors infected efficiently the aorta rings they induced cell death. Subsequent gene transfer experiments were, therefore, carried with retroviral vectors containing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the beta-interferon (IFN) genes. Overexpression of VEGF enhanced significantly microvessel sprouting, while overexpression of IFN-beta induced an antiviral effect. The experimental system described in this study can facilitate the application of other viral vectors to the study of genes that may regulate the complex angiogenic process and thereby open new avenues for vascular gene therapy. PMID:12176137

  12. Gene Transfer in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Shuttle Phasmids to Enlightenment

    PubMed Central

    JACOBS, WILLIAM R.

    2016-01-01

    Infectious diseases have plagued humankind throughout history and have posed serious public health problems. Yet vaccines have eradicated smallpox and antibiotics have drastically decreased the mortality rate of many infectious agents. These remarkable successes in the control of infections came from knowing the causative agents of the diseases, followed by serendipitous discoveries of attenuated viruses and antibiotics. The discovery of DNA as genetic material and the understanding of how this information translates into specific phenotypes have changed the paradigm for developing new vaccines, drugs, and diagnostic tests. Knowledge of the mechanisms of immunity and mechanisms of action of drugs has led to new vaccines and new antimicrobial agents. The key to the acquisition of the knowledge of these mechanisms has been identifying the elemental causes (i.e., genes and their products) that mediate immunity and drug resistance. The identification of these genes is made possible by being able to transfer the genes or mutated forms of the genes into causative agents or surrogate hosts. Such an approach was limited in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the difficulty of transferring genes or alleles into M. tuberculosis or a suitable surrogate mycobacterial host. The construction of shuttle phasmids—chimeric molecules that replicate in Escherichia coli as plasmids and in mycobacteria as mycobacteriophages—was instrumental in developing gene transfer systems for M. tuberculosis. This review will discuss M. tuberculosis genetic systems and their impact on tuberculosis research. “I had to know my enemy in order to prevail against him.”Nelson Mandela PMID:26105819

  13. Antibiotics and gene