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Sample records for hormone responsive spot

  1. Thyroid hormone responsive protein Spot14 enhances catalysis of fatty acid synthase in lactating mammary epithelium[S

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Michael C.; Wellberg, Elizabeth A.; Lewis, Andrew S.; Terrell, Kristina L.; Merz, Andrea L.; Maluf, N. Karl; Serkova, Natalie J.; Anderson, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone responsive protein Spot 14 has been consistently associated with de novo fatty acid synthesis activity in multiple tissues, including the lactating mammary gland, which synthesizes large quantities of medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) exclusively via FASN. However, the molecular function of Spot14 remains undefined during lactation. Spot14-null mice produce milk deficient in total triglyceride and de novo MCFA that does not sustain optimal neonatal growth. The lactation defect was rescued by provision of a high fat diet to the lactating dam. Transgenic mice overexpressing Spot14 in mammary epithelium produced total milk fat equivalent to controls, but with significantly greater MCFA. Spot14-null dams have no diminution of metabolic gene expression, enzyme protein levels, or intermediate metabolites that accounts for impaired de novo MCFA. When [13C] fatty acid products were quantified in vitro using crude cytosolic lysates, native FASN activity was 1.6-fold greater in control relative to Spot14-null lysates, and add back of Spot14 partially restored activity. Recombinant FASN catalysis increased 1.4-fold and C = 14:0 yield was enhanced 4-fold in vitro following addition of Spot14. These findings implicate Spot14 as a direct protein enhancer of FASN catalysis in the mammary gland during lactation when maximal MCFA production is needed. PMID:24771867

  2. Hormonal control of inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    Farsky, Sandra P.

    1993-01-01

    Almost any stage of inflammatory and immunological responses is affected by hormone actions. This provides the basis for the suggestion that hormones act as modulators of the host reaction against trauma and infection. Specific hormone receptors are detected in the reactive structures in inflamed areas and binding of hormone molecules to such receptors results in the generation of signals that influence cell functions relevant for the development of inflammatory responses. Diversity of hormonal functions accounts for recognized pro- and anti-inflammatory effects exerted by these substances. Most hormone systems are capable of influencing inflammatory events. Insulin and glucocorticoids, however, exert direct regulatory effects at concentrations usually found in plasma. Insulin is endowed with facilitatory actions on vascular reactivity to inflammatory mediators and inflammatory cell functions. Increased concentrations of circulating glucocorticoids at the early stages of inflammation results in downregulation of inflammatory responses. Oestrogens markedly reduce the response to injury in a variety of experimental models. Glucagon and thyroid hormones exert indirect anti-inflammatory effects mediated by the activity of the adrenal cortex. Accordingly, inflammation is not only merely a local response, but a hormone-controlled process. PMID:18475521

  3. Hormonal component of tumor photodynamic therapy response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Merchant, Soroush

    2008-02-01

    The involvement of adrenal glucocorticoid hormones in the response of the treatment of solid tumors by photodynamic therapy (PDT) comes from the induction of acute phase response by this modality. This adrenal gland activity is orchestrated through the engagement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal hormonal axis incited by stress signals emanating from the PDT-treated tumor. Glucocorticoid hormone activity engendered within the context of PDT-induced acute phase response performs multiple important functions; among other involvements they beget acute phase reactant production, systemic neutrophil mobilization, and control the production of inflammation-modulating and immunoregulatory proteins.

  4. Demographic response of northern spotted owls to barred owl removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diller, V. Lowell; Hamm, Keith A; Early, Desiree A; Lamphear, David W; Katie Dugger; Yackulic, Charles B.; Schwarz, Carl J.; Carlson, Peter C.; McDonald, Trent L.

    2016-01-01

    Federally listed as threatened in 1990 primarily because of habitat loss, the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) has continued to decline despite conservation efforts resulting in forested habitat being reserved throughout its range. Recently, there is growing evidence the congeneric invasive barred owl (Strix varia) may be responsible for the continued decline primarily by excluding spotted owls from their preferred habitat. We used a long-term demographic study for spotted owls in coastal northern California as the basis for a pilot barred owl removal experiment. Our demography study used capture–recapture, reproductive output, and territory occupancy data collected from 1990 to 2013 to evaluate trends in vital rates and populations. We used a classic before-after-control-impact (BACI) experimental design to investigate the demographic response of northern spotted owls to the lethal removal of barred owls. According to the best 2-species dynamic occupancy model, there was no evidence of differences in barred or northern spotted owl occupancy prior to the initiation of the treatment (barred owl removal). After treatment, barred owl occupancy was lower in the treated relative to the untreated areas and spotted owl occupancy was higher relative to the untreated areas. Barred owl removal decreased spotted owl territory extinction rates but did not affect territory colonization rates. As a result, spotted owl occupancy increased in the treated area and continued to decline in the untreated areas. Prior to and after barred owl removal, there was no evidence that average fecundity differed on the 2 study areas. However, the greater number of occupied spotted owl sites on the treated areas resulted in greater productivity in the treated areas based on empirical counts of fledged young. Prior to removal, survival was declining at a rate of approximately 0.2% per year for treated and untreated areas. Following treatment, estimated survival was 0.859 for

  5. Hormonal responses in strenuous jumping effort.

    PubMed

    Bosco, C; Tihanyl, J; Rivalta, L; Parlato, G; Tranquilli, C; Pulvirenti, G; Foti, C; Viru, M; Viru, A

    1996-02-01

    In order to test the possibility for rapid responses of blood hormone levels in short-term supramaximal exercises, serum concentrations of corticotropin (ACTH), cortisol (C), total testosterone (tT), free testosterone (fT), growth hormone (GH), thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), prolactin (PRL), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were determined by RIA procedures in blood samples obtained before and immediately after a 60-s period of consecutive vertical jumps (Bosco test). The study subjects were 16 Italian professional soccer players. Immediately after exercise, significant increases (p < 0.05) were found in the concentrations of ACTH (by 39%), C (by 14%), TSH (by 20%), fT3 (by 28%), fT4 (by 30%), tT (by 12%), fT (by 13%), and SHBG (by 21%). Significant changes were not detected in the blood levels of GH, IGF-I and PRL. Most pronounced testosterone responses were typical for persons of high jumping performance (the increase of serum tT correlated with average power output, r = 0.61 and jumping height, r = 0.66). The larger the drop in power output during 60-s jumping, the higher was the thyroid response: the difference in jumping height between the first and last 15-s period correlated with increases in TSH (r = 0.52) and in fT4, (r = 0.55). In conclusion, the obtained results indicate that in intense exercise, causing the rapid development of fatigue, rapid increases in serum levels of hormones of the pituitary-adrenocortical, pituitary-gonadal and pituitary-thyroid systems occur. PMID:8743723

  6. Estrogen mediation of hormone responses to exercise.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Robert R; Francois, Michelle; Castracane, V Daniel

    2012-10-01

    The roles of estrogens extend from the regulation of reproduction to other functions involved in control of metabolism, fluid balance, as well as gastrointestinal, lung, and brain function, with a strong effect on other hormones that subsequently alter the physiology of multiple tissues. As such, alteration of endogenous estrogens across the menstrual cycle, or from oral contraception and estrogen replacement therapy, can affect these tissues. Due to the important effects that estrogens have on different tissues, there are many investigations concerning the effects of a human estrogenic environment on endocrine responses to exercise. The following review will describe the consequences of varying estrogen levels on pituitary, adrenal, gonadal, and endocrine function, followed by discussion of the outcomes of different estrogen levels on endocrine tissues in response to exercise, problems encountered for interpretation of findings, and recommended direction for future research. PMID:22512823

  7. Combined hormonal infusion simulates the metabolic response to injury.

    PubMed Central

    Bessey, P Q; Watters, J M; Aoki, T T; Wilmore, D W

    1984-01-01

    To investigate the role of hormones as mediators of the metabolic response to injury, nine normal male volunteers received a continuous 74-hour infusion of the three 'stress' hormones: cortisol, glucagon, and epinephrine. As a control, each subject received a saline infusion during another 4-day period. Diets were constant and matched on both occasions. Hormonal infusion achieved hormone concentrations similar to those seen following mild-moderate injury. With this alteration in the endocrine environment significant hypermetabolism, negative nitrogen and potassium balances, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, sodium retention, and peripheral leukocytosis were observed. Additional studies with single hormone infusions indicated that these responses resulted from both additive and synergistic interactions of the hormones. Triple hormone infusion simulated many of the metabolic responses observed following mild-moderate injury and other catabolic illnesses. PMID:6431917

  8. [Sex Specificity in Age-Related Thyroid Hormone Responsiveness].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Similar to other systems, the endocrine system is affected by aging. Thyroid hormone, the action of which is affected by many factors, has been shown to be associated with longevity. The most useful marker for assessment of the thyroid hormone action is the TSH level. Although age and sex are believed to modify the pituitary set point or response to the free thyroid hormone concentration, the precise age- and sex-dependent responses to thyroid hormone have yet to be reported. In this lecture, molecular aspects of resistance to thyroid hormone are initially overviewed. After presentation of the evidence that the TSH-thyroid hormone axis is evolutionarily modified, and that negative feedback mechanisms may start to play roles in homeostatic regulation at the time of delivery, the rationale of age-dependent thyroid hormone resistance is introduced. To assess the age- and sex-dependent resistance to thyroid hormone, the index is provided by the formula based on the relationship between thyroid hormone and TSH levels. The index is calculated by the results of thyroid function tests obtained from the two individual clinical groups. From the results, there were negative relationships between the free T3 resistance index and age in males of both groups, while there were no apparent relationships in females. These findings indicate that there is a male-specific response to thyroid hormone with aging. Furthermore, the specific features of the response may not be affected by environmental factors such as the presence of disorders or medical treatments. PMID:27192800

  9. Enzyme Action in the Regulation of Plant Hormone Responses*

    PubMed Central

    Westfall, Corey S.; Muehler, Ashley M.; Jez, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    Plants synthesize a chemically diverse range of hormones that regulate growth, development, and responses to environmental stresses. The major classes of plant hormones are specialized metabolites with exquisitely tailored perception and signaling systems, but equally important are the enzymes that control the dose and exposure to the bioactive forms of these molecules. Here, we review new insights into the role of enzyme families, including the SABATH methyltransferases, the methylesterases, the GH3 acyl acid-amido synthetases, and the hormone peptidyl hydrolases, in controlling the biosynthesis and modifications of plant hormones and how these enzymes contribute to the network of chemical signals responsible for plant growth, development, and environmental adaptation. PMID:23709222

  10. Hormonal Responses to Noncontact Aggression in Convict Cichlid Fish.

    PubMed

    Scarsella, Grace E; Duque, Kevin S; Wong, Stephanie C; Sivaraman, Boopathy; Earley, Ryan L

    2016-03-01

    This study explored whether convict cichlid fish mount a hormonal response to aggressive encounters where dominance status remains unresolved. Hormone samples were collected at two time points before an aggressive interaction to obtain confinement-induced and baseline measures, and at one time point following a contest across a clear partition (experimental) or exposure to an opaque partition with an opponent on the opposite side (control). There was no overall significant effect of treatment (control vs. experimental) on hormone release rates but there were trends for cortisol and testosterone (T). A priori linear contrasts showed that individuals that engaged in aggressive interactions had lower postfight cortisol and T release rates than controls, suggesting that aggression, in this context, might attenuate the synthesis of both hormones. Cortisol decreased significantly between initial confinement and baseline, indicating that individuals habituate to the water-borne hormone collection procedure. Contrary to expectation, individuals with higher baseline T and 11-ketotestosterone (KT) release rates took longer to initiate conflict. None of the other measures of behavior were predicted by baseline hormone release rates, and contest behavior did not predict postfight hormone release rates. There was a significant positive relationship between KT and T at all time points. As with studies that employ mirror image stimulation, we found no hormonal response to unresolved contests despite high levels of aggressive behavior. Our study is unique because we demonstrate that animals engaged in conflict with live opponents also do not mount a significant hormonal response when clear dominance relationships are not established. PMID:27076438

  11. Metabolic and hormonal responses to exercise in partially hepatectomised rats.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, J M; Warren, C; Arcelin, K; Latour, M G; Désy, F; Shinoda, M; Ethier, C; Gascon-Barré, M

    1998-06-01

    To characterise how the liver affects metabolic and hormonal exercise responses, hepatectomised (70%; HX) rats were submitted to a 30- or 50-min treadmill exercise (26 m/min, 0% slope) 48 hr or 7 days after surgery (reduced or normal liver mass, respectively). To determine whether metabolic effects of liver mass reduction during exercise were caused by reduced capacity of the liver to produce glucose, metabolic and hormonal responses to the same exercise protocol were measured in 48-hr HX rats. Euglycemia, maintained by exogenous glucose infusion, produced attenuated lactate, insulin, and glucagon values in 48-hr HX rats but did not affect FFA, glycerol, and plasma catecholamine responses. Results indicate that metabolic and hormonal exercise responses are amplified in 48-hr HX rats. Maintaining euglycemia in 48-hr HX rats during exercise does not reduce all responses. Intrahepatic events, similar to those in a short-term (48-hr) HX liver, may influence metabolic and hormonal exercise responses. PMID:9615872

  12. Hormone-controlled UV-B responses in plants.

    PubMed

    Vanhaelewyn, Lucas; Prinsen, Els; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Vandenbussche, Filip

    2016-08-01

    Ultraviolet B (UV-B) light is a portion of solar radiation that has significant effects on the development and metabolism of plants. Effects of UV-B on plants can be classified into photomorphogenic effects and stress effects. These effects largely rely on the control of, and interactions with, hormonal pathways. The fairly recent discovery of the UV-B-specific photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8) allowed evaluation of the role of downstream hormones, leading to the identification of connections with auxin and gibberellin. Moreover, a substantial overlap between UVR8 and phytochrome responses has been shown, suggesting that part of the responses caused by UVR8 are under PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR control. UV-B effects can also be independent of UVR8, and affect different hormonal pathways. UV-B affects hormonal pathways in various ways: photochemically, affecting biosynthesis, transport, and/or signaling. This review concludes that the effects of UV-B on hormonal regulation can be roughly divided in two: inhibition of growth-promoting hormones; and the enhancement of environmental stress-induced defense hormones. PMID:27401912

  13. Early hormonal changes affect the catabolic response to trauma.

    PubMed Central

    Bessey, P Q; Lowe, K A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to determine how temporary insulin suppression might alter the catabolic effects of cortisol, glucagon, and epinephrine. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The metabolic responses to injury include hypermetabolism, accelerated net skeletal muscle protein breakdown, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. These alterations are associated with increased stress hormone concentrations. Insulin elaboration is usually suppressed immediately after an injury but is abundant later during convalescence. An infusion of hydrocortisone, glucagon, and epinephrine increases both stress hormone concentrations and insulin levels. It induces many of the metabolic alterations seen in critically ill patients, but it does not affect net muscle breakdown. METHODS: Seven healthy adults received a stress hormone infusion for 3 days in two separate studies. During one study they, also received an infusion of the somatostatin analogue, octreotide (0.005 micrograms/kg/min), to suppress insulin elaboration for the first 24 hours. During the other study (control), insulin was permitted to rise unchecked. RESULTS: Stress hormone concentrations, hypermetabolism (+/- 20% above basal), and leukocytosis were similar during both study periods. When insulin elaboration was temporarily suppressed, whole-body nitrogen loss was increased during the first 48 hours, and the efflux of amino acids from the forearm after 72 hours of infusion was 60% greater than the control level. CONCLUSIONS: Temporary insulin suppression during physiologic increases in stress hormone concentrations amplified whole-body nitrogen loss and led to the development of accelerated net skeletal muscle protein breakdown. Early hormonal changes after an injury may affect the development of later catabolic responses. PMID:8215639

  14. Knockdown of the adipokinetic hormone receptor increases feeding frequency in the two-spotted cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Konuma, Takahiro; Morooka, Nobukatsu; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Nagata, Shinji

    2012-07-01

    Adipokinetic hormone (AKH) is a peptide hormone that regulates the nutritional state in insects by supporting the mobilization of lipids. In the present study, we manipulated AKH signaling to evaluate how metabolic state regulates feeding in an orthopteran insect, the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. This was accomplished by RNA interference (RNAi) targeting the receptor gene for AKH [G. bimaculatus AKHR (GrybiAKHR)]. We found that the knockdown of GrybiAKHR by AKHR-double-stranded RNA treatment decreased the levels of 1,2-diacylglycerol and trehalose in the hemolymph, whereas it increased the level of triacylglycerol in the fat body. In addition, the knockdown of GrybiAKHR enhanced starvation resistance and increased food intake. Furthermore, direct observation of GrybiAKHR(RNAi) crickets revealed that the knockdown of GrybiAKHR increased feeding frequency but did not alter meal duration, whereas locomotor activity decreased. The increased frequency of feeding by GrybiAKHR(RNAi) crickets eventually resulted in an increase of food intake. These data demonstrate that the regulation of the metabolic state by AKH signaling affects feeding frequency, probably through nutritional control. PMID:22619358

  15. Signal-Response Modeling of Partial Hormone Feedback Networks

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Michael L.; Veldhuis, Paula P.; Evans, William S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Endocrine feedback control networks are typically complex and contain multiple hormones, pools, and compartments. The hormones themselves commonly interact via multiple pathways and targets within the networks, and a complete description of such relationships may involve hundreds of parameters. In addition, it is often difficult, if not impossible, to collect experimental data pertaining to every component within the network. Therefore, the complete simultaneous analysis of such networks is challenging. Nevertheless, an understanding of these networks is critical for furthering our knowledge of hormonal regulation in both physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions. Methods We propose a novel approach for the analysis of dose-response relationships of subsets of hormonal feedback networks. The algorithm and signal-response quantification (SRQuant) software is based on convolution integrals, and tests whether several discretely measured input signals can be individually delayed, spread in time, transformed, combined, and discretely convolved with an elimination function to predict the time course of the concentration of an output hormone. Signal-response quantification is applied to examples from the endocrine literature to demonstrate its applicability to the analysis of the different endocrine networks. Results In one example, SRQuant determines the dose-response relationship by which one hormone regulates another, highlighting its advantages over other traditional methods. In a second example, for the first time (to the best of our knowledge), we show that the secretion of glucagon may be jointly controlled by the β and the δ cells. Conclusion We have developed a novel convolution integral-based approach, algorithm, and software (SRQuant) for the analysis of dose-response relationships within subsets of complex endocrine feedback control networks. PMID:20046649

  16. Predicting Response to Hormonal Therapy and Survival in Men with Hormone Sensitive Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Grivas, Petros D.; Robins, Diane M.; Hussain, Maha

    2014-01-01

    Androgen deprivation is the cornerstone of the management of metastatic prostate cancer. Despite several decades of clinical experience with this therapy there are no standard predictive biomarkers for response. Although several candidate genetic, hormonal, inflammatory, biochemical, metabolic biomarkers have been suggested as potential predictors of response and outcome, none has been prospectively validated nor has proven clinical utility to date. There is significant heterogeneity in the depth and duration of hormonal response and in the natural history of advanced disease; therefore to better optimize/individualize therapy and for future development, identification of biomarkers is critical. This review summarizes the current data on the role of several candidate biomarkers that have been evaluated in the advanced/metastatic disease setting. PMID:22705096

  17. An acute increase in the stress hormone corticosterone is associated with mating behavior in both male and female red-spotted newts, Notophthalmus viridescens.

    PubMed

    Reedy, Aaron M; Edwards, Alex; Pendlebury, Chloe; Murdaugh, Laura; Avery, Ryan; Seidenberg, Jake; Aspbury, Andrea S; Gabor, Caitlin R

    2014-11-01

    Hormones play key, functional roles in mediating the tradeoff between survival and reproduction. Glucocorticoid hormones can inhibit reproduction and improve chances of survival during periods of stress. However, glucocorticoid hormones are, at times, also associated with successfully engaging in energetically costly courtship and mating behaviors. Corticosterone (CORT), a primary glucocorticoid hormone in amphibians, reptiles and birds, may be important in activating or sustaining energetically costly mating behaviors. We used a non-invasive, water-borne hormone assay to measure CORT release rates of male and female red-spotted newts (Notophthalmus viridescens) collected when either engaged in amplexus or when not engaged in amplexus. Because amplexus is energetically costly for males, we predicted that males would have higher CORT release rates than females. We also predicted that females in amplexus would have elevated CORT release rates because the restraint of amplexus prevents foraging and breathing and may be costly. Here we show that an acute increase in CORT is associated with amplexus behavior in both male and female red-spotted newts. Additionally we demonstrate that males have higher overall CORT release rates both in and out of amplexus than do females. Our results support the hypothesis that glucocorticoid hormones are associated with energetically costly courtship and mating behaviors for both sexes. PMID:25157790

  18. Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  19. Growth hormone responses to growth hormone-releasing hormone in Hand-Schüller-Christian Disease.

    PubMed

    Gelato, M C; Loriaux, D L; Merriam, G R

    1989-09-01

    Bolus doses of GH-releasing hormone (GHRH), 1 microgram/kg i.v., were given to two groups of adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD): 9 with Hand-Schüller-Christian disease (HSCD, presumed hypothalamic GHD) and 9 with idiopathic GHD (IGHD, etiology unknown). Six patients in each group were then given further GHRH doses daily for 5 days, and the GH responses to GHRH were measured over 3 h on day 1 and day 5. Plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) were measured twice daily on days 1 and 5 during GHRH treatment. All patients with HSCD had measurable GH responses to the first dose of GHRH, with a mean peak response of 6.4 +/- 2.1 ng/ml (mean +/- SE). Only 5 of 9 patients with IGHD had GH responses above the detection limits of the assay; their mean peak response, 1.3 +/- 0.2 ng/ml, was significantly lower than the GH responses of the HSCD patients (p less than 0.05). Responses in both groups of patients were lower than those previously observed in normal adult men (35 +/- 8 ng/ml; p less than 0.01). Five days of daily stimulation with GHRH significantly (p less than 0.01) increased the GH response in both groups of patients. The rise was greater in patients with HSCD than with IGHD (HSCD, 5.1 +/- 2.5 ng/ml on day 1, vs. 12.0 +/- 6.8 ng/ml on day 5; IGHD, 1.4 +/- 0.3 ng/ml vs. 2.9 +/- 0.6 ng/ml).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2507952

  20. Quantification of insulin-like growth factor-1 in dried blood spots for detection of growth hormone abuse in sport.

    PubMed

    Cox, Holly D; Rampton, Jessica; Eichner, Daniel

    2013-02-01

    There is significant evidence that athletes are using recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) to enhance performance, and its use is banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency and professional sports leagues. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is the primary mediator of growth hormone action and is used as a biomarker for the detection of rhGH abuse. The current biomarker-based method requires collection and expedited shipment of venous blood which is costly and may decrease the number of tests performed. Measurement of GH biomarkers in dried blood spots (DBS) would considerably simplify sample collection and shipping methods to allow testing of a greater number of samples regardless of location. A method was developed to quantify intact IGF-1 protein in DBS by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A step-wise acid-acetonitrile extraction was optimized to achieve a sensitive assay with a lower limit of quantification of 50 ng/mL. IGF-1 remained stable at room temperature for up to 8 days, which would allow shipment of DBS cards at ambient temperature. In a comparison between plasma concentrations of IGF-1 and concentrations measured from venous and finger prick DBS, there was good correlation and agreement, r(2) of 0.8551 and accuracy of 86-113 % for venous DBS and r(2) of 0.9586 and accuracy of 89-122 % for finger prick DBS. The method is intended for use as a rapid screening method for IGF-1 to be used in the biomarker method of rhGH abuse detection. PMID:23263515

  1. Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation Reduces Brain Response to Reward.

    PubMed

    Macoveanu, Julian; Henningsson, Susanne; Pinborg, Anja; Jensen, Peter; Knudsen, Gitte M; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2016-03-01

    Mood disorders are twice as frequent in women than in men. Risk mechanisms for major depression include adverse responses to acute changes in sex-steroid hormone levels, eg, postpartum in women. Such adverse responses may involve an altered processing of rewards. Here, we examine how women's vulnerability for mood disorders is linked to sex-steroid dynamics by investigating the effects of a pharmacologically induced fluctuation in ovarian sex steroids on the brain response to monetary rewards. In a double-blinded placebo controlled study, healthy women were randomized to receive either placebo or the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) goserelin, which causes a net decrease in sex-steroid levels. Fifty-eight women performed a gambling task while undergoing functional MRI at baseline, during the mid-follicular phase, and again following the intervention. The gambling task enabled us to map regional brain activity related to the magnitude of risk during choice and to monetary reward. The GnRHa intervention caused a net reduction in ovarian sex steroids (estradiol and testosterone) and increased depression symptoms. Compared with placebo, GnRHa reduced amygdala's reactivity to high monetary rewards. There was a positive association between the individual changes in testosterone and changes in bilateral insula response to monetary rewards. Our data provide evidence for the involvement of sex-steroid hormones in reward processing. A blunted amygdala response to rewarding stimuli following a rapid decline in sex-steroid hormones may reflect a reduced engagement in positive experiences. Abnormal reward processing may constitute a neurobiological mechanism by which sex-steroid fluctuations provoke mood disorders in susceptible women. PMID:26245498

  2. Gastric Bypass Reduces Symptoms and Hormonal Responses in Hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsson, Niclas; Börjesson, Joey Lau; Sundbom, Magnus; Wiklund, Urban; Karlsson, F Anders; Eriksson, Jan W

    2016-09-01

    Gastric bypass (GBP) surgery, one of the most common bariatric procedures, induces weight loss and metabolic effects. The mechanisms are not fully understood, but reduced food intake and effects on gastrointestinal hormones are thought to contribute. We recently observed that GBP patients have lowered glucose levels and frequent asymptomatic hypoglycemic episodes. Here, we subjected patients before and after undergoing GBP surgery to hypoglycemia and examined symptoms and hormonal and autonomic nerve responses. Twelve obese patients without diabetes (8 women, mean age 43.1 years [SD 10.8] and BMI 40.6 kg/m(2) [SD 3.1]) were examined before and 23 weeks (range 19-25) after GBP surgery with hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic clamp (stepwise to plasma glucose 2.7 mmol/L). The mean change in Edinburgh Hypoglycemia Score during clamp was attenuated from 10.7 (6.4) before surgery to 5.2 (4.9) after surgery. There were also marked postsurgery reductions in levels of glucagon, cortisol, and catecholamine and the sympathetic nerve responses to hypoglycemia. In addition, growth hormone displayed a delayed response but to a higher peak level. Levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide rose during hypoglycemia but rose less postsurgery compared with presurgery. Thus, GBP surgery causes a resetting of glucose homeostasis, which reduces symptoms and neurohormonal responses to hypoglycemia. Further studies should address the underlying mechanisms as well as their impact on the overall metabolic effects of GBP surgery. PMID:27313315

  3. Hormonal Responses to Active and Passive Recovery After Load Carriage.

    PubMed

    Taipale, Ritva S; Heinaru, Siiri; Nindl, Bradley C; Vaara, Jani P; Santtila, Matti; Häkkinen, Keijo; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2015-11-01

    Military operations often induce fatigue resulting from load carriage. Recovery promotes military readiness. This study investigated the acute effects of AR vs. PR after load carriage on maximal isometric leg extension force (MVC) and serum hormonal concentrations. Male reservists (27 ± 3 years, 180 ± 7 cm, 74 ± 11 kg, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max 64 ± 9 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) completed PR (n = 8) or AR (n = 8) after 50 minutes of loaded (16 kg) uphill (gradient 4.0%) treadmill marching at individual anaerobic threshold. No differences were observed between groups in relative changes in MVC during the marching loading, after AR or PR or the next morning. Significant differences in relative responses to AR and PR postmarching loading were observed in serum testosterone (T), cortisol, and sex-hormone binding globulin immediately post AR and PR; however the next morning, all serum hormone concentrations had returned to normal. This study did not reveal any significant differences between the effects of AR and PR after an hour-long marching protocol at approximately anaerobic threshold on MVC or serum hormones the morning after the experimental marching protocol. Thus, based on the variable measured in this study, marching performed by physically fit army reservists at an intensity at or below anaerobic threshold may not necessitate specialized recovery protocols. PMID:26506179

  4. A transcriptional reference map of defence hormone responses in potato.

    PubMed

    Wiesel, Lea; Davis, Jayne L; Milne, Linda; Redondo Fernandez, Vanesa; Herold, Miriam B; Middlefell Williams, Jill; Morris, Jenny; Hedley, Pete E; Harrower, Brian; Newton, Adrian C; Birch, Paul R J; Gilroy, Eleanor M; Hein, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Phytohormones are involved in diverse aspects of plant life including the regulation of plant growth, development and reproduction, as well as governing biotic and abiotic stress responses. We have generated a comprehensive transcriptional reference map of the early potato responses to exogenous application of the defence hormones abscisic acid, brassinolides (applied as epibrassinolide), ethylene (applied as the ethylene precursor aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid), salicylic acid and jasmonic acid (applied as methyl jasmonate). Of the 39000 predicted genes on the microarray, a total of 2677 and 2473 genes were significantly differentially expressed at 1 h and 6 h after hormone treatment, respectively. Specific marker genes newly identified for the early hormone responses in potato include: a homeodomain 20 transcription factor (DMG400000248) for abscisic acid; a SAUR gene (DMG400016561) induced in epibrassinolide treated plants; an osmotin gene (DMG400003057) specifically enhanced by aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid; a gene weakly similar to AtWRKY40 (DMG402007388) that was induced by salicylic acid; and a jasmonate ZIM-domain protein 1 (DMG400002930) which was specifically activated by methyl jasmonate. An online database has been set up to query the expression patterns of potato genes represented on the microarray that can also incorporate future microarray or RNAseq-based expression studies. PMID:26477733

  5. A transcriptional reference map of defence hormone responses in potato

    PubMed Central

    Wiesel, Lea; Davis, Jayne L.; Milne, Linda; Redondo Fernandez, Vanesa; Herold, Miriam B.; Middlefell Williams, Jill; Morris, Jenny; Hedley, Pete E.; Harrower, Brian; Newton, Adrian C.; Birch, Paul R. J.; Gilroy, Eleanor M.; Hein, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Phytohormones are involved in diverse aspects of plant life including the regulation of plant growth, development and reproduction, as well as governing biotic and abiotic stress responses. We have generated a comprehensive transcriptional reference map of the early potato responses to exogenous application of the defence hormones abscisic acid, brassinolides (applied as epibrassinolide), ethylene (applied as the ethylene precursor aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid), salicylic acid and jasmonic acid (applied as methyl jasmonate). Of the 39000 predicted genes on the microarray, a total of 2677 and 2473 genes were significantly differentially expressed at 1 h and 6 h after hormone treatment, respectively. Specific marker genes newly identified for the early hormone responses in potato include: a homeodomain 20 transcription factor (DMG400000248) for abscisic acid; a SAUR gene (DMG400016561) induced in epibrassinolide treated plants; an osmotin gene (DMG400003057) specifically enhanced by aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid; a gene weakly similar to AtWRKY40 (DMG402007388) that was induced by salicylic acid; and a jasmonate ZIM-domain protein 1 (DMG400002930) which was specifically activated by methyl jasmonate. An online database has been set up to query the expression patterns of potato genes represented on the microarray that can also incorporate future microarray or RNAseq-based expression studies. PMID:26477733

  6. Decreased hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone content and pituitary responsiveness in hypothyroidism.

    PubMed Central

    Katakami, H; Downs, T R; Frohman, L A

    1986-01-01

    The effects of thyroidectomy (Tx) and thyroxine replacement (T4Rx) on pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion and hypothalamic GH-releasing hormone (GRH) concentration were compared to define the mechanism of hypothyroid-associated GH deficiency. Thyroidectomized rats exhibited a complete loss of pulsatile GH secretion with extensive reduction in GRH responsiveness and pituitary GH content. Cultured pituitary cells from Tx rats exhibited reduced GRH sensitivity, maximal GH responsiveness, and intracellular cyclic AMP accumulation to GRH, while somatostatin (SRIF) suppressive effects on GH secretion were increased. Hypothalamic GRH content was also markedly reduced. T4Rx completely restored hypothalamic GRH content and spontaneous GH secretion despite only partial recovery of pituitary GH content, GRH and SRIF sensitivity, and intracellular cyclic AMP response to GRH. The results indicate multiple effects of hypothyroidism on GH secretion and suggest that a critical role of T4 in maintaining normal GH secretion, in addition to restoring GH synthesis, is related to its effect on hypothalamic GRH. Images PMID:2871046

  7. Hormonal, cardiovascular, and subjective responses to acute stress in smokers

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, Harriet

    2009-01-01

    Rationale There are complex relationships between stress and smoking; smoking may reduce the emotional discomfort of stress, yet nicotine activates stress systems and may alter responses to acute stress. It is important to understand how smoking affects physiological and psychological outcomes after stress and how these may interact to motivate smoking. Objectives This study aimed to examine the magnitude and time course of hormonal, cardiovascular, and psychological responses to acute psychosocial stress in smokers and non-smokers to investigate whether responses to acute stress are altered in smokers. Materials and methods Healthy male non-smokers (n=20) and smokers (n=15) participated in two experimental sessions involving a standardized public speaking stress procedure and a control non-stressful task. The outcome measures included self-reported mood, cardiovascular measures (heart rate and blood pressure), and plasma hormone levels (noradrenaline, cortisol, progesterone, and allopregnanolone). Results Smokers exhibited blunted increases in cortisol after the Trier Social Stress Test, and they reported greater and more prolonged subjective agitation than non-smokers. Stress-induced changes in progesterone were similar between smokers and non-smokers, although responses overall were smaller among smokers. Stress did not significantly alter levels of allopregnanolone, but smokers exhibited lower plasma concentrations of this neurosteroid. Conclusions These findings suggest that smoking dampens hormonal responses to stress and prolongs subjective discomfort. Dysregulated stress responses may represent a breakdown in the body’s ability to cope efficiently and effectively with stress and may contribute to smokers’ susceptibility to acute stress, especially during abstinence. PMID:18936915

  8. Molecular cloning and gene expression of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor in the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, S L; Chuang, H C; Nan, F H; Ruan, Y H; Kuo, C M

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRH-R) involved in the endocrine regulation of reproduction in the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. The full-length cDNA encoding GnRH-R type I was successfully cloned from the pituitary by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) methods in the grouper. The complete GnRH-R type I cDNA is 1607 bp, which includes an open reading frame of 1092 bp encoding a protein of 364 amino acids, a seven-alpha helix transmembrane domain, a N-terminal extracellular domain, and a C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. The expression of GnRH-R type I was found to be highest in the pituitary. An intramuscular injection of various GnRH types in vivo was attempted. The expression of GnRH-R type I was stimulated by a single injection of salmon GnRH, while in the case of chicken GnRH II treatment, the expression of GnRH-R type I was inhibited. This suggests that the action of chick GnRH II is probably enhanced through the GnRH receptor of different forms. Furthermore, none of them were expressed by an injection of seabream GnRH, and this is likely attributed to the injection dose being below the threshold level, and this remains to be further examined. In conclusion, GnRHs of various types are effective in stimulating the expression of gonadotropins through various forms of the GnRH-R, and multiple forms of the receptor gene likely exist in teleosts. PMID:17329139

  9. Diverse Hormone Response Networks in 41 Independent Drosophila Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Stoiber, Marcus; Celniker, Susan; Cherbas, Lucy; Brown, Ben; Cherbas, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Steroid hormones induce cascades of gene activation and repression with transformative effects on cell fate . Steroid transduction plays a major role in the development and physiology of nearly all metazoan species, and in the progression of the most common forms of cancer. Despite the paramount importance of steroids in developmental and translational biology, a complete map of transcriptional response has not been developed for any hormone . In the case of 20-hydroxyecdysone (ecdysone) in Drosophila melanogaster, these trajectories range from apoptosis to immortalization. We mapped the ecdysone transduction network in a cohort of 41 cell lines, the largest such atlas yet assembled. We found that the early transcriptional response mirrors the distinctiveness of physiological origins: genes respond in restricted patterns, conditional on the expression levels of dozens of transcription factors. Only a small cohort of genes is constitutively modulated independent of initial cell state. Ecdysone-responsive genes tend to organize into directional same-stranded units, with consecutive genes induced from the same strand. Here, we identify half of the ecdysone receptor heterodimer as the primary rate-limiting step in the response, and find that initial receptor isoform levels modulate the activated cohort of target transcription factors. This atlas of steroid response reveals organizing principles of gene regulation by a model type II nuclear receptor and lays the foundation for comprehensive and predictive understanding of the ecdysone transduction network in the fruit fly. PMID:26772746

  10. Diverse Hormone Response Networks in 41 Independent Drosophila Cell Lines

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stoiber, Marcus; Celniker, Susan; Cherbas, Lucy; Brown, Ben; Cherbas, Peter

    2016-01-15

    Steroid hormones induce cascades of gene activation and repression with transformative effects on cell fate . Steroid transduction plays a major role in the development and physiology of nearly all metazoan species, and in the progression of the most common forms of cancer. Despite the paramount importance of steroids in developmental and translational biology, a complete map of transcriptional response has not been developed for any hormone . In the case of 20-hydroxyecdysone (ecdysone) in Drosophila melanogaster, these trajectories range from apoptosis to immortalization. We mapped the ecdysone transduction network in a cohort of 41 cell lines, the largest suchmore » atlas yet assembled. We found that the early transcriptional response mirrors the distinctiveness of physiological origins: genes respond in restricted patterns, conditional on the expression levels of dozens of transcription factors. Only a small cohort of genes is constitutively modulated independent of initial cell state. Ecdysone-responsive genes tend to organize into directional same-stranded units, with consecutive genes induced from the same strand. Here, we identify half of the ecdysone receptor heterodimer as the primary rate-limiting step in the response, and find that initial receptor isoform levels modulate the activated cohort of target transcription factors. In conclusion, this atlas of steroid response reveals organizing principles of gene regulation by a model type II nuclear receptor and lays the foundation for comprehensive and predictive understanding of the ecdysone transduction network in the fruit fly.« less

  11. Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    ... the foods you eat Sexual function Reproduction Mood Endocrine glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, thymus, thyroid, adrenal ...

  12. The acute hormonal response to the kettlebell swing exercise.

    PubMed

    Budnar, Ronald G; Duplanty, Anthony A; Hill, David W; McFarlin, Brian K; Vingren, Jakob L

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute hormonal response to the kettlebell swing exercise. Ten recreationally resistance trained men (age, 24 ± 4 years; height, 175 ± 6 cm; body mass, 78.7 ± 9.9 kg) performed 12 rounds of 30 seconds of 16 kg kettlebell swings alternated with 30 seconds of rest. Blood samples were collected before (PRE), immediately after (IP), and 15 (P15) and 30 minutes after exercise (P30) and analyzed for testosterone (T), immunoreactive growth hormone, cortisol (C), and lactate concentrations. Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion were measured at the end of each round. Testosterone was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) at IP than at PRE, P15, or P30 (PRE: 28 ± 3; IP: 32 ± 4; P15: 29 ± 3; P30: 27 ± 3 nmol·L). Growth hormone was higher at IP, P15, and P30 than at PRE (PRE: 0.1 ± 0.1; IP: 1.8 ± 1.2; P15: 2.1 ± 1.1; P30: 1.6 ± 1.3 μg·L). Cortisol was higher at IP and P15 than at PRE and P30 (PRE: 617 ± 266; IP: 894 ± 354; P15: 875 ± 243; P30: 645 ± 285 nmol·L). Lactate was higher at IP, P15, and P30 than at PRE (PRE: 1.1 ± 0.5; IP: 7.0 ± 3.0; P15: 4.0 ± 2.7; P30: 2.5 ± 1.8 mmol·L). Heart rate increased progressively from 57 ± 12 at PRE to 170 ± 10 at IP. The exercise protocol produced an acute increase in hormones involved in muscle adaptations. Thus, the kettlebell swing exercise might provide a good supplement to resistance training programs. PMID:24714543

  13. Acute salivary hormone responses to complex exercise bouts.

    PubMed

    Beaven, C Martyn; Gill, Nicholas D; Ingram, John R; Hopkins, Will G

    2011-04-01

    The combination of resistance and plyometric training, or complex training, may yield greater functional gains than either method alone. As steroid hormones respond to exercise stimuli and modulate the functional outcomes, it is possible that complex training creates an enhanced anabolic physiological milieu for adaptation. We investigated acute responses of salivary testosterone and cortisol to complex exercise bouts. After a standardized warm-up, 16 semiprofessional rugby players performed 1 of 4 exercise bouts in a cross-over manner: power-power; power-strength; strength-power; or strength-strength. Each player completed each of the 4 bouts twice over a 4-week period in a balanced random order such that each player performed a total of 8 bouts. The power block consisted of 3 sets of 3 repetitions of jump squat exercise at 50% of 1-repetition maximum load. The strength block consisted of three sets of three repetitions of box squat exercise at a 3-repetition maximum load. There were 3-minute rest periods between sets and 4-minute rest periods between exercise blocks. Saliva was sampled before, during, and immediately after the exercise bout. The greatest overall hormonal responses were a small increase in testosterone (13%; 90% confidence limits ± 7%) and a trivial increase in cortisol (27%; ± 30%) after the strength-power bout. A clear difference was observed between the strength-power and the power-power bouts immediately after exercise for testosterone (10%; ± 8%) and cortisol (29%; ± 17%). The preceding exercise block had little effect on subsequent strength and power performance. The hormonal response after the strength-power bout suggests that this exercise sequence provides an enhanced anabolic milieu for adaptation. PMID:20703172

  14. Growth hormone receptor polymorphism and growth hormone therapy response in children: a Bayesian meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Renehan, Andrew G; Solomon, Mattea; Zwahlen, Marcel; Morjaria, Reena; Whatmore, Andrew; Audí, Laura; Binder, Gerhard; Blum, Werner; Bougnères, Pierre; Santos, Christine Dos; Carrascosa, Antonio; Hokken-Koelega, Anita; Jorge, Alexander; Mullis, Primus E; Tauber, Maïthé; Patel, Leena; Clayton, Peter E

    2012-05-01

    Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy is used in the long-term treatment of children with growth disorders, but there is considerable treatment response variability. The exon 3-deleted growth hormone receptor polymorphism (GHR(d3)) may account for some of this variability. The authors performed a systematic review (to April 2011), including investigator-only data, to quantify the effects of the GHR(fl-d3) and GHR(d3-d3) genotypes on rhGH therapy response and used a recently established Bayesian inheritance model-free approach to meta-analyze the data. The primary outcome was the 1-year change-in-height standard-deviation score for the 2 genotypes. Eighteen data sets from 12 studies (1,527 children) were included. After several prior assumptions were tested, the most appropriate inheritance model was codominant (posterior probability = 0.93). Compared with noncarriers, carriers had median differences in 1-year change-in-height standard-deviation score of 0.09 (95% credible interval (CrI): 0.01, 0.17) for GHR(fl-d3) and of 0.14 (95% CrI: 0.02, 0.26) for GHR(d3-d3). However, the between-study standard deviation of 0.18 (95% CrI: 0.10, 0.33) was considerable. The authors tested by meta-regression for potential modifiers and found no substantial influence. They conclude that 1) the GHR(d3) polymorphism inheritance is codominant, contrasting with previous reports; 2) GHR(d3) genotypes account for modest increases in rhGH effects in children; and 3) considerable unexplained variability in responsiveness remains. PMID:22494952

  15. Growth Hormone Response after Administration of L-dopa, Clonidine, and Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone in Children with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Seigfried M.

