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Sample records for hormonal priming induction

  1. A hormone priming regimen and hibernation affect oviposition in the boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas boreas).

    PubMed

    Calatayud, N E; Langhorne, C J; Mullen, A C; Williams, C L; Smith, T; Bullock, L; Kouba, A J; Willard, S T

    2015-09-01

    Declines of the southern Rocky Mountain population of boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas boreas) have led to the establishment of a captive assurance population and reintroduction program, in an attempt to preserve and propagate this geographically isolated population. One of the unique adaptations of this species is its ability to survive in cold environments by undergoing long periods of hibernation. In captivity, hibernation can be avoided altogether, decreasing morbidity caused by compromised immune systems. However, it is not entirely clear how essential hibernation is to reproductive success. In this study, the effects of hibernation versus nonhibernation, and exogenous hormones on oviposition, were examined in boreal toad females in the absence of males. In the summers of 2011 and 2012, 20 females housed at Mississippi State University were treated with a double priming dose of hCG and various ovulatory doses of hCG and LH-releasing hormone analog but denied hibernation. Exogenous hormones, in the absence of hibernation, could not induce oviposition over two breeding seasons (2011-2012). In contrast, during the summer of 2012 and 2013, 17 of 22 females (77%) housed at the Native Aquatic Species Restoration Facility (Alamosa, CO, USA) oviposited after they were treated with two priming doses of hCG (3.7 IU/g each) and a single ovulation dose of hCG (13.5 IU/g) and LH-releasing hormone analog (0.4 μg/g) after hibernation. There was a significant difference in oviposition between females that were hibernated and received hormones (2012, P < 0.05 and 2013, P < 0.01) compared to hibernated control females. In 2013, 12 of 16 remaining Mississippi State University females from the same group used in 2011 and 2012 were hibernated for 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively and then treated with the same hormone regimen administered to females at the Native Aquatic Species Restoration Facility. Together, hibernation and hormone treatments significantly increased

  2. Belowground ABA boosts aboveground production of DIMBOA and primes induction of chlorogenic acid in maize.

    PubMed

    Erb, Matthias; Gordon-Weeks, Ruth; Flors, Victor; Camañes, Gemma; Turlings, Ted C J; Ton, Jurriaan

    2009-07-01

    Plants are important mediators between above- and belowground herbivores. Consequently, interactions between root and shoot defenses can have far-reaching impacts on entire food webs. We recently reported that infestation of maize roots by larvae of the beetle Diabrotica virgifera virgifera induced shoot resistance against herbivores and pathogens. Root herbivory also enhanced aboveground DIMBOA and primed for enhanced induction of chlorogenic acid, two secondary metabolites that have been associated with plant stress resistance. Interestingly, the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) emerged as a putative long-distance signal in the regulation of these systemic defenses. In this addendum, we have investigated the role of root-derived ABA in aboveground regulation of DIMBOA and the phenolic compounds chlorogenic acid, caffeic and ferulic acid. Furthermore, we discuss the relevance of ABA in relation to defense against the leaf herbivore Spodoptera littoralis. Soil-drench treatment with ABA mimicked root herbivore-induced accumulation of DIMBOA in the leaves. Similarly, ABA mimicked aboveground priming of chlorogenic acid production, causing augmented induction of this compound after subsequent shoot attack by S. littoralis caterpillars. These findings confirm our notion that ABA acts as an important signal in the regulation of aboveground defenses during belowground herbivory. However, based on our previous finding that ABA alone is not sufficient to trigger aboveground resistance against S. littoralis caterpillars, our results also suggest that the ABA-inducible effects on DIMBOA and chlorogenic acid are not solely responsible for root herbivore-induced resistance against S. littoralis. PMID:19820311

  3. Pros of priming in the diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Gonc, E Nazli; Ozon, Alev; Alikasifoglu, Ayfer; Kandemir, Nurgun

    2011-01-01

    Priming with sex steroids in stimulation tests for the diagnosis of GHD is still under debate. Most of the data on utility of priming during GH stimulation so far seem to support its use in the diagnosis of GHD in childhood. There is a propensity to treat growth retarded children who test subnormally to stimulation tests with GH. However, some studies analyzing the final height or height gain during GH treatment in such children failed to show any improvement in height. This paper summarizes previous studies on priming to analyze the utility of priming as a valid method to better the diagnostic capacity of the test. PMID:21528807

  4. [Examination of hormonal contraceptives by enzyme induction (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Klinger, G; Hempel, E

    1979-01-01

    The influence of drug stimulated biotransformation on the biological effectiveness of two different contraceptives (Deposition and Gravistat) was observed.--Phenobarbital, a potent enzyme inducer, is known to increase the metabolism of steroid hormones, including estrogens and progrestogens. -- The clinical symptoms of drug mediated enzyme induction of hormonal steroid contraceptives are dysfunctional bleedings. This phenomenon is discussed. PMID:463398

  5. Women’s preferences for inpatient and outpatient priming for labour induction: a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In many countries a high proportion of births begin as induced labours. Induction can be lengthy if cervical priming is required prior to induction. This usually occurs as an inpatient, however, an alternative is to allow women to go home after satisfactory fetal monitoring. The aim of this study was to assess the preferences of women for cervical priming for induction of labour in an outpatient or inpatient setting. Method A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was conducted alongside a randomised trial of inpatient and outpatient cervical priming (the OPRA trial) in two maternity hospitals in South Australia. 362 participants were included, and women’s preferences for cervical priming for induction of labour were assessed. Results Women were willing to accept an extra 1.4 trips to hospital (2.4 trips total) and a total travel time of 73.3 minutes to be able to return to their own home while waiting for the priming to work. For enhanced inpatient services, women were willing to accept a total travel time of 54.7 minutes to have a private room with private bathroom while waiting for the priming to work. The overall benefit score for outpatient priming was 3.63, 3.59 for enhanced inpatient care and 2.89 for basic inpatient care, suggesting slightly greater preferences for outpatient priming. Preferences for outpatient priming increased when women could return to their own home (compared to other offsite accommodation), and decreased with more trips to hospital and longer travel time. Conclusions Our results suggest that outpatient priming was slightly more preferred than either enhanced inpatient priming or basic care; these results should be confirmed in different clinical settings. There may be merit in providing women information about both options in the future, as preferences varied according to the characteristics of the services on offer and the sociodemographic background of the woman. PMID:25073486

  6. FXR Primes the Liver for Intestinal FGF15 Signaling by Transient Induction of β-Klotho.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ting; Kim, Young-Chae; Byun, Sangwon; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Seok, Sunmi; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Xu, H Eric; Kemper, Byron; Kemper, Jongsook Kim

    2016-01-01

    The bile acid (BA)-sensing nuclear receptor, farnesoid X receptor (FXR), regulates postprandial metabolic responses, including inhibition of BA synthesis, by inducing the intestinal hormone, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)15 (FGF19 in human). In this study, we tested a novel hypothesis that FXR not only induces intestinal FGF15 but also primes the liver for effectively responding to the signal by transcriptional induction of the obligate coreceptor for FGF15, β-Klotho (βKL). Activation of FXR by a synthetic agonist, GW4064, in mice increased occupancy of FXR and its DNA-binding partner, retinoid X receptor-α, at FGF15-signaling component genes, particularly βKL, and induced expression of these genes. Interestingly, mRNA levels of Fgfr4, the FGF15 receptor, were not increased by GW4064, but protein levels increased as a result of βKL-dependent increased protein stability. Both FGF receptor 4 and βKL protein levels were substantially decreased in FXR-knockout (KO) mice, and FGF19 signaling, monitored by phosphorylated ERK, was blunted in FXR-KO mice, FXR-KO mouse hepatocytes, and FXR-down-regulated human hepatocytes. Overexpression of βKL in FXR-lacking hepatocytes partially restored FGF19 signaling and inhibition by FGF19 of Cyp7a1, which encodes the rate-limiting BA biosynthetic enzyme. In mice, transient inductions of intestinal Fgf15 and hepatic βKL were temporally correlated after GW4064 treatment, and pretreatment of hepatocytes with GW4064 before FGF19 treatment enhanced FGF19 signaling, which was abolished by transcriptional inhibition or βKL down-regulation. This study identifies FXR as a gut-liver metabolic coordinator for FGF15/19 action that orchestrates transient induction of hepatic βKL and intestinal Fgf15/19 in a temporally correlated manner. PMID:26505219

  7. Effects of hormonal priming on seed germination of pigeon pea under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Sneideris, Larissa C; Gavassi, Marina A; Campos, Marcelo L; D'Amico-Damião, Victor; Carvalho, Rogério F

    2015-09-01

    In this work we investigated whether priming with auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, abscisic acid and ethylene, alters the physiological responses of seeds of pigeon pea germinated under water and cadmium stress. Seeds treated with water or non-treated seeds were used as control. Although compared to non-treated seeds we found that the hormone treatments improve the germination of pigeon pea under cadmium stress, however, these treatments did not differ from water. However, we also observed a trend of tolerance to the effects of cadmium in the presence of ethylene, suggesting that the use of this hormone may be an efficient method to overcome seed germination under metal stress. PMID:26221985

  8. Final heights of boys with normal growth hormone responses to provocative tests following priming.

    PubMed

    Gonc, E Nazli; Kandemir, Nurgun; Ozon, Alev; Alikasifoglu, Ayfer

    2008-10-01

    Priming with sex steroids prior to growth hormone (GH) stimulation tests for the diagnosis of GH deficiency is still debatable. We analyzed the auxological data of boys with growth retardation who had normal GH responses to stimulation tests only after priming to establish the validity of priming in the diagnosis of GH deficiency. We also analyzed the effect of different protocols for priming and their efficiency in the diagnosis of GH deficiency. Fifty boys with growth retardation who failed to respond to unprimed GH stimulation tests but responded normally to primed tests were included in the study. Thirty-one of 50 boys responded to GH stimulation tests after single low dose testosterone, 11/50 boys after single conventional dose, and 8/50 boys with multiple-dose testosterone. The study group was followed till final height; height velocity, final height and height SDS were compared to parental and mid-parental heights to determine whether or not the children achieved their height potential. Mean final height SDS of the study group (-1.27 +/- 0.72 SDS) was similar to mid-parental (-1.38 +/- 0.72 SDS) (p = 0.249) and maternal height SDS (-1.26 +/- 1.05 SDS) (p = 0.941), whereas it was greater than the paternal height SDS (-1.7 +/- 0.86) (p = 0.001). The final height SDS of the study group was correlated to maternal, paternal and mid-parental height SDS. Height velocity after the test was greater than the previous height velocity. Final height SDS of the boys who responded to the GH stimulation tests with different priming protocols were compared and found to be similar. Normal responders in primed GH tests grow normally to their target height, suggesting that priming might be a valuable method in the assessment of GH status. Use of priming in the GH stimulation tests of peripubertal boys with decreased growth rate may help avoid unnecessary GH therapy. Multiple-dose testing might exclude GHD in a patient population who failed to respond to a single dose of

  9. Effect of priming injections of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone on spermiation and ovulation in Gϋnther's Toadlet, Pseudophryne guentheri

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the majority of vertebrates, gametogenesis and gamete-release depend on the pulsatile secretion of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) from the hypothalamus. Studies attempting to artificially stimulate ovulation and spermiation may benefit from mimicking the naturally episodic secretion of LHRH by administering priming injections of a synthetic analogue (LHRHa). This study investigated the impact of low-dose priming injections of LHRHa on gamete-release in the Australian toadlet Pseudophryne guentheri. Methods Toadlets were administered a single dose of two micrograms per. gram LHRHa without a priming injection (no priming), or preceded by one (one priming) or two (two priming) injections of 0.4 micrograms per. gram LHRHa. Spermiation responses were evaluated at 3, 7 and 12 hrs post hormone administration (PA), and sperm number and viability were quantified using fluorescent microscopy. Oocyte yields were evaluated by stripping females at 10-11 hrs PA. A sub-sample of twenty eggs per female was then fertilised (with sperm obtained from testis macerates) and fertilisation success determined. Results No priming induced the release of the highest number of spermatozoa, with a step-wise decrease in the number of spermatozoa released in the one and two priming treatments respectively. Peak sperm-release occurred at 12 hrs PA for all priming treatments and there was no significant difference in sperm viability. Females in the control treatment failed to release oocytes, while those administered an ovulatory dose without priming exhibited a poor ovulatory response. The remaining two priming treatments (one and two priming) successfully induced 100% of females to expel an entire clutch. Oocytes obtained from the no, or two priming treatments all failed to fertilise, however oocytes obtained from the one priming treatment displayed an average fertilisation success of 97%. Conclusion Spermiation was most effectively induced in male P. guentheri by

  10. Beta-aminobutyric acid priming of plant defense: the role of ABA and other hormones.

    PubMed

    Baccelli, Ivan; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte

    2016-08-01

    Plants are exposed to recurring biotic and abiotic stresses that can, in extreme situations, lead to substantial yield losses. With the changing environment, the stress pressure is likely to increase and sustainable measures to alleviate the effect on our crops are sought. Priming plants for better stress resistance is one of the sustainable possibilities to reach this goal. Here, we report on the effects of beta-aminobutyric acid, a priming agent with an exceptionally wide range of action and describe its way of preparing plants to defend themselves against various attacks, among others through the modulation of their hormonal defense signaling, and highlight the special role of abscisic acid in this process. PMID:26584561

  11. Thyroid Hormone Receptor Binds to a Site in the Rat Growth Hormone Promoter Required for Induction by Thyroid Hormone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Ronald J.; Brent, Gregory A.; Warne, Robert L.; Reed Larsen, P.; Moore, David D.

    1987-08-01

    Transcription of the rat growth hormone (rGH) gene in pituitary cells is increased by addition of thyroid hormone (T3). This induction is dependent on the presence of specific sequences just upstream of the rGH promoter. We have partially purified T3 receptor from rat liver and examined its interaction with these rGH sequences. We show here that T3 receptor binds specifically to a site just upstream of the basal rGH promoter. This binding site includes two copies of a 7-base-pair direct repeat, the centers of which are separated by 10 base pairs. Deletions that specifically remove the T3 receptor binding site drastically reduce response to T3 in transient transfection experiments. These results demonstrate that T3 receptor can recognize specific DNA sequences and suggest that it can act directly as a positive transcriptional regulatory factor.

  12. Thyroid hormone determines the start of the sensitive period of imprinting and primes later learning

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Shinji; Aoki, Naoya; Kitajima, Takaaki; Iikubo, Eiji; Katagiri, Sachiko; Matsushima, Toshiya; Homma, Koichi J.

    2012-01-01

    Filial imprinting in precocial birds is the process of forming a social attachment during a sensitive or critical period, restricted to the first few days after hatching. Imprinting is considered to be part of early learning to aid the survival of juveniles by securing maternal care. Here we show that the thyroid hormone 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3) determines the start of the sensitive period. Imprinting training in chicks causes rapid inflow of T3, converted from circulating plasma thyroxine by Dio2, type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase, in brain vascular endothelial cells. The T3 thus initiates and extends the sensitive period to last more than 1 week via non-genomic mechanisms and primes subsequent learning. Even in non-imprinted chicks whose sensitive period has ended, exogenous T3 enables imprinting. Our findings indicate that T3 determines the start of the sensitive period for imprinting and has a critical role in later learning. PMID:23011135

  13. Induction of Lipid and Oleosin Biosynthesis by (+)-Abscisic Acid and Its Metabolites in Microspore-Derived Embryos of Brassica napus L.cv Reston (Biological Responses in the Presence of 8[prime]-Hydroxyabscisic Acid).

    PubMed Central

    Zou, J.; Abrams, G. D.; Barton, D. L.; Taylor, D. C.; Pomeroy, M. K.; Abrams, S. R.

    1995-01-01

    Microspore-derived (MD) embryos of Brassica napus L. cv Reston were used to test the effects of (+)-abscisic acid ([(+)-ABA]) and its metabolites, 8[prime]-hydroxyabscisic acid (8[prime]-OH ABA) and (-)-phaseic acid (PA), on the accumulation of very long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids (VLCMFAs) and induction of genes encoding a 19-kD oleosin protein and a [delta]15 desaturase during embryogenesis. Developing early to mid-cotyledonary MD embryos at 16 to 19 d in culture were treated with 10 [mu]M hormone/metabolite for 4 d. At various times during incubation, embryos and medium were analyzed to determine levels of hormone/metabolite, VLCMFAs, and oleosin or [delta]15 desaturase transcripts. The VLCMFAs, 20:1 and 22:1, primarily in triacylglycerols, increased by 200% after 72 h in the presence of (+)-ABA and 8[prime]-OH ABA relative to the control. In contrast, treatment with PA for 72 h had little effect (20% increase) on the level of VLCMFAs. The first 24 to 72 h of (+)-ABA treatment were critical in the induction of VLCMFA biosynthesis, with 8[prime]-OH ABA lagging slightly behind (+)-ABA in promoting this response. The accumulation of VLCMFAs was positively correlated with an increase in elongase activity. (+)-ABA and its 8[prime]-OH ABA metabolite induced the accumulation of a 19-kD oleosin transcript within 2 to 4 h in culture. In addition, both (+)-ABA and 8[prime]-OH ABA induced the same level of [delta]15 desaturase transcript by 8 h. PA had no effect on the induction of either oleosin or [delta]15 desaturase transcripts. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the biological activity of 8[prime]-OH ABA and of stimulatory effects of (+)-ABA and 8[prime]-OH ABA on lipid and oleosin biosynthesis. PMID:12228493

  14. Pituitary self-priming actions of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Kinetics of estradiol's potentiating effects on gonadotropin-releasing hormone-facilitated luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone release in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Veldhuis, J D; Evans, W S; Rogol, A D; Kolp, L; Thorner, M O; Stumpf, P

    1986-06-01

    We examined the kinetically distinct characteristics of estradiol's effects upon pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) release in response to pulses of exogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in healthy postmenopausal individuals. The putative self-priming actions of GnRH on LH and FSH release were tested by intravenous injections of equal paired doses of GnRH (10 micrograms) before and after 1, 5, 10, and 30 d of pure estradiol-17 beta delivery via an intravaginal silastic ring. Self-priming actions of GnRH, as defined by heightened gonadotropin release in response to the second pulse of GnRH compared with the first, were completely absent in the hypoestrogenemic state. However, estradiol administration unmasked GnRH self-priming in a time-dependent fashion, with maximal expression after 5 and 10 d of steroid replacement, followed by attenuation by 30 d. Since estradiol's modulation of GnRH action was expressed differentially on LH and FSH release, we suggest that such facilitation of GnRH-stimulated pituitary LH and FSH release may provide an additional mechanism for dissociated secretion of gonadotropic hormones in health or disease. PMID:3086382

  15. Lactogenic hormonal induction of long distance interactions between beta-casein gene regulatory elements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactogenic hormone regulation of beta-casein gene expression in mammary epithelial cells provides, an excellent model in which to study the mechanisms by which steroid and peptide hormone signaling control gene expression. Prolactin- and glucocorticoid-mediated induction of beta-casein gene express...

  16. Nicotine primes the effect of cocaine on the induction of LTP in the amygdala.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan-You; Kandel, Denise B; Kandel, Eric R; Levine, Amir

    2013-11-01

    In human populations, there is a well-defined sequence of involvement in drugs of abuse, in which the use of nicotine or alcohol precedes the use of marijuana, which in turn, precedes the use of cocaine. The term "Gateway Hypothesis" describes this developmental sequence of drug involvement. In prior work, we have developed a mouse model to study the underlying metaplastic behavioral, cellular and molecular mechanisms by which exposure to one drug, namely nicotine, affects the response to another drug, namely cocaine. We found that nicotine enhances significantly the changes in synaptic plasticity in the striatum induced by cocaine (Levine et al., 2011). Here we ask: does the metaplastic effect of nicotine on cocaine also apply in the amygdala, a brain region that is involved in the orchestration of emotions and in drug addiction? We find that pretreatment with nicotine enhances long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP) in response to cocaine in the amygdala. Both short-term (1 day) and long-term (7 days) pre-exposure to nicotine facilitate the induction of LTP by cocaine. The effect of nicotine on LTP is unidirectional; exposure to nicotine following treatment with cocaine is ineffective. This metaplastic effect of nicotine on cocaine is long lasting but reversible. The facilitation of LTP can be obtained for 24 but not 40 days after cessation of nicotine. As is the case in the striatum, pretreatment with Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, simulates the priming effect of nicotine. These results provide further evidence that the priming effect of nicotine may be achieved, at least partially, by the inhibition of histone acetylation and indicate that the amygdala appears to be an important brain structure for the processing of the metaplastic effect of nicotine on cocaine. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Glutamate Receptor-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity'. PMID:23597510

  17. Extracellular matrix and hormones transcriptionally regulate bovine. beta. -casein 5 prime sequences in stably transfected mouse mammary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidhauser, C. Bissell, M.J. ); Myers, C.A.; Casperson, G.F. )

    1990-12-01

    Milk protein regulation involves synergistic action of lactogenic hormones and extracellular matrix (ECM). It is well established that substratum has a dramatic effect on morphology and function of mammary cells. The molecular mechanisms that regulate the ECM- and hormone-dependent gene expression, however, have not been resolved. To address this question, a subpopulation (designated CID 9) of the mouse mammary epithelial cell strain COMMA-2D has been developed in which more than 35% of the cells express {beta}-casein, form alveoli-like structures when plated onto a reconstituted basement membrane, and secrete {beta}-casein undirectionally into a lumen. These cells were stably transfected with a series of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) fusion genes to study transcriptional regulation of the bovine {beta}-casein gene. The expression of CAT in these lines demonstrated a striking matrix and hormone dependency. This regulation occurered primarily at the transcriptional level and was dependent on the length of the 5{prime} flanking region of the {beta}-casein promotor. Both matrix and hormonal control of transcription occurred within at least the first 1790 base pairs upstream and/or 42 base pairs downstream of the transcriptional initiation site. The ECM effect was independent of glucocorticoid stimulation. However, prolactin was essential and hydrocortisone further increased CAT expression. Endogenous {beta}-casein expression in these lines was similar to that of the parent CID 9 cells. Our data indicate the existence of matrix-dependent elements that regulate transcription.

  18. Effect of thymic hormones on induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in old mice.

    PubMed

    Endoh, M; Tabira, T

    1990-08-01

    This study was aimed at restoring decreased T-cell functions and reduced susceptibility to proteolipid apoprotein (PLP) induced-experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) in old mice with thymic hormones. Thymosin fraction 5 (TF-5) and serum thymic factor (FTS) had no significant in vitro and in vivo effect on proliferative responses to PLP and concanavalin A (Con A), and on EAE induction in young and old mice. These results suggest that decreased T-cell functions cannot be restored by these thymic hormones tested. PMID:2256103

  19. Hormonal regulation of focal adhesions in bovine adrenocortical cells: induction of paxillin dephosphorylation by adrenocorticotropic hormone.

    PubMed Central

    Vilgrain, I; Chinn, A; Gaillard, I; Chambaz, E M; Feige, J J

    1998-01-01

    A study of bovine adrenocortical cell shape on adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge showed that the cells round up and develop arborized processes. This effect was found to be (1) specific for ACTH because angiotensin II and basic fibroblast growth factor have no effect; (2) mediated by a cAMP-dependent pathway because forskolin reproduces the effect of the hormone; (3) inhibited by sodium orthovanadate, a phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, but unchanged by okadaic acid, a serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor; and (4) correlated with a complete loss of focal adhesions. Biochemical studies of the focal-adhesion-associated proteins showed that pp125fak, vinculin (110 kDa) and paxillin (70 kDa) were detected in the Triton X-100-insoluble fraction from adrenocortical cells. During cell adhesion on fibronectin as substratum, two major phosphotyrosine-containing proteins of molecular masses 125 and 68 kDa were immunodetected in the same fraction. A dramatic decrease in the extent of tyrosine phosphorylation of these proteins was observed within 60 min after treatment with ACTH. No change in pp125fak tyrosine phosphorylation nor in Src activity was detected. In contrast, paxillin was found to be tyrosine-dephosphorylated in a time-dependent manner in ACTH-treated cells. Sodium orthovanadate completely prevented the effect of ACTH. These observations suggest a possible role for phosphotyrosine phosphatases in hormone-dependent cellular regulatory processes. PMID:9601084

  20. SUPPRESSION OF THE LUTEINIZING HORMONE SURGE BY CHLORDIMEFORM IN OVARIECTOMIZED, STEROID-PRIMED FEMALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The midcycle surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary provides the physiological trigger in the mammalian female for the process of ovulation. ccordingly, any agent that compromises the LH surge could function as a reproductive toxicant. ince ovariectomized (OVX) rats...

  1. Selective induction of high-ouabain-affinity isoform of Na sup + -K sup + -ATPase by thyroid hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, R.S.; Loeb, J.N. )

    1988-12-01

    The administration of thyroid hormone is known to result in an induction of the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-adenosinetriphosphatase (Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase) in rat skeletal muscle and other thyroid hormone-responsive tissues. Since the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase in a variety of mammalian tissues has recently been reported to exist in at least two forms distinguishable by differing affinities for the inhibitory cardiac glycoside ouabain. The authors have studied the effects of 3,3{prime},5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T{sub 3}) treatment on these two forms of the enzyme in rat diaphragm. The inhibition of Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase activity in a crude membrane fraction by varying concentrations of ouabain conformed to a biphasic pattern consistent with the presence of two distinct isoforms with inhibition constants (K{sub I}s) for ouabain of {approximately}10{sup {minus}7} and 10{sup {minus}4} M, respectively. Measurement of the specific binding of ({sup 3}H)ouabain to these membranes confirmed the presence of a class of high-affinity ouabain binding sites with a dissociation constant (K{sub d}) of slightly less than 10{sup {minus}7}M, whose maximal binding capacity was increased by T{sub 3} treatment by 185%. Binding studies in unfractionated homogenates of diaphragm similarly demonstrated the presence of high-affinity sites whose maximal binding capacity was increased by T{sub 3} treatment. Quantitation of both the high- and low-ouabain-affinity forms of the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase by ouabain-dependent phosphorylation from ({sup 32}P)orthophosphate confirmed that T{sub 3} treatment markedly increased the number of high-affinity sites while having little effect on the number of low-affinity sites. These observations provide, to our knowledge, the first demonstration that these two forms of the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase are subject to selective hormonal induction.

  2. Hormonal induction of all stages of spermatogenesis in vitro in the male Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica).

    PubMed Central

    Miura, T; Yamauchi, K; Takahashi, H; Nagahama, Y

    1991-01-01

    The importance of gonadotropins and androgens for spermatogenesis is generally accepted in vertebrates, but the role played by specific hormones has not been clarified. Under cultivation conditions, male Japanese eels (Anguilla japonica) have immature testes containing only premitotic spermatogonia, type A and early-type B spermatogonia. In the present study, a recently developed organ-culture system for eel testes was used to determine in vitro effects of various steroid hormones on spermatogenesis. After 9 days of culture in serum-free, chemically defined medium containing 11-ketotestosterone (10 ng/ml), a major androgen in male eels, type A and early-type B spermatogonia began mitosis, producing late-type B spermatogonia. After 18 days, zygotene spermatocytes with synaptonemal complexes appeared, indicating that meiosis had already started by this time. In testis fragments cultured for 21 days, round spermatids and spermatozoa were observed with spermatogenic cells at all stages of development. Addition of 11-ketotestosterone to the culture medium also caused a marked cytological activation of Sertoli cells. No other steroid hormones tested had such stimulatory effects. These results, together with our earlier observations, suggest the following sequence for the hormonal induction of spermatogenesis in eel testes; gonadotropin stimulates the Leydig cells to produce 11-ketotestosterone, which, in turn, activates the Sertoli cells leading to the completion of spermatogenesis. This is, thus, an example of an animal system in which all stages of spermatogenesis have been induced by hormonal manipulation in vitro. Images PMID:2062857

  3. Induction of CD8+ T cells using heterologous prime-boost immunisation strategies.

    PubMed

    Schneider, J; Gilbert, S C; Hannan, C M; Dégano, P; Prieur, E; Sheu, E G; Plebanski, M; Hill, A V

    1999-08-01

    One of the current challenges in vaccine design is the development of antigen delivery systems or vaccination strategies that induce high protective levels of CD8+ T cells. These cells are crucial for protection against certain tumours and intracellular pathogens such as the liver-stage parasite of malaria. A liver-stage malaria vaccine should therefore include CD8+ T-cell-inducing components. This review provides an overview of prime-boost immunisation strategies that result in protective CD8+ T-cell responses against malaria with an emphasis on work from our laboratory. Possible mechanisms explaining why heterologous prime-boost strategies, in particular boosting with replication-impaired recombinant poxviruses, are so effective are discussed. PMID:10566139

  4. Usefulness of oral administration of lipopolysaccharide for disease prevention through the induction of priming in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Inagawa, Hiroyuki; Kohchi, Chie; Soma, Gen-Ichiro

    2014-08-01

    Many publications show that macrophages are closely involved in etiology of diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. Recent studies show that waste products (e.g. dead cells, denatured proteins, oxidized lipids, and advanced glycation end-products) are the real causative agents of lifestyle-associated diseases. From the standpoint of health maintenance, macrophages eliminate foreign objects and waste products from an animal's body and appear to be quite important for maintaining homeostasis. There are two stages of activation of macrophages: one is priming and the other is the triggering stage with cytokine secretion. The priming stage of macrophages is an ostensibly functional stage without characteristic morphological changes and secretion of cytokines, but it functionally promotes clearance of waste products. In this review, we discuss the usefulness of oral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a macrophage-priming agent for prevention/treatment of several diseases, including cancer. Moreover, the oral administration of LPS is safe. These observations suggest that LPS may be considered a vitamin-like substance with therapeutic properties. PMID:25075092

  5. Pseudomonas spp.-induced systemic resistance to Botrytis cinerea is associated with induction and priming of defence responses in grapevine.

    PubMed

    Verhagen, Bas W M; Trotel-Aziz, Patricia; Couderchet, Michel; Höfte, Monica; Aziz, Aziz

    2010-01-01

    Non-pathogenic rhizobacteria Pseudomonas spp. can reduce disease in plant tissues through induction of a defence state known as induced systemic resistance (ISR). This resistance is based on multiple bacterial determinants, but nothing is known about the mechanisms underlying rhizobacteria-induced resistance in grapevine. In this study, the ability of Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 7NSK2 to induce resistance in grapevine against Botrytis cinerea is demonstrated. Both strains also triggered an oxidative burst and phytoalexin (i.e. resveratrol and viniferin) accumulation in grape cells and primed leaves for accelerated phytoalexin production upon challenge with B. cinerea. Treatment of cell cultures with crude cell extracts of bacteria strongly enhanced oxidative burst, but resulted in comparable amounts of phytoalexins and resistance to B. cinerea to those induced by living bacteria. This suggests the production of bacterial compounds serving as inducers of disease resistance. Using other strains with different characteristics, it is shown that P. fluorescens WCS417 (Pch-deficient), P. putida WCS358 (Pch- and SA-deficient) and P. fluorescens Q2-87 (a DAPG producer) were all capable of inducing resistance to an extent similar to that induced by CHA0. However, in response to WCS417 (Pch-negative) the amount of H2O2 induced is less than for the CHA0. WCS417 induced low phytoalexin levels in cells and lost the capacity to prime for phytoalexins in the leaves. This suggests that, depending on the strain, SA, pyochelin, and DAPG are potentially effective in inducing or priming defence responses. The 7NSK2 mutants, KMPCH (Pch- and Pvd-negative) and KMPCH-567 (Pch-, Pvd-, and SA-negative) induced only partial resistance to B. cinerea. However, the amount of H2O2 triggered by KMPCH and KMPCH-567 was similar to that induced by 7NSK2. Both mutants also led to a low level of phytoalexins in grapevine cells, while KMPCH slightly primed grapevine leaves

  6. Active immunization to luteinizing hormone releasing hormone to inhibit the induction of mammary tumors in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Ravdin, P.M.; Jordan, V.C.

    1988-01-01

    Immunization of female rats with a bovine serum albumin-luteinizing hormone releasing hormone conjugate results in suppression of dimethylbenzanthracene mammary tumor incidence. Tumor incidence was 1.3, and 1.29 tumors per rat in bovine serum albumin alone (n = 10) and unimmunized (n = 18) control groups, but no tumors were found in the bovine serum albumin-luteinizing hormone releasing hormone conjugate immunized animals (n = 10). In a second experiment immunization with bovine serum albumin-luteinizing hormone releasing hormone conjugates reduced tumor incidence to 0.3 tumors per rat (n = 10) from the 1.2 tumors per animal seen in the control animals (n = 10) immunized with bovine serum albumin alone. Bovine serum albumin-luteinizing hormone immunization caused the production of anti-LHRH antibodies, an interruption of estrous cycles, lowered serum estradiol and progesterone levels, and atrophy of the ovaries and uteri. Immunization BSA-hormone conjugates is a novel anti-tumor strategy.

  7. Epigenetic memory gained by priming with osteogenic induction medium improves osteogenesis and other properties of mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Rui, Yunfeng; Xu, Liangliang; Chen, Rui; Zhang, Ting; Lin, Sien; Hou, Yonghui; Liu, Yang; Meng, Fanbiao; Liu, Zhenqing; Ni, Ming; Sze Tsang, Kam; Yang, Fuyuan; Wang, Chen; Chang Chan, Hsiao; Jiang, Xiaohua; Li, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are highly plastic cells that are able to transdifferentiate or dedifferentiate under appropriate conditions. In the present study, we reported here that after in vitro induction of osteogenic differentiation, MSCs could be reverted to a primitive stem cell population (dedifferentiated osteogenic MSCs, De-Os-MSCs) with improved cell survival, colony formation, osteogenic potential, migratory capacity and increased expression of Nanog, Oct4 and Sox2. Most importantly, our results showed great superiority of the De-Os-MSCs over untreated MSCs in ectopic bone formation in vivo. Furthermore, Nanog-knockdown in MSCs could reverse these enhanced properties in De-Os-MSCs in vitro, indicating a central role of Nanog in the transcriptional network. In addition, epigenetic regulations including DNA methylation and histone modifications may play important roles in regulating the de-osteogenic differentiation process. And we found decreased methylation and promoter accrual of activating histone marks, such as H3K4me3 and H4ac on both Nanog and Oct4 gene promoters. Taken together, our study demonstrated that epigenetic memory in De-Os-MSCs gained by priming with osteogenic induction medium favored their differentiation along osteoblastic lineage with improved cell survival and migratory abilities, which may have application potential in enhancing their regenerative capacity in mammals. PMID:26053250

  8. Glucocorticoid-mediated induction of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein: evidence for hormone-regulated RNA processing.

    PubMed Central

    Vannice, J L; Taylor, J M; Ringold, G M

    1984-01-01

    We have studied the glucocorticoid-mediated accumulation of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) in mRNA in HTC rat hepatoma cells. In contrast to the well-characterized primary response of mouse mammary tumor virus, in vitro transcription assays in isolated nuclei show that the rate of transcription of the AGP gene is high even in the absence of hormone. Despite the constitutive transcription of the AGP gene, no detectable AGP RNA can be found in either the cytoplasm or the nuclei of untreated cells. Previous experiments have shown that the glucocorticoid induction of AGP RNA requires ongoing protein synthesis. In conjunction with the present study, our data suggest that glucocorticoids stimulate accumulation of AGP RNA by inducing an RNA processing factor that allows production of stable transcripts. Images PMID:6205392

  9. Induction of calcium-dependent nitric oxide synthases by sex hormones.

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, C P; Lizasoain, I; Baylis, S A; Knowles, R G; Charles, I G; Moncada, S

    1994-01-01

    We have examined the effects of pregnancy and sex hormones on calcium-dependent and calcium-independent nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) in the guinea pig. Pregnancy (near term) caused a > 4-fold increase in the activity of calcium-dependent NOS in the uterine artery and at least a doubling in the heart, kidney, skeletal muscle, esophagus, and cerebellum. The increase in NOS activity in the cerebellum during pregnancy was inhibited by the estrogen-receptor antagonist tamoxifen. Treatment with estradiol (but not progesterone) also increased calcium-dependent NOS activity in the tissues examined from both females and males. Testosterone increased calcium-dependent NOS only in the cerebellum. No significant change in calcium-independent NOS activity was observed either during pregnancy or after the administration of any sex hormone. Both pregnancy and estradiol treatment increased the amount of mRNAs for NOS isozymes eNOS and nNOS in skeletal muscle, suggesting that the increases in NOS activity result from enzyme induction. Thus both eNOS and nNOS are subject to regulation by estrogen, an action that could explain some of the changes that occur during pregnancy and some gender differences in physiology and pathophysiology. Images PMID:7515189

  10. Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  11. β1-Adrenergic and M2 Muscarinic Autoantibodies and Thyroid Hormone Facilitate Induction of Atrial Fibrillation in Male Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongliang; Murphy, Taylor; Zhang, Ling; Huang, Bing; Veitla, Vineet; Scherlag, Benjamin J; Kem, David C; Yu, Xichun

    2016-01-01

    Activating autoantibodies to the β1-adrenergic and M2 muscarinic receptors are present in a very high percentage of patients with Graves' disease and atrial fibrillation (AF). The objective of this study was to develop a reproducible animal model and thereby to examine the impact of these endocrine-like autoantibodies alone and with thyroid hormone on induction of thyroid-associated atrial tachyarrhythmias. Five New Zealand white rabbits were coimmunized with peptides from the second extracellular loops of the β1-adrenergic and M2 muscarinic receptors to produce both sympathomimetic and parasympathomimetic antibodies. A catheter-based electrophysiological study was performed on anesthetized rabbits before and after immunization and subsequent treatment with thyroid hormone. Antibody expression facilitated the induction of sustained sinus, junctional and atrial tachycardias, but not AF. Addition of excessive thyroid hormone resulted in induced sustained AF in all animals. AF induction was blocked acutely by the neutralization of these antibodies with immunogenic peptides despite continued hyperthyroidism. The measured atrial effective refractory period as one parameter of AF propensity shortened significantly after immunization and was acutely reversed by peptide neutralization. No further decrease in the effective refractory period was observed after the addition of thyroid hormone, suggesting other cardiac effects of thyroid hormone may contribute to its role in AF induction. This study demonstrates autonomic autoantibodies and thyroid hormone potentiate the vulnerability of the heart to AF, which can be reversed by decoy peptide therapy. These data help fulfill Witebsky's postulates for an increased autoimmune/endocrine basis for Graves' hyperthyroidism and AF. PMID:26517045

  12. Prime Knowledge about Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Theodore

    2007-01-01

    Several proofs demonstrating that there are infinitely many primes, different types of primes, tests of primality, pseudo primes, prime number generators and open questions about primes are discussed in Section 1. Some of these notions are elaborated upon in Section 2, with discussions of the Riemann zeta function and how algorithmic complexity…

  13. Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    ... the foods you eat Sexual function Reproduction Mood Endocrine glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, thymus, thyroid, adrenal ...

  14. Refinement of a Protocol for the Induction of Lactation in Nonpregnant Nonhuman Primates by Using Exogenous Hormone Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Shannon D; Amos, Joshua D; Beck, Krista N; Colvin, Lisa M; Franke, Kelly S; Liebl, Brooke E; Permar, Sallie R

    2014-01-01

    Obtaining sufficient quantities of milk from NHP is necessary for pharmacologic and immunologic studies required for the development and safety assessment of drugs and vaccines to be used in the maternal–infant setting. We previously induced lactation in nonpregnant female rhesus macaques (RM, Macaca mulatta) and African green monkeys (AGM, Chlorocebus sabaeus) for studies of immune responses in milk, but the volume collected was variable. To improve lactation induction protocols for nonbreeding nonhuman primates, we investigated serum hormone levels and collection protocols in AGM and RM. Here, we correlated milk volume with serum levels of endogenous and administered hormones: estradiol, prolactin, progesterone, and medroxyprogesterone in RM and AGM. We also investigated whether age, parity or the timing of milk collections were associated with the volume of milk collected from the AGM and RM in which lactation was induced by using exogenous hormones. We found an inverse correlation with serum estradiol and milk volume in the RM but no significant correlation between milk volumes and the remaining serum hormone levels in the induced RM or AGM. In addition, HIL AGM had higher peak estradiol levels than did naturally lactating AGM. A revised estradiol-sparing protocol increased milk volumes in the AGM. In addition, milk volume in RM was greater in the morning than the afternoon. In conclusion, we have refined a lactation induction protocol in nonpregnant primates, which is a needed alternative to using nursing primates for the assessment of drug levels and immune responses in milk. PMID:25650978

  15. Estrogen receptors are involved in xenoestrogen induction of growth hormone in the rat pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Dang, Vu Hoang; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2009-04-01

    Growth hormone (GH) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of growth, development and body composition. In order to provide new insights into estrogenic endocrine disruptor (ED) activities in the pituitary gland and the potential role played by estrogen receptors (ERs) in mediating their effects in vivo, we examined GH expression in the pituitary gland of an immature rat model. At postnatal day 14, immature rats were treated with various doses of 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), p-nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA), and the GH mRNA and protein expression levels were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR and western blot/immunohistochemistry (IHC), respectively. An anti-estrogen (ICI 182780) was used to examine the potential involvement of ERs in ED-induced GH expression during critical windows of development. GH mRNA expression increased significantly 48 h after treatment with a high dose (600 mg/kg body weight [BW]) of OP or NP. However, this induction was abolished completely by co-treatment with ICI 182780. No significant difference in GH mRNA expression was observed following treatment with BPA or co-treatment of BPA with the anti-estrogen. Exposure to high doses (600 mg/kg BW) of these EDs significantly enhanced GH protein expression in the rat pituitary gland, whereas pretreatment with ICI 182780 markedly reduced this expression. Taken together, we have demonstrated for the first time that in vivo exposure to EDs can induce GH mRNA and protein expression in the rat pituitary gland and that their activities may involve an ER-mediated signaling pathway. These results may provide critical evidence for ED-induced dysregulation of pituitary GH expression and thus may be important for elucidating the potential impacts of EDs in altered body growth and development and for predicting the health risks of ED exposure in humans and wildlife. PMID:19145065

  16. A Human Trypanosome Suppresses CD8+ T Cell Priming by Dendritic Cells through the Induction of Immune Regulatory CD4+ Foxp3+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ersching, Jonatan; Basso, Alexandre Salgado; Kalich, Vera Lucia Garcia; Bortoluci, Karina Ramalho

    2016-01-01

    Although CD4+ Foxp3+ T cells are largely described in the regulation of CD4+ T cell responses, their role in the suppression of CD8+ T cell priming is much less clear. Because the induction of CD8+ T cells during experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi is remarkably delayed and suboptimal, we raised the hypothesis that this protozoan parasite actively induces the regulation of CD8+ T cell priming. Using an in vivo assay that eliminated multiple variables associated with antigen processing and dendritic cell activation, we found that injection of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells exposed to T. cruzi induced regulatory CD4+ Foxp3+ T cells that suppressed the priming of transgenic CD8+ T cells by peptide-loaded BMDC. This newly described suppressive effect on CD8+ T cell priming was independent of IL-10, but partially dependent on CTLA-4 and TGF-β. Accordingly, depletion of Foxp3+ cells in mice infected with T. cruzi enhanced the response of epitope-specific CD8+ T cells. Altogether, our data uncover a mechanism by which T. cruzi suppresses CD8+ T cell responses, an event related to the establishment of chronic infections. PMID:27332899

  17. A Human Trypanosome Suppresses CD8+ T Cell Priming by Dendritic Cells through the Induction of Immune Regulatory CD4+ Foxp3+ T Cells.

    PubMed

    Ersching, Jonatan; Basso, Alexandre Salgado; Kalich, Vera Lucia Garcia; Bortoluci, Karina Ramalho; Rodrigues, Maurício M

    2016-06-01

    Although CD4+ Foxp3+ T cells are largely described in the regulation of CD4+ T cell responses, their role in the suppression of CD8+ T cell priming is much less clear. Because the induction of CD8+ T cells during experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi is remarkably delayed and suboptimal, we raised the hypothesis that this protozoan parasite actively induces the regulation of CD8+ T cell priming. Using an in vivo assay that eliminated multiple variables associated with antigen processing and dendritic cell activation, we found that injection of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells exposed to T. cruzi induced regulatory CD4+ Foxp3+ T cells that suppressed the priming of transgenic CD8+ T cells by peptide-loaded BMDC. This newly described suppressive effect on CD8+ T cell priming was independent of IL-10, but partially dependent on CTLA-4 and TGF-β. Accordingly, depletion of Foxp3+ cells in mice infected with T. cruzi enhanced the response of epitope-specific CD8+ T cells. Altogether, our data uncover a mechanism by which T. cruzi suppresses CD8+ T cell responses, an event related to the establishment of chronic infections. PMID:27332899

  18. Intranasal priming with recombinant Bordetella pertussis for the induction of a systemic immune response against a heterologous antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Mielcarek, N; Cornette, J; Schacht, A M; Pierce, R J; Locht, C; Capron, A; Riveau, G

    1997-01-01

    One of the current goals in vaccine development is the noninvasive administration of protective antigens via mucosal surfaces. In this context, the gut-associated lymphoid tissues have already been extensively explored. Vaccination via the nasal route has only recently been the focus of intensive investigation, and no live vector specifically designed for the respiratory mucosa is yet available. In this study we show that intranasal administration of the recombinant Bordetella pertussis BPGR60, producing the Schistosoma mansoni 28-kDa glutathione S-transferase (Sm28GST) protective antigen fused to filamentous hemagglutinin, induces priming in mice for the production of serum antibodies. In addition to significant levels of anti-Sm28GST immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies, high levels of anti-Sm28GST serum antibodies were obtained after intranasal boost with the purified antigen or infection with S. mansoni following intranasal priming with BPGR60. These antibodies were of the IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b isotypes, suggesting a mixed immune response. No priming was observed in animals that had received nonrecombinant B. pertussis or purified Sm28GST, indicating specific priming by BPGR60. This priming was also evident in immune protection against S. mansoni challenge. Significant protection against worm burden and egg output was obtained in mice primed with BPGR60 and intranasally boosted with purified Sm28GST. A lower but still significant degree of protection against egg output was also obtained in mice infected with a single dose of BPGR60. These results indicate that intranasal administration of recombinant B. pertussis can prime for serum antibody responses against a foreign antigen and for heterologous protection. PMID:9009311

  19. Role of lipopolysaccharide in the induction of type I interferon-dependent cross-priming and IL-10 production in mice by meningococcal outer membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Durand, Vanessa; Mackenzie, Joanne; de Leon, Joel; Mesa, Circe; Quesniaux, Valérie; Montoya, Maria; Le Bon, Agnes; Wong, Simon Y C

    2009-03-18

    We investigated the contribution of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to adjuvant properties of native outer membrane vesicles (NOMV), a vaccine candidate for meningococcal B disease. NOMV induce the maturation of and cytokine production by murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells through both toll-like receptors (TLR) 2 and 4 which are mostly dependent on the signalling adaptor MyD88. NOMV are also able to induce B cell proliferation in splenocytes from LPS-hyporesponsive mice. However, induction of IL-10 and type I interferon-dependent, antigen-specific and IFN(gamma)-secreting CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in vivo by NOMV requires LPS. The importance of LPS in the induction of IL-10 and functional cross-priming has implications for NOMV-based vaccine and adjuvant development. PMID:19368771

  20. Ligand induction of a transcriptionally active thyroid hormone receptor coactivator complex.

    PubMed Central

    Fondell, J D; Ge, H; Roeder, R G

    1996-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation by nuclear hormone receptors is thought to involve interactions with putative cofactors that may potentiate receptor function. Here we show that human thyroid hormone receptor alpha purified from HeLa cells grown in the presence of thyroid hormone (T3) is associated with a group of distinct nuclear proteins termed thyroid hormone receptor-associated proteins (TRAPs). In an in vitro system reconstituted with general initiation factors and cofactors (and in the absence of added T3), the "liganded" thyroid hormone receptor (TR)/TRAP complex markedly activates transcription from a promoter template containing T3-response elements. Moreover, whereas the retinoid X receptor is not detected in the TR/TRAP complex, its presence is required for the function of the complex. In contrast, human thyroid hormone receptor alpha purified from cells grown in the absence of T3 lacks the TRAPs and effects only a low level of activation that is dependent on added ligand. These findings demonstrate the ligand-dependent in vivo formation of a transcriptionally active TR-multisubunit protein complex and suggest a role for TRAPs as positive coactivators for gene-specific transcriptional activation. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8710870

  1. Induction of cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases in northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens, by 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentachlorobiphenyl

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.; Jung, R.E.; Karasov, W.H.; Melancon, M.J.

    1998-08-01

    In the past decade, biochemical and physiological characteristics such as hepatic detoxifying system. DNA adducts, thyroid malfunction, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition have been used extensively as biomarkers for contaminant exposure. Northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were injected intraperitoneally either with a solution of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 m corn oil at a concentration of 0.2, 0.7, 2.3, or 7.8 mg/kg body weight or with corn oil alone. Appropriate assay conditions with hepatic microsomes were determined for four cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases: ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD), methoxy-ROD (MROD), benzyloxy-ROD (BROD), and pentoxy-ROD (PROD). One week after PCB administration, the specific activities of EROD, MROD, BROD, and PROD were not elevated at doses {le}0.7 mg/kg (p > 0.05) but were significantly increased at doses {ge}2.3 mg/kg compared to the control groups (p < 0.05). The increased activities of these four enzymes were 3 to 6.4 times those in the control groups. The increased activities were maintained for at least 4 weeks. Because of a lack of induction at low doses of PCB 126, which were still relatively high compared to currently known environmental concentration, the authors suspect that EROD, MROD, BROD, and PROD activities are not sensitive biomarkers for coplanar PCB exposure in leopard frogs.

  2. Estrogen priming effect on growth hormone (GH) provocative test: a useful tool for the diagnosis of GH deficiency.

    PubMed

    Martínez, A S; Domené, H M; Ropelato, M G; Jasper, H G; Pennisi, P A; Escobar, M E; Heinrich, J J

    2000-11-01

    We have studied the effect of estradiol (E2) on the GH-insulin-like growth factor (GH-IGF) axis in 15 prepubertal GH deficiency (GHD) children and 44 prepubertal or early pubertal children with idiopathic short stature (SS). All of them received a daily dose of micronized E2 (1 or 2 mg) or placebo, for 3 days, before a sequential arginine-clonidine test. In SS children, GH maximal responses were 17.8+/-10.9 on placebo and 27.9+/-14.5 microg/L on estrogen (P < 0.0001). The lower 95% confidence limits for GH maximal response changed from 3.7 microg/L (without E2) to 8.3 microg/L (on E2). In GHD children, no significant stimulatory effect of estrogen on GH levels was observed. After placebo, a cut-off limit of 3.7 microg/L (the lower 95% confidence interval limit) resulted in 73% sensitivity, 95% specificity, and an overall 90% diagnostic efficiency. After E2, a cut-off limit of 8.3 microg/L resulted in a sensitivity of 87%, a specificity of 98%, and a diagnostic efficiency of 95%. After placebo, 68% of SS showed normal IGF-I levels, and the mean did not change on E2 (13.7+/-6.3 vs. 14.3+/-6.8 nmol/L, not significant). In 93% of SS, IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3 levels were normal during placebo. On E2, mean IGFBP-3 did not change (2.63+/-0.70 vs. 2.70+/-0.70 mg/L, not significant). In 14 of 15 GHD patients, IGF-I values were below normal on placebo, and the mean of the group did not change after E2. During placebo, 13 of 15 GHD children presented low IGFBP-3 values. During E2, there was a small significant increase in IGFBP-3 values (1.06+/-0.58 vs. 1.20+/-0.69 mg/L, P < 0.02). The highest diagnostic efficiencies for IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were observed during placebo (75% and 91%, respectively). We conclude that GH stimulation tests after E2 priming had the highest diagnostic efficiency. Our findings suggest that the effect of estrogen priming on GH stimulated levels, by reducing the number of false nonresponders, might be useful to better discriminate between normal and

  3. Steroid induction of a peptide hormone gene leads to orchestration of a defined behavioral sequence.

    PubMed

    Zitnan, D; Ross, L S; Zitnanova, I; Hermesman, J L; Gill, S S; Adams, M E

    1999-07-01

    At the end of each molt, insects shed the old cuticle by performing preecdysis and ecdysis behaviors. Regulation of these centrally patterned movements involves peptide signaling between endocrine Inka cells and the CNS. In Inka cells, we have identified the cDNA and gene encoding preecdysis-triggering hormone (PETH) and ecdysis-triggering hormone (ETH), which activate these behaviors. Prior to behavioral onset, rising ecdysteroid levels induce expression of the ecdysone receptor (EcR) and ETH gene in Inka cells and evoke CNS sensitivity to PETH and ETH. Subsequent ecdysteroid decline is required for peptide release, which initiates three motor patterns in specific order: PETH triggers preecdysis I, while ETH activates preecdysis II and ecdysis. The Inka cell provides a model for linking steroid regulation of peptide hormone expression and release with activation of a defined behavioral sequence. PMID:10433264

  4. Induction of neutrophil respiratory burst by tumour necrosis factor-alpha; priming effect of solid-phase fibronectin and intervention of CD11b-CD18 integrins.

    PubMed Central

    Dapino, P; Dallegri, F; Ottonello, L; Sacchetti, C

    1993-01-01

    Human neutrophils, added to fibronectin (FN)-coated polystyrene wells and exposed to tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), were found to exhibit a prolonged production of superoxide anion (O2-) after a lag period of approx 30 min. The O2- production, but not the cell adherence to FN, was completely inhibited by two MoAbs against CD18 and by a MoAb against CD11b, suggesting the involvement of CD11b-CD18 integrins in the neutrophil oxidative response. When neutrophils were induced to adhere to FN by incubation for 30 min on FN-coated surfaces and then washed to remove non-adherent cells, FN-anchored cells exhibited a rapid onset of O2- production in response to TNF-alpha. This suggests that FN primes neutrophils for the TNF-alpha-mediated respiratory burst. The O2- production by adherent neutrophils could be inhibited by anti-CD11b and anti-CD18 MoAbs only when the MoAbs were present both during the induction of adherence and during the subsequent exposure of FN-bound cells to TNF-alpha. The incapacity of MoAbs, added to neutrophils during the induction of adherence, to modify the characteristics of the subsequent neutrophil response to TNF-alpha suggests that the FN-mediated cell priming is independent of the interaction of CD11b-CD18 integrins with the FN substrate. The results are consistent with the intervention of three classes of cell receptors in the TNF-alpha-induced oxidative burst of neutrophils plated on FN: (i) neutrophil FN-binding sites, distinct from CD11b-CD18 and responsible for the cell priming; (ii) CD11b-CD18 integrins, absolutely required for permitting the cell triggering; and (iii) TNF-alpha receptors, responsible for switching on a rapid cell response in primed cells. The requirement of multiple classes of receptors for the full expression of the cell function can be envisaged as a natural precautionary measure to control the neutrophil responsiveness to TNF-alpha and, in turn, the TNF-alpha-dependent neutrophil-mediated oxidative injury

  5. Induction of neutrophil respiratory burst by tumour necrosis factor-alpha; priming effect of solid-phase fibronectin and intervention of CD11b-CD18 integrins.

    PubMed

    Dapino, P; Dallegri, F; Ottonello, L; Sacchetti, C

    1993-12-01

    Human neutrophils, added to fibronectin (FN)-coated polystyrene wells and exposed to tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), were found to exhibit a prolonged production of superoxide anion (O2-) after a lag period of approx 30 min. The O2- production, but not the cell adherence to FN, was completely inhibited by two MoAbs against CD18 and by a MoAb against CD11b, suggesting the involvement of CD11b-CD18 integrins in the neutrophil oxidative response. When neutrophils were induced to adhere to FN by incubation for 30 min on FN-coated surfaces and then washed to remove non-adherent cells, FN-anchored cells exhibited a rapid onset of O2- production in response to TNF-alpha. This suggests that FN primes neutrophils for the TNF-alpha-mediated respiratory burst. The O2- production by adherent neutrophils could be inhibited by anti-CD11b and anti-CD18 MoAbs only when the MoAbs were present both during the induction of adherence and during the subsequent exposure of FN-bound cells to TNF-alpha. The incapacity of MoAbs, added to neutrophils during the induction of adherence, to modify the characteristics of the subsequent neutrophil response to TNF-alpha suggests that the FN-mediated cell priming is independent of the interaction of CD11b-CD18 integrins with the FN substrate. The results are consistent with the intervention of three classes of cell receptors in the TNF-alpha-induced oxidative burst of neutrophils plated on FN: (i) neutrophil FN-binding sites, distinct from CD11b-CD18 and responsible for the cell priming; (ii) CD11b-CD18 integrins, absolutely required for permitting the cell triggering; and (iii) TNF-alpha receptors, responsible for switching on a rapid cell response in primed cells. The requirement of multiple classes of receptors for the full expression of the cell function can be envisaged as a natural precautionary measure to control the neutrophil responsiveness to TNF-alpha and, in turn, the TNF-alpha-dependent neutrophil-mediated oxidative injury

  6. Hormonal induction and antihormonal inhibition of tracheary element differentiation in Zinnia cell cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Church, D. L.; Galston, A. W.

