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Sample records for hormone-nuclear receptor genes

  1. Pleiotropic effects of gold(I) mixed-ligand complexes of 9-deazahypoxanthine on transcriptional activity of receptors for steroid hormones, nuclear receptors and xenoreceptors in human hepatocytes and cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kubešová, Kateřina; Trávníček, Zdeněk; Dvořák, Zdeněk

    2016-10-01

    Development of metal-based compounds is an important research avenue in anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory drug discovery. Here we examined the effects of three gold (I) mixed-ligand complexes with the general formula [Au(Ln)(PPh3)] (1, 2, 3) involving triphenylphosphine (PPh3) and a deprotonated form of O-substituted derivatives of 9-deazahypoxanthine (Ln) on the transcriptional activity of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), androgen receptor (AR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), thyroid receptor (TR), pregnane X receptor (PXR) and vitamin D receptor (VDR), employing gene reporter assays. In addition, we measured mRNA (RT-PCR) and protein (western blot) expression of target genes for those receptors, including drug-metabolizing P450s, in primary human hepatocytes and cancer cell lines LS180 and HepG2. The tested compounds displayed anti-glucocorticoid effects, as revealed by inhibition of dexamethasone-inducible transcriptional activity of GR and down-regulation of tyrosine aminotransferase. All the compounds slightly and dose-dependently activated PXR and AhR, and moderately induced CYP3A4 and CYP1A1/2 genes in human hepatocytes and LS180 cells. The complexes antagonized basal and ligand-activated AR and VDR, indicating inverse agonist behaviour. Both basal and thyroid hormone-inducible transcriptional activity of TR was dose-dependently increased by all tested compounds. In contrast, the expression of SPOT14 mRNA was decreased by tested compounds in human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. In conclusion, if intended for human pharmacotherapy, the potential of the complexes 1-3 to influence studied receptors should be taken in account. PMID:27318977

  2. Taste Receptor Genes

    PubMed Central

    Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2009-01-01

    In the past several years, tremendous progress has been achieved with the discovery and characterization of vertebrate taste receptors from the T1R and T2R families, which are involved in recognition of bitter, sweet, and umami taste stimuli. Individual differences in taste, at least in some cases, can be attributed to allelic variants of the T1R and T2R genes. Progress with understanding how T1R and T2R receptors interact with taste stimuli and with identifying their patterns of expression in taste cells sheds light on coding of taste information by the nervous system. Candidate mechanisms for detection of salts, acids, fat, complex carbohydrates, and water have also been proposed, but further studies are needed to prove their identity. PMID:17444812

  3. Generalized resistance to thyroid hormone associated with a mutation in the ligand-binding domain of the human thyroid hormone receptor. beta

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, A.; Takeda, K.; Ain, K.; Ceccarelli, P.; Nakai, A.; Seino, S.; Bell, G.I.; Refetoff, S.; DeGroot, L.J. )

    1989-11-01

    The syndrome of generalized resistance to thyroid hormone is characterized by elevated circulating levels of thyroid hormone in the presence of an overall eumetabolic state and failure to respond normally to triiodothyronine. The authors have evaluated a family with inherited generalized resistance to thyroid hormone for abnormalities in the thyroid hormone nuclear receptors. A single guanine {yields} cytosine replacement in the codon for amino acid 340 resulted in a glycine {yields} arginine substitution in the hormone-binding domain of one of two alleles of the patient's thyroid hormone nuclear receptor {beta} gene. In vitro translation products of this mutant human thyroid hormone nuclear receptor {beta} gene did not bind triiodothyronine. Thus, generalized resistance to thyroid hormone can result from expression of an abnormal thyroid hormone nuclear receptor molecule.

  4. Structure of the human progesterone receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Misrahi, M; Venencie, P Y; Saugier-Veber, P; Sar, S; Dessen, P; Milgrom, E

    1993-11-16

    The complete organization of the human progesterone receptor (hPR) gene has been determined. It spans over 90 kbp and contains eight exons. The first exon encodes the N-terminal part of the receptor. The DNA binding domain is encoded by two exons, each exon corresponding to one zinc finger. The steroid binding domain is encoded by five exons. The nucleotide sequence of 1144 bp of the 5' flanking region has been determined. PMID:8241270

  5. Engineering AAV receptor footprints for gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Victoria J; Asokan, Aravind

    2016-06-01

    Adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are currently at the forefront of human gene therapy clinical trials as recombinant vectors. Significant progress has been made in elucidating the structure, biology and tropisms of different naturally occurring AAV isolates in the past decade. In particular, a spectrum of AAV capsid interactions with host receptors have been identified and characterized. These studies have enabled a better understanding of key determinants of AAV cell recognition and entry in different hosts. This knowledge is now being applied toward engineering new, lab-derived AAV capsids with favorable transduction profiles. The current review conveys a structural perspective of capsid-glycan interactions and provides a roadmap for generating synthetic strains by engineering AAV receptor footprints. PMID:27262111

  6. Widespread ectopic expression of olfactory receptor genes

    PubMed Central

    Feldmesser, Ester; Olender, Tsviya; Khen, Miriam; Yanai, Itai; Ophir, Ron; Lancet, Doron

    2006-01-01

    Background Olfactory receptors (ORs) are the largest gene family in the human genome. Although they are expected to be expressed specifically in olfactory tissues, some ectopic expression has been reported, with special emphasis on sperm and testis. The present study systematically explores the expression patterns of OR genes in a large number of tissues and assesses the potential functional implication of such ectopic expression. Results We analyzed the expression of hundreds of human and mouse OR transcripts, via EST and microarray data, in several dozens of human and mouse tissues. Different tissues had specific, relatively small OR gene subsets which had particularly high expression levels. In testis, average expression was not particularly high, and very few highly expressed genes were found, none corresponding to ORs previously implicated in sperm chemotaxis. Higher expression levels were more common for genes with a non-OR genomic neighbor. Importantly, no correlation in expression levels was detected for human-mouse orthologous pairs. Also, no significant difference in expression levels was seen between intact and pseudogenized ORs, except for the pseudogenes of subfamily 7E which has undergone a human-specific expansion. Conclusion The OR superfamily as a whole, show widespread, locus-dependent and heterogeneous expression, in agreement with a neutral or near neutral evolutionary model for transcription control. These results cannot reject the possibility that small OR subsets might play functional roles in different tissues, however considerable care should be exerted when offering a functional interpretation for ectopic OR expression based only on transcription information. PMID:16716209

  7. Androgen receptor gene polymorphism in zebra species

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hideyuki; Langenhorst, Tanya; Ogden, Rob; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2015-01-01

    Androgen receptor genes (AR) have been found to have associations with reproductive development, behavioral traits, and disorders in humans. However, the influence of similar genetic effects on the behavior of other animals is scarce. We examined the loci AR glutamine repeat (ARQ) in 44 Grevy's zebras, 23 plains zebras, and three mountain zebras, and compared them with those of domesticated horses. We observed polymorphism among zebra species and between zebra and horse. As androgens such as testosterone influence aggressiveness, AR polymorphism among equid species may be associated with differences in levels of aggression and tameness. Our findings indicate that it would be useful to conduct further studies focusing on the potential association between AR and personality traits, and to understand domestication of equid species. PMID:26236645

  8. Gene Transfer and Molecular Cloning of the Human NGF Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Moses V.; Bothwell, Mark A.; Ross, Alonzo H.; Koprowski, Hilary; Lanahan, Anthony A.; Buck, C. Randall; Sehgal, Amita

    1986-04-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) and its receptor are important in the development of cells derived from the neural crest. Mouse L cell transformants have been generated that stably express the human NGF receptor gene transfer with total human DNA. Affinity cross-linking, metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation, and equilibrium binding with 125I-labeled NGF revealed that this NGF receptor had the same size and binding characteristics as the receptor from human melanoma cells and rat PC12 cells. The sequences encoding the NGF receptor were molecularly cloned using the human Alu repetitive sequence as a probe. A cosmid clone that contained the human NGF receptor gene allowed efficient transfection and expression of the receptor.

  9. Regulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes by nuclear receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Honkakoski, P; Negishi, M

    2000-01-01

    Members of the nuclear-receptor superfamily mediate crucial physiological functions by regulating the synthesis of their target genes. Nuclear receptors are usually activated by ligand binding. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms often catalyse both formation and degradation of these ligands. CYPs also metabolize many exogenous compounds, some of which may act as activators of nuclear receptors and disruptors of endocrine and cellular homoeostasis. This review summarizes recent findings that indicate that major classes of CYP genes are selectively regulated by certain ligand-activated nuclear receptors, thus creating tightly controlled networks. PMID:10749660

  10. Dopamine receptor-mediated regulation of neuronal "clock" gene expression.

    PubMed

    Imbesi, M; Yildiz, S; Dirim Arslan, A; Sharma, R; Manev, H; Uz, T

    2009-01-23

    Using a transgenic mice model (i.e. "clock" knockouts), clock transcription factors have been suggested as critical regulators of dopaminergic behaviors induced by drugs of abuse. Moreover, it has been shown that systemic administration of psychostimulants, such as cocaine and methamphetamine regulates the striatal expression of clock genes. However, it is not known whether dopamine receptors mediate these regulatory effects of psychostimulants at the cellular level. Primary striatal neurons in culture express dopamine receptors as well as clock genes and have been successfully used in studying dopamine receptor functioning. Therefore, we investigated the role of dopamine receptors on neuronal clock gene expression in this model using specific receptor agonists. We found an inhibitory effect on the expression of mClock and mPer1 genes with the D2-class (i.e. D2/D3) receptor agonist quinpirole. We also found a generalized stimulatory effect on the expression of clock genes mPer1, mClock, mNPAS2 (neuronal PAS domain protein 2), and mBmal1 with the D1-class (i.e. D1) receptor agonist SKF38393. Further, we tested whether systemic administration of dopamine receptor agonists causes similar changes in striatal clock gene expression in vivo. We found quinpirole-induced alterations in mPER1 protein levels in the mouse striatum (i.e. rhythm shift). Collectively, our results indicate that the dopamine receptor system may mediate psychostimulant-induced changes in clock gene expression. Using striatal neurons in culture as a model, further research is needed to better understand how dopamine signaling modulates the expression dynamics of clock genes (i.e. intracellular signaling pathways) and thereby influences neuronal gene expression, neuronal transmission, and brain functioning. PMID:19017537

  11. Identification of chemosensory receptor genes from vertebrate genomes.

    PubMed

    Niimura, Yoshihito

    2013-01-01

    Chemical senses are essential for the survival of animals. In vertebrates, mainly three different types of receptors, olfactory receptors (ORs), vomeronasal receptors type 1 (V1Rs), and vomeronasal receptors type 2 (V2Rs), are responsible for the detection of chemicals in the environment. Mouse or rat genomes contain >1,000 OR genes, forming the largest multigene family in vertebrates, and have >100 V1R and V2R genes as well. Recent advancement in genome sequencing enabled us to computationally identify nearly complete repertories of OR, V1R, and V2R genes from various organisms, revealing that the numbers of these genes are highly variable among different organisms depending on each species' living environment. Here I would explain bioinformatic methods to identify the entire repertoires of OR, V1R, and V2R genes from vertebrate genome sequences. PMID:24014356