    1993-01-01

    This study of eight growth-retarded children with Down's syndrome (aged 1 to 6.5 years) found that administration of growth hormone was more effective than either L-dopa or clonidine. Results suggest that children with Down's syndrome have both anatomical and biochemical hypothalamic derangements resulting in decreased growth hormone secretion and…

  16. Thyroid Hormone Response Element Half-Site Organization and Its Effect on Thyroid Hormone Mediated Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Paquette, Martin A.; Atlas, Ella; Wade, Mike G.; Yauk, Carole L.

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) exerts its effects by binding to the thyroid hormone receptor (TR), which binds to TH response elements (TREs) to regulate target gene expression. We investigated the relative ability of liganded homodimers TR and retinoid X receptor (RXR), and the heterodimer TR/RXR, to regulate gene expression for the TRE half-site organizations: direct repeat 4 (DR4), inverted repeat 0 (IR0) and everted repeat 6 (ER6). Luciferase reporter assays using a DR4 TRE suggest that both the TR homodimer and TR/RXR heterodimer regulate luciferase expression in the presence of their respective ligands. However, in the presence of the IR0 TRE, transfection with TR/RXR and RXR alone increased luciferase activity and there was no effect of TR alone. The presence of 9-cis-retinoic acid was necessary for luciferase expression, whereas TH treatment alone was insufficient. For the ER6 TRE, transfection with TR/RXR, TR alone and RXR alone (in the presence of their respective ligands) all caused a significant increase in luciferase activity. When both ligands were present, transfection with both TR/RXR caused more activation. Finally, we investigated the efficacy of the TR-antagonist 1–850 in inhibiting transcription by TR or TR/RXR at DR4 and ER6 TREs. We found that 1–850 did not suppress luciferase activation in the presence of TR/RXR for the ER6 TRE, suggesting conformational changes of the ligand binding domain of the TR when bound to different TRE half-site organizations. Collectively, the findings indicate that there are fundamental differences between TRE configurations that affect nuclear receptor interactions with the response element and ability to bind ligands and antagonists. PMID:24971931

  17. Growth Hormone Response to L-Dopa and Clonidine in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Realmuto, George M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Seven medication-free autistic subjects (ages 6-19) were administered clonidine and L-Dopa to investigate neuroendocrine responses through changes in growth hormone levels. Findings showed that, compared to normal controls, the L-Dopa-stimulated growth hormone peak was delayed and the clonidine growth hormone peak was premature. (Author/JDD)

  18. Sympathomimetic pressor responses to thyrotropin-releasing hormone in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Mattila, J.; Bunag, R.D.

    1986-07-01

    Cardiovascular responses to centrally administered thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) were studied in urethan-anesthetized rats to allow continuous recording of attendant changes in sympathetic nerve activity. Intracerebroventricular infusions of TRH consistently increased not only blood pressure and heart rate, but also spike frequency in splanchnic, renal, or cervical sympathetic nerves. Parasympathetic inhibition seemed unlikely because TRH responses were unaltered by cholinergic blockade with atropine, and efferent vagal nerve firing, instead of being reduced, was actually increased by TRH. An increased secretion of endogenous vasopressin also appeared unlikely, since TRH responses were essentially unaffected by either hypophysectomy or pretreatment with a vasopressin antagonist. Inasmuch as pharmacological ganglion blockade with pentolinium eliminated increases in splanchnic nerve firing but reduced the attendant tachycardia by only 50%, residual tachycardia after ganglion blockade was considered partly due to persistent sympathetic cardioaccelerator tone. On the other hand, because pressor responses to TRH were always accompanied by increased sympathetic nerve firing and were completely abolished after pentolinium-induced ganglioplegia, they were attributed solely to sympathetic hyperactivity.

  19. Hormonal contraceptives, menstrual cycle and brain response to faces

    PubMed Central

    Marečková, Klara; Perrin, Jennifer S.; Nawaz Khan, Irum; Lawrence, Claire; Dickie, Erin; McQuiggan, Doug A.

    2014-01-01

    Both behavioral and neuroimaging evidence support a female advantage in the perception of human faces. Here we explored the possibility that this relationship may be partially mediated by female sex hormones by investigating the relationship between the brain’s response to faces and the use of oral contraceptives, as well as the phase of the menstrual cycle. First, functional magnetic resonance images were acquired in 20 young women [10 freely cycling and 10 taking oral contraception (OC)] during two phases of their cycle: mid-cycle and menstruation. We found stronger neural responses to faces in the right fusiform face area (FFA) in women taking oral contraceptives (vs freely cycling women) and during mid-cycle (vs menstruation) in both groups. Mean blood oxygenation level-dependent response in both left and right FFA increased as function of the duration of OC use. Next, this relationship between the use of OC and FFA response was replicated in an independent sample of 110 adolescent girls. Finally in a parallel behavioral study carried out in another sample of women, we found no evidence of differences in the pattern of eye movements while viewing faces between freely cycling women vs those taking oral contraceptives. The imaging findings might indicate enhanced processing of social cues in women taking OC and women during mid-cycle. PMID:23175677

  20. Hormonal contraceptives, menstrual cycle and brain response to faces.

    PubMed

    Marecková, Klara; Perrin, Jennifer S; Nawaz Khan, Irum; Lawrence, Claire; Dickie, Erin; McQuiggan, Doug A; Paus, Tomás

    2014-02-01

    Both behavioral and neuroimaging evidence support a female advantage in the perception of human faces. Here we explored the possibility that this relationship may be partially mediated by female sex hormones by investigating the relationship between the brain's response to faces and the use of oral contraceptives, as well as the phase of the menstrual cycle. First, functional magnetic resonance images were acquired in 20 young women [10 freely cycling and 10 taking oral contraception (OC)] during two phases of their cycle: mid-cycle and menstruation. We found stronger neural responses to faces in the right fusiform face area (FFA) in women taking oral contraceptives (vs freely cycling women) and during mid-cycle (vs menstruation) in both groups. Mean blood oxygenation level-dependent response in both left and right FFA increased as function of the duration of OC use. Next, this relationship between the use of OC and FFA response was replicated in an independent sample of 110 adolescent girls. Finally in a parallel behavioral study carried out in another sample of women, we found no evidence of differences in the pattern of eye movements while viewing faces between freely cycling women vs those taking oral contraceptives. The imaging findings might indicate enhanced processing of social cues in women taking OC and women during mid-cycle. PMID:23175677

  1. Humoral immune response of the small-spotted catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Kathryn; Smith, Lauren E; Williams, Rebecca; Cao, Wei; Lee, Mike; Jensen, Allan; Dooley, Helen

    2013-05-01

    Cartilaginous fishes are the oldest group in which an adaptive immune system based on immunoglobulin-superfamily members is found. This manuscript compares humoral immune function in small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula) with that described for spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), another member of the Squalomorphi superorder, and nurse shark, the model for humoral immunity in elasmobranchs and a member of the Galeomorphi superorder. Although small-spotted catshark and nurse shark are separated by over 200 million years we found that immunoglobulin isoforms are well conserved between the two species. However, the plasma protein profile of small-spotted catshark was most similar to that of spiny dogfish, with low levels of pentameric IgM, and IgNAR present as a multimer in plasma rather than a monomer. We show that an antigen-specific monomeric IgM response, with a profile similar to that described previously for nurse sharks, can be raised in small-spotted catshark. Lacking polyclonal or monoclonal antibody reagents for detecting catshark IgNAR we investigated phage-display and recombinant Fc-fusion protein expression as alternative methods to look for an antigen-specific response for this isotype. However, we could find no evidence of an antigen-specific IgNAR in the animals tested using either of these techniques. Thus, unlike nurse sharks where antigen-specific monomeric IgM and IgNAR appear together, it seems there may be a temporal or complete 'uncoupling' of these isotypes during a humoral response in the small-spotted catshark. PMID:23439398

  2. EEG responses in regularly menstruating women and in amenorrheic women treated with ovarian hormones.

    PubMed

    Vogel, W; Broverman, D M; Klaiber, E L

    1971-04-23

    Electroencephalographic driving reponses to photic stimulation vary with the menstrual cycle and with manipulations of ovarian hormones thought to control the menstrual cycle. Estrogens reduce driving responses to photic stimulation, and estrogen plus progesterone enhance these responses. The electroencephalographic changes may reflect the effects of gonadal steroid hormones upon central adrenergic processes. PMID:4323796

  3. Neurohypophyseal Hormone-Responsive Adenylate Cyclase from Mammalian Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Douša, Thomas; Hechter, Oscar; Schwartz, Irving L.; Walter, Roderich

    1971-01-01

    The investigation was undertaken to evaluate the direct stimulatory effects of neurohypophyseal hormones upon adenylate cyclase activity in a cell-free, particulate fraction derived from the kidney medulla of various mammalian species. The relative affinity of neurohypophyseal hormones for the receptor component of the adenylate cyclase system (as defined by the concentration of hormone required for half-maximal stimulation) had the order [8-arginine]-vasopressin > [8-lysine]-vasopressin ≫ oxytocin (AVP > LVP ≫ OT) for rat, mouse, rabbit, and ox; in the pig, the order was LVP > AVP ≫ OT. The relative affinities of the three hormones in rat and pig cyclase systems were found to correspond with the relative antidiuretic potencies of these hormones in the intact rat and pig. These findings show that the renal receptor for neurohypophyseal hormones in a particular species exhibits the highest affinity for the specific antidiuretic hormone that occurs naturally in that species. Some of the molecular requirements for the stimulation of rabbit adenylate cyclase were defined by studies of several neurohypophyseal analogs possessing structural changes in positions 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, and 9. This investigation introduces the particulate preparation of renal medullary adenylate cyclase as a tool for the analysis of neurohypophyseal hormone-receptor interactions and indicates that this preparation can be adapted to serve as an in vitro bioassay system for antidiuretic hormonal activity. PMID:4331557

  4. Phylogenetic comparisons implicate sex hormone-binding globulin in "masculinization" of the female spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta).

    PubMed

    Hammond, Geoffrey L; Miguel-Queralt, Solange; Yalcinkaya, Tamer M; Underhill, Caroline; Place, Ned J; Glickman, Stephen E; Drea, Christine M; Wagner, Aaron P; Siiteri, Pentti K

    2012-03-01

    Exposures to sex steroids during fetal development are thought to contribute to the unique urogenital anatomy and social dominance of the female spotted hyena: overt phenotypes not shared by other hyenids (i.e. striped hyena, brown hyena, and aardwolf). Because both androgens and estrogens influence development of genitalia and behavior, and because plasma SHBG regulates their access to tissues, we compared the Shbg gene sequences, structures, and steroid-binding properties in the four extant hyenids. We found the hyenid Shbg genes (>95% identical) and mature protein sequences (98% identical) are highly conserved. As in other mammals, the hyenid SHBG all bind 5α-dihydrotestosterone with high affinity (K(d) = 0.62-1.47 nm), but they also bind estrone and dehydroepiandrosterone with similarly high affinity, and this unusual property was attributed to specific amino acids within their SHBG steroid-binding sites. Phylogenetic comparisons also indicated that the spotted hyena SHBG precursor uniquely lacks two leucine residues and has a L15W substitution within its secretion signal polypeptide, the reduced size and hydrophobicity of which markedly decreases the production of SHBG and may therefore explain why serum SHBG concentrations in male and female spotted hyenas are approximately five times lower than in other hyenids. This is important because low plasma SHBG concentrations in spotted hyenas will increase exposure to biologically active androgens and estrogen as well as to their precursors (dehydroepiandrosterone and estrone), which may contribute to the masculinized external genitalia of female spotted hyenas and to female social dominance over males. PMID:22253421

  5. Responses of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and prolactin to prolonged administration of the dopamine antagonist in normal women and women with low-weight amenorrhea.

    PubMed

    Larsen, S

    1981-06-01

    The responses of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and prolactin to prolonged administration of the dopamine receptor antagonist metoclopramide (5 mg twice daily) were investigated in six normal women and six women with low-weight amenorrhea (LWA). In contrast to the normal group, the LWA group showed no significant changes in the mean basal prolactin level or the mean prolactin response to stimulation with thyrotropin-releasing hormone, but there was an significant elevation of the mean net increase in luteinizing hormone after stimulation with gonadotropin-releasing hormone. On the basis of these data, the possibility of increased central dopaminergic activity in women with LWA is discussed. PMID:6788608

  6. Luteinizing hormone release and androgen production of avian hybrids in response to luteinizing hormone releasing hormone injection.

    PubMed

    Mathis, G F; Burke, W H; McDougald, L R

    1983-04-01

    The levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and androgens were measured in sterile avian hybrids. Guinea fowl-chicken and peafowl-guinea fowl hybrids were bled before and after injection with LH- releasing hormone (LHRH). The preinjection LH levels for the guinea fowl-chicken hybrids were below or at the very lower limit of the assay sensitivity and the peafowl-guinea fowl hybrids averaged 1.3 ng/ml. Within 10 min after LHRH injection, LH had increased dramatically in both hybrids and then began to slowly decline. Androgen levels in the guinea fowl-chicken hybrids increased from 16.2 pg/ml to 95.2 pg/ml and continued to increase, reaching 287 pg/ml at the last bleeding 60 min after injection. PMID:6346309

  7. DIFFERENTIALLY EXPRESSED GENES IN RESPONSES TO LATE LEAF SPOT DISEASE CAUSED BY CERCOSPORIDIUM PERSONATUM IN PEANUT USING MICROARRAY ANALYSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Late leaf spot disease caused by Cercosporidium personatum is one of the most destructive foliar diseases of peanut worldwide. This research was to identify resistance genes in response to leaf spot disease using miccroarray and real-time PCR. To identify transcripts involved in disease resistance, ...

  8. A theoretical study of electrical and thermal response in resistance spot welding

    SciTech Connect

    Na, S.J.; Park, S.W.

    1996-08-01

    The effect of contact resistance including constriction and contamination resistance has been a major hurdle for the thermoelectrical analysis of the resistance spot welding process. In this paper, a simple model was suggested and used for calculating the electrical and thermal response of the resistance spot welding process to investigate the influence of contacting forces on the formation of weld nuggets. The electrode surface of the contact interface was assumed to be axisymmetric and its microasperities to have a trapezoidal cross-section. These microasperities were considered as the one-dimensional contact resistance elements in the finite element formulation. The contamination film was assumed to be a nonconducting oxide layer, which is very brittle, so that it is broken to some number of pieces when a contacting pressure is being applied. The crushed films were assumed to be distributed at regular intervals and to conserve their size and number during the welding process. The simulation results revealed that the proposed model can be successfully used to predict the effect of the contact resistance on the electrical and thermal response of the resistance spot welding process.

  9. Phenotypic integration and independence: Hormones, performance, and response to environmental change

    PubMed Central

    Ketterson, Ellen D.; Atwell, Jonathan W.; McGlothlin, Joel W.

    2009-01-01

    Hormones coordinate the co-expression of behavioral, physiological, and morphological traits, giving rise to correlations among traits and organisms whose parts work well together. This article considers the implications of these hormonal correlations with respect to the evolution of hormone-mediated traits. Such traits can evolve owing to changes in hormone secretion, hormonal affinity for carrier proteins, rates of degradation and conversion, and interaction with target tissues to name a few. Critically, however, we know very little about whether these changes occur independently or in tandem, and thus whether hormones promote the evolution of tight phenotypic integration or readily allow the parts of the phenotype to evolve independently. For example, when selection favors a change in expression of hormonally mediated characters, is that alteration likely to come about through changes in hormone secretion (signal strength), changes in response to a fixed level of secretion (sensitivity of target tissues), or both? At one extreme, if the phenotype is tightly integrated and only the signal responds via selection's action on one or more hormonally mediated traits, adaptive modification may be constrained by past selection for phenotypic integration. Alternatively, response to selection may be facilitated if multivariate selection favors new combinations that can be easily achieved by a change in signal strength. On the other hand, if individual target tissues readily “unplug” from a hormone signal in response to selection, then the phenotype may be seen as a loose confederation that responds on a trait-by-trait basis, easily allowing adaptive modification, although perhaps more slowly than if signal variation were the primary mode of evolutionary response. Studies reviewed here and questions for future research address the relative importance of integration and independence by comparing sexes, individuals, and populations. Most attention is devoted to the

  10. A specific area of olfactory cortex involved in stress hormone responses to predator odours.

    PubMed

    Kondoh, Kunio; Lu, Zhonghua; Ye, Xiaolan; Olson, David P; Lowell, Bradford B; Buck, Linda B

    2016-04-01

    Instinctive reactions to danger are critical to the perpetuation of species and are observed throughout the animal kingdom. The scent of predators induces an instinctive fear response in mice that includes behavioural changes, as well as a surge in blood stress hormones that mobilizes multiple body systems to escape impending danger. How the olfactory system routes predator signals detected in the nose to achieve these effects is unknown. Here we identify a specific area of the olfactory cortex in mice that induces stress hormone responses to volatile predator odours. Using monosynaptic and polysynaptic viral tracers, we found that multiple olfactory cortical areas transmit signals to hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons, which control stress hormone levels. However, only one minor cortical area, the amygdalo-piriform transition area (AmPir), contained neurons upstream of CRH neurons that were activated by volatile predator odours. Chemogenetic stimulation of AmPir activated CRH neurons and induced an increase in blood stress hormones, mimicking an instinctive fear response. Moreover, chemogenetic silencing of AmPir markedly reduced the stress hormone response to predator odours without affecting a fear behaviour. These findings suggest that AmPir, a small area comprising <5% of the olfactory cortex, plays a key part in the hormonal component of the instinctive fear response to volatile predator scents. PMID:27001694

  11. Homozygosity for a dominant negative thyroid hormone receptor gene responsible for generalized resistance to thyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Ono, S; Schwartz, I D; Mueller, O T; Root, A W; Usala, S J; Bercu, B B

    1991-11-01

    Generalized resistance to thyroid hormones (GRTH) commonly results from mutations in the T3-binding domain of the c-erbA beta thyroid hormone receptor gene. We have reported on a novel deletion mutation in c-erbA beta in a kindred, S, with GRTH. One patient from this kindred was the product of a consanguineous union from two affected members and was homozygous for the beta-receptor defect. This patient at 3.5 weeks of age had unprecedented elevations of TSH, free T4, and free T3 (TSH, 389 mU/L; free T4, 330.8 pmol/L; free T3, 82,719 fmol/L). He displayed a complex mixture of tissue-specific hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. He had delayed growth (height age, 1 3/12 yr at chronological age 2 9/12 yr) and skeletal maturation (bone age, 4 months), and developmental delay (developmental age, 8 months), but he was quite tachycardic. The homozygous patient of kindred S is markedly different from a recently reported patient with no c-erbA beta-receptor. This difference indicates that a dominant negative form of c-erbA beta in man can inhibit at least some thyroid hormone action mediated by the c-erbA alpha-receptors. PMID:1682340

  12. Elucidation of defense-related signaling responses to spot blotch infection in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Sahu, Ranabir; Sharaff, Murali; Pradhan, Maitree; Sethi, Avinash; Bandyopadhyay, Tirthankar; Mishra, Vinod K; Chand, Ramesh; Chowdhury, Apurba K; Joshi, Arun K; Pandey, Shree P

    2016-04-01

    Spot blotch disease, caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana, is an important threat to wheat, causing an annual loss of ~17%. Under epidemic conditions, these losses may be 100%, yet the molecular responses of wheat to spot blotch remain almost uncharacterized. Moreover, defense-related phytohormone signaling genes have been poorly characterized in wheat. Here, we have identified 18 central components of salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene (ET), and enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1) signaling pathways as well as the genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway in wheat. In time-course experiments, we characterized the reprogramming of expression of these pathways in two contrasting genotypes: Yangmai #6 (resistant to spot blotch) and Sonalika (susceptible to spot blotch). We further evaluated the performance of a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) by crossing Yangmai#6 and Sonalika (parents) and subsequent selfing to F10 under field conditions in trials at multiple locations. We characterized the reprogramming of defense-related signaling in these RILs as a consequence of spot blotch attack. During resistance to spot blotch attack, wheat strongly elicits SA signaling (SA biogenesis as well as the NPR1-dependent signaling pathway), along with WRKY33 transcription factor, followed by an enhanced expression of phenylpropanoid pathway genes. These may lead to accumulation of phenolics-based defense metabolites that may render resistance against spot blotch. JA signaling may synergistically contribute to the resistance. Failure to elicit SA (and possibly JA) signaling may lead to susceptibility against spot blotch infection in wheat. PMID:26932764

  13. Hormone response to bidirectional selection on social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Amdam, Gro V.; Page, Robert E.; Fondrk, M. Kim; Brent, Colin S.

    2010-01-01

    Behavior is a quantitative trait determined by multiple genes. Some of these genes may have effects from early development and onward by influencing hormonal systems that are active during different life-stages — leading to complex associations, or suites, of traits. Honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been used extensively in experiments on the genetic and hormonal control of complex social behavior, but the relationships between their early developmental processes and adult behavioral variation are not well understood. Bidirectional selective breeding on social food-storage behavior produced two honey bee strains, each with several sub-lines, that differ in an associated suite of anatomical, physiological, and behavioral traits found in unselected wild type bees. Using these genotypes, we document strain-specific changes during larval, pupal, and early adult life-stages for the central insect hormones juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdysteroids. Strain differences correlate with variation in female reproductive anatomy (ovary size), which can be influenced by JH during development, and with secretion rates of ecdysteroid from the ovaries of adults. Ovary size was previously assigned to the suite of traits of honey bee food-storage behavior. Our findings support that bidirectional selection on honey bee social behavior acted on pleiotropic gene networks. These networks may bias a bee’s adult phenotype by endocrine effects on early developmental processes that regulate variation in reproductive traits. PMID:20883212

  14. Hormone response to bidirectional selection on social behavior.

    PubMed

    Amdam, Gro V; Page, Robert E; Fondrk, M Kim; Brent, Colin S

    2010-01-01

    Behavior is a quantitative trait determined by multiple genes. Some of these genes may have effects from early development and onward by influencing hormonal systems that are active during different life-stages leading to complex associations, or suites, of traits. Honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been used extensively in experiments on the genetic and hormonal control of complex social behavior, but the relationships between their early developmental processes and adult behavioral variation are not well understood. Bidirectional selective breeding on social food-storage behavior produced two honey bee strains, each with several sublines, that differ in an associated suite of anatomical, physiological, and behavioral traits found in unselected wild type bees. Using these genotypes, we document strain-specific changes during larval, pupal, and early adult life-stages for the central insect hormones juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdysteroids. Strain differences correlate with variation in female reproductive anatomy (ovary size), which can be influenced by JH during development, and with secretion rates of ecdysteroid from the ovaries of adults. Ovary size was previously assigned to the suite of traits of honey bee food-storage behavior. Our findings support that bidirectional selection on honey bee social behavior acted on pleiotropic gene networks. These networks may bias a bee's adult phenotype by endocrine effects on early developmental processes that regulate variation in reproductive traits. PMID:20883212

  15. Hypertrophic response of the Association of Thyroid Hormone and Exercise in the Heart of Rats

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Fernanda Rodrigues; Resende, Elmiro Santos; Lopes, Leandro; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Chagas, Rafaella; Fidale, Thiago; Rodrigues, Poliana

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiac hypertrophy is a component of cardiac remodeling occurring in response to an increase of the activity or functional overload of the heart. Objective Assess hypertrophic response of the association of thyroid hormone and exercise in the rat heart. Methods We used 37 Wistar rats, male, adults were randomly divided into four groups: control, hormone (TH), exercise (E), thyroid hormone and exercise (H + E); the group received daily hormone levothyroxine sodium by gavage at a dose of 20 μg thyroid hormone/100g body weight, the exercise group took swimming five times a week, with additional weight corresponding to 20% of body weight for six weeks; in group H + E were applied simultaneously TH treatment groups and E. The statistics used was analysis of variance, where appropriate, by Tukey test and Pearson correlation test. Results The T4 was greater in groups TH and H + E. The total weight of the heart was greater in patients who received thyroid hormone and left ventricular weight was greater in the TH group. The transverse diameter of cardiomyocytes increased in groups TH, E and H + E. The percentage of collagen was greater in groups E and H + E Correlation analysis between variables showed distinct responses. Conclusion The association of thyroid hormone with high-intensity exercise produced cardiac hypertrophy, and generated a standard hypertrophy not directly correlated to the degree of fibrosis. PMID:24676374

  16. 2,4,6-Tribromophenol Interferes with the Thyroid Hormone System by Regulating Thyroid Hormones and the Responsible Genes in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dongoh; Ahn, Changhwan; Hong, Eui-Ju; An, Beum-Soo; Hyun, Sang-Hwan; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2016-01-01

    2,4,6-Tribromophenol (TBP) is a brominated flame retardant (BFR). Based on its affinity for transthyretin, TBP could compete with endogenous thyroid hormone. In this study, the effects of TBP on the thyroid hormone system were assessed in mice. Briefly, animals were exposed to 40 and 250 mg/kg TBP. Thyroid hormones were also administered with or without TBP. When mice were treated with TBP, deiodinase 1 (Dio1) and thyroid hormone receptor β isoform 2 (Thrβ2) decreased in the pituitary gland. The levels of deiodinase 2 (Dio2) and growth hormone (Gh) mRNA increased in response to 250 mg/kg of TBP, and the relative mRNA level of thyroid stimulating hormone β (Tshβ) increased in the pituitary gland. Dio1 and Thrβ1 expression in the liver were not altered, while Dio1 decreased in response to co-treatment with thyroid hormones. The thyroid gland activity decreased in response to TBP, as did the levels of free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine in serum. Taken together, these findings indicate that TBP can disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis and the presence of TBP influenced thyroid actions as regulators of gene expression. These data suggest that TBP interferes with thyroid hormone systems. PMID:27420076

  17. 2,4,6-Tribromophenol Interferes with the Thyroid Hormone System by Regulating Thyroid Hormones and the Responsible Genes in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dongoh; Ahn, Changhwan; Hong, Eui-Ju; An, Beum-Soo; Hyun, Sang-Hwan; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2016-01-01

    2,4,6-Tribromophenol (TBP) is a brominated flame retardant (BFR). Based on its affinity for transthyretin, TBP could compete with endogenous thyroid hormone. In this study, the effects of TBP on the thyroid hormone system were assessed in mice. Briefly, animals were exposed to 40 and 250 mg/kg TBP. Thyroid hormones were also administered with or without TBP. When mice were treated with TBP, deiodinase 1 (Dio1) and thyroid hormone receptor β isoform 2 (Thrβ2) decreased in the pituitary gland. The levels of deiodinase 2 (Dio2) and growth hormone (Gh) mRNA increased in response to 250 mg/kg of TBP, and the relative mRNA level of thyroid stimulating hormone β (Tshβ) increased in the pituitary gland. Dio1 and Thrβ1 expression in the liver were not altered, while Dio1 decreased in response to co-treatment with thyroid hormones. The thyroid gland activity decreased in response to TBP, as did the levels of free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine in serum. Taken together, these findings indicate that TBP can disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis and the presence of TBP influenced thyroid actions as regulators of gene expression. These data suggest that TBP interferes with thyroid hormone systems PMID:27420076

  18. Cardiovascular and hormonal (aldosterone) responses in a rat model which mimics responses to weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    Cardiovascular responses and fluid/electrolyte shifts seen during spaceflight have been attributed to cephalad redistribution of vascular fluid. The antiorthostatic (AO) rat (suspended, head-down tilt of 15-20 deg) is used to model these responses. This study documents that elevated blood pressures in AO rats are sustained for periods of up to seven days, compared with presuspension values. Increased blood pressures in AO rats suggests a specific response to AO positioning, potentially relatable to a cephalad fluid shift. To assess a role for hormonal regulation of sodium excretion, serum aldosterone levels were measured. Circulating aldosterone concentrations were seen to increase approximately 100 percent during seven days of AO suspension, concurrently with a pronounced natriuresis. These results suggest that aldosterone may not be involved in the long term regulation of increased Na(+) excretion in AO animals. These studies continue to show the usefulness of models for the development of animal protocols for space flight.

  19. Interactions of xenobiotics with steroid hormone receptors and the sex-steroid binding protein in spotted seatrout

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.; Ghosh, S.; Pinter, J.; Sperry, T.; Breckenridge-Miller, D.; Laidley, C.W.

    1995-12-31

    A variety of xenobiotics, such as DDT, methoxychlor and PCB mixtures and Kepone have estrogenic actions and disrupt reproduction in mammals by binding to nuclear estrogen receptors (ER). These xenobiotics were tested for their ability to bind to the hepatic ER of a marine fish, spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus). Several of the DDT derivatives, Kepone and PCB mixtures also bound to the seatrout ER over a range of 10{sup {minus}5}--10{sup {minus}3}M. Moreover, Kepone was shown to have both estrogenic and antiestrogenic actions in an in vitro liver slice vitellogenesis assay. These estrogenic compounds were also tested for their ability to bind to nuclear and plasma membrane progestogen (20{beta}-S) receptors in ovarian tissues and to the sex-steroid binding protein in seatrout plasma. Kepone, methoxychlor and o,p{prime}-DDT caused concentration dependent displacement of {sup 3}H2O{beta}-S from its plasma membrane receptor and inhibition of 20{beta}-S induced final maturation in an in vitro assay over the range of 10{sup {minus}7}--10{sup {minus}3}M, but did not alter steroid binding to the nuclear progestogen receptor. Significant binding of methoxychlor and the other organochlorines to the sex steroid binding protein was also observed. It is concluded from these studies that a variety of xenobiotics with estrogenic actions can also bind to other steroid receptors and binding proteins to influence other endocrine-mediated processes.

  20. White spot syndrome virus strains of different virulence induce distinct immune response in Cherax quadricarinatus.

    PubMed

    Gao, Meiling; Li, Fang; Xu, Limei; Zhu, Xiaoming

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we identified three white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) strains (WSSV-CN01, WSSV-CN02 and WSSV-CN03) with significant differences in virulence. Among them, WSSV-CN01 caused significant higher and earlier mortality in redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus, thus was determined as high-virulent, while WSSV-CN02 and WSSV-CN03 were moderate-virulent and low-virulent. By investigating the total number of the circulating haemocytes and the activity of immune relative enzymes, we demonstrated that the different virulent WSSV strains induced distinct immune response in the host. Notably, a dramatic reduction of circulating haemocytes was observed in the crayfish infected with WSSV-CN01 and WSSV-CN02 but not WSSV-CN03. Further analysis revealed that cell death induced by WSSV-CN01 and WSSV-CN02 might be responsible for the decrease of circulating haemocytes. PMID:24795080

  1. Variability in field response of peanut genotypes from the U.S. and China to tomato spotted wilt virus and leaf spots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato spotted wilt, caused by tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and transmitted by thrips, and early leaf spot (Cercospora arachidicola) and late leaf spot (Cercosporidium personatum) are among the most important diseases of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) in the southeastern United States. The objective ...

  2. Empirical Analysis of the Spot Market Implications ofPrice-Responsive Demand

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Bartholomew, Emily S.; Marnay, Chris

    2005-08-01

    Regardless of the form of restructuring, deregulatedelectricity industries share one common feature: the absence of anysignificant, rapid demand-side response to the wholesale (or, spotmarket) price. For a variety of reasons, most electricity consumers stillpay an average cost based regulated retail tariff held over from the eraof vertical integration, even as the retailers themselves are oftenforced to purchase electricity at volatile wholesale prices set in openmarkets. This results in considerable price risk for retailers, who aresometimes additionally forbidden by regulators from signing hedgingcontracts. More importantly, because end-users do not perceive real-time(or even hourly or daily) fluctuations in the wholesale price ofelectricity, they have no incentive to adjust their consumptionaccordingly. Consequently, demand for electricity is highly inelastic,which together with the non storability of electricity that requiresmarket clearing over very short time steps spawn many other problemsassociated with electricity markets, such as exercise of market power andprice volatility. Indeed, electricity generation resources can bestretched to the point where system adequacy is threatened. Economictheory suggests that even modest price responsiveness can relieve thestress on generation resources and decrease spot prices. To quantify thiseffect, actual generator bid data from the New York control area is usedto construct supply stacks and intersect them with demand curves ofvarious slopes to approximate the effect of different levels of demandresponse. The potential impact of real-time pricing (RTP) on theequilibrium spot price and quantity is then estimated. These resultsindicate the immediate benefits that could be derived from a moreprice-responsive demand providing policymakers with a measure of howprices can be potentially reduced and consumption maintained within thecapability of generation assets.

  3. The hemic response of white-spotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) with inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Amy B; Parkinson, Lily A; Grant, Krystan R; Carlson, Eric; Campbell, Terry W

    2016-05-01

    As elasmobranch medicine becomes more commonplace, there continues to be confusion with techniques and evaluation of the shark hemogram and it remains unknown if they are able to mount an inflammatory hemic response. The aims of this study were to compare two total white blood cell (WBC) count techniques, establish a reference interval for captive white-spotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum), and determine if elasmobranchs are capable of mounting an inflammatory hemic response. Correlation statistics were performed on hematologic results for healthy female bamboo sharks to assess the use of Natt-Herrick's and phloxine methods. Total WBC counts and differentials were obtained from males with severe traumatic clasper wounds and compared to the healthy females. We elected clasper amputation as the preferred treatment intervention and post-operative hematology was performed one month later. There was poor correlation of leukocyte counts between the two WBC count methods. Hematologic values were established for the females and males pre- and post-operatively. Males with wounds had a marked leukocytosis and heterophilia. Post-operative blood work showed a resolution of total WBC count and a trend toward resolution of the heterophilia. This study provides hematologic values for white-spotted bamboo sharks and confirms that the Natt-Herrick's method is preferred for lymphocytic species. Hematologic differences present in males with clasper wounds suggests that elasmobranchs do mount an inflammatory hemic response. Treatment via clasper amputation proved to be a safe and efficient means for clinical treatment that led to a trend toward resolution of the inflammatory leukogram. Zoo Biol. 35:251-259, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26970476

  4. Comparative renal gene expression in response to abrupt hypoosmotic shock in spotted scat (Scatophagus argus).

    PubMed

    Mu, Xingjiang; Su, Maoliang; Gui, Lang; Liang, Xuemei; Zhang, Peipei; Hu, Pan; Liu, Zhenhao; Zhang, Junbin

    2015-05-01

    Scatophagus argus, a euryhaline fish, is notable for its ability to tolerate a wide range of environmental salinities and especially for its tolerance to a rapid, marked reduction in salinity. Therefore, S. argus is a good model for studying the molecular mechanisms mediating abrupt hyperosmoregulation. The serum osmotic pressure decreased steeply within one hour after transferring S. argus from seawater (SW) to freshwater (FW) and remained at new balance throughout the duration of one week. To explain this phenomenon and understand the molecular responses to an abrupt hypoosmotic shock, hypoosmotic stress responsive genes were identified by constructing two suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA libraries from the kidneys of S. argus that had been transferred from SW to FW. After trimming and blasting, 52 ESTs were picked out from the subtractive library. Among them, 11 genes were significantly up-regulated (p < 0.05). The kinetics studies of gene expression levels were conducted for 1 week after the transfer using quantitative real-time PCR. A significant variation in the expression of these genes occurred within 12h after the hypoosmotic shock, except for growth hormone (GH) and polyadenylate binding protein 1 (PBP1), which were significantly up-regulated 2 days post-transfer. Our results suggest different functional roles for these genes in response to hypoosmotic stress during the stress response phase (1 hpt-12 hpt) and stable phase (12 hpt-7 dpt). Furthermore, the plasma growth hormone level was detected to be significantly elevated at 1 hpt and 24 hpt following abrupt hypoosmotic shock. Meanwhile, several hematological parameters, hemoglobin (HGB), red blood cell (RBC) and mean cellular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), were observed to be significantly increased at 12 hpt and 2 dpt compared with that of control group. Our results provide a solid basis from which to conduct future studies on the osmoregulatory mechanisms in the euryhaline fish

  5. Sexual dimorphism of stress response and immune/ inflammatory reaction: the corticotropin releasing hormone perspective

    PubMed Central

    Vamvakopoulos, Nicholas V.

    1995-01-01

    This review higlghts key aspects of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) biology of potential relevance to the sexual dimorphism of the stress response and immune/inflammatory reaction, and introduces two important new concepts based on the regulatory potential of the human (h) CRH gene: (1) a proposed mechanism to account for the tissue-specific antithetical responses of hCRH gene expression to glucocorticolds, that may also explain the frequently observed antithetical effects of chronic glucocorticoid administration in clinical practice and (2) a heuristic diagram to illustrate the proposed modulation of the stress response and immune/ inflammatory reaction by steroid hormones, from the perspective of the CRH system. PMID:18475634

  6. Role of various hormones in photosynthetic responses of green plants under environmental stresses.

    PubMed

    Poonam; Bhardwaj, Renu; Kaur, Ravdeep; Bali, Shagun; Kaur, Parminder; Sirhindi, Geetika; Thukral, Ashwani K; Ohri, Puja; Vig, Adarsh P

    2015-01-01

    Environmental stress includes adverse factors like water deficit, high salinity, enhanced temperature and heavy metals etc. These stresses alter the normal growth and metabolic processes of plants including photosynthesis. Major photosynthetic responses under various stresses include inhibition of photosystems (I and II), changes in thylakoid complexes, decreased photosynthetic activity and modifications in structure and functions of chloroplasts etc. Various defense mechanisms are triggered inside the plants in response to these stresses that are regulated by plant hormones or plant growth regulators. These phytohormones include abscisic acid, auxins, cytokinins, ethylene, brassinosteroids, jasmonates and salicylic acid etc. The present review focuses on stress protective effects of plants hormones on the photosynthetic responses. PMID:25824389

  7. Predicting the Probability of Abnormal Stimulated Growth Hormone Response in Children After Radiotherapy for Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Hua Chiaho; Wu Shengjie; Chemaitilly, Wassim; Lukose, Renin C.; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To develop a mathematical model utilizing more readily available measures than stimulation tests that identifies brain tumor survivors with high likelihood of abnormal growth hormone secretion after radiotherapy (RT), to avoid late recognition and a consequent delay in growth hormone replacement therapy. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 191 prospectively collected post-RT evaluations of peak growth hormone level (arginine tolerance/levodopa stimulation test), serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3, height, weight, growth velocity, and body mass index in 106 children and adolescents treated for ependymoma (n = 72), low-grade glioma (n = 28) or craniopharyngioma (n = 6), who had normal growth hormone levels before RT. Normal level in this study was defined as the peak growth hormone response to the stimulation test {>=}7 ng/mL. Results: Independent predictor variables identified by multivariate logistic regression with high statistical significance (p < 0.0001) included IGF-1 z score, weight z score, and hypothalamic dose. The developed predictive model demonstrated a strong discriminatory power with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.883. At a potential cutoff point of probability of 0.3 the sensitivity was 80% and specificity 78%. Conclusions: Without unpleasant and expensive frequent stimulation tests, our model provides a quantitative approach to closely follow the growth hormone secretory capacity of brain tumor survivors. It allows identification of high-risk children for subsequent confirmatory tests and in-depth workup for diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency.