    1988-01-01

    Mechanically isolated mesophyll cells of Zinnia elegans L. cv Envy differentiate to tracheary elements when cultured in inductive medium containing sufficient auxin and cytokinin. Tracheary element differentiation was induced by the three auxins (alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and four cytokinins (6-benzyladenine, kinetin, 2-isopentenyladenine and zeatin) tested. Tracheary element formation is inhibited or delayed if the inductive medium is supplemented with an anticytokinin, antiauxin, or inhibitor of auxin transport.

  7. Hindbrain estrogen receptor-beta antagonism normalizes reproductive and counter-regulatory hormone secretion in hypoglycemic steroid-primed ovariectomized female rats.

    PubMed

    Briski, Karen P; Shrestha, Prem K

    2016-09-01

    Hindbrain dorsal vagal complex A2 noradrenergic signaling represses the pre-ovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in response to energy deficiency. Insulin-induced hypoglycemia augments A2 neuron adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity and estrogen receptor-beta (ERβ) expression, coincident with LH surge suppression. We hypothesized that ERβ is critical for hypoglycemia-associated patterns of LH secretion and norepinephrine (NE) activity in key reproduction-relevant forebrain structures. The neural mechanisms responsible for tight coupling of systemic energy balance and procreation remain unclear; here, we investigated whether ERβ-dependent hindbrain signals also control glucose counter-regulatory responses to hypoglycemia. Gonadal steroid-primed ovariectomized female rats were pretreated by caudal fourth ventricular administration of the ERβ antagonist 4-[2-phenyl-5,7-bis(trifluoromethyl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl]phenol (PHTPP) or vehicle before insulin injection at LH surge onset. Western blot analysis of laser-microdissected A2 neurons revealed hypoglycemic intensification of AMPK activity and dopamine-β-hydroxylase protein expression; the latter response was attenuated by PHTPP pretreatment. PHTPP regularized LH release, but not preoptic GnRH-I precursor protein expression in insulin-injected rats, and reversed hypoglycemic stimulation of glucagon and corticosterone secretion. Hypoglycemia caused PHTPP-reversible changes in NE and prepro-kisspeptin protein content in the hypothalamic arcuate (ARH), but not anteroventral periventricular nucleus. Results provide novel evidence for ERβ-dependent caudal hindbrain regulation of LH and counter-regulatory hormone secretion during hypoglycemia. Observed inhibition of LH likely involves mechanisms at the axon terminal that impede GnRH neurotransmission. Data also show that caudal hindbrain ERβ exerts site-specific control of NE activity in forebrain projection sites during

  8. Induction of chronic growth hormone deficiency by anti-GH serum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, R. E.; Smith, A. T.; Ellis, S.; Evans, E. S.

    1974-01-01

    The observations reported indicate that the growth rate of neonatal rats can be specifically inhibited for at least 78 days following the administration of antisera against growth hormone (GH) for only four days after birth. The inhibition can be correlated with a marked deficit of tibial growth promoting activity in the pituitary but not with the plasma concentrations of immuno-reactive GH.

  9. Insulin Augments Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Induction of Translation in LβT2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Navratil, Amy M.; Song, Hyunjin; Hernandez, Jeniffer B.; Cherrington, Brian D.; Santos, Sharon J.; Low, Janine M.; Do, Minh-Ha T.; Lawson, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The integrated signaling of insulin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the pituitary gonadotropes may have a profound bearing on reproductive function, although the cross-receptor signaling mechanisms are unclear. We demonstrate that the insulin receptor is constitutively localized to non-caveolar lipid raft microdomains in the pituitary gonadotrope cell line LβT2. The localization to rafts is consistent with similar localization of the GnRH receptor. Insulin receptor phosphorylation occurs in raft domains and activates the downstream signaling targets Insulin Receptor Substrate1 and Akt/Protein Kinase B. Although insulin alone does not strongly activate the extracellular signal-regulated kinase second messenger cascade, co-stimulation potentiates the phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase by gonadotropin-releasing hormone. The co-stimulatory effect of insulin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone is also evident in increased activation of cap-dependent translation. In contrast, co-stimulation attenuates Akt/Protein Kinase B activation. Our results show that both gonadotropin-releasing hormone and insulin are capable of mutually altering their respective regulatory signaling cascades. We suggest that this provides a mechanism to integrate neuropeptide and energy homeostatic signals to modulate reproductive function. PMID:19632296

  10. Synergistic induction of the clock protein PERIOD by insulin-like peptide and prothoracicotropic hormone in Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera): implications for convergence of hormone signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Vafopoulou, Xanthe; Steel, Colin G. H.

    2014-01-01

    We showed previously that release of the cerebral neurohormones, bombyxin (an insulin-like peptide, ILP) and prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) from the brain have strong circadian rhythms, driven by master clock cells in the brain. These neurohormone rhythms synchronize the photosensitive brain clock with the photosensitive peripheral clock in the cells of the prothoracic glands (PGs), in which both regulate steroidogenesis. Here, using immunohistochemistry and confocal laser scanning microscopy, we show these neurohormones likely act on clock cells in the brain and PGs by regulating expression of PERIOD (PER) protein. PER is severely reduced in the nuclei of all clock cells in continuous light, but on transfer of tissues to darkness in vitro, it is rapidly induced. A 4h pulse of either PTTH or ILPs to brain and PGs in vitro both rapidly and highly significantly induce PER in the nuclei of clock cells. Administration of both neurohormones together induces more PER than does either alone and even more than does transfer to darkness, at least in PG cells. These are clearly non-steroidogenic actions of these peptides. In the peripheral oscillators salivary gland (SG) and fat body cells, neither bombyxin nor PTTH nor darkness induced PER, but a combination of both bombyxin and PTTH induced PER. Thus, PTTH and ILPs exert synergistic actions on induction of PER in both clock cells and peripheral oscillators, implying their signaling pathways converge, but in different ways in different cell types. We infer clock cells are able to integrate light cycle information with internal signals from hormones. PMID:24600396

  11. Constitutive p53 heightens mitochondrial apoptotic priming and favors cell death induction by BH3 mimetic inhibitors of BCL-xL.

    PubMed

    Le Pen, J; Laurent, M; Sarosiek, K; Vuillier, C; Gautier, F; Montessuit, S; Martinou, J C; Letaï, A; Braun, F; Juin, P P

    2016-01-01

    Proapoptotic molecules directly targeting the BCL-2 family network are promising anticancer therapeutics, but an understanding of the cellular stress signals that render them effective is still elusive. We show here that the tumor suppressor p53, at least in part by transcription independent mechanisms, contributes to cell death induction and full activation of BAX by BH3 mimetic inhibitors of BCL-xL. In addition to mildly facilitating the ability of compounds to derepress BAX from BCL-xL, p53 also provides a death signal downstream of anti-apoptotic proteins inhibition. This death signal cooperates with BH3-induced activation of BAX and it is independent from PUMA, as enhanced p53 can substitute for PUMA to promote BAX activation in response to BH3 mimetics. The acute sensitivity of mitochondrial priming to p53 revealed here is likely to be critical for the clinical use of BH3 mimetics. PMID:26844698

  12. Synergism of thyroid hormone and high carbohydrate diet in the induction of lipogenic enzymes in the rat. Mechanisms and implications.

    PubMed Central

    Mariash, C N; Kaiser, F E; Schwartz, H L; Towle, H C; Oppenheimer, J H

    1980-01-01

    We have investigated the relationship between the administration of triiodothyronine (T3) and a high carbohydrate (CHO) fat-free diet in the induction of lipogenic enzymes in two rat tissues, liver, and fat. Male thyroidectomized rats were treated with graded daily doses of T3 and either supplemented with a high CHO diet or left on a regular diet. Enzymes studied included malic enzyme (ME), fatty acid synthetase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. In the liver, all four lipogenic enzymes showed a synergistic response between T3 administration and high CHO feeding. In fat, ME also responded synergistically. The interaction was reflected in an increased sensitivity to T3. The dose of T3 required to achieve 50% maximal response was reduced three- to seven-fold by the high CHO diet. This phenomenon could not be attributed to a dietary-induced alteration either in T3 metabolism or in number or affinity of the T3-nuclear receptors. Moreover, studies of the relative rate of synthesis of ME suggested a simultaneous time of onset in the induction of ME, within 2 h after the application of either T3 or CHO. Thus, it is unlikely that either stimulus is secondary to the other. Since parallel experiments from this laboratory (Towle, Mariash, and Oppenheimer,1980.Changes in hepatic levels of messenger ribonucleic acid for malic enzyme during induction by thyroid hormone or diet. Biochemistry. 19: 579-585.) show that ME induction both by CHO and T3 is mediated by an increase in specific messenger RNA for ME, the interaction of T3 and the dietary factor occurs at a pretanslational level. PMID:7364940

  13. Induction of secondary dormancy by hypoxia in barley grains and its hormonal regulation

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Hai Ha; Bailly, Christophe; Corbineau, Françoise; Leymarie, Juliette

    2013-01-01

    In barley, primary dormant grains did not germinate at 30 °C in air and at 15 °C in an atmosphere containing less than 10% O2, while they germinated easily at 15 °C in air. O2 tension in embryos measured with microsensors was 15.8% at 15 °C but only 0.3% at 30 °C. Incubation of grains at 30 °C is known to induce secondary dormancy in barley, and it was shown here that secondary dormancy was also induced by a 3 d treatment in O2 tensions lower than 10% at 15 °C. After such treatments, the grains lost their ability to germinate subsequently at 15 °C in air. During seed treatment in 5% O2, embryo abscisic acid (ABA) content decreased more slowly than in air and was not altered after transfer into air. Hypoxia did not alter the expression of ABA metabolism genes after 1 d, and induction of HvNCED2 occurred only after 3 d in hypoxia. Embryo sensitivity to ABA was similar in both primary and hypoxia-induced secondary dormant grains. Gibberellic acid (GA) metabolism genes were highly regulated and regulated earlier by the hypoxia treatment, with major changes in HvGA2ox3, HvGA3ox2 and HvGA20ox1 expression after 1 d, resulting in reduced GA signalling. Although a high temperature has an indirect effect on O2 availability, the data showed that it did not affect expression of prolyl-4-hydroxylases and that induction of secondary dormancy by hypoxia at 15 °C or by high temperature in air involved separate signalling pathways. Induction by hypoxia at 15 °C appears to be more regulated by GA and less by ABA than the induction by high temperature. PMID:23519728

  14. Induction of secondary dormancy by hypoxia in barley grains and its hormonal regulation.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Hai Ha; Bailly, Christophe; Corbineau, Françoise; Leymarie, Juliette

    2013-04-01

    In barley, primary dormant grains did not germinate at 30 °C in air and at 15 °C in an atmosphere containing less than 10% O2, while they germinated easily at 15 °C in air. O2 tension in embryos measured with microsensors was 15.8% at 15 °C but only 0.3% at 30 °C. Incubation of grains at 30 °C is known to induce secondary dormancy in barley, and it was shown here that secondary dormancy was also induced by a 3 d treatment in O2 tensions lower than 10% at 15 °C. After such treatments, the grains lost their ability to germinate subsequently at 15 °C in air. During seed treatment in 5% O2, embryo abscisic acid (ABA) content decreased more slowly than in air and was not altered after transfer into air. Hypoxia did not alter the expression of ABA metabolism genes after 1 d, and induction of HvNCED2 occurred only after 3 d in hypoxia. Embryo sensitivity to ABA was similar in both primary and hypoxia-induced secondary dormant grains. Gibberellic acid (GA) metabolism genes were highly regulated and regulated earlier by the hypoxia treatment, with major changes in HvGA2ox3, HvGA3ox2 and HvGA20ox1 expression after 1 d, resulting in reduced GA signalling. Although a high temperature has an indirect effect on O2 availability, the data showed that it did not affect expression of prolyl-4-hydroxylases and that induction of secondary dormancy by hypoxia at 15 °C or by high temperature in air involved separate signalling pathways. Induction by hypoxia at 15 °C appears to be more regulated by GA and less by ABA than the induction by high temperature. PMID:23519728

  15. Induction of ovulation in anestrous mares with pulsatile administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A L

    1986-05-01

    Four seasonally anestrous mares (Standardbred), housed under a nonstimulatory photoperiod of 8 hours light:16 hours dark, were administered gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in a pulsatile pattern (50 or 250 micrograms of GnRH/hour) for 8 to 18 days during February and March 1985. Treatment with GnRH, irrespective of dose or month, induced an increase in serum luteinizing hormone from a mean pretreatment value typical of anestrus (0.58 +/- 0.02 ng/ml +/- SE) to 10.84 +/- 1.27 ng/ml on day 8 of GnRH treatment. Ovulation in the 4 mares occurred 8.8 +/- 0.7 days after the initiation of pulsatile GnRH administration. In each instance, ovulation was followed by a functional corpus luteum, as indicated by a luteal phase (defined as the number of days on which serum levels of progesterone were greater than 1.0 ng/ml) which lasted 14.5 +/- 0.6 days. These results indicate that infusion of GnRH in a pulsatile pattern is effective in inducing follicular development and ovulation in anestrous mares in the absence of a stimulatory photoperiod. PMID:3521408

  16. Osmotic shock of cultured primary mammary cells amplifies the hormonal induction of casein gene expression.

    PubMed

    Malienou-Ngassa, R; Puissant, C; Houdebine, L M

    1990-10-01

    Primary cells from rabbit mammary gland cultured on floating collagen were transfected with various plasmids in different conditions. Conventional transfection methods using DEAE-dextran or calcium phosphate followed by an osmotic shock with dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), polyethylene glycol (PEG) or glycerol did not prevent lactogenic hormones to induce casein synthesis. On the contrary and unexpectedly, casein synthesis was markedly stimulated by transfection. This amplification was obtained as well with DMSO, PEG and glycerol alone or in the presence of DEAE-dextran, calcium phosphate or DNA. None of these compounds induced casein synthesis in the absence of prolactin. A shock by DMSO also amplified the accumulation of beta-casein mRNA in the presence of prolactin. These results show for the first time that primary cultured mammary cells can be efficiently transfected and still keep their capacity to respond to lactogenic hormones. They also indicate that the short osmotic shocks conventionally used in transfection have a potent long-term stimulatory effect on casein gene expression, which is mediated through an unknown mechanism. PMID:2292339

  17. Characterization of recombinant DNA derived-human luteinizing hormone in vitro and in vivo: efficacy in ovulation induction and corpus luteum support

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, J.A.; Danforth, D.R.; Hutchison, J.S.; Hodgen, G.D.

    1988-06-10

    The present data are the first, to the authors knowledge, to demonstrate the production feasibility of a commercially available medication of pure human luteinizing hormone from recombinant DNA technology (rechLH). The rechLH preparation achieved ovulation induction and corpus luteum support in the primate menstrual cycle. The observations described herein indicate the opportunity for significant improvement in the treatment of infertile women and men who require gonadal stimulation. Recombinant DNA-derived gonadotropin products, rechLH in this case, will have several therapeutic advantages compared with current medications extracted from urine. These advantages include (1) better reliability of an available supply of hormone and (2) improved treatment flexibility in determining the optimal dose ratio of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone or avoidance of the long-acting effects of human chorionic gonadotropin, as the needs of individual patients may dictate.

  18. [Induction of fetal lung maturity with combined hormonal therapy in premature labor].

    PubMed

    Serman, F; Pazols, R; Benavides, C; Sandoval, J; Ferres, I; Lamoza, P

    1994-01-01

    Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (THR) induce fetal pulmonary maturation by direct stimulation, and increase of fetal T3 and T4 which produce biochemical and structural pulmonary maturation. To evaluate the effectivity of TRH associated to corticoides in the prevention of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in premature labor, we administered TRH plus Cidoten to patients with imminent premature labor and gestational age (GA) < or = 32 weeks. In a total of 12 patients, tolerance was good in 85% (n = 10), birthweight was 1.782 +/- 488 g (x +/- 2 SD). RDS incidence of only 15.3% and chronic lung disease (CLD) incidence = 0. Newborn of mothers treated with TRH plus corticoids form in evident premature labor in our unit, showed laser rates of RDS and CLD than the described in literature for newborn of similar weight and GA treated only with corticoids. PMID:7809432

  19. Laguerre Filter Analysis with Partial Least Square Regression Reveals a Priming Effect of ERK and CREB on c-FOS Induction

    PubMed Central

    Kudo, Takamasa; Uda, Shinsuke; Tsuchiya, Takaho; Wada, Takumi; Karasawa, Yasuaki; Fujii, Masashi; Saito, Takeshi H.; Kuroda, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    Signaling networks are made up of limited numbers of molecules and yet can code information that controls different cellular states through temporal patterns and a combination of signaling molecules. In this study, we used a data-driven modeling approach, the Laguerre filter with partial least square regression, to describe how temporal and combinatorial patterns of signaling molecules are decoded by their downstream targets. The Laguerre filter is a time series model used to represent a nonlinear system based on Volterra series expansion. Furthermore, with this approach, each component of the Volterra series expansion is expanded by Laguerre basis functions. We combined two approaches, application of a Laguerre filter and partial least squares (PLS) regression, and applied the combined approach to analysis of a signal transduction network. We applied the Laguerre filter with PLS regression to identify input and output (IO) relationships between MAP kinases and the products of immediate early genes (IEGs). We found that Laguerre filter with PLS regression performs better than Laguerre filter with ordinary regression for the reproduction of a time series of IEGs. Analysis of the nonlinear characteristics extracted using the Laguerre filter revealed a priming effect of ERK and CREB on c-FOS induction. Specifically, we found that the effects of a first pulse of ERK enhance the subsequent effects on c-FOS induction of treatment with a second pulse of ERK, a finding consistent with prior molecular biological knowledge. The variable importance of projections and output loadings in PLS regression predicted the upstream dependency of each IEG. Thus, a Laguerre filter with partial least square regression approach appears to be a powerful method to find the processing mechanism of temporal patterns and combination of signaling molecules by their downstream gene expression. PMID:27513954

  20. Laguerre Filter Analysis with Partial Least Square Regression Reveals a Priming Effect of ERK and CREB on c-FOS Induction.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Takamasa; Uda, Shinsuke; Tsuchiya, Takaho; Wada, Takumi; Karasawa, Yasuaki; Fujii, Masashi; Saito, Takeshi H; Kuroda, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    Signaling networks are made up of limited numbers of molecules and yet can code information that controls different cellular states through temporal patterns and a combination of signaling molecules. In this study, we used a data-driven modeling approach, the Laguerre filter with partial least square regression, to describe how temporal and combinatorial patterns of signaling molecules are decoded by their downstream targets. The Laguerre filter is a time series model used to represent a nonlinear system based on Volterra series expansion. Furthermore, with this approach, each component of the Volterra series expansion is expanded by Laguerre basis functions. We combined two approaches, application of a Laguerre filter and partial least squares (PLS) regression, and applied the combined approach to analysis of a signal transduction network. We applied the Laguerre filter with PLS regression to identify input and output (IO) relationships between MAP kinases and the products of immediate early genes (IEGs). We found that Laguerre filter with PLS regression performs better than Laguerre filter with ordinary regression for the reproduction of a time series of IEGs. Analysis of the nonlinear characteristics extracted using the Laguerre filter revealed a priming effect of ERK and CREB on c-FOS induction. Specifically, we found that the effects of a first pulse of ERK enhance the subsequent effects on c-FOS induction of treatment with a second pulse of ERK, a finding consistent with prior molecular biological knowledge. The variable importance of projections and output loadings in PLS regression predicted the upstream dependency of each IEG. Thus, a Laguerre filter with partial least square regression approach appears to be a powerful method to find the processing mechanism of temporal patterns and combination of signaling molecules by their downstream gene expression. PMID:27513954

  1. IDENTIFICATION AND HORMONE INDUCTION OF PUTATIVE CHITIN SYNTHASE GENES AND SPLICE VARIANTS IN Leptinotarsa decemlineata (SAY).

    PubMed

    Shi, Ji-Feng; Mu, Li-Li; Guo, Wen-Chao; Li, Guo-Qing

    2016-08-01

    Chitin synthase (ChS) plays a critical role in chitin synthesis and excretion. In this study, two ChS genes (LdChSA and LdChSB) were identified in Leptinotarsa decemlineata. LdChSA contains two splicing variants, LdChSAa and LdChSAb. Within the first, second, and third larval instars, the mRNA levels of LdChSAa, LdChSAb, and LdChSB coincide with the peaks of circulating 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH). In vitro culture of midguts and an in vivo bioassay revealed that 20E and an ecdysteroid agonist halofenozide stimulated the expression of the three LdChSs. Conversely, a reduction of 20E by RNA interference (RNAi) of an ecdysteroidogenesis gene LdSHD repressed the expression of these LdChSs, and ingestion of halofenozide by LdSHD RNAi larvae rescued the repression. Moreover, disruption of 20E signaling by RNAi of LdEcR, LdE75, LdHR3, and LdFTZ-F1 reduced the expression levels of these genes. Similarly, in vitro culture and an in vivo bioassay showed that exogenous JH and a JH analog methoprene activated the expression of the three LdChSs, whereas a decrease in JH by RNAi of a JH biosynthesis gene LdJHAMT downregulated these LdChSs. It seems that JH upregulates LdChSs at the early stage of each instar, whereas a 20E pulse triggers the transcription of LdChSs during molting in L. decemlineata. PMID:27030662

  2. Induction of the expressions of antioxidant enzymes by luteinizing hormone in the bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Syota; Sakumoto, Ryosuke; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Luteoprotective mechanisms of luteinizing hormone (LH) involved in the maintenance of bovine corpus luteum (CL) function have not been completely clarified. Since antioxidant enzymes are well documented as antiapoptotic factors in the CL of many mammals, we hypothesized that the luteoprotective action of LH is mediated by stimulating the local production and action of antioxidant enzymes. To test the above hypothesis, in the present study, we examined the mechanisms involved in the luteoprotective actions of LH. Cultured bovine luteal cells obtained from the CL at the mid-luteal stage (days 8-12 of the estrous cycle) were treated with LH (10 ng/ml), onapristone (OP; a specific progesterone receptor antagonist, 100 μM) and diethyldithiocarbamate [DETC; an inhibitor of superoxide dismutase (SOD), 100 μM] for 24 h. LH in combination with or without OP significantly increased the mRNA and protein expressions of manganese SOD (Mn-SOD) and catalase (CATA) and SOD activity. While LH alone significantly increased the mRNA and protein expressions of SOD containing copper and zinc (Cu,Zn-SOD), OP in combination with or without LH significantly decreased the mRNA and protein expressions of Cu,Zn-SOD. In addition, Cu,Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and CATA mRNA expressions were higher at the mid luteal phase than the other luteal phases. LH in combination with DETC significantly decreased LH-increased cell viability. The overall results suggest that LH increases cell viability by LH-increased antioxidant enzymes, resulting in maintenance of CL function during the luteal phase in cattle. PMID:23386101

  3. Impact of Levodopa Priming on Dopamine Neuron Transplant Efficacy and Induction of Abnormal Involuntary Movements in Parkinsonian Rats

    PubMed Central

    Steece-Collier, Kathy; Soderstrom, Katherine; Collier, Timothy; Sortwell, Caryl E.; Lad, Eleonora Maries

    2010-01-01

    Clinical trials of neural grafting for Parkinson's disease (PD) have produced variable, but overall, disappointing results. One particular disappointment has been the development of aberrant motor complications following dopamine (DA) neuron grafting. Despite a lack of consistent benefit, the utility of dopamine neuron replacement remains supported by clinical and basic data. In a continued effort to elucidate factors that might improve this therapy, we used a parkinsonian rat model to examine whether pre-graft chronic levodopa impacted graft efficacy and/or graft-induced dyskinesia (GID) induction. Indeed, all grafted PD patients to date have had a pre-graft history of long-term levodopa. It is well established that long-term levodopa results in a plethora of long-lasting neurochemical alterations, and genomic changes indicative of altered structural and synaptic plasticity. Thus, therapeutic dopamine terminal replacement in a striatal environment complicated by such changes could be expected to lead to abnormal or inappropriate connections between graft and host brain, and contribute to suboptimal efficacy and/or post-graft GID behaviors. To investigate the impact of pre-graft levodopa, one group of parkinsonian rats received levodopa for 4 weeks prior to grafting. A second levodopa naïve group was grafted and grafts allowed to mature for nine weeks prior to introducing chronic levodopa. We report here that in parkinsonian rats, pre-exposure to chronic levodopa significantly reduces behavioral and neurochemical efficacy of embryonic dopamine grafts. Further, dopamine terminal replacement prior to introduction of chronic levodopa is highly effective at preventing development of levodopa-induced dyskinesias, and GID-like behaviors occur regardless of pre-graft levodopa status. PMID:19399877

  4. Sex hormone modulation of both induction and inhibition of CYP1A by genistein in HepG2/C3A cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yitong; Santillo, Michael F; Flynn, Thomas J; Ferguson, Martine S

    2015-04-01

    Genistein is a widely consumed phytoestrogen in dietary supplements and has been reported to play roles in both cancer prevention and promotion. These conflicting effects may be complicated by sex differences. Cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) participates in carcinogen activation and detoxification, and the enzyme may interact with genistein. Therefore, modulation of CYP1A by a combination of genistein and sex hormones could be responsible for sex differences related to cancer prevention and promotion. In the current study, a human liver cell line, HepG2/C3A, cultured in sex hormone-supplemented media was used to investigate the modulatory effect of genistein on CYP1A gene expression and activity. Genistein exerted both long-term (72 h) induction and short-term (immediate) inhibition of CYP1A activity in HepG2/C3A cells. In the long-term study, CYP1A gene expression and enzyme activity were induced to a greater extent in male hormone-supplemented cells than female ones. In the short-term study, CYP1A activity was inhibited more strongly by genistein in the male hormone-supplemented cells than in the female hormone-supplemented cells. These significant differences suggest that male hormones can modulate the effects of genistein on CYP1A gene expression and activity. PMID:25479735

  5. Supression of the steroid-primed luteinizing hormone surge in the female rat by sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate: Relationship to hypothalamic catecholamines and GnRH neuronal activation

    EPA Science Inventory

    In female rodents, hypothalamic norepinephrine (NE) has a role in stimulating the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) that triggers the ovulatory surge of luteinizing hormone (LH). NE synthesis from dopamine requires the presence of dopamine--hydroxylase (DH) an...

  6. Synergistic interaction of catecholamine hormones and Mycobacterium avium results in the induction of interleukin-10 mRNA expression by murine peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Boomershine, C; Wang, T; Lafuse, W P; Zwilling, B S

    1999-01-01

    The results of this investigation provides evidence that catecholamine hormones interact with macrophages that are infected with Mycobacterium avium resulting in the induction of IL-10 mRNA and protein. The effect of catecholamine hormones was prevented by treating the cells with the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol but not by alpha-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. The effect of catecholamine stimulation was mimicked by the addition of beta-2 adrenergic agonists and by the addition of cAMP to the infected macrophage cultures. These observations suggest that sympathetic nervous system activation together with microbial infection results in a synergistic interaction that could result in the control of inflammatory processes. PMID:10378878

  7. A comparison of human chorionic gonadotropin and luteinizing hormone releasing hormone on the induction of spermiation and amplexus in the American toad (Anaxyrus americanus)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Captive breeding programs for endangered amphibian species often utilize exogenous hormones for species that are difficult to breed. The purpose of our study was to compare the efficacy of two different hormones at various concentrations on sperm production, quantity and quality over time in order to optimize assisted breeding. Methods Male American toads (Anaxyrus americanus) were divided into three separate treatment groups, with animals in each group rotated through different concentrations of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analog (LHRH; 0.1, 1.0, 4.0 and 32 micrograms/toad), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; 50, 100, 200, and 300 IU), or the control over 24 hours. We evaluated the number of males that respond by producing spermic urine, the sperm concentration, percent motility, and quality of forward progression. We also evaluated the effects of hCG and LHRH on reproductive behavior as assessed by amplexus. Data were analyzed using the Generalized Estimating Equations incorporating repeated measures over time and including the main effects of treatment and time, and the treatment by time interaction. Results The hormone hCG was significantly more effective at stimulating spermiation in male Anaxyrus americanus than LHRH and showed a dose-dependent response in the number of animals producing sperm. At the most effective hCG dose (300 IU), 100% of the male toads produced sperm, compared to only 35% for the best LHRH dose tested (4.0 micrograms). In addition to having a greater number of responders (P < 0.05), the 300 IU hCG treatment group had a much higher average sperm concentration (P < 0.05) than the treatment group receiving 4.0 micrograms LHRH. In contrast, these two treatments did not result in significant differences in sperm motility or quality of forward progressive motility. However, more males went into amplexus when treated with LHRH vs. hCG (90% vs. 75%) by nine hours post-administration. Conclusion There is a clear

  8. Promotion of the induction of cell pluripotency through metabolic remodeling by thyroid hormone triiodothyronine-activated PI3K/AKT signal pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mengfei; Zhang, He; Wu, Jie; Xu, Liang; Xu, Di; Sun, Jinglan; He, Yixin; Zhou, Xin; Wang, Zhaojing; Wu, Lifang; Xu, Shaokun; Wang, Jinsong; Jiang, Shu; Zhou, Xiangjun; Hoffman, Andrew R.; Hu, Xiang; Hu, Jifan; Li, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from somatic cells by defined factors is a mechanism-unknown, yet extremely time-consuming process. Inefficient reprogramming leads to prolonged periods of in vitro iPSC selection, resulting in subtle genetic and epigenetic abnormalities. To facilitate pluripotent reprogramming, we have identified the thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) as an endogenous factor that can enhance reprogramming of human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSC). This potentiation of iPSC induction is associated with metabolic remodeling activity, including up-regulation of key glycolytic genes, an increase in cell proliferation, and the induction of mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET). We further identify the activation of the PI3K/AKT signal pathway by T3 as an underlying mechanism for the enhanced conversion to cell pluripotency in this model. These studies demonstrate that T3 enhances metabolic remodeling of donor cells in potentiating cell reprogramming. PMID:22575839

  9. Hormonal induction of spawning in 4 species of frogs by coinjection with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and a dopamine antagonist

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is well known that many anurans do not reproduce easily in captivity. Some methods are based on administration of mammalian hormones such as human chorionic gonadotropin, which are not effective in many frogs. There is a need for simple, cost-effective alternative techniques to induce spawning. Methods Our new method is based on the injection of a combination of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and a dopamine antagonist. We have named this formulation AMPHIPLEX, which is derived from the combination of the words amphibian and amplexus. This name refers to the specific reproductive behavior of frogs when the male mounts and clasps the female to induce ovulation and to fertilize the eggs as they are laid. Results We describe the use of the method and demonstrate its applicability for captive breeding in 3 different anuran families. We tested several combinations of GnRH agonists with dopamine antagonists using Lithobates pipiens. The combination of des-Gly10, D-Ala6, Pro-LHRH (0.4 microrams/g body weight) and metoclopramide (10 micrograms/g BWt. MET) was most effective. It was used in-season, after short-term captivity and in frogs artificially hibernated under laboratory conditions. The AMPHIPLEX method was also effective in 3 Argentinian frogs, Ceratophrys ornata, Ceratophrys cranwelli and Odontophrynus americanus. Conclusion Our approach offers some advantages over other hormonally-based techniques. Both sexes are injected only once and at the same time, reducing handling stress. AMPHIPLEX is a new reproductive management tool for captive breeding in Anura. PMID:20398399

  10. ROLE OF STEROID HORMONES AND DECIDUAL INDUCTION IN THE REGULATION OF ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHORIBOSYL TRANSFERASE ACTIVITY IN RAT ENDOMETRIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess the effect of ovarian steroid hormones on enzyme activity, adenosine diphosphoribosyl transferase (ADPRT) was measured in endometrial nuclei isolated on estrus and on d 4 from rats ovariectomized on estrus (d 0) and treated d 0-3 with (a) vehicle, (b) 1 ug estrone/d (E)...

  11. Co-induction of hepatic IGF-I and progranulin mRNA by growth hormone in tilapia, Oreochromis mossambiccus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Like IGF-I, progranulin (pgrn) is a growth factor involved in tumorigenesis and wound healing. We report here the identification and characterization of pgrn cDNA in tilapia and the regulation of its expression by growth hormone(GH). The tilapia pgrn cDNA was cloned by RT-PCR ampliWcation, using g...

  12. Pituitary resistance to thyroid hormone associated with a base mutation in the hormone-binding domain of the human 3, 5,3[prime]-triiodothyronine receptor-[beta

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Shigekazu; Nakamura, Hirotoshi; Tagami, Tetsuya; Miyoshi, Yohzi; Nogimori, Tsuyoshi; Mitsuma, Terunori; Imura, Hiroo )

    1993-05-01

    Point mutations in the human T[sub 3] receptor-[beta] (TR[beta]) gene causing single amino acid substitutions have been identified in several different kindred with generalized resistance to thyroid hormone. Until now, no study has been reported on the TR gene in cases of pituitary resistance (PRTH). In the present study, the authors analyzed the TR[beta] gene in a 30-yr-old Japanese female with PRTH. She exhibited clinical features of hyperthyroidism, elevated serum thyroid hormone levels accompanied by inappropriately increased secretion of TSH, mildly elevated basal metabolic rate, and increased urinary excretion of hydroxyproline. No pituitary tumor was detected. DNA fragments of exons 3-8 of the geonomic TR[beta] gene were generated by the polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by a single stranded conformation polymorphism method. Exon 7 of the patient's TR[beta] gene showed an abnormal band, suggesting the existence of mutation(s). By subcloning and sequencing the DNA, a point mutation was identified in one allele at nucleotide 1297 (C to T), which altered the 333rd amino acid, arginine, to tryptophan. Neither of her apparently normal parents had any mutations of the TR[beta] gene. In vitro translation products of the mutant TR[beta] gene showed remarkably decreased T[sub 3]-binding activity (K[sub a], 2.1 [times] 10[sup 8] M[sup [minus]1]; normal TR[beta] K[sub a], 1.1 [times] 10[sup 10] M[sup [minus]1]). Since the molecular defect detected in a patient with PRTH is similar to that seen in subjects with generalized resistance to thyroid hormone, both types of the syndrome may represent a continuous spectrum of the same etiological defect with variable tissue resistance to thyroid hormone.

  13. Induction of Direct or Priming Resistance against Botrytis cinerea in Strawberries by β-Aminobutyric Acid and Their Effects on Sucrose Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kaituo; Liao, Yunxia; Xiong, Qi; Kan, Jianquan; Cao, Shifeng; Zheng, Yonghua

    2016-07-27

    The specific forms of disease resistance induced by β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) and their impacts on sucrose metabolism of postharvest strawberries were determined in the present research. Treatment with 10-500 mmol L(-1) BABA inhibited the Botrytis cinerea infection, possibly directly by suppressing the fungus growth and indirectly by triggering disease resistance. Moreover, BABA-induced resistance against B. cinerea infection in strawberries was associated with either one of two mechanisms, depending upon the concentration used: BABA at concentrations higher than 100 mmol L(-1) directly induced the defense response, including a H2O2 burst, modulation of the expression of PR genes, including FaPR1, FaChi3, Faβglu, and FaPAL, and increased activities of chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase, and PAL, whereas BABA at 10 mmol L(-1) activated a priming response because the BABA-treated fruits exhibited an increased capacity to express molecular defense only when the fruits were inoculated with B. cinerea. Activation of the priming defense appeared almost as effective against B. cinerea as inducing direct defense. However, the primed strawberries maintained higher activities of SS synthesis and SPS and SPP enzymes) and lower level of SS cleavage during the incubation; these activities contributed to higher sucrose, fructose, and glucose contents, sweetness index, and sensory scores compared to fruits exhibiting the direct defense. Thus, it is plausible that the priming defense, which can be activated by BABA at relatively low concentrations, represents an optimal strategy for combining the advantages of enhanced disease protection and soluble sugar accumulation. PMID:27368357

  14. Indole is an essential herbivore-induced volatile priming signal in maize

    PubMed Central

    Erb, Matthias; Veyrat, Nathalie; Robert, Christelle A. M.; Xu, Hao; Frey, Monika; Ton, Jurriaan; Turlings, Ted C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Herbivore-induced volatile organic compounds prime non-attacked plant tissues to respond more strongly to subsequent attacks. However, the key volatiles that trigger this primed state remain largely unidentified. In maize, the release of the aromatic compound indole is herbivore-specific and occurs earlier than other induced responses. We therefore hypothesized that indole may be involved in airborne priming. Using indole-deficient mutants and synthetic indole dispensers, we show that herbivore-induced indole enhances the induction of defensive volatiles in neighbouring maize plants in a species-specific manner. Furthermore, the release of indole is essential for priming of mono- and homoterpenes in systemic leaves of attacked plants. Indole exposure markedly increases the herbivore-induced production of the stress hormones jasmonate-isoleucine conjugate and abscisic acid, which represents a likely mechanism for indole-dependent priming. These results demonstrate that indole functions as a rapid and potent aerial priming agent that prepares systemic tissues and neighbouring plants for incoming attacks. PMID:25683900

  15. Hormonal induction of Brycon cephalus (Characiformes, Characidae) to spermiation using D-ala6, pro9net-mGnRH + metoclopramide.

    PubMed

    Bashiyo-Silva, Cristiane; Costa, Raphael da Silva; Ribeiro, Douglas de Castro; Senhorini, José Augusto; Veríssimo-Silveira, Rosicleire; Ninhaus-Silveira, Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to establish a hormonal induction protocol for spermiation of Brycon cephalus males, using Ala6, Pro9Net-mGnRH + metoclopramide (Ovopel®). Thus, 20 males were used divided into three inductor treatments [⅓ pellet/kg (T1), ⅔ pellet/kg (T2) and 1⅓ pellet/kg (T3)] and one control group (CO), which only received physiological solution applications (0.9% NaCl). All treatments were applied in a single dose. For evaluation of the availability of the treatment, the following seminal parameters were analyzed: seminal volume, subjective spermatic motility, duration of motility, pH, osmolality and spermatic concentration. T3 showed the highest seminal volume (4.66 ± 1.52 ml), and was significantly different in comparison with T1 (2.0 ± 0.9 ml), T2 (3.5 ± 1.3 ml) and CO (2.3 ± 1.2 ml). In relation to spermatic motility, T2 and T3 showed significantly higher levels [5, (81-100%)]. However, T3 showed significantly lower average sperm motility duration than T1, T2 and CO (30 ± 7 s; 28 ± 6 s; 32 ± 8 s, respectively). With regard to the seminal parameters of spermatic concentration, pH and osmolality, no significant variation was verified among treatments. In conclusion, mGnRH + metoclopramide used for hormonal induction of B. cephalus reproduction does not induce changes related to spermatic concentration, pH and osmolality parameters of the seminal fluid and the most adequate doses among tested treatments were ⅔ pellet/kg live fish. PMID:26174499

  16. Prime Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Donald T.

    1982-01-01

    The design of a computer program to efficiently generate prime numbers is discussed. Programs for many different brands of home computers are listed, with suggestions of ways the programs can be speeded up. It is noted everyone seems to have a favorite program, but that every program can be improved. (MP)

  17. Ultrasonographic predictors of response of European eels (Anguilla anguilla) to hormonal treatment for induction of ovarian development.

    PubMed

    Müller, Anna V; McEvoy, Fintan J; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Politis, Sebastian N; Amigo, José M

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine ultrasonographic predictors of ovarian development in European eels (Anguilla anguilla) undergoing hormonal treatment for assisted reproduction. ANIMALS 83 female European eels. PROCEDURES Eels received weekly IM injections of salmon pituitary extract (first injection = week 1). Ultrasonography of the ovaries was performed twice during hormonal treatment (weeks 7 and 11). Eels were identified on the basis of body weight as having an adequate response by weeks 14 to 20 or an inadequate response after injections for 21 weeks. Eels were euthanized at the end of the experiment and classified by use of ovarian histologic examination. Ovarian cross-sectional area and size of eel (ie, length (3) ) were used to classify eels (fast responder, slow responder, or nonresponder) and to calculate an ultrasonographic-derived gonadosomatic index. Gray-level co-occurrence matrices were calculated from ovarian images, and 22 texture features were calculated from these matrices. RESULTS The ultrasonographic-derived gonadosomatic index differed significantly between fast responders and slow responders or nonresponders at both weeks 7 and 11. Principal component analysis revealed a pattern of separation between the groups, and partial least squares discriminant analysis revealed signals in the ovarian texture that discriminated females that responded to treatment from those that did not. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Ovarian texture information in addition to morphometric variables can enhance ultrasonographic applications for assisted reproduction of eels and potentially other fish species. This was a novel, nonlethal method for classifying reproductive response of eels and the first objective texture analysis performed on ultrasonographic images of the gonads of fish. PMID:27111015

  18. Dry Priming of Maize Seeds Reduces Aluminum Stress.

    PubMed

    Alcântara, Berenice Kussumoto; Machemer-Noonan, Katja; Silva Júnior, Francides Gomes; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is directly related to acidic soils and substantially limits maize yield. Earlier studies using hormones and other substances to treat the seeds of various crops have been carried out with the aim of inducing tolerance to abiotic stress, especially chilling, drought and salinity. However, more studies regarding the effects of seed treatments on the induction of Al tolerance are necessary. In this study, two independent experiments were performed to determine the effect of ascorbic acid (AsA) seed treatment on the tolerance response of maize to acidic soil and Al stress. In the first experiment (greenhouse), the AsA seed treatment was tested in B73 (Al-sensitive genotype). This study demonstrates the potential of AsA for use as a pre-sowing seed treatment (seed priming) because this metabolite increased root and shoot growth under acidic and Al stress conditions. In the second test, the evidence from field experiments using an Al-sensitive genotype (Mo17) and an Al-tolerant genotype (DA) suggested that prior AsA seed treatment increased the growth of both genotypes. Enhanced productivity was observed for DA under Al stress after priming the seeds. Furthermore, the AsA treatment decreased the activity of oxidative stress-related enzymes in the DA genotype. In this study, remarkable effects using AsA seed treatment in maize were observed, demonstrating the potential future use of AsA in seed priming. PMID:26714286

  19. Dry Priming of Maize Seeds Reduces Aluminum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Alcântara, Berenice Kussumoto; Machemer-Noonan, Katja; Silva Júnior, Francides Gomes; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is directly related to acidic soils and substantially limits maize yield. Earlier studies using hormones and other substances to treat the seeds of various crops have been carried out with the aim of inducing tolerance to abiotic stress, especially chilling, drought and salinity. However, more studies regarding the effects of seed treatments on the induction of Al tolerance are necessary. In this study, two independent experiments were performed to determine the effect of ascorbic acid (AsA) seed treatment on the tolerance response of maize to acidic soil and Al stress. In the first experiment (greenhouse), the AsA seed treatment was tested in B73 (Al-sensitive genotype). This study demonstrates the potential of AsA for use as a pre-sowing seed treatment (seed priming) because this metabolite increased root and shoot growth under acidic and Al stress conditions. In the second test, the evidence from field experiments using an Al-sensitive genotype (Mo17) and an Al-tolerant genotype (DA) suggested that prior AsA seed treatment increased the growth of both genotypes. Enhanced productivity was observed for DA under Al stress after priming the seeds. Furthermore, the AsA treatment decreased the activity of oxidative stress-related enzymes in the DA genotype. In this study, remarkable effects using AsA seed treatment in maize were observed, demonstrating the potential future use of AsA in seed priming. PMID:26714286

  20. Hormonal and non-hormonal bases of maternal behavior: The role of experience and epigenetic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Stolzenberg, Danielle S; Champagne, Frances A

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". Though hormonal changes occurring throughout pregnancy and at the time of parturition have been demonstrated to prime the maternal brain and trigger the onset of mother-infant interactions, extended experience with neonates can induce similar behavioral interactions. Sensitization, a phenomenon in which rodents engage in parental responses to young following constant cohabitation with donor pups, was elegantly demonstrated by Rosenblatt (1967) to occur in females and males, independent of hormonal status. Study of the non-hormonal basis of maternal behavior has contributed significantly to our understanding of hormonal influences on the maternal brain and the cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate maternal behavior. Here, we highlight our current understanding regarding both hormone-induced and experience-induced maternal responsivity and the mechanisms that may serve as a common pathway through which increases in maternal behavior are achieved. In particular, we describe the epigenetic changes that contribute to chromatin remodeling and how these molecular mechanisms may influence the neural substrates of the maternal brain. We also consider how individual differences in these systems emerge during development in response to maternal care. This research has broad implications for our understanding of the parental brain and the role of experience in the induction of neurobiological and behavior changes. PMID:26172856

  1. Hormone-regulated v-rel estrogen receptor fusion protein: reversible induction of cell transformation and cellular gene expression.

    PubMed

    Boehmelt, G; Walker, A; Kabrun, N; Mellitzer, G; Beug, H; Zenke, M; Enrietto, P J

    1992-12-01

    We describe the construction of a v-rel estrogen receptor fusion protein (v-relER) which allows the regulation of v-rel oncoprotein activity by hormone. In the presence of estrogen, v-relER readily transformed primary chicken fibroblasts and bone marrow cells in vitro. In both cell types, v-rel-specific transformation was critically dependent on the presence of estrogen or the estrogen agonist 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHT). Withdrawal of estrogen or application of an estrogen antagonist, ICI164,384 (ICI) caused a reversal of the transformed phenotype. We also demonstrate that the v-relER protein binds to NF-kappa B sites in an estrogen-dependent manner, thereby showing that sequence-specific DNA binding of v-relER is critical for the activation of its transforming capacity. In transient transfection experiments, we failed to demonstrate a clear repressor or activator function of the v-rel moiety in v-relER. However, in v-relER-transformed bone marrow cells, estrogen and OHT induced elevated mRNA levels of two cellular genes whose expression is constitutive and high in v-rel-transformed cells. These results suggest that v-rel might exert part of its activity as an activator of rel-responsive genes. PMID:1425595

  2. Induction of spermatogenesis and fertility in hypogonadotropic azoospermic men by intravenous pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).

    PubMed

    Blumenfeld, Z; Makler, A; Frisch, L; Brandes, J M

    1988-06-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has only recently become a helpful tool in the medication of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). Two azoospermic patients with HH who had previously been treated with hCG/hMG because of delayed puberty and each of whom had fathered a child after previous gonadotropin therapy were referred due to secondary failure of hCG/hMG treatment to induce spermatogenesis and fertility. A pulse study where blood was drawn every 15 minutes for LH, FSH and PRL RIAs was performed in each patient, and afterwards a bolus of i.v. GnRH was injected to assess gonadotropin responsiveness. A portable GnRH pump was connected to each patient so that it administered 5-20 micrograms of GnRH i.v. every 89 minutes. Spermatogenesis was first detected after 42 and 78 days respectively in the 2 treated HH men and 4 1/2 months from the start of treatment their wives became pregnant. No thrombophlebitis or other complications of the i.v. therapy occurred. In the case of the first patient, the semen was washed and concentrated and intra-uterine inseminations were carried out in an attempt to shorten the time needed to achieve fertility. The first pregnancy was successfully terminated at 38 weeks with the delivery of 2 heterozygotic normal male babies. The second pregnancy ended in spontaneous delivery of a healthy female. We conclude that i.v. pulsatile, intermittent GnRH administration is a safe, efficient and highly successful means of treating azoospermic men with HH. PMID:3055820

  3. Nutritional and Hormonal Induction of Fatty Liver Syndrome and Effects of Dietary Lipotropic Factors in Egg-type Male Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Y. I.; Ahn, H. J.; Lee, B. K.; Oh, S. T.; An, B. K.; Kang, C. W.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted with male chicks to investigate the influence of hormones and nutrients on the development of fatty liver syndrome (FLS) as well as the effects of dietary lipotropic factors on hepatic fat accumulation and lipogenic enzyme gene expression. A total of two-hundred sixteen 4-wk-old Hy-Line male chicks were divided into six groups and fed an experimental diet (T1, low-energy diet with low levels of lipotropic factors; T2, high-energy diet with low levels of lipotropic factors; T3 and T5, low-energy diet with high levels of lipotropic factors; T4 and T6, high-energy diet with high levels of lipotropic factors) for six weeks. The chicks in T5 and T6 groups were treated with intramuscular injections of estradiol benzoate for three days prior to biopsy and clinical analysis of FLS. Chicks treated with estrogen had significantly greater liver weights than untreated chicks. The abdominal fat contents were increased in chicks consuming high-energy diets as compared to those consuming low-energy diets. Treatment with estrogen significantly increased the concentrations of serum cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipid (p<0.05). The hepatic triacylglycerol levels were tenfold higher in the estrogen treated chicks than in the untreated chicks. There were no significant differences in malondialdehyde levels between the treatment groups. Estrogen treatment dramatically increased the levels of fatty acid synthetase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and ApoB mRNA. The results indicated that treatment with exogenous estrogen in growing male chicks induced hepatic fat accumulation, which might be partially due to increased lipogenic enzyme gene expression. PMID:25049674

  4. Comparison of vaccines for induction of heterosubtypic immunity to influenza A virus: cold-adapted vaccine versus DNA prime-adenovirus boost strategies.

    PubMed

    Lo, Chia-Yun; Wu, Zhengqi; Misplon, Julia A; Price, Graeme E; Pappas, Claudia; Kong, Wing-Pui; Tumpey, Terrence M; Epstein, Suzanne L

    2008-04-16

    Influenza epidemics or pandemics can arise for which strain- or subtype-matched vaccines are unavailable. Heterosubtypic immunity (Het-I) targeting conserved influenza A antigens could reduce morbidity and mortality during preparation of matched vaccines. Various vaccines inducing Het-I in animals have been studied separately using different viruses and conditions, but effectiveness for inducing Het-I has not been directly compared. The present studies compared immunization with cold-adapted (ca) viruses to DNA prime-recombinant adenovirus (rAd) boost vaccination to conserved antigens nucleoprotein (NP), matrix-2 (M2), or A/NP+M2. Both ca and DNA-rAd vaccinations induced antibody and T cell responses, and protected against lethal H1N1 challenge. Only A/NP+M2 DNA-rAd protected against challenge with highly pathogenic A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1); ca vaccine did not. Existing ca vaccines may provide some Het-I, but experimental vaccination focusing on conserved antigens was more effective in this model for protection against a divergent, highly pathogenic virus. PMID:18378366

  5. Induction of castration by immunization of male dogs with recombinant gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-canine distemper virus (CDV) T helper cell epitope p35.

    PubMed

    Jung, Mi-Jeong; Moon, Young-Chan; Cho, Ik-Hyun; Yeh, Jung-Yong; Kim, Sun-Eui; Chang, Wha-Seok; Park, Seung-Young; Song, Chang-Seon; Kim, Hwi-Yool; Park, Keun-Kyu; McOrist, Steven; Choi, In-Soo; Lee, Joong-Bok

    2005-03-01

    Immunocastration is a considerable alternative to a surgical castration method especially in male animal species for alleviating unwanted male behaviors and characteristics. Induction of high titer of antibody specific for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) correlates with the regression of testes. Fusion proteins composed of canine GnRH and T helper (Th) cell epitope p35 originated from canine distemper virus (CDV) F protein and goat rotavirus VP6 protein were produced in E. coli. When these fusion proteins were injected to male dogs which were previously immunized with CDV vaccine, the fusion protein of GnRH-CDV Th cell epitope p35 induced much higher antibody than that of GnRH-rotavirus VP6 protein or GnRH alone. The degeneration of spermatogenesis was also verified in the male dogs immunized with the fusion protein of GnRH-CDV Th cell epitope p35. These results indicate that canine GnRH conjugated to CDV Th cell epitope p35 acted as a strong immunogen and the antibody to GnRH specifically neutralized GnRH in the testes. This study also implies a potential application of GnRH-based vaccines for immunocastration of male pets. PMID:15785119

  6. Glucocorticoids Mediate Short-Term High-Fat Diet Induction of Neuroinflammatory Priming, the NLRP3 Inflammasome, and the Danger Signal HMGB1.

    PubMed

    Sobesky, Julia L; D'Angelo, Heather M; Weber, Michael D; Anderson, Nathan D; Frank, Matthew G; Watkins, Linda R; Maier, Steven F; Barrientos, Ruth M

    2016-01-01

    The impact of the foods we eat on metabolism and cardiac physiology has been studied for decades, yet less is known about the effects of foods on the CNS, or the behavioral manifestations that may result from these effects. Previous studies have shown that long-term consumption of high-fat foods leading to diet-induced obesity sensitizes the inflammatory response of the brain to subsequent challenging stimuli, causing deficits in the formation of long-term memories. The new findings reported here demonstrate that short-term consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) produces the same outcomes, thus allowing the examination of mechanisms involved in this process long before obesity and associated comorbidities occur. Rats fed an HFD for 3 d exhibited increases in corticosterone, the inflammasome-associated protein NLRP3 (nod-like receptor protein 3), and the endogenous danger signal HMGB1 (high-mobility group box 1) in the hippocampus. A low-dose (10 μg/kg) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) immune challenge potentiated the neuroinflammatory response in the hippocampus of rats fed the HFD, and caused a deficit in the formation of long-term memory, effects not observed in rats fed regular chow. The blockade of corticosterone action with the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone prevented the NLRP3 and HMGB1 increases in unchallenged animals, normalized the proinflammatory response to LPS, and prevented the memory impairment. These data suggest that short-term HFD consumption increases vulnerability to memory disruptions caused by an immune challenge by upregulating important neuroinflammatory priming and danger signals in the hippocampus, and that these effects are mediated by increases in hippocampal corticosterone. PMID:27595136

  7. Glucocorticoids Mediate Short-Term High-Fat Diet Induction of Neuroinflammatory Priming, the NLRP3 Inflammasome, and the Danger Signal HMGB1

    PubMed Central

    Sobesky, Julia L.; D’Angelo, Heather M.; Anderson, Nathan D.; Watkins, Linda R.; Maier, Steven F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The impact of the foods we eat on metabolism and cardiac physiology has been studied for decades, yet less is known about the effects of foods on the CNS, or the behavioral manifestations that may result from these effects. Previous studies have shown that long-term consumption of high-fat foods leading to diet-induced obesity sensitizes the inflammatory response of the brain to subsequent challenging stimuli, causing deficits in the formation of long-term memories. The new findings reported here demonstrate that short-term consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) produces the same outcomes, thus allowing the examination of mechanisms involved in this process long before obesity and associated comorbidities occur. Rats fed an HFD for 3 d exhibited increases in corticosterone, the inflammasome-associated protein NLRP3 (nod-like receptor protein 3), and the endogenous danger signal HMGB1 (high-mobility group box 1) in the hippocampus. A low-dose (10 μg/kg) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) immune challenge potentiated the neuroinflammatory response in the hippocampus of rats fed the HFD, and caused a deficit in the formation of long-term memory, effects not observed in rats fed regular chow. The blockade of corticosterone action with the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone prevented the NLRP3 and HMGB1 increases in unchallenged animals, normalized the proinflammatory response to LPS, and prevented the memory impairment. These data suggest that short-term HFD consumption increases vulnerability to memory disruptions caused by an immune challenge by upregulating important neuroinflammatory priming and danger signals in the hippocampus, and that these effects are mediated by increases in hippocampal corticosterone. PMID:27595136

  8. Priming in Systemic Plant Immunity

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Wang, Lin; Glazebrook, Jane; Greenberg, Jean T.

    2009-01-01

    Upon local infection, plants possess inducible systemic defense responses against their natural enemies. Bacterial infection results in the accumulation to high levels of the mobile metabolite C9-dicarboxylic acid azelaic acid in the vascular sap of Arabidopsis. Azelaic acid confers local and systemic resistance against Pseudomonas syringae. The compound primes plants to strongly accumulate salicylic acid (SA), a known defense signal, upon infection. Mutation of a gene induced by azelaic acid (AZI1) results in the specific loss in plants of systemic immunity triggered by pathogen or azelaic acid and of the priming of SA induction. AZI1, a predicted secreted protein, is also important for generating vascular sap that confers disease resistance. Thus, azelaic acid and AZI1 comprise novel components of plant systemic immunity involved in priming defenses.

  9. Protection against radiation-induced mutations at the hprt locus by spermine and N,N{double_prime}-(dithiodi-2,1-ethanediyl)bis-1,3-propanediamine (WR-33278). WR-33278 and spermine protect against mutation induction

    SciTech Connect

    Grdina, D.J.; Shigematsu, N.; Schwartz, J.L.

    1994-08-01

    The polyamine spermine and the disulfide N,N{double_prime}-(dithiodi-2,1-ethanediyl)bis-1,3-propanediamine (WR-33278) are structurally similar agents capable of binding to DNA. WR-33278 is the disulfide moiety of the clinically studied radioprotective agent S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid (WR-2721). Because of their reported structural and functional similarities, it was of interest to characterize and compare their radioprotective properties using the endpoints of cell survival and mutation induction at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus in Chinese hamster AA8 cells. In order to facilitate both the uptake of WR-33278 into cells and the direct comparison between the protective properties of WR-33278 and spermine, these agents (at concentrations of 0.01 mM and 0.001 mM) were electroporated into cells. The exposure of cells to both electroporation and irradiation gave rise to enhanced cell killing and mutation induction, with the sequence of irradiation followed 3 h later by electroporation being the more toxic protocol. Enhanced cell survival was observed following electroporation of 0.01 mM of spermine and WR-33278 30 min prior to irradiation; protection factors (PF) of 1.3 and 1.8, respectively. Neither agent was protective at a concentration of 0.001 mM. Protection against radiation-induced hprt mutations was observed for both spermine and WR-33278 under all experimental conditions tested. These data suggest that the properties of radioprotection and chemoprevention exhibited by the phosphorothioate (WR-2721) and associated aminothiol (WR-1065) and disulfide (WR-33278) metabolites may be mediated via endogenous spermine-like polyamine processes. Such a mechanism would have important implications with respect to the design and development of new generation drugs for use in radioprotection and chemoprevention.