  12. Dopamine receptor genes: new tools for molecular psychiatry.

    PubMed Central

    Niznik, H B; Van Tol, H H

    1992-01-01

    For over a decade it has been generally assumed that all the pharmacological and biochemical actions of dopamine within the central nervous system and periphery were mediated by two distinct dopamine receptors. These receptors, termed D1 and D2, were defined as those coupled to the stimulation or inhibition of adenylate cyclase, respectively, and by their selectivity and avidity for various drugs and compounds. The concept that two dopamine receptors were sufficient to account for all the effects mediated by dopamine was an oversimplification. Recent molecular biological studies have identified five distinct genes which encode at least eight functional dopamine receptors. The members of the expanded dopamine receptor family, however, can still be codifed by way of the original D1 and D2 receptor dichotomy. These include two genes encoding dopamine D1-like receptors (D1 [D1A]/D5 [D1B]) and three genes encoding D2-like receptors (D2/D3/D4). We review here our recent work on the cloning and characterization of some of the members of the dopamine receptor gene family (D1, D2, D4, D5), their relationship to neuropsychiatric disorders and their potential role in antipsychotic drug action. Images Fig. 1 PMID:1450188

  13. Adenovirus receptors and their implications in gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anurag; Li, Xiaoxin; Bangari, Dinesh S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2010-01-01

    Adenoviruses (Ads) have gained popularity as gene delivery vectors for therapeutic and prophylactic applications. Ad entry into host cells involves specific interactions between cell surface receptors and viral capsid proteins. Several cell surface molecules have been identified as receptors for Ad attachment and entry. Tissue tropism of Ad vectors is greatly influenced by their receptor usage. A variety of strategies have been investigated to modify Ad vector tropism by manipulating the receptor-interacting moieties. Many such strategies are aimed at targeting and/or detargeting of Ad vectors. In this review, we discuss the various cell surface molecules that are implicated as receptors for virus attachment and internalization. Special emphasis is given to Ad types that are utilized as gene delivery vectors. Various strategies to modify Ad tropism using the knowledge of Ad receptors are also discussed. PMID:19647886

  14. Multiple human D sub 5 dopamine receptor genes: A functional receptor and two pseudogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Grandy, D.K.; Yuan Zhang; Bouvier, C.; Qunyong Zhou; Johnson, R.A.; Allen, L.; Buck, K.; Bunzow, J.R.; Salon, J.; Civelli, O. )

    1991-10-15

    Three genes closely related to the D{sub 1} dopamine receptor were identified in the human genome. One of the genes lacks introns and encodes a functional human dopamine receptor, D{sub 5}, whose deduced amino acid sequence is 49% identical to that of the human D{sub 1} receptor. Compared with the human D{sub 1} dopamine receptor, the D{sub 5} receptor displayed a higher affinity for dopamine and was able to stimulate a biphasic rather than a monophasic intracellular accumulation of cAMP. Neither of the other two genes was able to direct the synthesis of a receptor. nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that these two genes are 98% identical to each other and 95% identical to the D{sub 5} sequence. Relative to the D{sub 5} sequence, both contain insertions and deletions that result in several in-frame termination codons. Premature termination of translation is the most likely explanation for the failure of these genes to produce receptors in COS-7 and 293 cells even though their messages are transcribed. The authors conclude that the two are pseudogenes. Blot hybridization experiments performed on rat genomic DNA suggest that there is one D{sub 5} gene in this species and that the pseudogenes may be the result of a relatively recent evolutionary event.

  15. Prolactin receptor and signal transduction to milk protein genes

    SciTech Connect

    Djiane, J.; Daniel, N.; Bignon, C.

    1994-06-01

    After cloning of the mammary gland prolactin (PRL) receptor cDNA, a functional assay was established using co-transfection of PRL receptor cDNA together with a milk protein promoter/chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) construct in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Different mutants of the PRL receptor were tested in this CAT assay to delimit the domains in the receptor necessary for signal transduction to milk protein genes. In CHO cells stably transfected with PRL receptor cDNA, high numbers of PRL receptor are expressed. By metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation, expressed PRL receptor was identified as a single species of 100 kDa. Using these cells, we analyzed the effects of PRL on intracellular free Ca{sup ++} concentration. PRL stimulates Ca{sup ++} entry and induces secondary Ca{sup ++} mobilization. The entry of Ca{sup ++} is a result of an increase in K{sup +} conductance that hyperpolarizes the membranes. We have also analyzed tyrosine phosphorylation induced by PRL. In CHO cells stably transfected with PRL receptor cDNA, PRL induced a very rapid and transient tyrosine phosphorylation of a 100-kDa protein which is most probably the PRL receptor. The same finding was obtained in mammary membranes after PRL injection to lactating rabbits. Whereas tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein and lavendustin were without effect, PRL stimulation of milk protein gene promoters was partially inhibited by 2 {mu}M herbimycin in CHO cells co-transfected with PRL receptor cDNA and the {Beta} lactoglobulin CAT construct. Taken together these observations indicate that the cytoplasmic domain of the PRL receptor interacts with one or several tyrosine kinases, which may represent early postreceptor events necessary for PRL signal transduction to milk protein genes. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Dopamine receptor gene expression by enkephalin neurons in rat forebrain

    SciTech Connect

    Le Moine, C.; Normand, E.; Guitteny, A.F.; Fouque, B.; Teoule, R.; Bloch, B. )

    1990-01-01

    In situ hybridization experiments were performed with brain sections from normal, control and haloperidol-treated rats to identify and map the cells expressing the D2 dopamine receptor gene. D2 receptor mRNA was detected with radioactive or biotinylated oligonucleotide probes. D2 receptor mRNA was present in glandular cells of the pituitary intermediate lobe and in neurons of the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, and forebrain, especially in caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, and piriform cortex. Hybridization with D2 and preproenkephalin A probes in adjacent sections, as well as combined hybridization with the two probes in the same sections, demonstrated that all detectable enkephalin neurons in the striatum contained the D2 receptor mRNA. Large neurons in caudate putamen, which were unlabeled with the preproenkephalin A probe and which may have been cholinergic, also expressed the D2 receptor gene. Haloperidol treatment (14 or 21 days) provoked an increase in mRNA content for D2 receptor and preproenkephalin A in the striatum. This suggests that the increase in D2 receptor number observed after haloperidol treatment is due to increased activity of the D2 gene. These results indicate that in the striatum, the enkephalin neurons are direct targets for dopamine liberated from mesostriatal neurons.

  17. Targeted gene delivery via N-acetylglucosamine receptor mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bijay; Maharjan, Sushila; Kim, You-Kyoung; Jiang, Tai; Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Kang, Sang-Kee; Cho, Myung-Haing; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Cho, Chong-Su

    2014-11-01

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis is a promising approach of gene delivery into the target cells via receptor-ligand interaction. Vimentins at the cell surface are recently known to bind N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) residue, therefore, the cell surfaces of vimentin-expressing cells could be targeted by using the GlcNAc residue as a specific ligand for receptor-mediated gene delivery. Here, we have developed polymeric gene delivery vectors, based on poly(ethylene oxide)(PEO) and poly(aspartamide), namely poly[(aspartamide)(diethylenetriamine)]-b-[PEO-(GlcNAc)] (PADPG) and poly[(aspartamide)(diethylenetriamine)]-b-[PEO] (PADP) to elucidate the efficiency of GlcNAc ligand for gene delivery through receptor mediated endocytosis. To determine the efficiency of these polymeric vectors for specific gene delivery, the DNA condensation ability of PADPG and PADP and the subsequent formation of polymeric nanoparticles were confirmed by gel retardation assay and transmission electron microscopy respectively. Both PADPG and PADP had lower cytotoxicity than polyethylenimine 25 K (PEI 25 K). However, their transfection efficiency was comparatively lower than PEI 25 K due to hydrophilic property of PEO in the vectors. To observe the stability of polymeric nanoparticles, the transfection of PADPG and PADP was carried out in the presence of serum. Favorably, the interfering effect of serum on the transfection efficiency of PADPG and PADP was also very low. Finally, when the cell specificity of these polymeric vectors was investigated, PADPG had high gene transfection in vimentin-expressing cells than vimentin-deficiency cells. The high transfection efficiency of PADPG was attributed to the GlcNAc in the polymeric vector which interact specifically with vimentin in the cells for the receptor-mediated endocytosis. The competitive inhibition assay further proved the receptor-mediated endocytosis of PADPG. Thus, this study demonstrates that conjugation of GlcNAc is an effective and rational

  18. The Mouse Solitary Odorant Receptor Gene Promoters as Models for the Study of Odorant Receptor Gene Choice

    PubMed Central

    Degl'Innocenti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background In vertebrates, several anatomical regions located within the nasal cavity mediate olfaction. Among these, the main olfactory epithelium detects most conventional odorants. Olfactory sensory neurons, provided with cilia exposed to the air, detect volatile chemicals via an extremely large family of seven-transmembrane chemoreceptors named odorant receptors. Their genes are expressed in a monogenic and monoallelic fashion: a single allele of a single odorant receptor gene is transcribed in a given mature neuron, through a still uncharacterized molecular mechanism known as odorant receptor gene choice. Aim Odorant receptor genes are typically arranged in genomic clusters, but a few are isolated (we call them solitary) from the others within a region broader than 1 Mb upstream and downstream with respect to their transcript's coordinates. The study of clustered genes is problematic, because of redundancy and ambiguities in their regulatory elements: we propose to use the solitary genes as simplified models to understand odorant receptor gene choice. Procedures Here we define number and identity of the solitary genes in the mouse genome (C57BL/6J), and assess the conservation of the solitary status in some mammalian orthologs. Furthermore, we locate their putative promoters, predict their homeodomain binding sites (commonly present in the promoters of odorant receptor genes) and compare candidate promoter sequences with those of wild-caught mice. We also provide expression data from histological sections. Results In the mouse genome there are eight intact solitary genes: Olfr19 (M12), Olfr49, Olfr266, Olfr267, Olfr370, Olfr371, Olfr466, Olfr1402; five are conserved as solitary in rat. These genes are all expressed in the main olfactory epithelium of three-day-old mice. The C57BL/6J candidate promoter of Olfr370 has considerably varied compared to its wild-type counterpart. Within the putative promoter for Olfr266 a homeodomain binding site is predicted. As a

  19. Mouse T-cell receptor variable gene segment families

    SciTech Connect

    Arden, B.; Kabelitz, D.; Clark, S.P.; Mak, T.W.

