Science.gov

Sample records for hormonas tiroideas 1996-1999

  1. Dynamics of Economic Well-Being: Poverty 1996-1999. Current Population Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iceland, John

    This report examines patterns of poverty using seven different measures: average monthly poverty, episodic poverty, chronic poverty, annual poverty, poverty spells, poverty entry rates, and poverty exit rates. Data come from the 1996 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) and reflect the dynamics of poverty from 1996-1999.…

  2. A Statistical Study of Dayside Magnetosphere Erosion Based on Wind and GOES Measurements in 1996-1999.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muehlbachler, S.; Farrugia, C. J.; Biernat, H. K.; Torbert, R. B.

    2002-05-01

    We carry out a statistical investigation relating the depression of the geostationary magnetic field near noon to the strength of the southward component of the IMF (Bz). We use measurements made by GOES, WIND and ground-based magnetograms. The period studied is 1996-1999. In search of extreme Bz events, we also include some data close to solar maximum (2000-2001). We select intervals with (1) a steady dynamic pressure, Pdyn; (2) a steady and negative IMF Bz; (3) when one of the GOES spacecraft was within 2 hours of local noon; and (4) during substorm growth phase (as ascertained by readings from nightside ground magnetometers). We explore two approaches. In one approach, raw values of the total geostationary field, Btot are corrected first for the compression due to Pdyn. To do this, we chose a number of ``reference" days encompassing a wide range of Pdyn values when the IMF was strongly northward (clock angle < 45o), and fitted Btot to the functional form Btot = a + b Pdyn1/2 passing through the dipolar value for zero Pdyn. We then do a linear fit of the corrected Δ Btot values to IMF Bz in the range (0, -16) nT. We find Δ Btot=-6.27 + 1.69 Bz [nT]. In the second approach, we carry out a bivariate analysis of Btot as a function of (Pdyn1/2, Bz), and obtain Btot=100.71 + 19.55√ {Pdyn}+1.78 Bz [nT]. Both methods are in good agreement with each other. This work extends the pioneering investigation of Sibeck (JGR, 99, 8513, 1994) by the more extensive, negative Bz dynamic range employed here. The limiting case of very low Pdyn, which was discussed earlier with a different approach (Farrugia et al. (JGR, 106, 25,517, 2001), is shown to agree well our more extensive statistical results. Ackowledgements This work is supported by NASA WIND Grant NAG5-2834, NASA Living with a Star Grant NAG 5-10883, by INTAS ESA 12077-99, the Austrian Fonds zur F=Foerderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung under Project P13804-TPH, and by ``Buero fuer Auslandsbeziehungen'' of the

  3. Research in Mathematics Education in Australasia, 1996-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Kay, Ed.; Mousley, Judy, Ed.

    This volume presents different issues and views on research in mathematics education in Australia. Chapters include: (1) "An Introduction to This Review" (Kay Owens); (2) "Recent Research Monographs" (Kay Owens and editors of the monographs); (3) "Language Factors in Mathematics Education" (Nerida Ellerton, Ken Clements, and Philip Clarkson); (4)…

  4. The Bill of Rights in Action, 1996-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Bill, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    These newsletter volumes deal with topics in U.S. history, world history, and U.S. government relating to the Bill of Rights. The newsletters present background information for classroom reading, in some instances provide a list of topical issues, and offer activities for discussion and writing. Some of the topics considered in the newsletters…

  5. Council Connections: A Newsletter of the Reading Recovery Council of North America, 1996-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council Connections, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This document consists of three years' worth (8 issues) of "Council Connections," the newsletter of the Reading Recovery Council of North America. Each issue offers brief articles, updates of Reading Recovery programs in various countries, messages from the organization's president, past president, and/or the executive director, updates on the…

  6. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--Democratic Republic of Congo, 1996-1999.

    PubMed

    2000-03-31

    In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis by December 31, 2000 (1). Although progress has been extraordinary (2), full implementation of polio eradication strategies has been delayed in several countries affected by war. The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has experienced continual armed conflict since October 1996. As a result, DRC is the last country in the African Region of the World Health Organization (WHO) to implement National Immunization Days (NIDs*). DRC is an important global reservoir for wild poliovirus and shares more than 5580 miles (9000 km) of border with nine countries; in at least seven of these countries polio is endemic. The large area of DRC, substantial amount of poverty, weak health-care infrastructure, poor transportation and communication, and competing demands for resources present considerable challenges to polio eradication. This report summarizes information on the existing health-care infrastructure and routine coverage, information from NIDs carried out in 1999, and results from the recently established surveillance system for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). PMID:10774546

  7. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Grand Coulee Dam Mitigation, 1996-1999 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kieffer, B.; Singer, Kelly; Abrahamson, Twa-le

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) study was to determine baseline habitat units and to estimate future habitat units for Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) mitigation projects on the Spokane Indian Reservation. The mitigation between BPA and the Spokane Tribe of Indians (STOI) is for wildlife habitat losses on account of the construction of Grand Coulee Dam. Analysis of the HEP survey data will assist in mitigation crediting and appropriate management of the mitigation lands.

  8. Multicultural Early Childhood Team Training: Outreach 1996-1999. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA. Helen A. Kellar Inst. for Human disAbilities.

    This final report summarizes the activities and outcomes of a grant-funded project designed to infuse cultural competence in early childhood programs by disseminating and replicating a proven parent and professional inservice training module, Multicultural Early Childhood Team Training (MECTT). During the 3 years of the project, the following…

  9. Sharing Our Pathways: A Newsletter of the Alaska Rural Systemic Initiative, 1996-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharing Our Pathways: A Newsletter of the Alaska Rural Systemic Initiative, 1999

    1999-01-01

    In 1995 the National Science Foundation funded the Alaska Rural System Initiative (RSI), a joint effort of the Alaska Federation of Natives and the University of Alaska Fairbanks. Among its goals, the RSI aims to increase the presence of Alaska Native knowledge and perspectives in all areas of science and education in rural Alaska, develop…

  10. Geochemical Data on Waters, gases, scales, and rocks from the Dixie Valley Region, Nevada (1996-1999)

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, Fraser; Bergfeld, Deborah; Janik, C.J.; et al

    2002-08-01

    This report tabulates an extensive geochemical database on waters, gases, scales, rocks, and hot-spring deposits from the Dixie Valley region, Nevada. The samples from which the data were obtained were collected and analyzed during 1996 to 1999. These data provide useful information for ongoing and future investigations on geothermal energy, volcanism, ore deposits, environmental issues, and groundwater quality in this region.

  11. Resistance to anticoccidial drugs of Dutch avian Eimeria spp. field isolates originating from 1996, 1999 and 2001.

    PubMed

    Peek, H W; Landman, W J M

    2003-08-01

    Fifteen Eimeria spp. field isolates sampled on Dutch broiler farms were subjected to an Anticoccidial Sensitivity Test (AST) in a battery cage study. Four isolates dated from 1996, another four from 1999 and the last seven isolates from 2001. The selected anticoccidial drugs were monensin, narasin, salinomycin, lasalocid, nicarbazin, diclazuril, halofuginone, maduramicin and meticlorpindol/methylbenzoquate. Maduramicin and halofuginone were not included in the ASTs of 1999 and 2001, while meticlorpindol/methylbenzoquate was not tested in 1996 and 1999. Eimeria acervulina present in each of the four 1996 field isolates showed resistance for almost all products tested except maduramicin (1/4) and salinomycin (114), which appeared to be reduced sensitive. In 1999 the same species presented a similar resistance pattern for most products, although reduced sensitivity occurred for salinomycin (1/4), and sensitivity was found for diclazuril (2/4), monensin (1/4) and narasin (1/4). In the year 2001 increased sensitivity to various products was found. Higher sensitivity was found for meticlorpindol/ methylbenzoquate (7/7) and salinomycin and narasin (both 4/7), followed by nicarbazin (3/7) and monensin (2/7). Reduced sensitivity was found for monensin (3/7), lasalocid (2/7), salinomycin and narasin (1/7). E. maxima was only found in one field isolate per year. The E. maxima from 1996 was resistant to all products except narasin (sensitive) and halofuginone (reduced sensitive). In 1999 this species was reduced sensitive to narasin and lasalocid, showing resistance for the other products. The strain originating from the 2001 isolate was reduced sensitive to most products except monensin and narasin (resistant). Full sensitivity was found for meticlorpindol/ methylbenzoquate. E. tenella was present in one isolate of 1996, two of 1999 and four isolates of 2001. The AST of 1996 showed reduced sensitivity for nicarbazin, and sensitive to narasin, maduramicin and halofuginone. All other products showed resistance. In 1999 both strains showed resistance to all products tested. For the year 2001 full sensitivity was found to meticlorpindol/methylbenzoquate. Sensitivity was also found for salinomycin (1/4), nicarbazin (2/4), diclazuril (2/4) and lasalocid (2/4), monensin (1/4) and narasin (1/4). Reduced sensitivity was found for nicarbazin (1/4), lasalocid (1/4) and narasin (1/4). The different resistance patterns of Dutch coccidiosis isolates and resistance of coccidia in general is discussed. PMID:17585463

  12. Patterns of brachytherapy practice for patients with carcinoma of the cervix (1996-1999): A Patterns of Care Study

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, Beth . E-mail: berickson@radonc.mcw.edu; Eifel, Patricia; Moughan, Jennifer; Rownd, Jason M.S.; Iarocci, Thomas; Owen, Jean

    2005-11-15

    Purpose/Objective: To analyze the details of brachytherapy practice in patients treated for carcinoma of the cervix in the United States between 1996 and 1999. Methods and Materials: Radiation facilities were selected from a stratified random sample. Patients were randomly selected from lists of eligible patients treated at each facility. A total of 442 patients' records were reviewed in 59 facilities to obtain data about patients' characteristics, evaluation, tumor extent, and treatment. National estimates were made using weights that reflected the relative contribution of each institution and of each patient within the sampled institutions. From our survey we estimate that 16,375 patients were treated in the United States during this study period. Unless otherwise specified, brachytherapy practice was based on the 408 patients who had their brachytherapy or all their treatment at the surveyed facility. Results: A total of 91.5% of patients underwent brachytherapy at the initial treating institution; 8.5% were referred to a second site for brachytherapy. Forty-two percent of U.S. facilities referred at least some patients to a second facility for brachytherapy. Of U.S. facilities that treated {<=}2 eligible patients per year, 61% referred all of their patients to a second facility for brachytherapy or treated with external RT alone; none of the U.S. facilities with larger experience (>2 eligible patients per year) referred all their patients to a second facility for brachytherapy treatment, but 28% referred some patients to an outside facility for brachytherapy. Overall, 94% of patients who completed treatment with curative intent received brachytherapy. Of these patients who had brachytherapy, 77.8%, 13.3%, and 0.9%, respectively, were treated with low-dose-rate (LDR), high-dose-rate (HDR), or a combination of HDR and LDR brachytherapy; 7.9% had interstitial brachytherapy (5.7% LDR and 1.9% HDR, 0.3% mixed). In facilities that treated >2 patients per year, 15.5% and 9.4% of brachytherapy procedures included HDR or interstitial, respectively; in facilities that treated fewer patients, 3.4% had HDR brachytherapy, and only 1.2% had interstitial brachytherapy. Patients treated with LDR intracavitary radiotherapy had one (23.5%), two (74.1%), or three (2.4%) implants. For patients treated with curative intent who completed radiation therapy with LDR intracavitary radiation therapy without hysterectomy, the median brachytherapy dose to Point A was 40.3 Gy, and the median total dose to Point A was 82.9 Gy. Patients were treated with HDR intracavitary radiation therapy using a variety of treatment schedules using 1-2 fractions (7.5%), 3-4 fractions (17.4%), 5-6 fractions (38.5%), 7-9 fractions (33.5%), or 12 fractions (3%). Fraction sizes were <500 cGy (29.5%), 500-<600 (25.2%), 600 (28.1%), >600 (8%), or unknown (9.2%). For patients treated with HDR, the median total dose to Point A (corrected for fraction size using a {alpha}/{beta} = 10) was 85.8 Gy (range: 56.2-116.1 Gy). At institutions treating <500 new patients per year, the percentage of patients receiving a brachytherapy dose <40 Gy was significantly higher than at institutions treating {>=}500 new patients per year (p < 0.0001). For LDR intracavitary radiation therapy, 5.8% had neither bladder nor rectal doses recorded for any of their implants, whereas in HDR intracavitary radiation therapy, 73.4% had neither bladder nor rectal doses recorded for any of their implants. The median total duration of radiation therapy was identical for patients who had HDR or LDR intracavitary radiation therapy (57 days). For LDR at institutions treating <500 new patients per year, the percentage of patients with treatment duration >56 days was significantly greater than at institutions {>=}500 new patients per year (p = 0.002). Of the patients who had LDR intracavitary radiation therapy implants, 65% were treated using tandem and shielded Fletcher-Suit-Delclos colpostats; other patients had mini ovoids (10.9%), cylinders (3.9%), Henschke (3.7%), or other/mixed applicators (16.5%) . In contrast, of patients treated with HDR intracavitary radiation therapy, 68.7% had tandem and rings, 18.2% Fletcher-Suit-Delclos ovoids, 7.5% mini ovoids, 2.3% cylinders, and 3.2% other or mixed applicators. Conclusions: The median duration of treatment and median Point A dose were very similar for patients treated with HDR or LDR. Patients with HDR were treated using a variety of treatment schedules. Different applicator types were favored for LDR vs. HDR. Of patients treated with HDR, 73.4% had no brachytherapy bladder or rectal doses recorded, suggesting that full dosimetric calculations were performed only for the first fraction in many institutions. Facility size significantly impacted on referral to another institution for brachytherapy, brachytherapy dose, and treatment duration.

  13. Evolution of 1996-1999 La Niña and El Niño conditions off the western coast of South America: A remote sensing perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Mary-Elena; Strub, P. Ted; Thomas, Andrew C.; Blanco, Jose Luis

    2002-12-01

    We present the evolution of oceanographic conditions off the western coast of South America between 1996 and 1999, including the cold periods of 1996 and 1998-1999 and the 1997-1998 El Niño, using satellite observations of sea level, winds, sea surface temperature (SST), and chlorophyll concentration. Following a period of cold SST and low sea levels in 1996, both were anomalously high between March 1997 and May 1998. The anomalies were greatest between 5°S and 15°S, although they extended beyond 40°S. Two distinct peaks in sea level and SST occurred in June-July 1997 and December 1997 to January 1998, separated by a relaxation period (August-November) of weaker anomalies. Satellite winds were upwelling favorable throughout the time period for most of the region and in fact increased between November 1997 and March 1998 between 5°S and 25°S. Satellite-derived chlorophyll concentrations are available for November 1996 to June 1997 (Ocean Color and Temperature Sensor (OCTS)) and then from October 1997 to present (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS)). Near-surface chlorophyll concentrations fell from May to June 1997 and from December 1997 to March 1998. The decrease was more pronounced in northern Chile than off the coast of Peru or central Chile and was stronger for larger cross-shelf averaging bins since nearshore concentrations remained relatively high.

  14. Evolution of 1996-1999 La Nina and El Nino conditions off the western coast of South America: a remote sensing perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. E.; Strub, P. T.; Thomas, A. C.; Blanco, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    We present the evolution of oceanographic conditions off the western coast of South America between 1996 and 1999, including the cold periods of 1996 and 1998??9 and the 1997??8 El Nino, using satellite observations of sea level, winds, sea surface temperature (SST), and chlorophyll concentration. Following a period of cold SST and low sea levels in 1996, both were anomalously high between March 1997 and May 1998.

  15. Final technical report to Department of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences. ''Oxide ceramic alloys and microlaminates'' (1996-1999) and ''Low temperature processing and kinetics of ceramics and ceramic matrix composites with large interfacial areas'' (1999-2000)

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, I-Wei

    2001-03-26

    We have discovered a novel two-step sintering method that opened up a low temperature processing window within which fully dense nanocrystalline yttrium oxide was obtained with no concurrent grain growth during final-stage sintering. We have developed a new method of processing laminate ceramics using deformation processing in the green state. We have lastly developed a colloidal processing technique to encapsulate biomolecules at ambient, neutral-pH, aqueous conditions.

  16. Hormonas juveniles y su aplicacion en la tecnica del insecto esteril

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control in SIT is achieved by the massive release of sterile males which copulate with wild females. Females mated by sterile males produce no offspring and rarely copulate again. For the optimization of SIT sterile males must compete equally with wild males for females. Detailed studies have shown ...

  17. Nueva opción de tratamiento para mujeres jóvenes con cáncer de seno sensible a las hormonas

    Cancer.gov

    Un fármaco usado para el tratamiento del cáncer de seno (mama), conocido como exemestano, es más eficaz que tamoxifeno, un fármaco preventivo de uso común para el cáncer de seno, en la prevención de la recidiva del cáncer de seno en mujeres jóvenes que ta

  18. Effects of Professional Development on Teachers' Instruction: Results from a Three-year Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desimone, Laura M.; Porter, Andrew C.; Garet, Michael S.; Yoon, Kwang Suk; Birman, Beatrice F.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of professional development on teachers' instruction using a purposeful sample of about 207 teachers across 5 states for 1996-1999. Professional development focused on specific instructional practices increased teachers' use of those practices in the classroom, and specific features, such as active learning opportunities,…

  19. Implementing Learning Communities in American Higher Education: A Meta-Ethnographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noga, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Using meta-ethnography as a research method, this study identified, organized, and synthesized efforts to implement learning communities at the 19 American colleges and universities that prepared written reports at the conclusion of the 1996-1999 National Learning Communities Dissemination Project (FIPSE). The researcher used 10 research questions…

  20. 76 FR 48722 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Cumberland Darter, Rush...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Year page number Register 1985 50 FR 37958 September 18, 1985. 1989 54 FR 554 January 6, 1989. 1991 56 FR 58804 November 21, 1991. 1994 59 FR 58982 November 15, 1994. 1996 61 FR 7596 February 28, 1996. 1999 64 FR 57533 October 25, 1999. 2001 66 FR 54807 October 30, 2001. 2002 67 FR 40657 June 13,...

  1. The National Strategic Plan and Action Agenda for Agricultural Education: Reinventing Agricultural Education for the Year 2020. Creating the Preferred Future for Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for Agricultural Education, Alexandria, VA.

    The Reinventing Agricultural Education for the Year 2020 initiative, a project conducted during 1996-1999 with a diverse group of more than 10,000 people from across the United States, resulted in this strategic plan designed to achieve the mission set by the initiative. That mission has a two-part focus: preparing students for career success in…

  2. What Contributes to Talent Development in Eminent Women?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronborg, Leonie

    2010-01-01

    The lives of ten eminent Australian women across seven talent domains were explored for factors that contributed to the development of their talent. Nine themes and related sub-themes emerged that were linked to the Model of Adult Female Talent Development (MAFTD) developed by Noble, Subotnik & Arnold (1996, 1999). Results provided support for…

  3. Payload flight assignments: NASA mixed fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starkey, Norman

    1993-01-01

    This mixed fleet manifest, which serves as the baseline for planning purposes, includes payload flight assignments for the Space Shuttle through FY 1995 and NASA expendable launch vehicle (EVL) missions through FY 1999. The FY 1996-1999 Shuttle manifest planning is omitted pending Space Station redesign. Also included in this document are a list of previous flights, payload requests, and payload/acronyms.