  10. A low-dose cytarabine, aclarubicin and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor priming regimen versus a daunorubicin plus cytarabine regimen as induction therapy for older patients with acute myeloid leukemia: A propensity score analysis.

    PubMed

    Minakata, Daisuke; Fujiwara, Shin-Ichiro; Ito, Shoko; Mashima, Kiyomi; Umino, Kento; Nakano, Hirofumi; Kawasaki, Yasufumi; Sugimoto, Miyuki; Yamasaki, Ryoko; Yamamoto, Chihiro; Ashizawa, Masahiro; Hatano, Kaoru; Okazuka, Kiyoshi; Sato, Kazuya; Oh, Iekuni; Ohmine, Ken; Suzuki, Takahiro; Muroi, Kazuo; Kanda, Yoshinobu

    2016-03-01

    This retrospective analysis compared the efficacy of intensive induction therapy consisting of daunorubicin and cytarabine (DNR-AraC) to that of less-intensive therapy including low-dose cytarabine, aclarubicin and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor priming (CAG). Patients aged 60 years or older who were newly diagnosed as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were analyzed. Sixty-four and 48 patients were treated with DNR-AraC and CAG, respectively. The complete remission rates, 3-year overall survival and event-free survival in the DNR-AraC group were significantly superior to those in the CAG group (65.6% vs. 29.2%, p<0.001, 38.4% vs. 12.3%, p=0.0033, and 20.3% vs. 7.8%, p=0.0030, respectively), although these differences were not statistically significant in multivariate analyses. Next, we calculated a propensity score for selecting the CAG regimen from six factors. The DNR-AraC regimen was associated with better survival than the CAG regimen in a low propensity score group, but there was no difference in survival between regimens in a high propensity score group. Intensive therapy should be performed for patients with sufficient general and comorbid conditions, but less-intensive therapy may be sufficient for patients with higher age, myelodysplasia-related changes, and lower white blood cell counts, which were relevant factors in the propensity score calculation. PMID:26790727

  11. Hormone levels

    MedlinePlus

    Blood or urine tests can determine the levels of various hormones in the body. This includes reproductive hormones, thyroid hormones, adrenal hormones, pituitary hormones, and many others. For more information, see: ...

  12. Successful induction of sclerostin in human-derived fibroblasts by 4 transcription factors and its regulation by parathyroid hormone, hypoxia, and prostaglandin E2.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Makoto; Kubota, Takuo; Wang, Wei; Ohata, Yasuhisa; Miura, Kohji; Kitaoka, Taichi; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Namba, Noriyuki; Michigami, Toshimi; Kitabatake, Yasuji; Ozono, Keiichi

    2016-04-01

    Sclerostin, coded by SOST, is a secretory protein that is specifically expressed in osteocytes and suppresses osteogenesis by inhibiting WNT signaling. The regulatory mechanism underlying SOST expression remains unclear mainly due to the absence of an adequate human cell model. Thus, we herein attempted to establish a cell model of human dermal fibroblasts in order to investigate the functions of sclerostin. We selected 20 candidate transcription factors (TFs) that induce SOST expression by analyzing gene expression patterns in the human sarcoma cell line, SaOS-2, between differentiation and maintenance cultures using microarrays. An effective set of TFs to induce SOST expression was sought by their viral transduction into fibroblasts, and a combination of four TFs: ATF3, KLF4, PAX4, and SP7, was identified as the most effective inducer of SOST expression. Quantitative PCR demonstrated that the expression levels of SOST in fibroblasts treated with the 4 TFs were 199- and 1439-fold higher than those of the control after 1-week and 4-week cultures, respectively. The level of sclerostin in the conditioned medium, as determined by ELISA, was 21.2pmol/l 4weeks after the transduction of the 4 TFs. Interestingly, the production of Dickkopf1 (DKK1), another secreted inhibitor of WNT signaling, was also increased by transduction of these 4 TFs. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) significantly suppressed the induced SOST by 38% and sclerostin by 82% that of the vehicle. Hypoxia increased the induced SOST by 62% that of normoxia. Furthermore, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) increased SOST expression levels to 16-fold those of the vehicle. In conclusion, the efficient induction of SOST expression and sclerostin production was achieved in human dermal fibroblasts by the transduction of ATF3, KLF4, PAX4, and SP7, and the induced SOST and sclerostin were regulated by PTH, hypoxia, and PGE2. This model may contribute to elucidating the regulatory mechanisms underlying SOST expression and advancing

  13. Follicle Diameter and Systemic Hormone Interrelationships during Induction of Follicle Collapse with Intrafollicular Prostaglandin E2 and F2α in Mares.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Boví, R; Cuervo-Arango, J

    2016-04-01

    The objectives were to determine: (i) whether intrafollicular administration of PGE2 and PGF2α to mares would hasten follicle collapse and (ii) the differences in reproductive hormone characteristics in mares with spontaneous and prostaglandin-induced follicle collapses. Six mares were followed for two oestrous cycles each: when the mares reached a follicle diameter of 30-35 mm and showed mild-to-moderate endometrial oedema, mares were administered a single 0.5 ml dose containing 500 μg PGE2 and 125 μg PGF2α (treatment cycle) or a placebo (0.5 ml of water for injection; control cycle) into the preovulatory follicle (Hour 0). Blood samples were collected, and serial ultrasound examinations were performed until follicle collapse. Treated mares showed follicle collapse significantly earlier (20.0 ± 5.9 h) than the control mares (72.0 ± 10.7 h). The LH, progesterone, total oestrogens and oestradiol concentrations did not differ between groups; however, the progesterone concentration increased more between 48 and 72 h after follicle injection in the treatment compared to the control cycles (P < 0.05). In conclusion, intrafollicular treatment with PGE2 and PGF2α hastened follicle collapse in mares without the simultaneous use of an inductor of ovulation; despite the early induction of follicle collapse, the profiles of LH and oestradiol were not altered. This study provides information on the role of prostaglandins (PGs) in the process of follicle wall rupture and collapse and suggests that this may happen even before the beginning of the sharp rise in circulating LH at the final stage of the ovulatory surge. PMID:26931199

  14. Multicenter, noninterventional, post-marketing surveillance study to evaluate dosing of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone using the redesigned follitropin alfa pen in women undergoing ovulation induction

    PubMed Central

    Nawroth, Frank; Tandler-Schneider, Andreas; Bilger, Wilma

    2015-01-01

    This prospective, noninterventional, post-marketing surveillance study evaluated doses of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (r-hFSH) using the redesigned follitropin alfa pen in women who were anovulatory or oligomenorrheic and undergoing ovulation induction (OI) alone or OI with intrauterine insemination. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved monofollicular or bifollicular development (defined as one or two follicles ≥15 mm). Secondary endpoints included characteristics of ovulation stimulation treatment, such as mean total and mean daily r-hFSH doses. Data were analyzed for 3,193 patients from 30 German fertility centers. The proportion of patients with monofollicular or bifollicular development was 71.1% (n=2,270 of a total of 3,193 patients; intent-to-treat population). The mean±standard deviation total and daily doses of r-hFSH were 696.9±542.5 IU and 61.7±29.4 IU, respectively. The three doses prescribed most frequently were: 37.5 IU (n=703 from N=3,189; 22.0%), 50.0 IU (n=1,056 from N=3,189; 33.1%), and 75.0 IU (n=738 from N=3,189; 23.1%) on the first day of stimulation; and 37.5 IU (n=465 from N=3,189; 14.6%), 50.0 IU (n=922 from N=3,189; 28.9%), and 75.0 IU (n=895 from N=3,189; 28.1%) on the last day of stimulation. This noninterventional, post-marketing surveillance study found that monofollicular or bifollicular development was achieved in 71% of patients studied and the small dose increment (12.5 IU) of the redesigned follitropin alfa pen allowed individualized treatment of women undergoing OI. PMID:25926755

  15. ICAM-1 and AMPK regulate cell detachment and apoptosis by N-methyl-N Prime -nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, a widely spread environmental chemical, in human hormone-refractory prostate cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yi-Cheng; Lu, Pin-Hsuan; Hsu, Jui-Ling; Yu, Chia-Chun; Guh, Jih-Hwa

    2011-12-15

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a sensor of DNA damage, plays a crucial role in the regulation of DNA repair. PARP-1 hyperactivation causes DNA damage and cell death. The underlying mechanism is complicated and is through diverse pathways. The understanding of responsible signaling pathways may offer implications for effective therapies. After concentration-response determination of N-Methyl-N Prime -Nitro-N-Nitrosoguanidine (MNNG, a PARP-1 activating agent and an environmental mutagen) in human hormone-refractory prostate cancers, the data showed that concentrations below 5 {mu}M did not change cell survival but cause a time-dependent up-regulation of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in mRNA, total protein and cell surface levels. Detection of phosphorylation and degradation of I{kappa}B-{alpha} and nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B showed that MNNG induced the activation of NF-{kappa}B that was responsible for the ICAM-1 up-regulation since PDTC (a NF-{kappa}B inhibitor) significantly abolished this effect. However, higher concentrations (e.g., 10 {mu}M) of MNNG induced a 61% detachment of the cells which were apoptosis associated with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Further identification showed that both AMPK and JNK other than p38 MAPK functionally contributed to cell death. The remaining 39% attached cells were survival associated with high ICAM-1 expression. In conclusion, the data suggest that NF-{kappa}B-dependent up-regulation of ICAM-1 plays a key role on cell attachment and survival; whereas, activation of AMPK and JNK participates in cytotoxic signaling pathways in detached cells caused by PARP-1 activation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low level of DNA damage helps cell attachment and survival via ICAM-1 upregulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High level of DNA damage causes AMPK- and JNK-involved cell detachment

  16. Problems with Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melrose, Tim; Scott, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses prime numbers, defined as integers greater than 1 that are divisible only by only themselves and the number 1. A positive integer greater than 1 that is not a prime is called composite. The number 1 itself is considered neither prime nor composite. As the name suggests, prime numbers are one of the most basic but important…

  17. Learning about Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEachran, Alec

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author relates his unhappy experience in learning about prime numbers at secondary school. To introduce primes, a teacher first told students a definition of a prime number, then students were taught how to find prime numbers. Students defined and listed them and at some later point were tested on their memory of both the…

  18. Motor Priming in Neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Stoykov, Mary Ellen; Madhavan, Sangeetha

    2014-01-01

    Priming is a type of implicit learning wherein a stimulus prompts a change in behavior. Priming has been long studied in the field of psychology. More recently, rehabilitation researchers have studied motor priming as a possible way to facilitate motor learning. For example, priming of the motor cortex is associated with changes in neuroplasticity that are associated with improvements in motor performance. Of the numerous motor priming paradigms under investigation, only a few are practical for the current clinical environment, and the optimal priming modalities for specific clinical presentations are not known. Accordingly, developing an understanding of the various types of motor priming paradigms and their underlying neural mechanisms is an important step for therapists in neurorehabilitation. Most importantly, an understanding of the methods and their underlying mechanisms is essential for optimizing rehabilitation outcomes. The future of neurorehabilitation is likely to include these priming methods, which are delivered prior to or in conjunction with primary neurorehabilitation therapies. In this Special Interest article we discuss those priming paradigms that are supported by the greatest amount of evidence including: (i) stimulation-based priming, (ii) motor imagery and action observation, (iii) sensory priming, (iv) movement-based priming, and (v) pharmacological priming. PMID:25415551

  19. Repetition Priming in Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Sean; Palmer, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    The authors explore priming effects of pitch repetition in music in 3 experiments. Musically untrained participants heard a short melody and sang the last pitch of the melody as quickly as possible. Each experiment manipulated (a) whether or not the tone to be sung (target) was heard earlier in the melody (primed) and (b) the prime-target distance…

  20. Hormonal modulation of phonotaxis and advertisement-call preferences in the gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor)

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Noah M.; Gerhardt, H. Carl

    2009-01-01

    Hormonal levels fluctuate during the breeding season in many anurans, but the identity of the hormones that modulate breeding behavior and their effects remain unclear. We tested the influence of a combined treatment of progesterone and prostaglandin on phonotaxis, the key proceptive reproductive behavior of female anurans. First, we found that female gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor) treated with progesterone and prostaglandin exhibited phonotaxis to synthetic male advertisement signals significantly more often than animals treated with ringers vehicle or uninjected controls. Responsive females had greater levels of plasma progesterone and estradiol compared to both control groups, suggesting that these steroids may be promoting phonotaxis. Second, we found that the selectivity of hormonally-induced phonotaxis in H. versicolor was similar to that observed in freshly captured breeding animals. Females made the same choices between acoustic signals after hormone treatments in tests of frequency, call rate and pulse rate, compared to their responses without treatment immediately after collection from the breeding chorus. The preference for a longer call was, however, significantly weaker after hormone induction of phonotaxis. Hormonally primed females were also less likely to respond in any test and took longer to respond than did freshly collected females. Consequently, our study shows how progesterone-prostaglandin induced phonotaxis in female treefrogs influences both the quality and quantity of phonotaxis, relative to that exhibited by naturally breeding females. PMID:18926827

  1. Repetition priming in music.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Sean; Palmer, Caroline

    2008-06-01

    The authors explore priming effects of pitch repetition in music in 3 experiments. Musically untrained participants heard a short melody and sang the last pitch of the melody as quickly as possible. Each experiment manipulated (a) whether or not the tone to be sung (target) was heard earlier in the melody (primed) and (b) the prime-target distance (measured in events). Experiment 1 used variable-length melodies, whereas Experiments 2 and 3 used fixed-length melodies. Experiment 3 changed the timbre of the target tone. In all experiments, fast-responding participants produced repeated tones faster than nonrepeated tones, and this repetition benefit decreased as prime-target distances increased. All participants produced expected tonic endings faster than less expected nontonic endings. Repetition and tonal priming effects are compared with harmonic priming effects in music and with repetition priming effects in language. PMID:18505332

  2. Induction of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase by Lipopolysaccharide and the Influences of Cell Volume Changes, Stress Hormones and Oxidative Stress on Nitric Oxide Efflux from the Perfused Liver of Air-Breathing Catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Mahua G; Saha, Nirmalendu

    2016-01-01

    The air-breathing singhi catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) is frequently being challenged by bacterial contaminants, and different environmental insults like osmotic, hyper-ammonia, dehydration and oxidative stresses in its natural habitats throughout the year. The main objectives of the present investigation were to determine (a) the possible induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene with enhanced production of nitric oxide (NO) by intra-peritoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (a bacterial endotoxin), and (b) to determine the effects of hepatic cell volume changes due to anisotonicity or by infusion of certain metabolites, stress hormones and by induction of oxidative stress on production of NO from the iNOS-induced perfused liver of singhi catfish. Intra-peritoneal injection of LPS led to induction of iNOS gene and localized tissue specific expression of iNOS enzyme with more production and accumulation of NO in different tissues of singhi catfish. Further, changes of hydration status/cell volume, caused either by anisotonicity or by infusion of certain metabolites such as glutamine plus glycine and adenosine, affected the NO production from the perfused liver of iNOS-induced singhi catfish. In general, increase of hydration status/cell swelling due to hypotonicity caused decrease, and decrease of hydration status/cell shrinkage due to hypertonicity caused increase of NO efflux from the perfused liver, thus suggesting that changes in hydration status/cell volume of hepatic cells serve as a potent modulator for regulating the NO production. Significant increase of NO efflux from the perfused liver was also observed while infusing the liver with stress hormones like epinephrine and norepinephrine, accompanied with decrease of hydration status/cell volume of hepatic cells. Further, oxidative stress, caused due to infusion of t-butyl hydroperoxide and hydrogen peroxide separately, in the perfused liver of singhi catfish, resulted in

  3. Induction of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase by Lipopolysaccharide and the Influences of Cell Volume Changes, Stress Hormones and Oxidative Stress on Nitric Oxide Efflux from the Perfused Liver of Air-Breathing Catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Mahua G.; Saha, Nirmalendu

    2016-01-01

    The air-breathing singhi catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) is frequently being challenged by bacterial contaminants, and different environmental insults like osmotic, hyper-ammonia, dehydration and oxidative stresses in its natural habitats throughout the year. The main objectives of the present investigation were to determine (a) the possible induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene with enhanced production of nitric oxide (NO) by intra-peritoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (a bacterial endotoxin), and (b) to determine the effects of hepatic cell volume changes due to anisotonicity or by infusion of certain metabolites, stress hormones and by induction of oxidative stress on production of NO from the iNOS-induced perfused liver of singhi catfish. Intra-peritoneal injection of LPS led to induction of iNOS gene and localized tissue specific expression of iNOS enzyme with more production and accumulation of NO in different tissues of singhi catfish. Further, changes of hydration status/cell volume, caused either by anisotonicity or by infusion of certain metabolites such as glutamine plus glycine and adenosine, affected the NO production from the perfused liver of iNOS-induced singhi catfish. In general, increase of hydration status/cell swelling due to hypotonicity caused decrease, and decrease of hydration status/cell shrinkage due to hypertonicity caused increase of NO efflux from the perfused liver, thus suggesting that changes in hydration status/cell volume of hepatic cells serve as a potent modulator for regulating the NO production. Significant increase of NO efflux from the perfused liver was also observed while infusing the liver with stress hormones like epinephrine and norepinephrine, accompanied with decrease of hydration status/cell volume of hepatic cells. Further, oxidative stress, caused due to infusion of t-butyl hydroperoxide and hydrogen peroxide separately, in the perfused liver of singhi catfish, resulted in

  4. Thyroid hormone negatively regulates CDX2 and SOAT2 mRNA expression via induction of miRNA-181d in hepatic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yap, Chui Sun; Sinha, Rohit Anthony; Ota, Sho; Katsuki, Masahito; Yen, Paul Michael

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •Thyroid hormone induces miR-181d expression in human hepatic cells and mouse livers. •Thyroid hormone downregulates CDX2 and SOAT2 (or ACAT2) via miR-181d. •miR-181d reduces cholesterol output from human hepatic cells. -- Abstract: Thyroid hormones (THs) regulate transcription of many metabolic genes in the liver through its nuclear receptors (TRs). Although the molecular mechanisms for positive regulation of hepatic genes by TH are well understood, much less is known about TH-mediated negative regulation. Recently, several nuclear hormone receptors were shown to downregulate gene expression via miRNAs. To further examine the potential role of miRNAs in TH-mediated negative regulation, we used a miRNA microarray to identify miRNAs that were directly regulated by TH in a human hepatic cell line. In our screen, we discovered that miRNA-181d is a novel hepatic miRNA that was regulated by TH in hepatic cell culture and in vivo. Furthermore, we identified and characterized two novel TH-regulated target genes that were downstream of miR-181d signaling: caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2) and sterol O-acyltransferase 2 (SOAT2 or ACAT2). CDX2, a known positive regulator of hepatocyte differentiation, was regulated by miR-181d and directly activated SOAT2 gene expression. Since SOAT2 is an enzyme that generates cholesteryl esters that are packaged into lipoproteins, our results suggest miR-181d plays a significant role in the negative regulation of key metabolic genes by TH in the liver.

  5. An ERP investigation of orthographic priming with superset primes.

    PubMed

    Ktori, Maria; Midgley, Katherine; Holcomb, Phillip J; Grainger, Jonathan

    2015-01-12

    Prime stimuli formed by inserting unrelated letters in a given target word (called "superset" primes) provide a means to modify the relative positions of the letters shared by prime and target. Here we examined the time-course of superset priming effects in an ERP study using the sandwich-priming paradigm. We compared the effects of superset primes formed by the insertion of unrelated letters (e.g., maurkdet-MARKET), or by the insertion of hyphens (e.g., ma-rk-et-MARKET), with identity priming (e.g., market-MARKET), all measured relative to unrelated control primes. Behavioral data revealed significantly greater priming in the hyphen-insert condition compared with the letter-insert condition. In the ERP signal, letter-insert priming emerged later than hyphen-insert priming and produced a reversed priming effect in the N400 time-window compared with the more typical N400 priming effects seen for both hyphen-insert priming and identity priming. The different pattern of priming effects seen for letter-insert primes and hyphen-insert primes suggests that compared with identity priming, letter superset priming reflects the joint influence of: (1) a disruption in letter position information, and (2) an inhibitory influence of mismatching letters. PMID:25451126

  6. Energy saving concepts relating to induction generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Energy saving concepts relating to induction generators are presented. The first describes a regenerative scheme using an induction generator as a variable load for prime movers under test is described. A method for reducing losses in induction machines used specifically as wind driven generators is also described.

  7. PRIME Lab Radiocarbon Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillegonds, D. J.; Mueller, K. A.; Ma, X.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1996-03-01

    The Purdue Rare Isotope Measurement Laboratory (PRIME Lab) is one of three NSF national facilities for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), and is the only one capable of determining six cosmogenic radionuclides: 10Be, 14C, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, and 129I. This abstract describes the current status of the radiocarbon analysis program at PRIME Lab.

  8. Building Numbers from Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…

  9. Discovery: Prime Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mestre, Neville

    2008-01-01

    Prime numbers are important as the building blocks for the set of all natural numbers, because prime factorisation is an important and useful property of all natural numbers. Students can discover them by using the method known as the Sieve of Eratosthenes, named after the Greek geographer and astronomer who lived from c. 276-194 BC. Eratosthenes…

  10. Priming Gestures with Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Lemaitre, Guillaume; Heller, Laurie M.; Navolio, Nicole; Zúñiga-Peñaranda, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    We report a series of experiments about a little-studied type of compatibility effect between a stimulus and a response: the priming of manual gestures via sounds associated with these gestures. The goal was to investigate the plasticity of the gesture-sound associations mediating this type of priming. Five experiments used a primed choice-reaction task. Participants were cued by a stimulus to perform response gestures that produced response sounds; those sounds were also used as primes before the response cues. We compared arbitrary associations between gestures and sounds (key lifts and pure tones) created during the experiment (i.e. no pre-existing knowledge) with ecological associations corresponding to the structure of the world (tapping gestures and sounds, scraping gestures and sounds) learned through the entire life of the participant (thus existing prior to the experiment). Two results were found. First, the priming effect exists for ecological as well as arbitrary associations between gestures and sounds. Second, the priming effect is greatly reduced for ecologically existing associations and is eliminated for arbitrary associations when the response gesture stops producing the associated sounds. These results provide evidence that auditory-motor priming is mainly created by rapid learning of the association between sounds and the gestures that produce them. Auditory-motor priming is therefore mediated by short-term associations between gestures and sounds that can be readily reconfigured regardless of prior knowledge. PMID:26544884

  11. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  12. Ha-ras oncogene expression directed by a milk protein gene promoter: tissue specificity, hormonal regulation, and tumor induction in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Andres, A.C.; Schoenenberger, C.A.; Groner, B.; Henninghausen, L.; LeMeur, M.; Gelinger, P.

    1987-03-01

    The activated human Ha-ras oncogene was subjected to the control of the promoter region of the murine whey acidic protein (Wap) gene, which is expressed in mammary epithelial cells in response to lactogenic hormones. The Wap-ras gene was stably introduced into the mouse germ line of five transgenic mice (one male and four females). Wap-ras expression was observed in the mammary glands of lactating females in two lines derived from female founders. The tissue-directed and hormone-dependent Wap expression was conferred on the Ha-ras oncogene. The signals governing Wap expression are located within 2.5 kilobases of 5' flanking sequence. The other two lines derived from female founders did not express the chimeric gene. In the line derived from the male founder the Wap-ras gene is integrated into the Y chromosome. Expression was found in the salivary gland of male animals only. After a long latency, Wap-ras-expressing mice developed tumors. The tumors arose in tissues expressing Wap-ras - i.e., mammary or salivary glands. Compared to the corresponding nonmalignant tissues, Wap-ras expression was enhanced in the tumors.

  13. Effects of phenobarbital on thyroid hormone contabolism in rat hepatocytes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hepatic enzyme inducers such as phenobarbital (PB) decrease circulating thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations in rodents. PB induction of hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes increases thyroid hormones catabolism and biliary elimination. This study examines the catabolism and cl...

  14. Improvement of calcium balance by Fructus Ligustri Lucidi extract in mature female rats was associated with the induction of serum parathyroid hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiao-Li; Zhao, Ming; Wong, Kwun-Kit; Che, Chun-Tao; Wong, Man-Sau

    2012-07-14

    Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) is a commonly prescribed herb in many kidney-tonifying Traditional Chinese Medicinal formulae for the treatment of osteoporosis. The present study aimed to identify the active fractions in FLL and to characterise its effects on Ca balance, calciotropic hormone levels as well as bone properties in mature female rats fed diets containing different levels of Ca. In the present study, 4-month-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were treated with either FLL ethanol extract (EE), ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of EE (EAF), water-soluble fraction of EE (WF) or their vehicle for 12 weeks on a medium-Ca diet (MCD, 0·6 % Ca, 0·65 % P). Then, the Sprague-Dawley female rats treated with WF or its vehicle for 12 weeks were fed diets containing different levels of dietary Ca (low-Ca diet (LCD), 0·1 % Ca, 0·65 % P; MCD; high-Ca diet (HCD), 1·2 % Ca, 0·65 % P). The results demonstrated that WF from EE but not EAF exerted a prominent effect on Ca balance by inhibiting urinary and faecal Ca excretion. WF significantly increased Ca balance in rats fed MCD or HCD with an associated increase in serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. WF did not alter bone mineral density or bone mineral content of the tibia in all the rats fed with different levels of dietary Ca. In conclusion, WF was responsible for the positive actions of FLL on Ca absorption and balance. The regulation of Ca balance by WF might involve its action in stimulating PTH production in the mature female rats. PMID:22018100

  15. Conscious contributions to subliminal priming.

    PubMed

    Jaśkowski, Piotr

    2008-03-01

    Choice reaction times to visual stimuli (targets) may be influenced by preceding subliminal stimuli (primes). Some authors reported a straight priming effect i.e., responses were faster when primes and targets called for the same response than when they called for different responses. Others found the reversed pattern of results. Eimer and Schlaghecken [Eimer, M. & Schlaghecken, F. (2002). Links between conscious awareness and response inhibition: evidence from masked priming. Psychonomic Bulletin &Review, 9, 514-520.] showed recently that straight priming occurs whenever a prime is not efficiently masked thereby the information provided by the prime is accessible for consciousness. In the present study, a hypothesis is tested that straight priming is due to mediation of consciousness. To test this hypothesis, prime validity was manipulated. We showed that even when no mask was used so that participants could fully and consciously perceive the prime and participants were informed that primes were mostly invalid, for the short prime-target ISI interval (100 ms) straight priming occurred. The priming was inverse when the ISI was 800 ms. This indicates that participants were able to use the information provided by the prime to prepare the response opposite to that cued by the prime but only if the time between the prime and the target was long enough. PMID:17126565

  16. Largest known twin primes and Sophie Germain primes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indlekofer, Karl-Heinz; Járai, Antal

    The numbers 242206083* 2^38880+-1 are twin primes. The number p=2375063906985* 2^19380-1 is a Sophie Germain prime, i.e. p and 2p+1 are both primes. For p=4610194180515* 2^ 5056-1, the numbers p, p+2 and 2p+1 are all primes.

  17. How important is a prime's gestalt for subliminal priming?

    PubMed

    Jaśkowski, Piotr; Slósarek, Maciej

    2007-06-01

    Masked stimuli (primes) can affect the preparation of a motor response to subsequently presented target stimuli. Under some conditions, reactions to the main stimulus can be facilitated (straight priming) or inhibited (inverse priming) when preceded by a compatible prime (calling for the same response). In the majority of studies in which inverse priming was demonstrated arrows pointing left or right were used as prime and targets. There is, however, evidence that arrows are special overlearned stimuli which are processed in a favorable way. Here we report three experiments designated to test whether the "arrowness" of primes/targets is a sufficient condition for inverse priming. The results clearly show that although inverse priming appeared when non-arrow shapes were used, the magnitude of the priming effect was larger with arrows. The possible reasons for this effect are discussed. PMID:16919477

  18. Induction of immunocastration in pre-pubertal boars immunized with recombinant gonadotropin-releasing hormone conjugated with Salmonella Typhimurium flagellin fljB.

    PubMed

    Park, Woo-Jung; Park, Byung-Joo; Song, Young-Jo; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Sang-Won; Jang, Young-Gyu; Kim, Hyoung-Moon; Han, Jang-Hyuck; Jung, Cheong-Hwan; Choi, In-Soo

    2015-05-01

    Immunocastration is an alternative method used to replace surgical castration commonly performed in swine farms. In boars, the main effects of immunocastration are reduction of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and the resulting inhibition of testicular function. The aim of this study was to evaluate immunocastration efficacy in pre-pubertal boars vaccinated with a recombinant GnRH protein conjugated with Salmonella Typhimurium flagellin fljB (STF2). A total of 35 boars were assigned to three groups: the untreated group (n = 5), the surgically castrated group (n = 5), and the immunocastrated group (n = 25). Pigs in the immunocastration group were immunized with the GnRH-STF2 vaccine at pre-pubertal ages 4 and 8 weeks. All experimental pigs were kept for 26 weeks before slaughter. Anti-GnRH antibody levels of immunocastrated pigs were significantly higher than those of untreated pigs (P < 0.001). In contrast, testosterone levels of immunocastrated pigs were significantly lower than those of untreated pigs (P < 0.001). Statistical significances were not found in the body weights and backfat thicknesses of untreated vs. immunocastrated pigs. Weights of the testes and epididymides of immunocastrated pigs were significantly lower than those of untreated pigs (P < 0.001). Testicular tissues of immunocastrated pigs were severely suppressed compared with those of untreated pigs. In conclusion, immunization with the STF2-GnRH vaccine effectively induced immunocastration in pre-pubertal boars. PMID:26164876

  19. Effects of the UV-filter 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC) on expression of genes involved in hormonal pathways in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and link to vitellogenin induction and histology.

    PubMed

    Christen, Verena; Zucchi, Sara; Fent, Karl

    2011-04-01

    UV-filters are increasingly used in cosmetics and in the protection of materials against UV-irradiation, and ultimately they reach aquatic systems. The lipophilic UV-filter 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC) belongs to one of the most frequently used UV-filters and accumulates in aquatic animals. Despite its ubiquitous presence in water and biota, very little is known about its potential hormonal effects on aquatic organisms. In our study, we evaluated the effects of measured water concentration of 5.4, 37.5, 244.5 and 394 μg/L EHMC on the expression of genes involved in hormonal pathways in the liver, testis and brain of male and female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). We compare the transcription profile with the plasma vitellogenin (VTG) content, secondary sex characteristics, and gonad histology. Transcripts of the androgen receptor (ar) were significantly down-regulated in the liver of females at 37.5, 244.5 μg/L and 394 μg/L EHMC. Additionally, the 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) transcript was significantly decreased in the liver of males at 37.5, 244.5 and 394 μg/L EHMC, and at 244.5 and 394 μg/L EHMC in females. The expressional changes were tissue-specific in most cases, being most significant in the liver. Vitellogenin plasma concentration was significantly increased at 244.5 μg/L EHMC in males. EHMC induced significant histological changes in testes and ovaries at 394 μg/L. Testes displayed a decrease in spermatocytes, and ovaries a decrease in previtellogenic oocytes. The induction of VTG plasma concentration and the histological changes in gonads suggest an estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic activity of EHMC. On the other hand, the gene expression profile shows an antiestrogenic (e.g.: down-regulation of esr1) activity of EHMC. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that EHMC displays low but multiple hormonal activities in fish. PMID:21356179

  20. Microcomputer-Assisted Discoveries: Primes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimberling, Clark

    1983-01-01

    Four computer programs (Applesoft Basic) on prime numbers are described, including programs for factoring a positive integer as a product of primes, listing all divisors of a given A, and for exploring primes representable as prescribed sums/differences involving squares, cubes, Fibonnaci numbers, or other primes. Program listings are included.…

  1. Efficacy of induction of luteolysis in superovulated cows is dependent on time of prostaglandin F2alpha analog treatment: effects on plasma progesterone and luteinizing hormone profiles.

    PubMed

    Viana, J H M; Vargas, M S B; Siqueira, L G B; Camargo, L S A; Figueiredo, A C S; Fernandes, C A C; Palhao, M P

    2016-09-01

    The objectives were to (1) evaluate the effectiveness of induction of luteolysis in superovulated (SOV) cows at two distinct time points after embryo flushing; and (2) compare the pattern of LH release after treatment with PGF in cows with single vs. multiple ovulations. In the first experiment, Holstein cows were SOV with 400 IU of FSH following standard procedures. Uterine flushing for embryo recovery was performed 7 days after artificial insemination (Day 0), and cows were randomly allocated into two groups to receive PGF (0.5-mg sodium cloprostenol, intramascular) either immediately after flushing (Day 7 group, N = 19) or 4 days later (Day 11 group, N = 20). Time of luteolysis was determined on the basis of plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations. There was no difference (P > 0.05) in plasma P4 before treatment between Day 7 and Day 11 groups. A decline in plasma P4 was observed 48 hours after PGF treatment in both the groups (P < 0.0001). In Day 11 cows, P4 continued to decrease thereafter, whereas Day 7 animals had no further reduction in plasma P4. Luteolysis (P4 < 1 ng/mL) occurred in all Day 11 cows. In the Day 7 group, however, luteolysis failure was observed for 11 of 19 cows (57.9%). In cows without luteolysis, plasma P4 increased after the initial PGF-induced decline. The second experiment compared luteolysis in (SOV, N = 6) vs. non-SOV (control, N = 8) cows. Both groups received a single PGF treatment on Day 11 after estrus, and luteolysis was monitored daily by ovarian ultrasonography and plasma P4 measurements. In addition, plasma LH was measured in blood samples taken every 20 minutes for 1 hour during five consecutive days after treatment. A similar percentage of reduction in P4 was observed in both groups 24 hours after treatment; however, SOV cows only reached plasma P4 values similar (P > 0.05) to controls 96 hours after treatment. There was no difference in initial LH values between SOV and controls (P > 0.05). The

  2. Testing the attentional boundary conditions of subliminal semantic priming: the influence of semantic and phonological task sets

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Sarah C.; Kiefer, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies challenged the classical notion of automaticity and indicated that even unconscious automatic semantic processing is under attentional control to some extent. In line with our attentional sensitization model, these data suggest that a sensitization of semantic pathways by a semantic task set is necessary for subliminal semantic priming to occur while non-semantic task sets attenuate priming. In the present study, we tested whether masked semantic priming is also reduced by phonological task sets using the previously developed induction task paradigm. This would substantiate the notion that attention to semantics is necessary for eliciting unconscious semantic priming. Participants first performed semantic and phonological induction tasks that should either activate a semantic or a phonological task set. Subsequent to the induction task, a masked prime word, either associated or non-associated with the following lexical decision target word, was presented. Across two experiments, we varied the nature of the phonological induction task (word phonology vs. letter phonology) to assess whether the attentional focus on the entire word vs. single letters modulates subsequent masked semantic priming. In both experiments, subliminal semantic priming was only found subsequent to the semantic induction task, but was attenuated following either phonological induction task. These results indicate that attention to phonology attenuates subsequent semantic processing of unconsciously presented primes whether or not attention is directed to the entire word or to single letters. The present findings therefore substantiate earlier evidence that an attentional orientation toward semantics is necessary for subliminal semantic priming to be elicited. PMID:22952461

  3. Synthesis, structure, and reactivity of 1,2-(1{prime},1{prime},2{prime},2{prime}-tetramethyldisilane-1{prime},2{prime})carborane

    SciTech Connect

    Rege, F.M. de; Kassebaum, J.D.; Scott, B.L.; Abney, K.D.; Balaich, G.J.

    1999-02-08

    The novel strained compound 1,2-(1{prime},1{prime},2{prime},2{prime}-tetramethyldisilane-1{prime},2{prime})carborane (1) was synthesized by the reaction of 1,2-dilithiocarborane and dichlorotetramethyldisilane. Compound 1 was characterized by solution methods and its structure determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In contrast to its organic analogue o-(disilanyl)-phenylene, the reaction of 1 with ethanol leads to cleavage of a Si-C bond rather than a Si-Si bond. Similarly to other cyclic disilanes, exposure of a solution of 1 to oxygen leads to the insertion of an oxygen atom into the Si-Si bond. The structure of the oxygen inserted product was also determined by X-ray crystallography. The general chemistry and attempts at polymerizing 1 are briefly discussed.

  4. Some "Prime" Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stephen I.

    Topics that deal with prime numbers are presented with the intent of allowing the student to re-create the excitement of the original investigation. Suitable for advanced high school students as an introduction to number theory at the college level or as a text for courses in teacher education, the book covers the following topics: (1) the number…

  5. "Fell" Primes "Fall", but Does "Bell" Prime "Ball"? Masked Priming with Irregularly-Inflected Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crepaldi, Davide; Rastle, Kathleen; Coltheart, Max; Nickels, Lyndsey

    2010-01-01

    Recent masked priming experiments have brought to light a morphological level of analysis that is exclusively based on the orthographic appearance of words, so that it breaks down corner into corn- and -er, as well as dealer into deal- and -er (Rastle, Davis, & New, 2004). Being insensitive to semantic factors, this morpho-orthographic…

  6. Prime Retrieval of Motor Responses in Negative Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Susanne; Buchner, Axel; Dentale, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    Three auditory identification experiments were designed to specify the prime-response retrieval model of negative priming (S. Mayr & A. Buchner, 2006), which assumes that the prime response is retrieved in ignored repetition trials and interferes with probe responding. In Experiment 1, shortly before (in Experiment 1A) or after (in Experiment 1B)…

  7. Targeting novel chemical and constitutive primed metabolites against Plectosphaerella cucumerina.

    PubMed

    Gamir, Jordi; Pastor, Victoria; Kaever, Alexander; Cerezo, Miguel; Flors, Victor

    2014-04-01

    Priming is a physiological state for protection of plants against a broad range of pathogens, and is achieved through stimulation of the plant immune system. Various stimuli, such as beneficial microbes and chemical induction, activate defense priming. In the present study, we demonstrate that impairment of the high-affinity nitrate transporter 2.1 (encoded by NRT2.1) enables Arabidopsis to respond more quickly and strongly to Plectosphaerella cucumerina attack, leading to enhanced resistance. The Arabidopsis thaliana mutant lin1 (affected in NRT2.1) is a priming mutant that displays constitutive resistance to this necrotroph, with no associated developmental or growth costs. Chemically induced priming by β-aminobutyric acid treatment, the constitutive priming mutant ocp3 and the constitutive priming present in the lin1 mutant result in a common metabolic profile within the same plant-pathogen interactions. The defense priming significantly affects sugar metabolism, cell-wall remodeling and shikimic acid derivatives levels, and results in specific changes in the amino acid profile and three specific branches of Trp metabolism, particularly accumulation of indole acetic acid, indole-3-carboxaldehyde and camalexin, but not the indolic glucosinolates. Metabolomic analysis facilitated identification of three metabolites in the priming fingerprint: galacturonic acid, indole-3-carboxylic acid and hypoxanthine. Treatment of plants with the latter two metabolites by soil drenching induced resistance against P. cucumerina, demonstrating that these compounds are key components of defense priming against this necrotrophic fungus. Here we demonstrate that indole-3-carboxylic acid induces resistance by promoting papillae deposition and H2 O2 production, and that this is independent of PR1, VSP2 and PDF1.2 priming. PMID:24506441

  8. Priming Ditransitive Structures in Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arai, Manabu; van Gompel, Roger P. G.; Scheepers, Cristoph

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have shown evidence for syntactic priming during language production (e.g., Bock, 1986). It is often assumed that comprehension and production share similar mechanisms and that priming also occurs during comprehension (e.g., Pickering & Garrod, 2004). Research investigating priming during comprehension (e.g., Branigan et al., 2005 and…

  9. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizospher...

  10. Masked Repetition Priming Using Magnetoencephalography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Philip J.; Fiorentino, Robert; Poeppel, David

    2008-01-01

    Masked priming is used in psycholinguistic studies to assess questions about lexical access and representation. We present two masked priming experiments using MEG. If the MEG signal elicited by words reflects specific aspects of lexical retrieval, then one expects to identify specific neural correlates of retrieval that are sensitive to priming.…

  11. Repetition priming-induced changes in sensorimotor transmission.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Erik; Evans, Colin G; Cropper, Elizabeth C

    2016-03-01

    When a behavior is repeated performance often improves, i.e., repetition priming occurs. Although repetition priming is ubiquitous, mediating mechanisms are poorly understood. We address this issue in the feeding network ofAplysia Similar to the priming observed elsewhere, priming inAplysiais stimulus specific, i.e., it can be either "ingestive" or "egestive." Previous studies demonstrated that priming alters motor and premotor activity. Here we sought to determine whether sensorimotor transmission is also modified. We report that changes in sensorimotor transmission do occur. We ask how they are mediated and obtain data that strongly suggest a presynaptic mechanism that involves changes in the "background" intracellular Ca(2+)concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in primary afferents themselves. This form of plasticity has previously been described and generated interest due to its potentially graded nature. Manipulations that alter the magnitude of the [Ca(2+)]iimpact the efficacy of synaptic transmission. It is, however, unclear how graded control is exerted under physiologically relevant conditions. In the feeding system changes in the background [Ca(2+)]iare mediated by the induction of a nifedipine-sensitive current. We demonstrate that the extent to which this current is induced is altered by peptides (i.e., increased by a peptide released during the repetition priming of ingestive activity and decreased by a peptide released during the repetition priming of egestive activity). We suggest that this constitutes a behaviorally relevant mechanism for the graded control of synaptic transmission via the regulation of the [Ca(2+)]iin a neuron. PMID:26763783

  12. Growth Hormone

    MedlinePlus

    ... the dose of glucose. Growth hormone stimulates the production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) . ... regular intervals for years afterward to monitor GH production and to detect tumor recurrence. Other blood tests ...

  13. Hormone Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... based lubricants include petroleum jelly, baby oil, or mineral oil. Oil-based types should not be used ... caused by low levels of these hormones. Hysterectomy: Removal of the uterus. Menopause: The time in a ...

  14. Generation of large prime numbers from a sequence of previous prime numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samir, Brahim Belhaouari; Rezk, Youssef A. Y.

    2012-09-01

    A prime number is co-prime with all the primes as well. This paper utilizes this fact by generating larger prime numbers based on a set of smaller prime numbers. The prime numbers are ordered and each two consecutive primes are coupled to generate their co-prime number formula extending this process larger prime sequence is established. Will the process help us produce larger prime numbers faster and more efficiently? This paper investigates the described process.

  15. Heterologous prime-boost vaccination.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shan

    2009-06-01

    An effective vaccine usually requires more than one time immunization in the form of prime-boost. Traditionally the same vaccines are given multiple times as homologous boosts. New findings suggested that prime-boost can be done with different types of vaccines containing the same antigens. In many cases such heterologous prime-boost can be more immunogenic than homologous prime-boost. Heterologous prime-boost represents a new way of immunization and will stimulate better understanding on the immunological basis of vaccines. PMID:19500964

  16. Physiological and Biochemical Mechanisms of Seed Priming-Induced Chilling Tolerance in Rice Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Saddam; Khan, Fahad; Hussain, Hafiz A; Nie, Lixiao

    2016-01-01

    Rice belongs to tropical and subtropical environments and is extremely sensitive to chilling stress particularly during emergence and early stages of seedling development. Seed priming can be a good approach to enhance rice germination and stand establishment under chilling stress. The present study examined the role of different seed priming techniques viz., hydropriming, osmopriming, redox priming, chemical priming, and hormonal priming, in enhancing the chilling tolerance in rice. The most effective reagents and their pre-optimized concentrations based on preliminary experiments were used in this study. Two different rice cultivars were sown under chilling stress (18°C) and normal temperatures (28°C) in separate growth chambers. A non-primed control treatment was also maintained for comparison. Chilling stress caused erratic and delayed germination, poor seedling growth, reduced starch metabolism, and lower respiration rate, while higher lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide accumulation in rice seedlings of both cultivars. Nevertheless, all the seed priming treatments effectively alleviated the negative effects of chilling stress. In addition, seed priming treatments triggered the activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase, and enhanced the accumulations of glutathione and free proline in rice seedlings, which suggests that these measures help prevent the rice seedlings from chilling induced oxidative stress. Chemical priming with selenium and hormonal priming with salicylic acid remained more effective treatments for both rice cultivars under chilling stress than all other priming treatments. The better performance and greater tolerance of primed rice seedlings was associated with enhanced starch metabolism, high respiration rate, lower lipid peroxidation, and strong antioxidative defense system under chilling stress. PMID:26904078

  17. Physiological and Biochemical Mechanisms of Seed Priming-Induced Chilling Tolerance in Rice Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Saddam; Khan, Fahad; Hussain, Hafiz A.; Nie, Lixiao

    2016-01-01

    Rice belongs to tropical and subtropical environments and is extremely sensitive to chilling stress particularly during emergence and early stages of seedling development. Seed priming can be a good approach to enhance rice germination and stand establishment under chilling stress. The present study examined the role of different seed priming techniques viz., hydropriming, osmopriming, redox priming, chemical priming, and hormonal priming, in enhancing the chilling tolerance in rice. The most effective reagents and their pre-optimized concentrations based on preliminary experiments were used in this study. Two different rice cultivars were sown under chilling stress (18°C) and normal temperatures (28°C) in separate growth chambers. A non-primed control treatment was also maintained for comparison. Chilling stress caused erratic and delayed germination, poor seedling growth, reduced starch metabolism, and lower respiration rate, while higher lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide accumulation in rice seedlings of both cultivars. Nevertheless, all the seed priming treatments effectively alleviated the negative effects of chilling stress. In addition, seed priming treatments triggered the activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase, and enhanced the accumulations of glutathione and free proline in rice seedlings, which suggests that these measures help prevent the rice seedlings from chilling induced oxidative stress. Chemical priming with selenium and hormonal priming with salicylic acid remained more effective treatments for both rice cultivars under chilling stress than all other priming treatments. The better performance and greater tolerance of primed rice seedlings was associated with enhanced starch metabolism, high respiration rate, lower lipid peroxidation, and strong antioxidative defense system under chilling stress. PMID:26904078

  18. LPS priming potentiates and prolongs proinflammatory cytokine response to the trichothecene deoxynivalenol in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, Zahidul; Pestka, James J. . E-mail: pestka@msu.edu

    2006-02-15

    Simultaneous exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) markedly amplifies induction of proinflammatory cytokine expression as well as IL-1-driven lymphocyte apoptosis by trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) in the mouse. The purpose of this research was to test the hypothesis that LPS priming will sensitize a host to DON-induced proinflammatory cytokine induction and apoptosis. In mice primed with LPS (1 mg/kg bw) ip. and treated 8 h later with DON po., the minimum DON doses for inducing IL-1{alpha}, IL-1{beta}, IL-6 and TNF-{alpha} serum proteins and splenic mRNAs were significantly lower than the DON doses required for vehicle-primed mice. LPS priming also decreased onset time and dramatically increased magnitude and duration of cytokine responses. LPS-primed mice maintained heightened sensitivity to DON for up to 24 h. LPS priming doses as low as 50 {mu}g/kg bw evoked sensitization. DNA fragmentation analysis and flow cytometry also revealed that mice primed with LPS (1 mg/kg) for 8 h and exposed to DON (12.5 mg/kg) exhibited massive thymocyte loss by apoptosis 12 h later compared to mice exposed to DON or LPS alone. LPS priming decreased DON-induced p38 and ERK 1/2 phosphorylation suggesting that enhanced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation was not involved in increased cytokine responses. Taken together, exposure to LPS rendered mice highly susceptible to DON induction of cytokine expression and this correlated with increased apoptosis in the thymus.

  19. Impaired production priming and intact identification priming in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, D A; Monti, L A; Dwornik, L M; Moro, T T; Bennett, D A; Gabrieli, J D

    2001-11-01

    This study examined the distinction between identification and production processes in repetition priming for 16 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 16 healthy old control participants (NC). Words were read in three study phases. In three test phases, participants (1) reread studied words, along with unstudied words, in a word-naming task (identification priming); (2) completed 3-letter stems of studied and unstudied words into words in a word-stem completion task (production priming); and (3) answered yes or no to having read studied and unstudied words in a recognition task (explicit memory). Explicit memory and word-stem completion priming were impaired in the AD group compared to the NC group. After correcting for baseline slowing, word-naming priming magnitude did not differ between the groups. The results suggest that the distinction between production and identification processes has promise for explaining the pattern of preservation and failure of repetition priming in AD. PMID:11771621

  20. IN VITRO METABOLISM OF THYROID HORMONES BY RECOMBINANT HUMAN UDP-GLUCORONOSYLTRANSFERASES AND SULFOTRANSFERASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine disruptors can decrease thyroid hormone levels via the induction of hepatic uridinediphosphate-glucoronosyltransferases (UGTs) and sulfotransferases (SULTs). Due to their ability to catalyze glucuronidation and sulfation of hormones and xenobiotics, UGTs and SULTs play ...

  1. Research needs: Prime-power for high energy space systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchi, P. J.

    1982-07-01

    By the year 2000, an increasingly large portion of our national defense will depend on space-based systems. As part of a broader set of new research initiatives in support of space systems, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research is sponsoring basic research that may be applicable to the development of megawatt-level space prime-power systems. The emphasis of this particular new initiative is prime-power versus pulsed power including power conditioning, such as flywheel or inductive storage, for which there are existing programs.

  2. Labor Induction

    MedlinePlus

    ... QUESTIONS FAQ154 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Labor Induction • What is labor induction? • Why is labor induced? • What is the Bishop ... oxytocin? • What are the risks associated with labor induction? • Is labor induction always effective? • Glossary What is ...

  3. Deciphering the hormonal signalling network behind the systemic resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Fernández, Iván; Sánchez-Guzmán, María J.; Jung, Sabine C.; Pascual, Jose A.; Pozo, María J.

    2013-01-01

    Root colonization by selected Trichoderma isolates can activate in the plant a systemic defense response that is effective against a broad-spectrum of plant pathogens. Diverse plant hormones play pivotal roles in the regulation of the defense signaling network that leads to the induction of systemic resistance triggered by beneficial organisms [induced systemic resistance (ISR)]. Among them, jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) signaling pathways are generally essential for ISR. However, Trichoderma ISR (TISR) is believed to involve a wider variety of signaling routes, interconnected in a complex network of cross-communicating hormone pathways. Using tomato as a model, an integrative analysis of the main mechanisms involved in the systemic resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum against the necrotrophic leaf pathogen Botrytis cinerea was performed. Root colonization by T. harzianum rendered the leaves more resistant to B. cinerea independently of major effects on plant nutrition. The analysis of disease development in shoots of tomato mutant lines impaired in the synthesis of the key defense-related hormones JA, ET, salicylic acid (SA), and abscisic acid (ABA), and the peptide prosystemin (PS) evidenced the requirement of intact JA, SA, and ABA signaling pathways for a functional TISR. Expression analysis of several hormone-related marker genes point to the role of priming for enhanced JA-dependent defense responses upon pathogen infection. Together, our results indicate that although TISR induced in tomato against necrotrophs is mainly based on boosted JA-dependent responses, the pathways regulated by the plant hormones SA- and ABA are also required for successful TISR development. PMID:23805146

  4. Prime time sexual harrassment.

    PubMed

    Grauerholz, E; King, A

    1997-04-01

    This study explores the explicit and implicit messages of sexual harassment that viewers receive when viewing prime-time television in the US. A content analysis of 48 hours of prime-time television reveals that sexual harassment on television is both highly visible and invisible. Sexual harassment is rendered visible simply by its prominence in these programs. Incidents involving quid-pro-quo harassment and environmental harassment occur with regularity on television. Furthermore, about 84% of the shows studied contained at least one incident of sexual harassment; yet these acts of sexual harassment remained largely invisible because none of the behaviors were labeled as sexual harassment. These incidents are presented in humorous ways, and victims are generally unharmed and very effective at ending the harassment. Although such programs may actually reflect the reality of many women's lives in terms of prevalence of sexual harassment, they perpetuate several myths about sexual harassment, such as that sexual harassment is not serious and that victims should be able to handle the situations themselves. PMID:12294811

  5. Past tense route priming.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Shikora, Emily R; Balota, David A

    2013-03-01

    The present research examined whether lexical (whole word) or more rule-based (morphological constituent) processes can be locally biased by experimental list context in past tense verb inflection. In Experiment 1, younger and older adults completed a past tense inflection task in which list context was manipulated across blocks containing regular past tense verbs (e.g. REACH-REACHED) or irregular past tense verbs (TEACH-TAUGHT). Critical targets, consisting of half regular and half irregular verbs, were embedded within blocks and participants' inflection response latency and accuracy were assessed. The results yielded a cross-over interaction in response latencies for both young and older adults. In the regular context there was a robust regularity effect: regular target verbs were conjugated faster than irregular target verbs. In contrast, in the irregular context, irregular target verbs were conjugated faster than regular target verbs. Experiment 2 used the same targets but in the context of either standard nonwords or nonwords ending in "-ED" to test the possibility of a phonological basis for the effect. The effect of context was eliminated. The results support the notion that distinct processes in past tense verb production can be locally biased by list context and, as shown in Experiment 2, this route priming effect was not due to phonological priming. PMID:23291293

  6. Cross-priming of CD8+ T cells stimulated by virus-induced type I interferon.

    PubMed

    Le Bon, Agnes; Etchart, Nathalie; Rossmann, Cornelia; Ashton, Miranda; Hou, Sam; Gewert, Dirk; Borrow, Persephone; Tough, David F

    2003-10-01

    CD8+ T cell responses can be generated against antigens that are not expressed directly within antigen-presenting cells (APCs), through a process known as cross-priming. To initiate cross-priming, APCs must both capture extracellular antigen and receive specific activation signals. We have investigated the nature of APC activation signals associated with virus infection that stimulate cross-priming. We show that infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus induces cross-priming by a mechanism dependent on type I interferon (IFN-alpha/beta). Activation of cross-priming by IFN-alpha/beta was independent of CD4+ T cell help or interaction of CD40 and CD40 ligand, and involved direct stimulation of dendritic cells. These data identify expression of IFN-alpha/beta as a mechanism for the induction of cross-priming during virus infections. PMID:14502286

  7. Role of progesterone and estrogen in the preparation of the uterus and induction of implantation in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Huet-Hudson, Y.M.

    1989-01-01

    The implantation of the embryo into the uterine wall and subsequent decidualization of the uterine endometrium requires ovarian progesterone and estrogen. Prerequisites for implantation include (1) the preparation of the uterus for embryo implantation and (2) increase stromal capillary permeability at the site of embryo attachment. During the first three days of pregnancy, epithelial cells undergo proliferation, death and differentiation, in response to preovaluatory estrogen. These events occur in stromal cells in response to progesterone on days 4 and 5. The mechanism by which the steroid hormones modulate their functions and how estrogen initiates implantation in a progesterone-primed (P{sub 4}) uterus in not clearly understood. The author shows that 24h of P{sub 4}-priming is adequate for induction of implantation in the mouse. In addition, following this initial exposure of the uterus to P{sub 4} a long lasting effect is induced i.e. 24h of priming is no longer required for the induction of implantation. The uterine cell proliferation and differentiation that occurs in response to steroid hormones could be through their modulation of the expression of proto-oncogenes and growth factors. Results show that the proto-oncogene, c-myc and the growth factor, EGF are expressed in a cell-type specific manner in the uterus and are regulated by P{sub 4} and estrogen in a spatial and temporal manner during early pregnancy. It is apparent that c-myc protein in epithelia is primarily regulated by estrogen, while in the stroma by P{sub 4}. {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation in specific uterine cell-types correlated with expression of the c-myc protein. On the other hand, EGF is always localized to the epithelia and is primarily regulated by estrogen.

  8. Hormone impostors

    SciTech Connect

    Colborn, T.; Dumanoski, D.; Myers, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the accumulating evidence that some synthetic chemicals disrupt hormones in one way or another. Some mimic estrogen and others interfere with other parts of the body`s control or endocrine system such as testosterone and thyroid metabolism. Included are PCBs, dioxins, furans, atrazine, DDT. Several short sidebars highlight areas where there are or have been particular problems.

  9. Transposed-Letter Priming Effects with Masked Subset Primes: A Re-Examination of the "Relative Position Priming Constraint"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinchcombe, Eric J.; Lupker, Stephen J.; Davis, Colin J.

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments are reported investigating the role of letter order in orthographic subset priming (e.g., "grdn"-GARDEN) using both the conventional masked priming technique as well as the sandwich priming technique in a lexical decision task. In all three experiments, subset primes produced priming with the effect being considerably larger when…

  10. A Study of Relative-Position Priming with Superset Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Assche, Eva; Grainger, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Four lexical decision experiments are reported that use the masked priming paradigm to study the role of letter position information in orthographic processing. In Experiments 1 and 2, superset primes, formed by repetition of 1 or 2 letters of the target (e.g., jusstice-JUSTICE) or by insertion of 1 or 2 unrelated letters (e.g., juastice-JUSTICE),…

  11. Hormone Health Network

    MedlinePlus

    International Resource Center Online Store Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What Do Hormones Do? Healthy Living ...