    1995-10-01

    All mouse T-cell receptor {alpha}/{delta}, {beta}, and {gamma} variable (Tcra/d-, b-, and g-V) gene segments were aligned to compare the sequences with one another, to group them into subfamilies, and to derive a name which complies with the standard nomenclature. it was necessary to change the names of some V gene segments because they conflicted with those of other segments. The traditional classification into subfamilies was re-evaluated using a much larger pool of sequences. In the mouse, most V gene segments can be grouped into subfamilies of closely related genes with significantly less similarity between different subfamilies. 118 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Expression of serotonin receptor genes in cranial ganglia.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Naohiro; Ohmoto, Makoto; Yamamoto, Kurumi; Kurokawa, Azusa; Narukawa, Masataka; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Misaka, Takumi; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Abe, Keiko

    2016-03-23

    Taste cells release neurotransmitters to gustatory neurons to transmit chemical information they received. Sweet, umami, and bitter taste cells use ATP as a neurotransmitter. However, ATP release from sour taste cells has not been observed so far. Instead, they release serotonin when they are activated by sour/acid stimuli. Thus it is still controversial whether sour taste cells use ATP, serotonin, or both. By reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and subsequent in situ hybridization (ISH) analyses, we revealed that of 14 serotonin receptor genes only 5-HT3A and 5-HT3B showed significant/clear signals in a subset of neurons of cranial sensory ganglia in which gustatory neurons reside. Double-fluorescent labeling analyses of ISH for serotonin receptor genes with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) in cranial sensory ganglia of pkd1l3-WGA mice whose sour neural pathway is visualized by the distribution of WGA originating from sour taste cells in the posterior region of the tongue revealed that WGA-positive cranial sensory neurons rarely express either of serotonin receptor gene. These results suggest that serotonin receptors expressed in cranial sensory neurons do not play any role as neurotransmitter receptor from sour taste cells. PMID:26854841

  1. Chemosensory receptor genes in the Oriental tobacco budworm Helicoverpa assulta.

    PubMed

    Xu, W; Papanicolaou, A; Liu, N-Y; Dong, S-L; Anderson, A

    2015-04-01

    The Oriental tobacco budworm (Helicoverpa assulta) is a specialist herbivore moth and its larvae feed on Solanaceous plants. (Z)-9-hexadecenal (Z9-16: Ald) is the major sex pheromone component in H. assulta but the specific pheromone receptor (PR) against Z9-16: Ald has not yet been identified. In the present study, we integrated transcriptomic, bioinformatic and functional characterization approaches to investigate the chemosensory receptor genes of H. assulta. We identified seven potential PRs with 44 olfactory receptors, 18 gustatory receptors and 24 ionotropic receptors, which were further studied by in silico gene expression profile, phylogenetic analysis, reverse transcription PCR and calcium imaging assays. The candidate PR, HassOR13, showed a strong response to the minor sex pheromone component, (Z)-11-hexadecenal, but not the major component, Z9-16: Ald, in calcium imaging assays. This study provides the molecular basis for comparative studies of chemosensory receptors between H. assulta and other Helicoverpa species and will advance our understanding of the evolution and function of Lepidoptera insect chemosensation. PMID:25430896

  2. Allelic association of the D2 dopamine receptor gene with receptor-binding characteristics in alcoholism

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, E.P.; Blum, K.; Ritchie, T.; Montgomery, A.; Sheridan, P.J. )

    1991-07-01

    The allelic association of the human D2 dopamine receptor gene with the binding characteristics of the D2 dopamine receptor was determined in 66 brains of alcoholic and non-alcoholic subjects. In a blinded experiment, DNA from the cerebral cortex was treated with the restriction endonuclease Taql and probed with a 1.5-kilobase (kb) digest of a clone (lambda hD2G1) of the human D2 dopamine receptor gene. The binding characteristics (Kd (binding affinity) and Bmax (number of binding sites)) of the D2 dopamine receptor were determined in the caudate nuclei of these brains using tritiated spiperone as the ligand. The adjusted Kd was significantly lower in alcoholic than in nonalcoholic subjects. In subjects with the A1 allele, in whom a high association with alcoholism was found, the Bmax was significantly reduced compared with the Bmax of subjects with the A2 allele. Moreover, a progressively reduced Bmax was found in subjects with A2/A2, A1/A2, and A1/A1 alleles, with subjects with A2/A2 having the highest mean values, and subjects with A1/A1, the lowest. The polymorphic pattern of the D2 dopamine receptor gene and its differential expression of receptors suggests the involvement of the dopaminergic system in conferring susceptibility to at least one subtype of severe alcoholism.

  3. Evolution of an Expanded Mannose Receptor Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Staines, Karen; Hunt, Lawrence G.; Young, John R.; Butter, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Sequences of peptides from a protein specifically immunoprecipitated by an antibody, KUL01, that recognises chicken macrophages, identified a homologue of the mammalian mannose receptor, MRC1, which we called MRC1L-B. Inspection of the genomic environment of the chicken gene revealed an array of five paralogous genes, MRC1L-A to MRC1L-E, located between conserved flanking genes found either side of the single MRC1 gene in mammals. Transcripts of all five genes were detected in RNA from a macrophage cell line and other RNAs, whose sequences allowed the precise definition of spliced exons, confirming or correcting existing bioinformatic annotation. The confirmed gene structures were used to locate orthologues of all five genes in the genomes of two other avian species and of the painted turtle, all with intact coding sequences. The lizard genome had only three genes, one orthologue of MRC1L-A and two orthologues of the MRC1L-B antigen gene resulting from a recent duplication. The Xenopus genome, like that of most mammals, had only a single MRC1-like gene at the corresponding locus. MRC1L-A and MRC1L-B genes had similar cytoplasmic regions that may be indicative of similar subcellular migration and functions. Cytoplasmic regions of the other three genes were very divergent, possibly indicating the evolution of a new functional repertoire for this family of molecules, which might include novel interactions with pathogens. PMID:25390371

  4. Selection for genes encoding secreted proteins and receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, R D; Gu, Q; Goddard, A; Rosenthal, A

    1996-01-01

    Extracellular proteins play an essential role in the formation, differentiation, and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Despite that, the systematic identification of genes encoding these proteins has not been possible. We describe here a highly efficient method to isolate genes encoding secreted and membrane-bound proteins by using a single-step selection in yeast. Application of this method, termed signal peptide selection, to various tissues yielded 559 clones that appear to encode known or novel extracellular proteins. These include members of the transforming growth factor and epidermal growth factor protein families, endocrine hormones, tyrosine kinase receptors, serine/threonine kinase receptors, seven transmembrane receptors, cell adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix proteins, plasma proteins, and ion channels. The eventual identification of most, or all, extracellular signaling molecules will advance our understanding of fundamental biological processes and our ability to intervene in disease states. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8692953

  5. Characterization of the "CCR5" Chemokine Receptor Gene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, John C.

    2004-01-01

    The life cycle of retroviruses is an essential topic of modern cell biology instruction. Furthermore, the process of HIV viral entry into the cell is a question of great interest in basic and clinical biology. This paper describes how students can easily recover their own DNA, amplify a portion of the "CCR5" chemokine receptor gene, characterize…

  6. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene therapy for arthritis.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, B R

    1999-08-01

    Rheumtatoid arthritis (RA) is a crippling, autoimmune disease, and is characterized by inflammation and destruction of joint tissue. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) has been identified as a key pro-inflammatory cytokine responsible for inflammation. One of the mechanisms of regulation of activity of IL-1 is IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra)-mediated: IL-1RA competes with IL-1 for binding to the IL-1 receptor. Significant progress has been made in the potential application of IL-1ra gene therapyfor the treatment of arthritis. Various vectors have been tested for the delivery of the IL-1ra gene to the intra-articular region. Recent studies in humans have provided encouraging prospects for IL-1ra-mediated arthritis gene therapy. PMID:11713759

  7. Identification of Significant Association and Gene-Gene Interaction of GABA Receptor Subunit Genes in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Ma, D. Q.; Whitehead, P. L.; Menold, M. M.; Martin, E. R.; Ashley-Koch, A. E.; Mei, H.; Ritchie, M. D.; DeLong, G. R.; Abramson, R. K.; Wright, H. H.; Cuccaro, M. L.; Hussman, J. P.; Gilbert, J. R.; Pericak-Vance, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    Autism is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with a significant genetic component. Existing research suggests that multiple genes contribute to autism and that epigenetic effects or gene-gene interactions are likely contributors to autism risk. However, these effects have not yet been identified. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain, has been implicated in autism etiology. Fourteen known autosomal GABA receptor subunit genes were studied to look for the genes associated with autism and their possible interactions. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were screened in the following genes: GABRG1, GABRA2, GABRA4, and GABRB1 on chromosome 4p12; GABRB2, GABRA6, GABRA1, GABRG2, and GABRP on 5q34-q35.1; GABRR1 and GABRR2 on 6q15; and GABRA5, GABRB3, and GABRG3 on 15q12. Intronic and/or silent mutation SNPs within each gene were analyzed in 470 white families with autism. Initially, SNPs were used in a family-based study for allelic association analysis—with the pedigree disequilibrium test and the family-based association test—and for genotypic and haplotypic association analysis—with the genotype-pedigree disequilibrium test (geno-PDT), the association in the presence of linkage (APL) test, and the haplotype family-based association test. Next, with the use of five refined independent marker sets, extended multifactor-dimensionality reduction (EMDR) analysis was employed to identify the models with locus joint effects, and interaction was further verified by conditional logistic regression. Significant allelic association was found for markers RS1912960 (in GABRA4; P = .01) and HCV9866022 (in GABRR2; P = .04). The geno-PDT found significant genotypic association for HCV8262334 (in GABRA2), RS1912960 and RS2280073 (in GABRA4), and RS2617503 and RS12187676 (in GABRB2). Consistent with the allelic and genotypic association results, EMDR confirmed the main effect at RS1912960 (in GABRA4). EMDR also identified a

  8. Folate receptor gene variants and neural tube defect occurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Finnell, R.; Greer, K.; Lammer, E.

    1994-09-01

    Recent epidemiological evidence shows that periconceptional use of folic acid supplements may prevent 40-50% of neural tube defects (NTDs). The FDA has subsequently recommended folic acid supplementation of all women of childbearing potential, even though the mechanism by which folic acid prevents NTDs is unknown. We investigated genetic variation of a candidate gene, the 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MeTHF) receptor, that may mediate this preventive effect. The receptor concentrates folate within cells and we have localized its mRNA to neuroepithelial cells during neurulation. Our hypothesis is that dysfunctional 5-MeTHF receptors inadequately concentrate folate intracellularly, predisposing infants to NTDs. We have completed SSCP analysis on 3 of the 4 coding exons of the 5-MeTHF receptor gene of 474 infants participating in a large population-based epidemiological case-control study of NTDs in California; genotyping of another 500 infants is ongoing. Genomic DNA was extracted from residual blood spots from newborn screening samples of cases and controls. Genotyping was done blinded to case status. Polymorphisms have been detected for exons 4 and 5; fourteen percent of the infants have exon 5 polymorphisms. Data will be presented on the prevalence of 5-MeTHF receptor polymorphisms among cases and controls. Relationships among the polymorphisms and NTD occurrence may shed light on how folic acid supplementation prevents NTDs.