  4. The Mental Space Function of BUT as a Lexical Discourse Marker in American Sign Language Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrow, William George

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation centers on the application of the mental space theory to expand our understanding of the role lexical discourse markers (LDMs) play in discourse. LDMs have been recognized by many researchers for their discourse connective function(s) (Levinson, 1983; Schiffrin, 1987; Blakemore, 1989, 2000, 2001, 2002; Fraser, 1996, 1999, 2006).…

  5. Changing Coverage of Domestic Violence Murders: A Longitudinal Experiment in Participatory Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Charlotte; Anastario, Mike; DaCunha, Alfredo

    2006-01-01

    Stressing relation-building and participatory communication approaches, the Rhode Island Coalition against Domestic Violence worked with journalists to develop a best practices handbook on news coverage of domestic violence murders. This study compares print coverage of domestic violence murders prehandbook (1996-1999) and posthandbook…

  6. Compliance and Support for Smoke-Free School Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinidad, D. R.; Gilpin, E. A.; Pierce, J. P.

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to examine factors associated with compliance and support for a smoke-free campus before and after a 1995 campus-wide smoking ban for everyone, including teachers and visitors, in California. Adolescent (12-17 years) data from the 1993, 1996, 1999 and 2002 (N approximately 6000 each year) California Tobacco Surveys…

  7. EVALUATION OF ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY FROM A MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT WITH PREDOMINANTLY DOMESTIC INPUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study was to survey estrogenic releases from two primarily domestic wastewater treatment plants over three seasons (1996-1999). Mature male channel catfish were maintained at two sites within each WWTP and a reference site for 21 days. Estrogenic activity of e...

  8. Bovine Leukemia Virus Seroprevalence Among Cattle Presented for Slaughter in the United States of America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with bovine leukemia virus (BLV) results in economic loss due reduced productivity, especially the reduction of milk production and early culling. In the USA.,USA, previous studies in 1996, 1999 and 2007 showed BLV infections widespread, especially in the dairy herds. The goal of this stud...

  9. Riverside: A Case Study of Social Capital and Cultural Reproduction and Their Relationship to Leadership Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacharakis, Jeff; Flora, Jan

    2005-01-01

    This case study research is based on a 3-year project (1996-1999) in which Iowa State University Extension developed and implemented a long-term community development project based on strengthening social capital using participatory research. The results of this mapping were initially interpreted as indicating a high level of social capital, but…

  10. What Counts as Mathematical Discourse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moschkovich, Judit

    2003-01-01

    In this paper I use situated and socio-cultural perspective (Gee, 1996 & 1999) to examine descriptions of mathematical discourse and an example of student talk in a mathematics classroom. Using this example, I discuss how the distinction between everyday and mathematical discourse can help or hinder us in hearing the mathematical content in…

  11. Why (Urban) Mathematics Teachers Need Political Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutiérrez, Rochelle

    2013-01-01

    Rochelle Gutiérrez has spent 15 years researching effective, urban high school mathematics departments that served Black, Latin@ and low-income adolescents (see, e.g., Gutiérrez, 1996, 1999a, 1999b, 2000, 2002). These were schools where students took more mathematics than was required by their district; where English learners, recent immigrants,…

  12. Effects of Focused Feedback on the Acquisition of Two English Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Chian-Wen

    2013-01-01

    It has been debated whether teachers should treat students' grammatical errors in second language writing instruction (Truscott, 1996, 1999, 2010; Ferris, 1999, 2004, 2010). Several meta-analyses have investigated correction effects (e.g. Russell & Spada, 2006; Truscott, 2007). Their findings, however, have been conflicting. A recent trend to…

  13. Women in Vocational Education and Training: An Analysis of 1996 and 1999 Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Oanh

    The participation of women in vocational education and training (VET) in Australia in 1996-1999 was examined. Data for the analysis were obtained from annual national VET data collections and relevant reports. The analysis focused on the following areas: general trends, fields of study, qualifications, areas of learning, module outcomes,…

  14. Type 2 Diabetes: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... es una forma de azúcar que su organismo utiliza para obtener energía. Un nivel de glucosa en ... diabetes tipo 2 ocurre porque el cuerpo no utiliza la hormona insulina correctamente. La insulina ayuda al ...

  15. Ansaldo programs on fuel cell vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Marcenaro, B.G.; Federici, F.

    1996-12-31

    The growth in traffic and the importance of maintaining a stable ecology at the global scale, particularly with regard to atmospheric pollution, raises the necessity to realize a new generation of vehicles which are more efficient, more economical and compatible with the environment. At European level, the Car of Tomorrow task force has identified fuel cells as a promising alternative propulsion system. Ansaldo Ricerche has been involved in the development of fuel cell vehicles since the early nineties. Current ongoing programs relates to: (1) Fuel cell bus demonstrator (EQHEPP BUS) Test in 1996 (2) Fuel cell boat demonstrator (EQHHPP BOAT) Test in 1997 (3) Fuel cell passenger car prototype (FEVER) Test in 1997 (4) 2nd generation Fuel cell bus (FCBUS) 1996-1999 (5) 2nd generation Fuel cell passenger car (HYDRO-GEN) 1996-1999.

  16. Tratamiento ayuda a mujeres jóvenes a preservar fertilidad durante quimioterapia para cáncer de seno

    Cancer.gov

    Las mujeres jóvenes con cáncer de seno (mama) lograron preservar la fertilidad durante los tratamientos del cáncer con un fármaco inyectable bloqueador de hormonas que les provocó menopausia temporal. Los resultados del estudio se anunciaron hoy en el con

  17. Algunas mujeres con cáncer de seno pueden abstenerse de quimioterapia

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen de resultados del estudio TAILORx indica que mujeres con cáncer de seno receptor de hormonas en estadio inicial tienen un riesgo bajo de recurrencia según una prueba de expresión de 21 genes.

  18. Aumento de la supervivencia en hombres con cáncer de próstata metastásico que reciben quimioterapia

    Cancer.gov

    Los hombres con cáncer de próstata metastásico sensible a las hormonas que recibieron el fármaco quimioterapéutico docetaxel al inicio de la terapia hormonal convencional vivieron más tiempo que los pacientes que recibieron solo terapia hormonal, de acuer

  19. Terapia hormonal para la menopausia y el cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa acerca de los resultados de los estudios sobre el uso de la terapia hormonal para la menopausia. Incluye información sobre el efecto de esta terapia en el cuerpo y explica los riesgos y beneficios del uso de hormonas.

  20. [Pharmacodynamics of synthetic estrogens. A review].

    PubMed

    Sojo-Aranda, I; Cortés-Gallegos, V

    1990-10-01

    Some details about the function of natural and synthetical hormonas are reviewed, particularly estrogens as ethynyl estradiol and its 3, Methyl ether (mestranol); its peripheral concentration vs tissular hormonal contents, a relationship of biological importance as the first step in its hormonal action and the cumulative local effects that could explain some intra and extracellular phenomena. PMID:2101377

  1. [Pharmacodynamics of synthetic estrogens. Review article].

    PubMed

    Sojo-Aranda, I; Cortés-Gallegos, V

    1990-10-01

    Some details about the function of natural and synthetical hormonas are reviewed, particularly estrogens as ethynyl estradiol and its 3, Methyl ether (mestranol); its peripheral concentration vs tissular hormonal contents, a relationship of biological importance as the first step in its hormonal action and the cummulative local effects that could explain some intra and extracellular phenomena. PMID:2292429

  2. Notes and Discussion: White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) predation on grassland songbird nestlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pietz, P.J.; Granfors, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    White-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) were videotaped depredating four songbird nests in grassland habitats in southeastern and northcentral North Dakota, 1996-1999. Deer ate two Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis), two grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), one clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida), one red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) and three brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) nestlings. Deer removed nestlings quickly (5-19 sec/nest) at night (22:00 to 05:17 Central Daylight Time) and left no evidence of predation. Although probably opportunistic, deer predations clearly were deliberate and likely are more common than generally believed.

  3. A case study of carbon fluxes from land change in the southwest Brazilian Amazon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrett, K.; Rogan, J.; Eastman, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide, land change is responsible for one-fifth of anthropogenic carbon emissions. In Brazil, three-quarters of carbon emissions originate from land change. This study represents a municipal-scale study of carbon fluxes from vegetation in Rio Branco, Brazil. Land-cover maps of pasture, forest, and secondary growth from 1993, 1996, 1999, and 2003 were produced using an unsupervised classification method (overall accuracy = 89%). Carbon fluxes from land change over the decade of imagery were estimated from transitions between land-cover categories for each time interval. This article presents new methods for estimating emissions reductions from carbon stored in the vegetation that replaces forests (e.g., pasture) and sequestration by new (>10-15 years) forests, which reduced gross emissions by 16, 15, and 22% for the period of 1993-1996, 1996-1999, and 1999-2003, respectively. The methods used in the analysis are broadly applicable and provide a comprehensive characterization of regional-scale carbon fluxes from land change.

  4. Pacific and Atlantic Ocean influences on multidecadal drought frequency in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, G.J.; Palecki, M.A.; Betancourt, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    More than half (52%) of the spatial and temporal variance in multidecadal drought frequency over the conterminous United States is attributable to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). An additional 22% of the variance in drought frequency is related to a complex spatial pattern of positive and negative trends in drought occurrence possibly related to increasing Northern Hemisphere temperatures or some other unidirectional climate trend. Recent droughts with broad impacts over the conterminous U.S. (1996, 1999-2002) were associated with North Atlantic warming (positive AMO) and north-eastern and tropical Pacific cooling (negative PDO). Much of the long-term predictability of drought frequency may reside in the multidecadal behavior of the North Atlantic Ocean. Should the current positive AMO (warm North Atlantic) conditions persist into the upcoming decade, we suggest two possible drought scenarios that resemble the continental-scale patterns of the 1930s (positive PDO) and 1950s (negative PDO) drought.

  5. Highlights from the Enamors Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraete, M.; Pinty, B.; Menenti, M.

    The European Network for the development of Advanced Models to interpret Optical Remote Sensing data over terrestrial environments (ENAMORS) project aims to promote the development, implementation and evaluation of advanced methodological tools and techniques to analyse satellite remote sensing data in Europe. As a Concerted Action under the European Co mmission 4th Framework Programme (1996-1999), this activity organized a number of international workshops, which themselves resulted in various publications. This project continues to promote excellence and relevance in R&D for remote sensing through the RAdiation transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) exercise, a benchmarking process to compare and evaluate the various models that have been proposed in the published literature to represent the bi-directional reflectance of terrestrial surfaces. The main outcomes and achievements of ENAMORS will be described, and the current status of RAMI will be outlined.

  6. Tropical Tropospheric Ozone: A Multi-Satellite View From TOMS and Other Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Hudson, Robert D.; Guo, Hua; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Kucsera, Tom L.; Seybold, Matthew G.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    New tropospheric ozone and aerosol products from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument can resolve episodic pollution events in the tropics and interannual and seasonal variability. Modified-residual (MR) Nimbus 7 tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO), two maps/month (1979-1992, 1-deg latitude by 2-deg longitude) within the region in which total ozone displays a tropical wave-one pattern (maximum 20S to 20N), are available in digital form at http://metosrv2.umd.edu/tropo. Also available are preliminary 1996-1999 MR-TTO maps based on real-time Earth-Probe (EP)/TOMS observations. Examples of applications are given.

  7. Sustainable improvements in injury surveillance in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adofo, Koranteng; Donkor, Peter; Boateng, Kofi A; Afukaar, Francis; Mock, Charles

    2010-06-01

    The mortuary is an important foundation for injury surveillance. However, mortuary data are incomplete in many developing countries. The Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) mortuary handles most injury deaths for Kumasi, Ghana. During 1994-1995, many cases in KATH's mortuary logbooks had missing information deaths. A low-cost pilot programme was adopted to improve recording of injury deaths. During 1996-1999, 633 deaths per year were recorded. Project sustainability assessment in 2006 showed that reporting was high, with 773 cases per year. Data quality was standard with similar per cents of missing values for key variables compared with the pilot period. Supplemental data constituting 20% was obtained from the intensive care unit, for which data recording in the mortuary was incomplete. Low-cost improvements can lead to improved mortuary reporting of injury deaths. Collation of data from multiple sources remains a problem at KATH. Improved organisation and training could remedy the situation. PMID:20467961

  8. An Overview of hydrogen production from KRW oxygen-blown gasification with carbon dioxide recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, R. D.; Brockmeier, N. F.; Molburg, J. C.; Thimmapuram, P.; Chess, K. L.

    2000-08-31

    All the process elements are commercially available to operate coal gasification so that it can produce electricity, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide while delivering the same quantity of power as without H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} recovery. To assess the overall impact of such a scheme, a full-energy cycle must be investigated (Figure 1). Figure 2 is a process flow diagram for a KRW oxygen-blown integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) plant that produces electricity, H{sub 2}, and supercritical CO{sub 2}. This system was studied in a full-energy cycle analysis, extending from the coal mine to the final destination of the gaseous product streams [Doctor et al. 1996, 1999], on the basis of an earlier study [Gallaspy et al. 1990]. The authors report the results of updating these studies to use current turbine performance.

  9. Trends in Medicare disproportionate share (DSH) distribution in US hospitals: 1996-2003.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Shadi S; Callan, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Implemented in 1986, Medicare's disproportionate share (DSH) adjustment is intended to recognize hospitals' additional resource investment in caring for low-income patients. This project analyzed changes in the DSH percentage between 1996 and 2003 and examined the association between selected hospital characteristics and such changes. Results obtained revealed some interesting findings. First, minimal changes in DSH percentage occurred during the period 1996-1999 with a hike in that ratio in 2000-2001. However, even with the absence of any legislative or executive changes to the DSH threshold or formula during 2002 and 2003, significant increases occurred during 2001-2003 (11 percent increase between 2001 and 2003). Such an increase may be caused by the nation's economic situation during that timeframe (i.e., more people depending on public programs for coverage). PMID:19175241

  10. Final Technical Report, Grant DE-FG02-87ER13714, "Fundamental Studies of Metastable Liquids"

    SciTech Connect

    Pablo G. Debenedetti

    2009-03-09

    Grant DE-FG02-87ER13714 supported fundamental work on the physical properties of metastable liquids from 6/1/87 to 4/30/08. Renewal proposals were submitted every three years (1990, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005), and included, in every case, a detailed Final Technical Report on the previous three years. Accordingly, the bulk of this report covers the final 2-year period 5/1/06 to 4/30/08 of this grant, which is not covered in any of the previous Final Technical Reports. This is preceded by a brief overview of the main research objectives and principal accomplishments during these very fruitful and productive 21 years of DOE-funded research.

  11. Characterization of yield reduction in Ethiopia using a GIS-based crop water balance model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senay, G.B.; Verdin, J.

    2003-01-01

    In many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, subsistence agriculture is characterized by significant fluctuations in yield and production due to variations in moisture availability to staple crops. Widespread drought can lead to crop failures, with associated deterioration in food security. Ground data collection networks are sparse, so methods using geospatial rainfall estimates derived from satellite and gauge observations, where available, have been developed to calculate seasonal crop water balances. Using conventional crop production data for 4 years in Ethiopia (1996-1999), it was found that water-limited and water-unlimited growing regions can be distinguished. Furthermore, maize growing conditions are also indicative of conditions for sorghum. However, another major staple, teff, was found to behave sufficiently differently from maize to warrant studies of its own.

  12. Legal Status and Wage Disparities for Mexican Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Matthew; Greenman, Emily; Farkas, George

    2014-01-01

    This paper employs a unique method of imputing the legal status of Mexican immigrants in the 1996-1999 and 2001-2003 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation to provide new evidence of the role of legal authorization in the U.S. on workers’ wages. Using growth curve techniques, we estimate wage trajectories for four groups: documented Mexican immigrants, undocumented Mexican immigrants, U.S-born Mexican Americans, and native non-Latino whites. Our estimates reveal a 17 percent wage disparity between documented and undocumented Mexican immigrant men, and a 9 percent documented-undocumented wage disparity for Mexican immigrant women. We also find that in comparison to authorized Mexicans, undocumented Mexican immigrants have lower returns to human capital and slower wage growth. PMID:25414526

  13. Influence of contaminated drinking water on perfluoroalkyl acid levels in human serum--A case study from Uppsala, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Gyllenhammar, Irina; Berger, Urs; Sundström, Maria; McCleaf, Philip; Eurén, Karin; Eriksson, Sara; Ahlgren, Sven; Lignell, Sanna; Aune, Marie; Kotova, Natalia; Glynn, Anders

    2015-07-01

    In 2012 a contamination of drinking water with perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) was uncovered in the City of Uppsala, Sweden. The aim of the present study was to determine how these substances have been distributed from the contamination source through the groundwater to the drinking water and how the drinking water exposure has influenced the levels of PFAAs in humans over time. The results show that PFAA levels in groundwater measured 2012-2014 decreased downstream from the point source, although high ΣPFAA levels (>100ng/L) were still found several kilometers from the point source in the Uppsala aquifer. The usage of aqueous film forming fire-fighting foams (AFFF) at a military airport in the north of the city is probably an important contamination source. Computer simulation of the distribution of PFAA-contaminated drinking water throughout the City using a hydraulic model of the pipeline network suggested that consumers in the western and southern parts of Uppsala have received most of the contaminated drinking water. PFAA levels in blood serum from 297 young women from Uppsala County, Sweden, sampled during 1996-1999 and 2008-2011 were analyzed. Significantly higher concentrations of perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) were found among women who lived in districts modeled to have received contaminated drinking water compared to unaffected districts both in 1996-1999 and 2008-2011, indicating that the contamination was already present in the late 1990s. Isomer-specific analysis of PFHxS in serum showed that women in districts with contaminated drinking water also had an increased percentage of branched isomers. Our results further indicate that exposure via contaminated drinking water was the driving factor behind the earlier reported increasing temporal trends of PFBS and PFHxS in blood serum from young women in Uppsala. PMID:26079316

  14. Macro determinants of cause-specific injury mortality in the OECD countries: an exploration of the importance of GDP and unemployment.