  12. 5[prime] to 3[prime] nucleic acid synthesis using 3[prime]-photoremovable protecting group

    DOEpatents

    Pirrung, M.C.; Shuey, S.W.; Bradley, J.C.

    1999-06-01

    The present invention relates, in general, to a method of synthesizing a nucleic acid, and, in particular, to a method of effecting 5[prime] to 3[prime] nucleic acid synthesis. The method can be used to prepare arrays of oligomers bound to a support via their 5[prime] end. The invention also relates to a method of effecting mutation analysis using such arrays. The invention further relates to compounds and compositions suitable for use in such methods.

  13. Exodus: Prime Mover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Nikkol; Conwell, Pete; Johnson, Matt; Shields, Wendy; Thornton, Tim; Tokarz, Rob; Mcmanus, Rich

    1992-01-01

    The Exodus Prime Mover is an overnight package delivery aircraft designed to serve the Northern Hemisphere of Aeroworld. The preliminary design goals originated from the desire to produce a large profit. The two main driving forces throughout the design process were first to reduce the construction man-hours by simplifying the aircraft design, thereby decreasing the total production cost of the aircraft. The second influential factor affecting the design was minimizing the fuel cost during cruise. The lowest fuel consumption occurs at a cruise velocity of 30 ft/s. Overall, it was necessary to balance the economic benefits with the performance characteristics in order to create a profitable product that meets all specified requirements and objectives.

  14. Investigating Home Primes and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Marlena; Schiffman, Jay

    2014-01-01

    The process of prime factor splicing to generate home primes raises opportunity for conjecture and exploration. The notion of "home primes" is relatively new in the chronicle of mathematics. Heleen (1996-97) first described a procedure called "prime factor splicing" (PFS). The exploration of home primes is interesting and…

  15. Priming Macho Attitudes and Emotions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Erik D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigated the effects of reading one of four priming stimuli stories (control, consenting sex, rape, or family) on males' evaluations of, and emotional reactions to, two videotaped date-rape scenarios. Results supported the concepts of a macho personality and revealed interactive effects for both the rape and family prime. (RJM)

  16. Immediate Priming and Cognitive Aftereffects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, David E.

    2008-01-01

    Three forced-choice perceptual word identification experiments tested the claim that transitions from positive to negative priming as a function of increasing prime duration are due to cognitive aftereffects. These aftereffects are similar in nature to perceptual aftereffects that produce a negative image due to overexposure and habituation to a…

  17. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, Feike A.; Carrillo, Yolima; Pendall, Elise; Morgan, Jack A.

    2013-01-01

    Rhizosphere priming is the change in decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) caused by root activity. Rhizosphere priming plays a crucial role in soil carbon (C) dynamics and their response to global climate change. Rhizosphere priming may be affected by soil nutrient availability, but rhizosphere priming itself can also affect nutrient supply to plants. These interactive effects may be of particular relevance in understanding the sustained increase in plant growth and nutrient supply in response to a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration. We examined how these interactions were affected by elevated CO2 in two similar semiarid grassland field studies. We found that an increase in rhizosphere priming enhanced the release of nitrogen (N) through decomposition of a larger fraction of SOM in one study, but not in the other. We postulate that rhizosphere priming may enhance N supply to plants in systems that are N limited, but that rhizosphere priming may not occur in systems that are phosphorus (P) limited. Under P limitation, rhizodeposition may be used for mobilization of P, rather than for decomposition of SOM. Therefore, with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, rhizosphere priming may play a larger role in affecting C sequestration in N poor than in P poor soils. PMID:23908649

  18. Representing Numbers: Prime and Irrational

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zazkis, Rina

    2005-01-01

    This article draws an analogy between prime and irrational numbers with respect to how these numbers are defined and how they are perceived by learners. Excerpts are presented from two research studies: a study on understanding prime numbers by pre-service elementary school teachers and a study on understanding irrational numbers by pre-service…

  19. Chaotic Nonlinear Prime Number Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateos, Luis A.

    2011-06-01

    Dynamical systems in nature, such as heartbeat patterns, DNA sequence pattern, prime number distribution, etc., exhibit nonlinear (chaotic) space-time fluctuations and exact quantification of the fluctuation pattern for predictability purposes has not yet been achieved [1]. In this paper a chaotic-nonlinear prime number function P(s) is developed, from which prime numbers are generated and decoded while composite numbers are encoded over time following the Euler product methodology, which works on sequences progressively culled from multiples of the preceding primes. By relating this P(s) to a virtually closed 2D number line manifold, it is possible to represent the evolving in time of nonlinear (chaotic) systems to a final value where the system becomes stable, becomes linear. This nonlinear prime number function is proposed as a chaotic model system able to describe chaotic systems.

  20. Hormonal component of tumor photodynamic therapy response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Merchant, Soroush

    2008-02-01

    The involvement of adrenal glucocorticoid hormones in the response of the treatment of solid tumors by photodynamic therapy (PDT) comes from the induction of acute phase response by this modality. This adrenal gland activity is orchestrated through the engagement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal hormonal axis incited by stress signals emanating from the PDT-treated tumor. Glucocorticoid hormone activity engendered within the context of PDT-induced acute phase response performs multiple important functions; among other involvements they beget acute phase reactant production, systemic neutrophil mobilization, and control the production of inflammation-modulating and immunoregulatory proteins.

  1. Mechanisms of subliminal response priming

    PubMed Central

    Kiesel, Andrea; Kunde, Wilfried; Hoffmann, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Subliminal response priming has been considered to operate on several stages, e.g. perceptual, central or motor stages might be affected. While primes’ impact on target perception has been clearly demonstrated, semantic response priming recently has been thrown into doubt (e.g. Klinger, Burton, & Pitts, 2000). Finally, LRP studies have revealed that subliminal primes evoke motor processes. Yet, the premises for such prime-evoked motor activation are not settled. A transfer of priming to stimuli that have never been presented as targets appears particularly interesting because it suggests a level of processing that goes beyond a reactivation of previously acquired S-R links. Yet, such transfer has not always withstood empirical testing. To account for these contradictory results, we proposed a two-process model (Kunde, Kiesel, & Hoffmann, 2003): First, participants build up expectations regarding imperative stimuli for the required responses according to experience and/or instructions. Second, stimuli that match these “action triggers” directly activate the corresponding motor responses irrespective of their conscious identification. In line with these assumptions, recent studies revealed that non-target primes induce priming when they fit the current task intentions and when they are expected in the experimental setting. PMID:20517516

  2. Space Place Prime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, Austin J.; Novati, Alexander; Fisher, Diane K.; Leon, Nancy J.; Netting, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Space Place Prime is public engagement and education software for use on iPad. It targets a multi-generational audience with news, images, videos, and educational articles from the Space Place Web site and other NASA sources. New content is downloaded daily (or whenever the user accesses the app) via the wireless connection. In addition to the Space Place Web site, several NASA RSS feeds are tapped to provide new content. Content is retained for the previous several days, or some number of editions of each feed. All content is controlled on the server side, so features about the latest news, or changes to any content, can be made without updating the app in the Apple Store. It gathers many popular NASA features into one app. The interface is a boundless, slidable- in-any-direction grid of images, unique for each feature, and iconized as image, video, or article. A tap opens the feature. An alternate list mode presents menus of images, videos, and articles separately. Favorites can be tagged for permanent archive. Face - book, Twitter, and e-mail connections make any feature shareable.

  3. Prime focus instrument of prime focus spectrograph for Subaru telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiang-Yu; Braun, David F.; Schwochert, Mark A.; Huang, Pin-Jie; Kimura, Masahiko; Chen, Hsin-Yo; Reiley, Daniel J.; Mao, Peter; Fisher, Charles D.; Tamura, Naoyuki; Chang, Yin-Chang; Hu, Yen-Sang; Ling, Hung-Hsu; Wen, Chih-Yi; Chou, Richard C.-Y.; Takato, Naruhisa; Sugai, Hajime; Ohyama, Youichi; Karoji, Hiroshi; Shimono, Atsushi; Ueda, Akitoshi

    2014-07-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) is a new optical/near-infrared multi-fiber spectrograph design for the prime focus of the 8.2m Subaru telescope. PFS will cover 1.3 degree diameter field with 2394 fibers to complement the imaging capability of Hyper SuprimeCam (HSC). The prime focus unit of PFS called Prime Focus Instrument (PFI) provides the interface with the top structure of Subaru telescope and also accommodates the optical bench in which Cobra fiber positioners are located. In addition, the acquisition and guiding (AG) cameras, the optical fiber positioner system, the cable wrapper, the fiducial fibers, illuminator, and viewer, the field element, and the telemetry system are located inside the PFI. The mechanical structure of the PFI was designed with special care such that its deflections sufficiently match those of the HSC's Wide Field Corrector (WFC) so the fibers will stay on targets over the course of the observations within the required accuracy.

  4. CD4+ T Cell Priming as Biomarker to Study Immune Response to Preventive Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ciabattini, Annalisa; Pettini, Elena; Medaglini, Donata

    2013-01-01

    T cell priming is a critical event in the initiation of the immune response to vaccination since it deeply influences both the magnitude and the quality of the immune response induced. CD4+ T cell priming, required for the induction of high-affinity antibodies and immune memory, represents a key target for improving and modulating vaccine immunogenicity. A major challenge in the study of in vivo T cell priming is due to the low frequency of antigen-specific T cells. This review discusses the current knowledge on antigen-specific CD4+ T cell priming in the context of vaccination, as well as the most advanced tools for the characterization of the in vivo T cell priming and the opportunities offered by the application of systems biology. PMID:24363656

  5. Prime Diagnosticity in Short-Term Repetition Priming: Is Primed Evidence Discounted, Even when It Reliably Indicates the Correct Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidemann, Christoph T.; Huber, David E.; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors conducted 4 repetition priming experiments that manipulated prime duration and prime diagnosticity in a visual forced-choice perceptual identification task. The strength and direction of prime diagnosticity produced marked effects on identification accuracy, but those effects were resistant to subsequent changes of diagnosticity.…

  6. The Pharmacology of Nociceptor Priming

    PubMed Central

    Kandasamy, Ram

    2015-01-01

    Nociceptors and neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) that receive nociceptive input show remarkable plasticity in response to injury. This plasticity is thought to underlie the development of chronic pain states. Hence, further understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving and maintaining this plasticity has the potential to lead to novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of chronic pain states. An important concept in pain plasticity is the presence and persistence of “hyperalgesic priming.” This priming arises from an initial injury and results in a remarkable susceptibility to normally subthreshold noxious inputs causing a prolonged pain state in primed animals. Here we describe our current understanding of how this priming is manifested through changes in signaling in the primary nociceptor as well as through memory like alterations at CNS synapses. Moreover, we discuss how commonly utilized analgesics, such as opioids, enhance priming therefore potentially contributing to the development of persistent pain states. Finally we highlight where these priming models draw parallels to common human chronic pain conditions. Collectively, these advances in our understanding of pain plasticity reveal a variety of targets for therapeutic intervention with the potential to reverse rather than palliate chronic pain states. PMID:25846612

  7. Response Priming with More or Less Biological Movements as Primes.

    PubMed

    Eckert, David; Bermeitinger, Christina

    2016-07-01

    Response priming in general is a suitable tool in cognitive psychology to investigate motor preactivations. Typically, compatibility effects reflect faster reactions in cases in which prime and target suggest the same response (i.e., compatible trials) compared with cases in which prime and target suggest opposite responses (i.e., incompatible trials). With moving dots that were horizontally aligned, Bermeitinger (2013) found a stable pattern of results: with short SOAs, faster responses in compatible trials were found; with longer SOAs up to 250 ms, faster responses in incompatible trials were found. It is unclear whether these results are specific to the special motion used therein or whether it generalizes to other motions. We therefore used other motions realized by arrangements of dots. In four experiments, we tested point-light displays (biological coherent walkers vs. less biological scrambled/split displays) as primes. In two experiments, eye gaze motions realized by moving dots representing irises and pupils (i.e., biological) versus the same motion either without surrounding face information or integrated in an abstract line drawing (i.e., less biological) were used. We found overall large positive compatibility effects with biological motion primes and also positive-but smaller-compatibility effects with less biological motion primes. Most important, also with very long SOAs (up to 1320 ms), we did not find evidence for negative compatibility effects. Thus, the pattern of positive-followed-by-negative-compatibility effects found in Bermeitinger (2013) seems to be specific to the materials used therein, whereas response priming in general seems an applicable tool to study motion perception. PMID:27150613

  8. Test Sequence Priming in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Elizabeth E.; Mewhort, D. J. K.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined priming within the test sequence in 3 recognition memory experiments. A probe primed its successor whenever both probes shared a feature with the same studied item ("interjacent priming"), indicating that the study item like the probe is central to the decision. Interjacent priming occurred even when the 2 probes did not…

  9. Growth hormone suppression test

    MedlinePlus

    The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production is being suppressed by high blood sugar. ... away. The lab measures the glucose and growth hormone (GH) levels in each sample.

  10. Hormone Replacement Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... before and during menopause, the levels of female hormones can go up and down. This can cause ... hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Some women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, ...

  11. Growth hormone test

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003706.htm Growth hormone test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone test measures the amount of growth hormone in ...

  12. Growth hormone suppression test

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003376.htm Growth hormone suppression test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production is ...

  13. Serotonin levels influence patterns of repetition priming.

    PubMed

    Burgund, E Darcy; Marsolek, Chad J; Luciana, Monica

    2003-01-01

    Repetition priming in a word-stem completion task was examined in a group of control subjects and in a group of experimental subjects under conditions of acute tryptophan depletion (T-) and tryptophan augmentation (T+). Experimental subjects ingested amino acid compounds that depleted or loaded the body with tryptophan, and word-stem completion priming performance was measured. Results indicate differential effects of T- and T+ manipulations on word-stem completion priming. In the control group, both specific-visual and amodal priming were observed. Conversely, in the T+ condition, specific-visual priming, but no amodal priming, was observed, whereas in the T- condition, amodal priming, but no specific-visual priming, was observed. The authors conclude that serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) plays a critical role in repetition priming by helping to modulate which neural systems contribute to priming effects. PMID:12597085

  14. Priming mortality salience: supraliminal, subliminal and "double-death" priming techniques.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Melissa B; Saunders, Benjamin A; Cain, Nicole M

    2014-01-01

    The study examined whether successively presented subliminal and supraliminal morality salience primes ("double death" prime) would have a stronger influence on death thought accessibility than subliminal or supraliminal primes alone. A between-subjects 2 (subliminal prime/control) × 2 (supraliminal prime/control) design was used. The supraliminal prime prompted participants to answer questions about death. For the subliminal prime, the word death was presented outside of awareness. Both priming techniques differed significantly from a control in ability to elicit mortality salience. There was an interactive influence of both primes. Implications for unconscious neutral networks relating to death are discussed. PMID:24592974

  15. The Intervenor Effect in Masked Priming: How Does Masked Priming Survive across an Intervening Word?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Kenneth I.

    2009-01-01

    Four masked priming experiments are reported investigating the effect of inserting an unrelated word between the masked prime and the target. When the intervening word is visible, identity priming is reduced to the level of one-letter-different form priming, but form priming is largely unaffected. However, when the intervening word is itself…

  16. On the Control of Single-Prime Negative Priming: The Effects of Practice and Time Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Hsuan-Fu

    2009-01-01

    Single-prime negative priming refers to the phenomenon wherein repetition of a prime as the probe target results in delayed response. Sometimes this effect has been found to be contingent on participants' unawareness of the primes, and sometimes it has not. Further, sometimes this effect has been found to be eliminated when the prime could predict…

  17. Repeated Masked Category Primes Interfere With Related Exemplars: New Evidence for Negative Semantic Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentura, Dirk; Frings, Christian

    2005-01-01

    In 4 experiments, the authors found evidence for negatively signed masked semantic priming effects (with category names as primes and exemplars as targets) using a new technique of presenting the masked primes. By rapidly interchanging prime and mask during the stimulus onset asynchrony, they increased the total prime exposure to a level…

  18. Early dynamics of the semantic priming shift

    PubMed Central

    Lavigne, Frédéric; Chanquoy, Lucile; Dumercy, Laurent; Vitu, Françoise

    2013-01-01

    Semantic processing of sequences of words requires the cognitive system to keep several word meanings simultaneously activated in working memory with limited capacity. The real- time updating of the sequence of word meanings relies on dynamic changes in the associates to the words that are activated. Protocols involving two sequential primes report a semantic priming shift from larger priming of associates to the first prime to larger priming of associates to the second prime, in a range of long SOAs (stimulus-onset asynchronies) between the second prime and the target. However, the possibility for an early semantic priming shift is still to be tested, and its dynamics as a function of association strength remain unknown. Three multiple priming experiments are proposed that cross-manipulate association strength between each of two successive primes and a target, for different values of short SOAs and prime durations. Results show an early priming shift ranging from priming of associates to the first prime only to priming of strong associates to the first prime and all of the associates to the second prime. We investigated the neural basis of the early priming shift by using a network model of spike frequency adaptive cortical neurons (e.g., Deco & Rolls, 2005), able to code different association strengths between the primes and the target. The cortical network model provides a description of the early dynamics of the priming shift in terms of pro-active and retro-active interferences within populations of excitatory neurons regulated by fast and unselective inhibitory feedback. PMID:23717346

  19. Nanoplasmonics of prime number arrays.

    PubMed

    Forestiere, Carlo; Walsh, Gary F; Miano, Giovanni; Dal Negro, Luca

    2009-12-21

    In this paper, we investigate the plasmonic near-field localization and the far-field scattering properties of non-periodic arrays of Ag nanoparticles generated by prime number sequences in two spatial dimensions. In particular, we demonstrate that the engineering of plasmonic arrays with large spectral flatness and particle density is necessary to achieve a high density of electromagnetic hot spots over a broader frequency range and a larger area compared to strongly coupled periodic and quasi-periodic structures. Finally, we study the far-field scattering properties of prime number arrays illuminated by plane waves and we discuss their angular scattering properties. The study of prime number arrays of metal nanoparticles provides a novel strategy to achieve broadband enhancement and localization of plasmonic fields for the engineering of nanoscale nano-antenna arrays and active plasmonic structures. PMID:20052140

  20. Structural Priming: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Martin J.; Ferreira, Victor S.

    2009-01-01

    Repetition is a central phenomenon of behavior, and researchers make extensive use of it to illuminate psychological functioning. In the language sciences, a ubiquitous form of such repetition is structural priming, a tendency to repeat or better process a current sentence because of its structural similarity to a previously experienced (“prime”) sentence (Bock, 1986). The recent explosion of research in structural priming has made it the dominant means of investigating the processes involved in the production (and increasingly, comprehension) of complex expressions such as sentences. This review considers its implications for the representation of syntax and the mechanisms of production, comprehension, and their relationship. It then addresses the potential functions of structural priming, before turning to its implications for first language acquisition, bilingualism, and aphasia We close with theoretical and empirical recommendations for future investigations. PMID:18444704

  1. [Hormonal dysnatremia].

    PubMed

    Karaca, P; Desailloud, R

    2013-10-01

    Because of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) disorder on production or function we can observe dysnatremia. In the absence of production by posterior pituitary, central diabetes insipidus (DI) occurs with hypernatremia. There are hereditary autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive or X- linked forms. When ADH is secreted but there is an alteration on his receptor AVPR2, it is a nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in acquired or hereditary form. We can make difference on AVP levels and/or on desmopressine response which is negative in nephrogenic forms. Hyponatremia occurs when there is an excess of ADH production: it is a euvolemic hypoosmolar hyponatremia. The most frequent etiology is SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH), a diagnostic of exclusion which is made after eliminating corticotropin deficiency and hypothyroidism. In case of brain injury the differential diagnosis of cerebral salt wasting (CSW) syndrome has to be discussed, because its treatment is perfusion of isotonic saline whereas in SIADH, the treatment consists in administration of hypertonic saline if hyponatremia is acute and/or severe. If not, fluid restriction demeclocycline or vaptans (antagonists of V2 receptors) can be used in some European countries. Four types of SIADH exist; 10 % of cases represent not SIADH but SIAD (syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis) due to a constitutive activation of vasopressin receptor that produces water excess. c 2013 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. PMID:24356291

  2. The Affective Regulation of Cognitive Priming

    PubMed Central

    Storbeck, Justin; Clore, Gerald L.

    2008-01-01

    Semantic and affective priming are classic effects observed in cognitive and social psychology, respectively. We discovered that affect regulates such priming effects. In Experiment 1, positive and negative moods were induced prior to one of three priming tasks; evaluation, categorization, or lexical decision. As predicted, positive affect led to both affective priming (evaluation task) and semantic priming (category and lexical decision tasks). However, negative affect inhibited such effects. In Experiment 2, participants in their natural affective state completed the same priming tasks as in Experiment 1. As expected, affective priming (evaluation task) and category priming (categorization and lexical decision tasks) were observed in such resting affective states. Hence, we conclude that negative affect inhibits semantic and affective priming. These results support recent theoretical models, which suggest that positive affect promotes associations among strong and weak concepts, and that negative affect impairs such associations (Kuhl, 2000; Clore & Storbeck, 2006). PMID:18410195

  3. Induction voidmeter

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Thomas T.; Roop, Conard J.; Schmidt, Kenneth J.; Brewer, John

    1986-01-01

    An induction voidmeter for detecting voids in a conductive fluid may comprise: a four arm bridge circuit having two adjustable circuit elements connected as opposite arms of said bridge circuit, an input branch, and an output branch; two induction coils, bifilarly wound together, connected as the remaining two opposing arms of said bridge circuit and positioned such that the conductive fluid passes through said coils; applying an AC excitation signal to said input branch; and detecting the output signal generated in response to said excitation signal across said output branch. The induction coils may be located outside or inside a non-magnetic pipe containing the conductive fluid.

  4. Induction voidmeter

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, T.T.; Roop, C.J.; Schmidt, K.J.; Brewer, J.

    1983-12-21

    An induction voidmeter for detecting voids in a conductive fluid may comprise: a four arm bridge circuit having two adjustable circuit elements connected as opposite arms of said bridge, an input branch, and an output branch; two induction coils, bifilarly wound together, connected as the remaining two opposing arms of said bridge circuit and positioned such that the conductive fluid passes through said coils; means for applying an AC excitation signal to said input branch; and means for detecting the output signal generated in response to said excitation signal across said output branch. The induction coils may be located outside or inside a non-magnetic pipe containing the conductive fluid.

  5. Oligomerizations of deoxyadenosine bis-phosphates and of their 3-prime-5-prime, 3-prime-3-prime, and 5-prime-5-prime dimers - Effects of a pyrophosphate-linked, poly(T) analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visscher, J.; Bakker, C. G.; Schwartz, Alan W.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of a 3-prime-5-prime pyrophosphate-linked oligomer of pTp on oligomerizations of pdAp and of its 3-prime-5-prime, 3-prime-3-prime, and 5-prime-5-prime dimers was investigated, using HPLC to separate the reaction mixtures; peak detection was by absorbance monitoring at 254 nm. It was expected that the dimers would form stable complexes with the template, with the degree of stability depending upon the internal linkage of each dimer. It was found that, although the isomers differ substantially in their oligomerization behavior in the absence of template, the analog-template catalyzes the oligomerization to about the same extent in all three cases.

  6. 8[prime]-Methylene Abscisic Acid (An Effective and Persistent Analog of Abscisic Acid).

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, S. R.; Rose, P. A.; Cutler, A. J.; Balsevich, J. J.; Lei, B.; Walker-Simmons, M. K.

    1997-01-01

    We report here the synthesis and biological activity of a new persistent abscisic acid (ABA) analog, 8[prime]-methylene ABA. This ABA analog has one additional carbon atom attached through a double bond to the 8[prime]-carbon of the ABA molecule. (+)-8[prime]-Methylene ABA is more active than the natural hormone (+)-ABA in inhibiting germination of cress seed and excised wheat embryos, in reducing growth of suspension-cultured corn cells, and in reducing transpiration in wheat seedlings. The (+)-8[prime]-methylene analog is slightly weaker than (+)-ABA in increasing expression of ABA-inducible genes in transgenic tobacco, but is equally active in stimulating a transient elevation of the pH of the medium of corn cell cultures. In corn cells, both (+)-ABA and (+)-8[prime]-methylene ABA are oxidized at the 8[prime] position. ABA is oxidized to phaseic acid and (+)-8[prime]-methylene ABA is converted more slowly to two isomeric epoxides. The alteration in the ABA structure causes the analog to be metabolized more slowly than ABA, resulting in longer-lasting and more effective biological activity relative to ABA. PMID:12223691

  7. Microbiota-Dependent Priming of Antiviral Intestinal Immunity in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Christine L; Cohen, Jonathan; Yasunaga, Ari; Xu, Jie; Osborn, Greg; Subramanian, Harry; Gold, Beth; Buchon, Nicolas; Cherry, Sara

    2015-11-11

    Enteric pathogens must overcome intestinal defenses to establish infection. In Drosophila, the ERK signaling pathway inhibits enteric virus infection. The intestinal microflora also impacts immunity but its role in enteric viral infection is unknown. Here we show that two signals are required to activate antiviral ERK signaling in the intestinal epithelium. One signal depends on recognition of peptidoglycan from the microbiota, particularly from the commensal Acetobacter pomorum, which primes the NF-kB-dependent induction of a secreted factor, Pvf2. However, the microbiota is not sufficient to induce this pathway; a second virus-initiated signaling event involving release of transcriptional paused genes mediated by the kinase Cdk9 is also required for Pvf2 production. Pvf2 stimulates antiviral immunity by binding to the receptor tyrosine kinase PVR, which is necessary and sufficient for intestinal ERK responses. These findings demonstrate that sensing of specific commensals primes inflammatory signaling required for epithelial responses that restrict enteric viral infections. PMID:26567510

  8. Priming and Habituation for Faces: Individual Differences and Inversion Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieth, Cory A.; Huber, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Immediate repetition priming for faces was examined across a range of prime durations in a threshold identification task. Similar to word repetition priming results, short duration face primes produced positive priming whereas long duration face primes eliminated or reversed this effect. A habituation model of such priming effects predicted that…

  9. On Techniques of Prime Factorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David B.

    1977-01-01

    This article gives two methods of resolving natural numbers into prime factors. Depending upon the number that is being resolved, one method may be better to use than the other. However, it is difficult to tell beforehand which is the better method to employ. Examples are given. (Author/MA)

  10. Apollo 13 prime crew portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 13 prime crew portrait. From left to right are Astronauts James A. Lovell, Thomas K. Mattingly, and Fred W. Haise in their space suits. On the table in front of them are (l-r) a model of a sextant, the Apollo 13 insignia, and a model of an astrolabe. The sextant and astrolabe are two ancient forms of navigation.

  11. Prime Suspect, Second Row Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Ellen A.

    2011-01-01

    His father had been hacked to death in his own bed with an ax the previous November. His mother was similarly brutalized and left for dead with her husband but survived. On the last Monday of that August, after several months and many investigative twists, turns, and fumbles, there sat the son--the prime suspect--in Ellen Laird's literature class,…

  12. The Search for Prime Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerance, Carl

    1982-01-01

    Until recently the testing of a 100-digit number to determine whether it is prime or composite could have taken a century. However, in the past two years a method has been developed enabling a computer to determine the primality of an arbitrary number in about 40 seconds of running time. (Author/JN)

  13. Spirit's Prime-Mission Traverse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    A traverse map for NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit traces the path Spirit drove during its prime mission of 90 sols. The base image for this map was taken seconds before landing by Spirit's downward-looking descent image motion estimation system camera.

  14. Structural Priming: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Martin J.; Ferreira, Victor S.

    2008-01-01

    Repetition is a central phenomenon of behavior, and researchers have made extensive use of it to illuminate psychological functioning. In the language sciences, a ubiquitous form of such repetition is "structural priming," a tendency to repeat or better process a current sentence because of its structural similarity to a previously experienced…

  15. Affective Priming with Associatively Acquired Valence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguado, Luis; Pierna, Manuel; Saugar, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments explored the effect of affectively congruent or incongruent primes on evaluation responses to positive or negative valenced targets (the "affective priming" effect). Experiment 1 replicated the basic affective priming effect with Spanish nouns: reaction time for evaluative responses (pleasant/unpleasant) were slower on…

  16. Affective Priming with Auditory Speech Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degner, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments explored the applicability of auditory stimulus presentation in affective priming tasks. In Experiment 1, it was found that standard affective priming effects occur when prime and target words are presented simultaneously via headphones similar to a dichotic listening procedure. In Experiment 2, stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was…

  17. Structural Priming and Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jeong-Ah; Christianson, Kiel

    2012-01-01

    Structural priming (or syntactic priming) is a speaker's tendency to reuse the same structural pattern as one that was previously encountered (Bock, 1986). This study investigated (a) whether the implicit learning processes involved in long-lag structural priming lead to differential second language (L2) improvement in producing two structural…

  18. Priming Lexical Stress in Reading Italian Aloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulpizio, Simone; Job, Remo; Burani, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments using a lexical priming paradigm investigated how stress information is processed in reading Italian words. In both experiments, prime and target words either shared the stress pattern or they had different stress patterns. We expected that lexical activation of the prime would favour the assignment of congruent stress to the…

  19. New developments in an old strategy: heterologous vector primes and envelope protein boosts in HIV vaccine design.

    PubMed

    Musich, Thomas; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2016-08-01

    Prime/boost vaccination strategies for HIV/SIV vaccine development have been used since the early 1990s and have become an established method for eliciting cell and antibody mediated immunity. Here we focus on induction of protective antibodies, both broadly neutralizing and non-neutralizing, with the viral envelope being the key target antigen. Prime/boost approaches are complicated by the diversity of autologous and heterologous priming vectors, and by various forms of envelope booster immunogens, many still in development as structural studies aim to design stable constructs with exposure of critical epitopes for protective antibody elicitation. This review discusses individual vaccine components, reviews recent prime/boost strategies and their outcomes, and highlights complicating factors arising as greater knowledge concerning induction of adaptive, protective immunity is acquired. PMID:26910195

  20. Competition Effects in Phonological Priming: The Role of Mismatch Position between Primes and Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufour, Sophie; Peereman, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    In three experiments, we examined lexical competition effects using the phonological priming paradigm in a shadowing task. Experiments 1A and 1B showed that an inhibitory priming effect occurred when the primes mismatched the targets on the last phoneme (/bagar/-/bagaj/). In contrast, a facilitatory priming effect was observed when the primes…

  1. Male pregnancy and biparental immune priming.

    PubMed

    Roth, Olivia; Klein, Verena; Beemelmanns, Anne; Scharsack, Jörn P; Reusch, Thorsten B H

    2012-12-01

    In vertebrates, maternal transfer of immunity via the eggs or placenta provides offspring with crucial information on prevailing pathogens and parasites. Males contribute little to such transgenerational immune priming, either because they do not share the environment and parasite pressure of the offspring or because sperm are too small for transfer of immunity. In the teleost group of Syngnathids (pipefish, seahorses, and sea dragons), males brood female eggs in a placenta-like structure. Such sex-role-reversed species provide a unique opportunity to test for adaptive plasticity in immune transfer. Here, males and females should both influence offspring immunity. We experimentally tested paternal effects on offspring immunity by examining immune cell proliferation and immune gene expression. Maternal and paternal bacterial exposure induced offspring immune defense 5 weeks after hatching, and this effect persisted in 4-month-old offspring. For several offspring immune traits, double parental exposure (maternal and paternal) enhanced the response, whereas for another group of immune traits, the transgenerational induction already took place if only one parent was exposed. Our study shows that sex role reversal in connection with male pregnancy opens the door for biparental influences on offspring immunity and may represent an additional advantage for the evolution of male pregnancy. PMID:23149404

  2. Priming motivation through unattended speech.

    PubMed

    Radel, Rémi; Sarrazin, Philippe; Jehu, Marie; Pelletier, Luc

    2013-12-01

    This study examines whether motivation can be primed through unattended speech. Study 1 used a dichotic-listening paradigm and repeated strength measures. In comparison to the baseline condition, in which the unattended channel was only composed by neutral words, the presence of words related to high (low) intensity of motivation led participants to exert more (less) strength when squeezing a hand dynamometer. In a second study, a barely audible conversation was played while participants' attention was mobilized on a demanding task. Participants who were exposed to a conversation depicting intrinsic motivation performed better and persevered longer in a subsequent word-fragment completion task than those exposed to the same conversation made unintelligible. These findings suggest that motivation can be primed without attention. PMID:23432056

  3. Maglev ready for prime time.

    SciTech Connect

    Rote, D. M.; Johnson, L. R.; Energy Systems

    2003-01-01

    Putting Maglev on Track' (Issues, Spring 1990) observed that growing airline traffic and associated delays were already significant and predicted that they would worsen. The article argued that a 300-mile-per-hour (mph) magnetic levitation (maglev) system integrated into airport and airline operations could be a part of the solution. Maglev was not ready for prime time in 1990, but it is now.

  4. Clinical studies with d-Trp 6-luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in anovulatory women.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, C J; Charro-Salgado, A; Peréz-Infante, V; del Campo, G L; Botella-Llusiá, J; Coy, D H; Schally, A V

    1978-04-01

    Nine anovulatory patients with hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction were treated with d-Trp6-luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, an analog with far greater gonadotropin-releasing activity than luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. Four of eight patients, who were formerly unsuccessfully treated with clomiphene, human chorionic gonadotropin, and human menopausal gonadotropin, ovulated after treatment with the peptide alone or with peptide preceded by clomiphene, and three became pregnant. The ninth patient, who had amenorrhea and anovulation due to excessive loss of weight caused by anorexia nervosa, also ovulated after treatment with the analog. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of this potent analog for induction of ovulation and pregnancy and point favorably toward clinical applications. PMID:348500

  5. Hormones and Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ... Women's Health Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ...

  6. Growth hormone deficiency - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... the same age. The child will have normal intelligence in most cases. In older children, puberty may ... hormones cause the body to make. Tests can measure these growth factors. Accurate growth hormone deficiency testing ...

  7. Hormones and Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Hormones and Hypertension What is hypertension? Hypertension, or chronic (long-term) high blood pressure, is a main cause of ... tobacco, alcohol, and certain medications play a part. Hormones made in the kidneys and in blood vessels ...

  8. ADH (Antidiuretic Hormone) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Also known as: Vasopressin; AVP Formal name: Antidiuretic Hormone; Arginine Vasopressin Related tests: Osmolality , BUN , Creatinine , Sodium , ... should know? How is it used? The antidiuretic hormone (ADH) test is used to help detect, diagnose, ...

  9. Menopause and Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Menopause and Hormones: Common Questions Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reproduction and distribution. Learn More about Menopause and Hormones Menopause--Medicines to Help You Links to other ...

  10. Hormonal effects in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001911.htm Hormonal effects in newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hormonal effects in newborns occur because in the womb babies ...

  11. Associative priming in perceptual identification: effects of prime-processing requirements.

    PubMed

    Burt, J S; Walker, M B; Humphreys, M S; Tehan, G

    1993-01-01

    Three experiments assessed the effects of prime-processing instructions on associative priming in word identification and episodic memory for primes. In Experiment 1, groups instructed to read the prime silently or generate silently an associate of the prime showed a larger accuracy benefit for related over unrelated targets than did a group that decided whether an asterisk was to the right or left of the prime. The asterisk-search group showed a weaker repetition effect on a subsequent identification test of primes, indicating that the weaker priming in this group was a result of poorer perceptual processing. On a cued-recall test for primes, the generate group was superior to the other groups. In Experiment 2, we found that with weak prime-target associations, priming was comparable for read and generate groups and stronger than estimated for a guessing strategy, on the basis of single predictions made from each prime by an additional group. In Experiment 3, we demonstrated that the read and generate instructions produced similar mispriming and inhibitory effects. The results suggest that the depths of prime-processing manipulations do not have parallel effects on priming and episodic memory, and that associative priming in word identification, as in other tasks, may involve an expectancy process. PMID:8433643

  12. Novel hormone "receptors".

    PubMed

    Nemere, Ilka; Hintze, Korry

    2008-02-01

    Our concepts of hormone receptors have, until recently, been narrowly defined. In the last few years, an increasing number of reports identify novel proteins, such as enzymes, acting as receptors. In this review we cover the novel receptors for the hormones atrial naturetic hormone, enterostatin, hepcidin, thyroid hormones, estradiol, progesterone, and the vitamin D metabolites 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and 24,25(OH)(2)D(3). PMID:17546587

  13. Priming arithmetic facts in amnesic patients.

    PubMed

    Delazer, M; Ewen, P; Benke, T

    1997-05-01

    In this study, amnesic patients showed significant repetition priming effects in arithmetic fact retrieval tasks. The results indicate that repetition priming effects in arithmetic depend not on explicit recognition, but on the activation of specific long-term representations of arithmetic facts. Processing dissociations between easy and difficult items suggest that the priming effects results from the stage of fact retrieval and not from peripheral activation. This claim is also supported by encoding and naming tasks, which showed only slight priming effects as compared to the priming found in calculation tasks. Significant priming was found for identical (5 x 6 and 5 x 6) and complement problems (5 x 6 and 6 x 5), the latter showing a smaller magnitude of priming. PMID:9153025

  14. Aging changes in hormone production

    MedlinePlus

    The endocrine system is made up of organs and tissues that produce hormones. Hormones are natural chemicals produced in one ... hormones that control the other structures in the endocrine system. The amount of these regulating hormones stays about ...

  15. Follicle-stimulating Hormone Activation of Hypoxia-inducible Factor-1 by the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/AKT/Ras Homolog Enriched in Brain (Rheb)/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Pathway Is Necessary for Induction of Select Protein Markers of Follicular Differentiation*

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Hena; Maizels, Evelyn T.; Park, Youngkyu; Ghaey, Shail; Feiger, Zachary J.; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Hunzicker-Dunn, Mary

    2006-01-01

    We sought to elucidate the role of AKT in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-mediated granulosa cell (GC) differentiation. Our results define a signaling pathway in GCs whereby the inactivating phosphorylation of tuberin downstream of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase/AKT activity leads to Rheb (Ras homolog enriched in brain) and subsequent mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) activation. mTOR then stimulates translation by phosphorylating p70 S6 kinase and, consequently, the 40 S ribosomal protein S6. Activation of this pathway is required for FSH-mediated induction of several follicular differentiation markers, including luteinizing-hormone receptor (LHR), inhibin-α, microtubule-associated protein 2D, and the PKA type IIβ regulatory subunit. FSH also promotes activation of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). FSH-stimulated HIF-1 activity is inhibited by the PI 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002, the Rheb inhibitor FTI-277 (farne-syltransferase inhibitor-277), and the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. Finally, we find that the FSH-mediated up-regulation of reporter activities for LHR, inhibin-α, and vascular endothelial growth factor is dependent upon HIF-1 activity, because a dominant negative form of HIF-1α interferes with the up-regulation of these genes. These results show that FSH enhances HIF-1 activity downstream of the PI 3-kinase/AKT/Rheb/mTOR pathway in GCs and that HIF-1 activity is necessary for FSH to induce multiple follicular differentiation markers. PMID:14982927

  16. What determines the direction of subliminal priming

    PubMed Central

    Jaśkowski, Piotr; Verleger, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Masked stimuli (primes) can affect the preparation of a motor response to subsequently presented target stimuli. Reactions to the target can be facilitated (straight priming) or inhibited (inverse priming) when preceded by a compatible prime (calling for the same response) and also when preceded by an incompatible prime. Several hypotheses are currently under debate. These are the self-inhibition (SI) hypothesis, the object-updating (OU) hypothesis, and mask-triggered inhibition (MTI) hypothesis. All assume that the initial activation of the motor response is elicited by the prime according to its identity. This activation inevitably leads to straight priming in some cases and the mechanisms involved are undisputed. The hypotheses differ, however, as to why inverse priming occurs. The self-inhibition (SI) hypothesis assumes that the motor activation elicited by a prime is automatically followed by an inhibition phase, leading to inverse priming if three conditions are fulfilled: perceptual evidence for the prime has to be sufficiently strong, it has to be immediately removed by the mask, and the delay between the prime and target has to be long enough for inhibition to become effective. The object-updating (OU) hypothesis assumes that inverse priming is triggered by the mask, provided that it contains features calling for the alternative response (i.e. the one contrasting with the response induced by the prime). The MTI hypothesis assumes that the inhibitory phase is triggered by each successive stimulus which does not support the perceptual hypothesis provided by the prime. Based mostly on our own experiments, we argue that (1) attempts to manipulate the three factors required by the SI hypothesis imply changes of other variables and that (2) indeed, other variables seem to affect priming: prime-mask perceptual interaction and temporal position of the mask. These observations are in favor of the MTI hypothesis. A limiting factor for all three hypotheses is that

  17. What determines the direction of subliminal priming.

    PubMed

    Jaśkowski, Piotr; Verleger, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    Masked stimuli (primes) can affect the preparation of a motor response to subsequently presented target stimuli. Reactions to the target can be facilitated (straight priming) or inhibited (inverse priming) when preceded by a compatible prime (calling for the same response) and also when preceded by an incompatible prime. Several hypotheses are currently under debate. These are the self-inhibition (SI) hypothesis, the object-updating (OU) hypothesis, and mask-triggered inhibition (MTI) hypothesis. All assume that the initial activation of the motor response is elicited by the prime according to its identity. This activation inevitably leads to straight priming in some cases and the mechanisms involved are undisputed. The hypotheses differ, however, as to why inverse priming occurs. The self-inhibition (SI) hypothesis assumes that the motor activation elicited by a prime is automatically followed by an inhibition phase, leading to inverse priming if three conditions are fulfilled: perceptual evidence for the prime has to be sufficiently strong, it has to be immediately removed by the mask, and the delay between the prime and target has to be long enough for inhibition to become effective. The object-updating (OU) hypothesis assumes that inverse priming is triggered by the mask, provided that it contains features calling for the alternative response (i.e. the one contrasting with the response induced by the prime). The MTI hypothesis assumes that the inhibitory phase is triggered by each successive stimulus which does not support the perceptual hypothesis provided by the prime. Based mostly on our own experiments, we argue that (1) attempts to manipulate the three factors required by the SI hypothesis imply changes of other variables and that (2) indeed, other variables seem to affect priming: prime-mask perceptual interaction and temporal position of the mask. These observations are in favor of the MTI hypothesis. A limiting factor for all three hypotheses is that

  18. Induction of Ovulation

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Emmet J.

    1965-01-01

    Every effort should be made to find the cause of anovulation since specific therapy directed at correction of a specific hormonal deficiency or excess is, of course, much more effective than any empiric treatment. Moreover, some patients with disorders of ovulation may have serious, even fatal, underlying disorders. The use of thyroid or cortisone has been disappointing except in the treatment of an overt deficiency of thyroid or cortisone or an excess of adrenal androgens. Estrogens and progestational agents have not been consistently effective in the induction of ovulation. The use of clomiphene citrate, which apparently stimulates the release of gonadotropins, and the use of purified gonadotropins of human origin have been quite successful in the induction of ovulation in a variety of disorders of ovarian function. Because of real and potential hazards, the use of these new agents should be restricted to women for whom pregnancy is the primary goal or in whom standard methods of therapy have failed. Neither drug has been released by the Food and Drug Administration for routine clinical use. PMID:14336790

  19. Attentional sensitization of unconscious cognition: task sets modulate subsequent masked semantic priming.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Markus; Martens, Ulla

    2010-08-01

    According to classical theories, automatic processes are autonomous and independent of higher level cognitive influence. In contrast, the authors propose that automatic processing depends on attentional sensitization of task-congruent processing pathways. In 3 experiments, the authors tested this hypothesis with a modified masked semantic priming paradigm during a lexical decision task by measuring event-related potentials (ERPs): Before masked prime presentation, participants attended an induction task either to semantic or perceptual stimulus features designed to activate a semantic or perceptual task set, respectively. Semantic priming effects on the N400 ERP component, an electrophysiological index of semantic processing, were obtained when a semantic task set was induced immediately before subliminal prime presentation, whereas a previously induced perceptual task set attenuated N400 priming. Across experiments, comparable results were obtained regardless of the difficulty level and the verbal or nonverbal nature of the induction tasks. In line with the proposed attentional sensitization model, unconscious semantic processing is enhanced by a semantic and attenuated by a perceptual task set. Hence, automatic processing of unconscious stimuli is susceptible to top-down control for optimizing goal-related information processing. PMID:20677895

  20. An improved thyroid hormone reporter assay to determine the thyroid hormone-like activity of amiodarone, bithionol, closantel and rafoxanide.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Kana; Sanoh, Seigo; Ohta, Shigeru; Kitamura, Shigeyuki; Sugihara, Kazumi; Fujimoto, Nariaki

    2012-01-01

    A number of environmental chemicals have been reported to exhibit thyroid hormone-like activity. Since thyroid hormones play a crucial role in development, it is important to identify chemicals in the environment that are capable of endocrine disruption of thyroid hormone homeostasis. In order to detect thyroid hormone-like activity, the growth of pituitary cell lines has been commonly used as a sensitive marker, albeit with limited specificity to thyroid hormones. Reporter gene assays using the thyroid hormone responsive element (TRE) connected to the luciferase reporter gene have also been developed. Thus far however, this type of assay appears to have limited sensitivity compared to cell growth assays. In the present study, we developed a highly sensitive TRE reporter gene assay by using a pituitary cell line, MtT/E-2, and by culturing cells in a serum-free medium. Our assay was developed in order to detect T3 activity at a concentration of 10(-11)M. This assay identified thyroid hormone-like activity from the antiarrhythmic drug, amiodarone, and from three anti-parasitic drugs, bithionol, closantel and rafoxanide, all commonly used in veterinary medicine. Thyroid hormone-like activity of these compounds was further confirmed by the induction of BCL3 gene expression in MtT/E-2, which is known to be regulated by thyroid hormones. Our improved assay was proved to be a sensitive tool for assessing thyroid hormone-like activity of environmental chemicals. PMID:22015988

  1. Was sind hormone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlson, P.

    1982-01-01

    Historically, the meaning of the term hormone has changed during the last decades. Morphological studies of secreting cells lead Feyrter to the concept of paracrine action of some hormones. While endocrine regulators are blood-borne, paracrine messengers reach their target cells through the diffusion in the intracellular space. Though it is rather difficult to draw a line between true hormones and hormone-like substances, valid definitions for endocrine and paracrine regulatory systems can be given. The term ‘hormonal control’ should be restricted to endocrine systems. For effectors acting by paracrine mechanisms, the term paramone is proposed in this article.

  2. Microbial stress priming: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Linares, Diana R; Lehmann, Anika; Rillig, Matthias C

    2016-04-01

    Microbes have to cope with complex and dynamic environments, making it likely that anticipatory responses provide fitness benefits. Mild, previous stressors can prepare microbes (stress priming) to further and potentially damaging stressors (triggering). We here quantitatively summarize the findings from over 250 trials of 34 studies including bacteria and fungi, demonstrating that priming to stress has a beneficial impact on microbial survival. In fact, survival of primed microbes was about 10-fold higher compared with that in non-primed microbes. Categorical moderators related to microbial taxonomy and the kind of stress applied as priming or as triggering revealed significant differences of priming effect size among 14 different microbial species, 6 stress categories and stressor combination. We found that priming by osmotic, physiological and temperature stress had the highest positive effect sizes on microbial response. Cross-protection was evident for physiological, temperature and pH stresses. Microbes are better prepared against triggering by oxidative, temperature and osmotic stress. Our finding of an overall positive mean effect of priming regardless of the microbial system and particular stressor provides unprecedentedly strong evidence of the broad ecological significance of microbial stress priming. These results further suggest that stress priming may be an important factor in shaping microbial communities. PMID:26768991

  3. Enhanced tomato disease resistance primed by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yuanyuan; Chen, Dongmei; Lu, Kai; Sun, Zhongxiang; Zeng, Rensen

    2015-01-01

    Roots of most terrestrial plants form symbiotic associations (mycorrhiza) with soil- borne arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Many studies show that mycorrhizal colonization enhances plant resistance against pathogenic fungi. However, the mechanism of mycorrhiza-induced disease resistance remains equivocal. In this study, we found that mycorrhizal inoculation with AMF Funneliformis mosseae significantly alleviated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) early blight disease caused by Alternaria solani Sorauer. AMF pre-inoculation led to significant increases in activities of β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX) in tomato leaves upon pathogen inoculation. Mycorrhizal inoculation alone did not influence the transcripts of most genes tested. However, pathogen attack on AMF-inoculated plants provoked strong defense responses of three genes encoding pathogenesis-related proteins, PR1, PR2, and PR3, as well as defense-related genes LOX, AOC, and PAL, in tomato leaves. The induction of defense responses in AMF pre-inoculated plants was much higher and more rapid than that in un-inoculated plants in present of pathogen infection. Three tomato genotypes: a Castlemart wild-type (WT) plant, a jasmonate (JA) biosynthesis mutant (spr2), and a prosystemin-overexpressing 35S::PS plant were used to examine the role of the JA signaling pathway in AMF-primed disease defense. Pathogen infection on mycorrhizal 35S::PS plants led to higher induction of defense-related genes and enzymes relative to WT plants. However, pathogen infection did not induce these genes and enzymes in mycorrhizal spr2 mutant plants. Bioassays showed that 35S::PS plants were more resistant and spr2 plants were more susceptible to early blight compared with WT plants. Our finding indicates that mycorrhizal colonization enhances tomato resistance to early blight by priming systemic defense response, and the JA signaling pathway is essential for mycorrhiza-primed

  4. Enhanced tomato disease resistance primed by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuanyuan; Chen, Dongmei; Lu, Kai; Sun, Zhongxiang; Zeng, Rensen

    2015-01-01

    Roots of most terrestrial plants form symbiotic associations (mycorrhiza) with soil- borne arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Many studies show that mycorrhizal colonization enhances plant resistance against pathogenic fungi. However, the mechanism of mycorrhiza-induced disease resistance remains equivocal. In this study, we found that mycorrhizal inoculation with AMF Funneliformis mosseae significantly alleviated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) early blight disease caused by Alternaria solani Sorauer. AMF pre-inoculation led to significant increases in activities of β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX) in tomato leaves upon pathogen inoculation. Mycorrhizal inoculation alone did not influence the transcripts of most genes tested. However, pathogen attack on AMF-inoculated plants provoked strong defense responses of three genes encoding pathogenesis-related proteins, PR1, PR2, and PR3, as well as defense-related genes LOX, AOC, and PAL, in tomato leaves. The induction of defense responses in AMF pre-inoculated plants was much higher and more rapid than that in un-inoculated plants in present of pathogen infection. Three tomato genotypes: a Castlemart wild-type (WT) plant, a jasmonate (JA) biosynthesis mutant (spr2), and a prosystemin-overexpressing 35S::PS plant were used to examine the role of the JA signaling pathway in AMF-primed disease defense. Pathogen infection on mycorrhizal 35S::PS plants led to higher induction of defense-related genes and enzymes relative to WT plants. However, pathogen infection did not induce these genes and enzymes in mycorrhizal spr2 mutant plants. Bioassays showed that 35S::PS plants were more resistant and spr2 plants were more susceptible to early blight compared with WT plants. Our finding indicates that mycorrhizal colonization enhances tomato resistance to early blight by priming systemic defense response, and the JA signaling pathway is essential for mycorrhiza-primed

  5. The temporal dynamics of visual object priming

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Philip C.; Duda, Bryant; Hussey, Erin P.; Mason, Emily J.; Ally, Brandon A.

    2014-01-01

    Priming reflects an important means of learning that is mediated by implicit memory. Importantly, priming occurs for previously viewed objects (item-specific priming) and their category relatives (category-wide priming). Two distinct neural mechanisms are known to mediate priming, including the sharpening of a neural object representation and the retrieval of stimulus-response mappings. Here, we investigated whether the relationship between these neural mechanisms could help explain why item-specific priming generates faster responses than category-wide priming. Participants studied pictures of everyday objects, and then performed a difficult picture identification task while we recorded event-related potentials (ERP). The identification task gradually revealed random line segments of previously viewed items (Studied), category exemplars of previously viewed items (Exemplar), and items that were not previously viewed (Unstudied). Studied items were identified sooner than Unstudied items, showing evidence of item-specific priming, and importantly Exemplar items were also identified sooner than Unstudied items, showing evidence of category-wide priming. Early activity showed sustained neural suppression of parietal activity for both types of priming. However, these neural suppression effects may have stemmed from distinct processes because while category-wide neural suppression was correlated with priming behavior, item-specific neural suppression was not. Late activity, examined with response-locked ERPs, showed additional processes related to item-specific priming including neural suppression in occipital areas and parietal activity that was correlated with behavior. Together, we conclude that item-specific and category-wide priming are mediated by separate, parallel neural mechanisms in the context of the current paradigm. Temporal differences in behavior are determined by the timecourses of these distinct processes. PMID:25164991

  6. Induction of ovulation with GnRH and PGF(2 alpha) at two different stages during the early postpartum period in dairy cows: ovarian response and changes in hormone concentrations.

    PubMed

    Amaya-Montoya, Carlos; Matsui, Motozumi; Kawashima, Chiho; Hayashi, Ken-Go; Matsuda, Go; Kaneko, Etsushi; Kida, Katsuya; Miyamoto, Akio; Miyake, Yoh-Ichi

    2007-08-01

    The aims of this study were 1) to determine whether dairy cows can be induced to ovulate by the treatment with gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) followed by prostaglandin F(2 alpha) (PGF(2 alpha)) during the early postpartum period and 2) to describe their ovarian and hormonal responses according to ovarian status. Cows were divided in two groups and received 10 microg of buserelin followed by 500 microg of cloprostenol 7 days apart starting from 21 (GnRH21, n=7) or around 37 days postpartum (GnRH37, n=7). The groups were further classified according to presence (-CL) or absence (-NCL) of functional corpora lutea (CL) on the day of GnRH treatment (d 0): GnRH21-NCL (n=4), GnRH21-CL (n=3) and GnRH37-CL (n=7). Ovarian morphology was monitored and the concentrations of P(4), E(2), FSH and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were measured. All cows ovulated after administration of GnRH. The P(4) levels of the GnRH21-NCL group from d 0 to d 5 were lower than those of the GnRH21-CL (P<0.05) and GnRH37-CL groups (P<0.01). In contrast, the E(2) levels of the GnRH21-NCL group within d 2 to d 6 were higher (P<0.05) than those of the other groups. Compared with the GnRH37-CL group, the GnRH21-NCL group had more small follicles on d 2 (P<0.05), d 3 (P<0.01) and d 4 (P<0.01) and more large follicles on d 5 (P<0.05). The induced CL and new ovulatory follicles were larger in the GnRH21-NCL group compared with the GnRH21-CL (P<0.001 and P<0.01) and GnRH37-CL groups (P<0.001 and P<0.05). IGF-1 did not differ among the groups. The GnRH21-NCL group had higher FSH levels than the GnRH21-CL (P<0.01) and GnRH37-CL groups (P<0.001) on d 0. Low P(4) and high FSH levels may suggest higher gonadotropin support on the enhanced ovarian morphology of the GnRH21-NCL group. PGF(2 alpha) treatment induced CL regression and subsequent ovulation in 3/4 (75%), 3/3 (100%) and 7/7 (100%) cows in the GnRH21-NCL, GnRH21-CL and GnRH37-CL groups, respectively. In conclusion, a 7-day GnRH-PGF(2 alpha

  7. Hormonal therapies in acne.

    PubMed

    Shaw, James C

    2002-07-01

    Hormones, in particular androgen hormones, are the main cause of acne in men, women, children and adults, in both normal states and endocrine disorders. Therefore, the use of hormonal therapies in acne is rational in concept and gratifying in practice. Although non-hormonal therapies enjoy wide usage and continue to be developed, there is a solid place for hormonal approaches in women with acne, especially adult women with persistent acne. This review covers the physiological basis for hormonal influence in acne, the treatments that are in use today and those that show promise for the future. The main treatments to be discussed are oral contraceptives androgen receptor blockers like spironolactone and flutamide, inhibitors of the enzyme 5 alpha-reductase and topical hormonal treatments. PMID:12083987

  8. Induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Whitney H.

    1980-01-01

    A polyphase rotary induction machine for use as a motor or generator utilizing a single rotor assembly having two series connected sets of rotor windings, a first stator winding disposed around the first rotor winding and means for controlling the current induced in one set of the rotor windings compared to the current induced in the other set of the rotor windings. The rotor windings may be wound rotor windings or squirrel cage windings.

  9. Diophantine equations in the primes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Brian; Magyar, Ákos

    2014-12-01

    Let $\\mathfrak{p}=(\\mathfrak{p}_1,...,\\mathfrak{p}_r)$ be a system of $r$ polynomials with integer coefficients of degree $d$ in $n$ variables $\\mathbf{x}=(x_1,...,x_n)$. For a given $r$-tuple of integers, say $\\mathbf{s}$, a general local to global type statement is shown via classical Hardy-Littlewood type methods which provides sufficient conditions for the solubility of $\\mathfrak{p}(\\mathbf{x})=\\mathbf{s}$ under the condition that each of the $x_i$'s is prime.

  10. Centaur G Prime modal test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trubert, Marc; Cutler, Art; Miller, Robert; Page, Don; Engelhardt, Charles

    1987-01-01

    The Centaur G Prime modal test resulted in sets of modes (frequencies, mode shapes and damping) with an accuracy similiar to or better than that normally obtained from the modal testing of linear structures with no backlash and small damping. In other words, performing the test at high level greatly minimized the backlash effect and provided a valid, simple linearization of the trunnion friction problem for the Centaur in the Shuttle Cargo Bay. All the most important modes (target modes) were measured and provided the data base for updating the finite element model for the pre-flight verification loads analysis.