  9. CRDB: database of chemosensory receptor gene families in vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Dong, Dong; Jin, Ke; Wu, Xiaoli; Zhong, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Chemosensory receptors (CR) are crucial for animals to sense the environmental changes and survive on earth. The emergence of whole-genome sequences provides us an opportunity to identify the entire CR gene repertoires. To completely gain more insight into the evolution of CR genes in vertebrates, we identified the nearly all CR genes in 25 vertebrates using homology-based approaches. Among these CR gene repertoires, nearly half of them were identified for the first time in those previously uncharacterized species, such as the guinea pig, giant panda and elephant, etc. Consistent with previous findings, we found that the numbers of CR genes vary extensively among different species, suggesting an extreme form of 'birth-and-death' evolution. For the purpose of facilitating CR gene analysis, we constructed a database with the goals to provide a resource for CR genes annotation and a web tool for exploring their evolutionary patterns. Besides a search engine for the gene extraction from a specific chromosome region, an easy-to-use phylogenetic analysis tool was also provided to facilitate online phylogeny study of CR genes. Our work can provide a rigorous platform for further study on the evolution of CR genes in vertebrates. PMID:22393364

  10. Gene Expression Control by Glucocorticoid Receptors during Innate Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Andre Machado; Anunciato, Aparecida Kataryna Olimpio; Rosenstock, Tatiana Rosado; Glezer, Isaias

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are potent anti-inflammatory compounds that have been extensively used in clinical practice for several decades. GC’s effects on inflammation are generally mediated through GC receptors (GRs). Signal transduction through these nuclear receptors leads to dramatic changes in gene expression programs in different cell types, typically due to GR binding to DNA or to transcription modulators. During the last decade, the view of GCs as exclusive anti-inflammatory molecules has been challenged. GR negative interference in pro-inflammatory gene expression was a landmark in terms of molecular mechanisms that suppress immune activity. In fact, GR can induce varied inhibitory molecules, including a negative regulator of Toll-like receptors pathway, or subject key transcription factors, such as NF-κB and AP-1, to a repressor mechanism. In contrast, the expression of some acute-phase proteins and other players of innate immunity generally requires GR signaling. Consequently, GRs must operate context-dependent inhibitory, permissive, or stimulatory effects on host defense signaling triggered by pathogens or tissue damage. This review aims to disclose how contradictory or comparable effects on inflammatory gene expression can depend on pharmacological approach (including selective GC receptor modulators; SEGRMs), cell culture, animal treatment, or transgenic strategies used as models. Although the current view of GR-signaling integrated many advances in the field, some answers to important questions remain elusive. PMID:27148162

  11. Gene Expression Control by Glucocorticoid Receptors during Innate Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Andre Machado; Anunciato, Aparecida Kataryna Olimpio; Rosenstock, Tatiana Rosado; Glezer, Isaias

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are potent anti-inflammatory compounds that have been extensively used in clinical practice for several decades. GC's effects on inflammation are generally mediated through GC receptors (GRs). Signal transduction through these nuclear receptors leads to dramatic changes in gene expression programs in different cell types, typically due to GR binding to DNA or to transcription modulators. During the last decade, the view of GCs as exclusive anti-inflammatory molecules has been challenged. GR negative interference in pro-inflammatory gene expression was a landmark in terms of molecular mechanisms that suppress immune activity. In fact, GR can induce varied inhibitory molecules, including a negative regulator of Toll-like receptors pathway, or subject key transcription factors, such as NF-κB and AP-1, to a repressor mechanism. In contrast, the expression of some acute-phase proteins and other players of innate immunity generally requires GR signaling. Consequently, GRs must operate context-dependent inhibitory, permissive, or stimulatory effects on host defense signaling triggered by pathogens or tissue damage. This review aims to disclose how contradictory or comparable effects on inflammatory gene expression can depend on pharmacological approach (including selective GC receptor modulators; SEGRMs), cell culture, animal treatment, or transgenic strategies used as models. Although the current view of GR-signaling integrated many advances in the field, some answers to important questions remain elusive. PMID:27148162

  12. Killer cell immunoglobulin like receptor gene association with tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Pydi, Satya Sudheer; Sunder, Sharada Ramaseri; Venkatasubramanian, Sambasivan; Kovvali, Srinivas; Jonnalagada, Subbanna; Valluri, Vijaya Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    NK cells are vital components of innate immune system and are the first cells which come into picture mediating resistance against intracellular pathogens. NK cell cytotoxicity is modulated by a wide variety of cell surface receptors that recognize and respond towards infected cells. Activation of NK cells are controlled by both inhibitory and activating receptors, encoded by KIR genes and bind to HLA ligands. Not much is known about KIR genes and their influence on the pathogenesis with M. tuberculosis infection. Our study aimed at detecting the presence of 14 KIR genes, their distribution and their association with tuberculosis. Total 77 different genotype combinations were observed which belonged to B-haplotype. Fifteen genotypes were similar to those reported in other world populations while remaining 62 were unique to this study group. Inhibitory genes KIR3DL1, KIR2DL3 and activating genes KIR2DS1, KIR2DS5 conferred susceptibility towards TB either individually or in haplotype combinations. The complimentary MHC ligands need to be tested for the functional relevance of the associated genes. PMID:23073291

  13. The Role of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Genes in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Maj, Carlo; Minelli, Alessandra; Giacopuzzi, Edoardo; Sacchetti, Emilio; Gennarelli, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Genomic studies revealed two main components in the genetic architecture of schizophrenia, one constituted by common variants determining a distributed polygenic effect and one represented by a large number of heterogeneous rare and highly disruptive mutations. These gene modifications often affect neural transmission and different studies proved an involvement of metabotropic glutamate receptors in schizophrenia phenotype. Through the combination of literature information with genomic data from public repositories, we analyzed the current knowledge on the involvement of genetic variations of the human metabotropic glutamate receptors in schizophrenia and related endophenotypes. Despite the analysis did not reveal a definitive connection, different suggestive associations have been identified and in particular a relevant role has emerged for GRM3 in affecting specific schizophrenia endophenotypes. This supports the hypothesis that these receptors are directly involved in schizophrenia disorder. PMID:27296644

  14. [BCL1 POLYMORPHISM OF GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTOR GENE AND RESPIRATORY DISEASES].

    PubMed

    Prystupa, L N; Garbuzova, V Yu; Kmyta, V V

    2015-01-01

    The article analyses the results of investigating the connection between BCL1-polymorphism of glucocorticoid receptor gene and respiratory diseases. Its role in increasing sensitivity to glucocorticoids is proved here. The authors investigated the association of Bcl1 polymorphism with predisposition to bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, with the nicotine addiction degree and with progressing disorders of pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis. PMID:26118026

  15. Mechanisms of oestrogen receptor (ER) gene regulation in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Carroll, J S

    2016-07-01

    Most breast cancers are driven by a transcription factor called oestrogen receptor (ER). Understanding the mechanisms of ER activity in breast cancer has been a major research interest and recent genomic advances have revealed extraordinary insights into how ER mediates gene transcription and what occurs during endocrine resistance. This review discusses our current understanding on ER activity, with an emphasis on several evolving, but important areas of ER biology. PMID:26884552

  16. Gene number determination and genetic polymorphism of the gamma delta T cell co-receptor WC1 genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background WC1 co-receptors belong to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily and are encoded by a multi-gene family. Expression of particular WC1 genes defines functional subpopulations of WC1+ '' T cells. Our previous study identified partial sequences for 13 different WC1 genes by annota...

  17. Toll-Like Receptor Gene Expression during Trichinella spiralis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sin; Park, Mi Kyung; Yu, Hak Sun

    2015-01-01

    In Trichinella spiralis infection, type 2 helper T (Th2) cell-related and regulatory T (Treg) cell-related immune responses are the most important immune events. In order to clarify which Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are closely associated with these responses, we analyzed the expression of mouse TLR genes in the small intestine and muscle tissue during T. spiralis infection. In addition, the expression of several chemokine- and cytokine-encoding genes, which are related to Th2 and Treg cell mediated immune responses, were analyzed in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) isolated from myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/TIR-associated proteins (TIRAP) and Toll receptor-associated activator of interferons (TRIF) adapter protein deficient and wild type (WT) mice. The results showed significantly increased TLR4 and TLR9 gene expression in the small intestine after 2 weeks of T. spiralis infection. In the muscle, TLR1, TLR2, TLR5, and TLR9 gene expression significantly increased after 4 weeks of infection. Only the expression of the TLR4 and TLR9 genes was significantly elevated in WT MEF cells after treatment with excretory-secretory (ES) proteins. Gene expression for Th2 chemokine genes were highly enhanced by ES proteins in WT MEF cells, while this elevation was slightly reduced in MyD88/TIRAP-/- MEF cells, and quite substantially decreased in TRIF-/- MEF cells. In contrast, IL-10 and TGF-β expression levels were not elevated in MyD88/TIRAP-/- MEF cells. In conclusion, we suggest that TLR4 and TLR9 might be closely linked to Th2 cell and Treg cell mediated immune responses, although additional data are needed to convincingly prove this observation. PMID:26323841

  18. Toll-Like Receptor Gene Expression during Trichinella spiralis Infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sin; Park, Mi Kyung; Yu, Hak Sun

    2015-08-01

    In Trichinella spiralis infection, type 2 helper T (Th2) cell-related and regulatory T (Treg) cell-related immune responses are the most important immune events. In order to clarify which Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are closely associated with these responses, we analyzed the expression of mouse TLR genes in the small intestine and muscle tissue during T. spiralis infection. In addition, the expression of several chemokine- and cytokine-encoding genes, which are related to Th2 and Treg cell mediated immune responses, were analyzed in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) isolated from myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/TIR-associated proteins (TIRAP) and Toll receptor-associated activator of interferons (TRIF) adapter protein deficient and wild type (WT) mice. The results showed significantly increased TLR4 and TLR9 gene expression in the small intestine after 2 weeks of T. spiralis infection. In the muscle, TLR1, TLR2, TLR5, and TLR9 gene expression significantly increased after 4 weeks of infection. Only the expression of the TLR4 and TLR9 genes was significantly elevated in WT MEF cells after treatment with excretory-secretory (ES) proteins. Gene expression for Th2 chemokine genes were highly enhanced by ES proteins in WT MEF cells, while this elevation was slightly reduced in MyD88/TIRAP(-/-) MEF cells, and quite substantially decreased in TRIF(-/-) MEF cells. In contrast, IL-10 and TGF-β expression levels were not elevated in MyD88/TIRAP(-/-) MEF cells. In conclusion, we suggest that TLR4 and TLR9 might be closely linked to Th2 cell and Treg cell mediated immune responses, although additional data are needed to convincingly prove this observation. PMID:26323841

  19. Behavioral meaningful opioidergic stimulation activates kappa receptor gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Teodorov, E.; Ferrari, M.F.R.; Fior-Chadi, D.R.; Camarini, R.; Felício, L.F.