    PubMed

    Muazzam, Sana; Nasrullah, Muazzam

    2011-08-01

    Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and unemployment has a strong documented impact on injury mortality. The aim of our study is to investigate the relationship of GDP per capita and unemployment with gender- and cause-specific injury mortalities in the member nations of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Country-based data on injury mortality per 100,000 population, including males and females aged 1-74, for the 4 year period 1996-1999, were gathered from the World Health Organization's Statistical Information System. We selected fourteen cause-specific injury mortalities. Data on GDP, unemployment rate and population growth were taken from World Development Indicators. GDP and unemployment rate per 100 separately were regressed on total and cause-specific injury mortality rate per 100,000 for males and females. Overall in the OECD countries, GDP per capita increased 12.5% during 1996-1999 (P = 0.03) where as unemployment rate decreased by 12.3% (P = 0.05). Among males, most cause-specific injury mortality rates decreased with increasing GDP except motor vehicle traffic crashes (MTC) that increased with increasing GDP (coefficient = 0.75; P < 0.001). Similar trend was found in females, except suicidal injury mortalities that also increased with increasing GDP (coefficient = 0.31; P = 0.04). When we modeled cause-specific injury mortality rates with unemployment, injuries due to firearm missiles (coefficient = 0.53; P < 0.001), homicide (coefficient = 0.36; P < 0.001), and other violence (coefficient = 0.41; P < 0.001) increased with increase in unemployment rate among males. However, among females only accidental falls (coefficient = 0.36; P = 0.01) were found significantly associated with increasing unemployment rate. GDP is more related to cause-specific injury mortality than unemployment. Injury mortality does not relate similarly to each diagnosis-specific cause among males and females. Further research on

  15. Calibration of remotely sensed, coarse resolution NDVI to CO2 fluxes in a sagebrush-steppe ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wylie, B.K.; Johnson, D.A.; Laca, Emilio; Saliendra, Nicanor Z.; Gilmanov, T.G.; Reed, B.C.; Tieszen, L.L.; Worstell, B.B.

    2003-01-01

    The net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon flux can be partitioned into gross primary productivity (GPP) and respiration (R). The contribution of remote sensing and modeling holds the potential to predict these components and map them spatially and temporally. This has obvious utility to quantify carbon sink and source relationships and to identify improved land management strategies for optimizing carbon sequestration. The objective of our study was to evaluate prediction of 14-day average daytime CO2 fluxes (Fday) and nighttime CO2 fluxes (Rn) using remote sensing and other data. Fday and Rn were measured with a Bowen ratio-energy balance (BREB) technique in a sagebrush (Artemisia spp.)-steppe ecosystem in northeast Idaho, USA, during 1996-1999. Micrometeorological variables aggregated across 14-day periods and time-integrated Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (iNDVI) were determined during four growing seasons (1996-1999) and used to predict Fday and Rn. We found that iNDVI was a strong predictor of Fday (R2 = 0.79, n = 66, P < 0.0001). Inclusion of evapotranspiration in the predictive equation led to improved predictions of Fday (R2= 0.82, n = 66, P < 0.0001). Crossvalidation indicated that regression tree predictions of Fday were prone to overfitting and that linear regression models were more robust. Multiple regression and regression tree models predicted Rn quite well (R2 = 0.75-0.77, n = 66) with the regression tree model being slightly more robust in crossvalidation. Temporal mapping of Fday and Rn is possible with these techniques and would allow the assessment of NEE in sagebrush-steppe ecosystems. Simulations of periodic Fday measurements, as might be provided by a mobile flux tower, indicated that such measurements could be used in combination with iNDVI to accurately predict Fday. These periodic measurements could maximize the utility of expensive flux towers for evaluating various carbon

  16. Simulating soil freeze/thaw dynamics with an improved pan-Arctic water balance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawlins, M. A.; Nicolsky, D. J.; McDonald, K. C.; Romanovsky, V. E.

    2013-12-01

    The terrestrial Arctic water cycle is strongly influenced by the presence of permafrost, which is at present degrading as a result of warming. In this study, we describe improvements to the representation of processes in the pan-Arctic Water Balance Model (PWBM) and evaluate simulated soil temperature at four sites in Alaska and active-layer thickness (ALT) across the pan-Arctic drainage basin. Model improvements include new parameterizations for thermal and hydraulic properties of organic soils; an updated snow model, which accounts for seasonal changes in density and thermal conductivity; and a new soil freezing and thawing model, which simulates heat conduction with phase change. When compared against observations across Alaska within differing landscape vegetation conditions in close proximity to one another, PWBM simulations show no systematic soil temperature bias. Simulated temperatures agree well with observations in summer. In winter, results are mixed, with both positive and negative biases noted at times. In two pan-Arctic simulations forced with atmospheric reanalysis, the model captures the mean in observed ALT, although predictability as measured by correlation is limited. The geographic pattern in northern hemisphere permafrost area is well estimated. Simulated permafrost area differs from observed extent by 7 and 17% for the two model runs. Results of two simulations for the periods 1996-1999 and 2066-2069 for a single grid cell in central Alaska illustrate the potential for a drying of soils in the presence of increases in ALT, annual total precipitation, and winter snowfall.

  17. Diet and gut morphology of male mallards during winter in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, R.E.; Cox, R.R., Jr.; Afton, A.D.; Ankney, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    A free-ranging Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) population was investigated during winter (December-January 1996-1999) below the Garrison Dam, North Dakota, USA, to relate diet to gut morphology variation in males. Four explanatory variables (fish consumption, male age, winter, and body size) were evaluated as to whether they influenced five response variables associated with gut characteristics of Mallards. Response variables were lower gastro-intestinal tract mass (LGIT), dry liver mass, dry gizzard mass, small intestine length, and ceca length. Diets of Mallards were comprised primarily of Rainbow Smelt (Osmerus mordax) and concomitantly variation in gizzard mass was small. LGIT mass of juveniles was larger than that of adults, greater for those that consumed fish, and greater during the coldest and snowiest winter. Liver mass and small intestine length of Mallards that consumed fish were greater than those that did not. Mallards may maintain lengthy intestines to increase digestive efficiency. Gut size variation was not entirely attributable to dietary composition but also influenced by body size and environmental conditions such that over-winter survival is maximized.

  18. SWORD '99: surveillance of work-related and occupational respiratory disease in the UK.

    PubMed

    Meyer, J D; Holt, D L; Chen, Y; Cherry, N M; McDonald, J C

    2001-05-01

    Systematic reports from chest and occupational physicians under the SWORD and OPRA (Occupational Physicians Reporting Activity) surveillance schemes continue to provide a picture of the incidence of occupational respiratory disease in the UK. An estimated total of 4393 incident cases (comprising 4530 diagnoses) were reported during the 1999 calendar year, an increase of 1427 cases over the previous year. Benign pleural disease was the single most frequently reported condition (28% of all diagnoses reported). Occupational asthma cases (1168; 26%) remained high, as did mesothelioma (1032; 23%). Analysis of trends over the past 8 years shows an increase in mesothelioma cases, but little change in asthma. The annual incidence per 100,000 employed people, 1996-1999, for mesothelioma, lung cancer and pneumoconiosis was high amongst construction workers (28.7), miners and quarrymen (26.5), woodworkers (18.9) and gas, coal and chemical workers (15.2). Trends in mesothelioma incidence by birth cohort continue to show an increase in construction workers and a continuing decline in shipyard and insulation workers. The relative proportion of pneumoconiosis cases attributed to coal mining has fallen steadily in workers born since approximately 1920 and most cases are now in men who have been employed in quarrying and rock drilling. PMID:11385125

  19. Mid-Pliocene Planktic Foraminifer Census Data and Alkenone Unsaturation Indices from Ocean Drilling Program Hole 677A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Marci; Caballero, Rocio; Pohlman, Emily; Herbert, Timothy; Peck, Victoria; Dowsett, Harry

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a long-term study of mid-Pliocene climatic and oceanographic conditions. One of the key elements of the study involves the use of quantitative composition of planktic foraminifer assemblages in conjunction with other proxies to constrain estimates of sea-surface temperature (SST) and to identify major oceanographic boundaries and water masses. Raw census data are made available as soon as possible after analysis through a series of reports that provide the basic data for future work. In this report we present raw census data (table 1) for planktic foraminifer assemblages in 14 samples from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 677A. We also present alkenone unsaturation index (UK'37) analyses for 89 samples from ODP Hole 677A (table 2). ODP Hole 677A is located in the Panama basin, due west of Ecuador at 1?12.138'N., 83?44.220'W., in 3461.2 meters of water (fig. 1). A variety of statistical methods have been developed to transform foraminiferal census data in Pliocene sequences into quantitative estimates of Pliocene SST. Details of statistical techniques, taxonomic groupings, and oceanographic interpretations are presented in more formal publications (Dowsett and Poore, 1990, 1991; Dowsett, 1991, 2007a,b; Dowsett and Robinson, 1998, 2007; Dowsett and others, 1996, 1999).

  20. Gastrointestinal parasites of working donkeys of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getachew, M; Trawford, A; Feseha, G; Reid, S W J

    2010-01-01

    The general prevalence and population composition of gastrointestinal and pulmonary helminths of working donkeys were studied. For the purpose 2935 working donkeys were coprologically examined for nematode and cestode, and 215 donkeys for trematode infections. Seven donkeys that died due to various health problems or were euthanased on a welfare ground were necropsied and the parasites were recovered and identified to the species level. The study was conducted during the periods 1996-1999.Coprological examination revealed 99% strongyle, 80% Fasciola, 51% Parascaris, 30% Gastrodiscus, 11% Strongyloides westeri, 8% cestodes and 2% Oxyuris equi infection prevalence. Over 55% of donkeys had more than 1000 eggs per gram of faeces (epg). Forty two different species of parasites consisting of 33 nematodes, 3 trematodes, 3 cestodes and 3 arthropod larvae were identified from postmortem examined donkeys. Among the nematodes 17 species of Cyathostominae and 7 species of Strongylinae were identified. Other parasites identified include, Habronema muscae, Draschia megastoma, Trichostrongylus axei, Strongyloides westeri, Anoplocephala perfoliata, Anoplocephala magna, Anoplocephaloides (Paranoplocephala) mamillana, Parascaris equorum, Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus, Dictyocaulus arnfieldi, Oxyuris equi, Probstmayria vivipara, Gasterophilus intestinalis, Gasterophilus nasalis, Rhinoestrus uzbekistanicus and Setaria equina. This study revealed that working donkeys in Ethiopia are infected with a range of helminths and arthropod larvae, which are representatives of the important pathogenic parasites found in equids worldwide. PMID:19548106

  1. High-resolution marine seismic reflection data from the San Francisco Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childs, Jonathan R.; Hart, Patrick; Bruns, Terry R.; Marlow, Michael S.; Sliter, Ray

    2000-01-01

    Between 1993 and 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey acquired high-resolution, marine seismic-reflection profile data across submerged portions of known and inferred upper crustal fault zones throughout the greater San Francisco Bay area. Surveys were conducted oversouth San Francisco Bay in the vicinity of the San Bruno shoal (roughly between the San Francisco and Oakland airports), over the offshore extension of the San Andreas fault system west of the Golden Gate, over the Hayward fault to Rodgers Creek fault step-over in San Pablo Bay, and over the Kirby Hills fault where it crosses the western Sacramento Delta. Reconnaissance profiles were acquired elsewhere throughout the San Francisco and San Pablo Bays. These data were acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey, Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team, under the auspices of the Central California/San Francisco Bay Earthquake Hazards Project. Analysis and interpretation of some of these profiles has been published by Marlow and others (1996, 1999). Further analysis and interpretation of these data are available in a USGS. Professional Paper Crustal Structure of the Coastal and Marine San Francisco Bay Region, T. Parsons, editor, http://geopubs.wr.usgs.gov/prof-paper/pp1658/ [link added 2012 mfd].

  2. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides. Comprehensive progress report, February 1, 1992--July 15, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

    1995-07-17

    This research continues the long term goals of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. This program fits into the nuclear medicine component of DOE`s mission, which is aimed at enhancing the beneficial applications of radiation, radionuclides, and stable isotopes in the diagnosis, study and treatment of human diseases. The grant includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology/Immunology; and Imaging Physics. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Section under the DOE grant during the 1992--1995 will be employed in the Pharmacology/Immunology component in the period 1996--1999. Imaging Physics resolves relevant imaging related physics issues that arise during the experimentation that results. In addition to the basic research mission, this project also provides a basis for training of research scientists in radiochemistry, immunology, bioengineering and imaging physics.

  3. Diurnal changes of earthquake activity and geomagnetic Sq-variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duma, G.; Ruzhin, Y.

    Statistic analyses demonstrate that the probability of earthquake occurrence in many earthquake regions strongly depends on the time of day, that is on Local Time (e.g. Conrad, 1909, 1932; Shimshoni, 1971; Duma, 1997; Duma and Vilardo, 1998). This also applies to strong earthquake activity. Moreover, recent observations reveal an involvement of the regular diurnal variations of the Earth's magnetic field, commonly known as Sq-variations, in this geodynamic process of changing earthquake activity with the time of day (Duma, 1996, 1999). In the article it is attempted to quantify the forces which result from the interaction between the induced Sq-variation currents in the Earth's lithosphere and the regional Earth's magnetic field, in order to assess the influence on the tectonic stress field and on seismic activity. A reliable model is obtained, which indicates a high energy involved in this process. The effect of Sq-induction is compared with the results of the large scale electromagnetic experiment "Khibiny" (Velikhov, 1989), where a giant artificial current loop was activated in the Barents Sea.

  4. Economic-environmental modeling of point source pollution in Jefferson County, Alabama, USA.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Ellene; Schreiner, Dean F; Huluka, Gobena

    2002-05-01

    This paper uses an integrated economic-environmental model to assess the point source pollution from major industries in Jefferson County, Northern Alabama. Industrial expansion generates employment, income, and tax revenue for the public sector; however, it is also often associated with the discharge of chemical pollutants. Jefferson County is one of the largest industrial counties in Alabama that experienced smog warnings and ambient ozone concentration, 1996-1999. Past studies of chemical discharge from industries have used models to assess the pollution impact of individual plants. This study, however, uses an extended Input-Output (I-O) economic model with pollution emission coefficients to assess direct and indirect pollutant emission for several major industries in Jefferson County. The major findings of the study are: (a) the principal emission by the selected industries are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and these contribute to the ambient ozone concentration; (b) the direct and indirect emissions are significantly higher than the direct emission by some industries, indicating that an isolated analysis will underestimate the emission by an industry; (c) while low emission coefficient industries may suggest industry choice they may also emit the most hazardous chemicals. This study is limited by the assumptions made, and the data availability, however it provides a useful analytical tool for direct and cumulative emission estimation and generates insights on the complexity in choice of industries. PMID:12173425

  5. Exposure to motor vehicle emissions: An intake fraction approach

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Julian D.

    2002-05-01

    Motor vehicles are a significant source of population exposure to air pollution. Focusing on California's South Coast Air Basin as a case study, the author combines ambient monitoring station data with hourly time-activity patterns to determine the population intake of motor vehicle emissions during 1996-1999. Three microenvironments are considered wherein the exposure to motor vehicle emissions is higher than in ambient air: in and near vehicles, inside a building that is near a freeway, and inside a residence with an attached garage. Total motor vehicle emissions are taken from the EMFAC model. The 15 million people in the South Coast inhale 0.0048% of primary, nonreactive compounds emitted into the basin by motor vehicles. Intake of motor vehicle emissions is 46% higher than the average ambient concentration times the average breathing rate, because of microenvironments and because of temporal and spatial correlation among breathing rates, concentrations, and population densities. Intake fraction (iF) summarizes the emissions-to-intake relationship as the ratio of population intake to total emissions. iF is a population level exposure metric that incorporates spatial, temporal, and interindividual variability in exposures. iFs can facilitate the calculation of population exposures by distilling complex emissions-transport-receptor relationships. The author demonstrates this point by predicting the population intake of various primary gaseous emissions from motor vehicles, based on the intake fraction for benzene and carbon monoxide.

  6. Update on inflation of journal prices: Brandon/Hill list journals and the scientific, technical, and medical publishing market*

    PubMed Central

    Schlimgen, Joan B.; Kronenfeld, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The original study of journal prices, using the “Brandon/ Hill Selected List of Books and Journals for the Small Medical Library,” was first published in 1980 and periodically updated. This research continues to measure price increases for these titles for the periods 1996 to 1999 and 1999 to 2002. Methodology: The 111 journal titles that have appeared in each published list from 1967 to 2001 were included in the study. Institutional subscription price data were gathered for each journal for the years 1996, 1999, and 2002 and were compared to the Consumer Price Index (CPI) for the same years. Results: The average journal price continues to rise significantly and is independent of the CPI. The study found that prices have jumped 51.9% from 1996 to 1999 and 32% from 1999 to 2002, which is consistent with nearly every recent journal price study. Conclusion: The unprecedented rise in journal prices negatively affects the purchasing power of medical libraries. This paper examines the economic and technological pressures on the science, technology, and medical journals market that contribute to high prices and identifies a number of initiatives in the biological and health sciences that utilize alternative models for disseminating scientific research. PMID:15243636

  7. Application of the Scenario Planning Process - a Case Study: The Technical Information Department at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, J A

    2001-11-26

    When the field of modern publishing was on a collision course with telecommunications, publishing organizations had to come up to speed in fields that were, heretofore, completely foreign and technologically forbidding to them. For generations, the technology of publishing centered on offset lithography, typesetting, and photography--fields that saw evolutionary and incremental change from the time of Guttenberg. But publishing now includes making information available over the World Wide Web--Internet publishing--with its ever-accelerating rate of technological change and dependence on computers and networks. Clearly, we need a methodology to help anyone in the field of Internet publishing plan for the future, and there is a well-known, well-tested technique for just this purpose--Scenario Planning. Scenario Planning is an excellent tool to help organizations make better decisions in the present based on what they identify as possible and plausible scenarios of the future. Never was decision making more difficult or more crucial than during the years of this study, 1996-1999. This thesis takes the position that, by applying Scenario Planning, the Technical Information Department at LLNL, a large government laboratory (and organizations similar to it), could be confident that moving into the telecommunications business of Internet publishing stood a very good chance of success.

  8. Population size, survival, and movements of white-cheeked pintails in Eastern Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collazo, J.A.; Bonilla-Martinez, G.

    2001-01-01

    We estimated numbers and survival of White-cheeked Pintails (Anas bahamensis) in eastern Puerto Rico during 1996-1999. We also quantified their movements between Culebra Island and the Humacao Wildlife Refuge, Puerto Rico. Mark-resight population size estimates averaged 1020 pintails during nine, 3-month sampling periods from January 1997 to June 1999. On average, minimum regional counts were 38 % lower than mark-resight estimates (mean = 631). Adult survival was 0.51 ?? 0.09 (SE). This estimate is similar for other anatids of similar size but broader geographic distribution. The probability of pintails surviving and staying in Humacao was hiher (67 %) than for counterparts on Culebra (31 %). The probability of surviving and moving from Culebra to Humacao (41 %) was higher than from Humacao to Culebra (20 %). These findings, and available information on reproduction, indicate that the Humacao Wildlife Refuge refuge has an important role in the regional demography of pintails. Our findings on population numbers and regional survival are encouraging, given concerns about the species' status due to habitat loss and hunting. However, our outlook for the species is tempered by the remaining gaps in the population dynamics of pintails; for examples, survival estimates of broods and fledglings (age 0-1) are needed for a comprehensive status assessment. Until additional data are obtianed, White-cheeked Pintails should continue to be protectd from hunting in Puerto Rico.