  11. Priming effects in marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontikaki, Evina; Thornton, Barry; Witte, Ursula

    2013-04-01

    Continental margin sediments (<2000 m) cover merely 15 % of the ocean's seafloor but are responsible for more than 70 % of the global benthic mineralization. Understanding when these systems act as a source or sink of carbon (C) is thus of primary importance if we are to produce reliable global C budgets and predict the effects of future perturbations on the global C cycle. The chemical nature of organic matter (OM) is thought to be one of the major controls on the degradation/preservation balance in sediments; labile and refractory OM pools degrade at different rates but not independently. Priming effects (PE), i.e. changes in the decomposition of refractory organic matter following inputs of labile OM, have the potential to alter the C budget in sediments but have been largely ignored by marine scientists. Climate-driven changes in primary production, and land erosion and run-off are likely to change the quantity and composition of organic matter inputs in marine ecosystems and influence the magnitude and direction of PEs in seawater and sediments. Here, we attempt to evaluate the importance of priming effects on C cycling in marine sediments by use of labelled substrates of different quantity and quality in stable isotope tracer experiments and argue that PEs need to be incorporated in global change models.

  12. Can Faces Prime a Language?

    PubMed

    Woumans, Evy; Martin, Clara D; Vanden Bulcke, Charlotte; Van Assche, Eva; Costa, Albert; Hartsuiker, Robert J; Duyck, Wouter

    2015-09-01

    Bilinguals have two languages that are activated in parallel. During speech production, one of these languages must be selected on the basis of some cue. The present study investigated whether the face of an interlocutor can serve as such a cue. Spanish-Catalan and Dutch-French bilinguals were first familiarized with certain faces, each of which was associated with only one language, during simulated Skype conversations. Afterward, these participants performed a language production task in which they generated words associated with the words produced by familiar and unfamiliar faces displayed on-screen. When responding to familiar faces, participants produced words faster if the faces were speaking the same language as in the previous Skype simulation than if the same faces were speaking a different language. Furthermore, this language priming effect disappeared when it became clear that the interlocutors were actually bilingual. These findings suggest that faces can prime a language, but their cuing effect disappears when it turns out that they are unreliable as language cues. PMID:26209531

  13. On Anti-Elite Prime Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M"Uller, Tom

    2007-09-01

    An odd prime number p is called anti-elite if only finitely many Fermat numbers are quadratic non-residues to p. This concept is the exact opposite to that of elite prime numbers. We study some fundamental properties of anti-elites and show that there are infinitely many of them. A computational search among all the numbers up to 100 billion yielded 84 anti-elite primes.

  14. All Elite Primes Up to 250 Billion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaumont, Alain; Müller, Tom

    2006-08-01

    A prime number p is called elite if only finitely many Fermat numbers 2^(2^n)+1 are quadratic residues of p. Previously only the interval up to 10^9 was systematically searched for elite primes and 16 such primes were found. We extended this research up to 2.5*10^11 and found five further elites, among which 1,151,139,841 is the smallest and 171,727,482,881 the largest.

  15. Effects of a Model Inducer, Phenobarbital, on Thyroid Hormone Glucuronidation in Rat Hepatocytes

    EPA Science Inventory

    In vivo, hepatic enzyme inducers such as phenobarbital (PB) decrease circulating thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations. This decrease in circulating TH occurs in part through extrathyroidal mechanisms. Specifically, through the induction of hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes...

  16. EFFECTS OF BDE-47 ON NUCLEAR RECEPTOR REGULATED GENES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THYROID HORMONE DISRUPTION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies have shown that exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) can decrease thyroid hormone levels via the induction of hepatic uridinediphosphate-glucoronosyltransferase, (UGTs) which catalyze glucuronidation of T4 resulting in T4-glucuronide excretion. Bas...

  17. Human growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Strobl, J S; Thomas, M J

    1994-03-01

    The study of human growth hormone is a little more than 100 years old. Growth hormone, first identified for its dramatic effect on longitudinal growth, is now known to exert generalized effects on protein, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolism. Additional roles for growth hormone in human physiology are likely to be discovered in the areas of sleep research and reproduction. Furthermore, there is some indication that growth hormone also may be involved in the regulation of immune function, mental well-being, and the aging process. Recombinant DNA technology has provided an abundant and safe, albeit expensive, supply of human growth hormone for human use, but the pharmacological properties of growth hormone are poor. Most growth hormone-deficient individuals exhibit a secretory defect rather than a primary defect in growth hormone production, however, and advances in our understanding of the neuroendocrine regulation of growth hormone secretion have established the basis for the use of drugs to stimulate release of endogenously synthesized growth hormone. This promises to be an important area for future drug development. PMID:8190748

  18. Complex architecture of primes and natural numbers.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Guillermo; Serrano, M Ángeles; Boguñá, Marián

    2014-08-01

    Natural numbers can be divided in two nonoverlapping infinite sets, primes and composites, with composites factorizing into primes. Despite their apparent simplicity, the elucidation of the architecture of natural numbers with primes as building blocks remains elusive. Here, we propose a new approach to decoding the architecture of natural numbers based on complex networks and stochastic processes theory. We introduce a parameter-free non-Markovian dynamical model that naturally generates random primes and their relation with composite numbers with remarkable accuracy. Our model satisfies the prime number theorem as an emerging property and a refined version of Cramér's conjecture about the statistics of gaps between consecutive primes that seems closer to reality than the original Cramér's version. Regarding composites, the model helps us to derive the prime factors counting function, giving the probability of distinct prime factors for any integer. Probabilistic models like ours can help to get deeper insights about primes and the complex architecture of natural numbers. PMID:25215780

  19. eta. prime -. eta. -. pi. sup 0 mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Bagchi, B. ); Lahiri, A. ); Niyogi, S. )

    1990-05-01

    We have examined the saturation of anomalous Ward identities by the low-lying pseudoscalars {pi}{sup 0}, {eta}, and {eta}{prime} to determine the sizes of {eta}{prime}-{eta}, {pi}{sup 0}-{eta}, and {pi}{sup 0}-{eta}{prime} mixing angles. The {eta}{prime}-{eta} mixing angle turns out to be about {minus}20{degree} which is consistent with the recent findings. Our estimate for the {pi}{sup 0}-{eta} mixing angle shows that it could be bigger than the older value obtained from the {rho}-{omega} mixing, baryon mass splittings, and kaon mass difference.

  20. Phasic affective modulation of semantic priming.

    PubMed

    Topolinski, Sascha; Deutsch, Roland

    2013-03-01

    The present research demonstrates that very brief variations in affect, being around 1 s in length and changing from trial to trial independently from semantic relatedness of primes and targets, modulate the amount of semantic priming. Implementing consonant and dissonant chords (Experiments 1 and 5), naturalistic sounds (Experiment 2), and visual facial primes (Experiment 3) in an (in)direct semantic priming paradigm, as well as brief facial feedback in a summative priming paradigm (Experiment 4), yielded increased priming effects under brief positive compared to negative affect. Furthermore, this modulation took place on the level of semantic spreading rather than on strategic mechanisms (Experiment 5). Alternative explanations such as distraction, motivation, arousal, and cognitive tuning could be ruled out. This phasic affective modulation constitutes a mechanism overlooked thus far that may contaminate priming effects in all priming paradigms that involve affective stimuli. Furthermore, this mechanism provides a novel explanation for the observation that priming effects are usually larger for positive than for negative stimuli. Finally, it has important implications for linguistic research, by suggesting that association norms may be biased for affective words. PMID:22732031

  1. Complex architecture of primes and natural numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Pérez, Guillermo; Serrano, M. Ángeles; Boguñá, Marián

    2014-08-01

    Natural numbers can be divided in two nonoverlapping infinite sets, primes and composites, with composites factorizing into primes. Despite their apparent simplicity, the elucidation of the architecture of natural numbers with primes as building blocks remains elusive. Here, we propose a new approach to decoding the architecture of natural numbers based on complex networks and stochastic processes theory. We introduce a parameter-free non-Markovian dynamical model that naturally generates random primes and their relation with composite numbers with remarkable accuracy. Our model satisfies the prime number theorem as an emerging property and a refined version of Cramér's conjecture about the statistics of gaps between consecutive primes that seems closer to reality than the original Cramér's version. Regarding composites, the model helps us to derive the prime factors counting function, giving the probability of distinct prime factors for any integer. Probabilistic models like ours can help to get deeper insights about primes and the complex architecture of natural numbers.

  2. Hormonal therapy for acne.

    PubMed

    George, Rosalyn; Clarke, Shari; Thiboutot, Diane

    2008-09-01

    Acne affects more than 40 million people, of which more than half are women older than 25 years of age. These women frequently fail traditional therapy and have high relapse rates even after isotretinoin. Recent advances in research have helped to delineate the important role hormones play in the pathogenesis of acne. Androgens such as dihydrotestosterone and testosterone, the adrenal precursor dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, estrogens, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factors may all contribute to the development of acne. Hormonal therapy remains an important part of the arsenal of acne treatments available to the clinician. Women dealing with acne, even those without increased serum androgens, may benefit from hormonal treatments. The mainstays of hormonal therapy include oral contraceptives and antiandrogens such as spironolactone, cyproterone acetate, or flutamide. In this article, we discuss the effects of hormones on the pathogenesis of acne, evaluation of women with suspected endocrine abnormalities, and the myriad of treatment options available. PMID:18786497

  3. Hormones and endometrial carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Areege; Tempest, Nicola; Parkes, Christina; Alnafakh, Rafah; Makrydima, Sofia; Adishesh, Meera; Hapangama, Dharani K

    2016-02-01

    Endometrial cancer (EC) is the commonest gynaecological cancer in the Western World with an alarmingly increasing incidence related to longevity and obesity. Ovarian hormones regulate normal human endometrial cell proliferation, regeneration and function therefore are implicated in endometrial carcinogenesis directly or via influencing other hormones and metabolic pathways. Although the role of unopposed oestrogen in the pathogenesis of EC has received considerable attention, the emerging role of other hormones in this process, such as androgens and gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) is less well recognised. This review aims to consolidate the current knowledge of the involvement of the three main endogenous ovarian hormones (oestrogens, progesterone and androgens) as well as the other hormones in endometrial carcinogenesis, to identify important avenues for future research. PMID:26966933

  4. Tight coupling between positive and reversed priming in the masked prime paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Boy, Frederic; Sumner, Petroc

    2011-01-01

    When associations between certain visual stimuli and particular actions are learnt, those stimuli become capable of automatically and unconsciously activating their associated action plans. Such sensorimotor priming is assumed to be fundamental for efficient responses, and can be reliably measured in masked prime studies even when the primes are not consciously perceived. However, when the delay between prime and target is increased, reversed priming effects are often found instead (the negative compatibility effect, NCE). The main accounts of the NCE assume that it too is a sensorimotor phenomenon, predicting that it should occur only when the initial positive priming phase also occurs. Alternatively, reversed priming may reflect a perceptual process entirely independent from positive motor priming (which is simply evident at a different temporal delay), in which case no dependency is expected between the NCE and positive priming. We tested these predictions while new sensorimotor associations were learnt, and when learnt associations were suddenly reversed. We found a remarkable symmetry between positive and reversed priming during all such learning phases, supporting the idea that reversed priming represents a sensorimotor process that is contingent on, and automatically follows, the positive priming phase. We discuss also whether the NCE mechanism is subject to a trigger threshold. PMID:20695707

  5. Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Primed and Non-primed Rice Seedlings under Submergence Stress.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Saddam; Yin, Hanqi; Peng, Shaobing; Khan, Faheem A; Khan, Fahad; Sameeullah, Muhammad; Hussain, Hafiz A; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Nie, Lixiao

    2016-01-01

    Submergence stress is a limiting factor for direct-seeded rice systems in rainfed lowlands and flood-prone areas of South and Southeast Asia. The present study demonstrated that submergence stress severely hampered the germination and seedling growth of rice, however, seed priming alleviated the detrimental effects of submergence stress. To elucidate the molecular basis of seed priming-induced submergence tolerance, transcriptome analyses were performed using 4-day-old primed (selenium-Se and salicylic acid-SA priming) and non-primed rice seedlings under submergence stress. Genomewide transcriptomic profiling identified 2371 and 2405 transcripts with Se- and SA-priming, respectively, that were differentially expressed in rice compared with non-priming treatment under submergence. Pathway and gene ontology term enrichment analyses revealed that genes involved in regulation of secondary metabolism, development, cell, transport, protein, and metal handling were over-represented after Se- or SA-priming. These coordinated factors might have enhanced the submergence tolerance and maintained the better germination and vigorous seedling growth of primed rice seedlings. It was also found that many genes involved in cellular and metabolic processes such as carbohydrate metabolism, cellular, and metabolic biosynthesis, nitrogen compound metabolic process, transcription, and response to oxidative stress were induced and overlapped in seed priming treatments, a finding which reveals the common mechanism of seed priming-induced submergence tolerance. Taken together, these results may provide new avenues for understanding and advancing priming-induced responses to submergence tolerance in crop plants. PMID:27516766

  6. Unconscious congruency priming from unpracticed words is modulated by prime-target semantic relatedness.

    PubMed

    Ortells, Juan J; Marí-Beffa, Paloma; Plaza-Ayllón, Vanesa

    2013-03-01

    Participants performed a 2-choice categorization task on visible word targets that were preceded by novel (unpracticed) prime words. The prime words were presented for 33 ms and followed either immediately (Experiments 1-3) or after a variable delay (Experiments 1 and 4) by a pattern mask. Both subjective and objective measures of prime visibility were used in all experiments. On 80% of the trials the primes and targets belonged to different categories (incongruent trials), whereas in the remaining 20% (congruent trials) they could be either strong or weak semantically related category members. Positive congruency effects (reaction times faster on congruent than on incongruent trials) were consistently found, but only when the mask immediately followed the primes, and participants reported being unaware of the identity of the primes. Primes followed by a delayed mask (such that participants reported being aware of their identity) produced either nonreliable facilitation or reliable reversed priming (strategic), depending on whether the prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony was either short (200 ms; Experiments 1 and 4) or long (1,000 ms; Experiment 4). Facilitatory priming with immediate mask was found strong (a) even for participants who performed at chance in prime visibility tests; and (b) for high but not for weakly semantically related category coordinates, irrespective of category size (animals, body parts). These findings provide evidence that unconscious congruency priming by unpracticed words from large stimulus sets critically depends on associative strength and/or semantic similarity between category coexemplars. PMID:22686850

  7. The Effect of Prime Duration in Masked Orthographic Priming Depends on Neighborhood Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Christelle; Mathey, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    A lexical decision task was used with a masked priming procedure to investigate whether and to what extent neighborhood distribution influences the effect of prime duration in masked orthographic priming. French word targets had two higher frequency neighbors that were either distributed over two letter positions (e.g., "LOBE/robe-loge") or…

  8. Tight Coupling between Positive and Reversed Priming in the Masked Prime Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boy, Frederic; Sumner, Petroc

    2010-01-01

    When associations between certain visual stimuli and particular actions are learned, those stimuli become capable of automatically and unconsciously activating their associated action plans. Such sensorimotor priming is assumed to be fundamental for efficient responses, and can be reliably measured in masked prime studies even when the primes are…

  9. Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Primed and Non-primed Rice Seedlings under Submergence Stress

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Saddam; Yin, Hanqi; Peng, Shaobing; Khan, Faheem A.; Khan, Fahad; Sameeullah, Muhammad; Hussain, Hafiz A.; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Nie, Lixiao

    2016-01-01

    Submergence stress is a limiting factor for direct-seeded rice systems in rainfed lowlands and flood-prone areas of South and Southeast Asia. The present study demonstrated that submergence stress severely hampered the germination and seedling growth of rice, however, seed priming alleviated the detrimental effects of submergence stress. To elucidate the molecular basis of seed priming-induced submergence tolerance, transcriptome analyses were performed using 4-day-old primed (selenium-Se and salicylic acid-SA priming) and non-primed rice seedlings under submergence stress. Genomewide transcriptomic profiling identified 2371 and 2405 transcripts with Se- and SA-priming, respectively, that were differentially expressed in rice compared with non-priming treatment under submergence. Pathway and gene ontology term enrichment analyses revealed that genes involved in regulation of secondary metabolism, development, cell, transport, protein, and metal handling were over-represented after Se- or SA-priming. These coordinated factors might have enhanced the submergence tolerance and maintained the better germination and vigorous seedling growth of primed rice seedlings. It was also found that many genes involved in cellular and metabolic processes such as carbohydrate metabolism, cellular, and metabolic biosynthesis, nitrogen compound metabolic process, transcription, and response to oxidative stress were induced and overlapped in seed priming treatments, a finding which reveals the common mechanism of seed priming-induced submergence tolerance. Taken together, these results may provide new avenues for understanding and advancing priming-induced responses to submergence tolerance in crop plants. PMID:27516766

  10. Unconscious Congruency Priming from Unpracticed Words Is Modulated by Prime-Target Semantic Relatedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortells, Juan J.; Mari-Beffa, Paloma; Plaza-Ayllon, Vanesa

    2013-01-01

    Participants performed a 2-choice categorization task on visible word targets that were preceded by novel (unpracticed) prime words. The prime words were presented for 33 ms and followed either immediately (Experiments 1-3) or after a variable delay (Experiments 1 and 4) by a pattern mask. Both subjective and objective measures of prime visibility…

  11. Tissue thyroid hormones and thyronamines.

    PubMed

    Accorroni, Alice; Saponaro, Federica; Zucchi, Riccardo

    2016-07-01

    It has been known for a long time that changes in cardiac function are a major component of the clinical presentation of thyroid disease. Increased heart rate and hyperdynamic circulation are hallmarks of hyperthyroidism, while bradycardia and decreased contractility characterize hypothyroidism. Recent findings have provided novel insights in the physiology and pathophysiology of heart regulation by thyroid hormones. In this review, we summarize the present knowledge on thyroxine (T4) transport and metabolism and on the biochemical pathways leading to genomic and non-genomic effects produced by 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and by its active metabolites, particularly 3,5-diiodothyronine (T2) and 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM). On this basis, specific issues of special interest for cardiology are discussed, namely (1) relevance of the regulation of proteins involved in the control of calcium homeostasis and in pacemaker cell activity, due to non-genomic as well as to classical genomic effects; (2) stimulation of fatty acid oxidation by T2 and T1AM, the latter also causing a negative inotropic and chronotropic action at micromolar concentrations; (3) induction of D3 deiodinase in heart failure, potentially causing selective cardiac hypothyroidism, whose clinical implications are still controversial; and (4) cardioprotective effect of T1AM, possibly occurring at physiological concentrations, and relevance of T3 and of thyroid hormone receptor α1 in post-infarction repair. PMID:27115768

  12. A Paradox of Syntactic Priming: Why Response Tendencies Show Priming for Passives, and Response Latencies Show Priming for Actives

    PubMed Central

    Segaert, Katrien; Menenti, Laura; Weber, Kirsten; Hagoort, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Speakers tend to repeat syntactic structures across sentences, a phenomenon called syntactic priming. Although it has been suggested that repeating syntactic structures should result in speeded responses, previous research has focused on effects in response tendencies. We investigated syntactic priming effects simultaneously in response tendencies and response latencies for active and passive transitive sentences in a picture description task. In Experiment 1, there were priming effects in response tendencies for passives and in response latencies for actives. However, when participants' pre-existing preference for actives was altered in Experiment 2, syntactic priming occurred for both actives and passives in response tendencies as well as in response latencies. This is the first investigation of the effects of structure frequency on both response tendencies and latencies in syntactic priming. We discuss the implications of these data for current theories of syntactic processing. PMID:22022352

  13. Effect of cold exposure on thyroxine 5 prime -deiodinase activity in iron-deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Brigham, D.E.; Beard, J.L. )

    1991-03-11

    When exposed to cold, severely anemic iron-deficient (ID) rats become hypothermic, fail to adequately increase metabolic rate, and have lower interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) thyroxine 5{prime}-deiodinase (5{prime}-DI) activity compared to control (CN) rats. Less severely anemic rats and CN rats were exposed to 4C for 6h. Rectal temperatures were measured hourly, and VO{sub 2} was measured both prior to and throughout the cold exposure period. IBAT 5{prime}-DI activity was measured in cold-exposed ID and CN rats and compared to ID and CN rats that were not cold exposed. During cold exposure, both ID and CN rats increased metabolic rate similarly. IBAT 5{prime}-DI activity also increased similarly in both groups after cold exposure. These results show that moderately anemic DI rats acutely increase metabolic rate and IBAT 5{prime}-DI activity in the cold. This suggests brown fat production of thyroid hormone is not limiting thermoregulatory performance.

  14. Algorithmic and Experimental Computation of Higher-Order Safe Primes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, R. Durán; Masqué, J. Muñoz

    2008-09-01

    This paper deals with a class of special primes called safe primes. In the regular definition, an odd prime p is safe if, at least, one of (p±1)/2 is prime. Safe primes have been recommended as factors of RSA moduli. In this paper, the concept of safe primes is extended to higher-order safe primes, and an explicit formula to compute the density of this class of primes in the set of the integers is supplied. Finally, explicit conditions are provided permitting the algorithmic computation of safe primes of arbitrary order. Some experimental results are provided as well.

  15. Hormonal regulation of hepatocyte tight junctional permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, P.J.; Miyai, K.; Steinbach, J.H.; Hardison, W.G.M. Univ. of California, San Diego )

    1988-10-01

    The authors have investigated the effects of hormones on the permeability of the hepatocyte tight junction to two probes, ({sup 14}C)sucrose and horseradish peroxidase, using one-pass perfused rat livers. Using a single injection of horseradish peroxidase the authors have demonstrated that this probe can enter bile by two pathways that are kinetically distinct, a fast pathway, which corresponds to the passage of the probe through the hepatocyte tight junctions, and a slow pathway, which corresponds to the transcytotic entry into bile. The passage of horseradish peroxidase through the hepatocyte tight junctions was confirmed by electron microscopic histochemistry. Vasopressin, epinephrine, and angiotensin II, hormones that act in the hepatocyte through the intracellular mediators calcium, the inositol polyphosphates, and diacylglycerol, increased the bile-to-perfusion fluid ratio of ({sup 14}C)sucrose and the rapid entry of horseradish peroxidase into bile, indicating that the permeability of the tight junctions to these probes was increased. The effect of these hormones was dose dependent and in the cases of angiotensin II and epinephrine was inhibited by the specific inhibitors (Sar{sup 1},Thr{sup 8})angiotensin II and prazosin, respectively. Dibutyryl adenosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate did not affect the ({sup 14}C)sucrose bile-to-perfusion fluid ratio or the fast entry of horseradish peroxidase into bile. These results suggest that the hepatocyte tight junction can no longer be considered a static system of pores separating blood from bile. It is rather a dynamic barrier potentially capable of influencing the composition of the bile.

  16. Inverse Target- and Cue-Priming Effects of Masked Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattler, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    The processing of a visual target that follows a briefly presented prime stimulus can be facilitated if prime and target stimuli are similar. In contrast to these positive priming effects, inverse priming effects (or negative compatibility effects) have been found when a mask follows prime stimuli before the target stimulus is presented: Responses…

  17. Amount of Priming in the Difference of Mental Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanamori, Nobuhiro; Yagi, Akihiro

    2005-01-01

    We examined in detail effects of priming in 2 mental rotation strategies: spinning (rotating in a picture plane) and flipping (rotating in depth around a horizontal axis) by using a priming paradigm of Kanamori and Yagi (2002). The priming paradigm included prime and probe tasks within 1 trial. In the prime task, 16 participants were asked to…

  18. Pure Mediated Priming: A Retrospective Semantic Matching Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lara L.

    2010-01-01

    Mediated priming refers to the activation of a target (e.g., "stripes") by a prime (e.g., "lion") that is related indirectly via a connecting mediator (e.g., tiger). In previous mediated priming studies (e.g., McNamara & Altarriba, 1988), the mediator was associatively related to the prime. In contrast, pure mediated priming (e.g., "spoon" [right…

  19. 30 CFR 716.7 - Prime farmland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prime farmland. 716.7 Section 716.7 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.7 Prime farmland. (a) Applicability. (1) Permittees of surface coal mining and...

  20. Priming Addition Facts with Semantic Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassok, Miriam; Pedigo, Samuel F.; Oskarsson, An T.

    2008-01-01

    Results from 2 relational-priming experiments suggest the existence of an automatic analogical coordination between semantic and arithmetic relations. Word pairs denoting object sets served as primes in a task that elicits "obligatory" activation of addition facts (5 + 3 activates 8; J. LeFevre, J. Bisanz, & L. Mrkonjic, 1988). Semantic relations…

  1. Perceptual learning can reverse subliminal priming effects.

    PubMed

    Przekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; Jaśkowski, Piotr

    2007-05-01

    Masked primes presented prior to a target can result in inverse priming (i.e., benefits on trials in which the prime and the target are mapped onto opposite responses). In five experiments, time-of-task effects on subliminal priming of motor responses were investigated. First, we replicated Klapp and Hinkley's (2002) finding that the priming effect is initially straight (i.e., it benefits congruent trials, in which the prime and targets are mapped onto the same response) or absent, and only later reverses (i.e., faster responses in incongruent than in congruent trials). We show that the presentation of the mask plays a crucial role in this reversal and that the reversal occurs later if the mask pattern is very complex. We suggest that perceptual learning improves the recognition of task-relevant features. Once recognized, these features can trigger the preparation of the alternative response and/or inhibit the prime-activated response. These findings support an active role of the mask in priming. PMID:17727109

  2. Can False Memories Prime Problem Solutions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.; Garner, Sarah R.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Ball, Linden J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that false memories can prime performance on related implicit and explicit memory tasks. The present research examined whether false memories can also be used to prime higher order cognitive processes, namely, insight-based problem solving. Participants were asked to solve a number of compound remote associate task…

  3. Priming by the variability of visual information

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Elizabeth; de Gardelle, Vincent; Summerfield, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    According to recent theories, perception relies on summary representations that encode statistical information about the sensory environment. Here, we used perceptual priming to characterize the representations that mediate categorization of a complex visual array. Observers judged the average shape or color of a target visual array that was preceded by an irrelevant prime array. Manipulating the variability of task-relevant and task-irrelevant feature information in the prime and target orthogonally, we found that observers were faster to respond when the variability of feature information in the prime and target arrays matched. Critically, this effect occurred irrespective of whether the element-by-element features in the prime and target array overlapped or not, and was even present when prime and target features were drawn from opposing categories. This “priming by variance” phenomenon occurred with prime–target intervals as short as 100 ms. Further experiments showed that this effect did not depend on resource allocation, and occurred even when prime and target did not share the same spatial location. These results suggest that human observers adapt to the variability of visual information, and provide evidence for the existence of a low-level mechanism by which the range or dispersion of visual information is rapidly extracted. This information may in turn help to set the gain of neuronal processing during perceptual choice. PMID:24821803

  4. Does Verb Bias Modulate Syntactic Priming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernolet, Sarah; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    In a corpus analysis of spontaneous speech Jaeger and Snider (2007) found that the strength of structural priming is correlated with verb alternation bias. This finding is consistent with an implicit learning account of syntactic priming: because the implicit learning model implemented by Chang (2002), Chang, Dell, and Bock (2006), and Chang,…

  5. A prime number approach to biological sequencing.

    PubMed

    Greer, W; Barrett, A N; Sowden, J M

    1985-03-01

    Computational sequencing of nucleic acid and amino acid sequences is placing increasing demands on computer resources. The use of prime numbers is explored as a convenient means of improving program speed and reducing storage requirements. It is concluded that the application of the prime number approach leads to significant increases in speed and some reduction in storage requirements. PMID:3840126

  6. Morphological Priming Effects on Children's Spelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosa, Joao Manuel; Nunes, Terezinha

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that children in the early grades of primary school do not have much awareness of morphemes. In this study, a priming paradigm was used to try to detect early signs of morphological representation of stems through a spelling task presented to Portuguese children (N = 805; age range 6-9 years). Primes shared the stem…

  7. Phasic Affective Modulation of Semantic Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topolinski, Sascha; Deutsch, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The present research demonstrates that very brief variations in affect, being around 1 s in length and changing from trial to trial independently from semantic relatedness of primes and targets, modulate the amount of semantic priming. Implementing consonant and dissonant chords (Experiments 1 and 5), naturalistic sounds (Experiment 2), and visual…

  8. 30 CFR 716.7 - Prime farmland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prime farmland. 716.7 Section 716.7 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.7 Prime farmland. (a) Applicability. (1) Permittees of surface coal mining and...

  9. 30 CFR 716.7 - Prime farmland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prime farmland. 716.7 Section 716.7 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.7 Prime farmland. (a) Applicability. (1) Permittees of surface coal mining and...

  10. Morphological Priming Survives a Language Switch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdonschot, Rinus G.; Middelburg, Renee; Lensink, Saskia E.; Schiller, Niels O.

    2012-01-01

    In a long-lag morphological priming experiment, Dutch (L1)-English (L2) bilinguals were asked to name pictures and read aloud words. A design using non-switch blocks, consisting solely of Dutch stimuli, and switch-blocks, consisting of Dutch primes and targets with intervening English trials, was administered. Target picture naming was facilitated…

  11. 7 CFR 29.2290 - Premature primings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Premature primings. 29.2290 Section 29.2290 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... 21) § 29.2290 Premature primings. Ground leaves harvested before reaching complete growth...

  12. 7 CFR 29.2290 - Premature primings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Premature primings. 29.2290 Section 29.2290 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... 21) § 29.2290 Premature primings. Ground leaves harvested before reaching complete growth...

  13. Syntactic Priming in American Sign Language

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Matthew L.; Ferreira, Victor S.; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2015-01-01

    Psycholinguistic studies of sign language processing provide valuable opportunities to assess whether language phenomena, which are primarily studied in spoken language, are fundamentally shaped by peripheral biology. For example, we know that when given a choice between two syntactically permissible ways to express the same proposition, speakers tend to choose structures that were recently used, a phenomenon known as syntactic priming. Here, we report two experiments testing syntactic priming of a noun phrase construction in American Sign Language (ASL). Experiment 1 shows that second language (L2) signers with normal hearing exhibit syntactic priming in ASL and that priming is stronger when the head noun is repeated between prime and target (the lexical boost effect). Experiment 2 shows that syntactic priming is equally strong among deaf native L1 signers, deaf late L1 learners, and hearing L2 signers. Experiment 2 also tested for, but did not find evidence of, phonological or semantic boosts to syntactic priming in ASL. These results show that despite the profound differences between spoken and signed languages in terms of how they are produced and perceived, the psychological representation of sentence structure (as assessed by syntactic priming) operates similarly in sign and speech. PMID:25786230

  14. A Generalization of the Prime Number Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruckman, Paul S.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author begins with the prime number theorem (PNT), and then develops this into a more general theorem, of which many well-known number theoretic results are special cases, including PNT. He arrives at an asymptotic relation that allows the replacement of certain discrete sums involving primes into corresponding differentiable…

  15. Negative Priming in Free Recall Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2016-01-01

    Negative priming in free recall is the finding of impaired memory performance when previously ignored auditory distracters become targets of encoding and retrieval. This negative priming has been attributed to an aftereffect of deploying inhibitory mechanisms that serve to suppress auditory distraction and minimize interference with learning and…

  16. Understanding Primes: The Role of Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zazkis, Rina; Liljedahl, Peter

    2004-01-01

    In this article we investigate how preservice elementary school (K-7) teachers understand the concept of prime numbers. We describe participants' understanding of primes and attempt to detect factors that influence their understanding. Representation of number properties serves as a lens for the analysis of participants' responses. We suggest that…

  17. One version of direct response priming requires automatization of the relevant associations but not awareness of the prime.

    PubMed

    Klapp, Stuart T

    2015-07-01

    Priming is the influence of one event on performance during a second event. One type of priming is known as semantic priming because it biases interpretation of the subsequent stimulus. Another type, direct response priming, biases responding directly without semantic mediation. Research reviewed in this article indicates that two versions of the second type, direct response priming, can be distinguished. One version, explicit priming, requires awareness of the prime. The other version, associative response priming, occurs even if the prime is masked and not phenomenally visible. This version, which is attributed to associations relating specific sensory events to movements of particular muscles, is enabled only if the association has previously been automatized by brief practice in which the to-be-primed response is made to the stimulus that subsequently appears as the prime. Associative response priming can be explained by a simple stimulus-response interpretation; other varieties of priming are more theoretically challenging. PMID:25167776

  18. Priming analogical reasoning with false memories.

    PubMed

    Howe, Mark L; Garner, Sarah R; Threadgold, Emma; Ball, Linden J

    2015-08-01

    Like true memories, false memories are capable of priming answers to insight-based problems. Recent research has attempted to extend this paradigm to more advanced problem-solving tasks, including those involving verbal analogical reasoning. However, these experiments are constrained inasmuch as problem solutions could be generated via spreading activation mechanisms (much like false memories themselves) rather than using complex reasoning processes. In three experiments we examined false memory priming of complex analogical reasoning tasks in the absence of simple semantic associations. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated the robustness of false memory priming in analogical reasoning when backward associative strength among the problem terms was eliminated. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we extended these findings by demonstrating priming on newly created homonym analogies that can only be solved by inhibiting semantic associations within the analogy. Overall, the findings of the present experiments provide evidence that the efficacy of false memory priming extends to complex analogical reasoning problems. PMID:25784574

  19. Cortisol metabolism in hepatocytes of rainbow trout treated with 3,3{prime},4,4{prime} tetrachlorobiphenyl

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayan, M.M.; Fiest, G.; Otto, D.; Moon, T.W.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of hepatocytes for cortisol uptake and metabolism in 3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCBP) treated trout. Two groups of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were either given an intraperitoneal implant of peanut oil alone or peanut oil containing TCBP (10 mg.kg{sup {minus}1} body weight) and sampled six weeks later. The toxicant exposed fish had significantly lower condition factor and plasma glucose concentration, whereas plasma cortisol, protein and hepatocyte protein concentration and liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity were significantly higher in the TCBP compared to the sham group. There was no significant difference in plasma lactate and amino acid concentration, hepatocyte glycogen content or liver cytosolic cortisol binding affinity or capacity between the two groups. The uptake of [{sup 3}H] cortisol was significantly higher in the hepatocytes of TCBP treated fish compared to the sham fish. Also, there was enhanced catabolism of [{sup 3}H] cortisol by hepatocytes of TCBP treated fish; the major metabolite appeared to be tetrahydrocortisone. The results indicate that the potential for cortisol clearance is enhanced in hepatocytes of TCBP treated trout. The data also tend to suggest in vivo regulatory mechanisms that might possibly prevent the increased clearance of the hormone from circulation in toxicant exposed fish.

  20. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Modulates Semantic Negative Priming from Single Prime Words

    PubMed Central

    Ortells, Juan J.; Noguera, Carmen; Álvarez, Dolores; Carmona, Encarna; Houghton, George

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether semantic negative priming from single prime words depends on the availability of cognitive control resources. Participants with high vs. low working memory capacity (as assessed by their performance in complex span and attentional control tasks) were instructed to either attend to or ignore a briefly presented single prime word that was followed by either a semantically related or unrelated target word on which participants made a lexical decision. Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) mainly affected the processing of the ignored primes, but not the processing of the attended primes: While the latter produced reliable positive semantic priming for both high- and low-WMC participants, the former gave rise to reliable semantic negative priming only for high WMC participants, with low WMC participants showing the opposite positive priming effect. The present results extend previous findings in demonstrating that (a) single negative priming can reliably generalize to semantic associates of the prime words, and (b) a differential availability of cognitive control resources can reliably modulate the negative priming effect at a semantic level of representation. PMID:27621716

  1. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Modulates Semantic Negative Priming from Single Prime Words.

    PubMed

    Ortells, Juan J; Noguera, Carmen; Álvarez, Dolores; Carmona, Encarna; Houghton, George

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether semantic negative priming from single prime words depends on the availability of cognitive control resources. Participants with high vs. low working memory capacity (as assessed by their performance in complex span and attentional control tasks) were instructed to either attend to or ignore a briefly presented single prime word that was followed by either a semantically related or unrelated target word on which participants made a lexical decision. Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) mainly affected the processing of the ignored primes, but not the processing of the attended primes: While the latter produced reliable positive semantic priming for both high- and low-WMC participants, the former gave rise to reliable semantic negative priming only for high WMC participants, with low WMC participants showing the opposite positive priming effect. The present results extend previous findings in demonstrating that (a) single negative priming can reliably generalize to semantic associates of the prime words, and (b) a differential availability of cognitive control resources can reliably modulate the negative priming effect at a semantic level of representation. PMID:27621716

  2. Effect of phorbol myristate acetate on secretion of parathyroid hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, J.J. )

    1988-01-01

    The influence of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), an activator of protein kinase c, on the secretion of parathyroid hormone from collagenase-dispersed bovine parathyroid cells was tested. The cells were incubated at low or high concentrations of calcium in the medium, and the hormone secreted into the medium was measured by a radioimmunoassay that recognizes both intact and C-terminal fragments of hormone. A stimulatory effect of PMA at high calcium, seen at PMA concentrations as low as 1.6 nM, did not occur with a biologically inactive 4{alpha}-isomer of phorbol ester, and was independent of changes in cellular adenosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate levels. Examination of {sup 32}P-labeled phosphoproteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed acidic proteins of {approximately}20,000 and 100,000 Da that were phosphorylated at low and high calcium + 1.6 {mu}M PMA but not at high calcium alone. The protein kinase c activity associated with the membrane fraction of parathyroid cells significantly decreased 40% when the cells were incubated at high vs. low calcium. The data suggest that calcium may regulate parathyroid hormone secretion through changes in protein kinase c activity of the membrane fraction of the cell and protein phosphorylation.

  3. Masked priming by misspellings: Word frequency moderates the effects of SOA and prime-target similarity.

    PubMed

    Burt, Jennifer S

    2016-02-01

    University students made lexical decisions to eight- or nine-letter words preceded by masked primes that were the target, an unrelated word, or a typical misspelling of the target. At a stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of 47 ms, primes that were misspellings of the target produced a priming benefit for low-, medium-, and high-frequency words, even when the misspelled primes were changed to differ phonologically from their targets. At a longer SOA of 80 ms, misspelled primes facilitated lexical decisions only to medium- and low-frequency targets, and a phonological change attenuated the benefit for medium-frequency targets. The results indicate that orthographic similarity can be preserved over changes in letter position and word length, and that the priming effect of misspelled words at the shorter SOA is orthographically based. Orthographic-priming effects depend on the quality of the orthographic learning of the target word. PMID:26530310

  4. Reading a standing wave: figure-ground-alternation masking of primes in evaluative priming.

    PubMed

    Bermeitinger, Christina; Kuhlmann, Michael; Wentura, Dirk

    2012-09-01

    We propose a new masking technique for masking word stimuli. Drawing on the phenomena of metacontrast and paracontrast, we alternately presented two prime displays of the same word with the background color in one display matching the font color in the other display and vice versa. The sequence of twenty alterations (spanning approx. 267 ms) was sandwich-masked by structure masks. Using this masking technique, we conducted evaluative priming experiments with positive and negative target and prime words. Significant priming effects were found - for primes and targets drawn from the same as well as from different word sets. Priming effects were independent of prime discrimination performance in direct tests and they were still significant after the sample was restricted to those participants who showed random responding in the direct test. PMID:22521264

  5. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... medicines you take. These include: Birth control pills Hormone therapy Testosterone DHEA (a supplement) If you are ...

  6. Hormones, Women and Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 30 • Have used combination hormone therapy (estrogen plus progestin) for more than five years • Have a mother, ... know that estrogen (the major female hormone) and progestin (a synthetic form of progesterone, another female hormone) ...

  7. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000908.htm Hormone therapy for prostate cancer To use the sharing ... helps slow the growth of prostate cancer. Male Hormones and Prostate Cancer Androgens are male sex hormones. ...

  8. Memory of plant communications for priming anti-herbivore responses

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohamed; Sugimoto, Koichi; Ramadan, Abdelaziz; Arimura, Gen-ichiro

    2013-01-01

    The emission of a specific blend of volatiles in response to Mythimna separata (herbivore-induced plant volatiles, HIPVs) plays a great ecological role by priming neighbouring plants. Maize plants placed downwind of infested, conspecific plants showed reduced larval development not only immediately after exposure to HIPVs but also when receiver plants were tested after a time lag of up to 5 days, compared to those exposed to volatiles from uninfested plants and tested after the same time lag. The molecular basis of this plant memory was, in part, the similarly recalled expression of a Bowman-Birk type trypsin inhibitor (TI) gene, in a jasmonic acid induction-independent manner. Moreover, in the promoter region of TI, a suite of methylation sites was found to be demethylated by the HIPV treatment. These findings provide an innovative mechanism for the epigenetic basis of the memory of HIPV-mediated habituation for plant defence. PMID:23695148

  9. Priming effects in a subtropical forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qianru; Sun, Yue; Xu, Xingliang

    2015-04-01

    Priming effects can accelerate decomposition of soil organic carbon (SOC) and thus have great potential to change SOC dynamics. Although temperature and addition of fresh substrates could affect the intensity and direction of priming, it remains unclear how their interactions affect priming. Therefore we conducted an incubation experiment using a subtropical forest soil. We incubated the soil for 10 days at two temperatures: 15oC and 25oC, with four treatments: CK (only adding water), G (13C-glucose addition), NT (13C-glucose and nitrate additions) and AM (13C-glucose and ammonium additions). The results showed that glucose addition significantly accelerated the decomposition of SOC in both temperatures, indicates that positive priming occurs in this subtropical soil. While negative priming was observed in soils with simultaneous additions of glucose and nitrogen addition, especially at 25oC. The effect of temperature on PE was not significant. This indicates that mining of nitrogen is a major mechanism responsible for priming in this subtropical soil and there is no strong interaction between temperature and substrate additions to induce priming.

  10. Nonconscious and conscious color priming in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Jahshan, Carol; Wynn, Jonathan K; Breitmeyer, Bruno G; Green, Michael F

    2012-10-01

    Deficits in visual processing are well established in schizophrenia. However, there is conflicting evidence about whether these deficits start before the formation of percepts because visual processing studies in schizophrenia have typically examined the processing of consciously registered stimuli. In this study, we used nonconscious color priming to evaluate the very early visual processing stages in schizophrenia. Nonconscious and conscious color priming was assessed in 148 schizophrenia patients and 54 healthy control subjects. In both conditions, subjects identified the color of a ring preceded by a disk (prime) in the same color (congruent) or a different color (incongruent). The ring rendered the disk invisible in the nonconscious condition (SOA of 62.5 ms) or did not mask the disk (SOA of 200 ms) in the conscious condition. Schizophrenia patients exhibited a color priming effect (longer reaction times in the incongruent vs. congruent trials) that was similar to healthy controls in both the nonconscious and conscious priming conditions. Healthy controls had a significantly larger priming effect in the nonconscious vs. conscious condition, but patients did not show a significant difference in priming effects between the two conditions. Our results indicate that schizophrenia patients do not have deficits at the nonconscious, pre-perceptual stages of visual processing, suggesting that the feed forward sweep of information processing (from retina to V1) might be intact in schizophrenia. These results imply that the well-documented visual processing deficits in this illness likely occur at later, percept-dependent stages of processing. PMID:22785333

  11. Re-naming D Double Prime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.

    1999-01-01

    "Knowledge about the dynamics of the D double prime region is a key to unlock some fundamental mysteries of the Earth heat engine which governs a wide range of global geophysical processes from tectonics to geodynamo." This benign sentence makes complete sense to many geophysicists. But for many others, it makes sense all except the odd nomenclature "D double prime". One knows about the crust, upper and lower mantle, outer and inner core, but where is the D double prime region? What meaning does it try to convey? Where is D prime region, or D, or A, B, C regions for that matter, and are there higher-order primes? How does such an odd name come about anyway? D double prime, or more "simply" D", is a generic designation given to the thin shell, about 200 km thick, of the lowermost mantle just above the core-mantle boundary inside the Earth. Incidentally, whether D" is "simpler" than "D double prime" depends on whether you are pronouncing it or writing/typing it; and D" can be confusing to readers in distinguishing quotation marks (such as in the above sentences) and second derivatives, and to word processors in spelling check and indexing.

  12. BABA-primed defense responses to Phytophthora infestans in the next vegetative progeny of potato

    PubMed Central

    Floryszak-Wieczorek, Jolanta; Arasimowicz-Jelonek, Magdalena; Abramowski, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    The transcript of the PR1 gene accumulation as an informative marker of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) was analyzed in β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) primed potato in the short-lasting (3 days) and long-lasting (28 days) time periods after induction and in the vegetative descendants of primed plants derived from tubers and from in vitro seedlings. BABA pretreatment resulted either in minimal or no PR1 gene expression, but sequential treatment with BABA followed by virulent Phytophthora infestans provided data on the imprint of post-stress information and its duration until fertilization, in the form of an enhanced PR1 transcript accumulation and a transient increase of basal resistance to the late blight disease. The primed state for defense of the susceptible potato cultivar was transmitted to its vegetative progeny as a potentiated PR1 mRNA accumulation following challenge inoculation. However, variation was observed between vegetative accessions of the BABA-primed potato genotype in responsiveness to disease. In contrast to plants derived from tubers, potato propagated through in vitro seedlings largely lost inducible resistance traits, although itretained primed PR1 gene expression. PMID:26528308

  13. Systems Pharmacological Analysis of Paclitaxel-Mediated Tumor Priming That Enhances Nanocarrier Deposition and Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Straubinger, Robert M.; Mager, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    Paclitaxel (PAC)-mediated apoptosis decompresses and primes tumors for enhanced deposition of nanoparticulate agents such as pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (DXR). A quantitative pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) approach was developed to analyze efficacy and identify optima for PAC combined with sterically stabilized liposome (SSL)-DXR. Using data extracted from diverse literature sources, Cremophor-paclitaxel (Taxol®) PK was described by a carrier-mediated dispositional model and SSL-DXR PK was described by a two-compartment model with first-order drug release. A hybrid-physiologic, well-stirred model with partition coefficients (Kp) captured intratumor concentrations. Apoptotic responses driving tumor priming were modeled using nonlinear, time-dependent transduction functions. The tumor growth model used net first-order growth and death rate constants, and two transit compartments that captured the temporal displacement of tumor exposure versus effect, and apoptotic signals from each agent were used to drive cytotoxic effects of the combination. The final model captured plasma and intratumor PK data, apoptosis induction profiles, and tumor growth for all treatments/sequences. A feedback loop representing PAC-induced apoptosis effects on Kp_DXR enabled the model to capture tumor-priming effects. Simulations to explore time- and sequence-dependent effects of priming indicated that PAC priming increased Kp_DXR 3-fold. The intratumor concentrations producing maximal and half-maximal effects were 18 and 7.2 μg/ml for PAC, and 17.6 and 14.3 μg/ml for SSL-DXR. The duration of drug-induced apoptosis was 27.4 h for PAC and 15.8 h for SSL-DXR. Simulations suggested that PAC administered 24 h before peak priming could increase efficacy 2.5-fold over experimentally reported results. The quantitative approach developed in this article is applicable for evaluating tumor-priming strategies using diverse agents. PMID:23115220

  14. Cherry Pit Primes Brad Pitt

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Deborah M.; Locantore, Jill Kester; Austin, Ayda A.; Chae, Bryan

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated why proper names are difficult to retrieve, especially for older adults. On intermixed trials, young and older adults produced a word for a definition or a proper name for a picture of a famous person. Prior production of a homophone (e.g., pit) as the response on a definition trial increased correct naming and reduced tip-of-the-tongue experiences for a proper name (e.g., Pitt) on a picture-naming trial. Among participants with no awareness of the homophone manipulation, older but not young adults showed these homophone priming effects. With a procedure that reduced awareness effects (Experiment 2), prior production of a homophone improved correct naming only for older adults, but speeded naming latency for both age groups. We suggest that representations of proper names are susceptible to weak connections that cause deficits in the transmission of excitation, impairing retrieval especially in older adults. We conclude that homophone production strengthens phonological connections, increasing the transmission of excitation. PMID:15016287

  15. Electromagnetic decays of radially excited mesons {pi}{sup 0 Prime }, {rho}{sup 0 Prime }, {omega}{sup 0 Prime }, and production of {pi}{sup 0 Prime} at lepton colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Arbuzov, A. B. Kuraev, E. A.; Volkov, M. K.

    2011-05-15

    Radiative decays {pi}{sup 0}({pi}{sup 0 Prime }) {yields} {gamma} + {gamma}, {pi}{sup 0 Prime} {yields} {rho}{sup 0}({omega}) + {gamma}, {rho}{sup 0 Prime }({omega} Prime ) {yields} {pi}{sup 0} + {gamma}, {rho}{sup 0 Prime }({omega} Prime ) {yields} {pi}{sup 0 Prime} + {gamma}, and some processes of {pi}{sup 0 Prime} production at lepton colliders are considered in the framework of the nonlocal SU(2) Multiplication-Sign SU(2) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. Mixing of the radially excited and the ground meson states is taken into account. Numerical results for the decay and production processes are presented.

  16. Phonological and Orthographic Overlap Effects in Fast and Masked Priming

    PubMed Central

    Frisson, Steven; Bélanger, Nathalie N.; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    We investigated how orthographic and phonological information is activated during reading, using a fast priming task, and during single word recognition, using masked priming. Specifically, different types of overlap between prime and target were contrasted: high orthographic and high phonological overlap (track-crack), high orthographic and low phonological overlap (bear-gear), or low orthographic and high phonological overlap (fruit-chute). In addition, we examined whether (orthographic) beginning overlap (swoop-swoon) yielded the same priming pattern as end (rhyme) overlap (track-crack). Prime durations were 32 and 50ms in the fast priming version, and 50ms in the masked priming version, and mode of presentation (prime and target in lower case) was identical. The fast priming experiment showed facilitatory priming effects when both orthography and phonology overlapped, with no apparent differences between beginning and end overlap pairs. Facilitation was also found when prime and target only overlapped orthographically. In contrast, the masked priming experiment showed inhibition for both types of end overlap pairs (with and without phonological overlap), and no difference for begin overlap items. When prime and target only shared principally phonological information, facilitation was only found with a long prime duration in the fast priming experiment, while no differences were found in the masked priming version. These contrasting results suggest that fast priming and masked priming do not necessarily tap into the same type of processing. PMID:24365065

  17. Phonological and orthographic overlap effects in fast and masked priming.

    PubMed

    Frisson, Steven; Bélanger, Nathalie N; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    We investigated how orthographic and phonological information is activated during reading, using a fast priming task, and during single-word recognition, using masked priming. Specifically, different types of overlap between prime and target were contrasted: high orthographic and high phonological overlap (track-crack), high orthographic and low phonological overlap (bear-gear), or low orthographic and high phonological overlap (fruit-chute). In addition, we examined whether (orthographic) beginning overlap (swoop-swoon) yielded the same priming pattern as end (rhyme) overlap (track-crack). Prime durations were 32 and 50 ms in the fast priming version and 50 ms in the masked priming version, and mode of presentation (prime and target in lower case) was identical. The fast priming experiment showed facilitatory priming effects when both orthography and phonology overlapped, with no apparent differences between beginning and end overlap pairs. Facilitation was also found when prime and target only overlapped orthographically. In contrast, the masked priming experiment showed inhibition for both types of end overlap pairs (with and without phonological overlap) and no difference for begin overlap items. When prime and target only shared principally phonological information, facilitation was only found with a long prime duration in the fast priming experiment, while no differences were found in the masked priming version. These contrasting results suggest that fast priming and masked priming do not necessarily tap into the same type of processing. PMID:24365065

  18. Growth Hormone Promotes Lymphangiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Banziger-Tobler, Nadja Erika; Halin, Cornelia; Kajiya, Kentaro; Detmar, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The lymphatic system plays an important role in inflammation and cancer progression, although the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. As determined using comparative transcriptional profiling studies of cultured lymphatic endothelial cells versus blood vascular endothelial cells, growth hormone receptor was expressed at much higher levels in lymphatic endothelial cells than in blood vascular endothelial cells. These findings were confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses. Growth hormone induced in vitro proliferation, sprouting, tube formation, and migration of lymphatic endothelial cells, and the mitogenic effect was independent of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 or -3 activation. Growth hormone also inhibited serum starvation-induced lymphatic endothelial cell apoptosis. No major alterations of lymphatic vessels were detected in the normal skin of bovine growth hormone-transgenic mice. However, transgenic delivery of growth hormone accelerated lymphatic vessel ingrowth into the granulation tissue of full-thickness skin wounds, and intradermal delivery of growth hormone resulted in enlargement and enhanced proliferation of cutaneous lymphatic vessels in wild-type mice. These results identify growth hormone as a novel lymphangiogenic factor. PMID:18583315

  19. Construction of monomers and chains assembled by 3d/4f metals and 4 Prime -(4-carboxyphenyl)-2,2 Prime :6 Prime ,2 Double-Prime -terpyridine

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Juan; Hu, Rui-Xiang; Zhang, Man-Bo

    2012-12-15

    A series of transition metal and lanthanide complexes of 4 Prime -(4-carboxyphenyl)-2,2 Prime :6 Prime ,2 Double-Prime -terpyridine (HL, 1), namely [M(L){sub 2}]{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O (M=Ni, 2; Co, 3), [Zn(L){sub 2}]{sub n}{center_dot}0.5nH{sub 2}O (4) and [Ln(L){sub 3}]{sub n} (Ln=Nd, 5; Gd, 6; Er, 7) were hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Isomorphic compounds 2 and 3 are mononuclear molecules with two ligand chelating to the metal centers via tridentate terpyridyl, while compound 4 adopts 1D chain-like structure, in which five-coordinate zinc centers are surrounded by three ligands. Compounds 5-7 also display 1D chain-like structure, but the nine-coordinate lanthanide centers bonded by four ligands. Luminescent property indicates that compound 4 exhibits photoluminescence in the solid state at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Six complexes of 4 Prime -(4-carboxyphenyl)-2,2 Prime :6 Prime ,2 Double-Prime -terpyridine were synthesized via assembly with transition metal and lanthanide ions, respectively. Among them, [Ni(L){sub 2}]{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O and [Co(L){sub 2}]{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O are monomers, while [Zn(L){sub 2}]{sub n}{center_dot}0.5nH{sub 2}O and [Ln(L){sub 3}]{sub n} display chain-like structures. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compounds of 4 Prime -(4-carboxyphenyl)-2,2 Prime :6 Prime ,2 Double-Prime -terpyridine were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer [Ni(L){sub 2}]{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O and [Co(L){sub 2}]{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O are monomers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer [Zn(L){sub 2}]{sub n}{center_dot}0.5nH{sub 2}O and [Ln(L){sub 3}]{sub n} display chain-like structures.

  20. Broodstock management and hormonal manipulations of fish reproduction.

    PubMed

    Mylonas, Constantinos C; Fostier, Alexis; Zanuy, Silvia

    2010-02-01

    Control of reproductive function in captivity is essential for the sustainability of commercial aquaculture production, and in many fishes it can be achieved by manipulating photoperiod, water temperature or spawning substrate. The fish reproductive cycle is separated in the growth (gametogenesis) and maturation phase (oocyte maturation and spermiation), both controlled by the reproductive hormones of the brain, pituitary and gonad. Although the growth phase of reproductive development is concluded in captivity in most fishes-the major exemption being the freshwater eel (Anguilla spp.), oocyte maturation (OM) and ovulation in females, and spermiation in males may require exogenous hormonal therapies. In some fishes, these hormonal manipulations are used only as a management tool to enhance the efficiency of egg production and facilitate hatchery operations, but in others exogenous hormones are the only way to produce fertilized eggs reliably. Hormonal manipulations of reproductive function in cultured fishes have focused on the use of either exogenous luteinizing hormone (LH) preparations that act directly at the level of the gonad, or synthetic agonists of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRHa) that act at the level of the pituitary to induce release of the endogenous LH stores, which, in turn act at the level of the gonad to induce steroidogenesis and the process of OM and spermiation. After hormonal induction of maturation, broodstock should spawn spontaneously in their rearing enclosures, however, the natural breeding behavior followed by spontaneous spawning may be lost in aquaculture conditions. Therefore, for many species it is also necessary to employ artificial gamete collection and fertilization. Finally, a common question in regards to hormonal therapies is their effect on gamete quality, compared to naturally maturing or spawning broodfish. The main factors that may have significant consequences on gamete quality-mainly on eggs-and should be considered

  1. Isolation and characterization of the human parathyroid hormone-like peptide gene

    SciTech Connect

    Mangin, M.; Ikeda, K.; Dreyer, B.E.; Broadus, A.E. )

    1989-04-01

    A parathyroid hormone-like peptide (PTH-LP) has recently been identified in human tumors associated with the syndrome of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. The peptide appears to be encoded by a single-copy gene that gives rise to multiple mRNAs that are heterogeneous at both their 5{prime} and their 3{prime} ends. Alternative RNA splicing is responsible for the 3{prime} heterogeneity and results in mRNAs encoding three different peptides, each with a unique C terminus. The authors have isolated and characterized the human PTHLP gene. The gene is a complex transcriptional unit spanning more than 12 kilobases of DNA and containing six exons. Two 5{prime} exons encode distinct 5{prime} untranslated regions and are separated by a putative promoter element, indicating that the gene either has two promoters or is alternatively spliced from a single promoter upstream of the first exon. The middle portion of the PTHLP gene, comprising exons 2-4, has an organizational pattern of introns and exons identical to that of the parathyroid hormone gene, consistent with a common ancestral origin of these two genes. Exon 4 of the PTHLP gene encodes the region common to all three peptides and the C terminus of the shortest peptide, and exons 5 and 6 encode the unique C termini of the other two peptides. Northern analysis of mRNAs from four human tumors of different histological types reveals the preferential use of 3{prime} splicing patterns of individual tumors.