    2012-01-01

    The periaqueductal gray (PAG) has been reported to be a location for opioid regulation of pain and a potential site for behavioral selection in females. Opioid-mediated behavioral and physiological responses differ according to the activity of opioid receptor subtypes. The present study investigated the effects of the peripheral injection of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 into the dorsal subcutaneous region of animals on maternal behavior and on Oprk1 gene activity in the PAG of female rats. Female Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g at the beginning of the study were randomly divided into 2 groups for maternal behavior and gene expression experiments. On day 5, pups were removed at 7:00 am and placed in another home cage that was distant from their mother. Thirty minutes after removing the pups, the dams were treated with U69593 (0.15 mg/kg, sc) or 0.9% saline (up to 1 mL/kg) and after 30 min were evaluated in the maternal behavior test. Latencies in seconds for pup retrieval, grouping, crouching, and full maternal behavior were scored. The results showed that U69593 administration inhibited maternal behavior (P < 0.05) because a lower percentage of U69593 group dams showed retrieval of first pup, retrieving all pups, grouping, crouching and displaying full maternal behavior compared to the saline group. Opioid gene expression was evaluated using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A single injection of U69593 increased Oprk1 PAG expression in both virgin (P < 0.05) and lactating female rats (P < 0.01), with no significant effect on Oprm1 or Oprd1 gene activity. Thus, the expression of kappa-opioid receptors in the PAG may be modulated by single opioid receptor stimulation and behavioral meaningful opioidergic transmission in the adult female might occur simultaneously to specific changes in gene expression of kappa-opioid receptor subtype. This is yet another alert for the complex role of the opioid system in female

  20. Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Gene Association With Nicotine Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiangning; Williamson, Vernell S.; An, Seon-Sook; Hettema, John M.; Aggen, Steven H.; Neale, Michael C.; Kendler, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01

    Context The endogenous cannabinoid system has been implicated in drug addiction in animal models. The cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) gene is 1 of the 2 receptors expressed in the brain. It has been reported to be associated with alcoholism and multiple drug abuse and dependence. Objective To test the hypothesis that the CNR1 gene is associated with nicotine dependence. Design Genotype-phenotype association study. Ten single-nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in the CNR1 gene in 2 independent samples. For the first sample (n=688), a 3-group case-control design was used to test allele association with smoking initiation and nicotine dependence. For the second sample (n = 961), association was assessed with scores from the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Settings Population samples selected from the Mid-Atlantic Twin Registry. Participants White patients aged 18 to 65 years who met the criteria of inclusion. Main Outcome Measures Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire and FTND scores. Results Significant single-marker and haplotype associations were found in both samples, and the associations were female specific. Haplotype 1-1-2 of markers rs2023239-rs12720071-rs806368 was associated with nicotine dependence and FTND score in the 2 samples (P<.001 and P = .009, respectively). Conclusion Variants and haplotypes in the CNR1 gene may alter the risk for nicotine dependence, and the associations are likely sex specific. PMID:18606954

  1. Carbon dioxide receptor genes in cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Anderson, Alisha

    2015-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is important in insect ecology, eliciting a range of behaviours across different species. Interestingly, the numbers of CO2 gustatory receptors (GRs) vary among insect species. In the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, two GRs (DmelGR21a and DmelGR63a) have been shown to detect CO2. In the butterfly, moth, beetle and mosquito species studied so far, three CO2 GR genes have been identified, while in tsetse flies, four CO2 GR genes have been identified. In other species including honeybees, pea aphids, ants, locusts and wasps, no CO2 GR genes have been identified from the genome. These genomic differences may suggest different mechanisms for CO2 detection exist in different insects but, with the exception of Drosophila and mosquitoes, limited attention has been paid to the CO2 GRs in insects. Here, we cloned three putative CO2 GR genes from the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera and performed phylogenetic and expression analysis. All three H. armigera CO2 GRs (HarmGR1, HarmGR2 and HarmGR3) are specifically expressed in labial palps, the CO2-sensing tissue of this moth. HarmGR3 is significantly activated by NaHCO3 when expressed in insect Sf9 cells but HarmGR1 and HarmGR2 are not. This is the first report characterizing the function of lepidopteran CO2 receptors, which contributes to our general understanding of the molecular mechanisms of insect CO2 gustatory receptors.

  2. Intracellular insulin-receptor dissociation and segregation in a rat fibroblast cell line transfected with a human insulin receptor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, J.R.; Olefsky, J.M.

    1988-05-05

    The cellular processing of insulin and insulin receptors was studied using a rat fibroblast cell line that had been transfected with a normal human insulin receptor gene, expressing approximately 500 times the normal number of native fibroblasts insulin receptors. These cells bind and internalize insulin normally. Biochemically assays based on the selective precipitation by polyethylene glycol of intact insulin-receptor complexes but not of free intracellular insulin were developed to study the time course of intracellular insulin-receptor dissociation. Fibroblasts were incubated with radiolabeled insulin at 4/sup 0/C, and internalization of insulin-receptor complexes was initiated by warming the cells to 37/sup 0/C. Within 2 min, 90% of the internalized radioactivity was composed of intact insulin-receptor complexes. The dissociation of insulin from internalized insulin-receptor complexes was markedly inhibited by monensin and chloroquine. Furthermore, chloroquine markedly increased the number of cross-linkable intracellular insulin-receptor complexes, as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis autoradiography. These findings suggest that acidification of intracellular vesicles is responsible for insulin-receptor dissociation. Physical segregation of dissociated intracellular insulin from its receptor was monitored. The results are consistent with the view that segregation of insulin and receptor occurs 5-10 min after initiation of dissociation. These studies demonstrate the intracellular itinerary of insulin-receptor complexes, including internalization, dissociation of insulin from the internalized receptor within an acidified compartment, segregation of insulin from the receptor, and subsequent ligand degradation.

  3. Perilipin, a critical regulator of fat storage and breakdown, is a target gene of estrogen receptor-related receptor {alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Akter, Mst. Hasina; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Hirose, Fumiko; Osumi, Takashi

    2008-04-11

    Perilipin is a protein localized on lipid droplet surfaces in adipocytes and steroidogenic cells, playing a central role in regulated lipolysis. Expression of the perilipin gene is markedly induced during adipogenesis. We found that transcription from the perilipin gene promoter is activated by an orphan nuclear receptor, estrogen receptor-related receptor (ERR){alpha}. A response element to this receptor was identified in the promoter region by a gene reporter assay, the electrophoretic-gel mobility-shift assay and the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} coactivator (PGC)-1{alpha} enhanced, whereas small heterodimer partner (SHP) repressed, the transactivating function of ERR{alpha} on the promoter. Thus, the perilipin gene expression is regulated by a transcriptional network controlling energy metabolism, substantiating the functional importance of perilipin in the maintenance of body energy balance.

  4. Epigenetic regulation of the formyl peptide receptor 2 gene.

    PubMed

    Simiele, Felice; Recchiuti, Antonio; Patruno, Sara; Plebani, Roberto; Pierdomenico, Anna Maria; Codagnone, Marilina; Romano, Mario

    2016-10-01

    Lipoxin (LX) A4, a main stop signal of inflammation, exerts potent bioactions by activating a specific G protein-coupled receptor, termed formyl peptide receptor 2 and recently renamed ALX/FPR2. Knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms that drive ALX/FPR2 gene expression is key for the development of innovative anti-inflammatory pharmacology. Here, we examined chromatin patterns of the ALX/FPR2 gene. We report that in MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells, the ALX/FPR2 gene undergoes epigenetic silencing characterized by low acetylation at lysine 27 and trimethylation at lysine 4, associated with high methylation at lysine 27 of histone 3. This pattern, which is consistent with transcriptionally inaccessible chromatin leading to low ALX/FPR2 mRNA and protein expression, is reversed in polymorphonuclear leukocytes that express high ALX/FPR2 levels. Activation of p300 histone acetyltransferase and inhibition of DNA methyltransferase restored chromatin accessibility and significantly increased ALX/FPR2 mRNA transcription and protein levels in MDA-MB231 cells, as well as in pulmonary artery endothelial cells. In both cells types, changes in the histone acetylation/methylation status enhanced ALX/FPR2 signaling in response to LXA4. Collectively, these results uncover unappreciated epigenetic regulation of ALX/FPR2 expression that can be exploited for innovative approaches to inflammatory disorders. PMID:27424221

  5. Study of Toll-like receptor gene loci in sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Schürmann, M; Kwiatkowski, R; Albrecht, M; Fischer, A; Hampe, J; Müller-Quernheim, J; Schwinger, E; Schreiber, S

    2008-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multi-factorial systemic disease of granulomatous inflammation. Current concepts of the aetiology include interactions of unknown environmental triggers with an inherited susceptibility. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are main components of innate immunity and therefore TLR genes are candidate susceptibility genes in sarcoidosis. Ten members of the human TLR gene family have been identified and mapped to seven chromosomal segments. The aim of this study was to investigate all known TLR gene loci for genetic linkage with sarcoidosis and to follow positive signals with different methods. We analysed linkage of TLR gene loci to sarcoidosis by use of closely flanking microsatellite markers in 83 families with 180 affected siblings. We found significant linkage between sarcoidosis and markers of the TLR4 gene locus on chromosome 9q (non-parametric linkage score 2·63, P = 0·0043). No linkage was found for the remaining TLR gene loci. We subsequently genotyped 1203 sarcoidosis patients from 997 families, 1084 relatives and 537 control subjects for four single nucleotide polymorphisms of TLR4, including Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile. This genotype data set was studied by case–control comparisons and transmission disequilibrium tests, but showed no significant results. In summary, TLR4 − w ith significant genetic linkage results − appears to be the most promising member of the TLR gene family for further investigation in sarcoidosis. However, our results do not confirm the TLR4 polymorphisms Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile as susceptibility markers. Our results rather point to another as yet unidentified variant within or close to TLR4 that might confer susceptibility to sarcoidosis. PMID:18422738

  6. Diverse growth hormone receptor gene mutations in Laron syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, M.A.; Francke, U. ); Gracia, R.; Rosenbloom, A.; Toledo, S.P.A. ); Chernausek, S. ); Guevara-Aguirre, J. ); Hopp, M. ); Rosenbloom, A.; Argente, J. ); Toledo, S.P.A. )

    1993-05-01

    To better understand the molecular genetic basis and genetic epidemiology of Laron syndrome (growth-hormone insensitivity syndrome), the authors analysed the growth-hormone receptor (GHR) genes of seven unrelated affected individuals from the United States, South America, Europe, and Africa. They amplified all nine GHR gene exons and splice junctions from these individuals by PCR and screened the products for mutations by using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). They identified a single GHR gene fragment with abnormal DGGE results for each affected individual, sequenced this fragment, and, in each case, identified a mutation likely to cause Laron syndrome, including two nonsense mutations (R43X and R217X), two splice-junction mutations, (189-1 G to T and 71+1 G to A), and two frameshift mutations (46 del TT and 230 del TA or AT). Only one of these mutations, R43X, has been previously reported. Using haplotype analysis, they determined that this mutation, which involves a CpG dinucleotide hot spot, likely arose as a separate event in this case, relative to the two prior reports of R43X. Aside from R43X, the mutations identified are unique to patients from particular geographic regions. Ten GHR gene mutations have now been described in this disorder. The authors conclude that Laron syndrome is caused by diverse GHR gene mutations, including deletions, RNA processing defects, translational stop codons, and missense codons. All the identified mutations involve the extracellular domain of the receptor, and most are unique to particular families or geographic areas. 35 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor gene association with cryptorchidism.