  8. Psychological response to growth hormone treatment in short normal children.

    PubMed Central

    Downie, A B; Mulligan, J; McCaughey, E S; Stratford, R J; Betts, P R; Voss, L D

    1996-01-01

    This study provides a controlled assessment of the psychological (and physical) effects of growth hormone treatment. Fifteen short 'normal' children (height SD score < -2) have been treated with growth hormone since the age of 7/8 years. They, together with untreated short controls and average controls (10th-90th centiles), were assessed at recruitment, after three years, and after five years. Only the treated group showed a significant height increase (SD score -2.44 to -1.21 over five years). No significant differences were found at recruitment, three years, or five years in IQ, attainment, behaviour, or self esteem. Also at five years, there were no significant differences in locus of control, self perception, or parental perceptions of competence. Both short groups displayed less satisfaction with their height than the controls (p < 0.01), though all groups were optimistic of being tall adults. The treated children were no more unrealistic over final height than the untreated children. To date, no psychological benefits of treatment have been demonstrated; but nor have there been any discernible ill effects for either the treated or the untreated children. PMID:8813867

  9. Rickettsia massiliae and Rickettsia conorii Israeli Spotted Fever Strain Differentially Regulate Endothelial Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Bechelli, Jeremy; Smalley, Claire; Milhano, Natacha; Walker, David H.; Fang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Rickettsiae primarily target microvascular endothelial cells. However, it remains elusive how endothelial cell responses to rickettsiae play a role in the pathogenesis of rickettsial diseases. In the present study, we employed two rickettsial species with high sequence homology but differing virulence to investigate the pathological endothelial cell responses. Rickettsia massiliae is a newly documented human pathogen that causes a mild spotted fever rickettsiosis. The “Israeli spotted fever” strain of R. conorii (ISF) causes severe disease with a mortality rate up to 30% in hospitalized patients. At 48 hours post infection (HPI), R. conorii (ISF) induced a significant elevation of IL-8 and IL-6 while R. massiliae induced a statistically significant elevated amount of MCP-1 at both transcriptional and protein synthesis levels. Strikingly, R. conorii (ISF), but not R. massiliae, caused a significant level of cell death or injury in HMEC-1 cells at 72 HPI, demonstrated by live-dead cell staining, annexin V staining and lactate dehydrogenase release. Monolayers of endothelial cells infected with R. conorii (ISF) showed a statistically significant decrease in electrical resistance across the monolayer compared to both R. massiliae-infected and uninfected cells at 72 HPI, suggesting increased endothelial permeability. Interestingly, pharmacological inhibitors of caspase-1 significantly reduced the release of lactate dehydrogenase by R. conorii (ISF)-infected HMEC-1 cells, which suggests the role of caspase-1 in mediating the death of endothelial cells. Taken together, our data illustrated that a distinct proinflammatory cytokine profile and endothelial dysfunction, as evidenced by endothelial cell death/injury and increased permeability, are associated with the severity of rickettsial diseases. PMID:26394396

  10. Influence of hormonal contraceptives on the pituitary response to LH/FSH-releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Carol, W; Lauterbach, H; Klinger, G; Möller, R

    1978-03-01

    In the pre-ovulatory phase the absolute and relative LH increase was much greater than during the luteal phase and less pronounced in the early follicular phase of the normal cycle. FSH release was affected only during the pre-ovulatory period, where a retarded, 3- or 4-fold increase compared to basal levels was recorded. In the women taking oral contraceptives of the conventional type the first LH-RH test showed gonadotropin responses similar to those obtained during the luteal phase of the controls. The second test brought a significantly lower LH response, suggesting an increasing exogenous steroid inhibition at the pituitary level in the course of the therapeutic cycle. This inhibition seems to be reversed during the monthly tablet-free interval. A particularly small and retarded gonadotropin response was observed in patients taking Deposiston. These results are discussed as to their clinical significance. PMID:357145

  11. How plants handle multiple stresses: hormonal interactions underlying responses to abiotic stress and insect herbivory.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duy; Rieu, Ivo; Mariani, Celestina; van Dam, Nicole M

    2016-08-01

    Adaptive plant responses to specific abiotic stresses or biotic agents are fine-tuned by a network of hormonal signaling cascades, including abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene, jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid. Moreover, hormonal cross-talk modulates plant responses to abiotic stresses and defenses against insect herbivores when they occur simultaneously. How such interactions affect plant responses under multiple stresses, however, is less understood, even though this may frequently occur in natural environments. Here, we review our current knowledge on how hormonal signaling regulates abiotic stress responses and defenses against insects, and discuss the few recent studies that attempted to dissect hormonal interactions occurring under simultaneous abiotic stress and herbivory. Based on this we hypothesize that drought stress enhances insect resistance due to synergistic interactions between JA and ABA signaling. Responses to flooding or waterlogging involve ethylene signaling, which likely reduces plant resistance to chewing herbivores due to its negative cross-talk with JA. However, the outcome of interactions between biotic and abiotic stress signaling is often plant and/or insect species-dependent and cannot simply be predicted based on general knowledge on the involvement of signaling pathways in single stress responses. More experimental data on non-model plant and insect species are needed to reveal general patterns and better understand the molecular mechanisms allowing plants to optimize their responses in complex environments. PMID:27095445

  12. Comparative analysis of chrysanthemum transcriptome in response to three RNA viruses: Cucumber mosaic virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus and Potato virus X.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hoseong; Jo, Yeonhwa; Lian, Sen; Jo, Kyoung-Min; Chu, Hyosub; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Kook; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cho, Won Kyong

    2015-06-01

    The chrysanthemum is one of popular flowers in the world and a host for several viruses. So far, molecular interaction studies between the chrysanthemum and viruses are limited. In this study, we carried out a transcriptome analysis of chrysanthemum in response to three different viruses including Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Potato virus X (PVX). A chrysanthemum 135K microarray derived from expressed sequence tags was successfully applied for the expression profiles of the chrysanthemum at early stage of virus infection. Finally, we identified a total of 125, 70 and 124 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for CMV, TSWV and PVX, respectively. Many DEGs were virus specific; however, 33 DEGs were commonly regulated by three viruses. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis identified a total of 132 GO terms, and of them, six GO terms related stress response and MCM complex were commonly identified for three viruses. Several genes functioning in stress response such as chitin response and ethylene mediated signaling pathway were up-regulated indicating their involvement in establishment of host immune system. In particular, TSWV infection significantly down-regulated genes related to DNA metabolic process including DNA replication, chromatin organization, histone modification and cytokinesis, and they are mostly targeted to nucleosome and MCM complex. Taken together, our comparative transcriptome analysis revealed several genes related to hormone mediated viral stress response and DNA modification. The identified chrysanthemums genes could be good candidates for further functional study associated with resistant to various plant viruses. PMID:25904110

  13. Identification of thyroid hormone response elements in vivo using mice expressing a tagged thyroid hormone receptor α1

    PubMed Central

    Dudazy-Gralla, Susi; Nordström, Kristina; Hofmann, Peter Josef; Meseh, Dina Abdul; Schomburg, Lutz; Vennström, Björn; Mittag, Jens

    2013-01-01

    TRα1 (thyroid hormone receptor α1) is well recognized for its importance in brain development. However, due to the difficulties in predicting TREs (thyroid hormone response elements) in silico and the lack of suitable antibodies against TRα1 for ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation), only a few direct TRα1 target genes have been identified in the brain. Here we demonstrate that mice expressing a TRα1–GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion protein from the endogenous TRα locus provide a valuable animal model to identify TRα1 target genes. To this end, we analysed DNA–TRα1 interactions in vivo using ChIP with an anti-GFP antibody. We validated our system using established TREs from neurogranin and hairless, and by verifying additional TREs from known TRα1 target genes in brain and heart. Moreover, our model system enabled the identification of novel TRα1 target genes such as RNF166 (ring finger protein 166). Our results demonstrate that transgenic mice expressing a tagged nuclear receptor constitute a feasible approach to study receptor–DNA interactions in vivo, circumventing the need for specific antibodies. Models like the TRα1–GFP mice may thus pave the way for genome-wide mapping of nuclear receptor-binding sites, and advance the identification of novel target genes in vivo. PMID:23398480

  14. Use of dried blood spots to define antibody response to the Strongyloides stercoralis recombinant antigen NIE.

    PubMed

    Mounsey, Kate; Kearns, Therese; Rampton, Melanie; Llewellyn, Stacey; King, Mallory; Holt, Deborah; Currie, Bart J; Andrews, Ross; Nutman, Thomas; McCarthy, James

    2014-10-01

    An approach to improve the diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infection is the use of serologic assays utilising the NIE antigen from S. stercoralis, with good diagnostic sensitivity and excellent specificity reported. Detection of antibody eluted from dried blood spots (DBS) has shown utility in large-scale seroepidemiological studies for a range of conditions and is appealing for use with children where sample collection is difficult. We adapted an existing NIE-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the testing of strongyloides antibody response on DBS, and evaluated it in a population screening and mass drug administration programme (MDA) for strongyloidiasis conducted in an Australian indigenous community. Study participants were treated with 200 μg/kg ivermectin (>15 kg) or 3× 400 mg albendazole (<15kg). The sensitivity of the NIE DBS-ELISA was determined by receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis to be 85.7%. A total of 214 DBS were collected from 184 participants across two screening and MDA encounters. A total of 27 of 164 participants (16.5%) tested positive for S. stercoralis NIE-DBS prior to MDA treatment, and 6 of 50 participants (12.0%) tested positive after treatment. These prevalence values are similar to those documented by standard serology in the same community. For 30 participants where a DBS was collected at both MDA 1 and 2, a significant decline in ELISA values was evident post treatment (0.12-0.02, p=0.0012). These results are in agreement with previous studies documenting the high seroprevalence of S. stercoralis in remote Australian Indigenous communities, and suggest that collection of dried blood spots may be a useful approach for field diagnosis of S. stercoralis seroprevalence. PMID:25051188

  15. Use of dried blood spots to define antibody response to the Strongyloides stercoralis recombinant antigen NIE

    PubMed Central

    Mounsey, Kate; Kearns, Therese; Rampton, Melanie; Llewellyn, Stacey; King, Mallory; Holt, Deborah; Currie, Bart J.; Andrews, Ross; Nutman, Thomas; McCarthy, James

    2015-01-01

    An approach to improve the diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infection is the use of serologic assays utilising the NIE antigen from S. stercoralis, with good diagnostic sensitivity and excellent specificity reported. Detection of antibody eluted from dried blood spots (DBS) has shown utility in large-scale seroepidemiological studies for a range of conditions and is appealing for use with children where sample collection is difficult. We adapted an existing NIE-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the testing of strongyloides antibody response on DBS, and evaluated it in a population screening and mass drug administration programme (MDA) for strongyloidiasis conducted in an Australian indigenous community. Study participants were treated with 200 μg/kg ivermectin (>15 kg) or 3× 400 mg albendazole (<15 kg). The sensitivity of the NIE DBS-ELISA was determined by receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis to be 85.7%. A total of 214 DBS were collected from 184 participants across two screening and MDA encounters. A total of 27 of 164 participants (16.5%) tested positive for S. stercoralis NIE-DBS prior to MDA treatment, and 6 of 50 participants (12.0%) tested positive after treatment. These prevalence values are similar to those documented by standard serology in the same community. For 30 participants where a DBS was collected at both MDA 1 and 2, a significant decline in ELISA values was evident post treatment (0.12–0.02, p = 0.0012). These results are in agreement with previous studies documenting the high seroprevalence of S. stercoralis in remote Australian Indigenous communities, and suggest that collection of dried blood spots may be a useful approach for field diagnosis of S. stercoralis seroprevalence. PMID:25051188

  16. Central stimulation of hormone release and the proliferative response of lymphocytes in humans.

    PubMed

    Juránková, E; Jezová, D; Vigas, M

    1995-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) may communicate with the immune system by direct innervation of lymphoid organs and/or by neurotransmitters and changes in neuroendocrine functioning and hormone release. The consequences of selective transient changes in circulating hormones on immune functioning in humans have not yet been studied. To address this problem, the authors evaluated the lymphoproliferative responses to optimal and suboptimal concentrations of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and pokeweek mitogen (PWM) under selective enhancement of circulating growth hormone, prolactin, or norepinephrine. The authors failed to demonstrate any effect of elevated growth hormone levels after clonidine challenge on the lymphoproliferative response to mitogens. Similarly, the results did not show any effect of elevated prolactin concentrations induced by domperidone administration on the immune test. Exposure of volunteers to cold resulted in elevation of plasma norepinephrine levels without changes in growth hormone, epinephrine, or cortisol secretion. Cold exposure induced elevation of plasma norepinephrine and reduction of the lymphoproliferative response to the suboptimal dosage of PHA. The reduction was significant 180 and 240 min after exposure. These results are indicative of a relationship between norepinephrine and immunity. PMID:8534322

  17. A Hormone-responsive 3D Culture Model of the Human Mammary Gland Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Speroni, Lucia; Sweeney, Michael F; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M

    2016-01-01

    The process of mammary epithelial morphogenesis is influenced by hormones. The study of hormone action on the breast epithelium using 2D cultures is limited to cell proliferation and gene expression endpoints. However, in the organism, mammary morphogenesis occurs in a 3D environment. 3D culture systems help bridge the gap between monolayer cell culture (2D) and the complexity of the organism. Herein, we describe a 3D culture model of the human breast epithelium that is suitable to study hormone action. It uses the commercially available hormone-responsive human breast epithelial cell line, T47D, and rat tail collagen type 1 as a matrix. This 3D culture model responds to the main mammotropic hormones: estradiol, progestins and prolactin. The influence of these hormones on epithelial morphogenesis can be observed after 1- or 2-week treatment according to the endpoint. The 3D cultures can be harvested for analysis of epithelial morphogenesis, cell proliferation and gene expression. PMID:26891095

  18. Differential Responses to Steroid Hormones in Fibroblasts From the Vocal Fold, Trachea, and Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Mukudai, Shigeyuki; Matsuda, Ken Ichi; Nishio, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Yoichiro; Bando, Hideki; Hirota, Ryuichi; Sakaguchi, Hirofumi; Hisa, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that fibroblasts are target cells for steroids such as sex hormones and corticoids. The characteristics of fibroblasts vary among tissues and organs. Our aim in this study is to examine differences in responses to steroid hormones among fibroblasts from different cervicothoracic regions. We compared the actions of steroid hormones on cultured fibroblasts from the vocal folds, which are considered to be the primary target of steroid hormones, and the trachea and esophagus in adult male rats. Expression of steroid hormone receptors (androgen receptor, estrogen receptor α, and glucocorticoid receptor) was identified by immunofluorescence histochemistry. Androgen receptor was much more frequently expressed in fibroblasts from the vocal fold than in those from the trachea and esophagus. Cell proliferation analysis showed that administration of testosterone, estradiol, or corticosterone suppressed growth of all 3 types of fibroblasts. However, mRNA expression for extracellular matrix–associated genes, including procollagen I and III and elastin, and hyaluronic acid synthase I was elevated only by addition of testosterone to fibroblasts from the vocal fold. These results indicate that each steroid hormone exerts region-specific effects on cervicothoracic fibroblasts with different properties through binding to specific receptors. PMID:25514085

  19. Hyperspectral Imaging for Determining Pigment Contents in Cucumber Leaves in Response to Angular Leaf Spot Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yan-Ru; Li, Xiaoli; Yu, Ke-Qiang; Cheng, Fan; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging technique was employed to determine spatial distributions of chlorophyll (Chl), and carotenoid (Car) contents in cucumber leaves in response to angular leaf spot (ALS). Altogether, 196 hyperspectral images of cucumber leaves with five infection severities of ALS were captured by a hyperspectral imaging system in the range of 380–1,030 nm covering 512 wavebands. Mean spectrum were extracted from regions of interest (ROIs) in the hyperspectral images. Partial least square regression (PLSR) models were used to develop quantitative analysis between the spectra and the pigment contents measured by biochemical analyses. In addition, regression coefficients (RCs) in PLSR models were employed to select important wavelengths (IWs) for modelling. It was found that the PLSR models developed by the IWs provided the optimal measurement results with correlation coefficient (R) of prediction of 0.871 and 0.876 for Chl and Car contents, respectively. Finally, Chl and Car distributions in cucumber leaves with the ALS infection were mapped by applying the optimal models pixel-wise to the hyperspectral images. The results proved the feasibility of hyperspectral imaging for visualizing the pigment distributions in cucumber leaves in response to ALS. PMID:27283050

  20. Hyperspectral Imaging for Determining Pigment Contents in Cucumber Leaves in Response to Angular Leaf Spot Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan-Ru; Li, Xiaoli; Yu, Ke-Qiang; Cheng, Fan; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging technique was employed to determine spatial distributions of chlorophyll (Chl), and carotenoid (Car) contents in cucumber leaves in response to angular leaf spot (ALS). Altogether, 196 hyperspectral images of cucumber leaves with five infection severities of ALS were captured by a hyperspectral imaging system in the range of 380-1,030 nm covering 512 wavebands. Mean spectrum were extracted from regions of interest (ROIs) in the hyperspectral images. Partial least square regression (PLSR) models were used to develop quantitative analysis between the spectra and the pigment contents measured by biochemical analyses. In addition, regression coefficients (RCs) in PLSR models were employed to select important wavelengths (IWs) for modelling. It was found that the PLSR models developed by the IWs provided the optimal measurement results with correlation coefficient (R) of prediction of 0.871 and 0.876 for Chl and Car contents, respectively. Finally, Chl and Car distributions in cucumber leaves with the ALS infection were mapped by applying the optimal models pixel-wise to the hyperspectral images. The results proved the feasibility of hyperspectral imaging for visualizing the pigment distributions in cucumber leaves in response to ALS. PMID:27283050

  1. Liver spots

    MedlinePlus

    Sun-induced skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The coloring may be due to aging, exposure to the sun ...

  2. Hormone naïve prostate cancer: predicting and maximizing response intervals

    PubMed Central

    Moul, Judd W

    2015-01-01

    Hormone naïve advanced prostate cancer is subdivided into two disease states: biochemical recurrence and traditional M1 (metastatic) prostate cancer and characterized by no prior hormonal therapy or androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). In biochemical recurrence/prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence, men should be risk-stratified based on their PSA doubling time, the Gleason score and the timing of the recurrence. In general, only men who are at high risk should be considered for early/immediate ADT although this is best done using shared decision with the patient. The type of ADT to be used in biochemical recurrence ranging from oral-only peripheral blockade (peripheral androgen deprivation) to complete hormonal therapy (combined androgen blockade [CAB]) remains in debate owing to lack of randomized controlled trials (RCT). However, there is good RCT support for use of intermittent hormonal therapy (IHT). There is also limited research on biomarker response (PSA and testosterone decline) to predict prognosis. On the other hand, in the setting of M1 hormone naïve prostate cancer, there are many more RCT's to inform our decisions. CAB and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonists perhaps provide a slight efficacy advantage while IHT may be slightly inferior with minimal M1 disease. The PSA nadir at 7 months after starting ADT is a powerful prognostic tool for M1 patients. There is growing recognition that serum testosterone (T) control while on ADT is linked to the development of castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Especially for a M1 patient, maintaining a serum T below 20–30 ng dl−1 prolongs the response to ADT. Novel oral agents (abiraterone and enzalutamide) may soon find use in hormone naïve disease and may alter the treatment landscape. Despite over 75 years of experience with ADT, many questions remain, and the field continues to evolve. PMID:26112479

  3. Spotted cutworm, Xestia c-nigrum (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) responses to sex pheromone and blacklight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traps baited with the sex pheromone blend of (Z7)- and (Z5)-tetradecenyl acetate captured significant numbers of male spotted cutworm moths, Xestia c-nigrum (L.). Nearly no males were captured in traps baited with (Z7)-tetradecenyl acetate, the major pheromone component. Antennae of spotted cutworm ...

  4. Hormone response element binding proteins: novel regulators of vitamin D and estrogen signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lisse, Thomas S.; Hewison, Martin; Adams, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Insights from vitamin D-resistant New World primates and their human homologues as models of natural and pathological insensitivity to sterol/steroid action have uncovered a family of novel intracellular vitamin D and estrogen regulatory proteins involved in hormone action. The proteins, known as “vitamin D or estrogen response element-binding proteins”, behave as potent cis-acting, transdominant regulators to inhibit steroid receptor binding to DNA response elements and is responsible for vitamin D and estrogen resistances. This set of interactors belongs to the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) family of previously known pre-mRNA-interacting proteins. This review provides new insights into the mechanism by which these novel regulators of signaling and metabolism can act to regulate responses to vitamin D and estrogen. In addition the review also describes other molecules that are known to influence nuclear receptor signaling through interaction with hormone response elements. PMID:21236284

  5. Somatostatin and counterregulatory hormone responses to hypoglycaemia in diabetics with and without autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Castaner, M; Webb, S; Levy, I; Rios, M; Casamitjana, R; Bergua, M; Figuerola, D; Rivera, F

    1985-04-01

    Blood glucose, somatostatin and counterregulatory hormone responses to an i.v. bolus of insulin were studied in insulin-dependent diabetics with different degrees of autonomic neuropathy, after 24 hours of optimised control with an artificial pancreas. There was no plasma catecholamine response in patients with a sympathetic autonomic neuropathy. A normal somatostatin response to hypoglycemia was absent in patients with autonomic neuropathy. Glucagon did not respond in diabetics, independently of the degree of neuropathy. In all diabetics, cortisol and GH were stimulated. Absence of warning symptoms was observed in patients with catecholamine deficiency. Despite different hormone behaviour, blood glucose fall and recovery were similar in all diabetic groups. It is concluded that the glucagon response to insulin hypoglycaemia is reduced in all type 1 longstanding diabetics, whereas catecholamine and somatostatin responses are only abolished in those with autonomic neuropathy. Patients with sympathetic neuropathy would be considered at increased risk severe hypoglycaemia. PMID:2861121

  6. Growth Hormone Effects in Immune Stress: AKT/eNOS Signaling Module in the Cellular Response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The activation of the constitutive endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) and expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) with subsequent nitric oxide production are among the early cellular responses that follow in a systemic exposure of animals to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Growth hormone (GH) has been sh...

  7. NEONATAL SYMPATHECTOMY COMPROMISES DEVELOPMENT OF RESPONSES OF ORNITHINE DECARBOXYLASE TO HORMONAL STIMULATION IN PERIPHERAL TISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The onset of sympathetic innervation has been shown to play a role in the development of postsynaptic reactivity to stimulation. n the current study, we examined whether this relationship extends to responses evoked by hormonal stimuli. ats denervated at birth by 6-hydroxydopamin...

  8. HPA-Axis Hormone Modulation of Stress Response Circuitry Activity in Women with Remitted Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Holsen, Laura M.; Lancaster, Katie; Klibanski, Anne; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Cherkerzian, Sara; Buka, Stephen; Goldstein, Jill M.

    2013-01-01

    Decades of clinical and basic research indicate significant links between altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis hormone dynamics and major depressive disorder (MDD). Recent neuroimaging studies of MDD highlight abnormalities in stress response circuitry regions which play a role in the regulation of the HPA-axes. However, there is a dearth of research examining these systems in parallel, especially as related to potential trait characteristics. The current study addresses this gap by investigating neural responses to a mild visual stress challenge with real-time assessment of adrenal hormones in women with MDD in remission and controls. 15 women with recurrent MDD in remission (rMDD) and 15 healthy control women were scanned on a 3T Siemens MR scanner while viewing neutral and negative (stress-evoking) stimuli. Blood samples were obtained before, during, and after scanning for measurement of HPA-axis hormone levels. Compared to controls, rMDD women demonstrated higher anxiety ratings, increased cortisol levels, and hyperactivation in the amygdala and hippocampus, p<0.05, FWE-corrected in response to the stress challenge. Among rMDD women, amygdala activation was negatively related to cortisol changes and positively associated with duration of remission. Findings presented here provide evidence for differential effects of altered HPA-axis hormone dynamics on hyperactivity in stress response circuitry regions elicited by a well-validated stress paradigm in women with recurrent MDD in remission. PMID:23891965

  9. Gill transcriptome response to changes in environmental calcium in the green spotted puffer fish

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Calcium ion is tightly regulated in body fluids and for euryhaline fish, which are exposed to rapid changes in environmental [Ca2+], homeostasis is especially challenging. The gill is the main organ of active calcium uptake and therefore plays a crucial role in the maintenance of calcium ion homeostasis. To study the molecular basis of the short-term responses to changing calcium availability, the whole gill transcriptome obtained by Super Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SuperSAGE) of the euryhaline teleost green spotted puffer fish, Tetraodon nigroviridis, exposed to water with altered [Ca2+] was analysed. Results Transfer of T. nigroviridis from 10 ppt water salinity containing 2.9 mM Ca2+ to high (10 mM Ca2+ ) and low (0.01 mM Ca2+) calcium water of similar salinity for 2-12 h resulted in 1,339 differentially expressed SuperSAGE tags (26-bp transcript identifiers) in gills. Of these 869 tags (65%) were mapped to T. nigroviridis cDNAs or genomic DNA and 497 (57%) were assigned to known proteins. Thirteen percent of the genes matched multiple tags indicating alternative RNA transcripts. The main enriched gene ontology groups belong to Ca2+ signaling/homeostasis but also muscle contraction, cytoskeleton, energy production/homeostasis and tissue remodeling. K-means clustering identified co-expressed transcripts with distinct patterns in response to water [Ca2+] and exposure time. Conclusions The generated transcript expression patterns provide a framework of novel water calcium-responsive genes in the gill during the initial response after transfer to different [Ca2+]. This molecular response entails initial perception of alterations, activation of signaling networks and effectors and suggests active remodeling of cytoskeletal proteins during the initial acclimation process. Genes related to energy production and energy homeostasis are also up-regulated, probably reflecting the increased energetic needs of the acclimation response. This study is the

  10. Responses of sex steroid hormones to different intensities of exercise in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Sato, Koji; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Katayama, Keisho; Ishida, Koji; Kanao, Yoji; Saito, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that acute exercise elevates sex steroid hormone concentrations in rodents and that sprint exercise increases circulating testosterone in healthy young men. However, the effect of different exercise intensities on sex steroid hormone responses at different levels of physical fitness is still unclear. In this study, we compared circulating sex steroid hormone responses at different exercise intensities in athletes and non-athletes. Eight male endurance athletes and 11 non-athletes performed two 15 min sessions of submaximal exercise at 40 and 70% peak oxygen uptake (V̇(O2peak)), respectively, and exercised at 90% V̇(O2peak) until exhaustion. Venous blood samples were collected during the last minute of each submaximal exercise session and immediately after exhaustion. Acute exercise at 40, 70 and 90% V̇(O2peak) induced significant increases in serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and free testosterone concentrations in non-athletes. On the contrary, only 90% V̇O2 peak exercise led to an increase in serum DHEA and free testosterone concentrations in athletes. Serum 5α-dihydrotestosterone concentrations increased with 90% V̇(O2peak) exercise in both athletes and non-athletes. Additionally, serum estradiol concentrations were significantly increased at moderate and high exercise intensities in both athletes and non-athletes. These results indicate that in endurance athletes, serum sex steroid hormone concentrations, especially serum DHEA and 5α-dihydrotestosterone concentrations, increased only with high-intensity exercise, suggesting that different responses of sex steroid hormone secretion are induced by different exercise intensities in individuals with low and high levels of physical fitness. In athletes, therefore, high-intensity exercise may be required to increase circulating sex steroid hormone concentrations. PMID:26518151

  11. Prolactin and growth hormone responses to hypoglycemia in patients with systemic sclerosis and psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rovensky, Jozef; Raffayova, Helena; Imrich, Richard; Radikova, Zofia; Penesova, Adela; Macho, Ladislav; Lukac, Jozef; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Vigas, Milan

    2006-06-01

    This study compared prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) responses to hypoglycemia in premenopausal females with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) with those in matched healthy controls. No differences were found in glucose and GH responses to hypoglycemia in both groups of patients compared to controls. SSc patients had lower PRL response (P < 0.05) to hypoglycemia compared to controls. PRL response tended to be lower also in PsA patients, however the difference did not reach level of statistical significance (P = 0.11). The present study showed decreased PRL response to hypoglycemia in premenopausal females with SSc. PMID:16855141

  12. IP-10 measured by Dry Plasma Spots as biomarker for therapy responses in Mycobacterium Tuberculosis infection

    PubMed Central

    Tonby, Kristian; Ruhwald, Morten; Kvale, Dag; Dyrhol-Riise, Anne Ma

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has huge impact on human morbidity and mortality and biomarkers to support rapid TB diagnosis and ensure treatment initiation and cure are needed, especially in regions with high prevalence of multi-drug resistant TB. Soluble interferon gamma inducible protein 10 (IP-10) analyzed from dry plasma spots (DPS) has potential as an immunodiagnostic marker in TB infection. We analyzed IP-10 levels in plasma directly and extracted from DPS in parallel by ELISA from 34 clinically well characterized patients with TB disease before and throughout 24 weeks of effective anti-TB chemotherapy. We detected a significant decline of IP-10 levels in both plasma and DPS already after two weeks of therapy with good correlation between the tests. This was observed both in pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB. In conclusion, plasma IP-10 may serve as an early biomarker for anti-TB chemotherapy responses and the IP-10 DPS method has potential to be developed into a point-of care test for use in resource-limited settings. Further studies must be performed to validate the use of IP-10 DPS in TB high endemic countries. PMID:25783975

  13. Metabolic product response profiles of Cherax quadricarinatus towards white spot syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Fan, Weiwei; Ye, Yangfang; Chen, Zhen; Shao, Yina; Xie, Xiaolu; Zhang, Weiwei; Liu, Hai-Peng; Li, Chenghua

    2016-08-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most devastating viral pathogens in both shrimp and crayfish farms, which often causes disease outbreak and leads to massive moralities with significant economic losses of aquaculture. However, limited research has been carried out on the intrinsic mechanisms toward WSSV challenge at the metabolic level. To gain comprehensive insight into metabolic responses induced by WSSV, we applied an NMR approach to investigate metabolic changes of crayfish gill and hepatopancreas infected by WSSV for 1, 6 and 12 h. In gill, an enhanced energy metabolism was observed in WSSV-challenged crayfish samples at 1 h, as marked by increased glucose, alanine, methionine, glutamate and uracil. Afterwards, energy metabolism, lipid metabolism as well as osmoregulation were markedly increased at 6 hpi, as shown by elevated glucose, alanine, methionine, fumarate, tyrosine, tryptophan, histidine, phosphorylcholine, betaine and uracil, whereas no obvious metabolites change was detected at 12 hpi. As for hepatopancreas, disturbed lipid metabolism and induced osmotic regulation was found at 6 hpi based on the metabolic biomarkers such as branched chain amino acids, threonine, alanine, methionine, glutamate, glutamine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lactate and lipid. However, no obvious metabolic change was shown in hepatopancreas at both 1 hpi and 12 hpi. Taken together, our present results provided essential metabolic information about host-pathogen interactions in crayfish, which shed new light on our understanding of WSSV infection at metabolic level. PMID:27068762

  14. Small Molecule Inhibited Parathyroid Hormone Mediated cAMP Response by N–Terminal Peptide Binding

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amit; Baumann, Monika; Balbach, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Ligand binding to certain classes of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) stimulates the rapid synthesis of cAMP through G protein. Human parathyroid hormone (PTH), a member of class B GPCRs, binds to its receptor via its N–terminal domain, thereby activating the pathway to this secondary messenger inside cells. Presently, GPCRs are the target of many pharmaceuticals however, these drugs target only a small fraction of structurally known GPCRs (about 10%). Coordination complexes are gaining interest due to their wide applications in the medicinal field. In the present studies we explored the potential of a coordination complex of Zn(II) and anthracenyl–terpyridine as a modulator of the parathyroid hormone response. Preferential interactions at the N–terminal domain of the peptide hormone were manifested by suppressed cAMP generation inside the cells. These observations contribute a regulatory component to the current GPCR–cAMP paradigm, where not the receptor itself, but the activating hormone is a target. To our knowledge, this is the first report about a coordination complex modulating GPCR activity at the level of deactivating its agonist. Developing such molecules might help in the control of pathogenic PTH function such as hyperparathyroidism, where control of excess hormonal activity is essentially required. PMID:26932583

  15. Spot cooling. Part 1: Human responses to cooling with air jets

    SciTech Connect

    Melikov, A.K.; Halkjaer, L.; Arakelian, R.S.; Fanger, P.O.

    1994-12-31

    Eight standing male subjects and a thermal manikin were studied for thermal, physiological, and subjective responses to cooling with an air jet at room temperatures of 28 C, 33 C, and 38 C and a constant relative humidity of 50%. The subjects wore a standard uniform and performed light work. A vertical jet and a horizontal jet were employed The target area of the jet, i.e., the cross section of the jet where it first met the subject, had a diameter of 0.4 m and was located 0.5 m from the outlet. Experiments were performed at average temperatures at the jet target area of 20 C, 24 C, and 28 C. Each experiment lasted 190 minutes and was performed with three average velocities at the target area: 1 and 2 m/s and the preferred velocity selected by the subjects. The impact of the relative humidity of the room air, the jet`s turbulence intensity, and the use of a helmet on the physiological and subjective responses of the eight subjects was also studied The responses of the eight subjects were compared with the responses of a group of 29 subjects. The spot cooling improved the thermal conditions of the occupants. The average general thermal sensation for the eight subjects was linearly correlated to the average mean skin temperature and the average sweat rate. An average mean skin temperature of 33 C and an average sweat rate of 33 g{center_dot}h{sup {minus}1} m{sup {minus}2} were found to correspond to a neutral thermal sensation. The local thermal sensation at the neck and at the arm exposed to the cooling jet was found to be a function of the room air temperature and the local air velocity and temperature of the jet. The turbulence intensity of the cooling jet and the humidity of the room air had no impact on the subjects` physiological and subjective responses. Large individual differences were observed in the evaluation of the environment and in the air velocity preferred by the subjects.

  16. A Hormone-Responsive C1-Domain-Containing Protein At5g17960 Mediates Stress Response in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Ravindran Vijay; Mohanty, Bijayalaxmi; Verma, Vivek; Wijaya, Edward; Kumar, Prakash P.

    2015-01-01

    Phytohormones play a critical role in mediating plant stress response. They employ a variety of proteins for coordinating such processes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, some members of a Cys-rich protein family known as C1-clan proteins were involved in stress response, but the actual function of the protein family is largely unknown. We studied At5g17960, a C1-clan protein member that possesses three unique C1 signature domains viz. C1_2, C1_3 and ZZ/PHD type. Additionally, we identified 72 other proteins in A. thaliana that contain all three unique signature domains. Subsequently, the 73 proteins were phylogenetically classified into IX subgroups. Promoter motif analysis of the 73 genes identified the presence of hormone-responsive and stress-responsive putative cis-regulatory elements. Furthermore, we observed that transcript levels of At5g17960 were induced in response to different hormones and stress treatments. At1g35610 and At3g13760, two other members of subgroup IV, also showed upregulation upon GA3, biotic and abiotic stress treatments. Moreover, seedlings of independent transgenic A. thaliana lines ectopically expressing or suppressing At5g17960 also showed differential regulation of several abiotic stress-responsive marker genes. Thus, our data suggest that C1-domain-containing proteins have a role to play in plant hormone-mediated stress responses, thereby assigning a putative function for the C1-clan protein family. PMID:25590629

  17. Shrimp miRNAs regulate innate immune response against white spot syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Kaewkascholkul, Napol; Somboonviwat, Kulwadee; Asakawa, Shuichi; Hirono, Ikuo; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya

    2016-07-01

    MicroRNAs are short noncoding RNAs of RNA interference pathways that regulate gene expression through partial complementary base-pairing to target mRNAs. In this study, miRNAs that are expressed in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-infected Penaeus monodon, were identified using next generation sequencing. Forty-six miRNA homologs were identified from WSSV-infected shrimp hemocyte. Stem-loop real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that 11 out of 16 selected miRNAs were differentially expressed upon WSSV infection. Of those, pmo-miR-315 and pmo-miR-750 were highly responsive miRNAs. miRNA target prediction revealed that the miRNAs were targeted at 5'UTR, ORF, and 3'UTR of several immune-related genes such as genes encoding antimicrobial peptides, signaling transduction proteins, heat shock proteins, oxidative stress proteins, proteinases or proteinase inhibitors, proteins in blood clotting system, apoptosis-related proteins, proteins in prophenoloxidase system, pattern recognition proteins and other immune molecules. The highly conserved miRNA homolog, pmo-bantam, was characterized for its function in shrimp. The pmo-bantam was predicted to target the 3'UTR of Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor (KuSPI). Binding of pmo-bantam to the target sequence of KuSPI gene was analyzed by luciferase reporter assay. Correlation of pmo-bantam and KuSPI expression was observed in lymphoid organ of WSSV-infected shrimp. These results implied that miRNAs might play roles as immune gene regulators in shrimp antiviral response. PMID:26945623

  18. Yield response of new runner-type peanut cultivars to fungicide inputs for leaf spot control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early and late leaf spot caused by Cercospora arachidicola and Cercosporidium personatum, respectively, cause substantial economic losses in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) through direct reduction of yield and costs associated with fungicidal control. Recently, several new peanut cultivars have been rele...

  19. Difference in growth hormone response to growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) testing following GHRH subacute treatment in normal aging and growth hormone-deficient adults: possible perspectives for therapeutic use of GHRH or its analogs in elderly subjects?

    PubMed

    Iovino, M; Triggiani, V; Giagulli, V A; Iovine, N; Licchelli, B; Resta, F; Sabbà, C; Tafaro, E; Solimando, A; Tommasicchio, A; Guastamacchia, E

    2011-06-01

    The somatotroph axis function shows a decline in the elderly (somatopause). In particular growth hormone (GH) response to GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) is reduced in aged man but less than that observed in GH-deficient adults (GHDAs). Plasma GH response to GHRH (1 µg/kg BW) was significantly lower in four GHDAs than in seven healthy aged men 30, 60, and 90 min after acute GHRH administration. To verify whether a priming regimen might be able to increase the reduced GH response to GHRH, both healthy aged men and GHDA patients underwent repetitive administration of GHRH (100 µg GHRH intravenously as a single morning dose, every 2 days for 12 days). After the GHRH-priming regimen, plasma GH values 30, 60, and 90 min after the acute GHRH test were significantly higher than values at the corresponding time points before priming regimen in healthy aged men but not in GHDA patients. These findings confirmed that somatotroph cells become less sensitive to GHRH with normal aging and demonstrate that repetitive administration of GHRH restores the attenuated response only in healthy aged men but not in GHDA patients. This could support the possible use of GHRH or its analogs instead of recombinant human GH in elderly patients with the advantage of preserving the endogenous pulses of GH with the secretion of the different isoforms of GH. However, concerns arise about the possible role of these molecules in tumorigenesis and tumor growth promotion. PMID:20843274

  20. Genetic Architecture of a Hormonal Response to Gene Knockdown in Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Rueppell, Olav; Huang, Zachary Y.; Wang, Ying; Fondrk, M. Kim; Page, Robert E.; Amdam, Gro V.

    2015-01-01

    Variation in endocrine signaling is proposed to underlie the evolution and regulation of social life histories, but the genetic architecture of endocrine signaling is still poorly understood. An excellent example of a hormonally influenced set of social traits is found in the honey bee (Apis mellifera): a dynamic and mutually suppressive relationship between juvenile hormone (JH) and the yolk precursor protein vitellogenin (Vg) regulates behavioral maturation and foraging of workers. Several other traits cosegregate with these behavioral phenotypes, comprising the pollen hoarding syndrome (PHS) one of the best-described animal behavioral syndromes. Genotype differences in responsiveness of JH to Vg are a potential mechanistic basis for the PHS. Here, we reduced Vg expression via RNA interference in progeny from a backcross between 2 selected lines of honey bees that differ in JH responsiveness to Vg reduction and measured JH response and ovary size, which represents another key aspect of the PHS. Genetic mapping based on restriction site-associated DNA tag sequencing identified suggestive quantitative trait loci (QTL) for ovary size and JH responsiveness. We confirmed genetic effects on both traits near many QTL that had been identified previously for their effect on various PHS traits. Thus, our results support a role for endocrine control of complex traits at a genetic level. Furthermore, this first example of a genetic map of a hormonal response to gene knockdown in a social insect helps to refine the genetic understanding of complex behaviors and the physiology that may underlie behavioral control in general. PMID:25596612

  1. AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2 Intersects Hormonal Signals in the Regulation of Tomato Fruit Ripening.

    PubMed

    Breitel, Dario A; Chappell-Maor, Louise; Meir, Sagit; Panizel, Irina; Puig, Clara Pons; Hao, Yanwei; Yifhar, Tamar; Yasuor, Hagai; Zouine, Mohamed; Bouzayen, Mondher; Granell Richart, Antonio; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph

    2016-03-01

    The involvement of ethylene in fruit ripening is well documented, though knowledge regarding the crosstalk between ethylene and other hormones in ripening is lacking. We discovered that AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2A (ARF2A), a recognized auxin signaling component, functions in the control of ripening. ARF2A expression is ripening regulated and reduced in the rin, nor and nr ripening mutants. It is also responsive to exogenous application of ethylene, auxin and abscisic acid (ABA). Over-expressing ARF2A in tomato resulted in blotchy ripening in which certain fruit regions turn red and possess accelerated ripening. ARF2A over-expressing fruit displayed early ethylene emission and ethylene signaling inhibition delayed their ripening phenotype, suggesting ethylene dependency. Both green and red fruit regions showed the induction of ethylene signaling components and master regulators of ripening. Comprehensive hormone profiling revealed that altered ARF2A expression in fruit significantly modified abscisates, cytokinins and salicylic acid while gibberellic acid and auxin metabolites were unaffected. Silencing of ARF2A further validated these observations as reducing ARF2A expression let to retarded fruit ripening, parthenocarpy and a disturbed hormonal profile. Finally, we show that ARF2A both homodimerizes and interacts with the ABA STRESS RIPENING (ASR1) protein, suggesting that ASR1 might be linking ABA and ethylene-dependent ripening. These results revealed that ARF2A interconnects signals of ethylene and additional hormones to co-ordinate the capacity of fruit tissue to initiate the complex ripening process. PMID:26959229

  2. AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2 Intersects Hormonal Signals in the Regulation of Tomato Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Meir, Sagit; Panizel, Irina; Puig, Clara Pons; Hao, Yanwei; Yifhar, Tamar; Yasuor, Hagai; Zouine, Mohamed; Bouzayen, Mondher; Granell Richart, Antonio; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of ethylene in fruit ripening is well documented, though knowledge regarding the crosstalk between ethylene and other hormones in ripening is lacking. We discovered that AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2A (ARF2A), a recognized auxin signaling component, functions in the control of ripening. ARF2A expression is ripening regulated and reduced in the rin, nor and nr ripening mutants. It is also responsive to exogenous application of ethylene, auxin and abscisic acid (ABA). Over-expressing ARF2A in tomato resulted in blotchy ripening in which certain fruit regions turn red and possess accelerated ripening. ARF2A over-expressing fruit displayed early ethylene emission and ethylene signaling inhibition delayed their ripening phenotype, suggesting ethylene dependency. Both green and red fruit regions showed the induction of ethylene signaling components and master regulators of ripening. Comprehensive hormone profiling revealed that altered ARF2A expression in fruit significantly modified abscisates, cytokinins and salicylic acid while gibberellic acid and auxin metabolites were unaffected. Silencing of ARF2A further validated these observations as reducing ARF2A expression let to retarded fruit ripening, parthenocarpy and a disturbed hormonal profile. Finally, we show that ARF2A both homodimerizes and interacts with the ABA STRESS RIPENING (ASR1) protein, suggesting that ASR1 might be linking ABA and ethylene-dependent ripening. These results revealed that ARF2A interconnects signals of ethylene and additional hormones to co-ordinate the capacity of fruit tissue to initiate the complex ripening process. PMID:26959229

  3. A second corticotropin-releasing hormone gene (CRH2) is conserved across vertebrate classes and expressed in the hindbrain of a basal neopterygian fish, the spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus).