  9. The long-period RS CVn binary IM Pegasi --- II. First surface images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdyugina, S. V.; Berdyugin, A. V.; Ilyin, I.; Tuominen, I.

    2000-08-01

    New high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectroscopic observations and UBV photometry carried out in 1996-1999 were analysed with the surface imaging technique. A total of 8 images of IM Peg was obtained for the first time. A huge high-latitude active region was found to dominate the stellar surface and decreased in area during the period of the observations. At the same time, on the opposite hemisphere (in longitudes), smaller spots were developing. The spots were migrating in the orbital reference frame, the period of spot rotation being of 24.d73∓0.d02. The spots constitute two active longitudes on opposite stellar hemispheres, similar to other RS CVn stars. The evolution of the spot areas within the active longitudes indicates a stellar activity cycle, during which one active longitude dominates the stellar activity, to be about 6.5 years. Then, a total cycle, comprising two consecutive periods of activity of both active longitudes, is about 13 years. In 1999, the activity switched to the other active longitude. This declared the beginning of a new (half-) cycle. based on observations collected at the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), La Palma, Spain; the 2.6 m and 1.25 m telescopes of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, Ukraine; the 2m telescope of the National Astronomical Observatory, Rozhen, Bulgaria.

  10. Greater years of maternal schooling and higher scores on academic achievement tests are independently associated with improved management of child diarrhea by rural Guatemalan mothers.

    PubMed

    Webb, Aimee L; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Stein, Aryeh D; Sellen, Daniel W; Merchant, Moeza; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2010-09-01

    Appropriate home management can alleviate many of the consequences of diarrhea including malnutrition, impaired development, growth faltering, and mortality. Maternal cognitive ability, years of schooling, and acquired academic skills are hypothesized to improve child health by improving maternal child care practices, such as illness management. Using information collected longitudinally in 1996-1999 from 466 rural Guatemalan women with children <36 months, we examined the independent associations between maternal years of schooling, academic skills, and scores on the Raven's Progressive Matrices and an illness management index (IMI). Women scoring in the lowest and middle tertiles of academic skills scored lower on the IMI compared to women in the highest tertile (-0.24 [95% CI: -0.54, 0.07]; -0.30 [95% CI: -0.54, -0.06], respectively) independent of sociodemographic factors, schooling, and Raven's scores. Among mothers with less than 1 year of schooling, scoring in the lowest tertile on the Raven's Progressive Matrices compared to the highest was significantly associated with scoring one point lower on the IMI (-1.18 [95% CI: -2.20, -0.17]). Greater academic skills were independently associated with maternal care during episodes of infant diarrhea. Schooling of young girls and/or community based programs that provide women with academic skills such as literacy, numeracy and knowledge could potentially improve mothers' care giving practices. PMID:19685178

  11. Incidence of hospitalization due to community-acquired rotavirus infection: a 12-year study (1996-2008).

    PubMed

    Cilla, G; Gomariz, M; Montes, M; Mendiburu, M I; Pérez-Yarza, E G; Pérez-Trallero, E

    2010-09-01

    The incidence of hospitalization for acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a useful parameter to assess the utility of the new rotavirus vaccines in high-income countries. Children hospitalized for AGE were identified by searching hospital discharge data and the records of the microbiology laboratory of Hospital Donostia. Rotavirus antigen was investigated in 96.1% of the 1114 children aged 1 month to <5 years hospitalized for AGE in the study period. Nearly 40% were rotavirus positive (44.9% of the 798 children aged 1 month to <2 years), with G1[P8] being the predominant genotype. The mean annual incidence rate of hospitalization due to rotavirus AGE was 29.8 and 63.7 cases/10 000 inhabitants in the <5 and <2 years age groups, respectively, in 1996-1999, decreasing to 13.6 and 27.4 cases/10 000 inhabitants in <5 and <2 years age groups, respectively, in 2002-2005 (P<0.001). This decrease coincided with a significant increase in the consumption of oral rehydration solutions. PMID:20096147

  12. Resilience and stability of Cymodocea nodosa seagrass meadows over the last four decades in a Mediterranean lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrido, Marie; Lafabrie, Céline; Torre, Franck; Fernandez, Catherine; Pasqualini, Vanina

    2013-09-01

    Understanding what controls the capacity of a coastal lagoon ecosystem to recover following climatic and anthropogenic perturbations and how these perturbations can alter this capacity is critical to efficient environmental management. The goal of this study was to examine the resilience and stability of Cymodocea nodosa-dominated seagrass meadows in Urbino lagoon (Corsica, Mediterranean Sea) by characterizing the spatio-temporal dynamics of seagrass meadows over a 40-year period and comparing (anthropogenic and climatic) environmental fluctuations. The spatio-temporal evolution of seagrass meadows was investigated using previous maps (1973, 1979, 1990, 1994, 1996, 1999) and a 2011 map realized by aerial photography-remote sensing combined with GIS technology. Environmental fluctuation was investigated via physical-chemical parameters (rainfall, water temperature, salinity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen) and human-impact changes (aquaculture, artificial channel). The results showed a severe decline (estimated at -49%) in seagrass meadows between 1973 and 1994 followed by a period of strong recovery (estimated to +42%) between 1994 and 2011. Increased turbidity, induced either by rainfall events, dredging or phytoplankton growth, emerged as the most important driver of the spatio-temporal evolution of Cymodocea nodosa-dominated meadows in Urbino lagoon over the last four decades. Climate events associated to increased turbidity and reduced salinity and temperature could heavily impact seagrass dynamics. This study shows that Urbino lagoon, a system relatively untouched by human impact, shelters seagrass meadows that exhibit high resilience and stability.

  13. Ecotoxicological evaluation of wastewater treatment plant effluent discharges: a case study in Prato (Tuscany, Italy).

    PubMed

    Lanciotti, E; Galli, S; Limberti, A; Giovannelli, L

    2004-01-01

    Textile wastewaters, which contain numerous chemicals such as dyes, surfactants, solvents, organic and inorganic salts, can cause severe pollution problems for the receiving freshwaters. The ecotoxicity of wastewaters in Prato, where there are about 14,000 textile and related factories, was investigated from 1996-1999 by means of bioassays. 147 samples of reclaimed wastewater were collected at the outlets of 4 centralized wastewater treatment plants. The acute and chronic toxicity of the effluents was measured with bioassays using three different target organisms: green algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), crustaceans (Daphnia magna) and bioluminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri). Toxicity was expressed as Effective Concentration 50 (EC50) and Toxic Units (TU). The results indicated that the effluents did not have significant acute toxicity: only 2.74% (EC50<100%, TU>1) of the 146 samples tested with crustaceans and 6.52% (EC50<50%, TU>2) of the 78 tested with bioluminescent bacteria showed toxic effects. With algae, slight chronic toxicity was found in 49.33% (mean EC50 value=86.56%, mean TU=1.16) of the 140 samples tested. The highest relative response was found with the algal assay using Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata: 49.33% of 140 samples showed chronic toxicity at 96 hours (EC50<100%). PMID:15366513

  14. Applying downscaled global climate model data to a hydrodynamic surface-water and groundwater model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, Eric; Stefanova, Lydia; Smith, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Precipitation data from Global Climate Models have been downscaled to smaller regions. Adapting this downscaled precipitation data to a coupled hydrodynamic surface-water/groundwater model of southern Florida allows an examination of future conditions and their effect on groundwater levels, inundation patterns, surface-water stage and flows, and salinity. The downscaled rainfall data include the 1996-2001 time series from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting ERA-40 simulation and both the 1996-1999 and 2038-2057 time series from two global climate models: the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamic Laboratory (GFDL). Synthesized surface-water inflow datasets were developed for the 2038-2057 simulations. The resulting hydrologic simulations, with and without a 30-cm sea-level rise, were compared with each other and field data to analyze a range of projected conditions. Simulations predicted generally higher future stage and groundwater levels and surface-water flows, with sea-level rise inducing higher coastal salinities. A coincident rise in sea level, precipitation and surface-water flows resulted in a narrower inland saline/fresh transition zone. The inland areas were affected more by the rainfall difference than the sea-level rise, and the rainfall differences make little difference in coastal inundation, but a larger difference in coastal salinities.

  15. Genetic Analysis of Snake River Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus Nerka), 2003 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faler, Joyce; Powell, Madison

    2003-12-01

    A total of 1720 Oncorhynchus nerka tissue samples from 40 populations were characterized using mitochondrial DNA RFLPs (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms). Analysis of anadromous sockeye populations indicated the historical presence of four major maternal lineages. Thirty-five composite mitochondrial haplotypes were observed from the 40 populations of O. nerka sampled throughout the Pacific Northwest. Six of these composite haplotypes ranged in frequency from 7-26% overall and were commonly observed in most populations. The six haplotypes together comprised 90% of the sampled O. nerka. An average of 4.6 composite haplotypes were observed per population. Genetic markers used were satisfactory in separating Redfish Lake anadromous sockeye, residual sockeye and outmigrants from the sympatric kokanee population that spawns in the Fishhook Creek tributary. Outmigrants appear to be primarily composed of progeny from resident residual sockeye, and captively-reared progeny of the captive broodstock program. Thus, residual sockeye may be considered a suitable source of genetic variation to maintain genetic diversity among captive broodstocks of anadromous sockeye. Fishhook Creek kokanee are genetically diverse and during spawning, are temporally and spatially isolated from the residual sockeye population. Eleven composite haplotypes were observed in the kokanee population. The unusually high number of haplotypes is most likely a consequence of periodic stocking of Redfish Lake with kokanee from other sources. Genetic data from Redfish Lake creel samples taken during 1996-1999 putatively indicate the incidental take of a listed resident sockeye.

  16. Morphometric and genetics properties of pea crops grown in space greenhouse Lada"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinskikh, M.; Sychev, V.; Podolsky, I.; Gostimsky, S.; Bingham, G.

    Results of the experiments with higher plants performed in greenhouse Svet aboard the MIR space station in 1996-1999 made it evident that the main biological characteristics of plants growth development reproduction and metabolism did not undergo modifications in consequence of microgravity It was shown that at least two ontogenetic cycles of plants could pass in the normal way in this environment However the initial experimental data was insufficient for fiducial conclusions on the delayed effects of cultivating a sequence of plant generations on the background of spaceflight factors Hence these investigations are given precedence in the space life sciences research programs In the period from March 2003 to April 2005 we fulfilled five experimental cultivations of genetically marked dwarf pea species in greenhouse Lada installed in the Russian segment of the International space station The purpose of this series of experiments was to make morphologic and genetic analysis of pea plants grown in successive generations According to our results pea growth and development over the full cycle of ontogenesis from seed to seed taking place in space greenhouse Lada were not different as compared with the ground control plants In addition four successive pea crops gathered in space flight did not loose their reproductive functions and formed viable seeds Genetic analysis of the plants grown from the space and ground seeds produced by the first to fourth successive crops was performed using the methods of

  17. Tendency for age-specific mortality with hypertension in the European Union from 1980 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Tao, Lichan; Pu, Cunying; Shen, Shutong; Fang, Hongyi; Wang, Xiuzhi; Xuan, Qinkao; Xiao, Junjie; Li, Xinli

    2015-01-01

    Tendency for mortality in hypertension has not been well-characterized in European Union (EU). Mortality data from 1980 to 2011 in EU were used to calculate age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR, per 100,000), annual percentage change (APC) and average annual percentage change (AAPC). The Joinpoint Regression Program was used to compare the changes in tendency. Mortality rates in the most recent year studied vary between different countries, with the highest rates observed in Slovakia men and Estonia women. A downward trend in ASMR was demonstrated over all age groups. Robust decreases in ASMR were observed for both men (1991-1994, APC = -13.54) and women (1996-1999, APC = -14.80) aged 55-65 years. The tendency of systolic blood pressure (SBP) from 1980 to 2009 was consistent with ASMR, and the largest decrease was observed among Belgium men and France women. In conclusion, SBP associated ASMR decreased significantly on an annual basis from 1980 to 2009 while a slight increase was observed after 2009. Discrepancies in ASMR from one country to another in EU are significant during last three decades. With a better understanding of the tendency of the prevalence of hypertension and its mortality, efforts will be made to improve awareness and help strict control of hypertension. PMID:25932090

  18. Tendency for age-specific mortality with hypertension in the European Union from 1980 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Lichan; Pu, Cunying; Shen, Shutong; Fang, Hongyi; Wang, Xiuzhi; Xuan, Qinkao; Xiao, Junjie; Li, Xinli

    2015-01-01

    Tendency for mortality in hypertension has not been well-characterized in European Union (EU). Mortality data from 1980 to 2011 in EU were used to calculate age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR, per 100,000), annual percentage change (APC) and average annual percentage change (AAPC). The Joinpoint Regression Program was used to compare the changes in tendency. Mortality rates in the most recent year studied vary between different countries, with the highest rates observed in Slovakia men and Estonia women. A downward trend in ASMR was demonstrated over all age groups. Robust decreases in ASMR were observed for both men (1991-1994, APC = -13.54) and women (1996-1999, APC = -14.80) aged 55-65 years. The tendency of systolic blood pressure (SBP) from 1980 to 2009 was consistent with ASMR, and the largest decrease was observed among Belgium men and France women. In conclusion, SBP associated ASMR decreased significantly on an annual basis from 1980 to 2009 while a slight increase was observed after 2009. Discrepancies in ASMR from one country to another in EU are significant during last three decades. With a better understanding of the tendency of the prevalence of hypertension and its mortality, efforts will be made to improve awareness and help strict control of hypertension. PMID:25932090

  19. Ulysses Observations of Tripolar Guide-Magnetic Field Perturbations Across Solar Wind Reconnection Exhausts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, S.; Peng, B.; Markidis, S.; Gosling, J. T.; McComas, D. J.; Lapenta, G.; Newman, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    We report observations from 15 solar wind reconnection exhausts encountered along the Ulysses orbit beyond 4 AU in 1996-1999 and 2002-2005. The events, which lasted between 17 and 45 min, were found at heliospheric latitudes between -36o and 21o with one event detected as high as 58o. All events shared a common characteristic of a tripolar guide-magnetic field perturbation being detected across the observed exhausts. The signature consists of an enhanced guide field magnitude within the exhaust center and two regions of significantly depressed guide-fields adjacent to the center region. The events displayed magnetic field shear angles as low as 37o with a mean of 89o. This corresponds to a strong external guide field relative to the anti-parallel reconnecting component of the magnetic field with a mean ratio of 1.3 and a maximum ratio of 3.1. A 2-D kinetic reconnection simulation for realistic solar wind conditions reveals that tripolar guide fields form at current sheets in the presence of multiple X-lines as two magnetic islands interact with one another for such strong guide fields. The Ulysses observations are also compared with the results of a 3-D kinetic simulation of multiple flux ropes in a strong guide field.

  20. Interpretation of Galileo's Io plasma and field observations: I0, I24, and I27 flybys and close polar passes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saur, Joachim; Neubauer, Fritz M.; Strobel, Darrell F.; Summers, Michael E.

    2002-12-01

    We interpret plasma and magnetic field observations taken during the Galileo spacecraft Io flybys I0 in December 1995, I24 in October 1999, and I27 in February 2000, and we give predictions for a generic pass over Io's northern pole with a three-dimensional, two-fluid plasma model. We show that all previous field and plasma observations by the Galileo spacecraft can be explained without the assumption of an internal magnetic field of Io in contrast to claims by [1996a, 1996b] and [1997]. We are also able to reproduce both the magnitude and the structure of the double-peak magnetic field signature of the I0 flyby. The origin of this structure can be attributed to diamagnetic and inertia currents. Observations by a polar flyby should answer Io's internal magnetic field question decisively. We also study the effect of different neutral atmosphere models on Io's electrodynamic interaction. Our analysis suggests that Io's atmosphere is longitudinally asymmetric with the scale height on the upstream side smaller than on the downstream side due to the drag force of the flowing plasma on Io's atmosphere. We also show how the Hall effect in Io's ionosphere generates rotated Alfvén wings. In addition, the high-energy electrons observed by [1996, 1999] and [1999] might play an important role for the formation of Io's downstream wake.

  1. The replacement of serum by hormones in cell culture media.

    PubMed

    Sato, G; Hayashi, I

    1976-12-01

    The replacement of serum by hormones in cell culture media. (Reemplazo del suero por hormonas en el medio de cultivo de células). Arch. Biol. Med. Exper. 10: 120-121, 1976. The serum used in cell culture media can be replaced by a mixture of hormones and some accesory blood factors. The pituitary cell line GH3 can be grown in a medium in which serum is replaced by triiodothyronine, transferrin, parathormone, tyrotrophin releasing hormone and somatomedins. Hela and BHK cell strains can also be grown in serum free medium supplemented with hormones. Each cell type appears to have different hormonal requirements yet it may found that some hormones are required for most cell types. PMID:1026199

  2. Observations and proxies of the surface layer throughflow in Lombok Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susanto, R. Dwi; Gordon, Arnold L.; Sprintall, Janet

    2007-03-01

    Seasonal to interannual variability of the Lombok Strait surface layer transport is investigated. The geostrophic transport within the surface layer is estimated from the cross-channel pressure gradient measured by a pair of shallow pressure gauges positioned on opposing sides of Lombok Strait during 1996-1999. The Ekman transport through Lombok Strait, derived from scatterometer winds, is less than 10% or ˜0.15 Sv of the estimated surface layer geostrophic transport. Monsoonal forcing is clearly evident in the regional sea surface height anomalies (SSHA) as derived from the satellite altimeter measurements. During the southeast monsoon, relatively low sea level is observed to the south of Lombok Strait, with relatively high sea level to the north; conditions reverse during the northwest monsoon. Estimated transports from the cross-channel pressure gradient, winds, SSHA and thermocline depth anomalies all reveal interannual variability associated with ENSO. Both the thermocline depth anomaly and the SSHA to the south of the East Java coast correlate significantly (r = 0.7) with the Lombok Strait total surface layer throughflow. The difference of SSHA from the south of the East Java coast minus the SSHA north of Lombok shows a higher correlation (r = 0.84). These high correlation values suggest that SSHA and thermocline depth anomalies can be used as proxies for the Lombok Strait surface layer throughflow. Qualitatively, such proxy transports agree with the surface transport inferred from the pressure gauges and Ekman transport in Lombok Strait from 1996 to 1999, and also with direct velocity measurements from current meter data obtained in 1985 and 2004-2005.

  3. A decade of acoustic thermometry in the North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dushaw, B. D.; Worcester, P. F.; Munk, W. H.; Spindel, R. C.; Mercer, J. A.; Howe, B. M.; Metzger, K.; Birdsall, T. G.; Andrew, R. K.; Dzieciuch, M. A.; Cornuelle, B. D.; Menemenlis, D.