    PubMed

    Niepiekło-Miniewska, Wanda; Kuśnierczyk, Piotr; Havrylyuk, Anna; Kamieniczna, Marzena; Nakonechnyy, Andrij; Chopyak, Valentyna; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2015-12-01

    Cryptorchidism is a condition where a testis persists in the abdominal cavity. Thus, due to elevated temperature we may expect induction of aberrant immune reactions depending on genetic constitution of individual. This may be reflected by development of anti-sperm antibodies (ASA) in cryptorchid males. Also, natural killer (NK) cells which belong to innate immunity may control adaptive immunity. Therefore, the gene system encoding polymorphic NK cell immunoglobulin receptors (KIRs) has been studied. 109 prepubertal boys with cryptorchidism and 136 ethnically matched young male donors were selected to study NK cell KIRs. DNA was isolated using automatic Maxwell(®) system from the peripheral venous blood drawn onto anticoagulant. Olerup SSP KIR Genotyping kit including Taq polymerase was used for detection of KIR genes. Human leukocyte antigen-C (HLA-C) groups, C1 and C2 were established using a Olerup SSP KIR HLA Ligand kit. KIR2DL2 (killer immunoglobulin-like receptor two-domain long 2) and KIR2DS2 (killer immunoglobulin-like receptor two-domain short 2) genes were less frequent in patients than in control individuals (corrected p values: 0.0110 and 0.0383, respectively). However, no significant differences were observed between ASA-positive and ASA-negative patients, or between bilateral or unilateral cryptorchidism. No association between KIR ligands C1 and C2, alone or together with KIR2DL2, was found. However, the results suggest that KIR2DL2+/KIR2DS2+ genotype may be, to some extent, protective against cryptorchidism. PMID:26679162

  8. Evolution of the chicken Toll-like receptor gene family: A story of gene gain and gene loss

    PubMed Central

    Temperley, Nicholas D; Berlin, Sofia; Paton, Ian R; Griffin, Darren K; Burt, David W

    2008-01-01

    Background Toll-like receptors (TLRs) perform a vital role in disease resistance through their recognition of pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Recent advances in genomics allow comparison of TLR genes within and between many species. This study takes advantage of the recently sequenced chicken genome to determine the complete chicken TLR repertoire and place it in context of vertebrate genomic evolution. Results The chicken TLR repertoire consists of ten genes. Phylogenetic analyses show that six of these genes have orthologs in mammals and fish, while one is only shared by fish and three appear to be unique to birds. Furthermore the phylogeny shows that TLR1-like genes arose independently in fish, birds and mammals from an ancestral gene also shared by TLR6 and TLR10. All other TLRs were already present prior to the divergence of major vertebrate lineages 550 Mya (million years ago) and have since been lost in certain lineages. Phylogenetic analysis shows the absence of TLRs 8 and 9 in chicken to be the result of gene loss. The notable exception to the tendency of gene loss in TLR evolution is found in chicken TLRs 1 and 2, each of which underwent gene duplication about 147 and 65 Mya, respectively. Conclusion Comparative phylogenetic analysis of vertebrate TLR genes provides insight into their patterns and processes of gene evolution, with examples of both gene gain and gene loss. In addition, these comparisons clarify the nomenclature of TLR genes in vertebrates. PMID:18241342

  9. Cardiac gene expression data and in silico analysis provide novel insights into human and mouse taste receptor gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Foster, Simon R; Porrello, Enzo R; Stefani, Maurizio; Smith, Nicola J; Molenaar, Peter; dos Remedios, Cristobal G; Thomas, Walter G; Ramialison, Mirana

    2015-10-01

    G protein-coupled receptors are the principal mediators of the sweet, umami, bitter, and fat taste qualities in mammals. Intriguingly, the taste receptors are also expressed outside of the oral cavity, including in the gut, airways, brain, and heart, where they have additional functions and contribute to disease. However, there is little known about the mechanisms governing the transcriptional regulation of taste receptor genes. Following our recent delineation of taste receptors in the heart, we investigated the genomic loci encoding for taste receptors to gain insight into the regulatory mechanisms that drive their expression in the heart. Gene expression analyses of healthy and diseased human and mouse hearts showed coordinated expression for a subset of chromosomally clustered taste receptors. This chromosomal clustering mirrored the cardiac expression profile, suggesting that a common gene regulatory block may control the taste receptor locus. We identified unique domains with strong regulatory potential in the vicinity of taste receptor genes. We also performed de novo motif enrichment in the proximal promoter regions and found several overrepresented DNA motifs in cardiac taste receptor gene promoters corresponding to ubiquitous and cardiac-specific transcription factor binding sites. Thus, combining cardiac gene expression data with bioinformatic analyses, this study has provided insights into the noncoding regulatory landscape for taste GPCRs. These findings also have broader relevance for the study of taste GPCRs outside of the classical gustatory system, where understanding the mechanisms controlling the expression of these receptors may have implications for future therapeutic development. PMID:25986534

  10. Human T-cell receptor variable gene segment families

    SciTech Connect

    Arden, B.; Kabelitz, D.; Clark, S.P.; Mak, T.W.

    1995-10-01

    Multiple DNA and protein sequence alignments have been constructed for the human T-cell receptor {alpha}/{delta}, {beta}, and {gamma} (TCRA/D, B, and G) variable (V) gene segments. The traditional classification into subfamilies was confirmed using a much larger pool of sequences. For each sequence, a name was derived which complies with the standard nomenclature. The traditional numbering of V gene segments in the order of their discovery was continued and changed when in conflict with names of other segments. By discriminating between alleles at the same locus versus genes from different loci, we were able to reduce the number of more than 150 different TCRBV sequences in the database to a repertoire of only 47 functional TCRBV gene segments. An extension of this analysis to the over 100 TCRAV sequences results in a predicted repertoire of 42 functional TCRAV gene segments. Our alignment revealed two residues that distinguish between the highly homologous V{delta} and V{alpha}, one at a site that in V{sub H} contacts the constant region, the other at the interface between immunoglobulin V{sub H} and V{sub L}. This site may be responsible for restricted pairing between certain V{delta} and V{gamma} chains. On the other hand, V{beta} and V{gamma} appear to be related by the fact that their CDR2 length is increased by four residues as compared with that of V{alpha}/{delta} peptides. 150 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Evolution of galanin receptor genes: insights from the deuterostome genomes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Xu, Y; Wu, L; Zhang, S

    2010-08-01

    Galanin exerts its biological activities through three different G protein-coupled receptors, Galr1, Galr2 and Galr3. To obtain insights into the evolution of Galrs, we searched the genomes of the deuterostomes by extensive BLAST survey and phylogenetic analyses. The Galr2 and Galr3 share similar genomic structures, and most of them are composed of 2 exons and 1 intron. However, most of Galr1 are composed of 3 extrons and 2 introns. We did not detect the typical Galr genes in the genomic databases of invertebrate deutserotomes, but three Galr1/Alstr homologs and two Galr1/Gpr151 homologs in amphioxus, two Galr1/Gpr151 homologs in sea squirt and one Galr1/Gpr151 homologs in sea urchin were identified. It is highly possible that the Galr genes in vertebrates may evolve from the homologous genes of Galr1/Alstr/Gpr151 in invertebrate deuterostomes. We also proposed that Galr3 genes were the products of Galr2 duplication during evolution, while Galr2 genes may evolve from Galr1. PMID:20476798

  12. The Orphan Nuclear Receptor ERRγ Regulates Hepatic CB1 Receptor-Mediated Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yoon Seok; Lee, Ji-Min; Kim, Don-Kyu; Lee, Yong-Soo; Kim, Ki-Sun; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Kim, Jina; Lee, Myung-Shik; Lee, In-Kyu; Kim, Seong Heon; Cho, Sung Jin; Jeong, Won-Il; Lee, Chul-Ho; Harris, Robert A.; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Background Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a stress inducible hepatokine, is synthesized in the liver and plays important roles in glucose and lipid metabolism. However, the mechanism of hepatic cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor-mediated induction of FGF21 gene expression is largely unknown. Results Activation of the hepatic CB1 receptor by arachidonyl-2’-chloroethylamide (ACEA), a CB1 receptor selective agonist, significantly increased FGF21 gene expression. Overexpression of estrogen-related receptor (ERR) γ increased FGF21 gene expression and secretion both in hepatocytes and mice, whereas knockdown of ERRγ decreased ACEA-mediated FGF21 gene expression and secretion. Moreover, ERRγ, but not ERRα and ERRβ, induced FGF21 gene promoter activity. In addition, deletion and mutation analysis of the FGF21 promoter identified a putative ERRγ-binding motif (AGGTGC, a near-consensus response element). A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed direct binding of ERRγ to the FGF21 gene promoter. Finally, GSK5182, an ERRγ inverse agonist, significantly inhibited hepatic CB1 receptor-mediated FGF21 gene expression and secretion. Conclusion Based on our data, we conclude that ERRγ plays a key role in hepatic CB1 receptor-mediated induction of FGF21 gene expression and secretion. PMID:27455076

  13. First evidence for functional vomeronasal 2 receptor genes in primates.

    PubMed

    Hohenbrink, Philipp; Mundy, Nicholas I; Zimmermann, Elke; Radespiel, Ute

    2013-02-23

    Two classes of vomeronasal receptor genes, V1R and V2R, occur in vertebrates. Whereas, V1R loci are found in a wide variety of mammals, including primates, intact V2R genes have thus far only been described in rodents and marsupials. In primates, the V2R repertoire has been considered degenerate. Here, we identify for the first time two intact V2R loci in a strepsirrhine primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), and demonstrate their expression in the vomeronasal organ. Putatively functional orthologues are present in two other strepsirrhines, whereas, both loci are pseudogenes in a range of anthropoid species. The functional significance of the loci is unknown, but positive selection on one of them is consistent with an adaptive role in pheromone detection. Finally, conservation of V2R loci in strepsirrhines is notable, given their high diversity and role in MUP and MHC detection in rodents. PMID:23269843

  14. Evolution of Dopamine Receptor Genes of the D1 Class in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kei; Mirabeau, Olivier; Bureau, Charlotte; Blin, Maryline; Michon-Coudouel, Sophie; Demarque, Michaël; Vernier, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The receptors of the dopamine neurotransmitter belong to two unrelated classes named D1 and D2. For the D1 receptor class, only two subtypes are found in mammals, the D1A and D1B, receptors, whereas additional subtypes, named D1C, D1D, and D1X, have been found in other vertebrate species. Here, we analyzed molecular phylogeny, gene synteny, and gene expression pattern of the D1 receptor subtypes in a large range of vertebrate species, which leads us to propose a new view of the evolution of D1 dopamine receptor genes. First, we show that D1C and D1D receptor sequences are encoded by orthologous genes. Second, the previously identified Cypriniform D1X sequence is a teleost-specific paralog of the D1B sequences found in all groups of jawed vertebrates. Third, zebrafish and several sauropsid species possess an additional D1-like gene, which is likely to form another orthology group of vertebrate ancestral genes, which we propose to name D1E. Ancestral jawed vertebrates are thus likely to have possessed four classes of D1 receptor genes—D1A, D1B(X), D1C(D), and D1E—which arose from large-scale gene duplications. The D1C receptor gene would have been secondarily lost in the mammalian lineage, whereas the D1E receptor gene would have been lost independently in several lineages of modern vertebrates. The D1A receptors are well conserved throughout jawed vertebrates, whereas sauropsid D1C receptors have rapidly diverged, to the point that they were misidentified as D1D. The functional significance of the D1C receptor loss is not known. It is possible that the function may have been substituted with D1A or D1B receptors in mammals, following the disappearance of D1C receptors in these species. PMID:23197594

  15. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Buyru, Nur; Tezol, Ayda; Yosunkaya-Fenerci, Elif; Dalay, Nejat