  2. Thyroid Hormone and Cardioprotection.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, Anthony Martin; Ojamaa, Kaie

    2016-01-01

    The heart is a major target of thyroid hormones, with maintenance of euthyroid hormone balance critical for proper function. In particular, chronic low thyroid function can eventually lead to dilated heart failure with impaired coronary blood flow. New evidence also suggests that heart diseases trigger a reduction in cardiac tissue thyroid hormone levels, a condition that may not be detectible using serum hormone assays. Many animal and clinical studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of low thyroid function in heart diseases with worse outcomes from this condition. Animal and human studies have also demonstrated many benefits from thyroid hormone treatment of heart diseases, particularly heart failure. Nonetheless, this potential treatment has not yet translated to patients due to a number of important concerns. The most serious concern involves the potential of accidental overdose leading to increased arrhythmias and sudden death. Several important clinical studies, which actually used excessive doses of thyroid hormone analogs, have played a major role in convincing the medical community that thyroid hormones are simply too dangerous to be considered for treatment in cardiac patients. Nonetheless, this issue has not gone away due primarily to overwhelmingly positive evidence for treatment benefits and a new understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying those benefits. This review will first discuss the clinical evidence for the use of thyroid hormones as a cardioprotective agent and then provide an overview of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying beneficial changes from thyroid hormone treatment of heart diseases. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1199-1219, 2016. PMID:27347890

  3. Endocrine effects of 2,2{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl in the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)

    SciTech Connect

    Diana, S.; Hansen, L.; Foley, G.; Beasley, V.

    1995-12-31

    Ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls are known to exhibit estrogenic activity and, in some cases, to enhance excretion of tetraiodothyronine (T4), resulting in hypothyroxinemia in mammals. Since thyroxine activity is essential for amphibian metamorphosis, and amphibian sex determination can be altered or reversed by exposure to exogenous estrogens or androgens, the effects of exposure of larvae of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) to 2,2{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl (CB 47) were investigated. Eggs and larvae of X. laevis were exposed to nominal concentrations of CB 47 of 0.05 or 0.25 ppm (1 ppm was found to result in 100% mortality) throughout the period of larval development, and effects on rates of metamorphosis and body growth and on gonad morphology were determined. Stage of metamorphosis, body length and body weight did not differ between treatment and control groups, following exposure to these sub-lethal concentrations, at any time during larval development. Effects of exposure on gonad morphology will be discussed. The failure of CB 47 to delay or prevent metamorphosis under these conditions may be due to poor responsiveness of hepatic UDP-glucuronyl transferases to induction, or novel systems of thyroxine and/or PCB transport, metabolism and excretion in larval amphibians.

  4. Biology of PXR: role in drug-hormone interactions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Dai, Shu; Guo, Yan; Xie, Wen; Zhai, Yonggong

    2014-01-01

    Hormonal homeostasis is essential for a variety of physiological and pathological processes. Elimination and detoxification of xenobiotics, such as drugs introduced into the human body, could disrupt the balance of hormones due to the induction of drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and transporters. Pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) functions as a master xenobiotic receptor involved in drug metabolism and drug-drug interactions by its coordinated transcriptional regulation of phase I and phase II DMEs and transporters. Recently, increasing evidences indicate that PXR can also mediate the endocrine disruptor function and thus impact the integrity of the endocrine system. This review focuses primarily on the recent advances in our understanding of the function of PXR in glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, androgen and estrogen homeostasis. The elucidation of PXR-mediated drug-hormone interactions might have important therapeutic implications in dealing with hormone-dependent diseases and safety assessment of drugs. PMID:26417296

  5. Transfer of processing in repetition priming: some inappropriate findings.

    PubMed

    Brown, A S; Neblett, D R; Jones, T C; Mitchell, D B

    1991-05-01

    Transfer effects in repetition priming were found with both picture and word naming, but varied with the type of prime list. Unmixed lists of word or picture primes produced equivalent intra-modal and cross-modal repetition priming in both picture-naming (Experiment 1) and word-naming (Experiment 5) tasks. However, mixing word and picture primes resulted in greater intra-modal than cross-modal priming for both picture-naming (Experiment 2) and word-naming (Experiment 6) tasks. This mixed-list difference between intra-modal and cross-modal priming was reduced by blocking prime types at input (Experiment 3). These findings suggest that differences in priming as a function of prime stimulus format should be cautiously interpreted when mixed prime lists are used. PMID:1829475

  6. Russian Prime Minister Calls the Station Crew

    NASA Video Gallery

    Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin called the International Space Station from the Russian Mission Control Center in Korolev, Russia, on Jan. 11, 2011. Putin also offered his condolences to ISS ...

  7. OVATION Prime Model and "Aurorasaurus" Auroral Observations

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows the auroral oval, as modeled using OVATION Prime (2013), along with citizen science reports collected by the Aurorasaurus project for the St. Patrick’s Day storm over March 17-19, ...

  8. Riemann equation for prime number diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen; Liang, Yingjie

    2015-05-01

    This study makes the first attempt to propose the Riemann diffusion equation to describe in a manner of partial differential equation and interpret in physics of diffusion the classical Riemann method for prime number distribution. The analytical solution of this equation is the well-known Riemann representation. The diffusion coefficient is dependent on natural number, a kind of position-dependent diffusivity diffusion. We find that the diffusion coefficient of the Riemann diffusion equation is nearly a straight line having a slope 0.99734 in the double-logarithmic axis. Consequently, an approximate solution of the Riemann diffusion equation is obtained, which agrees well with the Riemann representation in predicting the prime number distribution. Moreover, we interpret the scale-free property of prime number distribution via a power law function with 1.0169 the scale-free exponent in respect to logarithmic transform of the natural number, and then the fractal characteristic of prime number distribution is disclosed.

  9. NASA and OPTIMUS PRIME Team Up

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA and OPTIMUS PRIME have teamed up to educate! Kids everywhere created videos showing how NASA technology is truly more than meets the eye, and now you can vote on your favorite! Visit http://ip...

  10. Negative priming in free recall reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Beaman, C Philip; Jones, Dylan M

    2016-05-01

    Negative priming in free recall is the finding of impaired memory performance when previously ignored auditory distracters become targets of encoding and retrieval. This negative priming has been attributed to an aftereffect of deploying inhibitory mechanisms that serve to suppress auditory distraction and minimize interference with learning and retrieval of task-relevant information. In 6 experiments, we tested the inhibitory account of the effect of negative priming in free recall against alternative accounts. We found that ignoring auditory distracters is neither sufficient nor necessary to produce the effect of negative priming in free recall. Instead, the effect is more readily accounted for by a buildup of proactive interference occurring whenever 2 successively presented lists of words are drawn from the same semantic category. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26595066

  11. Cannabis use, schizotypy, and negative priming.

    PubMed

    Albertella, Lucy; Le Pelley, Mike E; Copeland, Jan

    2015-08-30

    The present study examined the effects of frequency of cannabis use, schizotypy, and age on cognitive control, as measured using a location-based negative priming task in a sample of 124 Australians aged 15-24 who had ever used cannabis. This study found that the schizotypy dimension of Impulsive Nonconformity had a significant effect on negative priming such that participants with higher scores on this dimension showed reduced negative priming. Also, higher levels of psychological distress were associated with greater negative priming. Finally, there was a significant age by cannabis use interaction indicating that younger, frequent users of cannabis may be more susceptible to its effects on cognitive control and perhaps at greater risk of developing a disorder on the psychosis dimension. PMID:26154815

  12. Seed germination of medicinal plant, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill), as affected by different priming techniques.

    PubMed

    Tahaei, Amirreza; Soleymani, Ali; Shams, Majid

    2016-09-01

    Reduced seed germination is among the most important factors adversely affecting crop stand and subsequent plant growth. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an important medicinal plant with poor seed germination rate, occasionally. It is accordingly pertinent to find methods which can enhance fennel seed germination and remove the barriers of dormancy breaking. The present experiments studied the effects of two different priming (cold moist stratification and osmopriming) and 14 dormancy breaking techniques (hormonal, osmopriming, biopriming, chemical priming, and hydropriming) on the seed germination and seedling growth of two different fennel genotypes under growth chamber conditions. In the first and second experiment, the priming techniques including the time lengths of cold moist stratification (0, 15, 30, and 45 days) and the concentrations of polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000, osmopriming at -0.99, -1.35, and -2.33 MPa) were used as the main plots. However, in both experiments, the dormancy breaking techniques and fennel genotypes were factorially combined and used as the subplots. Different seed- and seedling-related parameters including germination (%), plumule, radicle and seedling length, average germination time, rate and homogeneity of germination, and seed vigor index were determined. Both priming techniques were efficient on the enhancement of seed germination and seedling growth. Among the dormancy breaking techniques, Aminol Forte (biopriming), kadostim (biopriming), benzyl adenine + kinetin (biopriming), distilled water (hydropriming), gibberellin + kinetin (hormonal priming), and benzyl adenine + kinetin + gibberellin (biopriming) were the most effective ones. The related concentrations were equal to 100 mg/l, 10(-5) M, and 0.4 %. The fennel genotypes reacted significantly different under priming conditions. It is possible to enhance seed germination and seedling growth of fennel using priming and dormancy breaking

  13. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... There are two types of bioidentical hormone products: • Pharmaceutical products. These products have been approved by the ... made products. These are made in a compounding pharmacy (a pharmacy that mixes medications according to a ...

  14. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... There are two types of bioidentical hormone products: Pharmaceutical products . These products have been approved by the ... made products. These are made in a compounding pharmacy(a pharmacy that mixes medications according to a ...

  15. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... is to closely replicate normal thyroid functioning. Pure, synthetic thyroxine (T4) works in the same way as ... needing thyroid hormone replacement (see Hypothyroidism brochure ). Pure synthetic thyroxine (T4), taken once daily by mouth, successfully ...

  16. Growth hormone stimulation test

    MedlinePlus

    The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of the body to produce GH. ... killing medicine (antiseptic). The first sample is drawn early in the morning. Medicine is given through the ...

  17. Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Endocrine System » Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

  18. Autoimmunity against thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Sakata, S

    1994-01-01

    The presence of thyroid hormone autoantibodies (THAA) is a common phenomenon. More than 270 cases have been reported by the end of 1993 involving not only thyroidal but also nonthyroidal disorders. Clinically, THAA in a patient's serum produces variation in thyroid hormone metabolism and, in particular, may interfere with the radioimmunoassay (RIA) results of total or free thyroid hormone measurements, which can cause unusually high or low values of the hormones depending on the B/F separation method used. This in vitro interference can give clinicians confusing information about the patient's thyroid state. As a result, the patient may receive inappropriate treatment from physicians who are unaware of this disorder. The presence of THAA has been reported not only in humans but also in dogs, chickens, and rats. In this review article, clinical features of THAA and the mechanism of autoantibody production are discussed. PMID:7535535

  19. Vaginal bleeding - hormonal

    MedlinePlus

    ... taken just before the period starts Women over age 40 and older may have the option to receive cyclic progestin or cyclic hormone therapy. A health care provider may recommend iron supplements for women with anemia. If you want ...

  20. Amygdala priming results in conditioned place avoidance.

    PubMed

    Thielen, Shelley K; Shekhar, Anantha

    2002-03-01

    Priming involves daily stimulation of the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) for 5 days using a dose of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist, bicuculline methiodide (BMI), that is subthreshold to generate anxiogenic-like responses. The coordinated physiological and behavioral response of the primed rat is similar to the symptoms of human panic disorder and has been used as a model to study panic attacks. If the priming procedure is indeed similar to human panic disorder, then the context in which priming occurs should become associated with aversive conditioning and avoidance as seen in secondary agoraphobia following panic attacks in humans. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to further characterize the behavioral response of priming using the conditioned place avoidance (CPA) task that utilizes distinct tactile cues of a grid floor (Grid+) or hole floor (Grid-). Male Wistar rats (275-300 g) were implanted bilaterally with guide cannulae positioned 1 mm above the BLA. Grid+ animals were placed in the conditioning chamber containing grid floors immediately after a 6-pmol (in 250 nl) BMI injection into the BLA and on hole floors following a sham (250 nl vehicle) injection. Grid animals were placed in the chamber containing hole floors after the BMI injection and on grid floors following the sham injection. Animals were placed in the chamber for 20 min following each injection and injections were separated by 4 h. After 5 days of this treatment, the animals were primed. Two days later, during avoidance testing, each animal was placed in the chamber containing both floors for 30 min. Priming with daily 6-pmol BMI injections into the BLA results in CPA or an aversion to the floor paired with the BMI injection. These results suggest that priming may result in phobic-like responses, similar to the avoidance behavior exhibited by panic disorder patients. PMID:11830174

  1. Adaptive and maladaptive mechanisms of cellular priming.

    PubMed Central

    Meldrum, D R; Cleveland, J C; Moore, E E; Partrick, D A; Banerjee, A; Harken, A H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms of cellular priming resulting in both adaptive and maladaptive responses to subsequent injury and strategies for manipulating this priming to constructive therapeutic advantage are explored. BACKGROUND DATA: A cell is prepared or educated by an initial insult (priming stimulus). Investigations in both laboratory animals and humans indicate that cells, organs, and perhaps even whole patients respond differently to a proximal second insult ("second hit") by virtue of this prior environmental history. The opportunity to achieve the primed state appears to be conserved across almost all cell types. The initial stimulus transmits a message to the cellular machinery that influences the cell's response to a subsequent challenge. This response may result in an exaggerated inflammatory response in the case of the neutrophil (an often maladaptive process) or an improved tolerance to injury by the myocyte (adaptive response). Our global hypothesis is that cellular priming is a conserved, receptor-dependent process that invokes common intracellular targets across multiple cell types. We further postulate that these targets create a language based on the transient phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of intracellular enzymes that is therapeutically accessible. CONCLUSIONS: Priming is a conserved, receptor-dependent process transduced by means of intracellular targets across multiple cell types. The potential therapeutic strategies outlined involve the receptor-mediated manipulation of cellular events. These events are transmitted through an intracellular language that instructs the cell regarding its behavior in response to subsequent stimulation. Understanding these intracellular events represents a realistic goal of priming and preconditioning biology and will likely lead to clinical control of the primed state. PMID:9389392

  2. Protein Hormones and Immunity‡

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Keith W.; Weigent, Douglas A.; Kooijman, Ron

    2007-01-01

    A number of observations and discoveries over the past 20 years support the concept of important physiological interactions between the endocrine and immune systems. The best known pathway for transmission of information from the immune system to the neuroendocrine system is humoral in the form of cytokines, although neural transmission via the afferent vagus is well documented also. In the other direction, efferent signals from the nervous system to the immune system are conveyed by both the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous systems. Communication is possible because the nervous and immune systems share a common biochemical language involving shared ligands and receptors, including neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, growth factors, neuroendocrine hormones and cytokines. This means that the brain functions as an immune-regulating organ participating in immune responses. A great deal of evidence has accumulated and confirmed that hormones secreted by the neuroendocrine system play an important role in communication and regulation of the cells of the immune system. Among protein hormones, this has been most clearly documented for prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I), but significant influences on immunity by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) have also been demonstrated. Here we review evidence obtained during the past 20 years to clearly demonstrate that neuroendocrine protein hormones influence immunity and that immune processes affect the neuroendocrine system. New findings highlight a previously undiscovered route of communication between the immune and endocrine systems that is now known to occur at the cellular level. This communication system is activated when inflammatory processes induced by proinflammatory cytokines antagonize the function of a variety of hormones, which then causes endocrine resistance in both the periphery and brain. Homeostasis during inflammation is achieved by a balance between cytokines and

  3. Atrazine-induced elevation or attenuation of the LH surge in the ovariectomized, estrogen-primed female rat: role of adrenal progesterone

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple daily exposures to the herbicide atrazine have been reported to suppress the surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) in both cycling female rats and those that are ovariectomized (OVX) and exogenously primed with steroids. Additional studies have also found elevations in both ...

  4. Priming addition facts with semantic relations.

    PubMed

    Bassok, Miriam; Pedigo, Samuel F; Oskarsson, An T

    2008-03-01

    Results from 2 relational-priming experiments suggest the existence of an automatic analogical coordination between semantic and arithmetic relations. Word pairs denoting object sets served as primes in a task that elicits "obligatory" activation of addition facts (5 + 3 activates 8; J. LeFevre, J. Bisanz, & L. Mrkonjic, 1988). Semantic relations between the priming words were either aligned or misaligned with the structure of addition (M. Bassok, V. M. Chase, & S. A. Martin, 1998). Obligatory activation of addition facts occurred when the digits were primed by categorically related words (tulips-daisies), which are aligned with addition, but did not occur when the digits were primed by unrelated words (hens-radios, Experiment 1) or by functionally related words (records-songs, Experiment 2), which are misaligned with addition. These findings lend support to the viability of automatic analogical priming (B. A. Spellman, K. J. Holyoak, & R. G. Morrison, 2001) and highlight the relevance of arithmetic applications to theoretical accounts of mental arithmetic. PMID:18315410

  5. In vivo effect of 3,5,3 prime -triiodothyronine on calcium uptake in several tissues in the rat: Evidence for a physiological role for calcium as the first messenger for the prompt action of thyroid hormone at the level of the plasma membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, J. )

    1990-07-01

    Calcium has been shown in vitro to serve as the first messenger for the rapid effect of thyroid hormone at the level of the plasma membrane. In the present study the physiological relevance of this mechanism is examined in the whole animal. To this end, the effect of T3 on 45calcium uptake and sugar 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake, an effect that requires extracellular calcium, and the influence of calcium blockers thereon were measured in ventricles, atria, diaphragm, fat, and liver in the rat. In the first three tissues, T3 produced comparable changes in 45Ca uptake and 2-DG uptake (T3 increased 2-DG uptake in fat, where 45Ca uptake was undetected, and had no effect in liver); this activity was blocked by the calcium channel blocker cadmium. The effect of T3 on 45Ca uptake, like its effect on the in vivo uptake of 2-DG described previously, was biphasic and time related; at physiological doses of 0.01 and 0.1 micrograms/100 g BW, T3 increased 45Ca uptake, whereas at greater (pharmacological) doses of 1 and 100 micrograms/100 g BW, T3 was without effect or inhibited 45Ca uptake. In ventricles and atria, the stimulatory effect of T3 on 45Ca uptake was very rapid within 2 min, at which time it was at or near maximum (50-90% above control) and then declined gradually and was not seen after 10-20 min. Of the several calcium blockers employed, verapamil (organic) and cadmium (inorganic) were found to be the most effective. Verapamil and cadmium produced a rapid, transient, and dose-related inhibition of 45Ca uptake in the tissues examined (except fat tissue where, under the experimental conditions employed, 45Ca uptake was undetected). Verapamil, given iv (200 micrograms/100 g BW) or ip (1 mg/100 g BW), reduced tissue 45Ca uptake by 50-90% within 2 or 10 min, respectively, and then its inhibitory effect diminished rapidly and was not seen after 20-30 min.

  6. Thyroid hormone accelerates the differentiation of adult hippocampal progenitors.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, R; Desouza, L A; Nanavaty, I N; Kernie, S G; Vaidya, V A

    2012-09-01

    Disrupted thyroid hormone function evokes severe physiological consequences in the immature brain. In adulthood, although clinical reports document an effect of thyroid hormone status on mood and cognition, the molecular and cellular changes underlying these behavioural effects are poorly understood. More recently, the subtle effects of thyroid hormone on structural plasticity in the mature brain, in particular on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, have come to be appreciated. However, the specific stages of adult hippocampal progenitor development that are sensitive to thyroid hormone are not defined. Using nestin-green fluorescent protein reporter mice, we demonstrate that thyroid hormone mediates its effects on hippocampal neurogenesis by influencing Type 2b and Type 3 progenitors, although it does not alter proliferation of either the Type 1 quiescent progenitor or the Type 2a amplifying neural progenitor. Thyroid hormone increases the number of doublecortin (DCX)-positive Type 3 progenitors, and accelerates neuronal differentiation into both DCX-positive immature neurones and neuronal nuclei-positive granule cell neurones. Furthermore, we show that this increase in neuronal differentiation is accompanied by a significant induction of specific transcription factors involved in hippocampal progenitor differentiation. In vitro studies using the neurosphere assay support a direct effect of thyroid hormone on progenitor development because neurospheres treated with thyroid hormone are shifted to a more differentiated state. Taken together, our results indicate that thyroid hormone mediates its neurogenic effects via targeting Type 2b and Type 3 hippocampal progenitors, and suggests a role for proneural transcription factors in contributing to the effects of thyroid hormone on neuronal differentiation of adult hippocampal progenitors. PMID:22497336

  7. A push-button: Spodoptera exigua oviposition on Nicotiana attenuata dose-independently primes the feeding-induced plant defense.

    PubMed

    Bandoly, Michele; Steppuhn, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Insect oviposition on a plant often precedes the attack by herbivorous larvae. We recently discovered that oviposition by Spodoptera exigua moths on the desert tobacco Nicotiana attenuata primes the induction of 2 defense traits, a phenylpropanoid and activity of protease inhibitors, in response to larval feeding. Oviposition-experienced plants suffer a reduced feeding damage by less and smaller larvae than unexperienced control plants. The increased resistance of oviposition-experienced plants requires the plant's ability to activate its biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids via a Myb transcription factor. Oviposition by S. exigua on N. attenuata is highly variable with respect to the amount, distribution and localization of the eggs on the plant. This raises the question, whether the plant's priming of herbivore defense depends on the egg number and localization. S. exigua moths prefer the oldest leaves for oviposition and yet prime defense-induction in the larval attacked young systemic leaves. Neither the levels of the primed defense traits, nor the affected larval mortality correlate with the number of eggs a plant previously received. This suggests that upon S. exigua oviposition, N. attenuata is shifted - independently of the egg-dose - into a primed state that is responding stronger to the feeding larvae than unprimed plants. PMID:26555313

  8. A push-button: Spodoptera exigua oviposition on Nicotiana attenuata dose-independently primes the feeding-induced plant defense

    PubMed Central

    Bandoly, Michele; Steppuhn, Anke

    2016-01-01

    abstract Insect oviposition on a plant often precedes the attack by herbivorous larvae. We recently discovered that oviposition by Spodoptera exigua moths on the desert tobacco Nicotiana attenuata primes the induction of 2 defense traits, a phenylpropanoid and activity of protease inhibitors, in response to larval feeding. Oviposition-experienced plants suffer a reduced feeding damage by less and smaller larvae than unexperienced control plants. The increased resistance of oviposition-experienced plants requires the plant's ability to activate its biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids via a Myb transcription factor. Oviposition by S. exigua on N. attenuata is highly variable with respect to the amount, distribution and localization of the eggs on the plant. This raises the question, whether the plant's priming of herbivore defense depends on the egg number and localization. S. exigua moths prefer the oldest leaves for oviposition and yet prime defense-induction in the larval attacked young systemic leaves. Neither the levels of the primed defense traits, nor the affected larval mortality correlate with the number of eggs a plant previously received. This suggests that upon S. exigua oviposition, N. attenuata is shifted – independently of the egg-dose – into a primed state that is responding stronger to the feeding larvae than unprimed plants. PMID:26555313

  9. Difference in growth hormone response to growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) testing following GHRH subacute treatment in normal aging and growth hormone-deficient adults: possible perspectives for therapeutic use of GHRH or its analogs in elderly subjects?

    PubMed

    Iovino, M; Triggiani, V; Giagulli, V A; Iovine, N; Licchelli, B; Resta, F; Sabbà, C; Tafaro, E; Solimando, A; Tommasicchio, A; Guastamacchia, E

    2011-06-01

    The somatotroph axis function shows a decline in the elderly (somatopause). In particular growth hormone (GH) response to GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) is reduced in aged man but less than that observed in GH-deficient adults (GHDAs). Plasma GH response to GHRH (1 µg/kg BW) was significantly lower in four GHDAs than in seven healthy aged men 30, 60, and 90 min after acute GHRH administration. To verify whether a priming regimen might be able to increase the reduced GH response to GHRH, both healthy aged men and GHDA patients underwent repetitive administration of GHRH (100 µg GHRH intravenously as a single morning dose, every 2 days for 12 days). After the GHRH-priming regimen, plasma GH values 30, 60, and 90 min after the acute GHRH test were significantly higher than values at the corresponding time points before priming regimen in healthy aged men but not in GHDA patients. These findings confirmed that somatotroph cells become less sensitive to GHRH with normal aging and demonstrate that repetitive administration of GHRH restores the attenuated response only in healthy aged men but not in GHDA patients. This could support the possible use of GHRH or its analogs instead of recombinant human GH in elderly patients with the advantage of preserving the endogenous pulses of GH with the secretion of the different isoforms of GH. However, concerns arise about the possible role of these molecules in tumorigenesis and tumor growth promotion. PMID:20843274

  10. Deiodination as an index of chemical disruption of thyroid hormone homeostasis and thyroidal status in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Eales, J.G.; Brown, S.B.; Cyr, D.G.; Adams, B.A.; Finnson, K.R.

    1999-07-01

    Commonly used indices of fish thyroidal status are based on thyroxine (T4) secretion by thyroid tissue under control of the central brain-pituitary-thyroid axis. However, much of the control of the fish thyroid system also occurs in peripheral tissues, such as liver, by regulating T4 prohormone conversion to biologically active 3,5,3{prime}-triiodothyronine (T3) or to biologically inactive 3,3{prime},5{prime}-triiodothyronine and by regulating T3 conversion to inactive 3,3{prime}-diiodothyronine. These extrathyroidal conversions depend on a family of independently-regulated selenocysteine-containing microsomal deiodinases. The authors describe deiodination assays and evaluate their potential as biomarkers for exposure to chemicals that directly or indirectly disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis or thyroidal status. The authors conclude that deiodination be included in a minimum suite of assays to detect xenobiotic effects on the fish thyroid system.

  11. Characterization of Flavonoid 3[prime],5[prime]-Hydroxylase in Microsomal Membrane Fraction of Petunia hybrida Flowers.

    PubMed Central

    Menting, JGT.; Scopes, R. K.; Stevenson, T. W.

    1994-01-01

    We have detected a flavonoid 3[prime],5[prime]-hydroxylase (F3[prime],5[prime]H) in the microsomal fraction of Petunia hybrida flowers. Activity varied with the development of flowers, peaking immediately prior to and during anthesis, but was absent in mature flowers. F3[prime],5[prime]H activity in flower extracts from genetically defined floral color mutants correlated strictly with the genotypes Hf1 and Hf2. No activity was detected in flowers from mutants homozygous recessive for both alleles. F3[prime],5[prime]H activity was dependent on NADPH and molecular oxygen; there was only slight activity with NADH. The enzyme catalyzes the hydroxylation of 5,7,4[prime]-trihydroxyflavonone at the 3[prime] and 5[prime] positions, and of 5,7,3[prime],4[prime]-tetrahydroxyflavonone and dihydroquercetin at the 5[prime] position. Hydroxylase activity was inhibited by plant growth regulators (1-aminobenzotriazole and tetcyclacis) and by CO, N-ethylmaleimide, diethyldithiocarbamate, and cytochrome (Cyt) c. Activity was not affected by diethylpyrocarbonate or phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, but was enhanced by 2-mercaptoethanol. A polyclonal antibody that inhibits higher plant NADPH-Cyt P450 reductase inhibited the F3[prime],5[prime]H. The data are consistent with the suggestion that the P. hybrida F3[prime],5[prime]H is a monooxygenase consisting of a Cyt P450 and a NADPH-Cyt P-450 reductase. Cyts P450 were detected in microsomal membranes and in solubilized detergent extracts of these membranes. F3[prime],5[prime]H activity was sensitive to low concentrations of all detergents tested, and therefore solubilization of the active enzyme was not achieved. Reaction products other than flavanones were observed in F3[prime],5[prime]H assays and these may be formed by enzymic oxidation of flavanones. The possibility of a microsomal flavone synthase of a type that has not been described in P. hybrida is discussed. PMID:12232356

  12. Priming Ability-Relevant Social Categories Improves Intellectual Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Phoebe S.; Kennette, Lynne N.; Van Havermaet, Lisa R.; Frank, Nichole M.; McIntyre, Rusty B.

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that priming affects behavioral tasks; fewer studies, however, have been conducted on how social category primes affect cognitive tasks. The present study aimed to examine the effects of social category primes on math performance and word recall. It was hypothesized that Asian prime words would improve math performance and word…

  13. An Electrophysiological Investigation of Early Effects of Masked Morphological Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Joanna; Grainger, Jonathan; Holcomb, Phillip J.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment examined event-related responses to targets preceded by semantically transparent morphologically related primes (e.g., farmer-farm), semantically opaque primes with an apparent morphological relation (corner-corn), and orthographically, but not morphologically, related primes (scandal-scan) using the masked priming technique…

  14. Masked Priming from Orthographic Neighbors: An ERP Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massol, Stephanie; Grainger, Jonathan; Dufau, Stephane; Holcomb, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments combined masked priming with event-related potential (ERP) recordings to examine effects of primes that are orthographic neighbors of target words. Experiment 1 compared effects of repetition primes with effects of primes that were high-frequency orthographic neighbors of low-frequency targets (e.g., faute-faune [error-wildlife]),…

  15. Semantic Priming for Coordinate Distant Concepts in Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perri, R.; Zannino, G. D.; Caltagirone, C.; Carlesimo, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    Semantic priming paradigms have been used to investigate semantic knowledge in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). While priming effects produced by prime-target pairs with associative relatedness reflect processes at both lexical and semantic levels, priming effects produced by words that are semantically related but not associated should…

  16. Masked Inhibitory Priming in English: Evidence for Lexical Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Colin J.; Lupker, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    Predictions derived from the interactive activation (IA) model were tested in 3 experiments using the masked priming technique in the lexical decision task. Experiment 1 showed a strong effect of prime lexicality: Classifications of target words were facilitated by orthographically related nonword primes (relative to unrelated nonword primes) but…

  17. Processing Speaker Variability in Repetition and Semantic/Associative Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chao-Yang; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The effect of speaker variability on accessing the form and meaning of spoken words was evaluated in two short-term priming experiments. In the repetition priming experiment, participants listened to repeated or unrelated prime-target pairs, in which the prime and target were produced by the same speaker or different speakers. The results showed…

  18. Decomposition of Repetition Priming Components in Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Wendy S.; Corral, Nuvia I.; Jones, Mary L.; Saenz, Silvia P.

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive mechanisms underlying repetition priming in picture naming were decomposed in several experiments. Sets of encoding manipulations meant to selectively prime or reduce priming in object identification or word production components of picture naming were combined factorially to dissociate processes underlying priming in picture naming.…

  19. Cytokinin primes plant responses to wounding and reduces insect performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report a potential role of endogenous cytokinin supply in priming plant defense against herbivory. Cytokinin priming significantly reduced weight gain by insect larvae. Unlike previously described priming by volatile compounds, priming by cytokinin did not overcome vascular restrictions on system...

  20. Assessment of the hormonal milieu.

    PubMed

    Hankinson, Susan E; Tworoger, Shelley S

    2011-01-01

    The hormonal milieu has been hypothesized to play a role in a range of human diseases, and therefore has been a topic of much epidemiologic investigation. Hormones of particular interest include: sex steroids; growth hormones; insulin-like growth factors; stress hormones, such as cortisol; and hormones produced by the adipose tissue, termed adipokines. Depending on the hormone, levels may be measured in plasma or serum, urine, saliva, tissue, or by assessing genetic variation in the hormone or hormone metabolizing genes. Sample collection, processing, and storage requirements vary according to the type of sample collected (e.g. blood or urine) and the hormone of interest. Laboratory analysis of hormones is frequently complex, and the technology used to conduct the assays is constantly evolving. For example, direct or indirect radioimmunoassay, bioassay or mass spectrometry can be used to measure sex steroids, each having advantages and disadvantages. Careful attention to laboratory issues, including close collaboration with laboratory colleagues and ongoing quality control assessments, is critical. Whether a single hormone measurement, as is frequently collected in epidemiologic studies, is sufficient to characterize the hormonal environment of interest (e.g. long-term adult hormone exposure) is also an important issue. While the assessment of hormones in epidemiologic studies is complex, these efforts have, and will continue to, add importantly to our knowledge of the role of hormones in human health. PMID:22997864

  1. Epigenetic priming of enhancers predicts developmental competence of hESC-derived endodermal lineage intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Allen; Yue, Feng; Li, Yan; Xie, Ruiyu; Harper, Thomas; Patel, Nisha A.; Muth, Kayla; Palmer, Jeffrey; Qiu, Yunjiang; Wang, Jinzhao; Lam, Dieter K.; Raum, Jeffrey C.; Stoffers, Doris A.; Ren, Bing; Sander, Maike

    2015-01-01

    Summary Embryonic development relies on the capacity of progenitor cells to appropriately respond to inductive cues; a cellular property known as developmental competence. Here we report that epigenetic priming of enhancers signifies developmental competence during endodermal lineage diversification. Chromatin mapping during pancreatic and hepatic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells revealed the en masse acquisition of a poised chromatin state at enhancers specific to endoderm-derived cell lineages in gut tube intermediates. Experimentally, the acquisition of this poised enhancer state predicts the ability of endodermal intermediates to respond to inductive signals. Furthermore, these enhancers are first recognized by the pioneer transcription factors FOXA1 and FOXA2 when competence is acquired, while subsequent recruitment of lineage-inductive transcription factors, such as PDX1, leads to enhancer and target gene activation. Together, our results identify the acquisition of a poised chromatin state at enhancers as a mechanism by which progenitor cells acquire developmental competence. PMID:25842977

  2. Implicit phonological priming during visual word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Lisa B.; Tregellas, Jason R.; Slason, Erin; Pasko, Bryce E.; Rojas, Donald C.

    2011-01-01

    Phonology is a lower-level structural aspect of language involving the sounds of a language and their organization in that language. Numerous behavioral studies utilizing priming, which refers to an increased sensitivity to a stimulus following prior experience with that or a related stimulus, have provided evidence for the role of phonology in visual word recognition. However, most language studies utilizing priming in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have focused on lexical-semantic aspects of language processing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neurobiological substrates of the automatic, implicit stages of phonological processing. While undergoing fMRI, eighteen individuals performed a lexical decision task (LDT) on prime-target pairs including word-word homophone and pseudoword-word pseudohomophone pairs with a prime presentation below perceptual threshold. Whole-brain analyses revealed several cortical regions exhibiting hemodynamic response suppression due to phonological priming including bilateral superior temporal gyri (STG), middle temporal gyri (MTG), and angular gyri (AG) with additional region of interest (ROI) analyses revealing response suppression in left lateralized supramarginal gyrus (SMG). Homophone and pseudohomophone priming also resulted in different patterns of hemodynamic responses relative to one another. These results suggest that phonological processing plays a key role in visual word recognition. Furthermore, enhanced hemodynamic responses for unrelated stimuli relative to primed stimuli were observed in midline cortical regions corresponding to the default-mode network (DMN) suggesting that DMN activity can be modulated by task requirements within the context of an implicit task. PMID:21159322

  3. Modulation of 2{prime}-5{prime} oligoadenylate synthetase by environmental stress in the marine sponge Geodia cydonium

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, H.C.; Wiens, M.; Mueller, W.E.G.; Kuusksalu, A.; Kelve, M.

    1997-07-01

    Recently the authors established the presence of relatively high amounts of 2{prime}-5{prime} oligoadenylates (2{prime}-5{prime} A) and 2{prime}-5{prime} oligoadenylate synthetase (2{prime}-5{prime} A synthetase) in the marine sponge Geodia cydonium. Here they determined by applying radioimmunoassay and high-performance liquid chromatographical methods that the concentration of 2{prime}-5{prime} A synthetase change following exposure of G. cydonium tissue to environmental stress. The 2{prime}-5{prime} A content and the activity of 2{prime}-5{prime} A synthetase, present in crude sponge extract, increase by up to three-fold after treating sponge cubes for 2 h with natural stressors including heat shock (26 C), cold shock (6 C), pH shock (pH 6), and hypertonic shock and subsequent incubation for 18 h under ambient conditions (16 C). No response was observed after exposure of sponges to an alkaline (pH 10) or hypotonic environment. Similar changes have been found for the expression of heat shock protein HSP70 in G. cydonium. These results show that 2{prime}-5{prime} A in sponges may be useful as a novel biomarker for environmental monitoring.

  4. Invariance to Rotation in Depth Measured by Masked Repetition Priming is Dependent on Prime Duration

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Marianna D.; Holcomb, Phillip J.

    2011-01-01

    The current experiment examined invariance to pictures of objects rotated in depth using event-related potentials (ERPs) and masked repetition priming. Specifically we rotated objects 30°, 60° or 150° from their canonical view and, across two experiments, varied the prime duration (50 or 90 milliseconds (ms)). We examined three ERP components, the P/N190, N300 and N400. In Experiment 1, only the 30° rotation condition produced repetition priming effects on the N/P190, N300 and N400. The other rotation conditions only showed repetition priming effects on the early perceptual component, the N/P190. Experiment 2 extended the prime duration to 90 ms to determine whether additional exposure to the prime may produce invariance on the N300 and N400 for the 60° and 150° rotation conditions. Repetition priming effects were found for all rotation conditions across the N/P190, N300 and N400 components. We interpret these results to suggest that whether or not view invariant priming effects are found depends partly on the extent to which representation of an object has been activated. PMID:22005687

  5. Prime and prejudice: co-occurrence in the culture as a source of automatic stereotype priming.

    PubMed

    Verhaeghen, Paul; Aikman, Shelley N; Van Gulick, Ana E

    2011-09-01

    It has been argued that stereotype priming (response times are faster for stereotypical word pairs, such as black-poor, than for non-stereotypical word pairs, such as black-balmy) is partially a function of biases in the belief system inherent in the culture. In three priming experiments, we provide direct evidence for this position, showing that stereotype priming effects associated with race, gender, and age can be very well explained through objectively measured associative co-occurrence of prime and target in the culture: (a) once objective associative strength between word pairs is taken into account, stereotype priming effects disappear; (b) the relationship between response time and associative strength is identical for social primes and non-social primes. The correlation between associative-value-controlled stereotype priming and self-report measures of racism, sexism, and ageism is near zero. The racist/sexist/ageist in all of us appears to be (at least partially) a reflection of the surrounding culture. PMID:21884547

  6. Early Morphological Decomposition of Suffixed Words: Masked Priming Evidence with Transposed-Letter Nonword Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyersmann, Elisabeth; Dunabeitia, Jon Andoni; Carreiras, Manuel; Coltheart, Max; Castles, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have previously reported that the recognition of a stem target (e.g., "teach") is facilitated by the prior masked presentation of a prime consisting of a derived form of it (e.g., "teacher"). We conducted two lexical decision experiments to investigate masked morphological priming in Spanish. Experiment 1 showed…

  7. Smelly primes – when olfactory primes do or do not work

    PubMed Central

    Smeets, M. A. M.; Dijksterhuis, G. B.

    2014-01-01

    In applied olfactory cognition the effects that olfactory stimulation can have on (human) behavior are investigated. To enable an efficient application of olfactory stimuli a model of how they may lead to a change in behavior is proposed. To this end we use the concept of olfactory priming. Olfactory priming may prompt a special view on priming as the olfactory sense has some unique properties which make odors special types of primes. Examples of such properties are the ability of odors to influence our behavior outside of awareness, to lead to strong affective evaluations, to evoke specific memories, and to associate easily and quickly to other environmental stimuli. Opportunities and limitations for using odors as primes are related to these properties, and alternative explanations for reported findings are offered. Implications for olfactory semantic, construal, behavior and goal priming are given based on a brief overview of the priming literature from social psychology and from olfactory perception science. We end by formulating recommendations and ideas for a future research agenda and applications for olfactory priming. PMID:24575071

  8. Gastrointestinal hormones regulating appetite.

    PubMed

    Chaudhri, Owais; Small, Caroline; Bloom, Steve

    2006-07-29

    The role of gastrointestinal hormones in the regulation of appetite is reviewed. The gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ in the body. Gut hormones function to optimize the process of digestion and absorption of nutrients by the gut. In this capacity, their local effects on gastrointestinal motility and secretion have been well characterized. By altering the rate at which nutrients are delivered to compartments of the alimentary canal, the control of food intake arguably constitutes another point at which intervention may promote efficient digestion and nutrient uptake. In recent decades, gut hormones have come to occupy a central place in the complex neuroendocrine interactions that underlie the regulation of energy balance. Many gut peptides have been shown to influence energy intake. The most well studied in this regard are cholecystokinin (CCK), pancreatic polypeptide, peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin and ghrelin. With the exception of ghrelin, these hormones act to increase satiety and decrease food intake. The mechanisms by which gut hormones modify feeding are the subject of ongoing investigation. Local effects such as the inhibition of gastric emptying might contribute to the decrease in energy intake. Activation of mechanoreceptors as a result of gastric distension may inhibit further food intake via neural reflex arcs. Circulating gut hormones have also been shown to act directly on neurons in hypothalamic and brainstem centres of appetite control. The median eminence and area postrema are characterized by a deficiency of the blood-brain barrier. Some investigators argue that this renders neighbouring structures, such as the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius in the brainstem, susceptible to influence by circulating factors. Extensive reciprocal connections exist between these areas and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and other energy-regulating centres of the

  9. Thyroid hormone resistance.

    PubMed

    Olateju, Tolulope O; Vanderpump, Mark P J

    2006-11-01

    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited syndrome of reduced end-organ responsiveness to thyroid hormone. Patients with RTH have elevated serum free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentrations and normal or slightly elevated serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level. Despite a variable clinical presentation, the common characteristic clinical features are goitre but an absence of the usual symptoms and metabolic consequences of thyroid hormone excess. Patients with RTH can be classified on clinical grounds alone into either generalized resistance (GRTH), pituitary resistance (PRTH) or combined. Mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) beta gene are responsible for RTH and 122 different mutations have now been identified belonging to 300 families. With the exception of one family found to have complete deletion of the TRbeta gene, all others have been demonstrated to have minor alterations at the DNA level. The differential diagnosis includes a TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma and the presence of endogenous antibodies directed against thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Failure to differentiate RTH from primary thyrotoxicosis has resulted in the inappropriate treatment of nearly one-third of patients. Although occasionally desirable, no specific treatment is available for RTH; however, the diagnosis allows appropriate genetic counselling. PMID:17132274

  10. Plant peptide hormone signalling.

    PubMed

    Motomitsu, Ayane; Sawa, Shinichiro; Ishida, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The ligand-receptor-based cell-to-cell communication system is one of the most important molecular bases for the establishment of complex multicellular organisms. Plants have evolved highly complex intercellular communication systems. Historical studies have identified several molecules, designated phytohormones, that function in these processes. Recent advances in molecular biological analyses have identified phytohormone receptors and signalling mediators, and have led to the discovery of numerous peptide-based signalling molecules. Subsequent analyses have revealed the involvement in and contribution of these peptides to multiple aspects of the plant life cycle, including development and environmental responses, similar to the functions of canonical phytohormones. On the basis of this knowledge, the view that these peptide hormones are pivotal regulators in plants is becoming increasingly accepted. Peptide hormones are transcribed from the genome and translated into peptides. However, these peptides generally undergo further post-translational modifications to enable them to exert their function. Peptide hormones are expressed in and secreted from specific cells or tissues. Apoplastic peptides are perceived by specialized receptors that are located at the surface of target cells. Peptide hormone-receptor complexes activate intracellular signalling through downstream molecules, including kinases and transcription factors, which then trigger cellular events. In this chapter we provide a comprehensive summary of the biological functions of peptide hormones, focusing on how they mature and the ways in which they modulate plant functions. PMID:26374891

  11. [Hormones and hair growth].

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair. PMID:20502852

  12. Prime time advertisements: repetition priming from faces seen on subject recruitment posters.

    PubMed

    Bruce, V; Carson, D; Burton, A M; Kelly, S

    1998-05-01

    Repetition priming is defined as a gain in item recognition after previous exposure. Repetition priming of face recognition has been shown to last for several months, despite contamination by everyday exposure to both experimental and control faces in the interval. Here we show that gains in face recognition in the laboratory are found from faces initially seen in a rather different context--on subject recruitment posters, even when the advertisements make no specific mention of experiments involving face recognition. The priming was greatest when identical pictures were shown in the posters and in the test phase, although different views of faces did give significant priming in one study. Follow-up studies revealed poor explicit memory for the faces shown on the posters. The results of these experiments are used to develop a model in which repetition priming reflects the process of updating representations of familiar faces. PMID:9610121

  13. A computational approach to negative priming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrobsdorff, H.; Ihrke, M.; Kabisch, B.; Behrendt, J.; Hasselhorn, M.; Herrmann, J. Michael

    2007-09-01

    Priming is characterized by a sensitivity of reaction times to the sequence of stimuli in psychophysical experiments. The reduction of the reaction time observed in positive priming is well-known and experimentally understood (Scarborough et al., J. Exp. Psycholol: Hum. Percept. Perform., 3, pp. 1-17, 1977). Negative priming—the opposite effect—is experimentally less tangible (Fox, Psychonom. Bull. Rev., 2, pp. 145-173, 1995). The dependence on subtle parameter changes (such as response-stimulus interval) usually varies. The sensitivity of the negative priming effect bears great potential for applications in research in fields such as memory, selective attention, and ageing effects. We develop and analyse a computational realization, CISAM, of a recent psychological model for action decision making, the ISAM (Kabisch, PhD thesis, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitat, 2003), which is sensitive to priming conditions. With the dynamical systems approach of the CISAM, we show that a single adaptive threshold mechanism is sufficient to explain both positive and negative priming effects. This is achieved by comparing results obtained by the computational modelling with experimental data from our laboratory. The implementation provides a rich base from which testable predictions can be derived, e.g. with respect to hitherto untested stimulus combinations (e.g. single-object trials).

  14. Modal Analysis Using Co-Prime Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakrooh, Pooria; Scharf, Louis L.; Pezeshki, Ali

    2016-05-01

    Let a measurement consist of a linear combination of damped complex exponential modes, plus noise. The problem is to estimate the parameters of these modes, as in line spectrum estimation, vibration analysis, speech processing, system identification, and direction of arrival estimation. Our results differ from standard results of modal analysis to the extent that we consider sparse and co-prime samplings in space, or equivalently sparse and co-prime samplings in time. Our main result is a characterization of the orthogonal subspace. This is the subspace that is orthogonal to the signal subspace spanned by the columns of the generalized Vandermonde matrix of modes in sparse or co-prime arrays. This characterization is derived in a form that allows us to adapt modern methods of linear prediction and approximate least squares, such as iterative quadratic maximum likelihood (IQML), for estimating mode parameters. Several numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed modal estimation methods, and to compare the fidelity of modal estimation with sparse and co-prime arrays, versus SNR. Our calculations of Cram\\'{e}r-Rao bounds allow us to analyze the loss in performance sustained by sparse and co-prime arrays that are compressions of uniform linear arrays.

  15. Priming Intelligent Behavior: An Elusive Phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, David R.; Newell, Ben R.; Lee, Eun Hee; Balakrishnan, Divya; Ekelund, Lisa; Cenac, Zarus; Kavvadia, Fragkiski; Moore, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Can behavior be unconsciously primed via the activation of attitudes, stereotypes, or other concepts? A number of studies have suggested that such priming effects can occur, and a prominent illustration is the claim that individuals' accuracy in answering general knowledge questions can be influenced by activating intelligence-related concepts such as professor or soccer hooligan. In 9 experiments with 475 participants we employed the procedures used in these studies, as well as a number of variants of those procedures, in an attempt to obtain this intelligence priming effect. None of the experiments obtained the effect, although financial incentives did boost performance. A Bayesian analysis reveals considerable evidential support for the null hypothesis. The results conform to the pattern typically obtained in word priming experiments in which priming is very narrow in its generalization and unconscious (subliminal) influences, if they occur at all, are extremely short-lived. We encourage others to explore the circumstances in which this phenomenon might be obtained. PMID:23637732

  16. Avoid self-priming centrifugal pump

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, G.G.

    1987-01-01

    The self-priming horizontal centrifugal pump becomes known to its operator either as a good pump or a bad pump. The latter is usually replaced by another type of pump, even though a properly specified self-priming centrifugal pump might have been a good choice. Use of the guidelines described in this article are intended to help in the purchase and installation of a good pump. Self-priming centrifugal pumps are used for removing liquids from below grade sumps or pits that may also contain solids, fibers and/or muck. Alternate pumps for this service include submersible pumps, vertical turbine pumps and positive displacement pumps. These alternate pumps do not pass solid particles as large as self-priming pumps do without damage. Positive displacement pumps are not normally cost-effective when pumping liquid at rates in excess of 500 gallons per minute in low-head applications. Vertical and submersible pumps must be removed when cleaning of the pump is required. Self-priming pumps are easily cleaned by opening the access plates without moving the pump; and they cost less than the other types.

  17. Combined effects of chemical priming and mechanical stimulation on mesenchymal stem cell differentiation on nanofiber scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Subramony, Siddarth D.; Su, Amanda; Yeager, Keith; Lu, Helen H.

    2014-01-01

    Functional tissue engineering of connective tissues such as the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) remains a significant clinical challenge, largely due to the need for mechanically competent scaffold systems for grafting, as well as a reliable cell source for tissue formation. We have designed an aligned, polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) nanofiber-based scaffold with physiologically relevant mechanical properties for ligament regeneration. The objective of this study is to identify optimal tissue engineering strategies for fibroblastic induction of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC), testing the hypothesis that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) priming coupled with tensile loading will enhance hMSC-mediated ligament regeneration. It was observed that compared to the unloaded, as well as growth factor-primed but unloaded controls, bFGF stimulation followed by physiologically relevant tensile loading enhanced hMSC proliferation, collagen production and subsequent differentiation into ligament fibroblast-like cells, upregulating the expression of types I and III collagen, as well as tenasin-C and tenomodulin. The results of this study suggest that bFGF priming increases cell proliferation, while mechanical stimulation of the hMSCs on the aligned nanofiber scaffold promotes fibroblastic induction of these cells. In addition to demonstrating the potential of nanofiber scaffolds for hMSC-mediated functional ligament tissue engineering, this study yields new insights into the interactive effects of chemical and mechanical stimuli on stem cell differentiation. PMID:24267271

  18. Priming for novel object associations: Neural differences from object item priming and equivalent forms of recognition.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Carlos Alexandre; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Mayes, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The neural substrates of associative and item priming and recognition were investigated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study over two separate sessions. In the priming session, participants decided which object of a pair was bigger during both study and test phases. In the recognition session, participants saw different object pairs and performed the same size-judgement task followed by an associative recognition memory task. Associative priming was accompanied by reduced activity in the right middle occipital gyrus as well as in bilateral hippocampus. Object item priming was accompanied by reduced activity in extensive priming-related areas in the bilateral occipitotemporofrontal cortex, as well as in the perirhinal cortex, but not in the hippocampus. Associative recognition was characterized by activity increases in regions linked to recollection, such as the hippocampus, posterior cingulate cortex, anterior medial frontal gyrus and posterior parahippocampal cortex. Item object priming and recognition recruited broadly overlapping regions (e.g., bilateral middle occipital and prefrontal cortices, left fusiform gyrus), even though the BOLD response was in opposite directions. These regions along with the precuneus, where both item priming and recognition were accompanied by activation, have been found to respond to object familiarity. The minimal structural overlap between object associative priming and recollection-based associative recognition suggests that they depend on largely different stimulus-related information and that the different directions of the effects indicate distinct retrieval mechanisms. In contrast, item priming and familiarity-based recognition seemed mainly based on common memory information, although the extent of common processing between priming and familiarity remains unclear. Further implications of these findings are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26418396

  19. Distinct Transcriptional Programs Control Cross-Priming in Classical and Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Briseño, Carlos G; Haldar, Malay; Kretzer, Nicole M; Wu, Xiaodi; Theisen, Derek J; Kc, Wumesh; Durai, Vivek; Grajales-Reyes, Gary E; Iwata, Arifumi; Bagadia, Prachi; Murphy, Theresa L; Murphy, Kenneth M

    2016-06-14

    Both classical DCs (cDCs) and monocyte-derived DCs (Mo-DCs) are capable of cross-priming CD8(+) T cells in response to cell-associated antigens. We found that Ly-6C(hi)TREML4(-) monocytes can differentiate into Zbtb46(+) Mo-DCs in response to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) but that Ly-6C(hi)TREML4(+) monocytes were committed to differentiate into Ly-6C(lo)TREML4(+) monocytes. Differentiation of Zbtb46(+) Mo-DCs capable of efficient cross-priming required both GM-CSF and IL-4 and was accompanied by the induction of Batf3 and Irf4. However, monocytes require IRF4, but not BATF3, to differentiate into Zbtb46(+) Mo-DCs capable of cross-priming CD8(+) T cells. Instead, Irf4(-/-) monocytes differentiate into macrophages in response to GM-CSF and IL-4. Thus, cDCs and Mo-DCs require distinct transcriptional programs of differentiation in acquiring the capacity to prime CD8(+) T cells. These differences may be of consideration in the use of therapeutic DC vaccines based on Mo-DCs. PMID:27264183

  20. Semantic priming revealed by mouse movement trajectories.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Kunchen; Yamauchi, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    Congruency effects are taken as evidence that semantic information can be processed automatically. However, these effects are often weak, and the straightforward association between primes and targets can exaggerate congruency effects. To address these problems, a mouse movement method is applied to scrutinize congruency effects. In one experiment, participants judged whether two numbers were the same ("3\\3") or different ("3\\5"), preceded by briefly presented pictures with either positive or negative connotations. Participants indicated their responses by clicking a "Same" or "Different" button on the computer screen, while their cursor trajectories were recorded for each trial. The trajectory data revealed greater deviation to unselected buttons in incongruent trials (e.g., "3\\5" preceded by a green traffic light picture). This effect was influenced by the type of responses but not by prime durations. We suggest that the mouse movement method can complement the reaction time to study masked semantic priming. PMID:24797040

  1. Congruent numbers with many prime factors

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ye

    2012-01-01

    Mohammed Ben Alhocain, in an Arab manuscript of the 10th century, stated that the principal object of the theory of rational right triangles is to find a square that when increased or diminished by a certain number, m becomes a square [Dickson LE (1971) History of the Theory of Numbers (Chelsea, New York), Vol 2, Chap 16]. In modern language, this object is to find a rational point of infinite order on the elliptic curve . Heegner constructed such rational points in the case that m are primes congruent to 5,7 modulo 8 or twice primes congruent to 3 modulo 8 [Monsky P (1990) Math Z 204:45–68]. We extend Heegner's result to integers m with many prime divisors and give a sketch in this report. The full details of all the proofs will be given in ref. 1 [Tian Y (2012) Congruent Numbers and Heegner Points, arXiv:1210.8231]. PMID:23213259

  2. A small world network of prime numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Anjan Kumar; Dasgupta, Subinay

    2005-11-01

    According to Goldbach conjecture, any even number can be broken up as the sum of two prime numbers: n=p+q. We construct a network where each node is a prime number and corresponding to every even number n, we put a link between the component primes p and q. In most cases, an even number can be broken up in many ways, and then we chose one decomposition with a probability |p-q|α. Through computation of average shortest distance and clustering coefficient, we conclude that for α>-1.8 the network is of small world type and for α<-1.8 it is of regular type. We also present a theoretical justification for such behaviour.

  3. Riemann zeros, prime numbers, and fractal potentials.

    PubMed

    van Zyl, Brandon P; Hutchinson, David A W

    2003-06-01

    Using two distinct inversion techniques, the local one-dimensional potentials for the Riemann zeros and prime number sequence are reconstructed. We establish that both inversion techniques, when applied to the same set of levels, lead to the same fractal potential. This provides numerical evidence that the potential obtained by inversion of a set of energy levels is unique in one dimension. We also investigate the fractal properties of the reconstructed potentials and estimate the fractal dimensions to be D=1.5 for the Riemann zeros and D=1.8 for the prime numbers. This result is somewhat surprising since the nearest-neighbor spacings of the Riemann zeros are known to be chaotically distributed, whereas the primes obey almost Poissonlike statistics. Our findings show that the fractal dimension is dependent on both level statistics and spectral rigidity, Delta(3), of the energy levels. PMID:16241330

  4. Stronger suboptimal than optimal affective priming?

    PubMed

    Rotteveel, M; de Groot, P; Geutskens, A; Phaf, R H

    2001-12-01

    The finding of stronger affective priming in less conscious (suboptimal) conditions than in fully conscious (optimal) conditions (S. T. Murphy & R. B. Zajonc, 1993) is theoretically important because it contradicts notions that emotions are primarily reflected by conscious states. In 2 experiments, this pattern of results was obtained. Happy and angry faces were presented both optimally and suboptimally and were masked by unknown ideographs. In Experiment 1, instructions for the conscious and less conscious affective priming conditions were matched, and affective ratings of ideographs were determined. In Experiment 2, a more implicit affective measure (facial electromyography of musculus zygomaticus major and musculus corrugator supercilii) served as the dependent variable. Stronger suboptimal than optimal affective priming was found in both experiments. It is concluded that stronger suboptimal than optimal processing is characteristic for affective processing and that it can also be found when instructions are matched and when a more implicit measure is assessed. PMID:12901397

  5. Mare Orientale Prime Meridian lunar coordinate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walden, B.; York, C.; McGown, R.; Billings, T.