    PubMed

    Grone, Brian P; Maruska, Karen P

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the origins of the vertebrate stress-response system, we searched sequenced vertebrate genomes for genes resembling corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). We found that vertebrate genomes possess, in addition to CRH, another gene that resembles CRH in sequence and syntenic environment. This paralogous gene was previously identified only in the elephant shark (a holocephalan), but we find it also in marsupials, monotremes, lizards, turtles, birds, and fishes. We examined the relationship of this second vertebrate CRH gene, which we name CRH2, to CRH1 (previously known as CRH) and urocortin1/urotensin1 (UCN1/UTS1) in primitive fishes, teleosts, and tetrapods. The paralogs CRH1 and CRH2 likely evolved via duplication of CRH during a whole-genome duplication early in the vertebrate lineage. CRH2 was subsequently lost in both teleost fishes and eutherian mammals but retained in other lineages. To determine where CRH2 is expressed relative to CRH1 and UTS1, we used in situ hybridization on brain tissue from spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus), a neopterygian fish closely related to teleosts. In situ hybridization revealed widespread distribution of both crh1 and uts1 in the brain. Expression of crh2 was restricted to the putative secondary gustatory/secondary visceral nucleus, which also expressed calcitonin-related polypeptide alpha (calca), a marker of parabrachial nucleus in mammals. Thus, the evolutionary history of CRH2 includes restricted expression in the brain, sequence changes, and gene loss, likely reflecting release of selective constraints following whole-genome duplication. The discovery of CRH2 opens many new possibilities for understanding the diverse functions of the CRH family of peptides across vertebrates. PMID:25521515

  4. Effects of oestrogen on microRNA expression in hormone-responsive breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Lorenzo; Ravo, Maria; Nassa, Giovanni; Tarallo, Roberta; De Filippo, Maria Rosaria; Giurato, Giorgio; Cirillo, Francesca; Stellato, Claudia; Silvestro, Silvana; Cantarella, Concita; Rizzo, Francesca; Cimino, Daniela; Friard, Olivier; Biglia, Nicoletta; De Bortoli, Michele; Cicatiello, Luigi; Nola, Ernesto; Weisz, Alessandro

    2012-06-01

    Oestrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that mediates oestrogen effects in hormone-responsive cells. Following oestrogenic activation, ERα directly regulates the transcription of target genes via DNA binding. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of small noncoding RNAs that function as negative regulators of protein-coding gene expression. They are found aberrantly expressed or mutated in cancer, suggesting their crucial role as either oncogenes or tumour suppressor genes. Here, we analysed changes in miRNA expression in response to oestrogen in hormone-responsive breast cancer MCF-7 and ZR-75.1 cells by microarray-mediated expression profiling. This led to the identification of 172 miRNAs up- or down-regulated by ERα in response to 17β-oestradiol, of which 52 are similarly regulated by the hormone in the two cell models investigated. To identify mechanisms by which ERα exerts its effects on oestrogen-responsive miRNA genes, the oestrogen-dependent miRNA expression profiles were integrated with global in vivo ERα binding site mapping in the genome by ChIP-Seq. In addition, data from miRNA and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression profiles obtained under identical experimental conditions were compared to identify relevant miRNA target transcripts. Results show that miRNAs modulated by ERα represent a novel genomic pathway to impact oestrogen-dependent processes that affect hormone-responsive breast cancer cell behaviour. MiRNome analysis in tumour tissues from breast cancer patients confirmed a strong association between expression of these small RNAs and clinical outcome of the disease, although this appears to involve only marginally the oestrogen-regulated miRNAs identified in this study. PMID:22274890

  5. Sex hormones modulate the immune response to Plasmodium berghei ANKA in CBA/Ca mice.

    PubMed

    Legorreta-Herrera, Martha; Mosqueda-Romo, Néstor Aarón; Nava-Castro, Karen Elizabeth; Morales-Rodríguez, Ana Laura; Buendía-González, Fidel Orlando; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-07-01

    Susceptibility to malaria differs between females and males, and this sexual dimorphism may have important implications for the effects of vaccines and drugs. However, little is known about the mechanisms mediating these sexual differences. Because the main differences between sexes are dictated by sex hormones, we studied the effect of gonadal steroids on immune responses to malaria in CBA/Ca mice. We decreased sex hormones levels by gonadectomy and evaluated the splenic index and the cells involved in the immune response, including T cells (CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+) and NK(+)), B cells and macrophages (Mac-3(+)) in the spleens of female and male mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. In addition, we measured antibody and cytokine levels in blood. Gonadectomy increased T(+) and B(+) splenic cells in both sexes but increased Mac-3(+) cells only in male mice. By contrast, gonadectomy decreased the NK(+) cell population only in male mice. In general, female mice developed higher antibody levels than males. Contrary to our expectations, gonadectomy increased the synthesis of IgG1, IgG2b, IgG3, and total IgG in female mice, indicating negative regulation of antibody production by female sex hormones. Gonadectomy increased the synthesis of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) only in female mice, suggesting that female sex hormones have anti-inflammatory properties. This work demonstrates that the levels of sex hormones affect the immune response and should be considered when designing malaria vaccines. PMID:25876048

  6. Ethylene Response Factors: A Key Regulatory Hub in Hormone and Stress Signaling.

    PubMed

    Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2015-09-01

    Ethylene is essential for many developmental processes and a key mediator of biotic and abiotic stress responses in plants. The ethylene signaling and response pathway includes Ethylene Response Factors (ERFs), which belong to the transcription factor family APETALA2/ERF. It is well known that ERFs regulate molecular response to pathogen attack by binding to sequences containing AGCCGCC motifs (the GCC box), a cis-acting element. However, recent studies suggest that several ERFs also bind to dehydration-responsive elements and act as a key regulatory hub in plant responses to abiotic stresses. Here, we review some of the recent advances in our understanding of the ethylene signaling and response pathway, with emphasis on ERFs and their role in hormone cross talk and redox signaling under abiotic stresses. We conclude that ERFs act as a key regulatory hub, integrating ethylene, abscisic acid, jasmonate, and redox signaling in the plant response to a number of abiotic stresses. PMID:26103991

  7. No hormone to rule them all: Interactions of plant hormones during the responses of plants to pathogens.

    PubMed

    Shigenaga, Alexandra M; Argueso, Cristiana T

    2016-08-01

    Plant hormones are essential regulators of plant growth and immunity. In the last few decades, a vast amount of information has been obtained detailing the role of different plant hormones in immunity, and how they work together to ultimately shape the outcomes of plant pathogen interactions. Here we provide an overview on the roles of the main classes of plant hormones in the regulation of plant immunity, highlighting their metabolic and signaling pathways and how plants and pathogens utilize these pathways to activate or suppress defence. PMID:27312082

  8. Improving Response to Hormone Therapy in Breast Cancer: New Targets, New Therapeutic Options.

    PubMed

    Rugo, Hope S; Vidula, Neelima; Ma, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    The majority of breast cancer expresses the estrogen and or progesterone receptors (ER and PR). In tumors without concomitant HER2 amplification, hormone therapy is a major treatment option for all disease stages. Resistance to hormonal therapy is associated with disease recurrence and progression. Recent studies have identified a number of resistance mechanisms leading to estrogen-independent growth of hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer as a result of genetic and epigenetic alterations, which could be exploited as novel therapeutic targets. These include acquired mutations in ER-alpha (ESR1) in response to endocrine deprivation; constitutive activation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) 4 and 6; cross talk between ER and growth factor receptor signaling such as HER family members, fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) pathways, intracellular growth, and survival signals PI3K/Akt/mTOR; and epigenetic modifications by histone deacetylase (HDAC) as well as interactions with tumor microenvironment and host immune response. Inhibitors of these pathways are being developed to improve efficacy of hormonal therapy for treatment of both metastatic and early-stage disease. Two agents are currently approved in the United States for the treatment of metastatic HR+ breast cancer, including the mTOR inhibitor everolimus and the CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib. Management of toxicity is a critical aspect of treatment; the primary toxicity of everolimus is stomatitis (treated with topical steroids) and of palbociclib is neutropenia (treated with dose reduction/delay). Many agents are in clinical trials, primarily in combination with hormone therapy; novel combinations are under active investigation. PMID:27249746

  9. Constitutional delay influences the auxological response to growth hormone treatment in children with short stature and growth hormone sufficiency.

    PubMed

    Gunn, Katherine C; Cutfield, Wayne S; Hofman, Paul L; Jefferies, Craig A; Albert, Benjamin B; Gunn, Alistair J

    2014-01-01

    In a retrospective, population based cohort study, we examined whether constitutional delay was associated with the growth response to growth hormone (GH) in children with short stature and normal GH responses. 70 patients were treated with 21 GH iu/m2/week from 1975 to 2013 throughout New Zealand. Demographic and auxological data were prospectively collected and standard deviation scores (SDS) were calculated for height (HtSDS), yearly growth velocity (GV-SDS), body mass index (BMI-SDS) and predicted adult height (PAH-SDS) at time of the last available bone age. In the first year, GH was associated with marked increase in HtSDS (+0.46 (0.19, 0.76), p < 0.001) and GV-SDS (from -1.9 (-3.6, -0.7) to +2.7 (0.45, 4.2), p < 0.001). The increase in HtSDS but not in GV-SDS was greatest with younger patients and greater bone age delay, with no effect of sex, BMI-SDS or baseline HtSDS. PAH-SDS increased with treatment (+0.94 (0.18, 1.5)); increased PAH-SDS was associated with less bone age delay and greater initial increase in HtSDS. This study shows that greater bone age delay was associated with greater initial improvement in height but less improvement in predicted adult heights, suggesting that children with very delayed bone ages may show accelerated maturation during GH treatment. PMID:25317732

  10. Sex differences in acute hormonal and subjective response to naltrexone: The impact of menstrual cycle phase.

    PubMed

    Roche, Daniel J O; King, Andrea C

    2015-02-01

    Women often exhibit larger hormonal and subjective responses to opioid receptor antagonists than men, but the biological mechanisms mediating this effect remain unclear. Among women, fluctuations in estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) across the menstrual cycle (MC) affect the endogenous opioid system. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to compare acute naltrexone response between women in the early follicular phase of the MC (low E2 and P4), women in the luteal phase of the MC (high E2 and P4), and men. Seventy healthy controls (n=46 women) participated in two morning sessions in which they received 50mg naltrexone or placebo in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Women were randomized to complete both sessions in either the early follicular (n=23) or luteal phase of the MC. Serum cortisol, salivary cortisol, prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH), and subjective response were assessed upon arrival to the laboratory and at regular intervals after pill administration. In luteal and early follicular women but not men, naltrexone (vs. placebo) increased serum cortisol and prolactin levels from baseline; however, the naltrexone-induced increases in these hormones were significantly greater in luteal women than early follicular women. Additionally, only luteal women demonstrated an increase from baseline in salivary cortisol levels and the severity of adverse drug effects in response to naltrexone. In sum, the results indicate that luteal phase women are more sensitive to acute hormonal and subjective effects of naltrexone than early follicular women and men. These findings may have important implications for the use of naltrexone in women. PMID:25459893

  11. Sex differences in acute hormonal and subjective response to naltrexone: the impact of menstrual cycle phase

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Daniel J.O.; King, Andrea C.

    2015-01-01

    Women often exhibit larger hormonal and subjective responses to opioid receptor antagonists than men, but the biological mechanisms mediating this effect remain unclear. Among women, fluctuations in estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) across the menstrual cycle (MC) affect the endogenous opioid system. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to compare acute naltrexone response between women in the early follicular phase of the MC (low E2 and P4), women in the luteal phase of the MC (high E2 and P4), and men. Seventy healthy controls (n = 46 women) participated in two morning sessions in which they received 50 mg naltrexone or placebo in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Women were randomized to complete both sessions in either the early follicular (n = 23) or luteal phase of the MC. Serum cortisol, prolactin, and luteinizing hormone (LH), salivary cortisol, and subjective response were assessed upon arrival to the laboratory and at regular intervals after pill administration. In luteal and early follicular women but not men, naltrexone (vs. placebo) increased serum cortisol and prolactin levels from baseline; however, the naltrexone-induced increases in these hormones were significantly greater in luteal women than early follicular women. Additionally, only luteal women demonstrated an increase from baseline in salivary cortisol levels and the severity of adverse drug effects in response to naltrexone. In sum, the results indicate that luteal phase women are more sensitive to acute hormonal and subjective effects of naltrexone than early follicular women and men. These findings may have important implications for the use of naltrexone in women. PMID:25459893

  12. Thyroid hormones inhibit TGF-β signaling and attenuate fibrotic responses.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Merino, Elvira; Martín Orozco, Rosa; Ruíz-Llorente, Lidia; Martínez-Iglesias, Olaia A; Velasco-Martín, Juan Pedro; Montero-Pedrazuela, Ana; Fanjul-Rodríguez, Luisa; Contreras-Jurado, Constanza; Regadera, Javier; Aranda, Ana

    2016-06-14

    TGF-β, the most potent profibrogenic factor, acts by activating SMAD (mothers against decapentaplegic) transcription factors, which bind to SMAD-binding elements in target genes. Here, we show that the thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3), through binding to its nuclear receptors (TRs), is able to antagonize transcriptional activation by TGF-β/SMAD. This antagonism involves reduced phosphorylation of SMADs and a direct interaction of the receptors with SMAD3 and SMAD4 that is independent of T3-mediated transcriptional activity but requires residues in the receptor DNA binding domain. T3 reduces occupancy of SMAD-binding elements in response to TGF-β, reducing histone acetylation and inhibiting transcription. In agreement with this transcriptional cross-talk, T3 is able to antagonize fibrotic processes in vivo. Liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride is attenuated by thyroid hormone administration to mice, whereas aged TR knockout mice spontaneously accumulate collagen. Furthermore, skin fibrosis induced by bleomycin administration is also reduced by the thyroid hormones. These findings define an important function of the thyroid hormone receptors and suggest TR ligands could have beneficial effects to block the progression of fibrotic diseases. PMID:27247403

  13. Hormonal Regulation of Response to Oxidative Stress in Insects—An Update

    PubMed Central

    Kodrík, Dalibor; Bednářová, Andrea; Zemanová, Milada; Krishnan, Natraj

    2015-01-01

    Insects, like other organisms, must deal with a wide variety of potentially challenging environmental factors during the course of their life. An important example of such a challenge is the phenomenon of oxidative stress. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the role of adipokinetic hormones (AKH) as principal stress responsive hormones in insects involved in activation of anti-oxidative stress response pathways. Emphasis is placed on an analysis of oxidative stress experimentally induced by various stressors and monitored by suitable biomarkers, and on detailed characterization of AKH’s role in the anti-stress reactions. These reactions are characterized by a significant increase of AKH levels in the insect body, and by effective reversal of the markers—disturbed by the stressors—after co-application of the stressor with AKH. A plausible mechanism of AKH action in the anti-oxidative stress response is discussed as well: this probably involves simultaneous employment of both protein kinase C and cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate pathways in the presence of extra and intra-cellular Ca2+ stores, with the possible involvement of the FoxO transcription factors. The role of other insect hormones in the anti-oxidative defense reactions is also discussed. PMID:26516847

  14. Hormonal Regulation of Response to Oxidative Stress in Insects-An Update.

    PubMed

    Kodrík, Dalibor; Bednářová, Andrea; Zemanová, Milada; Krishnan, Natraj

    2015-01-01

    Insects, like other organisms, must deal with a wide variety of potentially challenging environmental factors during the course of their life. An important example of such a challenge is the phenomenon of oxidative stress. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the role of adipokinetic hormones (AKH) as principal stress responsive hormones in insects involved in activation of anti-oxidative stress response pathways. Emphasis is placed on an analysis of oxidative stress experimentally induced by various stressors and monitored by suitable biomarkers, and on detailed characterization of AKH's role in the anti-stress reactions. These reactions are characterized by a significant increase of AKH levels in the insect body, and by effective reversal of the markers-disturbed by the stressors-after co-application of the stressor with AKH. A plausible mechanism of AKH action in the anti-oxidative stress response is discussed as well: this probably involves simultaneous employment of both protein kinase C and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate pathways in the presence of extra and intra-cellular Ca(2+) stores, with the possible involvement of the FoxO transcription factors. The role of other insect hormones in the anti-oxidative defense reactions is also discussed. PMID:26516847

  15. Behavioral and antennal responses of spotted wing drosophila, drosophila suzukii, to volatiles from fruit extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Native to Southeast Asia, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, has become a serious pest of soft-skinned fruit crops since its introduction into North America and Europe in 2008. Current monitoring strategies use baits based on fermentation products; however, to date, no fruit-based vola...

  16. Molecular characterization of Xanthomonas strains responsible for bacterial leaf spot of tomato in Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial spot of tomato (BST) is a major constraint to tomato production in Ethiopia and many other countries leading to significant crop losses. In the present study, using pathogenicity tests, sensitivity to copper and streptomycin, and multilocus sequence analysis, a diverse group of Xanthomonas...

  17. Overlapping dose responses of spermatogenic and extragonadal testosterone actions jeopardize the principle of hormonal male contraception

    PubMed Central

    Oduwole, Olayiwola O.; Vydra, Natalia; Wood, Nicholas E. M.; Samanta, Luna; Owen, Laura; Keevil, Brian; Donaldson, Mandy; Naresh, Kikkeri; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T.

    2014-01-01

    Testosterone (T), alone or in combination with progestin, provides a promising approach to hormonal male contraception. Its principle relies on enhanced negative feedback of exogenous T to suppress gonadotropins, thereby blocking the testicular T production needed for spermatogenesis, while simultaneously maintaining the extragonadal androgen actions, such as potency and libido, to avoid hypogonadism. A serious drawback of the treatment is that a significant proportion of men do not reach azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia, commensurate with contraceptive efficacy. We tested here, using hypogonadal luteinizing hormone/choriongonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) knockout (LHR−/−) mice, the basic principle of the T-based male contraceptive method, that a specific T dose could maintain extragonadal androgen actions without simultaneously activating spermatogenesis. LHR−/− mice were treated with increasing T doses, and the responses of their spermatogenesis and extragonadal androgen actions (including gonadotropin suppression and sexual behavior) were assessed. Conspicuously, all dose responses to T were practically superimposable, and no dose of T could be defined that would maintain sexual function and suppress gonadotropins without simultaneously activating spermatogenesis. This finding, never addressed in clinical contraceptive trials, is not unexpected in light of the same androgen receptor mediating androgen actions in all organs. When extrapolated to humans, our findings may jeopardize the current approach to hormonal male contraception and call for more effective means of inhibiting intratesticular T production or action, to achieve consistent spermatogenic suppression.—Oduwole, O. O., Vydra, N., Wood, N. E. M., Samanta, L., Owen, L., Keevil, B., Donaldson, M., Naresh, K., Huhtaniemi, I. T. Overlapping dose responses of spermatogenic and extragonadal testosterone actions jeopardize the principle of hormonal male contraception. PMID:24599970

  18. Metabolomics Analysis of Hormone-Responsive and Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cell Responses to Paclitaxel Identify Key Metabolic Differences.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Delisha A; Winnike, Jason H; McRitchie, Susan L; Clark, Robert F; Pathmasiri, Wimal W; Sumner, Susan J

    2016-09-01

    To date, no targeted therapies are available to treat triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), while other breast cancer subtypes are responsive to current therapeutic treatment. Metabolomics was conducted to reveal differences in two hormone receptor-negative TNBC cell lines and two hormone receptor-positive Luminal A cell lines. Studies were conducted in the presence and absence of paclitaxel (Taxol). TNBC cell lines had higher levels of amino acids, branched-chain amino acids, nucleotides, and nucleotide sugars and lower levels of proliferation-related metabolites like choline compared with Luminal A cell lines. In the presence of paclitaxel, each cell line showed unique metabolic responses, with some similarities by type. For example, in the Luminal A cell lines, levels of lactate and creatine decreased while certain choline metabolites and myo-inositol increased with paclitaxel. In the TNBC cell lines levels of glutamine, glutamate, and glutathione increased, whereas lysine, proline, and valine decreased in the presence of drug. Profiling secreted inflammatory cytokines in the conditioned media demonstrated a greater response to paclitaxel in the hormone-positive Luminal cells compared with a secretion profile that suggested greater drug resistance in the TNBC cells. The most significant differences distinguishing the cell types based on pathway enrichment analyses were related to amino acid, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism pathways, whereas several biological pathways were differentiated between the cell lines following treatment. PMID:27447733

  19. Introduction of exogenous growth hormone receptors augments growth hormone-responsive insulin biosynthesis in rat insulinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Billestrup, N.; Moeldrup, A.; Serup, P.; Nielsen, J.H. ); Mathews, L.S.; Norstedt, G. )

    1990-09-01

    The stimulation of insulin biosynthesis in the pancreatic insulinoma cell line RIN5-AH by growth hormone (GH) is initiated by GH binding to specific receptors. To determine whether the recently cloned rat hepatic GH receptor is able to mediate the insulinotropic effect of GH, the authors have transfected a GH receptor cDNA under the transcriptional control of the human metallothionein promoter into RIN5-AH cells. The transfected cells were found to exhibit an increased expression of GH receptors and to contain a specific GH receptor mRNA that was not expressed in the parent cell line. The expression of GH receptors in one clone (1.24) selected for detailed analysis was increased 2.6-fold compared to untransfected cells. The increased GH receptor expression was accompanied by an increased responsiveness to GH. Thus, the maximal GH-stimulated increase of insulin biosynthesis was 4.1-fold in 1.24 cells compared to 1.9-fold in the nontransfected RIN5-AH cells. The expression of the transfected receptor was stimulated 1.6- and 2.3-fold when cells were cultured in the presence of 25 or 50 {mu}M Zn{sup 2+} was associated with an increased magnitude of GH-stimulated insulin biosynthesis. A close stoichiometric relationship between the level of receptor expression and the level of GH-stimulated insulin biosynthesis was observed. They conclude from these results that the hepatic GH receptor is able to mediate the effect of GH on insulin biosynthesis in RIN5-AH cells.

  20. Taste matters - effects of bypassing oral stimulation on hormone and appetite responses.

    PubMed

    Spetter, Maartje S; Mars, Monica; Viergever, Max A; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2014-10-01

    The interaction between oral and gastric signals is an important part of food intake regulation. Previous studies suggest that bypassing oral stimulation diminishes the suppression of hunger and increases gastric emptying rate. However, the role of appetite hormones, like cholecystokinin-8 and ghrelin, in this process is still unclear. Our objective was to determine the contributions of gastric and oral stimulation to subsequent appetite and hormone responses and their effect on ad libitum intake. Fourteen healthy male subjects (age 24.6±3.8y, BMI 22.3±1.6kg/m(2)) completed a randomized, single-blinded, cross-over experiment with 3 treatment-sessions: 1) Stomach distention: naso-gastric infusion of 500mL/0kJ water, 2) Stomach distention with caloric content: naso-gastric infusion of 500mL/1770kJ chocolate milk, and 3) Stomach distention with caloric content and oral exposure: oral administration of 500mL/1770kJ chocolate milk. Changes in appetite ratings and plasma glucose, insulin, cholecystokinin-8, and active and total ghrelin concentrations were measured at fixed time-points up to 30min after infusion or oral administration. Subsequently, subjects consumed an ad libitum buffet meal. Oral administration reduced appetite ratings more than both naso-gastric infusions (P<0.0001). Gastric infusion of a caloric load increased insulin and cholecystokinin-8 and decreased total ghrelin concentrations more than ingestion (all P<0.0001). No differences in active ghrelin response were observed between conditions. Ad libitum intake did not differ between oral and gastric administration of chocolate milk (P>0.05). Thus, gastric infusion of nutrients induces greater appetite hormone responses than ingestion does. These data provide novel and additional evidence that bypassing oral stimulation not only affects the appetite profile but also increases anorexigenic hormone responses, probably driven in part by faster gastric emptying. This confirms the idea that learned

  1. Effect of dark pretreatment on the kinetics of response of barley pulvini to gravistimulation and hormones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, T. G.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1988-01-01

    Starch in pulvinus amyloplasts of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Larker) disappears when 45-day-old, light-grown plants are given 5 days of continuous darkness. The effect of this loss on the pulvinus graviresponse was evaluated by following changes in the kinetics of response during the 5-day dark period. Over 5 days of dark pretreatment, the lag to initial graviresponse and the subsequent half-time to maximum steady state bending rate increased significantly while the maximum bending rate did not change. The change in response to applied indoleacetic acid (100 micromolar) plus gibberellic acid (10 micromolar) without gravistimulation, under identical dark pretreatments, was used as a model system for the response component of gravitropism. Dark pretreatment did not change the lag to initial response following hormone application to vertical pulvini, but both the maximum bending rate and the half-time to the maximum rate were significantly reduced. Also, after dark pretreatment, significant bending responses following hormone application were observed in vertical segments with or without added sucrose, while gravistimulation produced a response only if segments were given sucrose. These results indicate that starch-filled amyloplasts are required for the graviresponse of barley pulvini and suggest that they function in the stimulus perception and signal transduction components of gravitropism.

  2. A volcano-seismic event spotting system for the use in rapid response systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Conny; Ohrnberger, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    The classification of seismic signals of volcanic origin is an important task in monitoring active volcanoes. The number and size of certain types of seismic events usually increase before periods of volcanic crisis and can be used to quantify the volcanic activity. Due to the advantage of providing consistent, objective and time-invariant results automatic classification systems are preferred. Most automatic classification systems are trained in a supervised fashion from a sufficiently large pre-classified data set. The setup of an automatic classification system thus requires the pre-existence of these training data. For a rapid volcano-response team, however, the situation is often different. In the worst case, no prior observations exist (e.g. re-awakening of a dormant volcano). More frequently, archive data exist for a particular observatory network, but no record of seismicity for a high volcanic activity level exists and new seismicity patterns occur. Usually, the networks are additionally sparse and new equipment will be installed for better surveillance during the actual crisis. For the new recording sites again no prior example data is available. Finally, due to the imminent crisis there might be no time for the time-consuming and tedious process of preparing a training data set. For all these reasons a classification system which allows a "learning-while-recording" approach would be very advantageous for use in rapid response systems. Within this study, we show a novel seismic event spotting approach in order to reduce the dependency on the existence of previously acquired data bases and classification schemes. One main goal is therefore to provide the observatory staff with a robust event classification system based on a minimum number of reference waveforms and thus allowing for a fast build-up of a volcanic signal classification scheme as early as interesting events have been identified. For implementation issues we make use of the Hidden Markov

  3. Stimulation of hormone-responsive adenylate cyclase activity by a factor present in the cell cytosol.

    PubMed Central

    MacNeil, S; Crawford, A; Amirrasooli, H; Johnson, S; Pollock, A; Ollis, C; Tomlinson, S

    1980-01-01

    1. Homogenates of whole tissues were shown to contain both intracellular and extracellular factors that affected particulate adenylate cyclase activity in vitro. Factors present in the extracellular fluids produced an inhibition of basal, hormone- and fluoride-stimulated enzyme activity but factors present in the cell cytosol increased hormone-stimulated activity with relatively little effect on basal or fluoride-stimulated enzyme activity. 2. The existence of this cytosol factor or factors was investigated using freshly isolated human platelets, freshly isolated rat hepatocytes, and cultured cells derived from rat osteogenic sarcoma, rat calvaria, mouse melanoma, pig aortic endothelium, human articular cartilage chondrocytes and human bronchial carcinoma (BEN) cells. 3. The stimulation of the hormone response by the cytosol factor ranged from 60 to 890% depending on the tissue of origin of the adenylate cyclase. 4. In each case the behaviour of the factor was similar to the action of GTP on that particular adenylate cyclase preparation. 5. No evidence of tissue or species specificity was found, as cytosols stimulated adenylate cyclase from their own and unrelated tissues to the same degree. 6. In the human platelet, the inclusion of the cytosol in the assay of adenylate cyclase increased the rate of enzyme activity in response to stimulation by prostaglandin E1 without affecting the amount of prostaglandin E1 required for half-maximal stimulation or the characteristics of enzyme activation by prostaglandin E. PMID:7396869

  4. Receptors bound to antiprogestin from abortive complexes with hormone responsive elements.

    PubMed

    Guiochon-Mantel, A; Loosfelt, H; Ragot, T; Bailly, A; Atger, M; Misrahi, M; Perricaudet, M; Milgrom, E

    1988-12-15

    The mechanism of action of antisteroids is not understood and explanations of their antagonistic activity have been sought at all levels of hormone action. It has been proposed that antisteroids, after binding to receptor, trap it into a non-activated (non DNA-binding) form possibly through interaction with a heat-shock protein of relative molecular mass (Mr) 90,000 (90 K), or that the antisteroids provoke binding of receptor to nonspecific DNA sites but not to hormone responsive elements (HREs), or that the antisteroid-receptor complexes can bind to HREs but form abortive complexes that fail to regulate transcription. We have constructed a deleted cDNA encoding a mutant form of rabbit progesterone receptor which exhibits constitutive activity, that is, binds to HREs in the absence of hormone and thus bypasses the first two steps discussed above. Co-transfection experiments allowed the expression of both constitutive and wild-type receptors in the same recipient cells. Antiprogestin RU486-wild-type receptor complexes completely suppressed the activity of the constitutive receptor on a reporter gene, showing that the inhibition is at the level of their common responsive elements. PMID:3200320

  5. Liver spots

    MedlinePlus

    Sun-induced skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The coloring may be due to aging, exposure to the sun or other sources of ...

  6. Individual differences in psychostimulant responses of female rats are associated with ovarian hormones and dopamine neuroanatomy

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Q. David; Johnson, Misha L.; Van Swearingen, Amanda E.D.; Arrant, Andrew E.; Caster, Joseph M.; Kuhn, Cynthia M.

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian hormones modulate the pharmacological effects of psychostimulants and may enhance vulnerability to drug addiction. Female rats have more midbrain dopamine neurons than males and greater dopamine uptake and release rates. Cocaine stimulates motor behavior and dopamine efflux more in female than male rats, but the mediating mechanisms are unknown. This study investigated individual differences in anatomic, neurochemical, and behavioral measures in female rats to understand how ovarian hormones affect the relatedness of these endpoints. Ovarian hormone effects were assessed by comparing individual responses in ovariectomized (OVX) and sham adult female rats. Locomotion was determined before and following 10 mg/kg cocaine. Electrically-stimulated dopamine efflux was assessed using fast cyclic voltammetry in vivo. Dopamine neuron number and density in substantia nigra (SN) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) were determined in the same animals using tyrosine-hydroxylase immunohistochemistry and unbiased stereology. Locomotor behavior and dopamine efflux did not differ at baseline but were greater in sham than OVX following cocaine. Cocaine increased dopamine release rates in both groups but uptake inhibition (Km) was greater in sham than OVX. Dopamine neuron number and density in SN and VTA were greater in shams. Sham females with the largest uterine weights exhibited the highest density of dopamine neurons in the SN, and the most cocaine-stimulated behavior and dopamine efflux. Ovariectomy eliminated these relationships. We postulate that SN density could link ovarian hormones and high-psychostimulant responses in females. Similar mechanisms may be involved in individual differences in the addiction vulnerability of women. PMID:22342988

  7. Hormonal contraceptive use diminishes salivary cortisol response to psychosocial stress and naltrexone in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Daniel J.O.; King, Andrea C.; Cohoon, Andrew J.; Lovallo, William R.

    2013-01-01

    The use of hormonal contraception (HC) may affect salivary cortisol levels at rest and in response to a pharmacological or stress challenge. Therefore, the current study used a secondary data analysis to investigate the effect of HC on salivary cortisol levels in response to the mu-opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone and a psychosocial stressor, and also across the diurnal curve. Two hundred and nine women (n = 72 using hormonal contraception; HC+) completed a two-session stress response study that consisted of a stress day, in which they were exposed to public speaking and mental arithmetic, and a rest day, in which unstimulated cortisol levels were measured to assess the diurnal rhythm. A subset of seventy women (n = 24 HC+) also completed a second study in which they were administered oral naltrexone (50 mg) or placebo in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind fashion. Women who were HC+ had a significantly reduced salivary cortisol response to both the psychosocial stressor (p < 0.001) and naltrexone (p < 0.05) compared to HC− women. Additionally, HC+ women had a significantly altered morning diurnal cortisol rhythm (p < 0.01), with a delayed peak and higher overall levels. The results of the current study confirm that HC attenuates salivary cortisol response to a psychosocial stressor and mu-opioid receptor antagonism, and also alters the morning diurnal cortisol curve. PMID:23672966

  8. Hormonal responses to exercise after partial sleep deprivation and after a hypnotic drug-induced sleep.

    PubMed

    Mougin, F; Bourdin, H; Simon-Rigaud, M L; Nguyen, N U; Kantelip, J P; Davenne, D

    2001-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the hormonal responses, which are dependent on the sleep wake cycle, to strenuous physical exercise. Exercise was performed after different nocturnal regimens: (i) a baseline night preceded by a habituation night; (ii) two nights of partial sleep deprivation caused by a delayed bedtime or by an early awakening; and (iii) two nights of sleep after administration of either a hypnotic compound (10 mg zolpidem) or a placebo. Eight well-trained male endurance athletes with a maximal oxygen uptake of 63.5 +/- 3.8 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) (mean value +/- s(x)) were selected on the basis of their sleeping habits and their physical training. Polygraphic recordings of EEG showed that both nights with partial sleep loss led to a decrease (P< 0.01) in stage 2 and rapid eye movement sleep. A delayed bedtime also led to a decrease (P < 0.05) in stage 1 sleep. Zolpidem had no effect on the different stages of sleep. During the afternoon after an experimental night, exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer. After a 10-min warm-up, the participants performed 30 min steady-state cycling at 75% VO(2-max) followed by a progressively increased workload until exhaustion. The recovery period lasted 30 min. Plasma growth hormone, prolactin, cortisol, catecholamine and lactate concentrations were measured at rest, during exercise and after recovery. The concentration of plasma growth hormone and catecholamine were not affected by partial sleep deprivation, whereas that of plasma prolactin was higher (P < 0.05) during the trial after an early awakening. Plasma cortisol was lower (P < 0.05) during recovery after both sleep deprivation conditions. Blood lactate was higher (P < 0.05) during submaximal exercise performed after both a delayed bedtime and an early awakening. Zolpidem-induced sleep did not affect the hormonal and metabolic responses to subsequent exercise. Our results demonstrate only minor alterations in the hormonal responses to exercise

  9. Regulation of glucose turnover and hormonal responses during electrical cycling in tetraplegic humans.

    PubMed

    Kjaer, M; Pollack, S F; Mohr, T; Weiss, H; Gleim, G W; Bach, F W; Nicolaisen, T; Galbo, H; Ragnarsson, K T

    1996-07-01

    To examine the importance of blood-borne vs. neural mechanisms for hormonal responses and substrate mobilization during exercise, six spinal cord-injured tetraplegic (C5-T1) males (mean age: 35 yr, range: 24-55 yr) were recruited to perform involuntary, electrically induced cycling [functional electrical stimulation (FES)] to fatigue for 24.6 +/- 2.3 min (mean and SE), and heart rate rose from 67 +/- 7 (rest) to 107 +/- 5 (exercise) beats/min. Voluntary arm cranking in tetraplegics (ARM) and voluntary leg cycling in six matched, long-term immobilized (2-12 mo) males (Vol) served as control experiments. In FES, peripheral glucose uptake increased [12.4 +/- 1.1 (rest) to 19.5 +/- 4.3 (exercise) mumol.min-1.kg-1; P < 0.05], whereas hepatic glucose production did not change from basal values [12.4 +/- 1.4 (rest) vs. 13.0 +/- 3.4 (exercise) mumol.min-1.kg-1]. Accordingly, plasma glucose decreased [from 5.4 +/- 0.3 (rest) to 4.7 +/- 0.3 (exercise) mmol/l; P < 0.05]. Plasma glucose did not change in response to ARM or Vol. Plasma free fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate decreased only in FES experiments (P < 0.05). During FES, increases in growth hormone (GH) and epinephrine and decreases in insulin concentrations were abolished. Although subnormal throughout the exercise period, norepinephrine concentrations increased during FES, and responses of heart rate, adrenocorticotropic hormone, beta-endorphin, renin, lactate, and potassium were marked. In conclusion, during exercise, activity in motor centers and afferent muscle nerves is important for normal responses of GH, catecholamines, insulin, glucose production, and lipolysis. Humoral feedback and spinal or simple autonomic nervous reflex mechanisms are not sufficient. However, such mechanisms are involved in redundant control of heart rate and neuroendocrine activity in exercise. PMID:8760220

  10. Salivary Hormones Response to Preparation and Pre-competitive Training of World-class Level Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Guilhem, Gaël; Hanon, Christine; Gendreau, Nicolas; Bonneau, Dominique; Guével, Arnaud; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the response of salivary hormones of track and field athletes induced by preparation and pre-competitive training periods in an attempt to comment on the physiological effects consistent with the responses of each of the proteins measured. Salivary testosterone, cortisol, alpha-amylase, immunoglobulin A (IgA), chromogranin A, blood creatine kinase activity, and profile of mood state were assessed at rest in 24 world-class level athletes during preparation (3 times in 3 months) and pre-competitive (5 times in 5 weeks) training periods. Total mood disturbance and fatigue perception were reduced, while IgA (+61%) and creatine kinase activity (+43%) increased, and chromogranin A decreased (−27%) during pre-competitive compared to preparation period. A significant increase in salivary testosterone (+9 to +15%) and a decrease in testosterone/cortisol ratio were associated with a progressive reduction in training load during pre-competitive period (P < 0.05). None of the psycho-physiological parameters were significantly correlated to training load during the pre-competitive period. Results showed a lower adrenocortical response and autonomic activity, and an improvement of immunity status, in response to the reduction in training load and fatigue, without significant correlations of salivary hormones with training load. Our findings suggest that saliva composition is sensitive to training contents (season period) but could not be related to workload resulting from track and field athletics training. PMID:26635619

  11. Psychological reactivity to laboratory stress is associated with hormonal responses in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Carolyn Y.; Egleston, Brian L.; Manzur, Angelica M.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Spiegel, David; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The present study examined associations between psychological reactivity and hormonal responses to a standardized laboratory stressor (the Trier Social Stress Test [TSST]) in postmenopausal women. METHODS Forty postmenopausal women ages 50–74 completed anxiety and mood assessments prior to and following the TSST. Blood samples were drawn across multiple time points for assessment of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and DHEA. RESULTS As expected, significant increases in anxiety and negative affect and decreases in positive affect were observed from pre- to post-TSST; however, the magnitude of change in anxiety and mood varied considerably across individuals. Analyses indicated that greater increases in anxiety and negative affect from pre- to post-TSST were associated with higher levels of cortisol, ACTH, and DHEA, controlling for race, age, body mass index, and smoking status. Changes in positive affect were not associated with cortisol, ACTH, or DHEA. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that enhanced reactivity to stress is associated with higher hormone levels among postmenopausal women, which could have potential implications for health. PMID:24595153

  12. Short term response of insulin, glucose, growth hormone and corticosterone to acute vibration in rats.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolkas, C. B.; Leon, H. A.; Chackerian, M.

    1971-01-01

    Study carried out to obtain some notion of the initial phasing and interactive effects among some hormones known to be responsive to vibration stress. Sprague-Dawley derived rats were exposed to the acute effects of confinement and confinement with lateral (plus or minus G sub y) vibration. The coincident monitoring of glucose, insulin, growth hormone, and corticosterone plasma levels, during and immediately subsequent to exposure to brief low level vibration, exhibits the effects of inhibition of insulin release by epinephrine. The ability of insulin (IRI) to return rapidly to basal levels, from appreciably depressed levels during vibration, in the face of elevated levels of glucose is also shown. Corticosterone responds with almost equal rapidity, but in opposite phase to the IRI. The immuno-assayable growth hormone (IGH) dropped from a basal level of 32 ng/ml to 7.3 ng/ml immediately subsequent to vibration and remained at essentially that level throughout the experiment (60 min). Whether these levels represent a real fall in the rat or whether they merely follow the immuno-logically deficient form is still in question.