    2009-07-01

    Over the decade 1996-2006, acoustic sources located off central California (1996-1999) and north of Kauai (1997-1999, 2002-2006) transmitted to receivers distributed throughout the northeast and north central Pacific. The acoustic travel times are inherently spatially integrating, which suppresses mesoscale variability and provides a precise measure of ray-averaged temperature. Daily average travel times at 4-day intervals provide excellent temporal resolution of the large-scale thermal field. The interannual, seasonal, and shorter-period variability is large, with substantial changes sometimes occurring in only a few weeks. Linear trends estimated over the decade are small compared to the interannual variability and inconsistent from path to path, with some acoustic paths warming slightly and others cooling slightly. The measured travel times are compared with travel times derived from four independent estimates of the North Pacific: (1) climatology, as represented by the World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05); (2) objective analysis of the upper-ocean temperature field derived from satellite altimetry and in situ profiles; (3) an analysis provided by the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean project, as implemented at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL-ECCO); and (4) simulation results from a high-resolution configuration of the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) model. The acoustic data show that WOA05 is a better estimate of the time mean hydrography than either the JPL-ECCO or the POP estimates, both of which proved incapable of reproducing the observed acoustic arrival patterns. The comparisons of time series provide a stringent test of the large-scale temperature variability in the models. The differences are sometimes substantial, indicating that acoustic thermometry data can provide significant additional constraints for numerical ocean models.

  4. Mortality due to respiratory diseases in the elderly after influenza vaccination campaigns in the Federal District, Brazil, 1996-2009 *

    PubMed Central

    Scoralick, Francisca Magalhães; Piazzolla, Luciana Paganini; Pires, Liana Laura; Neri, Cleudsom; de Paula, Wladimir Kummer

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare mortality rates due to respiratory diseases among elderly individuals residing in the Federal District of Brasília, Brazil, prior to and after the implementation of a national influenza vaccination campaign. METHODS: This was an ecological time series analysis. Data regarding the population of individuals who were over 60 years of age between 1996 and 2009 were obtained from official databases. The variables of interest were the crude mortality rate (CMR), the mortality rate due to the respiratory disease (MRRD), and the proportional mortality ratio (PMR) for respiratory diseases. We performed a qualitative analysis of the data for the period prior to and after the implementation of the vaccination campaign (1996-1999 and 2000-2009, respectively). RESULTS: The CMR increased with advancing age. Over the course of the study period, we observed reductions in the CMR in all of the age brackets studied, particularly among those aged 80 years or older. Reductions in the MRRD were also found in all of the age groups, especially in those aged 80 years or older. In addition, there was a decrease in the PMR for respiratory diseases in all age groups throughout the study period. The most pronounced decrease in the PMR for respiratory diseases in the ≥ 70 year age bracket occurred in 2000 (immediately following the implementation of the national vaccination campaign); in 2001, that rate increased in all age groups, despite the greater adherence to the vaccination campaign in comparison with that recorded for 2000. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza vaccination appears to have a positive impact on the prevention of mortality due to respiratory diseases, particularly in the population aged 70 or over. PMID:23670505

  5. Distribution, population status and trends of kittlitz's murrelet brachyramphus brevirostris in lower cook inlet and kachemak bay, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuletz, K.J.; Speckman, S.G.; Piatt, J.F.; Labunski, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    Lower Cook Inlet (LCI) in south-central Alaska is unusual among the breeding areas of Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris because of human impacts on the marine and terrestrial environments and because of the lack of tidewater glaciers. In LCI the Kittlitz's Murrelet co-exists with the more abundant Marbled Murrelet, which complicates abundance estimates because of the difficulty of species identification. We compared survey data for an area with overlapping coverage in LCI (Core area) in 1993 (June) and from 1996 to 1999 (July-early August). Within this LCI Core area, the surveys in 1996-1999 estimated ~1600 Kittlitz's Murrelets and ~17 000 Marbled Murrelets, including prorated unidentified murrelets. The Kittlitz's Murrelet population declined between 1993 and 1999 at 26% per annum (84% overall). Simultaneously, Marbled Murrelets declined by 12% per annum (56% overall), though the decline was not statistically significant. Declines were estimated conservatively because the 1993 survey was conducted in June, when both murrelet species are less abundant on the water. We also surveyed Kachemak Bay, a large embayment of LCI, during mid-summer (July) of 2005-2007 and estimated a population of 2047 Kittlitz's Murrelets (SD 1120, n = 3 years) residing primarily in the inner bay. Marbled Murrelets numbered 11 040 (SD 1306) and were found throughout the bay. On one transect set in inner Kachemak Bay, Kittlitz's Murrelet density in late summer (1-16 August) declined 7.5% per annum between 1988 and 2007 (n = 6 years), and Marbled Murrelet density increased 4.9% per annum. On two other transect sets in the inner bay, however, neither murrelet species showed a change in density between 1996 and 2007. Inner Kachemak Bay is a persistent hotspot for Kittlitz's Murrelet and may attract murrelets from LCI and beyond. We recommend monitoring murrelet populations in Kachemak Bay, although Kittlitz's Murrelets likely move between the main body of Cook Inlet and Kachemak

  6. Radioactive aerosols released from the Chernobyl Shelter into the immediate environment.

    PubMed

    Garger, E K; Kashpur, V A; Li, W B; Tschiersch, J

    2006-07-01

    The release of radioactive particles through large gaps in the containment of the destroyed Chernobyl reactor was assessed during two measurement periods. In 1996-1999, a total radionuclide flow rate of 274 Bq s(-1) or 8.64 x 10(9) Bq year(-1) was determined. These releases were predominantly due to (137)Cs (78.5%), (90)Sr (21.1%), and (239+240)Pu (0.4%). The mean activity concentration in the aerosol measured directly at the gaps was about 240 mBq m(-3) with an activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 2.4 microm for (137)Cs, 120 mBq m(-3) with an AMAD in the range 3.1-13 microm for (90)Sr, 1.8 mBq m(-3) with an AMAD in the range 3.5-11 microm for (239+240)Pu, and 2.0 mBq m(-3) with an AMAD of 1.5 microm for (241)Am. The resulting total inhalation dose rate calculated close to the gaps was about 100 nSv h(-1). In the near environment, the mean (137)Cs activity in the aerosol was 2.2 mBq m(-3) with an AMAD of 2.2 microm, which gave rise to an inhalation dose rate of about two orders of magnitude lower than the corresponding dose rate at the gaps. Occasionally, however, dose levels were measured in the near environment that were similar to those at the gaps. In 2000-2003, lower activity concentrations were observed. The decrease was more pronounced at the gaps than in the near environment. The results indicate that effective dose due to inhalation must be considered for the dose assessment of construction workers who will be deployed at the Chernobyl site to reconstruct the old or to build the new Shelter, in the future. PMID:16733725

  7. Making clinical academic careers more attractive: views from questionnaire surveys of senior UK doctors

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Trevor W; Goldacre, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives To report on doctors’ reasons, as expressed to our research group, for choosing academic careers and on factors that would make a career in clinical academic medicine more attractive to them. Design Postal, email and web questionnaires. Setting UK. Participants A total of 6936 UK-trained doctors who graduated in 1996, 1999 and 2000. Main outcome measures Open-ended comments about a career in clinical academic medicine. Results Of doctors who provided reasons for pursuing a long-term career in clinical academic medicine, the main reasons were enjoyment of academic work and personal satisfaction, whether expressed directly in those terms, or in terms of intellectual stimulation, enjoyment of research, teaching and the advancement of medicine, and the job being more varied than and preferable to clinical work alone. Doctors’ suggestions for making clinical academic medicine more attractive included improved pay and job security, better funding of research, greater availability of academic posts, more dedicated time for research (and less service work) and more support and mentoring. Women were more likely than men to prioritise flexible working hours and part-time posts. Conclusions Medical schools could provide more information, as part of student teaching, about the opportunities for and realities of a career in clinical academic medicine. Women, in particular, commented that they lacked the role models and information which would encourage them to consider seriously an academic career. Employers could increase academic opportunities by allowing more time for teaching, research and study and should assess whether job plans make adequate allowance for academic work. PMID:26380103

  8. GCIP water and energy budget synthesis (WEBS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roads, J.; Lawford, R.; Bainto, E.; Berbery, E.; Chen, S.; Fekete, B.; Gallo, K.; Grundstein, A.; Higgins, W.; Kanamitsu, M.; Krajewski, W.; Lakshmi, V.; Leathers, D.; Lettenmaier, D.; Luo, L.; Maurer, E.; Meyers, T.; Miller, D.; Mitchell, Ken; Mote, T.; Pinker, R.; Reichler, T.; Robinson, D.; Robock, A.; Smith, J.; Srinivasan, G.; Verdin, K.; Vinnikov, K.; Vonder, Haar T.; Vorosmarty, C.; Williams, S.; Yarosh, E.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRPs) Global Energy and Water-Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Continental-scale International Project (GCIP), a preliminary water and energy budget synthesis (WEBS) was developed for the period 1996-1999 fromthe "best available" observations and models. Besides this summary paper, a companion CD-ROM with more extensive discussion, figures, tables, and raw data is available to the interested researcher from the GEWEX project office, the GAPP project office, or the first author. An updated online version of the CD-ROM is also available at http://ecpc.ucsd.edu/gcip/webs.htm/. Observations cannot adequately characterize or "close" budgets since too many fundamental processes are missing. Models that properly represent the many complicated atmospheric and near-surface interactions are also required. This preliminary synthesis therefore included a representative global general circulation model, regional climate model, and a macroscale hydrologic model as well as a global reanalysis and a regional analysis. By the qualitative agreement among the models and available observations, it did appear that we now qualitatively understand water and energy budgets of the Mississippi River Basin. However, there is still much quantitative uncertainty. In that regard, there did appear to be a clear advantage to using a regional analysis over a global analysis or a regional simulation over a global simulation to describe the Mississippi River Basin water and energy budgets. There also appeared to be some advantage to using a macroscale hydrologic model for at least the surface water budgets. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Turbulence, viscosity, and dark matter in the beginning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Carl H.

    1999-11-01

    Jeans's (1902) acoustic theory of gravitational condensation is commonly used, but is unreliable. Gibson's (1996-1999) theory balances fluid and gravitational forces and diffusion and gravitational velocities at turbulent, viscous, and diffusive L_ST,SV,SD Schwarz instability scales that were much smaller than LJ in the quiet, super-viscous, expanding universe soon after the Big Bang. Thus, both turbulence and structure formation began with proto- supercluster-voids in the hot plasma epoch at about 30,000 years when the Kolmogorov scale LK and L_SV both decreased to match the increasing Hubble (horizon) scale LH = ct, where c is light speed and t is time. Viscous-turbulent fragmentation decreased with cooling to proto-galaxy masses just before the plasma formed neutral H-He gas at 300,000 years. Observations of δ T/T <= 10-5 at 0.1 LH in the cosmic microwave background also imply this early viscous and buoyancy damping of the primordial turbulence. All the neutral gas then condensed to form Earth-mass hydrogenous planetoids that persist as the dominant galactic dark matter, observed near hot stars by the HST and by Schild (1996) in a twin- image-quasar galaxy lens as ``rogue planets ... likely to be the missing mass''. Observed super-cluster-halo scales suggest non-baryonic dark matter from the large implied L_SD values. See astro-ph and the author's webpage.

  10. The unionid (Bivalvia) fauna of the Sipsey River in northwestern Alabama, an aquatic hotspot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCullagh, W.H.; Williams, J.D.; McGregor, S.W.; Pierson, J.M.; Lydeard, C.

    2002-01-01

    Recent surveys for unionid bivalves were conducted in the mainstem of the Sipsey River and headwater tributaries (Tombigbee River drainage) during the summer and autumn of 1996-1999. A total of 35 species and 22 genera were found. Museum records from the upper Sipsey, based largely on the efforts of H. H. Smith during 1910-11, raised the total number of recorded unionids in the Sipsey to 42. Smith documented 25 species in the river; however, most of his collections were made in the mid- to upper-Sipsey, which has lower diversity. The three most common recently observed species in descending order of abundance were Quadrula asperata (I. Lea, 1861), Pleurobema decisum (I. Lea, 1831), and Tritogonia verrucosa (Rafinesque, 1820). Federally listed species observed recently include Lampsilis perovalis (Conrad, 1834) (threatened), Medionidus acutissimus (I. Lea, 1831) (threatened), P. decisum (endangered), P. perovatum (Conrad, 1834) (endangered), and Potamilus inflatus (I. Lea, 1831) (threatened). Species not observed recently but recorded in prior surveys include Anodontoides radiatus (Conrad, 1834), Arcidens confragosus (Say, 1829), Plectomerus dombeyanus (Valenciennes, 1827), Q. metanevra (Rafinesque, 1820), Q. stapes (I. Lea, 1831) (federally endangered), P. taitianum (I. Lea, 1834) (federally endangered), and Toxolasma parvus (Barnes, 1823). Many, species are known recently or historically by only five or fewer recorded specimens including: A. radiatus, Elliptio arctata (Conrad, 1834), Ligumia recta (Lamarck, 1819), P. taitianum, P. inflatus, Q. aspera (Lea, 1831), Q. metanevra, Q. stapes, T. parvus, Truncilla donaciformis (I. Lea, 1828), Uniomerus tetralasmus (Say, 1831), Utterbackia imbecillis (Say, 1829), A. confragosus, and P. dombeyanus. Unlike the mussel fauna of most Alabama streams, that of the Sipsey River is still relatively intact in terms of species richness despite impacts from mining, silvicultural, and agricultural activities. A concerted effort

  11. Correlation between the Mayan calendar and ours: Astronomy helps to answer why the most popular correlation (GMT) is wrong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klokočník, J.; Kostelecký, J.; Böhm, V.; Böhm, B.; Vondrák, J.; Vítek, F.

    2008-05-01

    The Maya used their own very precise calendar. When transforming data from the Mayan calendar to ours, or vice versa, a surprisingly large uncertainty is found. The relationship between the two calendars has been investigated by many researchers during the last century and about 50 different values of the transformation coefficient, known as the correlation, have been deduced. They can differ by centuries, potentially yielding an incredibly large error in the relation of Mayan history to the history of other civilizations. The most frequently used correlation is the GMT one (of Goodman-Martínez-Thompson), based largely on historical evidence from colonial times. Astronomy (celestial mechanics) may resolve the problem of the correlation, provided that historians have correctly decoded the records of various astronomical phenomena discovered, namely, in one extremely important and rare Mayan book, the Dresden Codex (DC). This describes (among other matters) observations of various astronomical phenomena (eclipses, conjunctions, maximum elongations, heliacal aspects, etc), made by the Maya. Modern celestial mechanics enables us to compute exactly when the phenomena occurred in the sky for the given place on the Earth, even though far back in time. Here we check (by a completely independent method), confirming the value of the correlation obtained by Böhm & Böhm (1996, 1999). In view of these tests, we advocate rejecting the GMT correlation and replacing it by the Böhm's correlation. We also comment on the criticism of GMT by some investigators. The replacement of GMT by another correlation seems, however, unacceptable to many Mayanists, as they would need to rewrite the whole history of Mesoamerica. The history of the Maya would be - for example with Böhm's correlation - closer to our time by 104 years.

  12. Prospective Associations Between Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Cognitive Performance Among Older Adults Across an 11-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Po-Wen; Stevinson, Clare; Chen, Li-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have explored the relations between naturally occurring changes in physical activity and cognitive performance in later life. This study examined prospective associations between changes in physical activity and cognitive performance in a population-based sample of Taiwanese older adults during an 11-year period. Methods Analyses were based on nationally representative data from the Taiwan Health and Living Status of the Elderly Survey collected in 1996, 1999, 2003, and 2007. Data from a fixed cohort of 1160 participants who were aged 67 years or older in 1996 and followed for 11 years were included. Cognitive performance (outcome) was assessed using 5 questions from the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire. Physical activity (exposure) was self-reported as number of sessions per week. The latent growth model was used to examine associations between changes in physical activity and cognitive performance after controlling for sociodemographic variables, lifestyle behaviors, and health status. Results With multivariate adjustment, higher initial levels of physical activity were significantly associated with better initial cognitive performance (standardized coefficient β = 0.17). A higher level of physical activity at baseline (1996) was significantly related to slower decline in cognitive performance, as compared with a lower level of activity (β = 0.22). The association between changes in physical activity and changes in cognitive performance was stronger (β = 0.36) than the previous 2 associations. The effect remained after excluding participants with cognitive decline before baseline. Conclusions Physical activity in later life is associated with slower age-related cognitive decline. PMID:22343329

  13. Working as a doctor when acutely ill: comments made by doctors responding to United Kingdom surveys

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Fay; Goldacre, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives We undertook multi-purpose surveys of doctors who qualified in the United Kingdom between 1993 and 2012. Doctors were asked specific questions about their careers and were asked to comment about any aspect of their training or work. We report doctors’ comments about working whilst acutely ill. Design Self-completed questionnaire surveys. Setting United Kingdom. Participants Nine cohorts of doctors, comprising all United Kingdom medical qualifiers of 1993, 1996, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2009 and 2012. Main outcome measures Comments made by doctors about working when ill, in surveys one, five and 10 years after graduation. Results The response rate, overall, was 57.4% (38,613/67,224 doctors). Free-text comments were provided by 30.7% (11,859/38,613). Three-hundred and twenty one doctors (2.7% of those who wrote comments) wrote about working when feeling acutely ill. Working with Exhaustion/fatigue was the most frequent topic raised (195 doctors), followed by problems with Taking time off for illness (112), and general comments on Physical/mental health problems (66). Other topics raised included Support from others, Leaving or adapting/coping with the situation, Bullying, the Doctor’s ability to care for patients and Death/bereavement. Arrangements for cover due to illness were regarded as insufficient by some respondents; some wrote that doctors were expected to work harder and longer to cover for colleagues absent because of illness. Conclusions We recommend that employers ensure that it is not unduly difficult for doctors to take time off work when ill, and that employers review their strategies for covering ill doctors who are off work. PMID:27066264

  14. Doctors’ enjoyment of their work and satisfaction with time available for leisure: UK time trend questionnaire-based study

    PubMed Central

    Surman, Geraldine; Lambert, Trevor W; Goldacre, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Doctors’ job satisfaction is important to the health service to ensure commitment, effective training, service provision and retention. Job satisfaction matters to doctors for their personal happiness, fulfilment, service to patients and duty to employers. Monitoring job satisfaction trends informs workforce planning. Materials and methods We surveyed UK-trained doctors up to 5 years after graduation for six graduation year cohorts: 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2012. Doctors scored their job enjoyment (Enjoyment) and satisfaction with time outside work (Leisure) on a scale from 1 (lowest enjoyment/satisfaction) to 10 (highest). Results Overall, 47% had a high level of Enjoyment (scores 8–10) 1 year after graduation and 56% after 5 years. For Leisure, the corresponding figures were 19% and 37% at 1 and 5 years, respectively. For Leisure at 1 year, high scores were given by about 10% in the 1990s, rising to about 25% in the mid-2000s. Low scores (1–3) for Enjoyment were given by 15% of qualifiers of 1996, falling to 5% by 2008; corresponding figures for Leisure were 42% and 19%. At 5 years, the corresponding figures were 6% and 4%, and 23% and 17%. Enjoyment and Leisure were scored higher by general practitioners than doctors in other specialties. Both measures varied little by sex, ethnicity or medical school attended. Conclusions Scores for Enjoyment were generally high; those for Leisure were lower. Policy initiatives should address why this aspect of satisfaction is low, particularly in the first year after graduation but also among hospital doctors 5 years after graduation. PMID:26783328

  15. Pole-to-pole validation of GOME WFDOAS total ozone with groundbased data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M.; Lamsal, L. N.; Coldewey-Egbers, M.; Bramstedt, K.; Burrows, J. P.