    The Moon was the first extraterrestrial body to be mapped. From 1514 to 1840, navigators sailing the open seas needed accurate lunar maps to determine longitude by the "lunar-distance" method. For the convenience of early navigators, astronomers and selenographers, the lunar prime meridian was made to bisect the lunar disk as seen from Earth, formalized as the present Mean Earth / Polar Axis system. In 1961, the International Astronomical Union reversed lunar east and west to avoid confusion by astronauts and their controllers, so that now Mare Orientale -- the Eastern Sea -- lies on the Moon's western limb. By international agreement in 1974, lunar longitude was defined to increase eastward from zero to 360 degrees and prime meridians are generally defined by an observable feature. Examination of popular lunar maps indicates these newer standards are not widely accepted. Modern navigation no longer relies on the Moon. Lunar maps are now made by satellite imagery from lunar orbit. Today, humankind anticipates navigating the Moon itself. A relatively simple change to the lunar coordinate system could benefit upcoming lunar activities and promote acceptance of a 360 degree standard: move the lunar prime meridian. We propose the lunar prime meridian intersect some natural monument that most nearly represents the center longitude of Mare Orientale (perhaps crater Hohmann), and longitude increase eastward from zero to 360 degrees. Mare Orientale is a dramatic large "target," easily identifiable from space. Nearside traffic will use low longitude numbers from zero to r ughly 180 degrees,o and will not frequently cross this prime meridian. Earth's angle above the eastern horizon equals approximate longitude. Low and high longitude numbers will reflect the distinctive nearside and farside geological domains. The face of the Moon as seen from Earth will no longer be split in two. Calculations are simplified and sources of error eliminated. This system is more convenient and

  6. On the role of mask structure in subliminal priming.

    PubMed

    Jaśkowski, Piotr; Przekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna

    2005-01-01

    Choice reaction times to visual stimuli may be influenced by preceding subliminal stimuli (primes). Some authors reported a straight priming effect i.e., responses were faster when primes and targets called for the same response than when they called for different responses. Other authors found a reversed pattern of results. Our results suggest that the sign of the priming effect depends on mask structure. Inverse priming was obtained only for masks containing the searched-for feature even though informational content of the masks was neutral. With masks of irrelevant structure, straight priming effects were found. Thus, masks are not passive stimuli whose roles are limited to rendering the prime invisible. Processing of the mask may interact with prime and target processing. Implications of the results are discussed for two hypotheses trying to account for straight and inverse priming (the self-inhibition hypothesis and object-updating hypothesis). PMID:16366393

  7. Schoolbook Texts: Behavioral Achievement Priming in Math and Language

    PubMed Central

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola; Baum, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Prior research found reliable and considerably strong effects of semantic achievement primes on subsequent performance. In order to simulate a more natural priming condition to better understand the practical relevance of semantic achievement priming effects, running texts of schoolbook excerpts with and without achievement primes were used as priming stimuli. Additionally, we manipulated the achievement context; some subjects received no feedback about their achievement and others received feedback according to a social or individual reference norm. As expected, we found a reliable (albeit small) positive behavioral priming effect of semantic achievement primes on achievement in math (Experiment 1) and language tasks (Experiment 2). Feedback moderated the behavioral priming effect less consistently than we expected. The implication that achievement primes in schoolbooks can foster performance is discussed along with general theoretical implications. PMID:26938446

  8. Influence of prime lexicality, frequency, and pronounceability on the masked onset priming effect.

    PubMed

    Dimitropoulou, Maria; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Carreiras, Manuel

    2010-09-01

    The present study investigates the origins of the masked onset priming effect (MOPE). There are two alternative interpretations that account for most of the evidence reported on the MOPE, so far. The speech planning account (SP) identifies the locus of the MOPE in the preparation of the speech response. In contrast, the dual-route theory proposes that the effect arises as a result of the processing of the prime by the nonlexical route. In a series of masked onset priming word naming experiments we test the validity of these accounts by manipulating the primes' frequency, their lexical status, and pronounceability. We found consistent MOPEs of similar magnitude with high- and low-frequency prime words as well as with pronounceable nonwords. Contrarily, when primes consisted of unpronounceable consonantal strings the effect disappeared, suggesting that pronounceability of the prime is a prerequisite for the emergence of the MOPE. These results are in accordance with the predictions of the SP account. The pattern of effects obtained in the present study further defines the origins of the MOPE. PMID:20221948

  9. The roles of scene priming and location priming in object-scene consistency effects

    PubMed Central

    Heise, Nils; Ansorge, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Presenting consistent objects in scenes facilitates object recognition as compared to inconsistent objects. Yet the mechanisms by which scenes influence object recognition are still not understood. According to one theory, consistent scenes facilitate visual search for objects at expected places. Here, we investigated two predictions following from this theory: If visual search is responsible for consistency effects, consistency effects could be weaker (1) with better-primed than less-primed object locations, and (2) with less-primed than better-primed scenes. In Experiments 1 and 2, locations of objects were varied within a scene to a different degree (one, two, or four possible locations). In addition, object-scene consistency was studied as a function of progressive numbers of repetitions of the backgrounds. Because repeating locations and backgrounds could facilitate visual search for objects, these repetitions might alter the object-scene consistency effect by lowering of location uncertainty. Although we find evidence for a significant consistency effect, we find no clear support for impacts of scene priming or location priming on the size of the consistency effect. Additionally, we find evidence that the consistency effect is dependent on the eccentricity of the target objects. These results point to only small influences of priming to object-scene consistency effects but all-in-all the findings can be reconciled with a visual-search explanation of the consistency effect. PMID:24910628

  10. Interactions between preparations containing female sex hormones and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Zabłocka-Słowińska, Katarzyna; Jawna, Katarzyna; Grajeta, Halina; Biernat, Jadwiga

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of premenopausal women use contraception whereas postmenopausal women use hormone replacement therapy (HRT). This long-term hormone therapy poses a high risk of interactions with dietary supplements. Taking estrogens at the same time as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), biologically-active compounds of glycine soja, Ginkgo biloba or Pimpinella anisum, may distort the final effect of the hormone agent. On the other hand, estrogen therapy coupled with melatonin or retinol supplementation may lead to an increased level of dietary supplements in the serum as studies have proved a concomitant beneficial effect of HRT and vitamin E supplementation on lipid profiles. In turn, taking preparations containing St John's wort during hormone therapy may lead to a reduction in hormone concentrations in serum and debilitation of the pharmacological effect. It results from the inductive effect of the biologically-active compounds of St John's wort on the metabolism of hormones as a result of the enhanced activity of cytochrome P450 CYP3A4. PMID:25166453

  11. Electromagnetic induction methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electromagnetic induction geophysical methods are finding greater and greater use for agricultural purposes. Electromagnetic induction methods measure the electrical conductivity (or resistivity) for a bulk volume of soil directly beneath the surface. An instrument called a ground conductivity meter...

  12. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer On This Page What are hormones? How do ... sensitive breast cancer: Adjuvant therapy for early-stage breast cancer : Research has shown that women treated for early- ...

  13. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

  14. Side Effects of Hormone Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men Living with Prostate Cancer Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction Bowel Dysfunction Erectile Dysfunction Loss of Fertility Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects of Chemotherapy Side Effects: When ...

  15. Aging changes in hormone production

    MedlinePlus

    ... that produce hormones are controlled by other hormones. Aging also changes this process. For example, an endocrine ... produce the same amount at a slower rate. AGING CHANGES The hypothalamus is located in the brain. ...

  16. Retro-priming, priming, and double testing: psi and replication in a test–retest design

    PubMed Central

    Rabeyron, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Numerous experiments have been conducted in recent years on anomalous retroactive influences on cognition and affect (Bem, 2010), yet more data are needed to understand these processes precisely. For this purpose, we carried out an initial retro-priming study in which the response times of 162 participants were measured (Rabeyron and Watt, 2010). In the current paper, we present the results of a second study in which we selected those participants who demonstrated the strongest retro-priming effect during the first study, in order to see if we could replicate this effect and therefore select high scoring participants. An additional objective was to try to find correlations between psychological characteristics (anomalous experiences, mental health, mental boundaries, trauma, negative life events) and retro-priming results for the high scoring participants. The retro-priming effect was also compared with performance on a classical priming task. Twenty-eight participants returned to the laboratory for this new study. The results, for the whole group, on the retro-priming task, were negative and non-significant (es = −0.25, ns) and the results were significant on the priming task (es = 0.63, p < 0.1). We obtained overall negative effects on retro-priming results for all the sub-groups (students, male, female). Ten participants were found to have positive results on the two retro-priming studies, but no specific psychological variables were found for these participants compared to the others. Several hypotheses are considered in explaining these results, and the author provide some final thoughts concerning psi and replicability. PMID:24672466

  17. A controlled stand-alone single-phase induction generator

    SciTech Connect

    Ojo, O.; Gonoh, B.

    1995-12-31

    This paper sets forth the steady-state and dynamic performance characteristics of a novel stand-alone, single-phase induction generator scheme in which the load voltage and frequency are regulated using a full-bridge pulse-width modulation (PWM) DC/AC inverter. A battery feeding the PWM inverter supplies (receives) power to (from) the generator when load demand is greater (lesser) than the power supplied from the prime mover which could be diesel engine, wind or hydro.

  18. Romance, risk, and replication: Can consumer choices and risk-taking be primed by mating motives?

    PubMed

    Shanks, David R; Vadillo, Miguel A; Riedel, Benjamin; Clymo, Ashley; Govind, Sinita; Hickin, Nisha; Tamman, Amanda J F; Puhlmann, Lara M C

    2015-12-01

    Interventions aimed at influencing spending behavior and risk-taking have considerable practical importance. A number of studies motivated by the costly signaling theory within evolutionary psychology have reported that priming inductions (such as looking at pictures of attractive opposite sex members) designed to trigger mating motives increase males' stated willingness to purchase conspicuous consumption items and to engage in risk-taking behaviors, and reduce loss aversion. However, a meta-analysis of this literature reveals strong evidence of either publication bias or p-hacking (or both). We then report 8 studies with a total sample of over 1,600 participants which sought to reproduce these effects. None of the studies, including one that was fully preregistered, was successful. The results question the claim that romantic primes can influence risk-taking and other potentially harmful behaviors. PMID:26501730

  19. Cross-language positive priming disappears, negative priming does not: evidence for two sources of selective inhibition.

    PubMed

    Neumann, E; McCloskey, M S; Felio, A C

    1999-11-01

    The authors used a unilingual and bilingual primed lexical decision task to investigate priming effects produced by attended and ignored words. In the unilingual experiment, accelerated lexical decisions to probe target words resulted when the word matched the preceding target word, whereas slowed lexical decisions to probe target words resulted when the word matched the preceding ignored nontarget word. In the bilingual (English-Spanish) experiment, between-language, rather than within-language, priming manipulations were used. Although the ignored repetition negative priming effect replicated across languages, cross-language attended repetition positive priming did not. This dissociation of priming effects in the inter- versus intralanguage priming conditions contradicts episodic retrieval accounts of negative priming that deny the existence of selective inhibitory processes. On the other hand, these results support an extension of inhibition-based accounts of negative priming, because they indicate that inhibition can operate at two levels of abstraction--local word and global language--simultaneously. PMID:10586580

  20. Ethylene: Traffic Controller on Hormonal Crossroads to Defense.

    PubMed

    Broekgaarden, Colette; Caarls, Lotte; Vos, Irene A; Pieterse, Corné M J; Van Wees, Saskia C M

    2015-12-01

    Ethylene (ET) is an important hormone in plant responses to microbial pathogens and herbivorous insects, and in the interaction of plants with beneficial microbes and insects. Early ET signaling events during these biotic interactions involve activities of mitogen-activated protein kinases and ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR transcription factors. Rather than being the principal regulator, ET often modulates defense signaling pathways, including those regulated by jasmonic acid and salicylic acid. Hormonal signal integrations with ET steer the defense signaling network to activate specific defenses that can have direct effects on attackers, or systemically prime distant plant parts for enhanced defense against future attack. ET also regulates volatile signals that attract carnivorous enemies of herbivores or warn neighboring plants. Conversely, ET signaling can also be exploited by attackers to hijack the defense signaling network to suppress effective defenses. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the significant role of ET in the plants' battle against their enemies. PMID:26482888

  1. Hormonal Control of Fetal Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Paul S.; Nicoll, Charles S.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes recent research on hormonal control of fetal growth, presenting data obtained using a new method for studying the area. Effects of endocrine ablations and congenital deficiencies, studies of hormone/receptor levels, in-vitro techniques, hormones implicated in promoting fetal growth, problems with existing methodologies, and growth of…

  2. [Hormonal contraception in autoimmpne diseases].

    PubMed

    Matyszkiewicz, Anna; Jach, Robert; Rajtar-Ciosek, Agnieszka; Basta, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The onset and the course of autoimmune diseases is influenced among other factors by the sex hormones. Hormonal contraception might affect the course of the autoimmune disease. The paper summarises the manner of save application of hormonal contraception in patients with autoimmune disease. PMID:27526427

  3. Reproductive hormones in the environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low detections of reproductive hormones, at the part per trillion concentrations, are frequently measured in surface and subsurface waters. These exogenous hormones are a concern because they can bind strongly to hormone receptors in animals and induce an endocrine response or disruption. Human heal...

  4. Bioidentical Hormones for Menopausal Hormone Therapy: Variation on a Theme

    PubMed Central

    Bythrow, Jenna

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Progesterone creams and natural or bioidentical compounded estrogen preparations are being promoted to consumers as safe alternatives to conventional menopausal hormone therapy and as health-promoting tonics. No reliable data support these claims. SAFETY Natural hormones, including estradiol, estriol, estrone, and progesterone, can be expected to have the same adverse event profile as conventional menopausal hormone regimens. SALIVARY HORMONE TESTS Salivary tests may be used to persuade asymptomatic consumers to use hormones (or symptomatic patients to use higher doses than those needed to mitigate symptoms), a practice that can be expected to result in adverse events. PMID:17549577

  5. Effect of homologous and heterologous prime-boost on the immune response to recombinant plague antigens.

    PubMed

    Glynn, Audrey; Freytag, Lucy C; Clements, John D

    2005-03-14

    Among the pathogens that have been identified as potential agents of biological warfare or bioterrorism, Yersinia pestis is one of the main concerns due to the severity and potential transmissibility of the pneumonic form of the disease in humans. There are no approved vaccines for protection against pneumonic plague, but a Y. pestis-derived fusion protein (F1-V) has shown great promise as a protective antigen in murine studies. In the current study, we examine different prime-boost regimens, including parenteral, mucosal, and transcutaneous delivery, in order to explore the effect of changing the route of prime and boost on the ability of recombinant F1-V to promote the development of long-lasting, high-titer antibodies. The most significant findings of the study reported here are that (1) intranasal and subcutaneous immunizations are both effective and essentially equivalent for induction of serum and bronchioalveolar anti-F1-V IgG1 responses when a single booster dose is administered by the same (homologous) route, (2) heterologous boosting can be as or more effective than homologous boosting for induction of either serum or bronchioalveolar anti-F1-V IgG1 responses, and (3) anti-F1 and anti-V total IgG responses were highest in animals primed intranasally and boosted by any route when compared to animals primed transcutaneously or subcutaneously. As with previously published studies, there were still significant levels of circulating anti-F1-V antibodies 1 year post-primary immunization. These studies provide important insights into the development of new-generation biodefense vaccines. PMID:15734068

  6. Predicting the Unbeaten Path through Syntactic Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arai, Manabu; Nakamura, Chie; Mazuka, Reiko

    2015-01-01

    A number of previous studies showed that comprehenders make use of lexically based constraints such as subcategorization frequency in processing structurally ambiguous sentences. One piece of such evidence is lexically specific syntactic priming in comprehension; following the costly processing of a temporarily ambiguous sentence, comprehenders…

  7. Maple Explorations, Perfect Numbers, and Mersenne Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghusayni, B.

    2005-01-01

    Some examples from different areas of mathematics are explored to give a working knowledge of the computer algebra system Maple. Perfect numbers and Mersenne primes, which have fascinated people for a very long time and continue to do so, are studied using Maple and some questions are posed that still await answers.

  8. Thematic Mathematics: The Combinatorics of Prime Factorizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we use a particular example to illustrate a thematic approach to the teaching and learning of mathematics. Our theme, suitable for undergraduates and able sixth-form students, is the enumeration of mathematical objects associated with the prime factorizations of integers. It is shown in detail how this gives rise to some beautiful…

  9. Riemann equation for prime number diffusion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen; Liang, Yingjie

    2015-05-01

    This study makes the first attempt to propose the Riemann diffusion equation to describe in a manner of partial differential equation and interpret in physics of diffusion the classical Riemann method for prime number distribution. The analytical solution of this equation is the well-known Riemann representation. The diffusion coefficient is dependent on natural number, a kind of position-dependent diffusivity diffusion. We find that the diffusion coefficient of the Riemann diffusion equation is nearly a straight line having a slope 0.99734 in the double-logarithmic axis. Consequently, an approximate solution of the Riemann diffusion equation is obtained, which agrees well with the Riemann representation in predicting the prime number distribution. Moreover, we interpret the scale-free property of prime number distribution via a power law function with 1.0169 the scale-free exponent in respect to logarithmic transform of the natural number, and then the fractal characteristic of prime number distribution is disclosed. PMID:26026319

  10. Values in Prime Time Alcoholic Beverage Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazer, Charles F.

    Content analysis was used to study the values evident in televised beer and wine commercials. Seventy-seven prime time commercials, 7.6% of a week's total, were analyzed along value dimensions adapted from Gallup's measure of popular social values. The intensity of each value was coded on a five-point scale. None of the commercials in the beer and…

  11. Attentional Control and Asymmetric Associative Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Keith A.; Heap, Shelly J.; Neely, James H.; Thomas, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Participants completed a battery of 3 attentional control (AC) tasks (OSPAN, antisaccade, and Stroop, as in Hutchison, 2007) and performed a lexical decision task with symmetrically associated (e.g., "sister-brother") and asymmetrically related primes and targets presented in both the forward (e.g., "atom-bomb") and backward…

  12. A Fresh Approach to Prime Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Homer F.

    1979-01-01

    The introduction of prime numbers in the intermediate grades should be handled with care or the concept will appear arbitrary, artificial, and unreal to the pupils. The approach suggested here is in the form of a game-like activity. A knowledge of multiplication and factors is a prerequisite. (BB)

  13. Emergence, Self-Organization and Prime Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, Alexander A.

    1998-04-01

    Pattern of primes (PP) is critical for dynamics of universal emergence, self-organization and complexity ascendance [1-3]. Due to gradual logarithmic dilution of primes (prime number theorem), PP gives only base envelop for above effects. More informative are full factorizational spectra (FS) of all intermediate composites. Tower exponential mappings like f(N) = 10(N)10 with (N) indicating N vertical arrows [4] lead to infinite fractal-like hierarchy of integer trails; say, FS of intervals between f(N) and f(N+1). This allows FAPP-infinite informational content of PP and FS be "used" as catalyzer of emergence dynamics. This is "Platonic pressure effect" (physical embodiments of PP and FS). Said effect may provide more direct picture for cosmogenesis than traditional quantum tunneling ("Big Bang") and/or inflationary scenarios. Furthermore, we can speculate that metrics of (Mega)universe at tower exponential scales becomes asymptotically Euclidean (multi or infinitely dimensional), due to unchangability of PP and FS. - [1] Arnold Arnold, "The Corrupted Sciences", Paladin (Harper Collins), 1992; [2] Peter Plichta, "God's Secret Formula: Deciphering the Riddle of the Universe and the Prime Number Code", Element, 1997; [3] Alexander Berezin, URAM Journal, 20, 72 (1997); [4] Donald E. Knuth, Science, 194, 1235, 17 Dec 1976. abstract.

  14. Priming effects on the perceived grouping of ambiguous dot patterns.

    PubMed

    Kurylo, Daniel D; Bukhari, Farhan

    2015-09-01

    For ambiguous stimuli, complex dynamics guide processes of perceptual grouping. Previous studies have suggested two opposing effects on grouping that are produced by the preliminary stimulus state: one that enhances grouping towards the existing structure, and another that opposes this structure. To examine effects of the preliminary state on grouping directly, measurements were made of perceived grouping of dot patterns that followed a visual prime. Three stimuli were presented in sequence: prime, target, and mask. Targets were composed of an evenly spaced dot grid in which grouping was established by similarity in luminance. Subjects indicated the dominant perceived grouping. The prime either corresponded to or opposed the prevailing organization of the target. Contrary to the hypothesis, solid-line primes biased grouping away from the structure of the prime, even when the prevailing organization of dot patterns strongly favored the primes' structure. This effect occurred, although to a lesser extent, when primes did not occupy the same location of targets, but were presented in a marginal area surrounding the grid. Priming effects did not occur for primes constructed of dot patterns. Effects found here may be attributed to a forward masking effect by primes, which more effectively disrupts grouping of patterns matched to the prime. Effects may also be attributed to a type of pattern contrast, in which a grouped pattern dissimilar to primes gains salience. For the pattern contrast model, the partial activation of multiple grouped configurations is compared to the pattern of the solid-line primes. PMID:25281427

  15. Neonatal detection of generalized resistance to thyroid hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, R.E.; Balzano, S.; Scherberg, N.H.; Refetoff, S. )

    1990-11-07

    Generalized resistance to thyroid hormone (GRTH) is an inherited disease that is usually suspected when elevated serum thyroid hormone levels are associated with nonsuppressed thyrotropin. Often these test results are obtained because of short stature, decreased intelligence, and/or hyperactivity with learning disability noted in childhood and adolescence, or because of goiter in adulthood. The authors detected GRTH at birth by analysis of blood obtained during routine neonatal screening. The proposita, born to a mother with GRTH, had a thyrotropin level of 26 mU/L and a corresponding thyroxine concentration of 656 nmol/L. Administration of thyroid hormone in doses eightfold to 10-fold above replacement levels were required to reduce serum thyrotropin to normal levels without induction of hypermetabolism. This case, and the retrospective finding of high thyroxine levels in five newborns subsequently diagnosed as having GRTH, suggest that measurement of thyroxine at birth, in conjunction with thyrotropin, could allow the early detection of GRTH.

  16. Rhizosphere priming effects in two contrasting soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Davidson; Kirk, Guy; Ritz, Karl

    2015-04-01

    Inputs of fresh plant-derived carbon may stimulate the turnover of existing soil organic matter by so-called priming effects. Priming may occur directly, as a result of nutrient 'mining' by existing microbial communities, or indirectly via population adjustments. However the mechanisms are poorly understood. We planted C4 Kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum) in pots with two contrasting C3 soils (clayey, fertile TB and sandy, acid SH), and followed the soil CO2 efflux and its δ13C. The extent of C deposition in the rhizosphere was altered by intermittently clipping the grass in half the pots; there were also unplanted controls. At intervals, pots were destructively sampled for root and shoot biomass. Total soil CO2 efflux was measured using a gas-tight PVC chamber fitted over bare soil, and connected to an infra-red gas analyser; the δ13C of efflux was measured in air sub-samples withdrawn by syringe. The extent of priming was inferred from the δ13C of efflux and the δ13C of the plant and soil end-members. In unclipped treatments, in both soils, increased total soil respiration and rhizosphere priming effects (RPE) were apparent compared to the unplanted controls. The TB soil had greater RPE overall. The total respiration in clipped TB soil was significantly greater than in the unplanted controls, but in the clipped SH soil it was not significantly different from the controls. Clipping affected plant C partitioning with greater allocation to shoot regrowth from about 4 weeks after planting. Total plant biomass decreased in the order TB unclipped > SH unclipped >TB clipped > SH clipped. The results are consistent with priming driven by microbial activation stimulated by rhizodeposits and by nitrogen demand from the growing plants under N limited conditions. Our data suggest that photosynthesis drives RPE and soil differences may alter the rate and intensity of RPE but not the direction.

  17. Priming effects on cooperative behavior in social dilemmas: considering the prime and the person.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Mike; Sheldon, Kennon M

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT. We test whether people with a relatively more intrinsic vs. extrinsic value orientation (RIEVO) are particularly likely to enact cooperative behavior in resource dilemmas when they are primed with relatedness goals. In Study 1, high RIEVO participants primed with relatedness exhibited more restrained fishing behavior in a resource dilemma than their unprimed counterparts or participants low in RIEVO. Study 2 replicated this effect and further showed that the prime must signal the possibility of satisfying a valued goal (relatedness satisfaction) in order to elicit the value-consistent behavior. We discuss these results in the context of recent process models of goal priming, and also discuss how these findings contribute to our understanding of cooperative behavior and the predictive power of value constructs more broadly. PMID:25329359

  18. Repetition priming of nonwords in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Light, L L; La Voie, D; Kennison, R

    1995-03-01

    In 3 experiments, a pronunciation task was used to examine repetition priming of novel nonwords in young and older adults. The contributions of item and associative priming to the total repetition priming effect were assessed. In Experiment 1, age consistency was found in both components of repetition priming after 9 repetitions of nonwords. Experiment 2 established that young and older adults were similar in item and associative priming after as few as 2 repetitions of nonwords. Finally, Experiment 3 demonstrated that associative priming persists for at least 3 min and that it is dissociable from cued recall. The overall pattern of results strongly argues that elaborative processing is not necessary to obtain associative priming in indirect memory tasks and that young and older adults show similar magnitudes of associative priming. PMID:7738504

  19. Odd perfect numbers have at least nine distinct prime factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Pace P.

    2007-12-01

    An odd perfect number, N , is shown to have at least nine distinct prime factors. If 3nmid N then N must have at least twelve distinct prime divisors. The proof ultimately avoids previous computational results for odd perfect numbers.

  20. Cytochalasin B triggers a novel pertussis toxin sensitive pathway in TNF-alpha primed neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Bylund, Johan; Pellmé, Sara; Fu, Huamei; Mellqvist, Ulf-Henrik; Hellstrand, Kristoffer; Karlsson, Anna; Dahlgren, Claes

    2004-01-01

    Background Cytochalasin B does not directly activate the oxygen-radical-producing NADPH oxidase activity of neutrophils but transfers desensitized G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) into an active signaling state by uncoupling GCPR from the cytoskeleton. The receptor uncoupling results in respiratory burst activity when signals generated by reactivated formyl peptide receptors trigger the NADPH-oxidase to produce superoxide anions. Results Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) primes neutrophils for subsequent activation by cytochalasin B. Pretreatment with TNF-alpha induced mobilization of receptor-storing neutrophil organelles, suggesting that receptor up-regulation significantly contributes to the response, but the receptor mobilization was not sufficient for induction of the cytochalasin B sensitive state. The TNF-alpha primed state resembled that of the desensitized non-signaling state of agonist-occupied neutrophil formyl peptide receptors. The fact that the TNF-alpha primed, cytochalasin B-triggered activation process was pertussis toxin sensitive suggests that the activation process involves a GPCR. Based on desensitization experiments the unidentified receptor was found to be distinct from the C5a receptor as well as the formyl peptide receptor family members FPR and FPRL1. Based on the fact the occupied and desensitized receptors for interleukin-8 and platelet activating factor could not be reactivated by cytochalasin B, also these could be excluded as receptor candidates involved in the TNF-alpha primed state. Conclusions The TNF-alpha-induced priming signals could possibly trigger a release of an endogenous GPCR-agonist, amplifying the response to the receptor-uncoupling effect of cytochalasin B. However, no such substance could be found, suggesting that TNF-alpha can transfer G-protein coupled receptors to a signaling state independently of agonist binding. PMID:15157285

  1. Prime time news: the influence of primed positive and negative emotion on susceptibility to false memories.

    PubMed

    Porter, Stephen; ten Brinke, Leanne; Riley, Sean N; Baker, Alysha

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relation between emotion and susceptibility to misinformation using a novel paradigm, the ambiguous stimuli affective priming (ASAP) paradigm. Participants (N = 88) viewed ambiguous neutral images primed either at encoding or retrieval to be interpreted as either highly positive or negative (or neutral/not primed). After viewing the images, they either were asked misleading or non-leading questions. Following a delay, memory accuracy for the original images was assessed. Results indicated that any emotional priming at encoding led to a higher susceptibility to misinformation relative to priming at recall. In particular, inducing a negative interpretation of the image at encoding led to an increased susceptibility of false memories for major misinformation (an entire object not actually present in the scene). In contrast, this pattern was reversed when priming was used at recall; a negative reinterpretation of the image decreased memory distortion relative to unprimed images. These findings suggest that, with precise experimental control, the experience of emotion at event encoding, in particular, is implicated in false memory susceptibility. PMID:24552271

  2. Thyroid Hormone and Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Safer, Joshua D.

    2013-01-01

    Although thyroid hormone is one of the most potent stimulators of growth and metabolic rate, the potential to use thyroid hormone to treat cutaneous pathology has never been subject to rigorous investigation. A number of investigators have demonstrated intriguing therapeutic potential for topical thyroid hormone. Topical T3 has accelerated wound healing and hair growth in rodents. Topical T4 has been used to treat xerosis in humans. It is clear that the use of thyroid hormone to treat cutaneous pathology may be of large consequence and merits further study. This is a review of the literature regarding thyroid hormone action on skin along with skin manifestations of thyroid disease. The paper is intended to provide a context for recent findings of direct thyroid hormone action on cutaneous cells in vitro and in vivo which may portend the use of thyroid hormone to promote wound healing. PMID:23577275

  3. Optimizing elicitation and seed priming to enrich broccoli and radish sprouts in glucosinolates.

    PubMed

    Baenas, Nieves; Villaño, Debora; García-Viguera, Cristina; Moreno, Diego A

    2016-08-01

    Elicitation is a cheaper and socially acceptable tool for improving plant food functionality. Our objective was to optimize the treatment doses of the elicitors: methyl jasmonate (MeJA), jasmonic acid (JA) and DL-methionine (MET), in order to find a successful and feasible treatment to produce broccoli and radish sprouts with enhanced levels of health-promoting glucosinolates. Also a priming of seeds as a novel strategy to trigger the glucosinolates content was carried out with water (control), MeJA (250μM), JA (250μM) and MET (10mM) before the elicitor exogenous treatment. The results showed that almost all treatments could enhance effectively the total glucosinolates content in the sprouts, achieving the most significant increases from 34% to 100% of increase in broccoli and from 45% to 118% of increase in radish sprouts after MeJA priming and treatments. Consequently, our work demonstrates the feasibility of using elicitors, such as plant stress hormones, by priming and exogenously, as a way of increase the phytochemical profile of these sprouts to enhance their consumption in the diet. PMID:26988507

  4. Hormonal control of implantation.

    PubMed

    Sandra, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    In mammals, implantation represents a key step of pregnancy and its progression conditions not only the success of pregnancy but health of the offspring. Implantation requires a complex and specific uterine tissue, the endometrium, whose biological functions are tightly regulated by numerous signals, including steroids and polypeptide hormones. Endometrial tissue is endowed with dynamic properties that associate its ability to control the developmental trajectory of the embryo (driver property) and its ability to react to embryos displaying distinct capacities to develop to term (sensor property). Since dynamical properties of the endometrium can be affected by pre- and post-conceptional environment, determining how maternal hormonal signals and their biological actions are affected by environmental factors (e.g. nutrition, stress, infections) is mandatory to reduce or even to prevent their detrimental effects on endometrial physiology in order to preserve the optimal functionality of this tissue. PMID:27172870

  5. Hormones in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pratap; Magon, Navneet

    2012-01-01

    The endocrinology of human pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes that result from physiological alterations at the boundary between mother and fetus. Progesterone and oestrogen have a great role along with other hormones. The controversies of use of progestogen and others are discussed in this chapter. Progesterone has been shown to stimulate the secretion of Th2 and reduces the secretion of Th1 cytokines which maintains pregnancy. Supportive care in early pregnancy is associated with a significant beneficial effect on pregnancy outcome. Prophylactic hormonal supplementation can be recommended for all assisted reproduction techniques cycles. Preterm labor can be prevented by the use of progestogen. The route of administration plays an important role in the drug's safety and efficacy profile in different trimesters of pregnancy. Thyroid disorders have a great impact on pregnancy outcome and needs to be monitored and treated accordingly. Method of locating review: Pubmed, scopus PMID:23661874

  6. The wound hormone jasmonate

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Abraham J.K.; Howe, Gregg A.

    2009-01-01

    Plant tissues are highly vulnerable to injury by herbivores, pathogens, mechanical stress, and other environmental insults. Optimal plant fitness in the face of these threats relies on complex signal transduction networks that link damage-associated signals to appropriate changes in metabolism, growth, and development. Many of these wound-induced adaptive responses are triggered by de novo synthesis of the plant hormone jasmonate (JA). Recent studies provide evidence that JA mediates systemic wound responses through distinct cell autonomous and nonautonomous pathways. In both pathways, bioactive JAs are recognized by an F-box protein-based receptor system that couples hormone binding to ubiquitin-dependent degradation of transcriptional repressor proteins. These results provide a new framework for understanding how plants recognize and respond to tissue injury. PMID:19695649

  7. Integrative Priming Occurs Rapidly and Uncontrollably during Lexical Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Zachary; Jones, Lara L.

    2009-01-01

    Lexical priming, whereby a prime word facilitates recognition of a related target word (e.g., "nurse" [right arrrow] "doctor"), is typically attributed to association strength, semantic similarity, or compound familiarity. Here, the authors demonstrate a novel type of lexical priming that occurs among unassociated, dissimilar, and unfamiliar…

  8. Do Stimulus-Action Associations Contribute to Repetition Priming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Ian; Perfect, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite evidence that response learning makes a major contribution to repetition priming, the involvement of response representations at the level of motor actions remains uncertain. Levels of response representation were investigated in 4 experiments that used different tasks at priming and test. Priming for stimuli that required congruent…

  9. The Role of Polysemy in Masked Semantic and Translation Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkbeiner, Matthew; Forster, Kenneth; Nicol, Janet; Nakamura, Kumiko

    2004-01-01

    A well-known asymmetry exists in the bilingual masked priming literature in which lexical decision is used: namely, masked primes in the dominant language (L1) facilitate decision times on targets in the less dominant language (L2), but not vice versa. In semantic categorization, on the other hand, priming is symmetrical. In Experiments 1-3 we…

  10. Cognitive Conflict and Inhibition in Primed Dichotic Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saetrevik, Bjorn; Specht, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    In previous behavioral studies, a prime syllable was presented just prior to a dichotic syllable pair, with instructions to ignore the prime and report one syllable from the dichotic pair. When the prime matched one of the syllables in the dichotic pair, response selection was biased towards selecting the unprimed target. The suggested mechanism…

  11. A Statistical Argument for the Weak Twin Primes Conjecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruckman, P. S.

    2006-01-01

    Certain definitions introduce appropriate concepts, among which are the definitions of the counting functions of the primes and twin primes, along with definitions of the correlation coefficient in a bivariate sample space. It is argued conjecturally that the characteristic functions of the prime "p" and of the quantity "p"+2 are highly…

  12. Identifiable Orthographically Similar Word Primes Interfere in Visual Word Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    University students participated in five experiments concerning the effects of unmasked, orthographically similar, primes on visual word recognition in the lexical decision task (LDT) and naming tasks. The modal prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 350 ms. When primes were words that were orthographic neighbors of the targets, and…

  13. Persistent Structural Priming from Language Comprehension to Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, Kathryn; Dell, Gary S.; Chang, Franklin; Onishi, Kristine H.

    2007-01-01

    To examine the relationship between syntactic processes in language comprehension and language production, we compared structural persistence from sentence primes that speakers heard to persistence from primes that speakers produced. [Bock, J. K., & Griffin, Z. M. (2000). The persistence of structural priming: transient activation or implicit…

  14. 48 CFR 45.501 - Prime contractor alternate locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prime contractor alternate... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Support Government Property Administration 45.501 Prime contractor alternate locations. The property administrator assigned to the prime contract may request support...

  15. Does "Darkness" Lead to "Happiness"? Masked Suffix Priming Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunabeitia, Jon Andoni; Perea, Manuel; Carreiras, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Masked affix priming effects have usually been obtained for words sharing the initial affix (e.g., "reaction"-"REFORM"). However, prior evidence on masked suffix priming effects (e.g., "baker"-"WALKER") is inconclusive. In the present series of masked priming lexical decision experiments, a target word was briefly preceded by a morphologically or…

  16. Prospective and Retrospective Processing in Associative Mediated Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lara L.

    2012-01-01

    Mediated priming refers to the faster word recognition of a target (e.g., milk) following presentation of a prime (e.g., pasture) that is related indirectly via a connecting "mediator" (e.g., cow). Association strength may be an important factor in whether mediated priming occurs prospectively (with target activation prior to its presentation) or…

  17. 7 CFR 29.1166 - Primings (P Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Grades, Grade Names, Minimum Specifications, and Tolerances P2L—Fine Quality Lemon Primings Prematurely... tolerance 25 percent, of which not over 10 percent may be waste. P3L—Good Quality Lemon Primings Prematurely... tolerance 40 percent, of which not over 20 percent may be waste. P4L—Fair Quality Lemon Primings...

  18. 7 CFR 29.1166 - Primings (P Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Grades, Grade Names, Minimum Specifications, and Tolerances P2L—Fine Quality Lemon Primings Prematurely... tolerance 25 percent, of which not over 10 percent may be waste. P3L—Good Quality Lemon Primings Prematurely... tolerance 40 percent, of which not over 20 percent may be waste. P4L—Fair Quality Lemon Primings...

  19. 7 CFR 29.1166 - Primings (P Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Grades, Grade Names, Minimum Specifications, and Tolerances P2L—Fine Quality Lemon Primings Prematurely... tolerance 25 percent, of which not over 10 percent may be waste. P3L—Good Quality Lemon Primings Prematurely... tolerance 40 percent, of which not over 20 percent may be waste. P4L—Fair Quality Lemon Primings...

  20. 7 CFR 29.1166 - Primings (P Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Grades, Grade Names, Minimum Specifications, and Tolerances P2L—Fine Quality Lemon Primings Prematurely... tolerance 25 percent, of which not over 10 percent may be waste. P3L—Good Quality Lemon Primings Prematurely... tolerance 40 percent, of which not over 20 percent may be waste. P4L—Fair Quality Lemon Primings...

  1. 7 CFR 29.1166 - Primings (P Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... Grades, Grade Names, Minimum Specifications, and Tolerances P2L—Fine Quality Lemon Primings Prematurely... tolerance 25 percent, of which not over 10 percent may be waste. P3L—Good Quality Lemon Primings Prematurely... tolerance 40 percent, of which not over 20 percent may be waste. P4L—Fair Quality Lemon Primings...

  2. Structural Priming and Frequency Effects Interact in Chinese Sentence Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hang; Dong, Yanping; Boland, Julie E; Yuan, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Previous research in several European languages has shown that the language processing system is sensitive to both structural frequency and structural priming effects. However, it is currently not clear whether these two types of effects interact during online sentence comprehension, especially for languages that do not have morphological markings. To explore this issue, the present study investigated the possible interplay between structural priming and frequency effects for sentences containing the Chinese ambiguous construction V NP1 de NP2 in a self-paced reading experiment. The sentences were disambiguated to either the more frequent/preferred NP structure or the less frequent VP structure. Each target sentence was preceded by a prime sentence of three possible types: NP primes, VP primes, and neutral primes. When the ambiguous construction V NP1 de NP2 was disambiguated to the dispreferred VP structure, participants experienced more processing difficulty following an NP prime relative to following a VP prime or a neutral baseline. When the ambiguity was resolved to the preferred NP structure, prime type had no effect. These results suggest that structural priming in comprehension is modulated by the baseline frequency of alternative structures, with the less frequent structure being more subject to structural priming effects. These results are discussed in the context of the error-based, implicit learning account of structural priming. PMID:26869954

  3. Transposed-Letter Priming of Prelexical Orthographic Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; Norris, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    A prime generated by transposing two internal letters (e.g., jugde) produces strong priming of the original word (judge). In lexical decision, this transposed-letter (TL) priming effect is generally weak or absent for nonword targets; thus, it is unclear whether the origin of this effect is lexical or prelexical. The authors describe the Bayesian…

  4. Attentional Control and the Relatedness Proportion Effect in Semantic Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Keith A.

    2007-01-01

    In 2 experiments, participants completed both an attentional control battery (OSPAN, antisaccade, and Stroop tasks) and a modified semantic priming task. The priming task measured relatedness proportion (RP) effects within subjects, with the color of the prime indicating the probability that the to-be-named target would be related. In Experiment…

  5. Structural Priming and Frequency Effects Interact in Chinese Sentence Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hang; Dong, Yanping; Boland, Julie E.; Yuan, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Previous research in several European languages has shown that the language processing system is sensitive to both structural frequency and structural priming effects. However, it is currently not clear whether these two types of effects interact during online sentence comprehension, especially for languages that do not have morphological markings. To explore this issue, the present study investigated the possible interplay between structural priming and frequency effects for sentences containing the Chinese ambiguous construction V NP1 de NP2 in a self-paced reading experiment. The sentences were disambiguated to either the more frequent/preferred NP structure or the less frequent VP structure. Each target sentence was preceded by a prime sentence of three possible types: NP primes, VP primes, and neutral primes. When the ambiguous construction V NP1 de NP2 was disambiguated to the dispreferred VP structure, participants experienced more processing difficulty following an NP prime relative to following a VP prime or a neutral baseline. When the ambiguity was resolved to the preferred NP structure, prime type had no effect. These results suggest that structural priming in comprehension is modulated by the baseline frequency of alternative structures, with the less frequent structure being more subject to structural priming effects. These results are discussed in the context of the error-based, implicit learning account of structural priming. PMID:26869954

  6. Novel Word Lexicalization and the Prime Lexicality Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiao, Xiaomei; Forster, Kenneth I.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how newly learned words are integrated into the first-language lexicon using masked priming. Two lexical decision experiments are reported, with the aim of establishing whether newly learned words behave like real words in a masked form priming experiment. If they do, they should show a prime lexicality effect (PLE), in…

  7. Masked Translation Priming with Semantic Categorization: Testing the Sense Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xin; Forster, Kenneth I.

    2010-01-01

    Four experiments are reported which were designed to test hypotheses concerning the asymmetry of masked translation priming. Experiment 1 confirmed the presence of L2-L1 priming with a semantic categorization task and demonstrated that this effect was restricted to exemplars. Experiment 2 showed that the translation priming effect was not due to…

  8. Subchronic toxicity of 2,2{prime},3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-hexachlorobiphenyl in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lecavalier, P.; Chu, I.; Feeley, M.

    1997-06-27

    The subchronic toxicity of 2,2{prime},3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 128) was investigated in rats following dietary exposure at 0, 0.05, 0.5, 5, or 50 ppm for 13 wk. The growth rate was not affected by treatment and no apparent clinical signs of toxicity were observed. There was a significant increase in liver weight in the 50 ppm females. The liver ethoxy-resorufin deethylase (EROD) activity was increased by five- and fourfold in the highest dose males and females, respectively, while aminopyrine demethylase (ADPM) activity was significantly increased only in the highest dose females. Liver vitamin A was significantly reduced in the highest dose females. No other biochemical or hematological effects were observed. Treatment-related histopathological changes were seen in the thyroid and liver, and to a lesser extent in the bone marrow and thymus. Residue data showed a dose-dependent accumulation of PCB 128 in the following tissues: fat, liver, kidney, brain, spleen, and serum, with the highest concentration being found in fat followed by liver and kidney. Based on these data, the no-observable-adverse-effect level of PCB 128 was judged to be 0.5 ppm in diet or 42 {mu}g/kg body weight. 29 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  9. Oral Progestin Priming Increases Ovarian Sensitivity to Gonadotropin Stimulation and Improves Luteal Function in the Cat1

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Rosemary A.; Pelican, Katharine M.; Crosier, Adrienne E.; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S.; Wildt, David E.; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Howard, JoGayle

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT As the only domesticated species known to exhibit both induced and spontaneous ovulation, the cat is a model for understanding the nuances of ovarian control. To explore ovarian sensitivity to exogenous gonadotropins and the influence of progestin priming, we conducted a study of queens that were down-regulated with oral progestin or allowed to cycle normally, followed by low or high doses of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Our metrics included 1) fecal steroid metabolite profiles before and after ovulation induction, 2) laparoscopic examination of ovarian follicles and corpora lutea (CL) on Days 2 and 17 (Day 0 = hCG administration), and 3) ovariohysterectomy (Day 17) to assess CL progesterone concentrations, morphometrics, and histology. Reproductive tracts from time-matched, naturally mated queens (n = 6) served as controls. Every progestin-primed cat (n = 12) produced the desired response of morphologically similar, fresh CL (regardless of eCG/hCG dose) by Day 2, whereas 41.7% of unprimed counterparts (n = 12) failed to ovulate or had variable-aged CL suggestive of prior spontaneous ovulation (P < 0.05). The ovarian response to low, but not high, eCG/hCG was improved (P < 0.05) in primed compared to unprimed cats, indicating increased sensitivity to gonadotropin in the progestin-primed ovary. Progestin priming prevented hyperelevated fecal steroid metabolites and normalized CL progesterone capacity, but only when combined with low eCG/hCG. However, priming failed to prevent ancillary CL formation, smaller CL mass, or abnormal luteal cell density, which were common to all eCG/hCG-treated cats. Thus, the domestic cat exposed to eCG/hCG produces CL with structural and functional aberrations. These anomalies can be partially mitigated by progestin priming, possibly due to a protective effect of progestin associated with enhanced ovarian sensitivity to gonadotropins. PMID:23100619

  10. Effect of propranolol and metoprolol on parathyroid hormone and calcitonin secretions in uraemic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Coevoet, B; Desplan, C; Sebert, J L; Makdassi, R; Andrejak, M; Gheerbrant, J D; Tolani, M; Calmette, C; Moukhtar, M S; Fournier, A

    1980-01-01

    Nine uraemic patients not being treated by dialysis received intravenous propranolol 1 microgram/kg/min for 85 minutes after a priming dose of 1 mg. Fifteen days later, six of them received intravenous metoprolol 1.2 microgram/kg/min after a priming dose of 1.2 mg. Plasma concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin fell significantly after propranolol but not after metoprolol, whereas no change in plasma concentrations of ionised calcium and phosphate occurred with either drug. Heart rate fell similarly with both drugs. The fact that propranolol acutely suppressed PTH and calcitonin secretion in uraemic patients indicates that further studies are warranted to assess the long-term effects of the drug on the secretion of these hormones and on renal osteodystrophy. The contrast between the responses to propranolol and metoprolol supports the concept that PTH and calcitonin secretion is modulated through specific beta 2-receptors. PMID:7388535

  11. Single cell dissection of early kidney development: multilineage priming.

    PubMed

    Brunskill, Eric W; Park, Joo-Seop; Chung, Eunah; Chen, Feng; Magella, Bliss; Potter, S Steven

    2014-08-01

    We used a single cell RNA-seq strategy to create an atlas of gene expression patterns in the developing kidney. At several stages of kidney development, histologically uniform populations of cells give rise to multiple distinct lineages. We performed single cell RNA-seq analysis of total mouse kidneys at E11.5 and E12.5, as well as the renal vesicles at P4. We define an early stage of progenitor cell induction driven primarily by gene repression. Surprising stochastic expression of marker genes associated with differentiated cell types was observed in E11.5 progenitors. We provide a global view of the polarized gene expression already present in the renal vesicle, the first epithelial precursor of the nephron. We show that Hox gene read-through transcripts can be spliced to produce intergenic homeobox swaps. We also identify a surprising number of genes with partially degraded noncoding RNA. Perhaps most interesting, at early developmental times single cells often expressed genes related to several developmental pathways. This provides powerful evidence that initial organogenesis involves a process of multilineage priming. This is followed by a combination of gene repression, which turns off the genes associated with most possible lineages, and the activation of increasing numbers of genes driving the chosen developmental direction. PMID:25053437

  12. Single cell dissection of early kidney development: multilineage priming

    PubMed Central

    Brunskill, Eric W.; Park, Joo-Seop; Chung, Eunah; Chen, Feng; Magella, Bliss; Potter, S. Steven

    2014-01-01

    We used a single cell RNA-seq strategy to create an atlas of gene expression patterns in the developing kidney. At several stages of kidney development, histologically uniform populations of cells give rise to multiple distinct lineages. We performed single cell RNA-seq analysis of total mouse kidneys at E11.5 and E12.5, as well as the renal vesicles at P4. We define an early stage of progenitor cell induction driven primarily by gene repression. Surprising stochastic expression of marker genes associated with differentiated cell types was observed in E11.5 progenitors. We provide a global view of the polarized gene expression already present in the renal vesicle, the first epithelial precursor of the nephron. We show that Hox gene read-through transcripts can be spliced to produce intergenic homeobox swaps. We also identify a surprising number of genes with partially degraded noncoding RNA. Perhaps most interesting, at early developmental times single cells often expressed genes related to several developmental pathways. This provides powerful evidence that initial organogenesis involves a process of multilineage priming. This is followed by a combination of gene repression, which turns off the genes associated with most possible lineages, and the activation of increasing numbers of genes driving the chosen developmental direction. PMID:25053437

  13. The Original Gemini 9 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The original Gemini 9 prime crew, astronauts Elliot M. See Jr. (left), command pilot, and Charles A. Bassett II, pilot, in space suits with their helmets on the table in front of them. On February 28, 1966 the prime crew for the Gemini 9 mission were killed when their twin seat T-38 trainer jet aircraft crashed into a building in which the Gemini spacecraft were being manufactured. They were on final approach to Lambert-Saint Louis Municipal Airport when bad weather conditions hampered pilot See's ability to make a good visual contact with the runway. Noticing the building at the last second as he came out of the low cloud cover, See went to full afterburner and attempted to nose-up the aircraft in an attempt to miss the building. He clipped it and his plane crashed.

  14. Average prime-pair counting formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korevaar, Jaap; Riele, Herman Te

    2010-04-01

    Taking r>0 , let π_{2r}(x) denote the number of prime pairs (p, p+2r) with p≤ x . The prime-pair conjecture of Hardy and Littlewood (1923) asserts that π_{2r}(x)˜ 2C_{2r} {li}_2(x) with an explicit constant C_{2r}>0 . There seems to be no good conjecture for the remainders ω_{2r}(x)=π_{2r}(x)- 2C_{2r} {li}_2(x) that corresponds to Riemann's formula for π(x)-{li}(x) . However, there is a heuristic approximate formula for averages of the remainders ω_{2r}(x) which is supported by numerical results.

  15. Repetition priming results in sensitivity attenuation

    PubMed Central

    Allenmark, Fredrik; Hsu, Yi-Fang; Roussel, Cedric; Waszak, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Repetition priming refers to the change in the ability to perform a task on a stimulus as a consequence of a former encounter with that very same item. Usually, repetition results in faster and more accurate performance. In the present study, we used a contrast discrimination protocol to assess perceptual sensitivity and response bias of Gabor gratings that are either repeated (same orientation) or alternated (different orientation). We observed that contrast discrimination performance is worse, not better, for repeated than for alternated stimuli. In a second experiment, we varied the probability of stimulus repetition, thus testing whether the repetition effect is due to bottom-up or top-down factors. We found that it is top-down expectation that determines the effect. We discuss the implication of these findings for repetition priming and related phenomena as sensory attenuation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention. PMID:25819554

  16. The Actual Apollo 13 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The actual Apollo 13 lunar landing mission prime crew from left to right are: Commander, James A. Lovell Jr., Command Module pilot, John L. Swigert Jr.and Lunar Module pilot, Fred W. Haise Jr. The original Command Module pilot for this mission was Thomas 'Ken' Mattingly Jr. but due to exposure to German measles he was replaced by his backup, Command Module pilot, John L. 'Jack' Swigert Jr.

  17. Detecting Prime Numbers via Roots of Polynomials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2012-01-01

    It is proved that an integer n [greater than or equal] 2 is a prime (resp., composite) number if and only if there exists exactly one (resp., more than one) nth-degree monic polynomial f with coefficients in Z[subscript n], the ring of integers modulo n, such that each element of Z[subscript n] is a root of f. This classroom note could find use in…

  18. Detecting prime numbers via roots of polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbs, David E.

    2012-04-01

    It is proved that an integer n ≥ 2 is a prime (resp., composite) number if and only if there exists exactly one (resp., more than one) nth-degree monic polynomial f with coefficients in Z n , the ring of integers modulo n, such that each element of Z n is a root of f. This classroom note could find use in any introductory course on abstract algebra or elementary number theory.

  19. Sequential inductive learning

    SciTech Connect

    Gratch, J.

    1996-12-31

    This article advocates a new model for inductive learning. Called sequential induction, it helps bridge classical fixed-sample learning techniques (which are efficient but difficult to formally characterize), and worst-case approaches (which provide strong statistical guarantees but are too inefficient for practical use). Learning proceeds as a sequence of decisions which are informed by training data. By analyzing induction at the level of these decisions, and by utilizing the only enough data to make each decision, sequential induction provides statistical guarantees but with substantially less data than worst-case methods require. The sequential inductive model is also useful as a method for determining a sufficient sample size for inductive learning and as such, is relevant to learning problems where the preponderance of data or the cost of gathering data precludes the use of traditional methods.