    2003-12-31

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women around the world and its incidence is annually increasing. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, which is expressed in breast tissue and known to modulate the rate of cell proliferation. Association between the VDR gene polymorphisms and cancer development has been suggested by several studies. However, the relationship between VDR polymorphisms and breast cancer is controversial and has not been confirmed by all studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the genotype frequencies and association of the VDR Bsm I and Taq I polymorphisms with breast cancer in Turkish patients. In this study, 78 patients with breast cancer and 27 healthy individuals were enrolled. The prevalence of the VDR Taq I and Bsm I alleles and the genotype frequencies in patients with breast cancer was similar to that in the normal population. Our data indicate that no significant differences exist between the patients and control subjects. PMID:14749534

  16. The dopamine D3 receptor gene and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Erika J; Mitchell, Karen S; Logue, Mark W; Baldwin, Clinton T; Reardon, Annemarie F; Aiello, Alison; Galea, Sandro; Koenen, Karestan C; Uddin, Monica; Wildman, Derek; Miller, Mark W

    2014-08-01

    The dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) gene has been implicated in schizophrenia, autism, and substance use-disorders and is related to emotion reactivity, executive functioning, and stress-responding, processes impaired in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of this candidate gene study was to evaluate DRD3 polymorphisms for association with PTSD. The discovery sample was trauma-exposed White, non-Hispanic U.S. veterans and their trauma-exposed intimate partners (N = 491); 60.3% met criteria for lifetime PTSD. The replication sample was 601 trauma-exposed African American participants living in Detroit, Michigan; 23.6% met criteria for lifetime PTSD. Genotyping was based on high-density bead chips. In the discovery sample, 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs2134655, rs201252087, rs4646996, and rs9868039, showed evidence of association with PTSD and withstood correction for multiple testing. The minor alleles were associated with reduced risk for PTSD (OR range = 0.59 to 0.69). In the replication sample, rs2251177, located 149 base pairs away from the most significant SNP in the discovery sample, was nominally associated with PTSD in men (OR = 0.32). Although the precise role of the D3 receptor in PTSD is not yet known, its role in executive functioning and emotional reactivity, and the sensitivity of the dopamine system to environmental stressors could potentially explain this association. PMID:25158632

  17. The Dopamine D3 Receptor Gene and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Erika J.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Logue, Mark W.; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Reardon, Annemarie F.; Aiello, Alison; Galea, Sandro; Koenen, Karestan C.; Uddin, Monica; Wildman, Derek; Miller, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) gene has been implicated in schizophrenia, autism, and substance use-disorders and is related to emotion reactivity, executive functioning, and stress-responding, processes impaired in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This aim of this candidate gene study was to evaluate DRD3 polymorphisms for association with PTSD. The discovery sample was trauma-exposed white, non-Hispanic veterans and their trauma-exposed intimate partners (N = 491); 60% met criteria for lifetime PTSD. The replication sample was 601 trauma-exposed African American participants; 24% met criteria for lifetime PTSD. Genotyping was based on high-density bead chips. In the discovery sample, four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs2134655, rs201252087, rs4646996, and rs9868039, showed evidence of association with PTSD and withstood correction for multiple testing. The minor alleles were associated with reduced risk for PTSD (odds ratio range: 0.59 – 0.69). In the replication sample, rs2251177, located 149 base pairs away from the most significant SNP in the discovery sample, was nominally associated with PTSD in men (odds ratio: 0.32). Although the precise role of the D3 receptor in PTSD is not yet known, its role in executive functioning and emotional reactivity, and the sensitivity of the dopamine system to environmental stressors, could potentially explain this association. PMID:25158632

  18. Thyrotropin receptor gene alterations in thyroid hyperfunctioning adenomas

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, D.; Arturi, F.; Filetti, S.

    1996-04-01

    Forty-four thyroid autonomously hyperfunctioning adenomas were analyzed to assess the frequency of mutations occurring in the TSH receptor (TSHR). PCR-amplified fragments encompassing the entire exon 10 of the TSHR gene were obtained from the genomic DNA extracted from the tumors and their adjacent normal tissues and were examined by direct nucleotide sequencing. Point mutations were found in 9 of 44 adenomas examined (20%). One mutation occurred in codon 619 (Asp to Gly), four in codon 623 (three were Ala to Ser, one Ala to substitution), two in codon 632 (both Thr to Ile), and two in codon 633 (Asp to Tyr or His). All the alterations were located in a part of the gene coding for an area including the third intracellular loop and the sixth transmembrane domain of the TSH receptor. All mutations were somatic and heterozygotic, and none was simultaneous with alterations of ras or gsp oncogenes. Thus, our data show that in our series of 44 hyperfunctioning thyroid adenomas, a somatic mutation of the TSHR, responsible for the constitutive activation of the cAMP pathway, occurs in 20% of the tumors. 28 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Oxytocin receptor and vasopressin receptor 1a genes are respectively associated with emotional and cognitive empathy.

    PubMed

    Uzefovsky, F; Shalev, I; Israel, S; Edelman, S; Raz, Y; Mankuta, D; Knafo-Noam, A; Ebstein, R P

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is the ability to recognize and share in the emotions of others. It can be considered a multifaceted concept with cognitive and emotional aspects. Little is known regarding the underlying neurochemistry of empathy and in the current study we used a neurogenetic approach to explore possible brain neurotransmitter pathways contributing to cognitive and emotional empathy. Both the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and the arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a) genes contribute to social cognition in both animals and humans and hence are prominent candidates for contributing to empathy. The following research examined the associations between polymorphisms in these two genes and individual differences in emotional and cognitive empathy in a sample of 367 young adults. Intriguingly, we found that emotional empathy was associated solely with OXTR, whereas cognitive empathy was associated solely with AVPR1a. Moreover, no interaction was observed between the two genes and measures of empathy. The current findings contribute to our understanding of the distinct neurogenetic pathways involved in cognitive and emotional empathy and underscore the pervasive role of both oxytocin and vasopressin in modulating human emotions. PMID:25476609

  20. Evolutionary dynamics of olfactory and other chemosensory receptor genes in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Niimura, Yoshihito

    2007-01-01

    The numbers of functional olfactory receptor (OR) genes in humans and mice are about 400 and 1,000 respectively. In both humans and mice, these genes exist as genomic clusters and are scattered over almost all chromosomes. The difference in the number of genes between the two species is apparently caused by massive inactivation of OR genes in the human lineage and a substantial increase of OR genes in the mouse lineage after the human–mouse divergence. Compared with mammals, fishes have a much smaller number of OR genes. However, the OR gene family in fishes is much more divergent than that in mammals. Fishes have many different groups of genes that are absent in mammals, suggesting that the mammalian OR gene family is characterized by the loss of many group genes that existed in the ancestor of vertebrates and the subsequent expansion of specific groups of genes. Therefore, this gene family apparently changed dynamically depending on the evolutionary lineage and evolved under the birth-and-death model of evolution. Study of the evolutionary changes of two gene families for vomeronasal receptors and two gene families for taste receptors, which are structurally similar, but remotely related to OR genes, showed that some of the gene families evolved in the same fashion as the OR gene family. It appears that the number and types of genes in chemosensory receptor gene families have evolved in response to environmental needs, but they are also affected by fortuitous factors. PMID:16607462

  1. Estrogen receptor α can selectively repress dioxin receptor-mediated gene expression by targeting DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Marques, Maud; Laflamme, Liette; Gaudreau, Luc

    2013-09-01

    Selective inhibitory crosstalk has been known to occur within the signaling pathways of the dioxin (AhR) and estrogen (ERα) receptors. More specifically, ERα represses a cytochrome P450-encoding gene (CYP1A1) that converts cellular estradiol into a metabolite that inhibits the cell cycle, while it has no effect on a P450-encoding gene (CYP1B1) that converts estrodiol into a genotoxic product. Here we show that ERα represses CYP1A1 by targeting the Dnmt3B DNA methyltransferase and concomitant DNA methylation of the promoter. We also find that histone H2A.Z can positively contribute to CYP1A1 gene expression, and its presence at that gene is inversely correlated with DNA methylation. Taken together, our results provide a framework for how ERα can repress transcription, and how that impinges on the production of an enzyme that generates genotoxic estradiol metabolites, and potential breast cancer progression. Finally, our results reveal a new mechanism for how H2A.Z can positively influence gene expression, which is by potentially competing with DNA methylation events in breast cancer cells. PMID:23828038

  2. Estrogen receptor α can selectively repress dioxin receptor-mediated gene expression by targeting DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Maud; Laflamme, Liette; Gaudreau, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Selective inhibitory crosstalk has been known to occur within the signaling pathways of the dioxin (AhR) and estrogen (ERα) receptors. More specifically, ERα represses a cytochrome P450-encoding gene (CYP1A1) that converts cellular estradiol into a metabolite that inhibits the cell cycle, while it has no effect on a P450-encoding gene (CYP1B1) that converts estrodiol into a genotoxic product. Here we show that ERα represses CYP1A1 by targeting the Dnmt3B DNA methyltransferase and concomitant DNA methylation of the promoter. We also find that histone H2A.Z can positively contribute to CYP1A1 gene expression, and its presence at that gene is inversely correlated with DNA methylation. Taken together, our results provide a framework for how ERα can repress transcription, and how that impinges on the production of an enzyme that generates genotoxic estradiol metabolites, and potential breast cancer progression. Finally, our results reveal a new mechanism for how H2A.Z can positively influence gene expression, which is by potentially competing with DNA methylation events in breast cancer cells. PMID:23828038

  3. Receptor protein kinase gene encoded at the self-incompatibility locus

    DOEpatents

    Nasrallah, June B.; Nasrallah, Mikhail E.; Stein, Joshua

    1996-01-01

    Described herein is a S receptor kinase gene (SRK), derived from the S locus in Brassica oleracea, having a extracellular domain highly similar to the secreted product of the S-locus glycoprotein gene.