    2005-06-01

    This paper summarises the validation of GOME total ozone retrieved using the Weighting Function Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (WFDOAS) algorithm Version 1.0. This algorithm has been described in detail in a companion paper by Coldewey-Egbers et al. (2005). Compared to the operational GDP (GOME Data Processor) V3, several improvements to the total ozone retrieval have been introduced that account for the varying ozone dependent contribution to rotational Raman scattering, includes a new cloud scheme, and uses the GOME measured effective albedo in the retrieval. In this paper the WFDOAS results have been compared with selected ground-based measurements from the WOUDC (World Ozone and UV Radiation Data Centre) that collects total ozone measurements from a global network of stations covering all seasons. From the global validation excellent agreement between WFDOAS and ground data was observed. The agreement lies within ±1%, and very little seasonal variations in the differences are found. In the polar regions and at high solar zenith angles, however, a positive bias varying between 5 and 8% is found near the polar night period. As a function of solar zenith angle as well as of the retrieved total ozone, the WFDOAS differences to ground polar data, however, show a much weaker dependence as compared to the operational GOME Data Processor Version 3 of GOME that represents a significant improvement. Very few stations carry out simultaneous measurements by Brewer and Dobson spectrometers over an extended period (three years or more). Simultaneous Brewer and Dobson measurements from Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic (50.2N, 15.8E) and Hohenpeissenberg, Germany (47.8N, 11.0E) covering the period 1996-1999 have been compared with our GOME results. Agreement with Brewers are generally better than with the simultaneous Dobson measurements and this may be explained by the neglect of stratospheric (ozone) temperature correction in the standard ozone retrieval from

  16. Naturally occurring radioactivity in some Swedish concretes and their constituents - Assessment by using I-index and dose-model.

    PubMed

    Döse, M; Silfwerbrand, J; Jelinek, C; Trägårdh, J; Isaksson, M

    2016-05-01

    The reference level for effective dose due to gamma radiation from building materials and construction products used for dwellings is set to 1 mSv per year (EC, 1996, 1999), (CE, 2014). Given the specific conditions presented by the EC in report 112 (1999) considering building and construction materials, an I-index of 1 may generate an effective dose of 1 mSv per year. This paper presents a comparison of the activity concentrations of (4)(0)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th of aggregates and when these aggregates constitute a part of concrete. The activity concentration assessment tool for building and construction materials, the I-index, introduced by the EC in 1996, is used in the comparison. A comparison of the I-indices values are also made with a recently presented dose model by Hoffman (2014), where density variations of the construction material and thickness of the construction walls within the building are considered. There was a ∼16-19% lower activity index in concretes than in the corresponding aggregates. The model by Hoffman further implies that the differences between the I-indices of aggregates and the concretes' final effective doses are even larger. The difference is due, mainly to a dilution effect of the added cement with low levels of natural radioisotopes, but also to a different and slightly higher subtracted background value (terrestrial value) used in the modeled calculation of the revised I-index by Hoffman (2014). Only very minimal contributions to the annual dose could be related to the water and additives used, due to their very low content of radionuclides reported. PMID:26942843

  17. Immunoassay and Nb2 lymphoma bioassay prolactin levels and mammographic density in premenopausal and postmenopausal women the Nurses' Health Studies.

    PubMed

    Rice, Megan S; Tworoger, Shelley S; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Hankinson, Susan E; Rosner, Bernard A; Feeney, Yvonne B; Clevenger, Charles V; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2015-01-01

    Higher circulating prolactin levels have been associated with higher percent mammographic density among postmenopausal women in some, but not all studies. However, few studies have examined associations with dense area and non-dense breast area breast or considered associations with prolactin Nb2 lymphoma cell bioassay levels. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1,124 premenopausal and 890 postmenopausal women who were controls in breast cancer case-control studies nested in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII. Participants provided blood samples in 1989-1990 (NHS) or 1996-1999 (NHSII) and mammograms were obtained from around the time of blood draw. Multivariable linear models were used to assess the associations between prolactin levels (measured by immunoassay or bioassay) with percent density, dense area, and non-dense area. Among 1,124 premenopausal women, percent density, dense area, and non-dense area were not associated with prolactin immunoassay levels in multivariable models (p trends = 0.10, 0.18, and 0.69, respectively). Among 890 postmenopausal women, those with prolactin immunoassay levels in the highest versus lowest quartile had modestly, though significantly, higher percent density (difference = 3.01 percentage points, 95 % CI 0.22, 5.80) as well as lower non-dense area (p trend = 0.02). Among women with both immunoassay and bioassay levels, there were no consistent differences in the associations with percent density between bioassay and immunoassay levels. Postmenopausal women with prolactin immunoassay levels in the highest quartile had significantly higher percent density as well as lower non-dense area compared to those in the lowest quartile. Future studies should examine the underlying biologic mechanisms, particularly for non-dense area. PMID:25503962

  18. A prospective study of insulin-like growth factor 1, its binding protein 3, and risk of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Mu, Fan; Hankinson, Susan E; Schernhammer, Eva; Pollak, Michael N; Missmer, Stacey A

    2015-07-15

    Several retrospective case-control studies suggested that insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) or insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) was associated with endometriosis. However, results are inconsistent and no prospective study exists. We prospectively evaluated associations between plasma levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 and laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis in a case-control study nested within the Nurses' Health Study II. Between blood collections in 1996-1999 and 2007, we ascertained 310 premenopausal women with incident endometriosis and 615 matched controls. We estimated incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals using multivariable conditional logistic regression. We observed no statistically significant associations between endometriosis and IGF-1 (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.61, 1.27; Ptrend = 0.48), IGFBP-3 (IRR = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.80, 1.57; Ptrend = 0.51), and the IGF-1:IGFBP-3 molar ratio (IRR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.66, 1.34; Ptrend = 0.64), comparing the top with the bottom tertile. IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and the molar ratio appeared to be positively associated with endometriosis risk among women aged <40 years at blood draw (IGF-1: IRR = 1.60, 95% CI: 0.86, 2.98; IGFBP-3: IRR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.08, 3.16; IGF-1:IGFBP-3: IRR = 1.57, 95% CI: 0.85, 2.88) but not among women aged ≥40 years at blood draw (all Pheterogeneity ≤ 0.05). Overall, these data suggest that, if IGF-1 or IGFBP-3 plays a role in the etiology of endometriosis, it is minimal and perhaps only among younger women. PMID:26121987

  19. Who Enrolls Onto Clinical Oncology Trials? A Radiation Patterns of Care Study Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Movsas, Benjamin . E-mail: bmovsas1@hfhs.org; Moughan, Jennifer; Owen, Jean; Coia, Lawrence R.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Hanks, Gerald; Wilson, J. Frank

    2007-07-15

    Purpose: To identify factors significantly influencing accrual to clinical protocols by analyzing radiation Patterns of Care Study (PCS) surveys of 3,047 randomly selected radiotherapy (RT) patients. Methods and Materials: Patterns of Care Study surveys from disease sites studied for the periods 1992-1994 and 1996-1999 (breast cancer, n = 1,080; prostate cancer, n = 1,149; esophageal cancer, n = 818) were analyzed. The PCS is a National Cancer Institute-funded national survey of randomly selected RT institutions in the United States. Patients with nonmetastatic disease who received RT as definitive or adjuvant therapy were randomly selected from eligible patients at each institution. To determine national estimates, individual patient records were weighted by the relative contribution of each institution and patients within each institution. Data regarding participation in clinical trials were recorded. The factors age, gender, race, type of insurance, and practice type of treating institution (academic or not) were studied by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Overall, only 2.7% of all patients were accrued to clinical protocols. Of these, 57% were enrolled on institutional review board-approved institutional trials, and 43% on National Cancer Institute collaborative group studies. On multivariate analysis, patients treated at academic facilities (p = 0.0001) and white patients (vs. African Americans, p = 0.0002) were significantly more likely to participate in clinical oncology trials. Age, gender, type of cancer, and type of insurance were not predictive. Conclusions: Practice type and race significantly influence enrollment onto clinical oncology trials. This suggests that increased communication and education regarding protocols, particularly focusing on physicians in nonacademic settings and minority patients, will be essential to enhance accrual.

  20. The third space: The use of self-study to examine the culture of a science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, Dashia M.

    Science educators are in the position to create bridges between their students and the world of science (Aikenhead, 1996, 1999). This connection has often been described as the third space (Bhabha, 1994; Moje, Collazo, Carrillo, & Marx, 2001; Wallace, 2004), which is represented as a combination or a meeting of the students' world and the world of science. In this study, I examined my role in creating the third space through the use of self-study. Self-study is a form of research, educators use to understand their practice (Austin & Senese, 2004; Loughran, 2004; Northfield & Loughran, 1996). It is a means of describing, analyzing, and interpreting a teacher's actions within his or her classroom (Tidwell, 2002). The focal point of this self-study is to understand my actions found within my past and present teaching experiences and the underlying beliefs that are expressed through those actions. In this self-study, I collected data from my life history, classroom observations, and member check interview. My life history described my influences that shaped my philosophy of teaching and learning, while the classroom observations provided a means of understanding my interactions with the science curriculum and my English Language Learner (ELL) students. And finally, a member check focus group interview occurred to confirm the results occurring in the classroom observations. Once the data were collected, I used grounded theory methods to analyze my results and answer the research questions. This self-study became the means of exploring my philosophy of teaching and learning and my teaching practices as they occurred in an ELL science classroom. I examined my own practice through a comparison between my past experiences and my current teaching situation and through this exploration, I identified my actions and the beliefs associated with those actions as they informed my teaching practices.

  1. The dynamics of grey seals ( Halichoerus grypus) off Amrum in the south-eastern North Sea — evidence of an open population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, Kai F.; Hoyer, Nils; Koch, Lothar; Adelung, Dieter

    2002-02-01

    Grey seals ( Halichoerus grypus) have been extinct in the south-eastern North Sea for centuries. Only in recent decades have they re-established a few colonies, the first of which was located on a group of sand bars off the German island of Amrum. Based on frequent counts from aircraft and boats in 1976-2000, and a photo-identification program in 1997, we investigated seasonal dynamics, trends in abundance, pup production, and pup survival in this population. Numbers of hauled-out seals were highest in spring, with a peak of 70-100 in late March or early April, and usually lower than 40 from late May to late January, including the winter breeding season. Both spring and summer counts indicated an average increase of 4-5% per year. Annual pup production was 3-10 in 1988-1995 and 9-13 in 1996-1999, suggesting a breeding stock of only about half the minimum total population size, i.e. 137 individually recognised seals in 1997. The estimated survival of pups until weaning seemed high enough to support autochthonous increase, and hence suggested a self-sustaining breeding stock at least until the late 1990s. Pup survival declined, however, from 95-100% in 1988-1991 to 60-70% in 1992-1999, probably due to erosion of the sand bars. From (i) the relative excess of hauled-out seals in spring, as compared to the phenology of stocks in the western North Sea, (ii) turnover and net loss of individuals during the spring and summer of 1997, as indicated by photo-ID records, and (iii) the low apparent per capita birth rate, we suggest that grey seals off Amrum split into a resident breeding stock and a similar or higher number of seals immigrating outside the breeding season. The latter may originate from larger colonies in the southern and western North Sea, and return there for breeding. In the future, grey seals currently breeding off Amrum may eventually leave the area because of deteriorating conditions. However, a decline of numbers occurring in spring and summer would not

  2. Dust Activity during Winter Time in East Asia and Snowfall Obervations and Simulations in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, L.

    2013-12-01

    Taiwan has relatively frequent snowfall in mountain during winter among regions of the same latitude. The phenomenon is contributed by Taiwan's unique topography - high and steep mountains, and geographical location - sitting on the route the continental polar air mass travels from its birthplace to the ocean, contribute to this phenomenon. Snow occurence, in addition to the freezing-point temperature, when two requirements are met: sufficient vapor and the condensation nuclei in the air. This study pursues the causes of the snowfall activity in Taiwan, the relations between the East Asian dust aerosol and the snowfall activity in Taiwan, and the impacts the climate changes have on the snowfall activity in Taiwan. In this study, Yushan snowfall activity from 1995~2011 and related atmosphere circulations were examined using SYNOP data, NCEP/DOE reanalysis atmospheric data, the observations of the Central Weather Bureau's Yushan Weather Station and the Taiwan Air Quality Monitoring Network of the Environment Protect Administration, Executive Yuan. To provide a quantitative measure of snowfall events and dust activity, a snowfall activity index (SAI) and the DAI Index by Yu et al. (2010) were defined. The time series of yearly SAI and DAI show that East Asian dust storm activity and Taiwan snowfall marked interannual variations during 1995 ~ 2011. For active years such as 2008, 2010, and 2011, SAI was hundreds of times larger than that for inactive years such as 1996, 1999 and 2003; and DAI in active years such as 2001 and 2002 was several tens of times larger than that in inactive years such as 1997 and 2003. In active years when the EAT (East Asian Trough) was shifted eastward, the strength of WPH (West Pacific High) increased in the south and an anticyclone thus occurred. This anticyclone introduced anomalous southwesterly flows along the southeastern coast of mainland China and over Taiwan, resulting in a wetter-than-normal atmosphere in support of snowfall

  3. Cosmic ray energy spectrum around the knee obtained by the Tibet Experiment and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayose, Yusaku

    The measurement of the energy spectrum and the chemical composition of cosmic rays at the 'Knee' energy region have been made in the Tibet-AS experiment since 1990. The 1st phase of the Tibet hybrid experiment(1996-1999) consisted of Tibet II air-shower array(AS), Emulsion Chamber(EC) and burst detector(BD). The EC was used to detect high energy-gamma-families of the energy greater than 20 TeV at the core of ASs of which more than 80% are induced by light nuclei like protons or helium. Due to the high spatial resolution of the EC, proton and helium events were separated from others and we obtained the energy spectrum of each of them using 177 family events. We also obtained all-particle energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays in a wide range from 1014 eV to 1017 eV by the Tibet-III air-shower array. The size spectrum exhibits a sharp knee at a corresponding primary energy around 4 PeV. These results strongly indicated that the fraction of the light component to the all particle spectrum is decreasing around the knee.The observation of the AS core has been continued with upgraded Tibet III array and burst detectors without using X-ray films, which still works as the selector for the air showers induced by light component (pHe). This second phase experiment shows that the dominance of the heavy elements at the knee reported by the first phase experiment is confirmed with higher statistics by one order.Our results suggest that the main component at the knee is heavy elements (heavier than helium) because of the low intensities of observed proton and helium fluxes, whose summed flux are less than 30% of all particles. A new air-shower-core detector(YAC) will be added to the Tibet AS array to explicitly measure the heavy elements around the knee and beyond. In this paper, the results of composition study with the Tibet experiment are summarized and the prospects for the next phase experiment are described.

  4. The emission nebula associated with V1974 Cygni: a unique object?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casalegno, R.; Orio, M.; Mathis, J.; Conselice, C.; Gallagher, J.; Balman, S.; Della Valle, M.; Homeier, N.; Ögelman, H.

    2000-09-01

    Through a program of narrow band imaging, we have observed the changing structure of the Hα emission line around Nova Cyg 1992 (V1974 Cyg) at regular intervals from 1996 to 1999. Between 1994 and 1996, the nebular boundary advanced to the southwest at nearly the speed of light, implying that the nebula was created by an expanding wave of radiation originating in the explosion interacting with surrounding material. The expansion speed dropped to 0.35c during 1996-1999. We have taken spectra of the nebula in 1998 and 1999. Only Balmer lines are detected, no He I, [O III], [O II], [N II], or [S II]. There is also no trace of the high excitation nova lines (He II, NeV, etc). The Balmer lines are unresolved in velocity (FWHM<=100 km s-1). These spectra show that the nebula is not a reflection nebula, a conventional H II region, or a shock involving motions of the gas. The integrated Hα luminosity of the nebula between 1996 and 1999 is in the range =~ 1.3-2.2 x 1035 erg s-1. The Balmer decrement is normal for recombinations of a lightly reddened plasma. The lack of forbidden emission lines can only be understood if the electron temperature is low. This condition results if the energies of the ejected photoelectrons are shared among electrons, protons, and neutrals in a partially ionized medium. The He I lines are suppressed if the flash ionizing spectrum is truncated at or below the He0 ionization edge. The ionized material is on the front face of neutral sheets. The density is poorly determined, but is probably very large ( ~ 104 cm-3) in order to explain the brightest region of the nebula. The dynamical timescale is about a year and the recombination timescale of the same order. Bright patches are observed to fade in these times. The energy required to ionize the nebula is the bolometric luminosity of the nova for 30 days, smaller than the time during which the temperature of the nova photosphere was in the right range to produce the ionizing photons. We have also

  5. Geomagnetic storms link to the mortality rate in the Smolyan region for the period 1988--2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonova, Siyka G. 1; Georgieva, Radostina C. 2; Dimitrova, Boryana H. 2; Slavcheva, Radka G. 2; Kerimova, Bojena P. 2; Georgiev, Tsvetan B. 34

    We present correlations and trends of 10 parameters of annual mortality rate (1 to common mortality rate, 5 to cardiovascular reasons and 4 to "accidental" reasons (car accidents, suicides, infections)) with respect to 6 parameters of annual solar and geomagnetic activity (Wolf index, number of geomagnetic storms, duration of the storms, amplitude of the storms). During the period of observation, characterized by a 3-4-fold decrease of the mean geomagnetic activity (in terms of the number and the duration of the storms) and with a strong variations of the amplitude of the storms (about an almost constant mean values for the period), there is a 1.3-fold decrease in the urban population, a 1.5-fold increase of the common mortality rate, a 1.8-fold increase of the cardiovascular mortality rate and a 1.1-fold decrease of the "accidental" mortality rates. During the years 2003-2005 we observe about 2-fold temporary increase in the storm amplitudes. During the years 2007-2008, characterized by extremely low geomagnetic activity, we observe a surprising temporary increase of the common and the cardiovascular mortality rates 1.1 and 1.3-fold, respectively (Figures 1-4). We point out 3 main results. (1) The available data shows notable increase in the mortality rates while there is generally a decrease of the solar or geomagnetic activity during the studied period (Figures 5-9). We explain this anti-correlation with the domination of the increasing mortality rates as an effect of the advance in the mean age of the population (due to immigration of young people and decrease of new-borns), hiding an eventual display of the solar and geomagnetic influence on the mortality rates. Using this data we can not reveal influence of the long-time (10-20 years) change of the average solar and geomagnetic activity on the mortality rate. (2) Excluding the unusual years 2007 and 2008, we establish that with respect to the years with low geomagnetic activity (1993, 1995, 1996, 1999), in

  6. Different Phases of Earthquake Cycle Reflected in GPS Measured Crustal Deformations along the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazaradze, G.; Klotz, J.