  20. Trans-generational immune priming in honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Hernández López, Javier; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Crailsheim, Karl; Riessberger-Gallé, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Maternal immune experience acquired during pathogen exposure and passed on to progeny to enhance resistance to infection is called trans-generational immune priming (TgIP). In eusocial insects like honeybees, TgIP would result in a significant improvement of health at individual and colony level. Demonstrated in invertebrates other than honeybees, TgIP has not yet been fully elucidated in terms of intensity and molecular mechanisms underlying this response. Here, we immune-stimulated honeybee queens with Paenibacillus larvae (Pl), a spore-forming bacterium causing American Foulbrood, the most deadly bee brood disease worldwide. Subsequently, offspring of stimulated queens were exposed to spores of Pl and mortality rates were measured to evaluate maternal transfer of immunity. Our data substantiate the existence of TgIP effects in honeybees by direct evaluation of offspring resistance to bacterial infection. A further aspect of this study was to investigate a potential correlation between immune priming responses and prohaemocytes–haemocyte differentiation processes in larvae. The results point out that a priming effect triggers differentiation of prohaemocytes to haemocytes. However, the mechanisms underlying TgIP responses are still elusive and require future investigation. PMID:24789904

  1. Trans-generational immune priming in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Hernández López, Javier; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Crailsheim, Karl; Riessberger-Gallé, Ulrike

    2014-06-22

    Maternal immune experience acquired during pathogen exposure and passed on to progeny to enhance resistance to infection is called trans-generational immune priming (TgIP). In eusocial insects like honeybees, TgIP would result in a significant improvement of health at individual and colony level. Demonstrated in invertebrates other than honeybees, TgIP has not yet been fully elucidated in terms of intensity and molecular mechanisms underlying this response. Here, we immune-stimulated honeybee queens with Paenibacillus larvae (Pl), a spore-forming bacterium causing American Foulbrood, the most deadly bee brood disease worldwide. Subsequently, offspring of stimulated queens were exposed to spores of Pl and mortality rates were measured to evaluate maternal transfer of immunity. Our data substantiate the existence of TgIP effects in honeybees by direct evaluation of offspring resistance to bacterial infection. A further aspect of this study was to investigate a potential correlation between immune priming responses and prohaemocytes-haemocyte differentiation processes in larvae. The results point out that a priming effect triggers differentiation of prohaemocytes to haemocytes. However, the mechanisms underlying TgIP responses are still elusive and require future investigation. PMID:24789904

  2. Initial models in conditionals: evidence from priming.

    PubMed

    Espino, Orlando; Santamaría, Carlos

    2008-05-01

    We examined the comprehension of different types of conditionals. We measured the reading time of sentences primed by different types of conditionals (Experiments 1 and 2). We found that the participants read not-p and not-q faster when it was primed by the conditional form p if q and they were slower to read p and q when it was primed by the conditional form p only if q. This effect disappeared in the second experiment, where the order of the elements was reversed (q and p and not-q and not-p). These results suggest that the conditional form p if q elicits an initial representation "from p to q" with two possibilities, while the conditional form p only if q elicits a reverse representation with only one possibility. The third experiment showed that there were effects of the order only for the conditional if p then q, which confirms the reverse representation hypothesis. We discuss the implications of these results for different theories of conditional comprehension. PMID:18630646

  3. Congruent numbers with many prime factors.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ye

    2012-12-26

    Mohammed Ben Alhocain, in an Arab manuscript of the 10th century, stated that the principal object of the theory of rational right triangles is to find a square that when increased or diminished by a certain number, m becomes a square [Dickson LE (1971) History of the Theory of Numbers (Chelsea, New York), Vol 2, Chap 16]. In modern language, this object is to find a rational point of infinite order on the elliptic curve my2 = x3 - x. Heegner constructed such rational points in the case that m are primes congruent to 5,7 modulo 8 or twice primes congruent to 3 modulo 8 [Monsky P (1990) Math Z 204:45-68]. We extend Heegner's result to integers m with many prime divisors and give a sketch in this report. The full details of all the proofs will be given in ref. 1 [Tian Y (2012) Congruent Numbers and Heegner Points, arXiv:1210.8231]. PMID:23213259

  4. Parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone type-1 receptor accelerate myocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Shigemi; Yoshioka, Kowasi

    2014-01-01

    The ZHTc6-MyoD embryonic stem cell line expresses the myogenic transcriptional factor MyoD under the control of a tetracycline-inducible promoter. Following induction, most of the ZHTc6-MyoD cells differentiate to myotubes. However, a small fraction does not differentiate, instead forming colonies that retain the potential for myocyte differentiation. In our current study, we found that parathyroid hormone type 1 receptor (PTH1R) expression in colony-forming cells at 13 days after differentiation was higher than that in the undifferentiated ZHTc6-MyoD cells. We also found that PTH1R expression was required for myocyte differentiation, and that parathyroid hormone accelerated the differentiation. Our analysis of human and mouse skeletal muscle tissues showed that most cells expressing PTH1R also expressed Pax7 and CD34, which are biomarkers of satellite cells. Furthermore, we found that parathyroid hormone treatment significantly improved muscle weakness in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. This is the first report indicating that PTH1R and PTH accelerate myocyte differentiation. PMID:24919035

  5. Induction Therapy for Thymoma.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Usman; Huang, James

    2016-08-01

    Thymomas are uncommon tumors that can present as locally advanced tumors in approximately 30% of the patients. Stage and complete resection are the strongest prognostic factors. For locally advanced tumors, induction treatment may improve the ability to achieve a complete resection. Combination treatment with cisplatin, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide is the most commonly used induction regimen. Similar rates of resectability are noted with the use of induction chemotherapy and chemoradiation therapy; however, more tumor necrosis is noted with the addition of radiation. PMID:27427527

  6. Hormone replacement therapy for the adolescent patient.

    PubMed

    DiVasta, Amy D; Gordon, Catherine M

    2008-01-01

    Pubertal induction and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) during adolescence are conducted with the aim of closely mirroring the pubertal changes that occur in children with a normal hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. The challenge for the clinician is to determine the most appropriate form, dosing, and duration of replacement therapy to achieve that goal in an individual patient. While the optimal regimen remains unclear and data in adolescents are limited, this review presents the evidence available to clinicians as they care for adolescent girls and young women. Both the goals and phases of HRT are reviewed, and commonly used medication regimens are presented. Both the benefits and risks associated with various methods of HRT are also discussed, as are special issues of concern regarding adolescent HRT, including eating disorders and bone health. PMID:18574226

  7. Hexanoic acid protects tomato plants against Botrytis cinerea by priming defence responses and reducing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Finiti, Ivan; de la O Leyva, María; Vicedo, Begonya; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; López-Cruz, Jaime; García-Agustín, Pilar; Real, Maria Dolores; González-Bosch, Carmen

    2014-08-01

    Treatment with the resistance priming inducer hexanoic acid (Hx) protects tomato plants from Botrytis cinerea by activating defence responses. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR), we compared the expression profiles of three different conditions: Botrytis-infected plants (Inf), Hx-treated plants (Hx) and Hx-treated + infected plants (Hx+Inf). The microarray analysis at 24 h post-inoculation showed that Hx and Hx+Inf plants exhibited the differential expression and priming of many Botrytis-induced genes. Interestingly, we found that the activation by Hx of other genes was not altered by the fungus at this time point. These genes may be considered to be specific targets of the Hx priming effect and may help to elucidate its mechanisms of action. It is noteworthy that, in Hx and Hx+Inf plants, there was up-regulation of proteinase inhibitor genes, DNA-binding factors, enzymes involved in plant hormone signalling and synthesis, and, remarkably, the genes involved in oxidative stress. Given the relevance of the oxidative burst occurring in plant-pathogen interactions, the effect of Hx on this process was studied in depth. We showed by specific staining that reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in Hx+Inf plants was reduced and more restricted around infection sites. In addition, these plants showed higher ratios of reduced to oxidized glutathione and ascorbate, and normal levels of antioxidant activities. The results obtained indicate that Hx protects tomato plants from B. cinerea by regulating and priming Botrytis-specific and non-specific genes, preventing the harmful effects of oxidative stress produced by infection. PMID:24320938

  8. Hydrothermal syntheses, crystal structures and luminescence properties of zinc(II) and cadmium(II) coordination polymers based on bifunctional 3,2 Prime :6 Prime ,3 Prime Prime -terpyridine-4 Prime -carboxylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Na; Guo, Hui-Lin; Hu, Huai-Ming; Song, Juan; Xu, Bing; Yang, Meng-Lin; Dong, Fa-Xin; Xue, Gang-Lin

    2013-02-15

    Five new coordination polymers, [Zn{sub 2}(ctpy){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}]{sub n} (1), [Zn{sub 2}(ctpy){sub 2}(ox)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} (2), [Zn{sub 2}(ctpy)(3-btc)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n}{center_dot}0.5nH{sub 2}O (3), [Cd(ctpy){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (4), [Cd{sub 4}(ctpy){sub 2}(2-btc){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n}{center_dot}2nH{sub 2}O (5), (Hctpy=3,2 Prime :6 Prime ,3 Prime Prime -terpyridine-4 Prime -carboxylic acid, H{sub 2}ox=oxalic acid, H{sub 3}(3-btc)=1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid, H{sub 3}(2-btc)=1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic acid) have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1-2 are a one-dimensional chain with weak interactions to form 3D supramolecular structures. Compound 3 is a 4-nodal 3D topology framework comprised of binuclear zinc units and (ctpy){sup -} anions. Compound 4 shows two dimensional net. Compound 5 is a (4,5,6)-connected framework with {l_brace}4{sup 4}{center_dot}6{sup 2}{r_brace}{l_brace}4{sup 6}{center_dot}6{sup 4}{r_brace}{sub 2}{l_brace}4{sup 9}{center_dot}6{sup 6}{r_brace} topology. In addition, the thermal stabilities and photoluminescence properties of 1-5 were also studied in the solid state. - Graphical abstract: Five new Zn/Cd compounds with 3,2 Prime :6 Prime ,3 Prime Prime -terpyridine-4 Prime -carboxylic acid were prepared. The photoluminescence and thermal stabilities properties of 1-5 were investigated in the solid state. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Five new zinc/cadmium metal-organic frameworks have been hydrothermal synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structural variation is attributed to the diverse metal ions and auxiliary ligand. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compounds 1-5 exhibit 1D ring chain, 2D layer and 3D open-framework, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These compounds exhibit strong solid state luminescence emission at room temperature.

  9. Induction of IgG memory responses with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is antigen dose dependent

    SciTech Connect

    Lite, H.S.; Braley-Mullen, H.

    1981-03-01

    Irradiated recipients of spleen cells from mice primed with a very low dose (0.0025 ..mu../g) of the thymus-independent (TI) antigen polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) produced PVP-specific IgG memory responses after secondary challenge with a T-dependent (TD) form of PVP, PVP-HRBC. The IgG memory responses induced by low doses of PVP were similar in magnitude to those induced by the TD antigen PVP-HRBC. The induction of IgG memory by the TI form of antigen was markedly dependent on the dose of PVP used to prime donor mice. Spleen cells from mice primed with an amount of PVP (0.25 ..mu..g) that induces an optimal primary IgM response did not produce significant IgG antibody after challenge with PVP-HRBC. The inability of higher doses of PVP to induce IgG memory may be due, at least in part, to the fact that such doses of PVP were found to induce tolerance in PVP-specific B cells and could suppress the induction of memory induced by PVP-HRBC. Low doses of PVP did not interfere with the induction of memory by PVP-HRBC. Expression of IgG memory responses in recipients of PVP-HRBC or low-dose PVP-primed cells was found to be T cell dependent. Moreover, only primed T cells could reconstitute the respnse of recipients of primed B cells, suggesting that the ability of PVP to induce IgG memory may be related to its ability to prime T helper cells. Expression of the IgG memory response in recipient mice also required the use of a TD antigen for secondary challenge, i.e., mice challenged with PVP did not develop IgG.

  10. Novel word lexicalization and the prime lexicality effect.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xiaomei; Forster, Kenneth I

    2013-07-01

    This study investigates how newly learned words are integrated into the first-language lexicon using masked priming. Two lexical decision experiments are reported, with the aim of establishing whether newly learned words behave like real words in a masked form priming experiment. If they do, they should show a prime lexicality effect (PLE), in which less priming is obtained due to form similarity when the prime is a word. In the first experiment, subjects were taught the meanings of novel words that were neighbors of real words, but no PLE was observed; that is, equally strong form priming was obtained for both trained and untrained novel primes. In the second experiment, 4 training sessions were spread over 4 weeks, and under these conditions, a clear PLE was obtained in the final session. It is concluded that lexicalization requires multiple training sessions. Possible explanations of the PLE are discussed. PMID:23088548

  11. Intact Conceptual Priming in the Absence of Declarative Memory

    PubMed Central

    Levy, D.A.; Stark, C.E.L.; Squire, L.R.

    2009-01-01

    Priming is an unconscious (nondeclarative) form of memory whereby identification or production of an item is improved by an earlier encounter. It has been proposed that declarative memory and priming might be related—for example, that conceptual priming results in more fluent processing, thereby providing a basis for familiarity judgments. In two experiments, we assessed conceptual priming and recognition memory across a 5-min interval in 5 memory-impaired patients. All patients exhibited fully intact priming in tests of both free association (study tent; at test, provide an association to canvas) and category verification (study lemon; at test, decide: Is lemon a type of fruit?). Yet the 2 most severely amnesic patients performed at chance on matched tests of recognition memory. These findings count against the notion that conceptual priming provides feelings of familiarity that can support accurate recognition judgments. We suggest that priming is inaccessible to conscious awareness and does not influence declarative memory. PMID:15447639

  12. Task-Dependent Masked Priming Effects in Visual Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; Norris, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    A method used widely to study the first 250 ms of visual word recognition is masked priming: These studies have yielded a rich set of data concerning the processes involved in recognizing letters and words. In these studies, there is an implicit assumption that the early processes in word recognition tapped by masked priming are automatic, and masked priming effects should therefore be invariant across tasks. Contrary to this assumption, masked priming effects are modulated by the task goal: For example, only word targets show priming in the lexical decision task, but both words and non-words do in the same-different task; semantic priming effects are generally weak in the lexical decision task but are robust in the semantic categorization task. We explain how such task dependence arises within the Bayesian Reader account of masked priming (Norris and Kinoshita, 2008), and how the task dissociations can be used to understand the early processes in lexical access. PMID:22675316

  13. Naloxone does not Affect the Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone-Induced Inhibition of Luteinizing Hormone Secretion in Sheep.

    PubMed

    Naylor, A M; Porter, D W; Lincoln, D W

    1989-06-01

    Abstract Injection of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (21 pmol) into the third cerebral ventricle of long-term ovariectomized ewes caused a marked inhibition of luteinizing hormone secretion. Mean luteinizing hormone levels and luteinizing hormone pulse frequency were reduced significantly when compared with the control responses to saline (50 mul). A notable characteristic of the response was the delayed and sustained nature of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-induced inhibition. In the presence of the opioid antagonist naloxone (4 +/- 25 mg iv), the central administration of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone still produced a marked inhibition of luteinizing hormone secretion. Again, mean luteinizing hormone levels and luteinizing hormone pulse frequency were reduced significantly. When naloxone was injected iv, there was a significant rise in mean luteinizing hormone levels as a consequence of an increase in pulse frequency (in four out of five ewes) and a significant increase in luteinizing hormone pulse amplitude. In conclusion, these data suggest that central opioid pathways sensitive to blockade by naloxone are not involved in the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-induced inhibition of luteinizing hormone release. Furthermore, in the long-term ovariectomized ewe, endogenous opioid peptides exert a tonic inhibitory influence on luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone/luteinizing hormone secretion. PMID:19210459

  14. Hormonal contraception and lactation.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, J J

    1996-12-01

    Hormonal contraceptive measures can be used immediately postpartum if the patient so desires. Progestin-only contraceptives are preferable to estrogen-containing methods if initiated during the first six months after delivery. Progestin only contraceptives do not appear to affect milk volume, composition, or to cause deleterious effects in the infant. Ideally for women who desire a form of contraception in addition to lactation-induced amenorrhea, progestin-only methods should be started at six weeks postpartum if the woman is fully breastfeeding. Since contraception protection is provided by lactation amenorrhea, the six week delay will decrease infant exposure to exogenous hormones and decrease the incidence of irregular postpartum bleeding. Milk volume may decrease with the use of estrogen; however, no detrimental effects have been shown on infant growth or development. For women who are planning to gradually wean their infant, use of COCs may provide an easier transition to bottle-feeding. COCs should be used with caution by women who are not able to obtain supplemental milk. A decrease in milk volume can lead to earlier discontinuation of the hormonal contraceptive in an attempt to increase milk quantity. Supplementation is often needed, and then the woman ovulates again, possibly resulting in an unintended pregnancy. Many women are motivated immediately postpartum to accept contraception. For other women, lack of access to health care may provide barriers in obtaining adequate contraception later. In either case, there are adequate data to show no detriments of starting progestin-only contraceptives within days of delivery. Therefore, the best method for the patient should be employed to ensure adequate contraception while preserving optimal lactation. PMID:9025449

  15. The growth hormone receptor.

    PubMed

    Waters, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    Once thought to be present only in liver, muscle and adipose tissue, the GH receptor is now known to be ubiquitously distributed, in accord with the many pleiotropic actions of GH. These include the regulation of metabolism, postnatal growth, cognition, immune, cardiac and renal systems and gut function. GH exerts these actions primarily through alterations in gene expression, initiated by activation of its membrane receptor and the resultant activation of the associated JAK2 (Janus kinase 2) and Src family kinases. Receptor activation involves hormone initiated movements within a receptor homodimer, rather than simple receptor dimerization. We have shown that binding of the hormone realigns the orientation of the two receptors both by relative rotation and by closer apposition just above the cell membrane. This is a consequence of the asymmetric placement of the binding sites on the hormone. Binding results in a conversion of parallel receptor transmembrane domains into a rotated crossover orientation, which produces separation of the lower part of the transmembrane helices. Because the JAK2 is bound to the Box1 motif proximal to the inner membrane, receptor activation results in separation of the two associated JAK2s, and in particular the removal of the inhibitory pseudokinase domain from the kinase domain of the other JAK2 (and vice versa). This brings the two kinase domains into position for trans-activation and initiates tyrosine phosphorylation of the receptor cytoplasmic domain and other substrates such as STAT5, the key transcription factor mediating most genomic actions of GH. There are a limited number of genomic actions initiated by the Src kinase family member which also associates with the upper cytoplasmic domain of the receptor, including important immune regulatory actions to dampen exuberant innate immune activation of cells involved in transplant rejection. These findings offer insights for developing specific receptor antagonists which may be

  16. A distal locus element mediates IFN-γ priming of LPS-stimulated TNF gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Nancy A.; Jasenosky, Luke D.; Goldfeld, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY IFN-γ priming sensitizes monocytes/macrophages to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, resulting in augmented expression of a set of genes including TNF. Here, we demonstrate that IFN-γ priming of LPS-stimulated TNF transcription requires a distal TNF/LT locus element 8 kb upstream of the TNF transcription start site (hHS-8). IFN-γ stimulation leads to increased DNase I accessibility of hHS-8 and its recruitment of IRF1, and subsequent LPS stimulation enhances H3K27 acetylation and induces enhancer RNA synthesis at hHS-8. Ablation of IRF1 or targeting the hHS-8 IRF1 binding site in vivo with Cas9 linked to the KRAB repressive domain abolishes IFN-γ priming while LPS induction of the gene is unaffected. Thus, IFN-γ poises a distal enhancer in the TNF/LT locus by chromatin remodeling and IRF1 recruitment, which then drives enhanced TNF gene expression in response to a secondary TLR stimulus. PMID:25482561

  17. Risk factors for low colloid osmotic pressure during infant cardiopulmonary bypass with a colloidal prime.

    PubMed

    Golab, Hanna D; Takkenberg, Johanna J M; Bogers, Ad J J C

    2009-05-01

    Extensive variations of colloid osmotic pressure (COP) measured in the priming as well as during infant cardiopulmonary bypass motivated us to audit clinical and laboratory data to identify the risk factors for low COP at the end of bypass. Data of 73 consecutive infant patients with body weight <10 kg, who underwent elective, first time open-heart surgery between March 2005 and December 2006 were examined. The following variables were analyzed: COP, blood loss, transfusion requirements and hematological data. Univariate and multivariate analysis of risk factors for low COP (<15 mmHg) was performed. Forty-eight percent of patients had COP <15 mmHg at the end of bypass. Those patients had significantly lower COP before start of bypass, during, and at the end of the operation. Significant univariate predictors of low COP at the end of bypass were: lower patient weight; lower COP before start of bypass, lower priming COP and larger volume of cardioplegia received into the circulation. After multivariable analysis, lower patient COP before bypass remained the only significant predictor for low COP at the end of bypass. Pre-bypass crystalloid dilution during induction should be avoided, as this is the most important cause of low COP during the bypass. Priming COP and COP management strategy should be adapted to the individual patient demand. PMID:19188213

  18. The Osteogenic Priming of Mesenchymal Stem Cells is Impaired in Experimental Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Silva, J C; Sampaio, P; Fernandes, M H; Gomes, P S

    2015-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus encompasses a group of metabolic conditions embracing the dysfunction and failure of various tissues and organs, including bone. Sustained bone alterations seem to result from anabolic, rather than catabolic processes, and suggest a decreased osteoblastic recruitment and activity. Current knowledge on the cellular and molecular mechanisms were provided by studies performed with osteogenic populations cultured in diabetic-simulated conditions, and osteogenic-induced precursor populations harvested from diabetic animals, sustaining an impaired cellular behavior in terms of osteogenic responsiveness and function. However, the reasons leaning to this impairment remain essentially unknown, as the priming capability and functionality of undifferentiated precursors, developed within the diabetic environment, have not been addressed. Accordingly, this work aims to evaluate the functionality and osteogenic priming capability of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), harvested from animals with experimental diabetes, and grown in the absence of any given differentiation factor. MSCs developed within a diabetic microenvironment displayed an impaired behavior, with diminished cell viability and proliferation, altered cytoskeleton organization, impaired osteogenic priming, and increased adipogenic activation. Further, the osteogenic induction of diabetic MSCs resulted in an impaired osteogenic commitment. The modified cell phenotype may be related, at least in part, with altered activity of ERK WNT and p38 signaling pathways in diabetic-derived cultures. Specific strategies, aiming the modulation of the verified hindrances, may be of therapeutic value to enhance the functionality of diabetic MSCs and sustain an improved outcome in the metabolism and regeneration of the bone tissue in diabetic conditions. PMID:25704854

  19. Divergent functions of hematopoietic transcription factors in lineage priming and differentiation during erythro-megakaryopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Pimkin, Maxim; Kossenkov, Andrew V; Mishra, Tejaswini; Morrissey, Christapher S; Wu, Weisheng; Keller, Cheryl A; Blobel, Gerd A; Lee, Dongwon; Beer, Michael A; Hardison, Ross C; Weiss, Mitchell J

    2014-12-01

    Combinatorial actions of relatively few transcription factors control hematopoietic differentiation. To investigate this process in erythro-megakaryopoiesis, we correlated the genome-wide chromatin occupancy signatures of four master hematopoietic transcription factors (GATA1, GATA2, TAL1, and FLI1) and three diagnostic histone modification marks with the gene expression changes that occur during development of primary cultured megakaryocytes (MEG) and primary erythroblasts (ERY) from murine fetal liver hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. We identified a robust, genome-wide mechanism of MEG-specific lineage priming by a previously described stem/progenitor cell-expressed transcription factor heptad (GATA2, LYL1, TAL1, FLI1, ERG, RUNX1, LMO2) binding to MEG-associated cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) in multipotential progenitors. This is followed by genome-wide GATA factor switching that mediates further induction of MEG-specific genes following lineage commitment. Interaction between GATA and ETS factors appears to be a key determinant of these processes. In contrast, ERY-specific lineage priming is biased toward GATA2-independent mechanisms. In addition to its role in MEG lineage priming, GATA2 plays an extensive role in late megakaryopoiesis as a transcriptional repressor at loci defined by a specific DNA signature. Our findings reveal important new insights into how ERY and MEG lineages arise from a common bipotential progenitor via overlapping and divergent functions of shared hematopoietic transcription factors. PMID:25319996

  20. Possible Role of Interleukin-17 in a Prime/Challenge Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Libbey, Jane E.; Tsunoda, Ikuo; Fujinami, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    No one single pathogen has been identified as the causative agent of multiple sclerosis (MS). Alternately, the likelihood of an autoimmune event may be nonspecifically enhanced by different infectious agents. In a novel animal model of MS, SJL/J mice primed through infection with a recombinant vaccinia virus (VV) encoding myelin proteolipid protein (PLP) (VVPLP) were susceptible to a central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory disease following administration of a nonspecific immunostimulant [complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) plus Bordetella pertussis (BP)]. Mononuclear cells isolated from the brains, but not the spleens, of VVPLP-primed CFA/BP challenged mice produced interleukin (IL)-17 and interferon-γ and transferred a CNS inflammatory disease to naïve SJL/J mice. Administration of curdlan, a T helper 17 cell inducer, unexpectedly resulted in less severe clinical and histological signs of disease, compared to CFA/BP challenged mice, despite the induction of IL-17 in the periphery. Further examination of the VVPLP-prime CFA/BP challenge model may suggest new mechanisms for how different pathogens associated with MS can protect or enhance disease. PMID:22991336

  1. Thyroid Hormone, Cancer, and Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hung-Yun; Chin, Yu-Tan; Yang, Yu-Chen S H; Lai, Husan-Yu; Wang-Peng, Jacqueline; Liu, Leory F; Tang, Heng-Yuan; Davis, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormones play important roles in regulating normal metabolism, development, and growth. They also stimulate cancer cell proliferation. Their metabolic and developmental effects and growth effects in normal tissues are mediated primarily by nuclear hormone receptors. A cell surface receptor for the hormone on integrin [alpha]vβ3 is the initiation site for effects on tumor cells. Clinical hypothyroidism may retard cancer growth, and hyperthyroidism was recently linked to the prevalence of certain cancers. Local levels of thyroid hormones are controlled through activation and deactivation of iodothyronine deiodinases in different organs. The relative activities of different deiodinases that exist in tissues or organs also affect the progression and development of specific types of cancers. In this review, the effects of thyroid hormone on signaling pathways in breast, brain, liver, thyroid, and colon cancers are discussed. The importance of nuclear thyroid hormone receptor isoforms and of the hormone receptor on the extracellular domain of integrin [alpha]vβ3 as potential cancer risk factors and therapeutic targets are addressed. We analyze the intracellular signaling pathways activated by thyroid hormones in cancer progression in hyperthyroidism or at physiological concentrations in the euthyroid state. Determining how to utilize the deaminated thyroid hormone analog (tetrac), and its nanoparticulate derivative to reduce risks of cancer progression, enhance therapeutic outcomes, and prevent cancer recurrence is also deliberated. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1221-1237, 2016. PMID:27347891

  2. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Androgen deprivation therapy; ADT; Androgen suppression therapy; Combined androgen blockade ... Androgens cause prostate cancer cells to grow. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer lowers the effect level of ...

  3. Semantic Priming from Letter-Searched Primes Occurs for Low- but Not High-Frequency Targets: Automatic Semantic Access May Not Be a Myth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Neely, James H.

    2007-01-01

    Letter-search (LS) within a prime often eliminates semantic priming. In 2 lexical decision experiments, the authors found that priming from LS primes occurred for low-frequency (LF) but not high-frequency (HF) targets whether the target's word frequency was manipulated between or within participants and whether the prime-target pairs were…

  4. Effect of Aerobic Priming on the Response of Echinochloa crus-pavonis to Anaerobic Stress (Protein Synthesis and Phosphorylation).

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, F.; Lin, J. J.; Fox, T. C.; Mujer, C. V.; Rumpho, M. E.; Kennedy, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Echinochloa species differ in their ability to germinate and grow in the absence of oxygen. Seeds of Echinochloa crus-pavonis (H.B.K.) Schult do not germinate under anoxia but remain viable for extended periods (at least 30 d) when incubated in an anaerobic environment. E. crus-pavonis can be induced to germinate and grow in an anaerobic environment if the seeds are first subjected to a short (1-18 h) exposure to aerobic conditions (aerobic priming). Changes in polypeptide patterns (constitutive and de novo synthesized) and protein phosphorylation induced by aerobic priming were investigated. In the absence of aerobic priming protein degradation was not evident under anaerobic conditions, although synthesis of a 20-kD polypeptide was induced. During aerobic priming, however, synthesis of 37- and 55-kD polypeptides was induced and persisted upon return of the seeds to anoxia. Furthermore, phosphorylation of two 18-kD polypeptides was observed only in those seeds that were labeled with 32PO4 during the aerobic priming period. Subsequent chasing in an anaerobic environment resulted in a decrease in phosphorylation of these polypeptides. Likewise, phosphorylation of the 18-kD polypeptides was not observed if the seeds were labeled in an anaerobic atmosphere. These results suggest that the regulated induction of the 20-, 37-, and 55- kD polypeptides may be important for anaerobic germination and growth of E. crus-pavonis and that the specific phosphorylation of the 18-kD polypeptides may be a factor in regulating this induction. PMID:12232272

  5. Priming healthy eating. You can't prime all the people all of the time☆

    PubMed Central

    Forwood, Suzanna E.; Ahern, Amy L.; Hollands, Gareth J.; Ng, Yin-Lam; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In the context of a food purchasing environment filled with advertising and promotions, and an increased desire from policy makers to guide individuals toward choosing healthier foods, this study tests whether priming methods that use healthy food adverts to increase preference for healthier food generalize to a representative population. MethodsIn two studies (Study 1 n = 143; Study 2 n = 764), participants were randomly allocated to a prime condition, where they viewed fruit and vegetable advertisements, or a control condition, with no advertisements. A subsequent forced choice task assessed preference between fruits and other sweet snacks. Additional measures included current hunger and thirst, dietary restraint, age, gender, education and self-reported weight and height. ResultsIn Study 1, hunger reduced preferences for fruits (OR (95% CI) = 0.38 (0.26–0.56), p < 0.0001), an effect countered by the prime (OR (95% CI) = 2.29 (1.33–3.96), p = 0.003). In Study 2, the effect of the prime did not generalize to a representative population. More educated participants, as used in Study 1, chose more fruit when hungry and primed (OR (95% CI) = 1.42 (1.13–1.79), p = 0.003), while less educated participants' fruit choice was unaffected by hunger or the prime. ConclusionThis study provides preliminary evidence that the effects of adverts on healthy eating choices depend on key individual traits (education level) and states (hunger), do not generalize to a broader population and have the potential to increase health inequalities arising from food choice. PMID:25636234

  6. Induction: Making the Leap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, Lorraine M.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a critical examination of a variety of approaches to induction focusing especially upon Australia and other Pacific Rim countries. The question of the purposes induction serves for graduate teachers, experienced teachers and education systems is addressed in terms of whether it is a technical exercise which preserves the…

  7. Principles of Induction Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs*, Richard J.

    The basic concepts involved in induction accelerators are introduced in this chapter. The objective is to provide a foundation for the more detailed coverage of key technology elements and specific applications in the following chapters. A wide variety of induction accelerators are discussed in the following chapters, from the high current linear electron accelerator configurations that have been the main focus of the original developments, to circular configurations like the ion synchrotrons that are the subject of more recent research. The main focus in the present chapter is on the induction module containing the magnetic core that plays the role of a transformer in coupling the pulsed power from the modulator to the charged particle beam. This is the essential common element in all these induction accelerators, and an understanding of the basic processes involved in its operation is the main objective of this chapter. (See [1] for a useful and complementary presentation of the basic principles in induction linacs.)

  8. Progress in Induction Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G J

    2000-09-27

    This presentation will be a broad survey of progress in induction technology over the past four years. Much work has been done on accelerators for hydrodynamic test radiography and other applications. Solid-state pulsers have been developed which can provide unprecedented flexibility and precision in pulse format and accelerating voltage for both ion and electron induction machines. Induction linacs can now be built which can operate with MHz repetition rates. Solid-state technology has also made possible the development of fast kickers for precision control of high current beams. New insulator technology has been developed which will improve conventional induction linacs in addition to enabling a new class of high gradient induction linacs.

  9. How Orthography Modulates Morphological Priming: Subliminal Kanji Activation in Japanese

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Yoko; Ikemoto, Yu; Jacob, Gunnar; Clahsen, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates to what extent masked morphological priming is modulated by language-particular properties, specifically by its writing system. We present results from two masked priming experiments investigating the processing of complex Japanese words written in less common (moraic) scripts. In Experiment 1, participants performed lexical decisions on target verbs; these were preceded by primes which were either (i) a past-tense form of the same verb, (ii) a stem-related form with the epenthetic vowel -i, (iii) a semantically-related form, and (iv) a phonologically-related form. Significant priming effects were obtained for prime types (i), (ii), and (iii), but not for (iv). This pattern of results differs from previous findings on languages with alphabetic scripts, which found reliable masked priming effects for morphologically related prime/target pairs of type (i), but not for non-affixal and semantically-related primes of types (ii), and (iii). In Experiment 2, we measured priming effects for prime/target pairs which are neither morphologically, semantically, phonologically nor - as presented in their moraic scripts—orthographically related, but which—in their commonly written form—share the same kanji, which are logograms adopted from Chinese. The results showed a significant priming effect, with faster lexical-decision times for kanji-related prime/target pairs relative to unrelated ones. We conclude that affix-stripping is insufficient to account for masked morphological priming effects across languages, but that language-particular properties (in the case of Japanese, the writing system) affect the processing of (morphologically) complex words. PMID:27065895

  10. How Orthography Modulates Morphological Priming: Subliminal Kanji Activation in Japanese.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Yoko; Ikemoto, Yu; Jacob, Gunnar; Clahsen, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates to what extent masked morphological priming is modulated by language-particular properties, specifically by its writing system. We present results from two masked priming experiments investigating the processing of complex Japanese words written in less common (moraic) scripts. In Experiment 1, participants performed lexical decisions on target verbs; these were preceded by primes which were either (i) a past-tense form of the same verb, (ii) a stem-related form with the epenthetic vowel -i, (iii) a semantically-related form, and (iv) a phonologically-related form. Significant priming effects were obtained for prime types (i), (ii), and (iii), but not for (iv). This pattern of results differs from previous findings on languages with alphabetic scripts, which found reliable masked priming effects for morphologically related prime/target pairs of type (i), but not for non-affixal and semantically-related primes of types (ii), and (iii). In Experiment 2, we measured priming effects for prime/target pairs which are neither morphologically, semantically, phonologically nor - as presented in their moraic scripts-orthographically related, but which-in their commonly written form-share the same kanji, which are logograms adopted from Chinese. The results showed a significant priming effect, with faster lexical-decision times for kanji-related prime/target pairs relative to unrelated ones. We conclude that affix-stripping is insufficient to account for masked morphological priming effects across languages, but that language-particular properties (in the case of Japanese, the writing system) affect the processing of (morphologically) complex words. PMID:27065895

  11. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. Methods The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Findings Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Conclusions Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK. PMID:23479113

  12. Tracking the PRIME eddy using satellite altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Ian P.; Heywood, Karen J.

    The PRIME cruise to the North Atlantic during June/July 1996 surveyed and sampled an extremely vigorous and deep-reaching eddy with a significant barotropic component. Although it exhibited anticyclonic flow and featured a warm core at depth, it had been capped at some point during its lifetime, so appeared as a cold feature in the upper 500 m. Satellite-derived sea-surface temperatures (SST) showed it to have moved little during the few weeks prior to the cruise. In this paper we discuss the origin of the PRIME eddy including where and when it is likely to have formed. Consistently large amounts of cloud cover restrict the use of SST imagery to track such features. Altimetry provides a better method to trace this eddy back in time and space since microwave radiation is not significantly affected by cloud cover. Sea-level anomaly (SLA) data from the TOPEX/POSEIDON and European Remote Sensing (ERS) satellites were used. Results show that the eddy remained almost stationary in the Iceland Basin since first being detected in late 1995 and that it almost certainly formed locally, probably as a result of an instability in the current flow around the northwest of the Hatton Bank. Comparisons between satellite SLAs and hydrographic estimates of sea-surface elevation confirm that the eddy had a substantial barotropic flow. Both the altimeter data and the sea-surface height derived from the acoustic Doppler current profiler agree that the PRIME eddy had a sea-surface elevation of about 20 cm and that its diameter was about 120 km.

  13. Variable priming of a docked synaptic vesicle

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae Hoon; Szule, Joseph A.; Marshall, Robert M.; McMahan, Uel J.

    2016-01-01

    The priming of a docked synaptic vesicle determines the probability of its membrane (VM) fusing with the presynaptic membrane (PM) when a nerve impulse arrives. To gain insight into the nature of priming, we searched by electron tomography for structural relationships correlated with fusion probability at active zones of axon terminals at frog neuromuscular junctions. For terminals fixed at rest, the contact area between the VM of docked vesicles and PM varied >10-fold with a normal distribution. There was no merging of the membranes. For terminals fixed during repetitive evoked synaptic transmission, the normal distribution of contact areas was shifted to the left, due in part to a decreased number of large contact areas, and there was a subpopulation of large contact areas where the membranes were hemifused, an intermediate preceding complete fusion. Thus, fusion probability of a docked vesicle is related to the extent of its VM–PM contact area. For terminals fixed 1 h after activity, the distribution of contact areas recovered to that at rest, indicating the extent of a VM–PM contact area is dynamic and in equilibrium. The extent of VM–PM contact areas in resting terminals correlated with eccentricity in vesicle shape caused by force toward the PM and with shortness of active zone material macromolecules linking vesicles to PM components, some thought to include Ca2+ channels. We propose that priming is a variable continuum of events imposing variable fusion probability on each vesicle and is regulated by force-generating shortening of active zone material macromolecules in dynamic equilibrium. PMID:26858418

  14. Palomar Prime-Focus Infrared Camera (PFIRCAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Beichman, C. A.; Van Buren, D.; Gautier, N.; Jorquera, C.; Bruce, C.

    1994-01-01

    In a joint effort between engineers and scientists at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the California Institute of Technology, a near-infrared (0.8 - 2.6 micrometers) direct imaging system has been developed and integrated into the Caltech Palomar Observatory detector series. The camera system has been tested and operated in a science mode at the prime-focus (f/3.3) of the Hale 5-m Telescope. This paper outlines the system components and performance, including discussion of the detector linearity.

  15. The Original Apollo 13 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The original Apollo 13 prime crew. From left to right are: Commander, James A. Lovell, Command Module pilot, Thomas K. Mattingly and Lunar Module pilot, Fred W. Haise. On the table in front of them are from left to right, a model of a sextant, the Apollo 13 insignia, and a model of an astrolabe. The sextant and astrolabe are two ancient forms of navigation. Command Module pilot Thomas 'Ken' Mattingly was exposed to German measles prior to his mission and was replaced by his backup, Command Module pilot, John L.'Jack' Swigert Jr.

  16. Shedding light on insight: Priming bright ideas

    PubMed Central

    Slepian, Michael L.; Weisbuch, Max; Rutchick, Abraham M.; Newman, Leonard S.; Ambady, Nalini

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has characterized insight as the product of internal processes, and has thus investigated the cognitive and motivational processes that immediately precede it. In this research, however, we investigate whether insight can be catalyzed by a cultural artifact, an external object imbued with learned meaning. Specifically, we exposed participants to an illuminating lightbulb – an iconic image of insight – prior to or during insight problem-solving. Across four studies, exposing participants to an illuminating lightbulb primed concepts associated with achieving an insight, and enhanced insight problem-solving in three different domains (spatial, verbal, and mathematical), but did not enhance general (non-insight) problem-solving. PMID:20652087

  17. Hormonal control of inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    Farsky, Sandra P.

    1993-01-01

    Almost any stage of inflammatory and immunological responses is affected by hormone actions. This provides the basis for the suggestion that hormones act as modulators of the host reaction against trauma and infection. Specific hormone receptors are detected in the reactive structures in inflamed areas and binding of hormone molecules to such receptors results in the generation of signals that influence cell functions relevant for the development of inflammatory responses. Diversity of hormonal functions accounts for recognized pro- and anti-inflammatory effects exerted by these substances. Most hormone systems are capable of influencing inflammatory events. Insulin and glucocorticoids, however, exert direct regulatory effects at concentrations usually found in plasma. Insulin is endowed with facilitatory actions on vascular reactivity to inflammatory mediators and inflammatory cell functions. Increased concentrations of circulating glucocorticoids at the early stages of inflammation results in downregulation of inflammatory responses. Oestrogens markedly reduce the response to injury in a variety of experimental models. Glucagon and thyroid hormones exert indirect anti-inflammatory effects mediated by the activity of the adrenal cortex. Accordingly, inflammation is not only merely a local response, but a hormone-controlled process. PMID:18475521

  18. Homeostasis, thymic hormones and aging.

    PubMed

    Goya, R G; Bolognani, F

    1999-01-01

    The thymic-pituitary axis constitutes a bidirectional circuit where the ascending feedback loop is effected by thymic factors of epithelial origin. The aim of the present article is, first, to introduce the idea of an immune-neuroendocrine homeostatic network in higher animals. Next, the relevance of the thymus in this network and the possible role of this gland in the neuroendocrine imbalances associated with aging are discussed. A number of studies are next reviewed which show that the endocrine thymus produces several bioactive molecules, generally called thymic hormones, which in addition to possessing immunoregulatory properties are also active on nervous and endocrine circuits. In particular, the reported activities of thymosin fraction five, thymosin alpha 1 and thymosin beta 4 on beta-endorphin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, glucocorticoids, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone secretion in different animal and cell models are reviewed. The known hypophysiotropic actions of other thymic hormones like thymulin, homeostatic thymus hormone and thymus factor are also summarized, and the impact of aging on pituitary responsiveness to thymic hormones is discussed. As a conclusion, it is proposed that in addition to its central role in the regulation of the immune function, the thymus gland may extend its influence to nonimmunologic components of the body, including the neuroendocrine system. The early onset of thymus involution might, therefore, act as a triggering event which would initiate the gradual decline in homeostatic potential that characterizes the aging process. PMID:10202264

  19. Purification and Cultivation of Human Pituitary Growth Hormones Secreting Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, W. C.; Todd, P.; Grindeland, R.; Lanham, W.; Morrison, D.

    1985-01-01

    The rat and human pituitary gland contains a mixture of hormone producing cell types. The separation of cells which make growth hormone (GH) is attempted for the purpose of understanding how the hormone molecule is made within the pituitary cell; what form(s) it takes within the cell; and what form(s) GH assumes as it leaves the cell. Since GH has a number of biological targets (e.g., muscle, liver, bone), the assessment of the activities of the intracellular/extracellular GH by new and sensitive bioassays. GH cells contained in the mixture was separated by free flow electrophoresis. These experiments show that GH cells have different electrophoretic mobilities. This is relevant to NASA since a lack of GH could be a prime causative factor in muscle atrophy. Further, GH has recently been implicated in the etiology of motion sickness in space. Continous flow electrophoresis experiment on STS-8 showed that GH cells could be partially separated in microgravity. However, definitive cell culture studies could not be done due to insufficient cell recoveries.

  20. Royal Decree: Gene Expression in Trans-Generationally Immune Primed Bumblebee Workers Mimics a Primary Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Barribeau, Seth M; Schmid-Hempel, Paul; Sadd, Ben M

    2016-01-01

    Invertebrates lack the cellular and physiological machinery of the adaptive immune system, but show specificity in their immune response and immune priming. Functionally, immune priming is comparable to immune memory in vertebrates. Individuals that have survived exposure to a given parasite are better protected against subsequent exposures. Protection may be cross-reactive, but demonstrations of persistent and specific protection in invertebrates are increasing. This immune priming can cross generations ("trans-generational" immune priming), preparing offspring for the prevailing parasite environment. While these phenomena gain increasing support, the mechanistic foundations underlying such immune priming, both within and across generations, remain largely unknown. Using a transcriptomic approach, we show that exposing bumblebee queens with an injection of heat-killed bacteria, known to induce trans-generational immune priming, alters daughter (worker) gene expression. Daughters, even when unexposed themselves, constitutively express a core set of the genes induced upon direct bacterial exposure, including high expression of antimicrobial peptides, a beta-glucan receptor protein implicated in bacterial recognition and the induction of the toll signaling pathway, and slit-3 which is important in honeybee immunity. Maternal exposure results in a distinct upregulation of their daughters' immune system, with a signature overlapping with the induced individual response to a direct exposure. This will mediate mother-offspring protection, but also associated costs related to reconfiguration of constitutive immune expression. Moreover, identification of conserved immune pathways in memory-like responses has important implications for our understanding of the innate immune system, including the innate components in vertebrates, which share many of these pathways. PMID:27442590

  1. Royal Decree: Gene Expression in Trans-Generationally Immune Primed Bumblebee Workers Mimics a Primary Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Schmid-Hempel, Paul; Sadd, Ben M.

    2016-01-01

    Invertebrates lack the cellular and physiological machinery of the adaptive immune system, but show specificity in their immune response and immune priming. Functionally, immune priming is comparable to immune memory in vertebrates. Individuals that have survived exposure to a given parasite are better protected against subsequent exposures. Protection may be cross-reactive, but demonstrations of persistent and specific protection in invertebrates are increasing. This immune priming can cross generations ("trans-generational" immune priming), preparing offspring for the prevailing parasite environment. While these phenomena gain increasing support, the mechanistic foundations underlying such immune priming, both within and across generations, remain largely unknown. Using a transcriptomic approach, we show that exposing bumblebee queens with an injection of heat-killed bacteria, known to induce trans-generational immune priming, alters daughter (worker) gene expression. Daughters, even when unexposed themselves, constitutively express a core set of the genes induced upon direct bacterial exposure, including high expression of antimicrobial peptides, a beta-glucan receptor protein implicated in bacterial recognition and the induction of the toll signaling pathway, and slit-3 which is important in honeybee immunity. Maternal exposure results in a distinct upregulation of their daughters’ immune system, with a signature overlapping with the induced individual response to a direct exposure. This will mediate mother-offspring protection, but also associated costs related to reconfiguration of constitutive immune expression. Moreover, identification of conserved immune pathways in memory-like responses has important implications for our understanding of the innate immune system, including the innate components in vertebrates, which share many of these pathways. PMID:27442590

  2. Types of Cancer Treatment: Hormone Therapy

    Cancer.gov

    Describes how hormone therapy slows or stops the growth of breast and prostate cancers that use hormones to grow. Includes information about the types of hormone therapy and side effects that may happen.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: isolated growth hormone deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions isolated growth hormone deficiency isolated growth hormone deficiency Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Isolated growth hormone deficiency is a condition caused by a severe ...

  4. Identity Priming Consistently Affects Perceptual Fluency but Only Affects Metamemory When Primes Are Obvious

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susser, Jonathan A.; Jin, Andy; Mulligan, Neil W.

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual fluency manipulations influence metamemory judgments, with more fluently perceived information judged as more memorable. However, it is not always clear whether this influence is driven by actual experienced processing fluency or by beliefs about memory. The current study used an identity-priming paradigm--in which words are preceded by…

  5. Prime number identification in idiots savants: can they calculate them?

    PubMed

    Welling, H

    1994-04-01

    Several idiots savants who were able to identify prime numbers have been reported. This ability requires complex calculations, because no simple algorithms are known for determining primes. Many savants, however, who demonstrate this ability, do not possess the arithmetical skills to perform such calculations. Explanations offered for the feats of idiots savants are reviewed in the light of their applicability to the cases of prime identification. Existing models cannot fully explain prime number identification for savants with weak arithmetical skills. The author shows that through the natural tendency of visual perception to be organized symmetrically, a distinction between prime and nonprime numbers can be made. This process could both explain the origin of the interest and the ability to identify prime numbers in mathematically weak savants. PMID:8040161

  6. Semantic transparency and masked morphological priming: An ERP investigation

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Joanna; Frank, Tiffany; Grainger, Jonathan; Holcomb, Phillip J.

    2009-01-01

    The role of semantics in the segmentation of morphologically complex words was examined using event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded to target words primed by semantically transparent (hunter–hunt,) opaque (corner–corn), and orthographically related (scandal–scan) masked primes. Behavioral data showed that only transparent items gave rise to priming. The ERP data showed both N250 and the N400 effects with transparent items generating greater priming than orthographic or opaque. Furthermore, priming effects across conditions revealed the existence of a significant linear trend, with transparent items showing the greatest effects and orthographic items the smallest, suggesting that these priming effects vary as a function of morphological structure and semantic transparency. The results are discussed in terms of a model of morphological processing. PMID:17498223

  7. Word-identification priming for ignored and attended words.

    PubMed

    Stone, M; Ladd, S L; Vaidya, C J; Gabrieli, J D

    1998-06-01

    Three experiments examined contributions of study phase awareness of word identity to subsequent word-identification priming by manipulating visual attention to words at study. In Experiment 1, word-identification priming was reduced for ignored relative to attended words, even though ignored words were identified sufficiently to produce negative priming in the study phase. Word-identification priming was also reduced after color naming relative to emotional valence rating (Experiment 2) or word reading (Experiment 3), even though an effect of emotional valence upon color naming (Experiment 2) indicated that words were identified at study. Thus, word-identification priming was reduced even when word identification occurred at study. Word-identification priming may depend on awareness of word identity at the time of study. PMID:9690028

  8. Numerical Priming Between Touch and Vision Depends on Tactile Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Faivre, Nathan; Salomon, Roy; Vuillaume, Laurène; Blanke, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Although the interaction between vision and touch is of crucial importance for perceptual and bodily self-consciousness, only little is known regarding the link between conscious access and tactile processing. Here, we tested whether the numerical encoding of tactile stimuli depends on conscious discrimination. On each trial, participants received between zero and three taps at low, medium, or high intensity and had to enumerate the number of visual items subsequently presented as a visual target. We measured tactovisual numerical priming, that is, the modulation of reaction times according to the numerical distance between the visual target and tactile prime values. While numerical priming and repetition priming were respectively elicited by high and medium intensity stimuli, no effect was found for low intensity stimuli that were not discriminable. This suggests that numerical priming between touch and vision depends on tactile discrimination. We discuss our results considering recent advances in unconscious visual numerical priming. PMID:26562854

  9. Word-identification priming for ignored and attended words

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, M.; Ladd, S. L.; Vaidya, C. J.; Gabrieli, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    Three experiments examined contributions of study phase awareness of word identity to subsequent word-identification priming by manipulating visual attention to words at study. In Experiment 1, word-identification priming was reduced for ignored relative to attended words, even though ignored words were identified sufficiently to produce negative priming in the study phase. Word-identification priming was also reduced after color naming relative to emotional valence rating (Experiment 2) or word reading (Experiment 3), even though an effect of emotional valence upon color naming (Experiment 2) indicated that words were identified at study. Thus, word-identification priming was reduced even when word identification occurred at study. Word-identification priming may depend on awareness of word identity at the time of study.

  10. Syntactic Priming During Sentence Comprehension: Evidence for the Lexical Boost

    PubMed Central

    Traxler, Matthew J.; Tooley, Kristen M.; Pickering, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Syntactic priming occurs when structural information from one sentence influences processing of a subsequently encountered sentence (Bock, 1986; Ledoux et al., 2007). This article reports two eye-tracking experiments investigating the effects of a prime sentence on the processing of a target sentence that shared aspects of syntactic form. The experiments were designed to determine the degree to which lexical overlap between prime and target sentences produced larger effects, comparable to the widely observed ‘lexical boost’ in production experiments (Pickering & Branigan, 1998; Pickering & Ferreira, 2008). The current experiments showed that priming effects during on-line comprehension were in fact larger when a verb was repeated across the prime and target sentences (see also Tooley et al., 2009). The finding of larger priming effects with lexical repetition supports accounts under which syntactic form representations are connected to individual lexical items (e.g., Vosse & Kempen, 2000, 2009; Tomasello, 2003). PMID:24707789

  11. Hormonal changes during menopause.

    PubMed

    Al-Azzawi, Farook; Palacios, Santiago

    2009-06-20

    Ovarian senescence occurs gradually during the fourth and fifth decades of life, leading to menopause at an average age of about 51 years. This senescence results in a changing hormonal milieu, with decreases in the levels of estrogens and androgens. Similar changes may be induced by surgical menopause (bilateral oophorectomy) or ovarian failure resulting from cancer treatment. The declining levels of estrogens and androgens affect many tissues of the body and can produce a variety of signs and symptoms, including vasomotor symptoms, decreased bone density, changes in mood and energy, loss of pubic hair and changes in the genital tissues, and effects on sexual function. Accurate measurement of testosterone levels in postmenopausal women requires methods that are validated in the lower ranges of testosterone level observed in this population. PMID:19372016

  12. The induction motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redinz, José Arnaldo

    2015-09-01

    We obtain analytical expressions for the torques and angular speed of an induction motor with a simple geometry, resembling the geometry of the first induction motor investigated by Arago in 1824. The rotor is a conducting disc rotating between the magnetic poles of two off-axis solenoids, displaced in space by 90^\\circ from each other. We apply our results to discuss a theory for the ubiquitous electromechanical watt-hour meter. For comparison of the theoretical result for the angular speed with measurements, we propose a simple experiment in which an induction motor with an aluminum disc rotor is constructed.

  13. Review of induction LINACS

    SciTech Connect

    Faltens, A.; Keefe, D.

    1981-10-01

    There has been a recent upsurge of activity in the field of induction linacs, with several new machines becoming operational and others in the design stages. The performance levels of electron machines have reached 10's of kiloamps of current and will soon reach 10's of MeV's of energy. Acceleration of ion current has been demonstrated, and the study of a 10 GeV heavy ion induction linac for ICF continues. The operating principles of induction linacs are reviewed with the emphasis on design choices which are important for increasing the maximum beam currents.

  14. Direct reading inductance meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolby, R. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A direct reading inductance meter comprised of a crystal oscillator and an LC tuned oscillator is presented. The oscillators function respectively to generate a reference frequency, f(r), and to generate an initial frequency, f(0), which when mixed produce a difference equal to zero. Upon connecting an inductor of small unknown value in the LC circuit to change its resonant frequency to f(x), a difference frequency (f(r)-f(x)) is produced that is very nearly a linear function of the inductance of the inductor. The difference frequency is measured and displayed on a linear scale in units of inductance.

  15. Predicting the unbeaten path through syntactic priming.

    PubMed

    Arai, Manabu; Nakamura, Chie; Mazuka, Reiko

    2015-03-01

    A number of previous studies showed that comprehenders make use of lexically based constraints such as subcategorization frequency in processing structurally ambiguous sentences. One piece of such evidence is lexically specific syntactic priming in comprehension; following the costly processing of a temporarily ambiguous sentence, comprehenders experience less processing difficulty with the same structure with the same verb in subsequent processing. In previous studies using a reading paradigm, however, the effect was observed at or following disambiguating information and it is not known whether a priming effect affects only the process of resolving structural ambiguity following disambiguating input or it also affects the process before ambiguity is resolved. Using a visual world paradigm, the current study addressed this issue with Japanese relative clause sentences. Our results demonstrated that after experiencing the relative clause structure, comprehenders were more likely to predict the usually dispreferred structure immediately upon hearing the same verb. No compatible effect, in contrast, was observed on hearing a different verb. Our results are consistent with the constraint-based lexicalist view, which assumes the parallel activation of possible structural analyses at the verb. Our study demonstrated that an experience of a dispreferred structure activates the structural information in a lexically specific manner, leading comprehenders to predict another instance of the same structure on encountering the same verb. PMID:25528094

  16. Priming unconscious racial stereotypes about adolescent offenders.

    PubMed

    Graham, Sandra; Lowery, Brian S

    2004-10-01

    Two studies examined unconscious racial stereotypes of decision makers in the juvenile justice system. Police officers (Experiment 1) and juvenile probation officers (Experiment 2) were subliminally exposed to words related to the category Black or to words neutral with respect to race. In a presumably unrelated task, officers read 2 vignettes about a hypothetical adolescent who allegedly committed either a property crime (shoplifting from a convenience store) or an interpersonal crime (assaulting a peer). The race of the offender was left unstated and the scenarios were ambiguous about the causes of the crime. Respondents rated the hypothetical offender on a number of traits (e.g., hostility and immaturity) and made judgments about culpability, expected recidivism, and deserved punishment. They also completed a self-report measure of conscious attitudes about race. As hypothesized, officers in the racial prime condition reported more negative trait ratings, greater culpability, and expected recidivism, and they endorsed harsher punishment than did officers in the neutral condition. The effects of the racial primes were not moderated by consciously held attitudes about African Americans. The implications of the findings for racial disparity in the juvenile justice system and for changing unconscious stereotypes were discussed. PMID:15638206

  17. Vacuum Fluctuations, Cosmogenesis and Prime Number Gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, Alexander A.

    2002-10-01

    Starting from E.Tryon (1973), idea of cosmogenesis through quantum tunnelling "from nothing" became popular. Both complimentary streams of it, inflationary models (Guth, Linde) and quantum parallelism (Everett, Deutsch), require some starting point as, e.g., concretisation of Leibnitz Principle (Omnibus ex nihil decendis sufficit unum). This leads to propositional conjecture (axiom?) that (meta)physical "Platonic Pressure" of infinitude of numbers and Cantor "alephs" becomes an engine for self-generation of physical universe directly out of mathematics: inexhaustibility of Number Theory (NT) drives cosmogenesis. While physics in other quantum branches of inflating universe (Megaverse) can be (arbitrary) different from ours, NT is not (it is unique, absolute, immutable and infinitely resourceful). Energy-time uncertainty principle (UP) allows indefinite lifetime provided we start from total zero energy. Analogue of UP in NT is theorem by H.Maier (1981) stating the existence of arbitrary long trails of isolated primes such that each next gap is arbitrary greater than average gap (logN). On physical level these arbitrary large deviations from Prime Number Theorem translate into permissiveness of (arbitrary) large quantum fluctuations.

  18. Reduced MyD88 dependency of ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant in a DNA prime-protein boost HIV vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Buglione-Corbett, Rachel; Pouliot, Kimberly; Marty-Roix, Robyn; Li, Wei; West, Kim; Wang, Shixia; Morelli, Adriana Baz; Lien, Egil; Lu, Shan

    2014-01-01

    ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant is an integrated adjuvant system due to its ability to both facilitate antigen delivery and immunomodulate the innate and adaptive immune responses to vaccination. ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant strongly induces both humoral and cell-mediated immunity in formulation with a range of antigens in pre-clinical and clinical evaluations. In this study, we describe the adaptive and innate immune responses associated with ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant in the context of a previously described HIV-1 vaccine, DP6-001. The DP6-001 vaccine consists of a unique pentavalent HIV-1 Env DNA prime-protein boost regimen. This study demonstrates the potent induction of vaccine-specific antibodies in a mouse model, as well as broadly neutralizing antibodies in immunized rabbits. In addition, we identify a potentially critical role for DNA priming in the induction of the vaccine-specific immune response as well as the serum cytokine profiles associated with ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant. Most interestingly, DNA prime immunizations made ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant less dependent on the central innate immune adaptor MyD88, revealing a previously unknown mechanism that may expand our knowledge on the use of adjuvants. PMID:24513632

  19. Identity Negative Priming: A Phenomenon of Perception, Recognition or Selection?

    PubMed Central

    Schrobsdorff, Hecke; Ihrke, Matthias; Behrendt, Jörg; Herrmann, J. Michael; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The present study addresses the problem whether negative priming (NP) is due to information processing in perception, recognition or selection. We argue that most NP studies confound priming and perceptual similarity of prime-probe episodes and implement a color-switch paradigm in order to resolve the issue. In a series of three identity negative priming experiments with verbal naming response, we determined when NP and positive priming (PP) occur during a trial. The first experiment assessed the impact of target color on priming effects. It consisted of two blocks, each with a different fixed target color. With respect to target color no differential priming effects were found. In Experiment 2 the target color was indicated by a cue for each trial. Here we resolved the confounding of perceptual similarity and priming condition. In trials with coinciding colors for prime and probe, we found priming effects similar to Experiment 1. However, trials with a target color switch showed such effects only in trials with role-reversal (distractor-to-target or target-to-distractor), whereas the positive priming (PP) effect in the target-repetition trials disappeared. Finally, Experiment 3 split trial processing into two phases by presenting the trial-wise color cue only after the stimulus objects had been recognized. We found recognition in every priming condition to be faster than in control trials. We were hence led to the conclusion that PP is strongly affected by perception, in contrast to NP which emerges during selection, i.e., the two effects cannot be explained by a single mechanism. PMID:22427915

  20. Dos and don’ts in response priming research

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Filipp; Haberkamp, Anke; Schmidt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Response priming is a well-understood but sparsely employed paradigm in cognitive science. The method is powerful and well-suited for exploring early visuomotor processing in a wide range of tasks and research fields. Moreover, response priming can be dissociated from visual awareness, possibly because it is based on the first sweep of feedforward processing of primes and targets. This makes it a theoretically interesting device for separating conscious and unconscious vision. We discuss the major opportunities of the paradigm and give specific recommendations (e.g., tracing the time-course of priming in parametric experiments). Also, we point out typical confounds, design flaws, and data processing artifacts. PMID:22253674