  13. Multifollicular ovaries: clinical and endocrine features and response to pulsatile gonadotropin releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Adams, J; Franks, S; Polson, D W; Mason, H D; Abdulwahid, N; Tucker, M; Morris, D V; Price, J; Jacobs, H S

    By means of pelvic ultrasonography, a multifollicular ovarian appearance was observed in women with weight-loss-related amenorrhoea. Multifollicular ovaries (MFO) are normal in size or slightly enlarged and filled by six or more cysts 4-10 mm in diameter; in contrast to women with polycystic ovaries (PCO), stroma is not increased. Unlike PCO patients, women with MFO were not hirsute and serum concentrations of luteinising hormone and follicle stimulating hormone were normal and decreased, respectively. The uterus was small indicating oestrogen deficiency. In MFO, treatment with gonadotropin releasing hormone (LHRH) induced ovulation in 83% of cycles and there were seven pregnancies in 8 women; in PCO, only 40% of cycles were ovulatory and there were eleven pregnancies (8 women) but six of these aborted. In MFO ovarian morphology reverted to normal in ovulatory cycles, whereas in PCO the polycystic pattern persisted despite the presence of a dominant follicle. MFO may represent a normal ovarian response to weight-related hypothalamic disturbance of gonadotropin control. PMID:2867389

  14. Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analyses of Resistant Host Responses in Arachis diogoi Challenged with Late Leaf Spot Pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dilip; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja

    2015-01-01

    Late leaf spot is a serious disease of peanut caused by the imperfect fungus, Phaeoisariopsis personata. Wild diploid species, Arachis diogoi. is reported to be highly resistant to this disease and asymptomatic. The objective of this study is to investigate the molecular responses of the wild peanut challenged with the late leaf spot pathogen using cDNA-AFLP and 2D proteomic study. A total of 233 reliable, differentially expressed genes were identified in Arachis diogoi. About one third of the TDFs exhibit no significant similarity with the known sequences in the data bases. Expressed sequence tag data showed that the characterized genes are involved in conferring resistance in the wild peanut to the pathogen challenge. Several genes for proteins involved in cell wall strengthening, hypersensitive cell death and resistance related proteins have been identified. Genes identified for other proteins appear to function in metabolism, signal transduction and defence. Nineteen TDFs based on the homology analysis of genes associated with defence, signal transduction and metabolism were further validated by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses in resistant wild species in comparison with a susceptible peanut genotype in time course experiments. The proteins corresponding to six TDFs were differentially expressed at protein level also. Differentially expressed TDFs and proteins in wild peanut indicate its defence mechanism upon pathogen challenge and provide initial breakthrough of genes possibly involved in recognition events and early signalling responses to combat the pathogen through subsequent development of resistivity. This is the first attempt to elucidate the molecular basis of the response of the resistant genotype to the late leaf spot pathogen, and its defence mechanism. PMID:25646800

  15. Phosphotransferase protein EIIANtr interacts with SpoT, a key enzyme of the stringent response, in Ralstonia eutropha H16.

    PubMed

    Karstens, Katja; Zschiedrich, Christopher P; Bowien, Botho; Stülke, Jörg; Görke, Boris

    2014-04-01

    EIIA(Ntr) is a member of a truncated phosphotransferase (PTS) system that serves regulatory functions and exists in many Proteobacteria in addition to the sugar transport PTS. In Escherichia coli, EIIA(Ntr) regulates K(+) homeostasis through interaction with the K(+) transporter TrkA and sensor kinase KdpD. In the β-Proteobacterium Ralstonia eutropha H16, EIIA(Ntr) influences formation of the industrially important bioplastic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB). PHB accumulation is controlled by the stringent response and induced under conditions of nitrogen deprivation. Knockout of EIIA(Ntr) increases the PHB content. In contrast, absence of enzyme I or HPr, which deliver phosphoryl groups to EIIA(Ntr), has the opposite effect. To clarify the role of EIIA(Ntr) in PHB formation, we screened for interacting proteins that co-purify with Strep-tagged EIIA(Ntr) from R. eutropha cells. This approach identified the bifunctional ppGpp synthase/hydrolase SpoT1, a key enzyme of the stringent response. Two-hybrid and far-Western analyses confirmed the interaction and indicated that only non-phosphorylated EIIA(Ntr) interacts with SpoT1. Interestingly, this interaction does not occur between the corresponding proteins of E. coli. Vice versa, interaction of EIIA(Ntr) with KdpD appears to be absent in R. eutropha, although R. eutropha EIIA(Ntr) can perfectly substitute its homologue in E. coli in regulation of KdpD activity. Thus, interaction with KdpD might be an evolutionary 'ancient' task of EIIA(Ntr) that was subsequently replaced by interaction with SpoT1 in R. eutropha. In conclusion, EIIA(Ntr) might integrate information about nutritional status, as reflected by its phosphorylation state, into the stringent response, thereby controlling cellular PHB content in R. eutropha. PMID:24515609

  16. Stress Response Circuitry Hypoactivation Related to Hormonal Dysfunction in Women with Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Holsen, Laura M.; Spaeth, Sarah B.; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Ogden, Lauren A.; Klibanski, Anne; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Goldstein, Jill M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Women have approximately twice the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) than men, yet this difference remains largely unexplained. Previous MDD research suggests high rates of endocrine dysfunction, which may be related to deficits in brain activity in stress response circuitry [hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)]. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the relationship between hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG)-axis hormones and stress response circuitry dysfunction in MDD in women. Methods During the late follicular/midcycle phase of the menstrual cycle, female participants (10 with extensive histories of MDD, in remission, 10 healthy controls) were scanned while viewing negative and neutral arousal pictures. Group differences in blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal changes were analyzed using SPM2. Baseline gonadal hormones included estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone. Results fMRI results showed greater BOLD signal intensity changes in controls versus MDD in hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, OFC, ACC, and subgenual ACC, findings unrelated to medication status. MDD women had a lower serum estradiol and higher serum progesterone compared to controls. Hypoactivations in hypothalamus, subgenual ACC, amygdala and OFC in MDD were associated with low estradiol and high progesterone. Limitations Generalizability of our findings is limited by small sample size and restriction to females, although this did not affect the internal validity of the results. Conclusions Hypoactivation of the stress response circuitry in MDD women is associated with dysregulation of the HPG-axis. Associations between brain activity deficits and hormonal disruption in MDD may ultimately contribute to understanding sex differences in MDD. PMID:21183223

  17. Influence of alcohol on the hydromineral hormone responses to exercise in a warm environment.

    PubMed

    Saini, J; Boisvert, P; Spiegel, K; Candas, V; Brandenberger, G

    1995-01-01

    Alcohol consumption at rest is associated with disturbed water and salt regulation reflected by changed responses in the hydromineral hormones. This study investigated the effect of alcohol on endocrine systems involved in body fluid and electrolyte regulation under conditions of physical exercise in the heat, a situation in which under normal circumstances, the hydromineral hormones are stimulated in an attempt to preserve physiological homeostasis. Eight healthy male volunteers participated in two trials, which differed only in the presence or absence of alcohol (1.2 g alcohol.kg-1 body mass) in a cocktail drink. After consuming the cocktail, the subjects exercised for 60 min on a cycle ergometer (45% maximal oxygen consumption) at 35 degrees C. Compared to the control situation alcohol consumption (maximal plasma concentrations reaching about 1.08 g.l-1) produced an increase in body fluid loss (P < 0.05), but did not induce significant differences in plasma volume changes. Plasma volume decreased in both sessions during exercise (P < 0.01) and a significant rebound (P < 0.001) occurred during recovery. Osmolality was significantly higher (P < 0.001) during rest, exercise and recovery periods compared to the placebo trials, but no effect of alcohol on plasma Na+ and K+ concentrations was observed. In the alcohol test conditions, the arginine vasopressin (AVP) response to exercise was significantly dampened (P < 0.05). In contrast, alcohol had no effect on aldosterone or atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). These results demonstrated that alcohol ingestion augmented body fluid losses due to a suppressive effect on AVP during physical exercise conducted in a warm environment. The increase in osmolality due to alcohol did not influence the aldosterone and ANP responses, which would suggest that total osmolality does not play a major role in the regulation of these hormones. PMID:8789567

  18. Central serotonin transporter levels are associated with stress hormone response and anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Reimold, Matthias; Knobel, Astrid; Rapp, Michael A.; Batra, Anil; Wiedemann, Klaus; Ströhle, Andreas; Zimmer, Anke; Schönknecht, Peter; Smolka, Michael N.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Goldman, David; Machulla, Hans-Jürgen; Bares, Roland; Heinz, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Negative mood states are characterized by both stress hormone dysregulation and serotonergic dysfunction, reflected by altered thalamic serotonin transporter (5-HTT) levels. However, so far, no study examined the individual association between cortisol response and cerebral in vivo 5-HTT levels in patients suffering from negative mood states. Objective The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the interrelation of cortisol response, thalamic 5-HTT levels, and anxiety in healthy subjects and two previously published samples of patients with unipolar major depression (UMD) and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), controlling for age, gender, 5-HTT genotype, smoking, and seasonality. Methods Regional 5-HTT levels and cortisol response to dexamethasone-corticotropin (Dex-CRH) challenge were assessed in consecutive samples of medication-free patients suffering from UMD (N=10) and OCD (N=10), and 20 healthy volunteers. The intervention used was combined Dex-CRH test and [11C]DASB positron emission tomography. The main outcome measures were: 5-HTT binding potential (BPND) in a predefined thalamic ROI, cortisol response defined as the maximum cortisol increase in the combined Dex-CRH-test, and state of anxiety from the state-trait-anxiety inventory. Results Reduced thalamic 5-HTT BPND was associated with increased cortisol response (r=−0.35, p<0.05; in patients: r=−0.53, p<0.01) and with increased state anxiety (r=−0.46, p<0.01), surviving correction for age, gender, 5-HTT genotype, smoking, and seasonality (p<0.05). The 5-HTT genotype, on the contrary, was not significantly associated with cortisol response (p=0.19) or negative mood (p=0.23). Conclusion The association between stress hormone response, thalamic 5-HTT levels, and anxiety in patients suffering from negative mood states suggests an interaction between two major mechanisms implicated in negative mood states in humans. PMID:20585760

  19. The hypothalamic-pituitary response in SLE. Regulation of prolactin, growth hormone and cortisol release.

    PubMed

    Rovenský, J; Blazícková, S; Rauová, L; Jezová, D; Koska, J; Lukác, J; Vigas, M

    1998-01-01

    It has been suggested that neuroendocrine regulation plays an important role in the pathogenesis and activation of autoimmune diseases. The aim of this investigation was to clarify the hypothalamic-pituitary response to a well-defined stimulus under standardised conditions in patients with SLE. Plasma concentrations of prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH) and cortisol were determined in venous blood drawn through an indwelling cannula during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (0.1 U/kg b.w., i.v.) in ten patients and in 12 age-, gender- and weight-matched healthy subjects. Basal PRL concentrations were higher in patients vs healthy controls (12 vs 6 ng/ml, P < 0.01), though still within the physiological range. Insulin-induced plasma PRL and GH were significantly increased both in patients and healthy subjects; however, the increments or areas under the curves were not different in the two groups. Plasma cortisol response showed moderate attenuation in patients. Sensitivity of pituitary lactotrothrops to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) administration (200 microg, i.v.) was the same in patients and control subjects. In SLE patients with low activity of the disease the sensitivity of pituitary PRL release to TRH administration remained unchanged. The hypothalamic response to stress stimulus (hypoglycaemia) was comparable in patients and healthy subjects. PMID:9736325

  20. Pituitary response to thyrotropin releasing hormone in children with overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Rijks, Jesse; Penders, Bas; Dorenbos, Elke; Straetemans, Saartje; Gerver, Willem-Jan; Vreugdenhil, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations in the high normal range are common in children with overweight and obesity, and associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Prior studies aiming at unravelling the mechanisms underlying these high TSH concentrations mainly focused on factors promoting thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) production as a cause for high TSH concentrations. However, it is unknown whether TSH release of the pituitary in response to TRH is affected in children with overweight and obesity. Here we describe TSH release of the pituitary in response to exogenous TRH in 73 euthyroid children (39% males) with overweight or (morbid) obesity. Baseline TSH concentrations (0.9-5.5 mU/L) were not associated with BMI z score, whereas these concentrations were positively associated with TSH concentrations 20 minutes after TRH administration (r(2) = 0.484, p < 0.001) and the TSH incremental area under the curve during the TRH stimulation test (r(2) = 0.307, p < 0.001). These results suggest that pituitary TSH release in response to TRH stimulation might be an important factor contributing to high normal serum TSH concentrations, which is a regular finding in children with overweight and obesity. The clinical significance and the intermediate factors contributing to pituitary TSH release need to be elucidated in future studies. PMID:27485208

  1. Pituitary response to thyrotropin releasing hormone in children with overweight and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Rijks, Jesse; Penders, Bas; Dorenbos, Elke; Straetemans, Saartje; Gerver, Willem-Jan; Vreugdenhil, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations in the high normal range are common in children with overweight and obesity, and associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Prior studies aiming at unravelling the mechanisms underlying these high TSH concentrations mainly focused on factors promoting thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) production as a cause for high TSH concentrations. However, it is unknown whether TSH release of the pituitary in response to TRH is affected in children with overweight and obesity. Here we describe TSH release of the pituitary in response to exogenous TRH in 73 euthyroid children (39% males) with overweight or (morbid) obesity. Baseline TSH concentrations (0.9–5.5 mU/L) were not associated with BMI z score, whereas these concentrations were positively associated with TSH concentrations 20 minutes after TRH administration (r2 = 0.484, p < 0.001) and the TSH incremental area under the curve during the TRH stimulation test (r2 = 0.307, p < 0.001). These results suggest that pituitary TSH release in response to TRH stimulation might be an important factor contributing to high normal serum TSH concentrations, which is a regular finding in children with overweight and obesity. The clinical significance and the intermediate factors contributing to pituitary TSH release need to be elucidated in future studies. PMID:27485208

  2. Association of follicle stimulating hormone receptor promoter with ovarian response in IVF-ET patients

    PubMed Central

    Dan, Wang; Jing, Gao; Liangbin, Xia; Ting, Zhang; Ying, Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Poor ovarian response phenomenon has been observed in some of the in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer patients. Some investigations found that follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene plays a role in the process, but no direct evidence shows the correlation between genotypes of FSHR and ovarian response. Objective: Exploring the molecular mechanism behind the mutation of FSHR promoter association with ovarian granulosa cells and poor ovarian response. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was performed using 158 women undergoing the controlled short program ovarian stimulation for IVF treatment. The 263 bp DNA fragments before the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor 5' initiation site were sequenced in the patients under IVF cycle, 70 of which had poor ovarian response and 88 showed normal ovarian responses. Results: With a mutation rate of 40%, 63 in 158 cases showed a 29th site G→A point mutation; among the mutated cases, the mutation rate of the poor ovarian responders was significantly higher than the normal group (60% versus 23.9%; χ2=21.450, p<0.001). Besides, the variability was also obvious in antral follicle count, and ovum pick-ups. The estradiol peak values and the number of mature eggs between the two groups had significant difference. However, there was no obvious variability (t=0.457, p=0.324) in the basic FSH values between the two groups (normal group, 7.2±2.3 U/L; mutation group, 7.1±2.0 U/L). Conclusion: The activity of FSHR promoter is significantly affected by the 29th site G→A mutation that will weaken promoter activity and result in poor response to FSH. PMID:26730247

  3. Severe short stature and Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome: response to growth hormone in two cases without growth hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Austin, Devon E; Gunn, Alistair J; Jefferies, Craig A

    2015-02-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a rare congenital disorder occurring in approximately 1/50 000 births, with marked pre- and postnatal growth failure. WHS results from the hemizygous deletion encompassing the 4p16.3 region. This report of two children with WHS shows that growth hormone treatment in selected children with WHS and severe short stature may have a substantial effect on long-term growth. PMID:25988083

  4. Mitogen induced proliferative responses of lymphocytes from spot (Leiostomus xanthurus) exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminated environments

    SciTech Connect

    Faisal, M.; Marzouk, M.S.; Smith, C.L.; Huggett, R.J. )

    1991-01-01

    The marine fish spot, Leiostomus xanthurus, was collected from five sites in the lower Chesapeake Bay system representing a gradient of sediment polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations. The proliferative responses to mitogens by anterior kidney lymphocytes were assessed using (3H)-thymidine uptake by replicating DNA. The data show two different mitogen-dependent lymphocytic responses as the sediment PAH levels increase at the sampling sites; a suppression of the response to the T cell mitogens, concanavalin A (Con A) and phytohemagglutinin, and a sharp augmentation of the response to B cell mitogen, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as well as to poke weed mitogen and peanut agglutinin. The magnitude of the lymphoproliferative responses correlated strongly with the total sediment PAH concentrations (r2 greater than 0.8). A similar correlation was also observed with 15 selected individual PAH compounds regardless of their molecular weights. By maintaining the fish in clean York River water for up to 24 weeks, it was possible to reverse the augmented proliferative responses to LPS of fish from all sampling sites and to increase the reduced responses to Con A, in fish from three sites, and partially in two sites where sediments were highly contaminated with PAH. These results suggest that the proliferative responses of fish lymphocytes to mitogens may be a potentially sensitive biomarker of exposure to, and effects of xenobiotics.

  5. Head-up tilt and lower body suction: comparison of hormone responses in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Hinghofer-Szalkay, H G; Vigas, M; Sauseng-Fellegger, G; König, E M; Lichardus, B; Jezová, D

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare, in the same subjects, hormonal responses to 30-min head-up tilt (HUT) and lower body suction (LBNP) of different intensity (24 degrees and 70 degrees, and 15 and 35 mm Hg, respectively). Basal pooled individual data from -10 min (n = 32) were within normal reference limits: norepinephrine (NE) averaged 318 +/- 23 pg/ml; epinephrine, 34.0 +/- 5.5 pg/ml; plasma renin activity (PRA), 0.72 +/- 0.08 ng ATII/ml/h; aldosterone, 164 +/- 20 pg/ml; atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), 29.9 +/- 2.0 pg/ml; cGMP, 6.29 +/- 0.59 mmol/l; cortisol, 95.7 +/- 5.8 ng/ml; and ACTH, 50.3 +/- 2.6 pg/ml. The low-level stimuli failed to induce consistent changes in hormone levels. From the onset of the stimulus (minute 0) to its termination (minute 30), norepinephrine (NE) increased by 101% with LBNP-35, and by 70% with HUT70, respectively. The NE increase with LBNP-35 was higher (p < 0.05) than with HUT70. Epinephrine rose with HUT70 (by 162%) only. PRA increased by 157% with LBNP-35, and by 119% with HUT70, respectively; these responses were not significantly different. Aldosterone rose equally (by 85 and 89%) with LBNP-35 and HUT70 but not with the low-level stimuli. No consistent changes were observed in ANP, c-GMP or ACTH concentrations. Cortisol values fell during the LBNP and HUT24 situations but rose transiently after HUT70. We conclude that the hormones investigated respond differently to head-up posture and lower body suction and in a specific manner. Greater effects of high-level stimuli (HUT70, LBNP-35) were noted as compared to low-level stimuli (HUT24, LBNP-15). The application of combined sets of models stimulating the cardiovascular system may aid in the analysis of responses of hormonal systems in man. PMID:9085364

  6. Sex differences, hormones, and fMRI stress response circuitry deficits in psychoses

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Jill M.; Lancaster, Katie; Longenecker, Julia M.; Abbs, Brandon; Holsen, Laura M.; Cherkerzian, Sara; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Makris, Nicolas; Tsuang, Ming T.; Buka, Stephen L.; Seidman, Larry J.; Klibanski, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Psychosis involves dysregulation of response to stress, particularly to negative valence stimuli. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of psychosis have shown hyperactivity in hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortices. Sex differences in these deficits may be associated with steroid hormone pathway abnormalities, i.e., dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal and -gondal axes. We predicted abnormal steroid hormone levels in psychosis cases would be associated with hyperactivity in hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus, and hypoactivity in prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices in a sex-dependent way, with more severe deficits in men than women with psychosis. We studied 32 psychosis cases (50.0% women) and 39 controls (43.6% women) using a novel visual stress challenge while collecting blood throughout functional magnetic resonance imaging procedures. Males with psychosis showed hyperactivity across all hypothesized regions, including the hypothalamus and anterior cingulate cortex by family-wise corrected significance. Females showed hyperactivity in the hippocampus and amygdala and hypoactivity in orbital and medial prefrontal cortices, the latter by family-wise correction. Interaction of case status by sex was significant in the medial prefrontal cortex and, marginally so, in the left orbitofrontal cortex, with female cases (vs. healthy females and males) exhibiting the lowest activity. Male and female cases compared with their healthy counterparts were hypercortisolemic, which was associated with hyperactivity in prefrontal cortices in male cases and hypoactivity in female cases. This was further associated, respectively, with low bioavailable testosterone in male cases and low estradiol in female cases. Findings suggest disruptions in neural-hormone associations in response to stress are sex-dependent in psychosis, particularly in the prefrontal cortex. PMID

  7. Acute hormonal responses before and after 2 weeks of HIT in well trained junior triathletes.

    PubMed

    Zinner, C; Wahl, P; Achtzehn, S; Reed, J L; Mester, J

    2014-04-01

    The aim was to compare the acute hormonal response to a single HIT session at the beginning and end of a HIT shock microcycle. 13 male junior triathletes (15.8±1.8 yrs.) performed 16 HIT sessions within a 2 week period. Venous blood samples were collected before and after the first and last HIT session. Significant increases in cortisol (first session +89.7%; last session +70.3%) and hGH (first session +435.1%; last session +314.6%) concentrations were observed after both training sessions (P<0.05). The acute responses of cortisol, hGH, T3, and fT3 were not different between the first and last HIT sessions (P=1.00). Although no acute changes in testosterone were detected after the training sessions, testosterone concentrations were significantly higher at all time points (62.6-80.1%) during the last compared to first training session (P≤0.001). Findings from the present study reveal that 16 sessions of HIT led to significant increases in baseline concentrations of serum testosterone. This might indicate a heightened anabolic state even in junior triathletes. Based on the hormonal data, we conclude that at the end of this 2 week microcycle no familiarization effect was evident and that the training stimulus produced by HIT was still great enough to "stress" the athletes and induce positive training adaptations. PMID:24081622

  8. Hormonal and electrolyte responses to acute isohemic volume expansion in unanesthetized rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chenault, V. M.; Morris, M.; Lynch, C. D.; Maultsby, S. J.; Hutchins, P. M.

    1993-01-01

    This study was undertaken to explore the time course of the metabolic response to isohemic blood volume expansion (30%) in normotensive, unanesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Whole blood, drawn from a femoral artery catheter of conscious donor rats, was infused into the jugular vein of recipient rats. Blood samples were drawn from a carotid artery of recipient rats at time points beginning immediately post-volume expansion (IPVE) up through 5 days post-volume expansion (PVE). To characterize the attendant compensatory mechanisms, the plasma concentrations of electrolytes and fluid regulatory hormones were determined. Hematocrit began to raise IPVE and was significantly elevated above control IPVE 20, 30, 40, 60, and 90 min, and 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hr PVE. Consistent with our current understanding of the hormonal response to excess volume, atrial natriuretic factor was significantly increased above the prevolume expansion (control) values 0-30 min PVE. Surprisingly, plasma aldosterone levels were significantly increased above control at 20 and 30 min and 6 hr PVE, whereas plasma renin activity was significantly decreased 30-40 min PVE. Plasma sodium was not changed from control values except for a significant increase at 6 hr post-volume expansion. Plasma potassium, osmolality, and arginine vasopressin levels were not altered by the volume expansion. These studies delineate the physiologic time scheme operative in the regulation of fluid volume during acute ischemic volume expansion.

  9. Neuromuscular, hormonal, and metabolic responses to different plyometric training volumes in rugby players.

    PubMed

    Cadore, Eduardo L; Pinheiro, Eraldo; Izquierdo, Mikel; Correa, Cleiton S; Radaelli, Régis; Martins, Jocelito B; Lhullier, Francisco L R; Laitano, Orlando; Cardoso, Marcelo; Pinto, Ronei S

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different volumes of plyometric exercise (i.e., 100, 200, or 300 hurdle jumps) on acute strength and jump performance and on the acute hormonal and lactate responses in rugby players. Eleven young male elite rugby players (age, 23.5 ± 0.9 years; height, 173 ± 4.8 cm) volunteered for the study. Maximal isometric peak torque (PT), maximal rate of force development (RFD), squat jump (SJ), and drop jump (DJ) performance were assessed before and 5 minutes, 8 hours, and 24 hours after 100, 200, or 300 jumps. In addition, total testosterone (TT), cortisol (COR), and lactate were measured before and after the 3 different plyometric exercise volumes. There were significant decreases in the PT (p < 0.02) and maximal RFD (p < 0.001) 5 minutes, 8 hours, and 24 hours after 100, 200, and 300 jumps, with no differences between the exercise volumes. Additionally, there were significant decreases in the SJ (p < 0.001) and DJ (p < 0.01) performances 24 hours after 100, 200, and 300 jumps, with no differences between the exercise volumes. However, there were significant increases in the TT (p < 0.001), COR (p < 0.05), and lactate (p < 0.001) after 100, 200, and 300 jumps, with no differences between the exercise volumes. All plyometric exercise volumes (100, 200, and 300 jumps) resulted in similar neuromuscular, metabolic, and hormonal responses. PMID:23442289

  10. Altered radiation responses of breast cancer cells resistant to hormonal therapy

    PubMed Central

    Luzhna, Lidiya; Lykkesfeldt, Anne E.; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine therapy agents (the selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulators such as tamoxifen or the selective ER down-regulators such as ICI 182,780) are key treatment regimens for hormone receptor-positive breast cancers. While these drugs are very effective in controlling ER-positive breast cancer, many tumors that initially respond well to treatment often acquire drug resistance, which is a major clinical problem. In clinical practice, hormonal therapy agents are commonly used in combination or sequence with radiation therapy. Tamoxifen treatment and radiotherapy improve both local tumor control and patient survival. However, tamoxifen treatment may render cancer cells less responsive to radiation therapy. Only a handful of data exist on the effects of radiation on cells resistant to hormonal therapy agents. These scarce data show that cells that were resistant to tamoxifen were also resistant to radiation. Yet, the existence and mechanisms of cross-resistance to endocrine therapy and radiation therapy need to be established. Here, we for the first time examined and compared radiation responses of MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7/S0.5) and two antiestrogen resistant cell lines derived from MCF-7/S0.5: the tamoxifen resistant MCF-7/TAMR-1 and ICI 182,780 resistant MCF-7/182R-6 cell lines. Specifically, we analyzed the radiation-induced changes in the expression of genes involved in DNA damage, apoptosis, and cell cycle regulation. We found that the tamoxifen-resistant cell line in contrast to the parental and ICI 182,780-resistant cell lines displayed a significantly less radiation-induced decrease in the expression of genes involved in DNA repair. Furthermore, we show that MCF-7/TAMR-1 and MCF-7/182R-6 cells were less susceptible to radiation-induced apoptosis as compared to the parental line. These data indicate that tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells have a reduced sensitivity to radiation treatment. The current study may therefore serve as a

  11. Predicting Treatment Response for Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorder Using Pre-treatment Adrenal and Gonadal Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Shenk, Chad E.; Dorn, Lorah D.; Kolko, David J.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Noll, Jennie G.; Bukstein, Oscar G.

    2016-01-01

    Variations in adrenal and gonadal hormone profiles have been linked to increased rates of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). These relationships suggest that certain hormone profiles may be related to how well children respond to psychological treatments for ODD and CD. The current study assessed whether pre-treatment profiles of adrenal and gonadal hormones predicted response to psychological treatment of ODD and CD. One hundred five children, 6 – 11 years old, participating in a randomized, clinical trial provided samples for cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione. Diagnostic interviews of ODD and CD were administered up to three years post-treatment to track treatment response. Group-based trajectory modeling identified two trajectories of treatment response: 1) a High-response trajectory where children demonstrated lower rates of an ODD or CD diagnosis throughout follow-up, and 2) a Low-response trajectory where children demonstrated higher rates of an ODD or CD diagnosis throughout follow-up. Hierarchical logistic regression predicting treatment response demonstrated that children with higher pre-treatment concentrations of testosterone were four times more likely to be in the Low-response trajectory. No other significant relationship existed between pre-treatment hormone profiles and treatment response. These results suggest that higher concentrations of testosterone are related to how well children diagnosed with ODD or CD respond to psychological treatment over the course of three years.

  12. Acute metabolic, hormonal, and psychological responses to different endurance training protocols.

    PubMed

    Wahl, P; Mathes, S; Köhler, K; Achtzehn, S; Bloch, W; Mester, J

    2013-10-01

    In the last years, mainly 2 high-intensity-training (HIT) protocols became common: first, a Wingate-based "all-out" protocol and second, a 4×4 min protocol. However, no direct comparison between these protocols exists, and also a comparison with high-volume-training (HVT) is missing. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare these 3 endurance training protocols on metabolic, hormonal, and psychological responses. Twelve subjects performed: 1) HVT [130 min at 55% peak power output (PPO)]; 2) 4×4 min at 95% PPO; 3) 4×30 s all-out. Human growth hormone (hGH), testosterone, and cortisol were determined before (pre) and 0', 30', 60', 180' after each intervention. Metabolic stimuli and perturbations were characterized by lactate, blood gas (pH, BE, HCO₃⁻, pO₂, PCO₂), and spirometric analysis. Furthermore, changes of the person's perceived physical state were determined. The 4×30 s training caused the highest increases in cortisol and hGH, followed by 4 × 4 min and HVT. Testosterone levels were significantly increased by all 3 exercise protocols. Metabolic stress was highest during and after 4×30 s, followed by 4×4 min and HVT. The 4×30 s training was also the most demanding intervention from an athlete's point of view. In conclusion, the results suggest that 4×30 s and 4×4 min promote anabolic processes more than HVT, due to higher increases of hGH, testosterone, and the T/C ratio. It can be speculated that the acute hormonal increase and the metabolic perturbations might play a positive role in optimizing training adaptation and in eliciting health benefits as it has been shown by previous long term training studies using similar exercise protocols. PMID:23794400

  13. Sex dependent regulation of osteoblast response to implant surface properties by systemic hormones

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Osseointegration depends on the implant surface, bone quality and the local and systemic host environment, which can differ in male and female patients. This study was undertaken in order to determine if male and female cells respond differently to titanium surfaces that have micron-scale roughness and if interactions of calciotropic hormones [1α,25(OH)2D3 and 17β-oestradiol (E2)] and microstructured surfaces on osteoblasts are sex dependent. Methods Osteoblasts from 6-week old Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) or on titanium (Ti) disks with two different surface topographies, a smooth pretreated (PT) surface and a coarse grit-blasted/acid-etched (SLA) surface, and treated with 1α,25(OH)2D3, E2, or E2 conjugated to bovine serum albumin (E2-BSA). Results Male and female cells responded similarly to Ti microstructure with respect to cell number and levels of osteocalcin, transforming growth factor-β1, osteoprotegerin and prostaglandin E2 in their conditioned media, exhibiting a more differentiated phenotype on SLA than on PT or TCPS. E2 and E2-BSA increased differentiation and local factor production, an effect that was microstructure dependent and found only in female osteoblasts. 1α,25(OH)2D3 increased osteoblast differentiation and local factor production in female and male cells, but the effect was more robust in male cells. Conclusions Male and female rat osteoblasts respond similarly to surface microstructure but exhibit sexual dimorphism in substrate-dependent responses to systemic hormones. Oestrogen affected only female cells while 1α,25(OH)2D3 had a greater effect on male cells. These results suggest that successful osseointegration in males and females may depend on the implant surface design and correct levels of calciotropic hormones. PMID:21208469

  14. Effect of inositol and tri-iodothyronine on the hormonal responsiveness of hepatocytes obtained from partially hepatectomized rats.

    PubMed Central

    Huerta-Bahena, J; García-Sáinz, J A

    1984-01-01

    Hepatocytes obtained from animals partially hepatectomized (72 h before the experiment) have a diminished responsiveness to alpha 1-adrenergic amines, vasopressin, angiotensin and glucagon and an increased responsiveness to beta-adrenergic amines. Administration of inositol or tri-iodothyronine to the hepatectomized animals induced a recovery in the hepatocyte responsiveness to the Ca2+-dependent hormones and abolished that to beta-adrenergic amines; the response to glucagon was not improved. PMID:6508748

  15. Peri-pubertal exposure to testicular hormones organizes response to novel environments and social behaviour in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Gillian R.; Kulbarsh, Kyle D.; Spencer, Karen A.; Duval, Camille

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that exposure to testicular hormones during the peri-pubertal period of life has long-term, organizational effects on adult sexual behaviour and underlying neural mechanisms in laboratory rodents. However, the organizational effects of peri-pubertal testicular hormones on other aspects of behaviour and brain function are less well understood. Here, we investigated the effects of manipulating peri-pubertal testicular hormone exposure on later behavioural responses to novel environments and on hormone receptors in various brain regions that are involved in response to novelty. Male rodents generally spend less time in the exposed areas of novel environments than females, and this sex difference emerges during the peri-pubertal period. Male Lister-hooded rats (Rattus norvegicus) were castrated either before puberty or after puberty, then tested in three novel environments (elevated plus-maze, light–dark box, open field) and in an object/social novelty task in adulthood. Androgen receptor (AR), oestrogen receptor (ER1) and corticotropin-releasing factor receptor (CRF-R2) mRNA expression were quantified in the hypothalamus, hippocampus and medial amygdala. The results showed that pre-pubertally castrated males spent more time in the exposed areas of the elevated-plus maze and light–dark box than post-pubertally castrated males, and also confirmed that peri-pubertal hormone exposure influences later response to an opposite-sex conspecific. Hormone receptor gene expression levels did not differ between pre-pubertally and post-pubertally castrated males in any of the brain regions examined. This study therefore demonstrates that testicular hormone exposure during the peri-pubertal period masculinizes later response to novel environments, although the neural mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. PMID:26159287

  16. Growth hormone response to different consecutive stress stimuli in healthy men: is there any difference?

    PubMed

    Jezova, D; Radikova, Z; Vigas, M

    2007-06-01

    The contribution of growth hormone (GH), released during acute and repeated stressful situations, to the development of stress-related disorders is often neglected. We have hypothesized that the modulation of the GH response to sequential stress exposure in humans depends mainly on the nature of the stressor. To test this hypothesis, we compared GH responses to different stressful situations, namely aerobic exercise, hypoglycemia and hyperthermia, which were applied in two sequential sessions separated by 80-150 min. In addition, administration of the dopaminergic drug apomorphine was used as a pharmacological stimulus. GH responses to submaximal exercise (bicycle ergometer, increasing work loads of 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 W/kg, total duration 20 min) and hyperthermia in a sauna (80 degrees C, 30 min) were prevented when preceded by the same stress stimulus. Hypoglycemia induced by insulin (0.1 IU/kg intravenously) resulted in a significant GH response also during the second of the two consecutive insulin tests, though the response was reduced. Administration of apomorphine (0.75 mg subcutaneously) or insulin prevented the increase in GH release in response to a sequential bolus of apomorphine, while hypoglycemia induced a significant elevation in GH levels even if applied after a previous treatment with apomorphine. In conclusion, the feedback inhibition of the GH response to a sequential stress stimulus depends on the stimulus used. Unlike in the case of exercise and hyperthermia, mechanisms involved in the stress response to hypoglycemia appear to overcome the usual feedback mechanisms and to re-induce the GH response when applied after another stimulus. PMID:17514589

  17. Modulation of. beta. -adrenergic response in rat brain astrocytes by serum and hormones

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, D.K.; Morrison, R.S.; de Vellis, J.

    1985-01-01

    Purified astrocyte cultures from neonatal rat cerebrum respond to isoproterenol, a ..beta..-adrenergic agonist, with a transient rise in cAMP production. This astroglial property was regulated by serum, a chemically defined medium (serum-free medium plus hydrocortisone, putrescine, prostaglandin F/sub 2/, insulin, and fibroblast growth factor) and epidermal growth factor. Compared to astrocytes grown in serum-supplemented medium, astrocytes grown in the chemically defined medium were nonresponsive to isoproterenol stimulation, and this difference did not appear to be due to selection of a subpopulation of cells by either medium. The data suggest that a decreased ..beta..-adrenergic receptor number and an increased degradation of cAMP may account for the reduced response to ..beta..-adrenergic stimulation. The nonresponsive state of astrocytes in the defined medium was reversible when the medium was replaced with serum-supplemented medium. An active substance(s) in serum was responsible for restoring the responsiveness of astrocytes. Each of the five components of the defined medium had little effect by itself; however, together they acted synergistically to desensitize astrocytes to ..beta..-adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, epidermal growth factor, a potent mitogen for astrocytes, was very competent by itself in reducing the cAMP response of astrocytes to ..beta..-adrenergic stimulation. Thus purified astrocytes grown in the chemically defined medium appear to be a good model for the study of hormonal interactions and of serum factors which may modulate the ..beta..-adrenergic response.

  18. Parathyroid hormone modulates the response of osteoblast-like cells to mechanical stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, K. D.; Duncan, R. L.

    2000-01-01

    Mechanical loading stimulates many responses in bone and osteoblasts associated with osteogenesis. Since loading and parathyroid hormone (PTH) activate similar signaling pathways in osteoblasts, we postulate that PTH can potentiate the effects of mechanical stimulation. Using an in vitro four-point bending device, we found that expression of COX-2, the inducible isoform of cyclooxygenase, was dependent on fluid forces generated across the culture plate, but not physiologic levels of strain in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells. Addition of 50 nM PTH during loading increased COX-2 expression at both subthreshold and threshold levels of fluid forces compared with either stimuli alone. We also demonstrated that application of fluid shear to MC3T3-E1 cells induced a rapid increase in [Ca(2+)](i). Although PTH did not significantly change [Ca(2+)](i) levels, flow and PTH did produce a significantly greater [Ca(2+)](i) response and increased the number of responding cells than is found in fluid shear alone. The [Ca(2+)](i) response to these stimuli was significantly decreased when the mechanosensitive channel inhibitor, gadolinium, was present. These studies indicate that PTH increases the cellular responses of osteoblasts to mechanical loading. Furthermore, this response may be mediated by alterations in [Ca(2+)](i) by modulating the mechanosensitive channel.

  19. The hepatic catabolic stress response. Hormonal regulation of urea synthesis after surgery.

    PubMed

    Heindorff, H A

    1993-04-01

    Following non complicated surgical trauma in man a hepatic condition has been identified that is characterized by lower than normal plasma alpha-amino nitrogen concentration and increased plasma clearance of gluconeogenic and ureagenic amino acids. Amino acids are removed from the blood by the liver, by way of a doubling of the hepatic efficacy fo urea synthesis. At any plasma amino acid concentration twice as much amino-nitrogen is excreted as urea-nitrogen, and thus lost for protein synthesis. This hepatic stress response lasts for one week postoperatively. In rats, hysterectomy elicits a similar response, but the time of the maximum increase in urea synthesis occurs earlier. Combined neuro-hormonal blockade totally prevents the response in cholecystectomized patients. In rats, it is preventable by selective blockades of glucocorticoid action and of prostaglandins synthesis. In isolated livers catecholamines, corticosterone, and glucagon together bring about 40% of the increase in urea synthesis in vivo, but only in livers "conditioned" by hysterectomy three hours earlier. Prostaglandin E2 in itself has no effect on urea synthesis, but accelerates the effect of the hormones. The regulatory system is incompletely elucidated, although several mediators are identified. A hierarchical system is suggested and discussed, and further possible regulators indicated. The role of liver for whole body nitrogen homeostasis during stress is estimated. The increase in hepatic efficacy for urea synthesis in itself accounts for about 50% of the postoperative nitrogen loss. Identification of the pathophysiological changes following surgical trauma is probably decisive for endeavours to improve postoperative morbidity and mortality. Modification of the hepatic contribution to postoperative loss of nitrogen may be necessary. PMID:8495598

  20. Hormone responses to a continuous bout of rock climbing in men.

    PubMed

    Sherk, Vanessa D; Sherk, Kyle A; Kim, SoJung; Young, Kaelin C; Bemben, Debra A

    2011-04-01

    Rock climbing is rapidly increasing in popularity as a recreational activity and as a competitive sport. Few studies have tested acute physiological responses to climbing, and no studies to date have tested hormone responses to a climbing-based workout. This study aimed to measure testosterone (T), growth hormone (GH), and cortisol (C) responses to continuous vertical climbing in young male rock climbers. Ten male rock climbers, aged between 21 and 30 years, climbed laps on a submaximal 55' climbing route for 30 min, or until exhaustion, whichever came first. Heart rate (HR) was recorded after every lap. Blood samples were collected by venipuncture before (Pre), immediately post (IP), and 15 min after the climbing exercise (P15) to assess blood lactate and plasma GH, T, and C. Subjects climbed 24.9 ± 1.9 min and 507.5 ± 82.5 feet. Peak HR was 182.1 ± 2.3 bpm, and lactate (Pre: 2.9 ± 0.6 mmol/dL, IP: 11.1 ± 1.0 mmol/dL) significantly (P < 0.05) increased from Pre to IP. T concentrations significantly (P < 0.05) increased from Pre (6.04 ± 0.31 ng/mL) to IP (7.39 ± 0.40 ng/mL) and returned to baseline at P15 (6.23 ± 0.33 ng/mL). Cortisol levels did not significantly change during the protocol. GH significantly (P < 0.01) increased from Pre (0.63 ± 0.17 ng/mL) to IP (19.89 ± 4.53 ng/mL) and remained elevated at P15 (15.03 ± 3.89 ng/mL). An acute, short-term bout of high-intensity continuous climbing was an effective exercise stimulus for elevating plasma testosterone and growth hormone levels in young males. PMID:20963437

  1. Transcriptome Analysis of Litopenaeus vannamei in Response to White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiuli; Xie, Daxiang; Zhao, Yongzhen; Yang, Chunling; Li, Yongmei; Ma, Ning; Li, Ming; Yang, Qiong; Liao, Zhenping; Wang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is the most extensively farmed crustacean species in the world. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the major pathogens in the cultured shrimp. However, the molecular mechanisms of the host-virus interaction remain largely unknown. In this study, the impact of WSSV infection on host gene expression in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei was investigated through the use of 454 pyrosequencing-based RNA-Seq of cDNA libraries developed from WSSV-challenged shrimp or normal controls. By comparing the two cDNA libraries, we show that 767 host genes are significantly up-regulated and 729 genes are significantly down-regulated by WSSV infection. KEGG analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that the distribution of gene pathways between the up- and down-regulated genes is quite different. Among the differentially expressed genes, several are found to be involved in various processes of animal defense against pathogens such as apoptosis, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, Wnt signaling and antigen processing and presentation pathways. The present study provides valuable information on differential expression of L. vannamei genes following WSSV infection and improves our current understanding of this host-virus interaction. In addition, the large number of transcripts obtained in this study provides a strong basis for future genomic research on shrimp. PMID:23991181

  2. A system biology approach highlights a hormonal enhancer effect on regulation of genes in a nitrate responsive "biomodule"

    PubMed Central

    Nero, Damion; Krouk, Gabriel; Tranchina, Daniel; Coruzzi, Gloria M

    2009-01-01

    Background Nitrate-induced reprogramming of the transcriptome has recently been shown to be highly context dependent. Herein, a systems biology approach was developed to identify the components and role of cross-talk between nitrate and hormone signals, likely to be involved in the conditional response of NO3- signaling. Results Biclustering was used to identify a set of genes that are N-responsive across a range of Nitrogen (N)-treatment backgrounds (i.e. nitrogen treatments under different growth conditions) using a meta-dataset of 76 Affymetrix ATH1 chips from 5 different laboratories. Twenty-one biclusters were found to be N-responsive across subsets of this meta-dataset. N-bicluster 9 (126 genes) was selected for further analysis, as it was shown to be reproducibly responsive to NO3- as a signal, across a wide-variety of background conditions and datasets. N-bicluster 9 genes were then used as "seed" to identify putative cross-talk mechanisms between nitrate and hormone signaling. For this, the 126 nitrate-regulated genes in N-bicluster 9 were biclustered over a meta-dataset of 278 ATH1 chips spanning a variety of hormone treatments. This analysis divided the bicluster 9 genes into two classes: i) genes controlled by NO3- only vs. ii) genes controlled by both NO3- and hormones. The genes in the latter group showed a NO3- response that is significantly enhanced, compared to the former. In silico analysis identified two Cis-Regulatory Elements candidates (CRE) (E2F, HSE) potentially involved the interplay between NO3- and hormonal signals. Conclusion This systems analysis enabled us to derive a hypothesis in which hormone signals are proposed to enhance the nitrate response, providing a potential mechanistic explanation for the link between nitrate signaling and the control of plant development. PMID:19500399

  3. Hormone-regulated defense and stress response networks contribute to heterosis in Arabidopsis F1 hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Groszmann, Michael; Gonzalez-Bayon, Rebeca; Lyons, Rebecca L.; Greaves, Ian K.; Kazan, Kemal; Peacock, W. James; Dennis, Elizabeth S.