    2001-12-01

    The South American Geodynamic Activities (SAGA) project was initiated in 1993 by the GeoForschungsZentrum together with host organizations in Argentina and Chile with the main objective of studying the kinematics and dynamics of present-day deformation processes along the central and southern Andes. Currently the SAGA network consists of 230 geodetic markers spanning more than 2000 km long distance from Peru/Chile border in the north to Cape Horn in the south. The majority of the observed crustal deformation field is relatively homogenous: roughly parallel to the plate convergence direction and decreasing in magnitude away from the deformation front. This pattern is characteristic for the \\textit{inter-seismic} phase of earthquake deformation cycle and can be explained by the elastic strain accumulation due to locking of the thrust interface between the subducting Nazca and the overriding South America plates. However, in addition to the dominant inter-seismic signal, close examination of the observed velocity field also reveals significant spatial and temporal variations, contrary to the commonly used assumption of constant deformation rates. This variation is especially pronounced for the measurements in the vicinity of the 1995 Mw8.0 Antofagasta earthquake (22{° }S-26{° }S). Here, after capturing up to 1 meters of \\textit{co-seismic} displacements associated with this event, the analysis of data obtained during the three following field campaigns (1996-1999), reveals highly time dependent deformation pattern. This can be explained by the decreasing importance of \\textit{post-seismic} effects of the Antofagasta event relative to the increasing dominance of the inter-seismic phase of subduction. Perhaps, even more interesting time dependent observations have been detected in the southern part the SAGA network (38{° }S-43{° }S).Here, after 35 years of the occurrence of the 1960 Mw9.5 Chile earthquake, we still see the continuing post-seismic effects of this

  7. Analyzing spatial clustering and the spatiotemporal nature and trends of HIV/AIDS prevalence using GIS: the case of Malawi, 1994-2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although local spatiotemporal analysis can improve understanding of geographic variation of the HIV epidemic, its drivers, and the search for targeted interventions, it is limited in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite recent declines, Malawi’s estimated 10.0% HIV prevalence (2011) remained among the highest globally. Using data on pregnant women in Malawi, this study 1) examines spatiotemporal trends in HIV prevalence 1994-2010, and 2) for 2010, identifies and maps the spatial variation/clustering of factors associated with HIV prevalence at district level. Methods Inverse distance weighting was used within ArcGIS Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software to generate continuous surfaces of HIV prevalence from point data (1994, 1996, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, and 2010) obtained from surveillance antenatal clinics. From the surfaces prevalence estimates were extracted at district level and the results mapped nationally. Spatial dependency (autocorrelation) and clustering of HIV prevalence were also analyzed. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with HIV prevalence for 2010 and their spatial variation/clustering mapped and compared to HIV clustering. Results Analysis revealed wide spatial variation in HIV prevalence at regional, urban/rural, district and sub-district levels. However, prevalence was spatially leveling out within and across ‘sub-epidemics’ while declining significantly after 1999. Prevalence exhibited statistically significant spatial dependence nationally following initial (1995-1999) localized, patchy low/high patterns as the epidemic spread rapidly. Locally, HIV “hotspots” clustered among eleven southern districts/cities while a “coldspot” captured configurations of six central region districts. Preliminary multiple regression of 2010 HIV prevalence produced a model with four significant explanatory factors (adjusted R2 = 0.688): mean distance to main roads, mean travel time

  8. Cruise report; RV Coastal Surveyor Cruise C1-99; multibeam mapping of the Long Beach, California continental shelf; April 12 through May 19, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, James V.; Hughes-Clarke, John E.; Mayer, Larry A.

    1999-01-01

    The greater Los Angeles area of California is home to more than 10 million people. This large population puts increased pressure on the adjacent offshore continental shelf and margin with activities such as ocean disposal for dredged spoils, explosive disposal, waste-water outfall, and commercial fishing. The increased utilization of the shelf and margin in this area has generated accelerated multi-disciplinary research efforts in all aspects of the environment of the coastal zone. Prior to 1996 there were no highly accurate base maps of the continental shelf and slope upon which the research activities could be located and monitored. In 1996, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Pacific Seafloor Mapping Project began to address this problem by mapping the Santa Monica shelf and margin (Fig. 1) using a state-of-the-art, high-resolution multibeam sonar system (Gardner, et al., 1996; 1999). Additional seafloor mapping in 1998 provided coverage of the continental margin from south of Newport to the proximal San Pedro Basin northwest of Palos Verdes Peninsula (Gardner, et al., 1998) (Fig. 1). The mapping of the seafloor in the greater Los Angeles continental shelf and margin was completed with a 30-day mapping of the Long Beach shelf in April and May 1999, the subject of this report. The objective of Cruise C-1-99-SC was to completely map the broad continental shelf from the eastern end of the Palos Verdes Peninsula to the narrow shelf south of Newport Beach, from the break in slope at about 120-m isobath to the inner shelf at about the 10-m isobath. Mapping the Long Beach shelf was jointly funded by the U.S. Geological Survey and the County of Orange (CA) Sanitation District and was conducted under a Cooperative Agreement with the Ocean Mapping Group from the University of New Brunswick (OMG/UNB). The OMG/UNB contracted with C&C Technologies, Inc. of Lafayette, LA for use of the RV Coastal Surveyor and the latest evolution of high-resolution multibeam sonars, a

  9. Geomorphic Analysis Supporting Restoration of the Walker River, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauer, J. W.; Echterling, C.; Majerova, M.; Wilcock, P.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural water diversions have degraded the Walker River, Nevada, and have led to a reduction of water level at its terminus, Walker Lake. The geomorphic response of the river to water reallocation is an important issue associated with restoration of the system. To address this issue, we performed a geomorphic assessment of the portions of the river passing through the two main agricultural valleys in the watershed, Smith and Mason Valleys, Nevada. The project involved field data collection, analysis of remotely sensed data, and numerical modeling. Fieldwork focused primarily on characterizing bed and bank sediment grain size distributions and on delineating geomorphically similar reaches. The remote sensing analysis used LiDAR and air photograph mosaics from 1938, 1950, 1996, 1999, and 2006 to quantify historic changes in the active channel geometry and to identify banks that represent potential sediment sources or sinks. Polygons representing in-channel features (here defined as the scoured region between vegetation lines) were delineated by hand on each photograph. Channel centerlines were then derived from this data set and were used to identify locations of active channel movement by measuring either direct centerline offsets or local sinuosity increase rates. Both active bar area and channel migration were focused on reaches near the head of each agricultural valley, where slope decreases as the channel emerges from an upstream bedrock-controlled canyon. These same reaches also experienced large increases in width during the 1997 flood of record. The gage record shows that attenuation of this flood was most pronounced in the lower of the two agricultural valleys, Mason Valley. Surprisingly little attenuation occurred in the upstream Smith Valley, despite the relatively low relief of the valley floor, which consists primarily of Pleistocene lake deposits. The major difference between the two valleys is that the meander belt through Smith Valley is incised

  10. Temporal changes (1989-1999) in deep-sea metazoan meiofaunal assemblages on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain, NE Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogeropoulou, V.; Bett, B. J.; Gooday, A. J.; Lampadariou, N.; Martinez Arbizu, P.; Vanreusel, A.

    2010-08-01

    Trends among major metazoan meiofaunal taxa were investigated based on 56 deployments of a multicorer at 10 time points over a period of 11 years (1989-1999) at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain Sustained Observatory site (PAP-SO: 48°50'N 16°30'W, 4850 m depth). This area is characterised by a strong seasonality in the deposition of organic matter to the seafloor and by the massive increase in the density of holothurian species since 1996, the so-called ' Amperima event'. Total meiofaunal densities ranged from 346 to 1074 ind.×10 cm -2 and showed a significant increase with time when time was represented by cruises, years and the ' Amperima period' (1996-1999) vs. the pre- Amperima period (1989-1994). This pattern was driven mainly by the nematodes, which were the dominant taxon (˜90% of total abundance). The third most abundant group, the polychaetes, also increased significantly in abundance over the time series, while the ostracods showed a significant decrease. Most other taxa, including the second-ranked group, the copepods (harpacticoids and nauplii), did not exhibit significant temporal changes in abundance. Ordination of taxon composition showed a shift from the pre- Amperima to the Amperima periods, a trend supported by the significant correlation between the x-ordinate and time. The majority (52-75%) of meiofaunal animals inhabited the top 2 cm of the 5 cm sediment cores analysed. There were significant increases in the proportion of total meiofauna, nematodes and copepods (but not polychaetes) inhabiting the 0-1 cm layer over time (represented by cruises) and between the pre- Amperima and Amperima periods in the case of copepods and polychaetes. During the intensively sampled period (1996-1997), there were indications of seasonal changes in the vertical distribution patterns of total meiofauna and nematodes within the sediment. We discuss the potential link between temporal variations in organic matter flux to the seafloor and meiofaunal populations

  11. Interaction of lightning with power distribution lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mata, Carlos Tomas

    Triggered-lightning experiments were conducted in 1996, 1999, and 2000 to study the responses of overhead power distribution lines to lightning at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, Florida. The lightning was artificially initiated (triggered) from natural thunderclouds using the rocket-and-wire technique, and its current was directed to a phase conductor at midspan or at a pole near the center of the line. Experimental results and associated EMTP modeling are presented in this dissertation for the following line configurations: (1)a two-conductor, 740-m overhead distribution line with 2 arrester stations in 1996; (2)a four- conductor, 245-m overhead distribution line with 2 arrester stations in 1999; and (3)a four-conductor, 829-m overhead distribution line with 6 arrester stations in 2000. The three-phase lines tested in 1999 and 2000 were standard designs of a major Florida power company. Lightning peak currents injected into the lines ranged from 7 to 57 kA. Voltages and currents were measured at various locations along the line. Video and photographic cameras were used to image lightning channels and detect line flashovers. The significant results of the research are (1)flashovers between conductors were observed, both accompanied and not accompanied by arrester failures, (2)an arrester failed on seven of eight direct lightning strikes to the line in 2000, (3)arcing between conductors may prevent failures of arresters connected to the struck phase, (4)the bulk of the lightning current flows from the struck phase to neutral through the arresters closest to the strike point, (5)the withstand energy of the arresters can be exceeded due to the contribution from multiple strokes and/or relatively low-level, long-lasting current components, (6)the distribution of charge transferred to ground among multiple neutral grounds, which is determined by low-frequency, low-current grounding resistances is different from the

  12. Columnar characteristics of aerosols by spectroradiometer measurements in the maritime area of the Cadiz Gulf (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergaz, Ricardo; Cachorro, Victoria E.; de Frutos, Ángel M.; Vilaplana, José M.; de La Morena, Benito A.

    2005-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosol characteristics represented by the spectral aerosol optical depth AOD) and the Ångström turbidity parameter were determined in the coastal area of the Gulf of Cádiz, (southwest of Spain). The columnar aerosol properties presented here correspond to the 1996-1999 period, and were obtained by solar direct irradiance measurements carried out by a Licor1800 spectroradiometer. The performance of this type of medium-spectral resolution radiometric system is analysed over the measured period. The detailed spectral information of these irradiance measurements enabled the use of selected non-absorption gases spectral windows to determine the columnar spectral AOD that was modelled by Ångström formula to obtain the coefficient. Temporal evolutions of instantaneous values together with a general statistical analysis represented by seasonal values, frequency distributions and some representative correlations for the AOD and the derived Ångström coefficient gave us the first insight of aerosol characteristics in this coastal area. Special attention was paid to the analysis of these aerosol properties at the nominal wavelengths of 440 nm, 670 nm, 870 nm and 1020 nm for the near-future comparisons with the Cimel sun-photometer data. However, taking the most representative aerosol wavelength of 500 nm, the variability of the AOD ranges from 0.005 to 0.53, with a mean of 0.12 (s.d = 0.07) and that of the parameter is given by a mean value of 0.93 (s.d. = 0.58) falling inside the range of marine aerosols. A quantitative discrimination of aerosol types was conducted on the basis of the spectral aerosol properties and air mass back trajectory analysis, which resulted in a mixed type because of the specificity of this area, given by very frequent desert dust episodes, continental and polluted local influences. This study represents the first extended data characterization about columnar properties of aerosols in Spain which has been continued by Cimel

  13. The seasonal cycle revisited: interannual variation and ecosystem consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, Douglas F.; Mackas, David L.; McKinnell, Stewart M.

    The annual seasonal cycle accounts for much of the total temporal variability of mid- and high-latitude marine ecosystems. Although the general pattern of the seasons repeats each year, climatic variability of the atmosphere and the ocean produce detectable changes in intensity and onset timing. We use a combination of time series data from oceanographic, zooplankton and seabird breeding data to ask if and how these variations in the timing of the spring growing season affect marine populations. For the physical environment, we develop an annual index of spring timing by fitting a non-linear 2-parameter periodic function to the average weekly SST data observed in British Columbia from 1 January to the end of August each year. For each year, the phase parameter describes the timing of seasonal warming (the timing index) and the amplitude parameter describes the magnitude of the temperature increase between the fitted winter minimum and summer maximum. For the zooplankton, which have annual and strongly synchronous cycles of biomass, productivity, and developmental sequence, we use copepodite stage composition to index the timing of the annual maximum. For seabirds, we examine (1975-1999) the timing of hatching, nestling growth performance, and diet for four species of alcids at Triangle Island, British Columbia's largest seabird colony and the world's largest population of the planktivorous Cassin's auklet. Temperature, zooplankton, and seabirds have all shown recent decadal trends toward ‘earlier spring’, but the magnitudes of the timing perturbations have differed from variable to variable and from year to year. Recent (1996-1999) extreme interannual variation in spring timing and April SST helped to facilitate a mechanistic investigation of oceanographic features that affect the reproductive performance of seabirds. Our results demonstrate a significant negative relationship between the annual spring timing index (and April mean SST) and nestling growth rates

  14. Land subsidence monitoring in central Taiwan by using PS-InSAR technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, J.-C.; Tung, H.; Huang, M.-H.

    2009-04-01

    Ground subsidence induced by heavy withdrawal of underground water has resulted in environmental hazard and potential risk in Taiwan, particularly in the Choushui River alluvial fan where the Yunlin section of the Taiwan High Speed Rail had been constructed. The Yunlin County located in the southwestern coastal region of Taiwan is one of the most counties with serious land subsidence because of the agricultural needs. Yunlin County is one of the important agricultural production regions located in the southwestern coastal region of Taiwan where the irrigated area is up to 123,000 hectares and agricultural water consumption reaches approximate 90 percents of all available water resources in the Choshui River Basin. Moreover, since there is no sufficient surface water supplied, groundwater becomes a vital resource for every water consumption targets. Seasonal effects of land subsidence occurring in the study area had been estimated using a regression analysis of a series of weekly GPS height solutions. These results demonstrated the average rate of ground subsidence in this area over the period of 1995-2001 was 3 cm/yr. Based on data collected at the piezometer, the variation of land subsidence rate appears to be associated with an unstable underground water level, which drop gradually during winter and either remains constant or rises during summer time. Consequently, land subsidence rates vary considerably from 1.5 cm/yr for the summer time to 9.0 cm/yr for the winter time. In addition, anthropogenic ground subsidence due to massive pumping of groundwater is one of problems in Taiwan. In this study, we represented a both stacking D-InSAR and PS-InSAR results deduced from 1996-1999 time spans for monitoring of land subsidence in this area. Both D-InSAR and PS-InSAR results show the Baojhou, Tuku Township and northern Mailiao reveal a maximum subsidence rate of about 6 cm/yr along LOS and the Taishi Township located on the coastal area reveals a subsidence rate of 1

  15. Historical gaseous and primary aerosol emissions in the United States from 1990-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, J.; Pleim, J.; Mathur, R.; Pouliot, G.; Hogrefe, C.; Gan, C.-M.; Wei, C.

    2012-11-01

    An accurate description of emissions is crucial for model simulations to reproduce and interpret observed phenomena over extended time periods. In this study, we used an approach based on activity data to develop a consistent series of spatially resolved emissions in the United States from 1990 to 2010. The state-level anthropogenic emissions of SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, NH3, PM10 and PM2.5 for a total of 49 sectors were estimated based on several long-term databases containing information about activities and emission controls. Activity data for energy-related stationary sources were derived from the State Energy Data System. Corresponding emission factors reflecting implemented emission controls were calculated back from the National Emission Inventory (NEI) for seven years (i.e. 1990, 1995, 1996, 1999, 2001, 2002 and 2005), and constrained by the AP-42 (US EPA's Compilation of Air Pollutant Emissions Factors) dataset. Activity data for mobile sources including different types of highway vehicles and non-highway equipments were obtained from highway statistics reported by the Federal Highway Administration. The trends in emission factors for highway mobile source were informed by the 2011 National Transportation Statistics. Emissions for all non-energy related sources were either scaled by the growth ratio of activity indicators or adjusted based on the NEI trends report. Because of the strengthened control efforts, particularly for the power sector and mobile sources, emissions of all pollutants except NH3 were reduced by half over the last two decades. The emission trends developed in this study are comparable with the NEI trend report and EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research) data, but better constrained by trends in activity data. Reductions in SO2 and NOx emissions agree well with the observed changes in ambient SO2 and NO2 concentrations, suggesting that the various controls on SO2 and NOx emissions implemented over the last two decades are

  16. Historical gaseous and primary aerosol emissions in the United States from 1990 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, J.; Pleim, J.; Mathur, R.; Pouliot, G.; Hogrefe, C.; Gan, C.-M.; Wei, C.