    2015-01-01

    Plant hybrids are extensively used in agriculture to deliver increases in yields, yet the molecular basis of their superior performance (heterosis) is not well understood. Our transcriptome analysis of a number of Arabidopsis F1 hybrids identified changes to defense and stress response gene expression consistent with a reduction in basal defense levels. Given the reported antagonism between plant immunity and growth, we suggest that these altered patterns of expression contribute to the greater growth of the hybrids. The altered patterns of expression in the hybrids indicate decreases to the salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis pathway and increases in the auxin [indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)] biosynthesis pathway. SA and IAA are hormones known to control stress and defense responses as well as plant growth. We found that IAA-targeted gene activity is frequently increased in hybrids, correlating with a common heterotic phenotype of greater leaf cell numbers. Reduced SA concentration and target gene responses occur in the larger hybrids and promote increased leaf cell size. We demonstrated the importance of SA action to the hybrid phenotype by manipulating endogenous SA concentrations. Increasing SA diminished heterosis in SA-reduced hybrids, whereas decreasing SA promoted growth in some hybrids and phenocopied aspects of hybrid vigor in parental lines. Pseudomonas syringae infection of hybrids demonstrated that the reductions in basal defense gene activity in these hybrids does not necessarily compromise their ability to mount a defense response comparable to the parents. PMID:26527659

  4. Review: Puberty as a time of remodeling the adult response to ovarian hormones.

    PubMed

    Blaustein, Jeffrey D; Ismail, Nafissa; Holder, Mary K

    2016-06-01

    During pubertal development, an animal's response to stress changes and sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior continue. We discovered that particular stressors, such as shipping from suppliers or an immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide, during the prolonged pubertal period of female mice result in long-term changes in behavioral responsiveness of the brain to estradiol assessed in adulthood. All behaviors influenced by estradiol and/or progesterone that we have studied are compromised by a stressor during pubertal development. Depending on the behavior, immune challenge or shipping from suppliers during pubertal development decreases, eliminates, or even reverses the effects of estradiol. Shipping during this period causes changes in the number of estrogen receptor-immunoreactive cells in key brain areas suggesting one cellular mechanism for this remodeling of the brain's response to hormones. We suggest that particular adverse experiences in girls may cause long-term alterations in the brain's response to estradiol and/or progesterone via activation of the immune system. This in turn could lead to an alteration in any aspect of mental health that is influenced by estradiol. PMID:26004504

  5. Microarray Analysis of the Juvenile Hormone Response in Larval Integument of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Daojun; Peng, Jian; Meng, Meng; Wei, Ling; Kang, Lixia; Qian, Wenliang; Xia, Qingyou

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) coordinates with 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) to regulate larval growth and molting in insects. However, little is known about how this cooperative control is achieved during larval stages. Here, we induced silkworm superlarvae by applying the JH analogue (JHA) methoprene and used a microarray approach to survey the mRNA expression changes in response to JHA in the silkworm integument. We found that JHA application significantly increased the expression levels of most genes involved in basic metabolic processes and protein processing and decreased the expression of genes associated with oxidative phosphorylation in the integument. Several key genes involved in the pathways of insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) and 20E signaling were also upregulated after JHA application. Taken together, we suggest that JH may mediate the nutrient-dependent IIS pathway by regulating various metabolic pathways and further modulate 20E signaling. PMID:24809046

  6. Microarray Analysis of the Juvenile Hormone Response in Larval Integument of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Daojun; Peng, Jian; Meng, Meng; Wei, Ling; Kang, Lixia; Qian, Wenliang; Xia, Qingyou

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) coordinates with 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) to regulate larval growth and molting in insects. However, little is known about how this cooperative control is achieved during larval stages. Here, we induced silkworm superlarvae by applying the JH analogue (JHA) methoprene and used a microarray approach to survey the mRNA expression changes in response to JHA in the silkworm integument. We found that JHA application significantly increased the expression levels of most genes involved in basic metabolic processes and protein processing and decreased the expression of genes associated with oxidative phosphorylation in the integument. Several key genes involved in the pathways of insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) and 20E signaling were also upregulated after JHA application. Taken together, we suggest that JH may mediate the nutrient-dependent IIS pathway by regulating various metabolic pathways and further modulate 20E signaling. PMID:24809046

  7. [Serum free thyroid hormones and response of TSH to TRH in nonthyroidal illnesses].

    PubMed

    Kokei, S; Inoue, T; Iino, S

    1986-11-20

    The change in the levels of free thyroid hormones and the pathophysiology of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis of patients with nonthyroidal illness (NTI) have not been clearly elucidated so far. Therefore, it was thought of interest to investigate this problem by determining free thyroid hormones and TSH in serum and the response of TSH to TRH in these patients. The subjects employed in this study were 71 cases with hemodialysis, 40 cases with diabetes mellitus, 24 cases with liver cirrhosis, 12 cases with various cancers, 10 cases with anorexia nervosa and 110 normal subjects as controls. The serum total protein, albumin, free T4, free T3, TSH and other parameters of thyroid function were determined, and the TRH test was performed on about 10 patients of each group. Serum TSH was not only determined by a conventional assay system, but with a highly sensitive method, and the data were compared with one another. It was found that the serum free T3 levels were significantly low in all the groups investigated, but the serum free T4 levels were significantly low only in the groups with hemodialysis, decompensated liver cirrhosis, cancers and anorexia nervosa. No significant lowering of serum free T4 was observed in the patients with diabetes mellitus, acute hepatitis and compensated liver cirrhosis. However, serum TSH levels tended to be higher in all the groups studied, though they were not significant. The response of TSH to TRH was low or delayed in about 20-50% of patients with hemodialysis, diabetes mellitus, liver cirrhosis, cancers and anorexia nervosa. It was observed that the serum rT3 concentration was significantly high in the patients with diabetes mellitus and anorexia nervosa but significantly low in the patients on hemodialysis. In the rest of the groups, there were found many cases who showed high levels of serum rT3 although they were not statistically significant. These results indicate that low concentrations of serum free T3 observed in the

  8. Favorable Growth Hormone Treatment Response in a Young Boy with Achondroplasia

    PubMed Central

    Krstevska-Konstantinova, Marina; Stamatova, Ana; Gucev, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Achondroplasia is a skeletal dysplasia, the most common cause of rhizomelic dwarfism. Case presentation: This is a ten year old boy who was first diagnosed prenatally. He had a mutation c1138G>A in the gene FGFR3 in a heterozygotic constellation. His IGF1 and IGFBP3 levels were normal. Two stimulation tests for growth hormone were performed with values within the reference range. His psychomotor development was adequate for his age except for speech difficulty. He started with recombinant hGH (r-hGH) at the age of 3.4 years in a dose of 0.06 mg/kg. His mean Height SDS (HtSDS) was -2.2. Results: The growth increased to 10 cm/year in the first year of therapy (HtSDS -1.1). It decreased during the second year to 4 cm (HtSDS -1.7) and again increased during the third year to 8 cm/year (HtSDS–1.3). In the next years the growth was constant (6.5, 2.3, 3.5 cm / year). He is still growing in the 3rd percentile of the growth curve (HtSDS – 1.2) under GH treatment. The body disproportion remained the same. Conclusion: The growth response on GH treatment was satisfactory in the first 4 years of treatment, and the boy still continued to grow. The young age at the start of treatment was also of importance. Our other patients with achondroplasia who started treatment older had a poor response to growth hormone. PMID:27147792

  9. Biphasic hormonal responses to the adrenocorticolytic DDT metabolite 3-methylsulfonyl-DDE in human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Asp, Vendela; Ulleras, Erik; Lindstroem, Veronica; Bergstroem, Ulrika; Oskarsson, Agneta; Brandt, Ingvar

    2010-02-01

    The DDT metabolite 3-methylsulfonyl-DDE (3-MeSO{sub 2}-DDE) has been proposed as a lead compound for an improved adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) treatment. ACC is a rare malignant disorder with poor prognosis, and the current pharmacological therapy o,p'-DDD (mitotane) has limited efficacy and causes severe adverse effects. 3-MeSO{sub 2}-DDE is bioactivated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 11B1 in mice and causes formation of irreversibly bound protein adducts, reduced glucocorticoid secretion, and cell death in the adrenal cortex of several animal species. The present study was carried out to assess similarities and differences between mice and humans concerning the adrenocorticolytic effects of 3-MeSO{sub 2}-DDE. The results support previous indications that humans are sensitive to the adrenocorticolytic actions of 3-MeSO{sub 2}-DDE by demonstrating protein adduct formation and cytotoxicity in the human adrenocortical cell line H295R. However, neither the irreversible binding nor the cytotoxicity of 3-MeSO{sub 2}-DDE in H295R cells was inhibited by the CYP11B1 inhibitor etomidate. We also report biphasic responses to 3-MeSO{sub 2}-DDE in cortisol and aldosterone secretion as well as in mRNA levels of the steroidogenic genes StAR, CYP11B1 and CYP11B2. Hormone levels and mRNA levels were increased at lower concentrations of 3-MeSO{sub 2}-DDE, while higher concentrations decreased hormone levels. These biphasic responses were not observed with o,p'-DDD or with the precursor DDT metabolite p,p'-DDE. Based on these results, 3-MeSO{sub 2}-DDE remains a viable lead compound for drug design, although the adrenocorticolytic effects of 3-MeSO{sub 2}-DDE in human cells seem more complex than in murine cells.

  10. Metabolic and hormonal responses during exercise at 20°, 0° and -20°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirion, A.; Laurencelle, L.; Paulin, L.; Therminarias, A.; Brisson, G. R.; Audet, A.; Dulac, S.; Vogelaere, P.

    1989-12-01

    This study was designed to clarify the effects of cold air exposure on metabolic and hormonal responses during progressive incremental exercise. Eight healthy males volunteered for the study. Informed consent was obtained from every participant. The following protocol was administered to each subject on three occasions in a climatic chamber in which the temperature was 20°, 0° or -20°C with relative humidity at 60%±1%. Exercise tests were conducted on an electrically braked ergocycle, and consisted of a propressive incremental maximal exercise. Respiratory parameters were continuously monitored by an automated open-circuit sampling system Exercise blood lactate (LA), free fatty acids (FFA), glucose levels, bicarbonate concentration (HCO{3/-}), acidbase balance, plasma epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) were determined from venous blood samples obtained through an indwelling brachial catheter. Maximal oxygen uptake was significantly different between conditions: 72.0±5.4 ml kg-1 min-1 at 20°C; 68.9±5.1 ml kg-1 min-1 at 0°C and 68.5±4.6 ml kg-1 min-1 at -20°C. Workload, time to exhaustion, glucose levels and rectal Catecholamines and lactate values were not significantly altered by thermal conditions after maximal exercise but the catecholamines were decreased during rest. Bicarbonate, respiratory quotient, lactate and ventilatory thresholds increased significantly at -20°C. The data support the contention that metabolic and hormonal responses following progressive incremental exercise are altered by cold exposure and they indicate a marked decrease in maximal oxygen uptake, time to exhaustion and workload.

  11. Growth control of prostatic carcinoma cells in serum-free media: interrelationship of hormone response, cell density, and nutrient media.

    PubMed Central

    Kaighn, M E; Kirk, D; Szalay, M; Lechner, J F

    1981-01-01

    Two established prostatic carcinoma cell lines have been grown in long-term culture in a defined medium (PFMR-4) free of serum, hormones, or growth factors. Growth of both lines in serum-free medium was population dependent. This cell-density requirement could be replaced by mitomycin C-inactivated feeder cells, homologous conditioned medium, or fetal bovine serum, but not by hormones or growth factors. The cells responded to these factors only at high density. The nature of this hormonal response was dependent on the kind of basal nutrient medium used. Growth in PFMR-4 with added insulin was more rapid than that in DME/F12 medium with any combination of hormones or growth factors and was substantially greater than growth in DME/F12 medium with insulin alone. The results demonstrate that whereas these two prostatic carcinoma lines (PC-3 and DU 145) do not require hormones for survival or growth, they do respond to certain hormones under appropriate conditions. These conditions include both the type of basal nutrient medium used and the population density. PMID:7029542

  12. Nmp4/CIZ suppresses the response of bone to anabolic parathyroid hormone by regulating both osteoblasts and osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    Childress, Paul; Philip, Binu K.; Robling, Alexander G.; Bruzzaniti, Angela; Kacena, Melissa A.; Bivi, Nicoletta; Plotkin, Lilian I.; Heller, Aaron; Bidwell, Joseph P.

    2011-01-01

    How parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases bone mass is unclear but understanding this phenomenon is significant to the improvement of osteoporosis therapy. Nmp4/CIZ is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling transcriptional repressor that suppresses PTH-induced osteoblast gene expression and hormone-stimulated gains in murine femoral trabecular bone. To further characterize Nmp4/CIZ suppression of hormone-mediated bone growth we treated 10 wk-old Nmp4-knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice with intermittent human PTH (1-34) at 30μg/kg/day or vehicle, 7 days/wk, for 2, 3, or 7 wks. Null mice treated with hormone (7 wks) gained more vertebral and tibial cancellous bone than WT animals paralleling the exaggerated response in the femur. Interestingly, Nmp4/CIZ suppression of this hormone-stimulated bone formation was not apparent during the first 2 wks of treatment. Consistent with the null mice enhanced PTH-stimulated addition of trabecular bone these animals exhibited an augmented hormone-induced increase in serum osteocalcin 3 wks into treatment. Unexpectedly the Nmp4-KO mice displayed an osteoclast phenotype. Serum C-terminal telopeptides, a marker for bone resorption, was elevated in the null mice, irrespective of treatment. Nmp4-KO bone marrow cultures produced more osteoclasts, which exhibited an elevated resorbing activity, compared to WT cultures. The expression of several genes critical to the development of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts were elevated in Nmp4-KO mice at 2 wks but not 3 wks of hormone exposure. We propose that Nmp4/CIZ dampens PTH-induced improvement of trabecular bone throughout the skeleton by transiently suppressing hormone-stimulated increases in the expression of proteins key to the required enhanced activity/number of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. PMID:21607813

  13. Nmp4/CIZ suppresses the response of bone to anabolic parathyroid hormone by regulating both osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Childress, Paul; Philip, Binu K; Robling, Alexander G; Bruzzaniti, Angela; Kacena, Melissa A; Bivi, Nicoletta; Plotkin, Lilian I; Heller, Aaron; Bidwell, Joseph P

    2011-07-01

    How parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases bone mass is unclear, but understanding this phenomenon is significant to the improvement of osteoporosis therapy. Nmp4/CIZ is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling transcriptional repressor that suppresses PTH-induced osteoblast gene expression and hormone-stimulated gains in murine femoral trabecular bone. To further characterize Nmp4/CIZ suppression of hormone-mediated bone growth, we treated 10-week-old Nmp4-knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice with intermittent human PTH(1-34) at 30 μg/kg daily or vehicle, 7 days/week, for 2, 3, or 7 weeks. Null mice treated with hormone (7 weeks) gained more vertebral and tibial cancellous bone than WT animals, paralleling the exaggerated response in the femur. Interestingly, Nmp4/CIZ suppression of this hormone-stimulated bone formation was not apparent during the first 2 weeks of treatment. Consistent with the null mice enhanced PTH-stimulated addition of trabecular bone, these animals exhibited an augmented hormone-induced increase in serum osteocalcin 3 weeks into treatment. Unexpectedly, the Nmp4-KO mice displayed an osteoclast phenotype. Serum C-terminal telopeptide, a marker for bone resorption, was elevated in the null mice, irrespective of treatment. Nmp4-KO bone marrow cultures produced more osteoclasts, which exhibited elevated resorbing activity, compared to WT cultures. The expression of several genes critical to the development of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts was elevated in Nmp4-KO mice at 2 weeks, but not 3 weeks, of hormone exposure. We propose that Nmp4/CIZ dampens PTH-induced improvement of trabecular bone throughout the skeleton by transiently suppressing hormone-stimulated increases in the expression of proteins key to the required enhanced activity and number of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. PMID:21607813

  14. Do early-life events permanently alter behavioral and hormonal responses to stressors?

    PubMed

    Anisman, H; Zaharia, M D; Meaney, M J; Merali, Z

    1998-01-01

    Early-life stimulation (e.g., brief handling) attenuates the behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stressors encountered in adulthood, particularly with respect to activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity. In contrast, if neonates were subjected to a more severe stressor, such as protracted separation from the dam or exposure to an endotoxin, then the adult response to a stressor was exaggerated. These early-life experiences program HPA functioning, including negative feedback derived from stimulation of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors, and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) coexpression in PVN neurons, to modify the response to subsequent stressor experiences. The persistent variations of HPA activity observed in handled/stimulated animals may stem from alterations in dam-pup interactions (e.g. increased arched-back feeding, licking, grooming). In addition genetic makeup is critical in determining stress reactivity. For instance, BALB/cByJ mice are more reactive to stressors than C57BL/6ByJ mice, exhibiting greater HPA hormonal alterations and behavioral disturbances. BALB/cByJ also fail to acquire a spatial learning response in a Morris water-maze paradigm, which has been shown to be correlated with hippocampal cell loss associated with aging. Early-life handling of BALB/cByJ mice prevented these performance deficits and attenuated the hypersecretion of ACTH and corticosterone elicited by stressors. The stressor reactivity may have been related to maternal and genetic factors. When BALB/cByJ mice were raised by a C57BL/6ByJ dam, the excessive stress-elicited HPA activity was reduced, as were the behavioral impairments. However, cross-fostering the more resilient C57BL/6ByJ mice to a BALB/cByJ dam failed to elicit the behavioral disturbances. It is suggested that genetic factors may influence dam-pup interactive styles and may thus proactively influence the response to subsequent stressors among

  15. Potentiation of Hormonal Responses to Hemorrhage and Fasting, but not Hypoglycemia in Conscious Adrenalectomized Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darlington, Daniel N.; Keil, Lanny C.; Dallman, Mary F.

    1989-01-01

    Bilateral adrenalectomy (ADRX) in rats removes the source of two major stress-responsive hormones, corticosterone and epinephrine. To test how ADRX rats with-stand stress, we performed the following experiments in adult male rats provided with indwelling femoral arterial and venous cannulae and either ADRX or sham-adrenalectomized (Sham) 3 days later and given 0.5% NaCl to drink. Five to 6 days after adrenal surgery the rats were studied after either a 15 ml/kg.5 min hemorrhage or after an overnight fast followed by insulin-induced hypoglycemia. In fed unstressed ADRX rats, basal mean arterial blood pressure was slightly decreased; heart rate was increased; blood volume, vasopressin, and oxytocin concentrations were not different from sham values; and renin and norepinephrine were significantly elevated. The recovery of arterial pressure after hemorrhage in the ADRX rats was similar to that in the sham group over a 5-h period; however, the responses of vasopressin and oxytocin were significantly greater, and those of renin and norepinephrine were markedly potentiated in the ADRX group. Heart rate recovered faster in the ADRX group and was elevated, compared to the sham value, for most of the 5-h period. Restitution of blood volume was attenuated in the ADRX group, although the restitution of plasma protein was not different between the groups. A significant difference in the change in plasma osmolality between groups after hemorrhage may account for the attenuated restitution of blood volume. After an overnight fast, which reduced blood volume in both groups of rats, the plasma renin concentration rose still further in ADRX rats; the differences in other measured variables observed between fed ADRX and sham groups remained the same. The insulin-induced 50% decrease in glucose caused minor effects on arterial blood pressure and heart rate and occasioned responses in renin and norepinephrine of similar magnitudes in the two groups. We conclude that in the absence of

  16. Signaling Responses to Pulsatile Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone in LβT2 Gonadotrope Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsumi, Rie; Mistry, Devendra; Webster, Nicholas J. G.

    2010-01-01

    The hypothalamic neuropeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is secreted in a pulsatile fashion by hypothalamic neurons, and alterations in pulse frequency and amplitude differentially regulate gonadotropin synthesis and release. In this study, we investigated the kinetics of Gs and Gq signaling in response to continuous or pulsatile GnRH using fluorescence resonance energy transfer reporters in live mouse LβT2 gonadotrope cells. cAMP and protein kinase A-dependent reporters showed a rapid but transient increase in fluorescence resonance energy transfer signal with increasing doses of constant GnRH, and in contrast diacylglycerol (DAG) and calcium reporters showed a rapid and sustained signal. Multiple pulses of GnRH caused multiple pulses of cAMP and protein kinase A activation without desensitization, but the DAG and calcium reporters were rapidly desensitized resulting in inhibition of calcium and DAG responses. At the transcriptional level, both a cAMP-dependent cAMP-response element reporter and a DAG/calcium-dependent AP-1 reporter showed a pulse frequency-dependent increase in luciferase activity. However, constant GnRH stimulation gave very little cAMP-response element activation but very strong AP-1 activation. Based on these data, we propose that both the GnRH-R-Gs and Gq pathways are responsive to pulses of GnRH, but only the Gq pathway is responsive to constant GnRH. Furthermore, the Gq pathway is subject to desensitization with multiple GnRH pulses, but the Gs pathway is not. PMID:20406815

  17. The effect of combined hormonal contraceptives use on brain reactivity during response inhibition.

    PubMed

    Gingnell, Malin; Bannbers, Elin; Engman, Jonas; Frick, Andreas; Moby, Lena; Wikström, Johan; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2016-04-01

    Objectives Cognitive control, which can be described as the ability to moderate impulses, has not previously been investigated in users of combined hormonal contraception (CHC). Given the suggested modulatory role of ovarian steroids in prefrontal dopaminergic function, which in turn taps into cognitive control, this randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled oral contraceptive trial set out to investigate the brain activity pattern during response inhibition in CHC users. Methods Thirty-four women were randomised to one treatment cycle with a levonorgestrel-containing CHC or placebo. The women performed a Go/NoGo task to measure brain activity during response inhibition by use of event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) prior to and during the CHC/placebo treatment cycle. Results No differences between CHC and placebo users in number of correct inhibitions were found during treatment, but only women on CHC significantly improved their performance between the baseline and treatment assessments. During the treatment cycle CHC users displayed decreased activity in the right middle frontal gyrus in comparison with placebo users. No other significant activations were evident between treatment groups or within groups. Conclusion Overall, CHC use had marginal effects on brain activity during response inhibition. If anything, the findings of the study may suggest reduced effort or increased efficiency in maintaining orbitofrontal cortex inhibitory cognitive control when using a combined oral contraceptive. PMID:26291330

  18. Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Simulated Competition Part I: Metabolic, Hormonal, Cellular Damage, and Heart Rate Responses.

    PubMed

    Andreato, Leonardo V; Julio, Ursula F; Panissa, Valeria L G; Esteves, João V D C; Hardt, Felipe; de Moraes, Solange M F; de Souza, Camila O; Franchini, Emerson

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze physiological responses in Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes during simulated competition. To this end, 10 athletes (age: 28 ± 4 years, body mass: 81.8 ± 7.4 kg, body fat: 13.0 ± 4.8%, systematic practice: 11 ± 4 years) were analyzed in simulated competition (4 matches of 10 minutes). Blood samples were taken to assess energy demand, hormonal responses, and cell damage. Additionally, the heart rate variability (HRV) response was analyzed. The main results show that in simulated competition, during the last matches, athletes had lower lactate (p < 0.001), epinephrine (p < 0.001), norepinephrine (p < 0.001), and insulin (p = 0.002) concentrations. Increases observed in creatine kinase (p < 0.001), aspartate aminotransferase (p < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (p = 0.007), and creatinine (p < 0.001) seen, especially, in the last matches are indicative of possible cell damage. The HRV reflected a decrease in the RR medium (average of the normal R-R intervals) (p = 0.001) during the competition. Thus, it is concluded that successive matches from competition generate a gradual decrease of adrenergic and glycolytic activities, which is accompanied by a gradual increase in cell damage markers and decrease in the RR medium of the HRV. PMID:26308831

  19. Bidirectional promoters in seed development and related hormone/stress responses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bidirectional promoters are common in genomes but under-studied experimentally, particularly in plants. We describe a targeted identification and selection of a subset of putative bidirectional promoters to identify genes involved in seed development and to investigate possible coordinated responses of gene pairs to conditions important in seed maturation such as desiccation and ABA-regulation. Results We combined a search for 100–600 bp intergenic regions in the Arabidopsis genome with a cis-element based selection for those containing multiple copies of the G-box motif, CACGTG. One of the putative bidirectional promoters identified also contained a CE3 coupling element 5 bp downstream of one G-box and is identical to that characterized previously in the HVA1 promoter of barley. CE3 elements are significantly under-represented and under-studied in Arabidopsis. We further characterized the pair of genes associated with this promoter and uncovered roles for two small, previously uncharacterized, plant-specific proteins in Arabidopsis seed development and stress responses. Conclusions Using bioinformatics we identified putative bidirectional promoters involved in seed development and analysed expression patterns for a pair of plant-specific genes in various tissues and in response to hormones/stress. We also present preliminary functional analysis of these genes that is suggestive of roles in seed development. PMID:24261334

  20. Hormonal contraceptives suppress oxytocin-induced brain reward responses to the partner's face.

    PubMed

    Scheele, Dirk; Plota, Jessica; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit; Maier, Wolfgang; Hurlemann, René

    2016-05-01

    The hypothalamic peptide oxytocin (OXT) has been identified as a key modulator of pair-bonding in men, but its effects in women are still elusive. Moreover, there is substantial evidence that hormonal contraception (HC) influences partner preferences and sexual satisfaction, which constitute core domains of OXT function. We thus hypothesized that OXT effects on partner-related behavioral and neural responses could be significantly altered in women using HC. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study involving 40 pair-bonded women, 21 of whom were using HC, we investigated whether a 24-IU nasal dose of OXT would modulate brain reward responses evoked by the romantic partner's face relative to the faces of familiar and unfamiliar people. Treatment with OXT increased the perceived attractiveness of the partner relative to other men, which was paralleled by elevated responses in reward-associated regions, including the nucleus accumbens. These effects of OXT were absent in women using HC. Our results confirm and extend previous findings in men that OXT interacts with the brain reward system to reinforce partner value representations, indicating a common OXT-dependent mechanism underlying partner attraction in both sexes. This mechanism may be disturbed in women using HC, suggesting that gonadal steroids could alter partner-specific OXT effects. PMID:26722017

  1. Ovarian and hormonal responses of cows to treatment with an analogue of gonadotrophin releasing hormone and prostaglandin F2 alpha.

    PubMed

    Peters, A R; Ward, S J; Warren, M J; Gordon, P J; Mann, G E; Webb, R

    1999-03-27

    Blood samples were taken from 11 cows and their ovaries were scanned by ultrasound at least daily. Around day 5 of an induced cycle, they were injected with 10 micrograms buserelin, an analogue of gonadotrophin releasing hormone, and on day 12 they received 0.5 mg cloprostenol, an analogue of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha). Two days later six of the cows (the treated group) received a second injection of 10 micrograms buserelin, but the remaining five received no further treatment (control group). The dominant, that is, the largest follicle in each cow disappeared after the first buserelin injection and was replaced by a new one which grew synchronously in all the cows until after the treatment with PGF2 alpha. Ovulation occurred significantly earlier after PGF2 alpha in the treated group than in the control group (72 to 96 hours v 96 to 120 hours; P < 0.05). Plasma progesterone concentrations then increased more rapidly in the treated group than in the control group and were significantly higher on days 3 and 4 after ovulation (P < 0.05). PMID:10230012

  2. Bed rest suppresses bioassayable growth hormone release in response to muscle activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCall, G. E.; Goulet, C.; Grindeland, R. E.; Hodgson, J. A.; Bigbee, A. J.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1997-01-01

    Hormonal responses to muscle activity were studied in eight men before (-13 or -12 and -8 or -7 days), during (2 or 3, 8 or 9, and 13 or 14 days) and after (+2 or +3 and +10 or +11 days) 17 days of bed rest. Muscle activity consisted of a series of unilateral isometric plantar flexions, including 4 maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs), 48 contractions at 30% MVC, and 12 contractions at 80% MVC, all performed at a 4:1-s work-to-rest ratio. Blood was collected before and immediately after muscle activity to measure plasma growth hormone by radioimmunoassay (IGH) and by bioassay (BGH) of tibia epiphyseal cartilage growth in hypophysectomized rats. Plasma IGH was unchanged by muscle activity before, during, or after bed rest. Before bed rest, muscle activity increased (P < 0.05) BGH by 66% at -13 or -12 days (2,146 +/- 192 to 3,565 +/- 197 microg/l) and by 92% at -8 or -7 days (2,162 +/- 159 to 4,161 +/- 204 microg/l). After 2 or 3 days of bed rest, there was no response of BGH to the muscle activity, a pattern that persisted through 8 or 9 days of bed rest. However, after 13 or 14 days of bed rest, plasma concentration of BGH was significantly lower after than before muscle activity (2,594 +/- 211 to 2,085 +/- 109 microg/l). After completion of bed rest, muscle activity increased BGH by 31% at 2 or 3 days (1,807 +/- 117 to 2,379 +/- 473 microg/l; P < 0.05), and by 10 or 11 days the BGH response was similar to that before bed rest (1,881 +/- 75 to 4,160 +/- 315 microg/l; P < 0.05). These data demonstrate that the ambulatory state of an individual can have a major impact on the release of BGH, but not IGH, in response to a single bout of muscle activity.

  3. Thyroid hormone-regulated gene expression in juvenile mouse liver: identification of thyroid response elements using microarray profiling and in silico analyses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Disruption of thyroid hormone signalling can alter growth, development and energy metabolism. Thyroid hormones exert their effects through interactions with thyroid receptors that directly bind thyroid response elements and can alter transcriptional activity of target genes. The effects of short-term thyroid hormone perturbation on hepatic mRNA transcription in juvenile mice were evaluated, with the goal of identifying genes containing active thyroid response elements. Thyroid hormone disruption was induced from postnatal day 12 to 15 by adding goitrogens to dams' drinking water (hypothyroid). A subgroup of thyroid hormone-disrupted pups received intraperitoneal injections of replacement thyroid hormones four hours prior to sacrifice (replacement). An additional group received only thyroid hormones four hours prior to sacrifice (hyperthyroid). Hepatic mRNA was extracted and hybridized to Agilent mouse microarrays. Results Transcriptional profiling enabled the identification of 28 genes that appeared to be under direct thyroid hormone-regulation. The regulatory regions of the genome adjacent to these genes were examined for half-site sequences that resemble known thyroid response elements. A bioinformatics search identified 33 thyroid response elements in the promoter regions of 13 different genes thought to be directly regulated by thyroid hormones. Thyroid response elements found in the promoter regions of Tor1a, 2310003H01Rik, Hect3d and Slc25a45 were further validated by confirming that the thyroid receptor is associated with these sequences in vivo and that it can bind directly to these sequences in vitro. Three different arrangements of thyroid response elements were identified. Some of these thyroid response elements were located far up-stream (> 7 kb) of the transcription start site of the regulated gene. Conclusions Transcriptional profiling of thyroid hormone disrupted animals coupled with a novel bioinformatics search revealed new thyroid

  4. Temporal pattern and effect of sex on lipopolysaccharide-induced stress hormone and cytokine response in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The temporal pattern and gender effect of immune and stress hormone responses to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge were assessed using a pig model. Secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6 increased in a time-dependent manner f...

  5. Effect of maternal stress on the stress hormone and growth response of pigs to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study assessed the effect of maternal stress on the stress hormone and growth response of the progeny following an endotoxin challenge. Sows were assigned to one of two treatments (n = 10 per treatment) and subjected to either a daily 5-min restraint stress (stressed; S) from d 84 to d 112 of g...

  6. Sexually dimorphic stress and innate immunological responses of Brahman cattle following an intravenous corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to characterize potential sexually dimorphic stress and immunological responses following corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) challenge. Six female (heifers) and five male (bulls) Brahman calves (264 ± 12 days of age) were challenged with 0.5 micrograms of CRH/kg body weig...

  7. Temporal pattern and effect of sex on lipopolysaccharide-induced stress hormone and cytokine response in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The temporal pattern and gender effect on immune and stress hormone responses to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge was assessed using a pig model. Secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin-1 (IL-1) beta and IL-6 increased (P < 0.05) in a time-depend...

  8. Regulation of hormonal responses of sweet pepper as affected by salinity and elevated CO2 concentration.

    PubMed

    Piñero, María Carmen; Houdusse, Fabrice; Garcia-Mina, Jose M; Garnica, María; Del Amor, Francisco M

    2014-08-01

    This study examines the extent to which the predicted CO2 -protective effects on the inhibition of growth, impairment of photosynthesis and nutrient imbalance caused by saline stress are mediated by an effective adaptation of the endogenous plant hormonal balance. Therefore, sweet pepper plants (Capsicum annuum, cv. Ciclón) were grown at ambient or elevated [CO2] (400 or 800 µmol mol(-1)) with a nutrient solution containing 0 or 80 mM NaCl. The results show that, under saline conditions, elevated [CO2] increased plant dry weight, leaf area, leaf relative water content and net photosynthesis compared with ambient [CO2], whilst the maximum potential quantum efficiency of photosystem II was not modified. In salt-stressed plants, elevated [CO2 ] increased leaf NO3(-) concentration and reduced Cl(-) concentration. Salinity stress induced ABA accumulation in the leaves but it was reduced in the roots at high [CO2], being correlated with the stomatal response. Under non-stressed conditions, IAA was dramatically reduced in the roots when high [CO2] was applied, which resulted in greater root DW and root respiration. Additionally, the observed high CK concentration in the roots (especially tZR) could prevent downregulation of photosynthesis at high [CO2], as the N level in the leaves was increased compared with the ambient [CO2], under salt-stress conditions. These results demonstrate that the hormonal balance was altered by the [CO2], which resulted in significant changes at the growth, gas exchange and nutritional levels. PMID:24152078

  9. Adenylate cyclase responsiveness to hormones in various portions of the human nephron.

    PubMed Central

    Chabardès, D; Gagnan-Brunette, M; Imbert-Teboul, M; Gontcharevskaia, O; Montégut, M; Clique, A; Morel, F

    1980-01-01

    The action sites for parathyroid hormone (PTH), salmon calcitonin (SCT), and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) were investigated along the human nephron by measuring adenylate cyclase activity, using a single tubule in vitro microassay. Well-localized segments of tubule were isolated by microdissection from five human kidneys unsuitable for transplantation. PTH (10 IU/ml) increased adenylate cyclase activity in the convoluted and the straight proximal tubule, in the medullary and cortical portions of the thick ascending limb, and in the early portion of the distal convoluted tubule (corresponding stimulated:basal activity ratios were 64, 19, 10, 18, and 22, respectively). SCT (10 ng/ml) increased adenylate cyclase activity in the medullary and cortical portions of the thick ascending limb, in the early portion of the distal convoluted tubule, and, to a lesser extent, in the cortical and the medullay collecting tubule (activity ratios were 7, 14, 15, 3, and 3, respectively). AVP (1 microM) stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in the terminal nephron segments only, i.e., the late portion of the distal convoluted tubule, the cortical and medullary portions of the collecting tubule (activity ratios 81, 51, and 97, respectively). As measured in one experiment, nearly one-half maximal responses were obtained with 0.1 IU/ml PTH or 0.3 ng/ml SCT in thick ascending limbs and with 1 nM AVP in collecting tubules, suggesting that enzyme sensitivity to hormones as well preserved under the conditions used in this study. PMID:7356689

  10. Recovery from Disrupted Ultradian Glucocorticoid Rhythmicity Reveals a Dissociation Between Hormonal and Behavioural Stress Responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Sarabdjitsingh, R.A.; Spiga, F.; Oitzl, M.S.; Kershaw, Y.; Meijer, O.C.; Lightman, S.L.; de Kloet, E.R.

    2016-01-01

    Ultradian release of glucocorticoids is thought to be essential for homeostasis and health. Furthermore, deviation from this pulsatile release pattern is considered to compromise resilience to stress-related disease, even after hormone levels have normalised. In the present study, we investigate how constant exposure to different concentrations of corticosterone affects diurnal and ultradian pulsatility. The rate of recovery in pulsatile hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity after withdrawal of exogenous corticosterone is also examined. Finally, the behavioural and neuroendocrine responsiveness to an audiogenic stressor is studied. Adrenally intact male rats were subcutaneously implanted with vehicle, 40% or 100% corticosterone pellets for 7 days. The continuous release of corticosterone from these implants abolished diurnal and ultradian corticosterone variation, as measured with high-frequency automated blood sampling. Pellet removal on post-surgery day 8 allowed rapid recovery of endogenous rhythms in animals previously exposed to daily average concentrations (40%) but not after exposure to high concentrations (100%) of corticosterone. Behavioural and neuroendocrine responsiveness to stress was distinctly different between the treatment groups. Audiogenic stimulation 1 day after pellet removal resulted in a similar corticosterone response in animals previously exposed to 40% corticosterone or vehicle. The 40% pellet group, however, showed less and shorter behavioural activity (i.e. locomotion, risk assessment) to noise stress compared to 100% corticosterone and vehicle-treated animals. In conclusion, unlike the animals impanted with 100% corticosterone, we find that basal HPA axis activity in the 40% group, which had mean daily levels of circulating corticosterone in the physiological range, rapidly reverts to the characteristic pulsatile pattern of corticosterone secretion. Upon reinstatement of the ultradian rhythm, and despite the fact that these

  11. Ovine corticotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test in patients with chronic renal failure: pharmacokinetic properties, and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone and serum cortisol responses.

    PubMed

    Siamopoulos, K C; Eleftheriades, E G; Pappas, M; Sferopoulos, G; Tsolas, O

    1988-01-01

    The data on the status of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in haemodialysis (HD) patients are conflicting. Moreover, a state reminiscent of Cushing's syndrome has been reported in this group of patients. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), that is produced by the hypothalamus and modulates the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), has been shown to be useful as a provocative test of the HPA axis. We investigated the effect of exogenous ovine CRH (oCRH) on plasma levels of ACTH and cortisol in 13 chronic HD patients. The plasma concentrations of immunoreactive CRH following oCRH administration were similar in patients and controls. In all patients, oCRH given intravenously as bolus injection caused a further increase in the already elevated levels of cortisol. The mean basal plasma levels of ACTH were within the normal range. There was, however, a blunted ACTH response to oCRH. We conclude that the HPA axis in chronic HD patients retains the ability to respond to exogenous oCRH. The patterns of the ACTH and cortisol response to this peptide resemble those observed in chronic stress (depression, anorexia nervosa). Besides, the kinetics of disappearance of oCRH indicate that the kidney may not be the major organ that metabolizes oCRH. PMID:2851525

  12. Ontogeny of lactoferrin in the developing mouse uterus: a marker of early hormone response.

    PubMed

    Newbold, R R; Hanson, R B; Jefferson, W N

    1997-05-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) was mapped during organogenesis of the murine reproductive tract, starting on fetal Day 12, as a marker of estrogen responsiveness. To induce LF expression, pregnant outbred CD-1 mice were injected s.c. with diethylstilbestrol (DES; 100 microg/kg maternal body weight), and fetal genital tract tissues were removed; neonatal and immature mice received s.c. injections of DES (2 microg/pup per day). Corn oil-treated and untreated mice at corresponding ages provided the controls. Immunocytochemical techniques using a polyclonal antibody showed no detectable LF in control genital tract tissues until late gestation. However, after DES treatment, LF was localized in uterine epithelial cells as early as fetal Day 14; the intensity of LF staining increased with age and number of DES treatments. Control uterine tissues responded to the rise of circulating estrogens at parturition (fetal Day 19) by producing LF, although the magnitude of response was lower than that of DES-treated tissues. Uterine tissue homogenates from control and DES mice were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blots, verifying the protein to be LF. Isolation of mRNA and Northern blot analysis further showed that LF mRNA was present in the developing Mullerian duct and that DES stimulated early induction of the LF gene. The early appearance of LF suggests that it may play an important role in the hormonal regulation of growth and differentiation of developing uterine tissues. PMID:9160713

  13. Effects of hormone replacement therapy on hemodynamic responses of postmenopausal women to passive heating.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, S L; Kenney, W L

    2000-07-01

    To examine the influence of chronic hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on the central and peripheral cardiovascular responses of postmenopausal women to direct passive heating, seven women taking estrogen replacement therapy, seven women taking estrogen and progesterone therapy, and seven women not taking HRT were passively heated with water-perfused suits to their individual limit of thermal tolerance. Measurements included heart rate (HR), cardiac output, blood pressure, skin blood flow, splanchnic blood flow, renal blood flow, esophageal temperature, and mean skin temperature. Cardiac output was higher in women taking estrogen and progesterone therapy than in women not taking HRT (7.12 +/- 0.70 vs. 5.02 +/- 0. 57 l/min at the limit of thermal tolerance, respectively; P < 0.05) because of a higher HR. However, when the HR data were plotted as a percentage of the maximum HR or percentage of HR reserve, there were no differences among the three groups of women. Neither splanchnic nor renal blood flow differed among the groups of women. These data suggest that HRT has little effect on the cardiovascular responses to direct passive heating. PMID:10904040

  14. Altered regulation of energy homeostasis in older rats in response to thyroid hormone administration

    PubMed Central

    Walrand, Stephane; Short, Kevin R.; Heemstra, Lydia A.; Novak, Colleen M.; Levine, James A.; Coenen-Schimke, Jill M.; Nair, K. Sreekumaran

    2014-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism causes increased energy intake and expenditure, although anorexia and higher weight loss have been reported in elderly individuals with hyperthyroidism. To determine the effect of age on energy homeostasis in response to experimental hyperthyroidism, we administered 200 μg tri-iodothyronine (T3) in 7- and 27-mo-old rats for 14 d. T3 increased energy expenditure (EE) in both the young and the old rats, although the old rats lost more weight (147 g) than the young rats (58 g) because of the discordant effect of T3 on food intake, with a 40% increase in the young rats, but a 40% decrease in the old ones. The increased food intake in the young rats corresponded with a T3-mediated increase in the appetite-regulating proteins agouti-related peptide, neuropeptide Y, and uncoupling protein 2 in the hypothalamus, but no increase occurred in the old rats. Evidence of mitochondrial biogenesis in response to T3 was similar in the soleus muscle and heart of the young and old animals, but less consistent in old plantaris muscle and liver. Despite the comparable increase in EE, T3's effect on mitochondrial function was modulated by age in a tissue-specific manner. We conclude that older rats lack compensatory mechanisms to increase caloric intake in response to a T3-induced increase in EE, demonstrating a detrimental effect of age on energy homeostasis.—Walrand, S., Short, K. R., Heemstra, L. A., Novak, C. M., Levine, J. A., Coenen-Schimke, J. M., Nair, K. S. Altered regulation of energy homeostasis in older rats in response to thyroid hormone administration. PMID:24344330

  15. Hormones and Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: Low-Dose Effects and Nonmonotonic Dose Responses

    PubMed Central

    Colborn, Theo; Hayes, Tyrone B.; Heindel, Jerrold J.; Jacobs, David R.; Lee, Duk-Hee; Shioda, Toshi; Soto, Ana M.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Welshons, Wade V.; Zoeller, R. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    For decades, studies of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have challenged traditional concepts in toxicology, in particular the dogma of “the dose makes the poison,” because EDCs can have effects at low doses that are not predicted by effects at higher doses. Here, we review two major concepts in EDC studies: low dose and nonmonotonicity. Low-dose effects were defined by the National Toxicology Program as those that occur in the range of human exposures or effects observed at doses below those used for traditional toxicological studies. We review the mechanistic data for low-dose effects and use a weight-of-evidence approach to analyze five examples from the EDC literature. Additionally, we explore nonmonotonic dose-response curves, defined as a nonlinear relationship between dose and effect where the slope of the curve changes sign somewhere within the range of doses examined. We provide a detailed discussion of the mechanisms responsible for generating these phenomena, plus hundreds of examples from the cell culture, animal, and epidemiology literature. We illustrate that nonmonotonic responses and low-dose effects are remarkably common in studies of natural hormones and EDCs. Whether low doses of EDCs influence certain human disorders is no longer conjecture, because epidemiological studies show that environmental exposures to EDCs are associated with human diseases and disabilities. We conclude that when nonmonotonic dose-response curves occur, the effects of low doses cannot be predicted by the effects observed at high doses. Thus, fundamental changes in chemical testing and safety determination are needed to protect human health. PMID:22419778

  16. Hormones and endocrine-disrupting chemicals: low-dose effects and nonmonotonic dose responses.

    PubMed

    Vandenberg, Laura N; Colborn, Theo; Hayes, Tyrone B; Heindel, Jerrold J; Jacobs, David R; Lee, Duk-Hee; Shioda, Toshi; Soto, Ana M; vom Saal, Frederick S; Welshons, Wade V; Zoeller, R Thomas; Myers, John Peterson

    2012-06-01

    For decades, studies of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have challenged traditional concepts in toxicology, in particular the dogma of "the dose makes the poison," because EDCs can have effects at low doses that are not predicted by effects at higher doses. Here, we review two major concepts in EDC studies: low dose and nonmonotonicity. Low-dose effects were defined by the National Toxicology Program as those that occur in the range of human exposures or effects observed at doses below those used for traditional toxicological studies. We review the mechanistic data for low-dose effects and use a weight-of-evidence approach to analyze five examples from the EDC literature. Additionally, we explore nonmonotonic dose-response curves, defined as a nonlinear relationship between dose and effect where the slope of the curve changes sign somewhere within the range of doses examined. We provide a detailed discussion of the mechanisms responsible for generating these phenomena, plus hundreds of examples from the cell culture, animal, and epidemiology literature. We illustrate that nonmonotonic responses and low-dose effects are remarkably common in studies of natural hormones and EDCs. Whether low doses of EDCs influence certain human disorders is no longer conjecture, because epidemiological studies show that environmental exposures to EDCs are associated with human diseases and disabilities. We conclude that when nonmonotonic dose-response curves occur, the effects of low doses cannot be predicted by the effects observed at high doses. Thus, fundamental changes in chemical testing and safety determination are needed to protect human health. PMID:22419778

  17. Adaptive Human CDKAL1 Variants Underlie Hormonal Response Variations at the Enteroinsular Axis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia Lin; Cai, James J.; Huang, Shang Yu; Cheng, Po Jen; Chueh, Ho Yen; Hsu, Sheau Yu Teddy

    2014-01-01

    Recent analyses have identified positively selected loci that explain differences in immune responses, body forms, and adaptations to extreme climates, but variants that describe adaptations in energy-balance regulation remain underexplored. To identify variants that confer adaptations in energy-balance regulation, we explored the evolutionary history and functional associations of candidate variants in 207 genes. We screened single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes that had been associated with energy-balance regulation for unusual genetic patterns in human populations, followed by studying associations among selected variants and serum levels of GIP, insulin, and C-peptide in pregnant women after an oral glucose tolerance test. Our analysis indicated that 5′ variants in CDKAL1, CYB5R4, GAD2, and PPARG are marked with statistically significant signals of gene–environment interactions. Importantly, studies of serum hormone levels showed that variants in CDKAL1 are associated with glucose-induced GIP and insulin responses (p<0.05). On the other hand, a GAD2 variant exhibited a significant association with glucose-induced C-peptide response. In addition, simulation analysis indicated that a type 2 diabetes risk variant in CDKAL1 (rs7754840) was selected in East Asians ∼6,900 years ago. Taken together, these data indicated that variants in CDKAL1 and GAD2 were targets of prior environmental selection. Because the selection of the CDKAL1 variant overlapped with the selection of a cluster of GIP variants in the same population ∼11,800 to 2,000 years ago, we speculate that these regulatory genes at the human enteroinsular axis could be highly responsive to environmental selection in recent human history. PMID:25222615

  18. Influence of competition playing venue on the hormonal responses, state anxiety and perception of effort in elite basketball athletes.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Ademir F S; Aoki, Marcelo S; Freitas, Camila G; Drago, Gustavo; Oliveira, Roney; Crewther, Blair T; Moreira, Alexandre

    2014-05-10

    This study examined the influence of competition playing venue on the hormonal responses, state anxiety and perception of effort in elite basketball players. Eighteen males from two basketball teams were monitored during two competitive matches that were played against each other on a home and away basis. Salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) concentrations were measured before and after each match. The Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) test was also administrated prior to each match and session ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were taken post-game. Playing at home was accompanied by elevated pre-match T concentration, as compared to playing away (p<0.05). The matches played at home were also won. Salivary T and C concentrations were similarly elevated across the matches (percent changes from pre to post) played either at home or away. No significant differences in state anxiety and perception of effort were identified between the playing venues. Pre-match T and C concentrations and the percent changes in these hormones were significantly related to somatic anxiety, especially when playing at home (p<0.05). In conclusion, the competition playing venue appeared to influence athlete salivary hormonal responses prior to elite basketball matches. These hormonal responses were associated with player's anxiety state, which might contribute to performance and the eventual match outcomes. PMID:24642001

  19. CNS- and ANS-arousal predict response to antidepressant medication: Findings from the randomized iSPOT-D study.

    PubMed

    Olbrich, Sebastian; Tränkner, Anja; Surova, Galina; Gevirtz, Richard; Gordon, Evian; Hegerl, Ulrich; Arns, Martijn

    2016-02-01

    Arousal systems are one of the recently announced NIMH Research Domain Criteria to inform future diagnostics and treatment prediction. In major depressive disorder (MDD), altered central nervous system (CNS) wakefulness regulation and an increased sympathetic autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity have been identified as biomarkers with possible discriminative value for prediction of antidepressant treatment response. Therefore, the hypothesis of a more pronounced decline of CNS and ANS-arousal being predictive for a positive treatment outcome to selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor (SSRI) treatment was derived from a small, independent exploratory dataset (N = 25) and replicated using data from the randomized international Study to Predict Optimized Treatment Response in Depression (iSPOT-D). There, 1008 MDD participants were randomized to either a SSRI (escitalopram or sertraline) or a serotonin-norepinephrine-reuptake-inhibitor (SNRI-venlafaxine) arm. Treatment response was established after eight weeks using the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. CNS-arousal (i.e. electroencephalogram-vigilance), ANS-arousal (heart rate) and their change across time were assessed during rest. Responders and remitters to SSRI treatment were characterized by a faster decline of CNS-arousal during rest whereas SNRI responders showed a significant increase of ANS-arousal. Furthermore, SSRI responders/remitters showed an association between ANS- and CNS-arousal regulation in comparison to non-responders/non-remitters while this was not the case for SNRI treatment arm. Since positive treatment outcome to SSRI and SNRI was linked to distinct CNS and ANS-arousal profiles, these predictive markers probably are not disorder specific alterations but reflect the responsiveness of the nervous system to specific drugs. PMID:26714202

  20. Lack of association of acute phase response proteins with hormone levels and antidepressant medication in perimenopausal depression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Major depression is associated with higher plasma levels of positive acute-phase proteins, as well as with lower plasma levels of negative acute-phase proteins. The aim of this study is to examine the levels of acute-phase response proteins and whether these levels are influenced by reproductive hormones and antidepressant medication in the perimenopausal depression. Methods Sixty-five women (age range: 40–58 years old) participated in this study. All women were in the perimenopausal phase. The diagnosis of depression was made through a psychiatric interview and with the aid of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 17 (HAM-D 17). The acute-phase response proteins, such as haptoglobin (HP), transferrine (TRf), α1-antitrypsin, complement protein 3 (C3), complement protein 4 (C4) and C-reactive protein (CRP) and the reproductive hormones, for example follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol (E2), were analyzed using standard laboratory methods. Pearson’s correlations were applied to evaluate the relationship between acute-phase proteins and hormones. Results Perimenopausal women were divided into three groups. The first group consisted of normal controls, the second one involved depressed perimenopausal women, who were taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and the third one included depressed women that were not treated with SSRIs. Depressed women in perimenopause, when being compared to non-depressed women, did not differ as to serum levels of acute-phase proteins. There was a positive correlation between HP and E2 in depressed perimenopausal women, who were not taking SSRIs. Conclusions The lack of association between acute-phase proteins and depressive mood mentioned in this study does not support previous findings in patients with major depression. This negative finding in perimenopausal depression indicates either the absence or a more complex nature of the interactions between acute-phase proteins

  1. Parathyroid Hormone Responses to Catecholamines and to Changes of Extracellular Calcium in Cows

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Juerg W.; Fischer, Jan A.; Hunziker, Willi H.; Binswanger, U.; Picotti, Giovanni B.; Da Prada, Mosè; Guillebeau, Albin

    1978-01-01

    Modifications of the plasma level of immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (PTH) in cattle were induced by changes of the plasma concentrations of epinephrine, isoproterenol, or calcium. During abrupt hypocalcemia, PTH, obtained by infusions with ethylene glycol-bis (β-aminoethylether) N, N′-tetraacetate (EGTA), increased during the first 4-8 min. After a transient decline, the hormone levels rose again and remained elevated. Infusions of calcium suppressed the hypocalcemia-induced augmentation of PTH levels within a few minutes. Prolonged epinephrine (and isoproterenol) infusions also rapidly increased PTH levels, however, in this case, they returned to basal concentrations after 50-60 min. Additional epinephrine infusions could not further raise PTH values. Moreover, three short-lasting infusions of epinephrine (7 min each), given at 30-min intervals, increased PTH levels to the same extent, whereas additional infusions were much less effective. The PTH response to epinephrine was completely restored, when the interval after a prolonged epinephrine infusion had been prolonged to > 100 min. During moderate hypocalcemia, occurring at the end of EGTA infusions and lasting for 90 min, the PTH response to a short-lasting epinephrine infusion (7 min) was more pronounced than in normocalcemic animals. During severe hypocalcemia, in which superimposed short-lasting infusions of EGTA (7 min) led to an additional abrupt fall of plasma calcium concentrations but not to a corresponding additional rise of the PTH levels, epinephrine rapidly and further increased PTH concentrations. On the other hand, at the end of prolonged infusions of epinephrine, when additional infusions of epinephrine were ineffective in raising PTH levels, EGTA-induced hypocalcemia consistently increased PTH concentrations. The EGTA-induced augmentation of PTH levels was enhanced by epinephrine and isoproterenol but not by propranolol. The present findings indicate, that variations of the extracellular

  2. Microarray Analysis of Juvenile Hormone Response in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A microchip array encompassing probes for 14,010 genes of Drosophila melanogaster was used to analyze the effect of juvenile hormone (JH) on genome-wide gene expression. JH is a member of a key group of insect hormones involved in regulating larval development and adult reproductive processes. Altho...

  3. Spotted inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, Tomohiro

    2010-11-01

    We describe new scenarios for generating curvature perturbations when inflaton (curvaton) has significant interactions. We consider a ''spot'', which arises from interactions associated with an enhanced symmetric point (ESP) on the trajectory. Our first example uses the spot to induce a gap in the field equation. We observe that the gap in the field equation may cause generation of curvature perturbation if it does not appear simultaneous in space. The mechanism is similar to the scenario of inhomogeneous phase transition. Then we observe that the spot interactions may initiate warm inflation in the cold Universe. Creation of cosmological perturbation is discussed in relation to the inflaton dynamics and the modulation associated with the spot interactions.

  4. Spot Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houben, Howard

    2012-10-01

    What is the Great Red Spot? What are “spots” in general? The presence of many spots and similar features on Jupiter, the other giant planets, and the sun argues for a simple explanation based on conditions common to these bodies (but generally absent in terrestrial atmospheres). Consider two nearly conserved quantities: potential temperature (θ) and potential vorticity (PV). θ is a measure of entropy, which can only be modified by diabatic processes, and therefore atmospheric motions are predominantly along θ-surfaces. PV is the component of the vorticity perpendicular to the θ-surface. It therefore describes most of the motion along these θ-surfaces. It can be rigorously demonstrated that PV cannot be transported across θ-surfaces. In the deep atmospheres of the giant planets and the sun, the tropopause is a level of minimum θ (with convectively unstable negative θ gradients below in the troposphere and stable gradients above in the stratosphere). These fluid bodies also have strong variations of θ with latitude (belts and zones). Baroclinic instability is a process which leads to longitude variations of θ. So it is possible for θ-surfaces to close on themselves around a minimum, with PV confined to these surfaces. The enclosed volume is a spot. The integrated PV over the spot is 0! (Low PV corresponds to anti-cyclonic motion.) The closed θ-surfaces extend above the tropopause and can have deep roots (since θ gradients in the troposphere are generally smaller in magnitude than those in the stratosphere). Details of the flow within the spot depend on boundary conditions (i.e., the surrounding flow and, for sunspots, magnetic fields) and the horizontal/vertical aspect ratio of the spot. Interactions with other spots depend on the θ values of their respective boundaries. In terrestrial atmospheres, the intersection of many low-θ surfaces with the ground inhibits spot formation.

  5. Response Function Estimation of Marine Magnetotelluric Data Measured at Tristan de Cunha Hot Spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Jegen, M. D.; Baba, K.; Utada, H.

    2015-12-01

    According to classical plume theory, the Tristan da Cunha hotspot is thought to have played a major role in the rifting of the South Atlantic margins and the creation of the aseismic Walvis Ridge by impinging at the base of the continental lithosphere shortly before or during the breakup of the South Atlantic margins. To understand the tectonic processes of the opening of the South Atlantic, the formation of the Walvis ridge and to understand, whether Tristan da Cunha is the cause or the consequence of the rifting, a network of 26 ocean-bottom magnetotelluric stations (OBMT) (cooperation between GEOMAR Germany and the Earthquake Research Institute at the University of Tokyo) and 24 broadband ocean-bottom seismometers was in operation during February 2012 and January 2013 within the framework of the project ISOLDE during the second phase of the SPP 1375. To complement the ocean-bottom network and the existing stations on Tristan da Cunha, one magnetotelluric land station and two land seismometers were installed on Nightingale Island. Marine magnetotelluric data is often contaminated with different levels of non-stationary noise originating from water waves, passing ships and tilt movements of the instruments. In traditional data processing, such noisy segments are removed from the time series before processing. As a consequence only a portion of data remains for response function estimation and accordingly no information about longer periods (deeper structure) remains. However, since the focus of this study is melt anomalies in the upper mantle, long period estimators of the response function are vital. To investigate which processing method yields the more reliable estimates between tens to 100 000 seconds (i.e. penetration depth from a few kilometers to approximately 600 to 800 km) for our recorded data, we applied and compared different sophisticated preprocessing and processing methods (e.g., pre-whitening, one-stage BIRRP, advanced two-stage BIRRP and

  6. Hormone levels

    MedlinePlus

    Blood or urine tests can determine the levels of various hormones in the body. This includes reproductive hormones, thyroid hormones, adrenal hormones, pituitary hormones, and many others. For more information, see: ...

  7. Mink aging is associated with a reduction in ovarian hormone release and the response to FSH and ghrelin.

    PubMed

    Sirotkin, Alexander V; Mertin, Dušan; Süvegová, Karina; Lauričik, Jozef; Morovič, Martin; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Kotwica, Jan

    2016-09-15

    The endocrine mechanisms of mink ovarian hormones release and reproductive aging are poorly investigated. The aims of our study were to: (1) identify hormones produced by mink ovaries (the steroids progesterone [P] and estradiol [E], the peptide hormone oxytocin [OT], and the prostaglandin F [PGF] and prostaglandin E [PGE]); (2) examine the effect of FSH and ghrelin on the release of the hormones listed previously; and (3) understand whether these hormones can be involved in the control of mink reproductive aging, i.e., whether aging can be associated with changes (a) in the basal release of P, E, OT, PGF, or PGE and (b) their response to FSH and ghrelin. Fragments of ovaries of young (yearlings) and old (3-5 years of age) minks were cultured with and without FSH and ghrelin (0, 1, 10, or 100 ng/mL), and the release of hormones was analyzed by EIA/RIA. We found that isolated ovaries were able to release P, E, OT, PGF, and PGE, and the levels of P produced in the ovaries of old animals were lower than those produced in the ovaries of young animals, whereas the levels of other hormones did not differ. FSH was able to stimulate P and E and suppress OT and PGF and did not affect PGE release. Aging was associated with the inhibition of the effect of FSH on ovarian P and E, the appearance of the inhibitory action of FSH on OT, and the disappearance of this action on ovarian PGF. PGE was not affected by FSH, irrespective of animal age. Ghrelin was able to promote E (but not P) and suppress OT, PGF, and PGE output. Aging was associated with the appearance of an inhibitory influence of ghrelin on ovarian OT and PGE and with the disappearance of this influence on PGF output. Aging did not affect the action of ghrelin on ovarian P and E. Our observations (1) confirm the production of P and E and show that OT, PGF, and PGE are released from mink ovaries, (2) confirm the involvement of FSH and demonstrate the involvement of ghrelin in the control of mink ovarian hormone

  8. SPOT4 Management Centre

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labrune, Yves; Labbe, X.; Roussel, A.; Vielcanet, P.

    1994-01-01

    In the context of the CNES SPOT4 program CISI is particularly responsible for the development of the SPOT4 Management Centre, part of the SPOT4 ground control system located at CNES Toulouse (France) designed to provide simultaneous control over two satellites. The main operational activities are timed to synchronize with satellite visibilities (ten usable passes per day). The automatic capability of this system is achieved through agenda services (sequence of operations as defined and planned by operator). Therefore, the SPOT4 Management Centre offers limited, efficient and secure human interventions for supervision and decision making. This paper emphasizes the main system characteristics as degree of automation, level of dependability and system parameterization.

  9. SPOT4 Management Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrune, Yves; Labbe, X.; Roussel, A.; Vielcanet, P.

    1994-11-01

    In the context of the CNES SPOT4 program CISI is particularly responsible for the development of the SPOT4 Management Centre, part of the SPOT4 ground control system located at CNES Toulouse (France) designed to provide simultaneous control over two satellites. The main operational activities are timed to synchronize with satellite visibilities (ten usable passes per day). The automatic capability of this system is achieved through agenda services (sequence of operations as defined and planned by operator). Therefore, the SPOT4 Management Centre offers limited, efficient and secure human interventions for supervision and decision making. This paper emphasizes the main system characteristics as degree of automation, level of dependability and system parameterization.

  10. Mediators of the biphasic responses of bone to intermittent and continuously administered parathyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Locklin, Rachel M; Khosla, Sundeep; Turner, Russell T; Riggs, B Lawrence

    2003-05-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) has biphasic effects on bone: continuous treatment is catabolic whereas intermittent treatment is anabolic. The mechanism(s) responsible for these differing effects are still unclear, partly because of the previous non-availability of a model system in which effects on both formation and resorption indices could be studied concomitantly. In cultured marrow cells from 6-week old C57BL/6 mice, we demonstrated that 4 days of intermittent PTH treatment increased mRNA for osteoblast differentiation markers (Runx2, alkaline phosphatase (AP), and type I procollagen (COL1A1) whereas continuous treatment resulted in production of large numbers of TRAP-positive multinucleated osteoclasts. Although IGF-I mRNA did not increase after intermittent treatment, it was consistently higher than after continuous treatment, and the addition of an anti-IGF-I neutralizing antibody prevented the increase in bone formation indices observed with intermittent treatment. By contrast, after continuous treatment, gene expression of RANK ligand (RANKL) was increased and that of osteoprotegerin (OPG) was decreased, resulting in a 25-fold increase in the RANKL/OPG ratio. In this model system, the data suggest that intermittent PTH treatment enhances osteoblast differentiation through an IGF-I dependent mechanism and continuous PTH treatment enhances osteoclastogenesis through reciprocal increases in RANKL and decreases in OPG. PMID:12682918

  11. Effects of age and sex on hormonal responses to weightlessness simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larochelle, F.; Leach, C.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of horizontal bedrest on the excretion of catecholamines, aldosterone, and cortisol by human subjects grouped by age and sex are examined. The responses are assessed by assays of 24-hr urine samples collected throughout the studies. In 36-45-yr-olds, the excretion of epinephrine increases, whereas it decreases in the 46-55- and 56-65-yr-old groups. Norepinephrine excretion decreases (5-27%) in all groups during bedrest. Aldosterone excretion increases in the younger two groups of both males (19 and 6%) and females (47 and 9%). A slight decrease is observed in 56-65-yr-old males (6%), whereas excretion in females is unchanged. Cortisol excretion increases in the youngest groups of both men (12%) and women (13%) but decreases in the 56-65-yr-old groups (6 and 5%). For the two groups of intermediate age (46-55 yr), excretion in females decreases (15%), whereas in males it increases (19%). It is believed that hormone measurements may be of value in explaining variation in stress tolerance due to age and/or sex during space flight.

  12. Hormonal response of male green anole lizards (Anolis carolinensis) to GnRH challenge.

    PubMed

    Husak, Jerry F; Irschick, Duncan J; Henningsen, Justin P; Kirkbride, Kimberly S; Lailvaux, Simon P; Moore, Ignacio T

    2009-02-01

    Circulating plasma levels of testosterone often differ among social classes of sexually mature males within a population, but the general physiological mechanisms underlying such differences remain unclear. Within sexually mature male green anole lizards (Anolis carolinensis), smaller "lightweight" males have on average relatively smaller heads, lower bite-forces, and lower testosterone levels compared with larger "heavyweight" males. We conducted gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) challenges on lightweight and heavyweight males to determine if lightweight males were capable of producing comparable levels of circulating testosterone to heavyweight males but are socially or physiologically suppressed from doing so. We challenged lightweight and heavyweight males with chicken I and II GnRH and measured their resulting levels of testosterone and corticosterone. Neither lightweights nor heavyweights increased circulating testosterone levels after GnRH challenge, suggesting they are already at maximal production levels, consistent with the Challenge Hypothesis. Instead, testosterone levels tended to decrease and corticosterone levels increased, most likely owing to the stress response associated with handling. Our results are dramatically different from GnRH challenges conducted in bird species, suggesting that more field studies are needed in reptilian systems. PMID:19012286

  13. Active vs. passive recovery during high-intensity training influences hormonal response.

    PubMed

    Wahl, P; Mathes, S; Achtzehn, S; Bloch, W; Mester, J

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of active (A) vs. passive (P) recovery during high-intensity interval training on the acute hormonal and metabolic response. Twelve triathletes/cyclists performed four 4 min intervals on a cycle ergometer, either with A- or P-recovery between each bout. Testosterone, hGH, cortisol, VEGF, HGF and MIF were determined pre, 0', 30', 60' and 180' after both interventions. Metabolic perturbations were characterized by lactate, blood gas and spirometric analysis. A-recovery caused significant increases in circulating levels of cortisol, testosterone, T/C ratio, hGH, VEGF and HGF. Transient higher levels were found for cortisol, testosterone, hGH, VEGF, HGF and MIF after A-recovery compared to P-recovery, despite no differences in metabolic perturbations. A-recovery was more demanding from an athlete's point of view. Based on the data of testosterone, hGH and the T/C-ratio, as well as on the data of VEGF and HGF it appears that this kind of exercise protocol with A-recovery phases between the intervals may promote anabolic processes and may lead to pro-angiogenic conditions more than with P-recovery. These data support the findings that also the long term effects of both recovery modes seem to differ, and that both can induce specific adaptations. PMID:24258473

  14. Two coexisting heterozygous frameshift mutations in PROP1 are responsible for a different phenotype of combined pituitary hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ziemnicka, K; Budny, B; Drobnik, K; Baszko-Błaszyk, D; Stajgis, M; Katulska, K; Waśko, R; Wrotkowska, E; Słomski, R; Ruchała, M

    2016-08-01

    The role of genetic background in childhood-onset combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) has been extensively studied. The major contributors are the PROP1, POU1F1, LHX3, LHX4 and HESX1 genes coding transcription factors implicated in pituitary organogenesis. The clinical consequences of mutations encompass impaired synthesis of a growth hormone (GH) and one or more concurrent pituitary hormones (i.e. LH, FSH, TSH, PRL). Manifestation of the disorder may vary due to various mutation impacts on the final gene products or an influence of environmental factors during pituitary organogenesis. We describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of two brothers aged 47 and 39 years presenting an uncommon manifestation of congenital hypopituitarism. Sequencing of the PROP1, POU1F1, LHX3, LHX4 and HESX1 genes was performed to confirm the genetic origin of the disorder. A compound heterozygosity in the PROP1 gene has been identified for both probands. The first change represents a mutational hot spot (c.150delA, p.R53fsX164), whereas the second is a novel alteration (p.R112X) that leads to protein disruption. Based on precise genetic diagnosis, an in silico prediction of a p.R112X mutation on protein architecture was performed. The resulting clinical phenotype was surprisingly distinct compared to most patients with genetic alterations in PROP1 reported in the current literature. This may be caused by a residual activity of a newly identified p.R112X protein that preserves over 70 % of the homeodomain structure. This examination may confirm a key role of a DNA-binding homeodomain in maintaining PROP1 functionality and suggests a conceivable explanation of an unusual phenotype. PMID:26608600

  15. Reproductive Hormone and Transcriptomic Responses of Pituitary Tissue in Anestrus Gilts Induced by Nutrient Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shengyu; Wang, Dingyue; Zhou, Dongsheng; Lin, Yan; Che, Lianqiang; Fang, Zhengfeng; Wu, De

    2015-01-01

    The onset of estrus is a critical sign of female sexual maturity. The pituitary plays a vital role in this process by the secretion of reproductive hormones. To investigate the effects of nutrient restriction on reproductive function and the underlying mechanisms involved, deep RNA sequencing of pituitary gland tissue was carried out to determine the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between gilts in normal estrus, and gilts in which anestrus was induced by nutrient restriction. Gilts which had gone through two estrus cycles were fed a normal (CON, 2.86kg/d, n = 10) or nutrient restricted (NR, 1kg/d, n = 10) diet. The NR gilts experienced another three estrus cycles, but did not express estrus symptoms at the anticipated 6th and 7th cycles. Body weight gain in NR gilts was significantly decreased by nutrient restriction. Gilts were considered as anestrus when blood progesterone concentrations lower than 1.0 ng/mL from three consecutive blood samples were recorded. Circulating concentrations of progesterone (< 1.0 ng/mL vs. 2.1 ng/mL) and estradiol (208.6 ng/mL vs. 371.8 ng/mL) were significantly lower in the NR gilts than in the CON gilts. Between 5,360,000 and 5,370,000 sequence reads per sample from the CON and NR gilts’ pituitaries were obtained and mapped to the porcine genome. Analysis of read counts revealed 185 DEGs. Expression of selected genes was validated by the use of quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Bioinformatic analysis identified that the genes identified were enriched in the GO terms “neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction”, “GnRH signaling pathway” and “immune response system”. Our findings provide a new perspective for understanding the nutrient restriction-induced reproductive impairment at the pituitary transcriptional level, and how this is linked to hormone secretion. Moreover, the transcriptomic changes in anestrus gilts associated with nutrient restriction could be a resource for targeted studies of genes and pathways

  16. Lipolysis in diabetic adipocytes: differences in response to growth hormone and adenosine.

    PubMed

    Solomon, S S; Schwartz, Y; Rawlinson, T

    1987-09-01

    The sensitivity to lipolytic agents is altered in diabetic vs. control animals. Because of its role as a diabetogenic hormone and its ability to elicit lipolysis, GH was studied in isolated fat cells (IFC) from control and streptozotocin-diabetic (STZ-DM) rats. IFCs from the epididymal fat of 150 to 200-g normal and STZ-DM Holtzman rats were prepared by collagenase digestion. Lipolysis was measured by glycerol release after either incubation or perifusion with the following concentrations: epinephrine (EPI), 0.01-0.1 microM; theophylline, 0.01-1.0 mg/ml; adenosine deaminase (ADA), and bovine GH (bGH), 0.01-1.0 microgram/ml. Rats, rendered diabetic by STZ (65 mg/kg), were used on day 3. In a dose-response study comparing glycerol release from control and STZ-DM IFC, IFC were preincubated with 1.0 microgram/ml bGH and then incubated with varying concentrations of EPI or bGH. In STZ-DM, we noted increased lipolytic sensitivity to low concentrations of EPI or bGH. Furthermore, in perifusion, STZ-DM IFC did not require obligatory preincubation with bGH for optimal glycerol release. The addition of ADA increased glycerol release from incubated IFC (STZ-DM and controls). In both systems an enhanced lipolytic response to theophylline was seen in the presence of bGH in control and STZ-DM. It was thus concluded that IFC from normal animals do not respond to GH without preincubation. IFC from STZ-DM rats show a lipolytic response to GH without preincubation. Preincubation with GH increases the lipolytic response of IFC from STZ-DM to all lipolytic agents compared to control responses. In addition, ADA greatly enhanced lipolysis in IFC from STZ-DM compared to that in controls. Together these data demonstrate enhanced sensitivity to both lipolytic stimuli and adenosine suppression of lipolysis in IFC from STZ-DM. PMID:3622374

  17. Salivary hormone and immune responses to three resistance exercise schemes in elite female athletes.

    PubMed

    Nunes, João A; Crewther, Blair T; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Tricoli, Valmor; Viveiros, Luís; de Rose, Dante; Aoki, Marcelo S

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the salivary hormone and immune responses of elite female athletes to 3 different resistance exercise schemes. Fourteen female basketball players each performed an endurance scheme (ES-4 sets of 12 reps, 60% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) load, 1-minute rest periods), a strength-hypertrophy scheme (SHS-1 set of 5RM, 1 set of 4RM, 1 set of 3RM, 1 set of 2RM, and 1set of 1RM with 3-minute rest periods, followed by 3 sets of 10RM with 2-minute rest periods) and a power scheme (PS-3 sets of 10 reps, 50% 1RM load, 3-minute rest periods) using the same exercises (bench press, squat, and biceps curl). Saliva samples were collected at 07:30 hours, pre-exercise (Pre) at 09:30 hours, postexercise (Post), and at 17:30 hours. Matching samples were also taken on a nonexercising control day. The samples were analyzed for testosterone, cortisol (C), and immunoglobulin A concentrations. The total volume of load lifted differed among the 3 schemes (SHS > ES > PS, p < 0.05). Postexercise C concentrations increased after all schemes, compared to control values (p < 0.05). In the SHS, the postexercise C response was also greater than pre-exercise data (p < 0.05). The current findings confirm that high-volume resistance exercise schemes can stimulate greater C secretion because of higher metabolic demand. In terms of practical applications, acute changes in C may be used to evaluate the metabolic demands of different resistance exercise schemes, or as a tool for monitoring training strain. PMID:21572351

  18. Inhibition of thyrotropin response to TSH-releasing hormone by thyroxine in hypothyroid rats

    SciTech Connect

    Boado, R.J.; Zaninovich, A.A.; Ulloa, E.R.; Fernandez Pol, J.A.

    1985-05-01

    Pharmacological amounts of throxine (T4) can inhibit the thyrotropin (TSH) response to TSH-releasing hormone (TRH) before its conversion to triiodothyronine (T3) in the hypophysis of euthyroid rate. The present work tested physiological doses of T4 in hypothyroid rats. Rats were treated with iopanoic acid (IOP) 5 mg/100 g BW 24, 12 and 1.5 hours preceding the study, to prevent intrapituitary conversion of T4 to T3. Nonradioactive T4 was injected iv at time 0. At 20 min a 1 ..mu..g/100 g BW dose of TRH was injected iv. Blood samples were drawn at times 0, 20, and 30 min for determination by radioimmunoassay of plasma T4, T3, and TSH. In untreated rats basal TSH was 1450 +- 200 (SEM) ..mu..U/ml. At 20 min it was 105 +- 12% the basal value and at 30 min (10 min post-TRH) plasma TSH rose to 165 +- 14%. In T4-treated rats, those injected with IOP or with the vehicle alone both had the TSH response suppressed. IOP reduced intrapitutiary T3 from 4.6 +- 2.4 to 0.5 +- 0.2 fmol/min/gland. Thirty min. following the iv injection of 150 ..mu..Ci of double-labeled /sup 125/I-T4, the in vitro cytoplasmic radioactivity in control rats was 1.3 +- 0.13 x 10-/sup 2/% of the injected dose (75% T4, 17% T3), while in nuclei it was 4.2 +- 3.6 x 10-/sup 3/% (5l% T4, 28% T3). The injection of 25 ..mu..g of nonradioactive T4 decreased /sup 125/I-T4 in cytoplasm with no changes in nuclei. These findings suggest an intrinsic capacity of T4 to control TRH stimulation of TSH through binding to cytoplasmic receptors.

  19. Fetal and neonatal iron deficiency exacerbates mild thyroid hormone insufficiency effects on male thyroid hormone levels and brain thyroid hormone-responsive gene expression.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Thomas W; Prohaska, Joseph R; Georgieff, Michael K; Anderson, Grant W

    2014-03-01

    Fetal/neonatal iron (Fe) and iodine/TH deficiencies lead to similar brain developmental abnormalities and often coexist in developing countries. We recently demonstrated that fetal/neonatal Fe deficiency results in a mild neonatal thyroidal impairment, suggesting that TH insufficiency contributes to the neurodevelopmental abnormalities associated with Fe deficiency. We hypothesized that combining Fe deficiency with an additional mild thyroidal perturbation (6-propyl-2-thiouracil [PTU]) during development would more severely impair neonatal thyroidal status and brain TH-responsive gene expression than either deficiency alone. Early gestation pregnant rats were assigned to 7 different treatment groups: control, Fe deficient (FeD), mild TH deficient (1 ppm PTU), moderate TH deficient (3 ppm PTU), severe TH deficient (10 ppm PTU), FeD/1 ppm PTU, or FeD/3 ppm PTU. FeD or 1 ppm PTU treatment alone reduced postnatal day 15 serum total T4 concentrations by 64% and 74%, respectively, without significantly altering serum total T3 concentrations. Neither treatment alone significantly altered postnatal day 16 cortical or hippocampal T3 concentrations. FeD combined with 1 ppm PTU treatment produced a more severe effect, reducing serum total T4 by 95%, and lowering hippocampal and cortical T3 concentrations by 24% and 31%, respectively. Combined FeD/PTU had a more severe effect on brain TH-responsive gene expression than either treatment alone, significantly altering Pvalb, Dio2, Mbp, and Hairless hippocampal and/or cortical mRNA levels. FeD/PTU treatment more severely impacted cortical and hippocampal parvalbumin protein expression compared with either individual treatment. These data suggest that combining 2 mild thyroidal insults during development significantly disrupts thyroid function and impairs TH-regulated brain gene expression. PMID:24424046

  20. Seasonal specificity of hormonal, behavioral, and coloration responses to within- and between-sex encounters in male lizards (Sceloporus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Smith, L C; John-Alder, H B

    1999-08-01

    This study reports the gender and seasonal specificity of hormonal, behavioral, and coloration responses displayed by "resident" male lizards (Sceloporus undulatus) exposed to male or female "intruders" during staged encounters in outdoor enclosures. Resident males were engaged in staged encounters with males or females for 1 h per day on 9 consecutive days during the breeding and postbreeding seasons. Male-specific responses occurred during the breeding but not the postbreeding season. These included (1) a transient increase in plasma testosterone (T) that was evident on Day 4 and had subsided by Day 10, (2) behavioral displays of aggression (full shows and chases), and (3) a lightening of dorsal integumental color. Female-specific behavioral responses (nod sets) were displayed in both seasons. Season-specific responses consisted only of a transient increase in plasma corticosterone (B) during the breeding season that was evident on Day 4 and had subsided by Day 10. Pushups were displayed in response to both genders during both seasons, although the frequency of pushups was significantly higher in response to females than to males during the postbreeding season. The coloration of residents did not change in response to male intruders during the postbreeding season or to females during either season. These results define the gender and seasonal specificity of hormonal, behavioral, and coloration responses of resident male S. undulatus in social interactions with conspecifics. Thus, our results clarify the biological significance of these responses in terms of potentially aggressive versus courtship interactions and breeding versus postbreeding contexts. PMID:10433885

  1. Metabolic responses to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) vary with life-history stage in adult male northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Ensminger, David C; Somo, Derek A; Houser, Dorian S; Crocker, Daniel E

    2014-08-01

    Strong individual and life-history variation in serum glucocorticoids has been documented in many wildlife species. Less is known about variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responsiveness and its impact on metabolism. We challenged 18 free-ranging adult male northern elephant seals (NES) with an intramuscular injection of slow-release adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) over 3 sample periods: early in the breeding season, after 70+ days of the breeding fast, and during peak molt. Subjects were blood sampled every 30 min for 2h post-injection. Breeding animals were recaptured and sampled at 48 h. In response to the ACTH injection, cortisol increased 4-6-fold in all groups, and remained elevated at 48 h in early breeding subjects. ACTH was a strong secretagogue for aldosterone, causing a 3-8-fold increase in concentration. Cortisol and aldosterone responses did not vary between groups but were correlated within individuals. The ACTH challenge produced elevations in plasma glucose during late breeding and molting, suppressed testosterone and thyroid hormone at 48 h in early breeding, and increased plasma non-esterified fatty acids and ketoacids during molting. These data suggest that sensitivity of the HPA axis is maintained but the metabolic impacts of cortisol and feedback inhibition of the axis vary with life history stage. Strong impacts on testosterone and thyroid hormone suggest the importance of maintaining low cortisol levels during the breeding fast. These data suggest that metabolic adaptations to extended fasting in NES include alterations in tissue responses to hormones that mitigate deleterious impacts of acute or moderately sustained stress responses. PMID:24798580

  2. Mutation of SPOTTED LEAF3 (SPL3) impairs abscisic acid-responsive signalling and delays leaf senescence in rice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Seung-Hyun; Lim, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Sang-Sook; Cho, Sung-Hwan; Yoo, Soo-Cheul; Koh, Hee-Jong; Sakuraba, Yasuhito; Paek, Nam-Chon

    2015-01-01

    Lesion mimic mutants commonly display spontaneous cell death in pre-senescent green leaves under normal conditions, without pathogen attack. Despite molecular and phenotypic characterization of several lesion mimic mutants, the mechanisms of the spontaneous formation of cell death lesions remain largely unknown. Here, the rice lesion mimic mutant spotted leaf3 (spl3) was examined. When grown under a light/dark cycle, the spl3 mutant appeared similar to wild-type at early developmental stages, but lesions gradually appeared in the mature leaves close to heading stage. By contrast, in spl3 mutants grown under continuous light, severe cell death lesions formed in developing leaves, even at the seedling stage. Histochemical analysis showed that hydrogen peroxide accumulated in the mutant, likely causing the cell death phenotype. By map-based cloning and complementation, it was shown that a 1-bp deletion in the first exon of Oryza sativa Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase1 (OsMAPKKK1)/OsEDR1/OsACDR1 causes the spl3 mutant phenotype. The spl3 mutant was found to be insensitive to abscisic acid (ABA), showing normal root growth in ABA-containing media and delayed leaf yellowing during dark-induced and natural senescence. Expression of ABA signalling-associated genes was also less responsive to ABA treatment in the mutant. Furthermore, the spl3 mutant had lower transcript levels and activities of catalases, which scavenge hydrogen peroxide, probably due to impairment of ABA-responsive signalling. Finally, a possible molecular mechanism of lesion formation in the mature leaves of spl3 mutant is discussed. PMID:26276867

  3. DEVELOPMENTAL THYROID HORMONE INSUFFICIENCY ALTERS THE AMPLITUDE OF THE ACOUSTIC STARTLE RESPONSE IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose: The thyroid hormone (TH) system is one of the targets of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Since TH is essential for proper brain development, disruption by exposure to chemicals during development can result in adverse neurological outcomes. Previous studies revealed th...