    2013-08-01

    An accurate description of emissions is crucial for model simulations to reproduce and interpret observed phenomena over extended time periods. In this study, we used an approach based on activity data to develop a consistent series of spatially resolved emissions in the United States from 1990 to 2010. The state-level anthropogenic emissions of SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds), NH3, PM10 and PM2.5 for a total of 49 sectors were estimated based on several long-term databases containing information about activities and emission controls. Activity data for energy-related stationary sources were derived from the State Energy Data System. Corresponding emission factors reflecting implemented emission controls were calculated back from the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) for seven years (i.e., 1990, 1995, 1996, 1999, 2001, 2002 and 2005), and constrained by the AP-42 (US EPA's Compilation of Air Pollutant Emissions Factors) dataset. Activity data for mobile sources including different types of highway vehicles and non-highway equipment were obtained from highway statistics reported by the Federal Highway Administration. The trends in emission factors for highway mobile source were informed by the 2011 National Transportation Statistics. Emissions for all non-energy-related sources were either scaled by the growth ratio of activity indicators or adjusted based on the NEI trends report. Because of the strengthened control efforts, particularly for the power sector and mobile sources, emissions of all pollutants except NH3 were reduced by half over the last two decades. The emission trends developed in this study are comparable with the NEI trend report and EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research) data, but better constrained by trends in activity data. Reductions in SO2, NOx, CO and EC (speciation of PM2.5 by SMOKE, Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions) emissions agree well with the observed changes in ambient SO2, NO2

  17. The impact of private use of PCV7 in 2009 and 2010 on serotypes and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae carried by young children in Portugal: Comparison with data obtained since 1996 generating a 15-year study prior to PCV13 introduction.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Sónia; Félix, Sofia; Valente, Carina; Simões, Alexandra S; Tavares, Débora A; Almeida, Sónia T; Paulo, Ana C; Brito-Avô, António; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Sá-Leão, Raquel

    2016-03-29

    In Portugal, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was not introduced in the national immunization plan but was commercially available between 2001 and 2010. We studied serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae carried by children in 2009 and 2010. Vaccination with PCV7 was extracted from children's immunization bulletins and information on recent antimicrobial consumption was obtained through a questionnaire. For comparison, we included data from previous studies conducted since 1996: 1996-1999, 2001-2003, 2006-2007. Pneumococci were isolated from nasopharyngeal samples of 1092 children up to six years old attending day-care in an urban area. Among these, 76% (819/1070) were vaccinated and 62% (677/1092) carried pneumococci. In 2009-2010, serotype replacement was extensive. Carriage of PCV7 serotypes was 4.9% and 5.8%, in 2009 and 2010, respectively, with the majority being of serotype 19F (carried by 4.3% and 4.6% of all participants, respectively). Colonization by serotype 19F was associated with vaccine status (7.7% (19/248) of non-vaccinees vs. 3.5% (29/818) of PCV7-vaccinees, p=0.010). Carriage of serotype 19A was high in 2009 and 2010 (8.6% of all participants) consistent with values already observed in 2007; carriage of serotype 6A was <1% (10/1092), indicating a major decline after 2007 (5.8% or 31/538, p<0.001). Non-vaccine serotypes increased and serotype 6C became the most frequently carried serotype in 2010 (11.2% (54/481)). High-level resistance to penicillin (MIC ≥2mg/L) showed a decreasing trend (p<0.001), whereas resistance to both penicillin and erythromycin increased (p<0.001) and was detected in 15-20% of all isolates in 2009-2010, most of which were non-vaccine serotypes. Antimicrobial use decreased over time (p<0.001). In conclusion, widespread private use of PCV7 has impacted on colonization leading to near elimination of all PCV7 serotypes except for serotype 19F. Antimicrobial consumption

  18. Long term exposure to respirable volcanic ash on Montserrat: a time series simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hincks, T. K.; Aspinall, W. P.; Baxter, P. J.; Searl, A.; Sparks, R. S. J.; Woo, G.

    2006-01-01

    Frequent ash fallout from long-lived eruptions (with active phases greater than 5 years) may lead to local populations experiencing unacceptably high cumulative exposures to respirable particulate matter. Ash from Montserrat has been shown to contain significant levels of cristobalite and other reactive agents that are associated with an increased risk of developing pneumoconiosis (including silicosis) and other long-term health problems. There are a number of difficulties associated with estimating risks in populations due to uncertain and wide ranging individual exposures, change in behaviour with time and the natural variation in individual response. Present estimates of risk in workers and other population groups are simplifications based on a limited number of exposure measurements taken on Montserrat (1996-1999), and exposure-response curves from epidemiological studies of coal workers exposed to siliceous dust. In this paper we present a method for calculating the long-term cumulative exposure to cristobalite from volcanic ash by Monte Carlo simulation. Code has been written to generate synthetic time series for volcanic activity, rainfall, ash deposition and erosion to give daily ash deposit values and cristobalite fraction at a range of locations. The daily mean personal exposure for PM10 and cristobalite is obtained by sampling from a probability distribution, with distribution parameters dependent on occupation, ground deposit depth and daily weather conditions. Output from multiple runs is processed to calculate the exceedance probability for cumulative exposure over a range of occupation types, locations and exposure periods. Results are interpreted in terms of current occupational standards, and epidemiological exposure-response functions for silicosis are applied to quantify the long-term health risk. Assuming continuing volcanic activity, median risk of silicosis (profusion 1/0 or higher) for an average adult after 20 years continuous exposure is

  19. How common problems with estimating surface radiative fluxes impact snow simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapo, K. E.; Lundquist, J. D.; Hinkelman, L. M.

    2012-12-01

    temporal variability such as when using a daily cloud cover fraction. To understand the effect of these systematic errors, we simulated SWE at three study sites using snow models of varying complexity in the representation of snow pack internal energy. Artificial errors, representing the four scenarios above, were created and used to force the snow models in place of the original observations and compared to the original simulations. The models used were the Utah Energy Balance model, which has a skin temperature and a bulk temperature, and the Modular Snow Model, which is a multi-layer model. These models were chosen to demonstrate the interaction of model complexity with different error structures. This study was conducted at three sites with full energy balance observations: the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in Idaho operated by the USDA with a record 25 years long (1983-2008); Umpqua National Forest, Oregon, operated as part of the Demonstration for Ecosystem Management Options during the winters between 1996-1999, and Lake O'Hara, British Columbia, operated as part of the Improved Processes and Parameterization for Prediction in Cold Regions research network over the water year 2008. The results from this study highlight which errors have the most impact on snow modeling and thus where efforts should be concentrated for improving estimates of surface radiative fluxes.

  20. Rehabilitation of living conditions in territories contaminated by the Chernobyl accident: the ETHOS project.

    PubMed

    Lochard, Jacques

    2007-11-01

    The ETHOS Project, supported by the radiation protection research program of the European Commission (EC), was implemented in the mid-1990's with the support of the Belarus authorities as a pilot project to initiate a new approach for the rehabilitation of living conditions in the contaminated territories of the Republic. This initiative followed a series of studies performed in the context of the EC Community of Independent States cooperation program to evaluate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident (1991-1995), which clearly brought to the fore that a salient characteristic of the situation in these territories was the progressive and general loss of control of the population on its daily life. Furthermore, due to the economic difficulties during the years following the breakdown of the USSR, the population was developing private production and, in the absence of know-how and adequate means to control the radiological quality of foodstuffs, the level of internal exposure was rising significantly. The aim of the project was primarily to involve directly the population wishing to stay in the territories in the day-to-day management of the radiological situation with the goal of improving their protection and their living conditions. It was based on clear ethical principles and implemented by an interdisciplinary team of European experts with specific skills in radiation protection, agronomy, social risk management, communication, and cooperation in complex situations, with the support of local authorities and professionals. In a first phase (1996-1999), the ETHOS Project was implemented in a village located in the Stolyn District in the southern part of Belarus. During this phase, a few tens of villagers were involved in a step-by-step evaluation of the local radiological situation to progressively regain control of their daily life. In a second phase (1999-2001), the ETHOS Project was extended to four other localities of the District with the objective to

  1. Constraints on the mechanism of long-term, steady subsidence at Medicine Lake volcano, northern California, from GPS, leveling, and InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poland, Michael; Bürgmann, Roland; Dzurisin, Daniel; Lisowski, Michael; Masterlark, Timothy; Owen, Susan; Fink, Jonathan

    2006-02-01

    Leveling surveys across Medicine Lake volcano (MLV) have documented subsidence that is centered on the summit caldera and decays symmetrically on the flanks of the edifice. Possible mechanisms for this deformation include fluid withdrawal from a subsurface reservoir, cooling/crystallization of subsurface magma, loading by the volcano and dense intrusions, and crustal thinning due to tectonic extension (Dzurisin et al., 1991 [Dzurisin, D., Donnelly-Nolan, J.M., Evans, J.R., Walter, S.R., 1991. Crustal subsidence, seismicity, and structure near Medicine Lake Volcano, California. Journal of Geophysical Research 96, 16, 319-16, 333.]; Dzurisin et al., 2002 [Dzurisin, D., Poland, M.P., Bürgmann, R., 2002. Steady subsidence of Medicine Lake Volcano, Northern California, revealed by repeated leveling surveys. Journal of Geophysical Research 107, 2372, doi:10.1029/2001JB000893.]). InSAR data that approximate vertical displacements are similar to the leveling results; however, vertical deformation data alone are not sufficient to distinguish between source mechanisms. Horizontal displacements from GPS were collected in the Mt. Shasta/MLV region in 1996, 1999, 2000, 2003, and 2004. These results suggest that the region is part of the western Oregon block that is rotating about an Euler pole in eastern Oregon. With this rotation removed, most sites in the network have negligible velocities except for those near MLV caldera. There, measured horizontal velocities are less than predicted from ˜10 km deep point and dislocation sources of volume loss based on the leveling data; therefore volumetric losses simulated by these sources are probably not causing the observed subsidence at MLV. This result demonstrates that elastic models of subsurface volume change can provide misleading results where additional geophysical and geological constraints are unavailable, or if only vertical deformation is known. The deformation source must be capable of causing broad vertical deformation

  2. Spatio-temporal evolution of anthropogenic deformation around Cerro Prieto geothermal field in the Mexicali Valley, B.C., Mexico, between 1993 and 2009 from DInSAR and leveling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarychikhina, Olga; Glowacka, Ewa; Robles, Braulio; Mojarro, Jose

    2014-05-01

    Land subsidence is an environmental hazard which could be caused by withdrawal of large amounts of fluid from beneath the earth's surface. Land subsidence is an issue in several geothermal fields worldwide (e.g., Geysers, USA (Mossop and Segall, 1997), Wairakei-Tauhara, New Zealand (Allis et al., 2009)). Cerro Prieto geothermal field (CPGF), located in the Mexicali Valley, northwest Mexico, is the oldest and largest Mexican geothermal field in operation and has been producing electricity since 1973. The large amount of geothermal fluids extracted to supply steam to the power plants has resulted in considerable deformation in and around the field (e.g. Glowacka et al., 1996, 1999; Carnec and Fabriol, 1999; Sarychikhina et al., 2011). The deformation includes land subsidence and related ground fissuring and faulting. These phenomena have produced severe damages to the local infrastructure such as roads, irrigation canals and other facilities. Detection of land subsidence and monitoring of the spatial and temporal changes of its pattern and magnitude can provide important information about the dynamics of this process and controlling geological structures. The technique of Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) has been demonstrated to be a very effective technique for measuring ground deformation. This study presents an application of DInSAR interferogram stacking technique to investigate the land subsidence in the Mexicali Valley near CPGF. C-band ENVISAR ASAR images acquired between 2003 and 2009 from the ascending (track 306, frame 639) and descending track (track 84, frame 2961), obtained from the European Space Agency (ESA), as part of ESA CAT-1 project (ID - C1P3508), were used. Gamma ISP and DIFF/GEO software packages were used to calculate differential interferograms from SLC data and for differential interferograms stacking (Wegmüller and Werner, 1997). Eight average annual deformation rate maps were generated for 2005 (descending

  3. Constraints on the mechanism of long-term, steady subsidence at Medicine Lake volcano, northern California, from GPS, leveling, and InSAR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, M.; Burgmann, R.; Dzurisin, D.; Lisowski, M.; Masterlark, Timothy; Owen, S.; Fink, J.

    2006-01-01

    Leveling surveys across Medicine Lake volcano (MLV) have documented subsidence that is centered on the summit caldera and decays symmetrically on the flanks of the edifice. Possible mechanisms for this deformation include fluid withdrawal from a subsurface reservoir, cooling/crystallization of subsurface magma, loading by the volcano and dense intrusions, and crustal thinning due to tectonic extension (Dzurisin et al., 1991 [Dzurisin, D., Donnelly-Nolan, J.M., Evans, J.R., Walter, S.R., 1991. Crustal subsidence, seismicity, and structure near Medicine Lake Volcano, California. Journal of Geophysical Research 96, 16, 319-16, 333.]; Dzurisin et al., 2002 [Dzurisin, D., Poland, M.P., Bu??rgmann, R., 2002. Steady subsidence of Medicine Lake Volcano, Northern California, revealed by repeated leveling surveys. Journal of Geophysical Research 107, 2372, doi:10.1029/2001JB000893.]). InSAR data that approximate vertical displacements are similar to the leveling results; however, vertical deformation data alone are not sufficient to distinguish between source mechanisms. Horizontal displacements from GPS were collected in the Mt. Shasta/MLV region in 1996, 1999, 2000, 2003, and 2004. These results suggest that the region is part of the western Oregon block that is rotating about an Euler pole in eastern Oregon. With this rotation removed, most sites in the network have negligible velocities except for those near MLV caldera. There, measured horizontal velocities are less than predicted from ???10 km deep point and dislocation sources of volume loss based on the leveling data; therefore volumetric losses simulated by these sources are probably not causing the observed subsidence at MLV. This result demonstrates that elastic models of subsurface volume change can provide misleading results where additional geophysical and geological constraints are unavailable, or if only vertical deformation is known. The deformation source must be capable of causing broad vertical

  4. Miocene lava flows and domes, cooling fractures, carapace breccia, and avalanche deposits near Goldstone, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buesch, D.

    2013-12-01

    Mapping and petrography of volcanic rocks in western Fort Irwin (FI), California, provide insights into the cooling history of lava flows and domes and the formation of associated carapace breccia and avalanche deposits. The rocks formed on the eastern margin of the 19-16 Ma Eagle Crags volcanic field (Sabin and others, 1994). Lava compositions range from porphyritic olivine basalt to aphyric rhyolite. Basalt flows are 1-5 m thick and <1-2 km long, and sequences 5-50 m thick are traceable for >7 km. Andesite to rhyolite flows are 30-80 m thick and <1-3 km long, and domes have 100-300 m relief and radial length of 0.6-1.2 km. Cooling fractures, identified by occurrence of margins and geometry, are in all lava flows and domes. Similar to a 'rim' (Buesch and others, 1996 & 1999; Buesch, 2006), a 'margin' is a region along a fracture wall with a finer texture or different type of crystallinity or vesicularity compared to rock inward from the fracture. At FI, margins occur on many fractures and typically are 0.5-3 mm wide. They indicate that a fracture formed during initial cooling, before the bulk of the rock crystallized. Planarity and surface roughness are used to analyze fractures (Buesch and others, 1996). Typically at FI, cooling fractures are planar and smooth, and post-cooling fractures are slightly irregular and slightly rough. Typically, plan views of cooling fractures are 5-6 sided in olivine basalt, and 4-sided in andesite to rhyolite. Fracture sets are mostly perpendicular to the original surface of a flow, and some bend toward the interior. Many lava flows and domes have lateral and capping breccias referred to as carapace breccia. Similar breccia also cloaks individual lobes of composite domes. Carapace breccia can grade down into a non-brecciated interior, but in some cases, compositionally similar late-stage flow-banded lava was injected beneath the breccia, Breccia fragments are vitric or crystallized, and many have margins that do not match those of

  5. A bibliography of terrain modeling (geomorphometry), the quantitative representation of topography: supplement 4.0

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pike, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    Terrain modeling, the practice of ground-surface quantification, is an amalgam of Earth science, mathematics, engineering, and computer science. The discipline is known variously as geomorphometry (or simply morphometry), terrain analysis, and quantitative geomorphology. It continues to grow through myriad applications to hydrology, geohazards mapping, tectonics, sea-floor and planetary exploration, and other fields. Dating nominally to the co-founders of academic geography, Alexander von Humboldt (1808, 1817) and Carl Ritter (1826, 1828), the field was revolutionized late in the 20th Century by the computer manipulation of spatial arrays of terrain heights, or digital elevation models (DEMs), which can quantify and portray ground-surface form over large areas (Maune, 2001). Morphometric procedures are implemented routinely by commercial geographic information systems (GIS) as well as specialized software (Harvey and Eash, 1996; Köthe and others, 1996; ESRI, 1997; Drzewiecki et al., 1999; Dikau and Saurer, 1999; Djokic and Maidment, 2000; Wilson and Gallant, 2000; Breuer, 2001; Guth, 2001; Eastman, 2002). The new Earth Surface edition of the Journal of Geophysical Research, specializing in surficial processes, is the latest of many publication venues for terrain modeling. This is the fourth update of a bibliography and introduction to terrain modeling (Pike, 1993, 1995, 1996, 1999) designed to collect the diverse, scattered literature on surface measurement as a resource for the research community. The use of DEMs in science and technology continues to accelerate and diversify (Pike, 2000a). New work appears so frequently that a sampling must suffice to represent the vast literature. This report adds 1636 entries to the 4374 in the four earlier publications1. Forty-eight additional entries correct dead Internet links and other errors found in the prior listings. Chronicling the history of terrain modeling, many entries in this report predate the 1999 supplement

  6. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Recovery Implementation Plan and Schedule; 2005-2010, Technical Report 2004-2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Paul

    2007-03-01

    Kootenai River white sturgeon have been declining for at least 50 years and extinction of the wild population is now imminent (Paragamian et al. 2005). Only 630 adults were estimated to remain in 2002 from a population ten times that size just 20 years ago. Significant recruitment of young sturgeon has not been observed since the early 1970s and consistent annual recruitment has not been seen since the 1950s. The remaining wild population consists of a cohort of large, old fish that is declining by about 9% per year as fish die naturally and are not replaced. At this rate, the wild population will disappear around the year 2040. Numbers have already reached critical low levels where genetic and demographic risks are acute. The Kootenai River White Sturgeon Recovery Team was convened in 1994, provided a draft Recovery Plan in 1996 and the first complete Recovery Plan for Kootenai River white sturgeon in 1999 (USFWS 1996, 1999). The Plan outlined a four part strategy for recovery, including: (1) measures to restore natural recruitment, (2) use of conservation aquaculture to prevent extinction, (3) monitoring survival and recovery, and (4) updating and revising recovery plan criteria and objectives as new information becomes available. Sturgeon recovery efforts are occurring against a backdrop of a broader ecosystem protection and restoration program for the Kootenai River ecosystem. With abundance halving time of approximately 8 years, the Kootenai River white sturgeon population is rapidly dwindling, leaving managers little time to act. Decades of study consistently indicate that recruitment failure occurs between embryo and larval stages. This assertion is based on four key observations. First, almost no recruitment has occurred during the last 30 years. Second, thousands of naturally produced white sturgeon embryos, most viable, have been collected over the past decade, resulting from an estimated 9 to 20 spawning events each year. Third, Kootenai River white