  4. The effect of Yohimbine, an alpha2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, on the growth hormone response to apomorphine in normal subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Lal, S; Thavundayil, J X; Krishnan, B; Nair, N P; Schwartz, G; Guyda, H

    1996-01-01

    Yohimbine HCl (16 mg po) administered 30 min before clonidine (CLON) (2 ug/kg infused over 10 min) (N = 5) or apomorphine HCl (Apo) (0.5 mg sc) (N = 10) antagonized the growth hormone (GH) response to CLON but had no effect on the GH response to Apo in normal men. This finding suggests that in humans, alpha2 adrenergic mechanisms do not modulate dopaminergic function, at least not in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and that the GH response to Apo is not mediated via an alpha2 adrenergic link. PMID:8820174

  5. SPOT Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jason T.; Welsh, Sam J.; Farinetti, Antonio L.; Wegner, Tim; Blakeslee, James; Deboeck, Toni F.; Dyer, Daniel; Corley, Bryan M.; Ollivierre, Jarmaine; Kramer, Leonard; Zimmerman, Patrick L.; Khatri, Reshma

    2010-01-01

    A Spacecraft Position Optimal Tracking (SPOT) program was developed to process Global Positioning System (GPS) data, sent via telemetry from a spacecraft, to generate accurate navigation estimates of the vehicle position and velocity (state vector) using a Kalman filter. This program uses the GPS onboard receiver measurements to sequentially calculate the vehicle state vectors and provide this information to ground flight controllers. It is the first real-time ground-based shuttle navigation application using onboard sensors. The program is compact, portable, self-contained, and can run on a variety of UNIX or Linux computers. The program has a modular objec-toriented design that supports application-specific plugins such as data corruption remediation pre-processing and remote graphics display. The Kalman filter is extensible to additional sensor types or force models. The Kalman filter design is also strong against data dropouts because it uses physical models from state and covariance propagation in the absence of data. The design of this program separates the functionalities of SPOT into six different executable processes. This allows for the individual processes to be connected in an a la carte manner, making the feature set and executable complexity of SPOT adaptable to the needs of the user. Also, these processes need not be executed on the same workstation. This allows for communications between SPOT processes executing on the same Local Area Network (LAN). Thus, SPOT can be executed in a distributed sense with the capability for a team of flight controllers to efficiently share the same trajectory information currently being computed by the program. SPOT is used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) for Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and International Space Station Program (ISSP) operations, and can also be used as a post -flight analysis tool. It is primarily used for situational awareness, and for contingency situations.

  6. Thyroid Hormone Receptor α Plays an Essential Role in Male Skeletal Muscle Myoblast Proliferation, Differentiation, and Response to Injury.

    PubMed

    Milanesi, Anna; Lee, Jang-Won; Kim, Nam-Ho; Liu, Yan-Yun; Yang, An; Sedrakyan, Sargis; Kahng, Andrew; Cervantes, Vanessa; Tripuraneni, Nikita; Cheng, Sheue-yann; Perin, Laura; Brent, Gregory A

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormone plays an essential role in myogenesis, the process required for skeletal muscle development and repair, although the mechanisms have not been established. Skeletal muscle develops from the fusion of precursor myoblasts into myofibers. We have used the C2C12 skeletal muscle myoblast cell line, primary myoblasts, and mouse models of resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) α and β, to determine the role of thyroid hormone in the regulation of myoblast differentiation. T3, which activates thyroid hormone receptor (TR) α and β, increased myoblast differentiation whereas GC1, a selective TRβ agonist, was minimally effective. Genetic approaches confirmed that TRα plays an important role in normal myoblast proliferation and differentiation and acts through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Myoblasts with TRα knockdown, or derived from RTH-TRα PV (a frame-shift mutation) mice, displayed reduced proliferation and myogenic differentiation. Moreover, skeletal muscle from the TRα1PV mutant mouse had impaired in vivo regeneration after injury. RTH-TRβ PV mutant mouse model skeletal muscle and derived primary myoblasts did not have altered proliferation, myogenic differentiation, or response to injury when compared with control. In conclusion, TRα plays an essential role in myoblast homeostasis and provides a potential therapeutic target to enhance skeletal muscle regeneration. PMID:26451739

  7. Systemic above- and belowground cross talk: hormone-based responses triggered by Heterodera schachtii and shoot herbivores in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Kammerhofer, Nina; Egger, Barbara; Dobrev, Petre; Vankova, Radomira; Hofmann, Julia; Schausberger, Peter; Wieczorek, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Above- and belowground plant parts are simultaneously attacked by different pests and pathogens. The host mediates these interactions and physiologically reacts, e.g. with local and systemic alterations of endogenous hormone levels coupled with coordinated transcriptional changes. This in turn affects attractiveness and susceptibility of the plant to subsequent attackers. Here, the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is used to study stress hormone-based systemic responses triggered by simultaneous root parasitism by the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii and shoot herbivory by the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and the spider mite Tetranychus urticae. First, HPLC/MS and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR are used to show that nematode parasitism strongly affects stress hormone levels and expression of hormone marker genes in shoots. Previous nematode infection is then demonstrated to affect the behavioural and life history performance of both arthropods. While thrips explicitly avoid nematode-infected plants, spider mites prefer them. In addition, the life history performance of T. urticae is significantly enhanced by nematode infection. Finally, systemic changes triggered by shoot-feeding F. occidentalis but not T. urticae are shown to make the roots more attractive for H. schachtii. This work emphasises the importance of above- and belowground signalling and contributes to a better understanding of plant systemic defence mechanisms against plant-parasitic nematodes. PMID:26324462

  8. Systemic above- and belowground cross talk: hormone-based responses triggered by Heterodera schachtii and shoot herbivores in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kammerhofer, Nina; Egger, Barbara; Dobrev, Petre; Vankova, Radomira; Hofmann, Julia; Schausberger, Peter; Wieczorek, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Above- and belowground plant parts are simultaneously attacked by different pests and pathogens. The host mediates these interactions and physiologically reacts, e.g. with local and systemic alterations of endogenous hormone levels coupled with coordinated transcriptional changes. This in turn affects attractiveness and susceptibility of the plant to subsequent attackers. Here, the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is used to study stress hormone-based systemic responses triggered by simultaneous root parasitism by the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii and shoot herbivory by the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and the spider mite Tetranychus urticae. First, HPLC/MS and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR are used to show that nematode parasitism strongly affects stress hormone levels and expression of hormone marker genes in shoots. Previous nematode infection is then demonstrated to affect the behavioural and life history performance of both arthropods. While thrips explicitly avoid nematode-infected plants, spider mites prefer them. In addition, the life history performance of T. urticae is significantly enhanced by nematode infection. Finally, systemic changes triggered by shoot-feeding F. occidentalis but not T. urticae are shown to make the roots more attractive for H. schachtii. This work emphasises the importance of above- and belowground signalling and contributes to a better understanding of plant systemic defence mechanisms against plant-parasitic nematodes. PMID:26324462

  9. Spot14/Spot14R expression may be involved in MSC adipogenic differentiation in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    WANG, QIFEI; YANG, JUNLIN; LIN, XIANG; HUANG, ZIFANG; XIE, CHAOFAN; FAN, HENGWEI

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the different expression levels of thyroid hormone responsive (THRSP; Spot14)/S14 related, Mig12 (S14R) during bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BM-MSC) adipogenesis in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. MSCs were retrospectively isolated from AIS patients and controls, and adipogenic differentiation was induced. Total RNA was extracted for Affymetrix 3′-IVT expression profiling microarrays and compared with the results from healthy controls. The results were confirmed by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) validation and the protein expression levels of Spot14 and its paralogous gene S14R by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. A total of 300 significantly altered mRNAs were detected (111 upregulated and 189 downregulated) and confirmed by RT-qPCR. The mRNA expression levels of seven genes, including Spot14, were altered by >2-fold in AIS patients. Spot14/S14R was selected for further investigation. The results of the western blotting demonstrated that mRNA and protein expression levels of Spot14/S14R were significantly higher in AIS patients than the controls (P<0.05). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated Spot14 was expressed in 85% (17/20 cases) in adipose tissue samples from AIS patients and 23.1% (3/13 cases) of adipose tissue samples from controls. The positive ratio of Spot14 in adipose tissue samples from AIS was significantly higher than the controls (P<0.001). The results of the present study indicated that Spot14/S14R were differently expressed in MSC adipogenesis in AIS patients, and they may be important in the abnormal adipogenic differentiation in AIS. PMID:27082501

  10. Spot14/Spot14R expression may be involved in MSC adipogenic differentiation in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qifei; Yang, Junlin; Lin, Xiang; Huang, Zifang; Xie, Chaofan; Fan, Hengwei

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the different expression levels of thyroid hormone responsive (THRSP; Spot14)/S14 related, Mig12 (S14R) during bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BM-MSC) adipogenesis in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. MSCs were retrospectively isolated from AIS patients and controls, and adipogenic differentiation was induced. Total RNA was extracted for Affymetrix 3'‑IVT expression profiling microarrays and compared with the results from healthy controls. The results were confirmed by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) validation and the protein expression levels of Spot14 and its paralogous gene S14R by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. A total of 300 significantly altered mRNAs were detected (111 upregulated and 189 downregulated) and confirmed by RT‑qPCR. The mRNA expression levels of seven genes, including Spot14, were altered by >2‑fold in AIS patients. Spot14/S14R was selected for further investigation. The results of the western blotting demonstrated that mRNA and protein expression levels of Spot14/S14R were significantly higher in AIS patients than the controls (P<0.05). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated Spot14 was expressed in 85% (17/20 cases) in adipose tissue samples from AIS patients and 23.1% (3/13 cases) of adipose tissue samples from controls. The positive ratio of Spot14 in adipose tissue samples from AIS was significantly higher than the controls (P<0.001). The results of the present study indicated that Spot14/S14R were differently expressed in MSC adipogenesis in AIS patients, and they may be important in the abnormal adipogenic differentiation in AIS. PMID:27082501

  11. Ambient temperature and the pituitary hormone responses to exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Bridge, M W; Weller, A S; Rayson, M; Jones, D A

    2003-09-01

    Pituitary hormones have an important role during exercise yet relatively little is known about the stimulus for their release. Body temperature progressively increases during prolonged steady-state exercise in the heat and we have investigated the role that this may play in the release of prolactin, growth hormone and cortisol (as an indicator of adrenocorticotropic hormone) into the circulation. Fit young male subjects exercised at 73% V(O2,max) until volitional fatigue at 20 degrees C and at 35 degrees C (30% relative humidity at both temperatures). Rectal temperature and mean skin temperature were monitored and blood samples analysed for lactate, glucose, cortisol, growth hormone and prolactin concentrations. During the first 20 min, core temperature rose continuously and to a similar extent at both temperatures, while mean skin temperature was approximately 4 degrees C lower during exercise in the cool. Blood glucose concentration was essentially constant throughout the period of exercise while lactate concentration increased in the first 10 min and then remained constant with very similar changes in the two exercise conditions. Prolactin and growth hormone concentrations both increased during the exercise period while the concentration of cortisol declined slightly before rising slightly over the 40 min period. Prolactin release was significantly greater when exercise was carried out in the heat while there was no difference in the release of growth hormone or cortisol in the two conditions. When plotted as a function of rectal temperature, growth hormone concentration showed a linear relationship which was the same at ambient temperatures of 35 degrees C and 20 degrees C. Prolactin concentration had a curvilinear relationship with rectal temperature and this differed markedly at the two ambient temperatures. Cortisol concentration showed no dependence on any measure of body temperature. Our results are consistent with some aspect of body temperature being a

  12. Role of adipokinetic hormone and adenosine in the anti-stress response in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Zemanová, Milada; Stašková, Tereza; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2016-01-01

    The role of adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and adenosine in the anti-stress response was studied in Drosophila melanogaster larvae and adults carrying a mutation in the Akh gene (Akh(1)), the adenosine receptor gene (AdoR(1)), or in both of these genes (Akh(1) AdoR(1) double mutant). Stress was induced by starvation or by the addition of an oxidative stressor paraquat (PQ) to food. Mortality tests revealed that the Akh(1) mutant was the most resistant to starvation, while the AdoR(1) mutant was the most sensitive. Conversely, the Akh(1) AdoR(1) double mutant was more sensitive to PQ toxicity than either of the single mutants. Administration of PQ significantly increased the Drome-AKH level in w(1118) and AdoR(1) larvae; however, this was not accompanied by a simultaneous increase in Akh gene expression. In contrast, PQ significantly increased the expression of the glutathione S-transferase D1 (GstD1) gene. The presence of both a functional adenosine receptor and AKH seem to be important for the proper control of GstD1 gene expression under oxidative stress, however, the latter appears to play more dominant role. On the other hand, differences in glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity among the strains, and between untreated and PQ-treated groups were minimal. In addition, the glutathione level was significantly lower in all untreated AKH- or AdoR-deficient mutant flies as compared with the untreated control w(1118) flies and further declined following treatment with PQ. All oxidative stress characteristics modified by mutations in Akh gene were restored or even improved by 'rescue' mutation in flies which ectopically express Akh. Thus, the results of the present study demonstrate the important roles of AKH and adenosine in the anti-stress response elicited by PQ in a D. melanogaster model, and provide the first evidence for the involvement of adenosine in the anti-oxidative stress response in insects. PMID:27374982

  13. A novel zinc-binding alcohol dehydrogenase 2 from Arachis diogoi, expressed in resistance responses against late leaf spot pathogen, induces cell death when transexpressed in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dilip; Rampuria, Sakshi; Singh, Naveen Kumar; Kirti, Pulugurtha B

    2016-03-01

    A novel zinc-binding alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (AdZADH2) was significantly upregulated in a wild peanut, Arachis diogoi treated with conidia of late leaf spot (LLS) pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata. This upregulation was not observed in a comparative analysis of cultivated peanut, which is highly susceptible to LLS. This zinc-binding alcohol dehydrogenase possessed a Rossmann fold containing NADB domain in addition to the MDR domain present in all previously characterized plant ADH genes/proteins. Transient over-expression of AdZADH2 under an estradiol inducible promoter (XVE) resulted in hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death in tobacco leaf. However, the same level of cell death was not observed when the domains were transiently expressed individually. Cell death observed in tobacco was associated with overexpression of cell death related proteins, antioxidative enzymes such as SOD, CAT and APX and pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. In A. diogoi, AdZADH2 expression was significantly upregulated in response to the plant signaling hormones salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and sodium nitroprusside. PMID:27047748

  14. Vitamin D status and parathyroid hormone concentrations influence the skeletal response to zoledronate and denosumab.

    PubMed

    Mosali, P; Bernard, L; Wajed, J; Mohamed, Z; Ewang, M; Moore, A; Fogelman, I; Hampson, G

    2014-05-01

    Studies suggest that optimal vitamin D status is required for the maximal effect of antiresorptive agents. We investigated the relationship between vitamin D status, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations, and change in bone mineral density (BMD) following iv zoledronate and denosumab. We carried out a retrospective analysis of 111 patients, mean age 70 (SD 13) years, 89 women and 22 men, prescribed zoledronate and 43 postmenopausal women treated with denosumab for osteoporosis. We measured BMD at the lumbar spine (LS) and total hip (TH), serum 25 (OH) vitamin D, PTH, and bone turnover markers (plasma CTX, P1NP) at 1 year. In patients on zoledronate, BMD increased at the LS and TH (mean LS change [SEM] = 2.6 % [0.5 %], mean TH change = 1.05 % [0.5 %], p < 0.05). A significant increase in BMD was seen at the LS only in the denosumab group (p = 0.001). Significant decreases in CTX and P1NP were observed at 12 months in both treatment groups. At baseline and at 12 months, 34 % and 23 % of the patients on zoledronate had a serum vitamin D of <50 nmol/L, respectively. The mean PTH concentration in patients with 25 (OH) vitamin D <50 nmol/L was 44 ng/L (SEM 16.6). Patients with PTH concentration <44 ng/L had significantly higher increases in TH BMD compared to those with PTH >44 ng/L (zoledronate 1.9 [0.83] vs. -0.43 [0.81], p = 0.04; denosumab 4.1 [0.054] vs. -1.7 [0.04], p = 0.004). Optimal vitamin D status and PTH concentrations improve the skeletal response to zoledronate and denosumab. PMID:24509506

  15. Thyroid hormone regulation of Sirtuin 1 expression and implications to integrated responses in fasted mice.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Aline; de Souza, Luana Lopes; Oliveira, Lorraine Soares; Faustino, Larissa Costa; Santiago, Letícia Aragão; Bloise, Flavia Fonseca; Ortiga-Carvalho, Tania Maria; Almeida, Norma Aparecida Dos Santos; Pazos-Moura, Carmen Cabanelas

    2013-02-01

    Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, has been connected to beneficial effects elicited by calorie restriction. Physiological adaptation to starvation requires higher activity of SIRT1 and also the suppression of thyroid hormone (TH) action to achieve energy conservation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that those two events are correlated and that TH may be a regulator of SIRT1 expression. Forty-eight-hour fasting mice exhibited reduced serum TH and increased SIRT1 protein content in liver and brown adipose tissue (BAT), and physiological thyroxine replacement prevented or attenuated the increment of SIRT1 in liver and BAT of fasted mice. Hypothyroid mice exhibited increased liver SIRT1 protein, while hyperthyroid ones showed decreased SIRT1 in liver and BAT. In the liver, decreased protein is accompanied by reduced SIRT1 activity and no alteration in its mRNA. Hyperthyroid and hypothyroid mice exhibited increases and decreases in food intake and body weight gain respectively. Food-restricted hyperthyroid animals (pair-fed to euthyroid group) exhibited liver and BAT SIRT1 protein levels intermediary between euthyroid and hyperthyroid mice fed ad libitum. Mice with TH resistance at the liver presented increased hepatic SIRT1 protein and activity, with no alteration in Sirt1 mRNA. These results suggest that TH decreases SIRT1 protein, directly and indirectly, via food ingestion control and, in the liver, this reduction involves TRβ. The SIRT1 reduction induced by TH has important implication to integrated metabolic responses to fasting, as the increase in SIRT1 protein requires the fasting-associated suppression of TH serum levels. PMID:23151359

  16. A polymorphism in the leptin receptor gene at position 223 is associated with growth hormone replacement therapy responsiveness in idiopathic short stature and growth hormone deficiency patients.

    PubMed

    Su, Pen-Hua; Yang, Shun-Fa; Yu, Ju-Shan; Chen, Suh-Jen; Chen, Jia-Yuh

    2012-12-01

    We hypothesized that responses to growth hormone (GH) therapy by idiopathic short stature (ISS) and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) patients were associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes. We retrospectively enrolled ISS (n = 32) and GHD (n = 38) patients and forty healthy age-and gender-matched children. They were genotyped for the LEP promoter at nt.-2548, and LEPR K109R and LEPR Q223R polymorphisms. Clinical and laboratory variables were determined before and after 2 years of GH treatment. ISS patients with G/A or A/A genotypes of the LEPR Q223R SNP had a significantly higher height velocity (cm/y) than ISS patients with the G/G genotype at 2 years after GH treatment. For GHD patients, G/A or A/A genotype of the LEPR K109R SNP was associated with higher body weight, higher BMI, and higher weight velocity than patients with the G/G genotype before GH treatment, but not after GH treatment. G/A or A/A genotype of the LEPR Q223R SNP was associated with a significantly higher body weight, higher height velocity before treatment, but not after GH treatment. G/A or A/A genotype of the LEPR Q223R SNP was associated with a significantly higher weight velocity before treatment, but a significantly lower weight velocity was found at 2 years after GH treatment. These results suggest LEPR Q223R SNP (rs1137101) is associated with outcomes of GH replacement therapy in ISS and GHD patients. PMID:23009903

  17. Utility of event-related potentials in predicting antidepressant treatment response: An iSPOT-D report.

    PubMed

    van Dinteren, Rik; Arns, Martijn; Kenemans, Leon; Jongsma, Marijtje L A; Kessels, Roy P C; Fitzgerald, Paul; Fallahpour, Kamran; Debattista, Charles; Gordon, Evian; Williams, Leanne M

    2015-11-01

    It is essential to improve antidepressant treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) and one way this could be achieved is by reducing the number of treatment steps by employing biomarkers that can predict treatment outcome. This study investigated differences between MDD patients and healthy controls in the P3 and N1 component from the event-related potential (ERP) generated in a standard two-tone oddball paradigm. Furthermore, the P3 and N1 are investigated as predictors for treatment outcome to three different antidepressants. In the international Study to Predict Optimized Treatment in Depression (iSPOT-D)--a multi-center, international, randomized, prospective practical trial--1008 MDD participants were randomized to escitalopram, sertraline or venlafaxine-XR. The study also recruited 336 healthy controls. Treatment response and remission were established after eight weeks using the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. P3 and N1 latencies and amplitudes were analyzed using a peak-picking approach and further replicated by using exact low resolution tomography (eLORETA). A reduced P3 was found in MDD patients compared to controls by a peak-picking analysis. This was validated in a temporal global field power analysis. Source density analysis revealed that the difference in cortical activity originated from the posterior cingulate and parahippocampal gyrus. Male non-responders to venlafaxine-XR had significantly smaller N1 amplitudes than responders. This was demonstrated by both analytical methods. Male non-responders to venlafaxine-XR had less activity originating from the left insular cortex. The observed results are discussed from a neural network viewpoint. PMID:26282359

  18. Acute Hormonal and Force Responses to Combined Strength and Endurance Loadings in Men and Women: The “Order Effect”

    PubMed Central

    S. Taipale, Ritva; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine acute responses and recovery of serum hormones and muscle force following combined strength (S) and endurance (E) loading sessions in which the order of exercises is reversed (ES vs. SE). Methods This cross-over study design included recreationally endurance trained men and women (age 21–45 years, n = 12 men n = 10 women) who performed both loadings. Maximal bilateral isometric strength (MVC), isometric rate of force development (RFD) and serum concentrations of testosterone (T), cortisol (C), growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured during and after both loadings. Results Both of the present combined (ES and SE) loadings led to a greater acute decrease in MVC in men than in women, while RFD was slightly affected only in men. Recovery of MVC and RFD to baseline was complete at 24 h regardless of the order of exercises. In men, neuromuscular fatigue was accompanied by increased C concentrations observed post SE. This was followed by decreased concentrations of T at 24 h and 48 h that were significantly lower than those observed following ES. GH response in men also differed significantly post loadings. In women, only a significant difference in T between ES and SE loadings was observed at post. Conclusion These observed differences in hormonal responses despite similarities in neuromuscular fatigue in men indicate the presence of an order effect as the body was not fully recovered at 48 h following SE. These findings may be applicable in training prescription in order to optimize specific training adaptations. PMID:23408956

  19. Short-term Hormone Treatment Modulates Emotion Response Circuitry in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Love, Tiffany; Smith, Yolanda R.; Persad, Carol C.; Tkaczyk, Anne; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of combination hormone therapy (HT) on emotional processing in postmenopausal women using functional neuroimaging. Design A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study was performed. Setting A tertiary care university medical center. Participants Ten healthy postmenopausal women (mean age 56.9 years, S.D. = 1.4) were recruited. Interventions Women were randomized to the order they received combined hormone therapy, 5 ug ethinyl estradiol and 1 mg norethindrone acetate, and placebo. Volunteers received hormone therapy or placebo for 4 weeks, followed by a one month washout period, and then received the other treatment for 4 weeks. Subjects participated in an fMRI emotional processing task, where they were asked to rate emotional pictures as positive, negative, or neutral. Main Outcome Measure Brain activation patterns were compared between hormone therapy and placebo conditions within subjects. Results During negative emotional presentations, after subtracting the effect of neutral images, areas of significant differences between HT and placebo conditions were identified in the orbital, frontal, cingulate and occipital cortices. During positive emotional image presentation there were significant differences between placebo and HT conditions within the medial frontal cortex. Conclusions Short-term menopausal treatment with combination hormone therapy affects regional brain activity within areas implicated in emotional processing. PMID:19243753

  20. Differential neural responses to child and sexual stimuli in human fathers and non-fathers and their hormonal correlates

    PubMed Central

    Mascaro, Jennifer S.; Hackett, Patrick D.; Rilling, James K.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the well-documented importance of paternal caregiving for positive child development, little is known about the neural changes that accompany the transition to fatherhood in humans, or about how changes in hormone levels affect paternal brain function. We compared fathers of children aged 1–2 with non-fathers in terms of hormone levels (oxytocin and testosterone), neural responses to child picture stimuli, and neural responses to visual sexual stimuli. Compared to non-fathers, fathers had significantly higher levels of plasma oxytocin and lower levels of plasma testosterone. In response to child picture stimuli, fathers showed stronger activation than non-fathers within regions important for face emotion processing (caudal middle frontal gyrus [MFG]), mentalizing (temporo-parietal junction [TPJ]) and reward processing (medial orbitofrontal cortex [mOFC]). On the other hand, non-fathers had significantly stronger neural responses to sexually provocative images in regions important for reward and approach-related motivation (dorsal caudate and nucleus accumbens). Testosterone levels were negatively correlated with responses to child stimuli in the MFG. Surprisingly, neither testosterone nor oxytocin levels predicted neural responses to sexual stimuli. Our results suggest that the decline in testosterone that accompanies the transition to fatherhood may be important for augmenting empathy toward children. PMID:24882167

  1. OsERF2 controls rice root growth and hormone responses through tuning expression of key genes involved in hormone signaling and sucrose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Guiqing; Qin, Hua; Zhou, Jiahao; Quan, Ruidang; Lu, Xiangyang; Huang, Rongfeng; Zhang, Haiwen

    2016-02-01

    Root determines plant distribution, development progresses, stress response, as well as crop qualities and yields, which is under the tight control of genetic programs and environmental stimuli. Ethylene responsive factor proteins (ERFs) play important roles in plant growth and development. Here, the regulatory function of OsERF2 involved in root growth was investigated using the gain-function mutant of OsERF2 (nsf2857) and the artificial microRNA-mediated silenced lines of OsERF2 (Ami-OsERF2). nsf2857 showed short primary roots compared with the wild type (WT), while the primary roots of Ami-OsERF2 lines were longer than those of WT. Consistent with this phenotype, several auxin/cytokinin responsive genes involved in root growth were downregulated in nsf2857, but upregulated in Ami-OsERF2. Then, we found that nsf2857 seedlings exhibited decreased ABA accumulation and sensitivity to ABA and reduced ethylene-mediated root inhibition, while those were the opposite in Ami-ERF2 plants. Moreover, several key genes involved in ABA synthesis were downregulated in nsf2857, but unregulated in Ami-ERF2 lines. In addition, OsERF2 affected the accumulation of sucrose and UDPG by mediating expression of key genes involved in sucrose metabolism. These results indicate that OsERF2 is required for the control of root architecture and ABA- and ethylene-response by tuning expression of series genes involved in sugar metabolism and hormone signaling pathways. PMID:26659593

  2. Hormonal responses of metoclopramide-treated subjects experiencing nausea or emesis during parabolic flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, Randall L.

    1987-01-01

    The concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), vasopressin (AVP), epinephrine (EPI), and norepinephrine (NE) in 22 subjects administered 10 to 20 mg of metoclopramide prior to parabolic flight are measured. The effect of metoclopramide on motion sickness is examined. It is observed that metoclopramide is ineffective in the modulation of motion sickness due to stressful linear and angular acceleration and orbital flight, and it does not affect serum hormones prior to parabolic flight. It is detected that the serum level of AVP declines following emesis induced by parabolic flight and stressful angular acceleration; the serum levels of ACTH and EPI are elevated by parabolic flight and stressful angular acceleration; and serum NE is significantly elevated immediately following emesis. The possible roles of these hormones in the etiology of space motion sickness are discussed.

  3. Standard of Care and Controversies in the Adjuvant Endocrine Treatment of Hormone-Responsive Early Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bauerschlag, Dirk O.; Maass, Nicolai; Schem, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Summary Hormone-responsive early breast cancer is a highly curable disease. In premenopausal women, tamoxifen (TAM) is still the standard treatment. Nowadays, up to 10 years of TAM can be safely administered, especially in women who remain premenopausal. Patients who are considered to be perimenopausal should be initially treated like premenopausal patients. Depending on their serum hormone levels, these patients can be safely switched to an aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy once the estradiol (E2) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels prove the established postmenopausal status. In postmenopausal women, several sequences of endocrine treatment are available. The AI therapy can be induced upfront or sequentially by switching from Tam to AI and vice versa. Extended endocrine therapy, by adding up to 5 years of letrozole after 5 years of TAM, has also been proven to be beneficial in certain patient subgroups. Genotyping of cytochromes such as CYP2D6 did not have any added value in identifying patients who are at higher risk of recurrence. Nevertheless, in all patients the side effects need to be given high consideration. New strategies developed to overcome endocrine resistance are tested in clinical studies. New co-administered drugs such as specific inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), Src, or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) do improve endocrine responsiveness in metastatic disease and will eventually be introduced in the treatment of early breast cancer. PMID:25404889

  4. Aging influences steroid hormone release by mink ovaries and their response to leptin and IGF-I

    PubMed Central

    Sirotkin, Alexander V.; Mertin, Dušan; Süvegová, Karin; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Kotwica, Jan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of our study was to understand whether ovarian steroid hormones, and their response to the metabolic hormones leptin and IGF-I leptin, could be involved in the control of mink reproductive aging via changes in basal release of ovarian progesterone and estradiol. For this purpose, we compared the release of progesterone and estradiol by ovarian fragments isolated from young (yearlings) and old (3-5 years of age) minks cultured with and without leptin and IGF-I (0, 1, 10 or 100 ng/ml). We observed that isolated ovaries of older animals produced less progesterone but not less estradiol than the ovaries of young animals. Leptin addition stimulated estradiol release by the ovarian tissue of young animals but inhibited it in older females. Leptin did not influence progesterone output by the ovaries of either young or older animals. IGF-I inhibited estradiol output in young but not old animals, whereas progesterone release was inhibited by IGF-I irrespective of the animal age. Our observations demonstrate the involvement of both leptin and IGF-I in the control of mink ovarian steroid hormones release. Furthermore, our findings suggest that reproductive aging in minks can be due to (a) reduction in basal progesterone release and (b) alterations in the response of estradiol but not of progesterone to leptin and IGF-I. PMID:26794607

  5. Salivary steroid hormone response to whole-body cryotherapy in elite rugby players.

    PubMed

    Grasso, D; Lanteri, P; Di Bernardo, C; Mauri, C; Porcelli, S; Colombini, A; Zani, V; Bonomi, F G; Melegati, G; Banfi, G; Lombardi, G

    2014-01-01

    Saliva represents a low stress, not-invasively collected matrix that allows steroid hormone monitoring in athletes by reflecting type, intensity and duration of exercise. Whole body cryotherapy (WBC) consists of short whole-body exposures to extremely cold air (-110° to -140°C) which, despite being initially used to treat inflammatory diseases, is currently acquiring increasing popularity in sports medicine. Cryostimulation practice is now widely accepted as an effective treatment to accelerate muscle recovery in rugby players. The aim of this work was to study the changes of steroid hormones in saliva of rugby players after both 2 and 14 consecutive WBC sessions, in order to investigate the effects of the treatment on their salivary steroid hormonal profile. Twenty-five professional rugby players, belonging to the Italian National Team, underwent a 7-day cryotherapy protocol consisting of 2 daily sessions. Saliva samples were taken in the morning prior to the start of the WBC, in the evening after the end of the second WBC, and in the morning of the day after the last WBC session. The samples were analyzed for cortisol, DHEA, testosterone and estradiol using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Cortisol and DHEA showed a reduction already after the 2 WBC sessions of the first day; after 14 consecutive WBC sessions cortisol, DHEA, and estradiol levels decreased, while testosterone increased as did the testosterone to cortisol ratio. These results were confirmed by the fact that the majority of subjects showed variations exceeding the critical difference (CD). In conclusion, we found that WBC acutely affects the salivary steroid hormone profile, and the results are evident already after only one twice-daily session. Most significantly, after one-week of consecutive twice-daily WBC sessions, all the hormones were modified. This is the first experimental report that links changes in the hormonal asset to WBC. PMID:25001661

  6. Culture and characteristics of hormone-responsive neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hamprecht, B.; Glaser, T.; Reiser, G.; Bayer, E.; Propst, F.

    1985-01-01

    Neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cells were generated by cell fusion of the 6-thioguanine-resistant clonal mouse neuroblastoma cells and the bromodeoxyuridine-resistant rat glioma cells, selection, and cloning. Every characteristics generally ascribed to neurons has been observed with the hybrid cells. The paper explores the morphological differentiation of hybrid cells, procedures for testing the hormonal regulation of intracellular levels of cyclic, (/sup 3/H)AMP in hybrid cells, hormonal regulation of adenylate cyclase in homogenates of hyrbid cells, intracellular levels of cyclic GMP, and uptake of guanidinium ions in hybrid cells.

  7. Sequence elements in the human osteocalcin gene confer basal activation and inducible response to hormonal vitamin D sub 3

    SciTech Connect

    Kerner, S.A.; Scott, R.A.; Pike, J.W. )

    1989-06-01

    Osteoblast-specific expression of the bone protein osteocalcin is controlled at the transcriptional level by the steroid hormone 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}. As this protein may represent a marker for bone activity in human disease, the authors examined the regulation of its expression at the molecular level by evaluating human osteocalcin gene promoter function. They describe regions within the promoter that contribute to basal expression of the gene in osteoblast-like cells in culture. Further, they define a 21-base-pair DNA element with the sequence 5{prime}-GTGACTCACCGGGTGAACGGG-3{prime}, which acts in cis to mediate 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} inducibility of the osteocalcin gene. This response element bears sequence similarity with other short DNA segments, particularly those for estrogen and thyroid hormone, which act together with their respective trans-acting receptors to modulate gene transcription.

  8. Hemodynamic and hormonal responses to lower body negative pressure in men with varying profiles of strength and aerobic power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Mathes, K. L.; Lasley, M. L.; Tomaselli, C. M.; Frey, M. A.; Hoffler, G. W.

    1993-01-01

    Hemodynamic, cardiac, and hormonal responses to lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) were examined in 24 healthy men to test the hypothesis that responsiveness of reflex control of blood pressure during orthostatic challenge is associated with interactions between strength and aerobic power. Subjects underwent treadmill tests to determine peak oxygen uptake (VO2max) and isokinetic dynamometer tests to determine knee extensor strength. Based on predetermined criteria, subjects were classified into one of four fitness profiles of six subjects each, matched for age, height, and body mass: (a) low strength/average aerobic fitness, (b) low strength/high aerobic fitness, (c) high strength/average aerobic fitness, and (d) high strength/high aerobic fitness. Following 90 min of 0.11 rad (6 degrees) head-down tilt (HDT), each subject underwent graded LBNP to -6.7 kPa or presyncope, with maximal duration 15 min, while hemodynamic, cardiac, and hormonal responses were measured. All groups exhibited typical hemodynamic, hormonal, and fluid shift responses during LBNP, with no intergroup differences between high and low strength characteristics. Subjects with high aerobic power exhibited greater (P < 0.05) stroke volume and lower (P < 0.05) heart rate, vascular peripheral resistance, and mean arterial pressure during rest, HDT, and LBNP. Seven subjects, distributed among the four fitness profiles, became presyncopal. These subjects showed greatest reduction in mean arterial pressure during LBNP, had greater elevations in vasopressin, and lesser increases in heart rate and peripheral resistance. Neither VO2max nor leg strength were associated with fall in arterial pressure or with syncopal episodes. We conclude that interactions between aerobic and strength fitness characteristics do not influence responses to LBNP challenge.

  9. Biological regulation of receptor-hormone complex concentrations in relation to dose-response assessments for endocrine-active compounds.

    PubMed

    Andersen, M E; Barton, H A

    1999-03-01

    Some endocrine-active compounds (EACs) act as agonists or antagonists of specific hormones and may interfere with cellular control processes that regulate gene transcription. Many mechanisms controlling gene expression are universal to organisms ranging from unicellular bacteria to more complex plants and animals. One mechanism, coordinated control of batteries of gene products, is critical in adaptation of bacteria to new environments and for development and tissue differentiation in multi-cellular organisms. To coordinately activate sets of genes, all living organisms have devised molecular modules to permit transitions, or switching, between different functional states over a small range of hormone concentration, and other modules to stabilize the new state through homeostatic interactions. Both switching and homeostasis are regulated by controlling concentrations of hormone-receptor complexes. Molecular control processes for switching and homeostasis are inherently nonlinear and often utilize autoregulatory feedback loops. Among the biological processes contributing to switching phenomena are receptor autoinduction, induction of enzymes for ligand synthesis, mRNA stabilization/activation, and receptor polymerization. This paper discusses a variety of molecular switches found in animal species, devises simple quantitative models illustrating roles of specific molecular interactions in creating switching modules, and outlines the impact of these switching processes and other feedback loops for risk assessments with EACs. Quantitative simulation modeling of these switching mechanisms made it apparent that highly nonlinear dose-response curves for hormones and EACs readily arise from interactions of several linear processes acting in concert on a common control point. These nonlinear mechanisms involve amplification of response, rather than multimeric molecular interactions as in conventional Hill relationships. PMID:10330682

  10. Negative energy balance in a male songbird, the Abert's towhee, constrains the testicular endocrine response to luteinizing hormone stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Scott; Gao, Sisi; Valle, Shelley; Bittner, Stephanie; Hutton, Pierce; Meddle, Simone L.; Deviche, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Energy deficiency can suppress reproductive function in vertebrates. As the orchestrator of reproductive function, endocrine activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis is potentially an important mechanism mediating such effects. Previous experiments in wild-caught birds found inconsistent relationships between energy deficiency and seasonal reproductive function, but these experiments focused on baseline HPG axis activity and none have investigated the responsiveness of this axis to endocrine stimulation. Here, we present data from an experiment in Abert's towhees, Melozone aberti, using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) challenges to investigate whether energy deficiency modulates the plasma testosterone responsiveness of the HPG axis. Wild-caught birds were either ad libitum fed or energetically constrained via chronic food restriction during photoinduced reproductive development. Energy deficiency did not significantly affect the development of reproductive morphology, the baseline endocrine activity of the HPG axis, or the plasma testosterone response to GnRH challenge. Energy deficiency did, however, decrease the plasma testosterone responsiveness to LH challenge. Collectively, these observations suggest that energy deficiency has direct gonadal effects consisting of a decreased responsiveness to LH stimulation. Our study, therefore, reveals a mechanism by which energy deficiency modulates reproductive function in wild birds in the absence of detectable effects on baseline HPG axis activity. PMID:26333925