  4. Transcriptional Characterization of Porcine Leptin and Leptin Receptor Genes.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Montarelo, Dafne; Fernández, Almudena; Barragán, Carmen; Noguera, Jose L; Folch, Josep M; Rodríguez, M Carmen; Ovilo, Cristina; Silió, Luis; Fernández, Ana I

    2013-01-01

    The leptin (LEP) and its receptor (LEPR) regulate food intake and energy balance through hypothalamic signaling. However, the LEP-LEPR axis seems to be more complex and its expression regulation has not been well described. In pigs, LEP and LEPR genes have been widely studied due to their relevance. Previous studies reported significant effects of SNPs located in both genes on growth and fatness traits. The aim of this study was to determine the expression profiles of LEP and LEPR across hypothalamic, adipose, hepatic and muscle tissues in Iberian x Landrace backcrossed pigs and to analyze the effects of gene variants on transcript abundance. To our knowledge, non porcine LEPR isoforms have been described rather than LEPRb. A short porcine LEPR isoform (LEPRa), that encodes a protein lacking the intracellular residues responsible of signal transduction, has been identified for the first time. The LEPRb isoform was only quantifiable in hypothalamus while LEPRa appeared widely expressed across tissues, but at higher levels in liver, suggesting that both isoforms would develop different roles. The unique LEP transcript showed expression in backfat and muscle. The effects of gene variants on transcript expression revealed interesting results. The LEPRc.1987C>T polymorphism showed opposite effects on LEPRb and LEPRa hypothalamic expression. In addition, one out of the 16 polymorphisms identified in the LEPR promoter region revealed high differential expression in hepatic LEPRa. These results suggest a LEPR isoform-specific regulation at tissue level. Conversely, non-differential expression of LEP conditional on the analyzed polymorphisms could be detected, indicating that its regulation is likely affected by other mechanisms rather than gene sequence variants. The present study has allowed a transcriptional characterization of LEP and LEPR isoforms on a range of tissues. Their expression patterns seem to indicate that both molecules develop peripheral roles apart from

  5. The Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene, Perceived Parental Support, and Adolescent Loneliness: Longitudinal Evidence for Gene-Environment Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Roekel, Eeske; Goossens, Luc; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Verhagen, Maaike

    2011-01-01

    Background: Loneliness is a common problem in adolescence. Earlier research focused on genes within the serotonin and oxytocin systems, but no studies have examined the role of dopamine-related genes in loneliness. In the present study, we focused on the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2). Methods: Associations among the DRD2, sex, parental support,…

  6. Variants in the vitamin D receptor gene and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Wjst, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    Background Early lifetime exposure to dietary or supplementary vitamin D has been predicted to be a risk factor for later allergy. Twin studies suggest that response to vitamin D exposure might be influenced by genetic factors. As these effects are primarily mediated through the vitamin D receptor (VDR), single base variants in this gene may be risk factors for asthma or allergy. Results 951 individuals from 224 pedigrees with at least 2 asthmatic children were analyzed for 13 SNPs in the VDR. There was no preferential transmission to children with asthma. In their unaffected sibs, however, one allele in the 5' region was 0.5-fold undertransmitted (p = 0.049), while two other alleles in the 3' terminal region were 2-fold over-transmitted (p = 0.013 and 0.018). An association was also seen with bronchial hyperreactivity against methacholine and with specific immunoglobulin E serum levels. Conclusion The transmission disequilibrium in unaffected sibs of otherwise multiple-affected families seem to be a powerful statistical test. A preferential transmission of vitamin D receptor variants to children with asthma could not be confirmed but raises the possibility of a protective effect for unaffected children. PMID:15651992

  7. Models for antigen receptor gene rearrangement: CDR3 length.

    PubMed

    Saada, Ravit; Weinberger, Moran; Shahaf, Gitit; Mehr, Ramit

    2007-06-01

    Despite the various processing steps involved in V(D)J recombination, which could potentially introduce many biases in the length distribution of complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) segments, the observed CDR3 length distributions for complete repertoires are very close to a normal-like distribution. This raises the question of whether this distribution is simply a result of the random steps included in the process of gene rearrangement, or has been optimized during evolution. We have addressed this issue by constructing a simulation of gene rearrangement, which takes into account the DNA modification steps included in the process, namely hairpin opening, nucleotide additions, and nucleotide deletions. We found that the near-Gaussian- shape of CDR3 length distribution can only be obtained under a relatively narrow set of parameter values, and thus our model suggests that specific biases govern the rearrangement process. In both B-cell receptor (BCR) heavy chain and T-cell receptor beta chain, we obtained a Gaussian distribution using identical parameters, despite the difference in the number and the lengths of the D segments. Hence our results suggest that these parameters most likely reflect the optimal conditions under which the rearrangement process occurs. We have subsequently used the insights gained in this study to estimate the probability of occurrence of two exactly identical BCRs over the course of a human lifetime. Whereas identical rearrangements of the heavy chain are highly unlikely to occur within one human lifetime, for the light chain we found that this probability is not negligible, and hence the light chain CDR3 alone cannot serve as an indicator of B-cell clonality. PMID:17404591

  8. Progesterone receptor gene variants and risk of endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    O'Mara, Tracy A.; Fahey, Paul; Ferguson, Kaltin; Marquart, Louise; Lambrechts, Diether; Despierre, Evelyn; Vergote, Ignace; Amant, Frederic; Hall, Per; Liu, Jianjun; Czene, Kamila; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Ahmed, Shahana; Dunning, Alison M.; Gregory, Catherine S.; Shah, Mitul; Webb, Penelope M.; Spurdle, Amanda B.

    2011-01-01

    Prolonged excessive estrogen exposure unopposed by progesterone is widely accepted to be a risk factor for endometrial cancer development. The physiological function of progesterone is dependent upon the presence of its receptor [progesterone receptor (PGR)] and several studies have reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PGR gene to be associated with endometrial cancer risk. We sought to confirm the associations with endometrial cancer risk previously reported for four different PGR polymorphisms. A maximum of 2888 endometrial cancer cases and 4483 female control subjects from up to three studies were genotyped for four PGR polymorphisms (rs1042838, rs10895068, rs11224561 and rs471767). Logistic regression with adjustment for age, study, ethnicity and body mass index was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and P-values. Of the four SNPs investigated, only rs11224561 in the 3′ region of the PGR gene was found to be significantly associated with endometrial cancer risk. The A allele of the rs11224561 SNP was associated with increased risk of endometrial cancer (OR per allele 1.31; 95% CI 1.12–1.53, P = 0.001, adjusted for age and study), an effect of the same magnitude and direction as reported previously. We have validated the endometrial cancer risk association with a tagSNP in the 3′ untranslated region of PGR previously reported in an Asian population. Replication studies will be required to refine the risk estimate and to establish if this, or a correlated SNP, is the underlying causative variant. PMID:21148628

  9. Optimizing T-cell receptor gene therapy for hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Morris, Emma C; Stauss, Hans J

    2016-06-30

    Recent advances in genetic engineering have enabled the delivery of clinical trials using patient T cells redirected to recognize tumor-associated antigens. The most dramatic results have been seen with T cells engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for CD19, a differentiation antigen expressed in B cells and B lineage malignancies. We propose that antigen expression in nonmalignant cells may contribute to the efficacy of T-cell therapy by maintaining effector function and promoting memory. Although CAR recognition is limited to cell surface structures, T-cell receptors (TCRs) can recognize intracellular proteins. This not only expands the range of tumor-associated self-antigens that are amenable for T-cell therapy, but also allows TCR targeting of the cancer mutagenome. We will highlight biological bottlenecks that potentially limit mutation-specific T-cell therapy and may require high-avidity TCRs that are capable of activating effector function when the concentrations of mutant peptides are low. Unexpectedly, modified TCRs with artificially high affinities function poorly in response to low concentration of cognate peptide but pose an increased safety risk as they may respond optimally to cross-reactive peptides. Recent gene-editing tools, such as transcription activator-like effector nucleases and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, provide a platform to delete endogenous TCR and HLA genes, which removes alloreactivity and decreases immunogenicity of third-party T cells. This represents an important step toward generic off-the-shelf T-cell products that may be used in the future for the treatment of large numbers of patients. PMID:27207802

  10. An Expression Refinement Process Ensures Singular Odorant Receptor Gene Choice.

    PubMed

    Abdus-Saboor, Ishmail; Al Nufal, Mohammed J; Agha, Maha V; Ruinart de Brimont, Marion; Fleischmann, Alexander; Shykind, Benjamin M

    2016-04-25

    Odorant receptor (OR) gene choice in mammals is a paradigmatic example of monogenic and monoallelic transcriptional selection, in which each olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) chooses to express one OR allele from over 1,000 encoded in the genome [1-3]. This process, critical for generation of the circuit from nose to brain [4-6], is thought to occur in two steps: a slow initial phase that randomly activates a single OR allele, followed by a rapid feedback that halts subsequent expression [7-14]. Inherent in this model is a finite failure rate wherein multiple OR alleles may be activated prior to feedback suppression [15, 16]. Confronted with more than one receptor, the neuron would need to activate a refinement mechanism to eliminate multigenic OR expression and resolve unique neuronal identity [16], critical to the generation of the circuit from nose to olfactory bulb. Here we used a genetic approach in mice to reveal a new facet of OR regulation that corrects adventitious activation of multiple OR alleles, restoring monogenic OR expression and unique neuronal identity. Using the tetM71tg model system, in which the M71 OR is expressed in >95% of mature OSNs and potently suppresses the expression of the endogenous OR repertoire [10], we provide clear evidence of a post-selection refinement (PSR) process that winnows down the number of ORs. We further demonstrate that PSR efficiency is linked to OR expression level, suggesting an underlying competitive process and shedding light on OR gene switching and the fundamental mechanism of singular OR choice. PMID:27040780

  11. Melanoma risk is associated with vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Zeljic, Katarina; Kandolf-Sekulovic, Lidija; Supic, Gordana; Pejovic, Janko; Novakovic, Marijan; Mijuskovic, Zeljko; Magic, Zvonko

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have reported that vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms are associated with the occurrence of various cancers, including melanoma. The aim of the current study was to investigate the association of VDR gene polymorphisms with melanoma risk, clinicopathological characteristics, and vitamin D levels. The study group included 117 patients (84 patients with superficial spreading melanoma and 33 patients with nodular melanoma). The control group included 122 sex-matched and age-matched healthy-blood donors of the same ethnicity. VDR gene polymorphisms FokI, EcoRV, TaqI, and ApaI were genotyped by real-time PCR. In 60 patients, the total 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were evaluated in serum samples by direct chemiluminescence. Associations among parameters were considered to be significant if the P value was less than 0.05. Significant differences in the frequencies of VDR genotypes were observed between cases and the control group for FokI and TaqI polymorphisms (P<0.0001; P=0.005, respectively). Heterozygous Ff as well as mutant FF genotypes of the FokI polymorphism were associated with increased melanoma risk compared with the wild-type form [odds ratio (OR)=3.035, P=0.003; OR=9.276, P<0.0001, respectively]. A significantly increased melanoma risk was observed for the heterozygous Tt (OR=2.302, P=0.011) and the mutated variant tt (OR=3.697, P=0.003) of the TaqI polymorphism in comparison with the wild-type genotype. None of the polymorphisms studied was associated with clinicopathological characteristics and vitamin D serum level. Our results suggest that FokI and TaqI polymorphisms in the VDR gene may be considered as potential biomarkers for melanoma susceptibility. Low vitamin D levels in melanoma patients indicate the need for vitamin D supplementation. PMID:24638155

  12. Association between the vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism and osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ju; Shang, De-Peng; Yang, Sheng; Fu, Da-Peng; Ling, Hao-Yi; Hou, Shuang-Shuang; Lu, Jian-Min

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene for the risk of osteoporosis remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to understand the distribution of various single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the VDR gene and its association with the risk of osteoporosis. In total, 378 subjects without a genetic relationship were recruited to the study between January 2013 and July 2015. The subjects were divided into three groups, which were the normal (n=234), osteoporosis (n=65) and osteoporosis with osteoporotic fracture (n=79) groups. Three pertinent SNPs of the VDR gene rs17879735 (ApaI, Allele A/a, SNP C>A) were examined with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine (L2-L4), femoral neck, Ward's and Tro was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The distributions of genotype frequencies aa, AA and Aa were 48.68, 42.86 and 8.46%, separately. Following analysis of each site, BMD, body mass index (BMI) and age, BMD for each site was negatively correlated with age (P<0.01) and positively correlated with BMI (P<0.01). Correction analysis revealed that there were significant differences in the Ward's triangle BMD among each genotype (P<0.05), in which the aa genotype exhibited the lower BMD (P<0.05). No significant difference was identified among the different genotypes in the occurrence of osteoporosis with osteoporotic fracture (P>0.05). In conclusion, these indicated that the VDR gene ApaI polymorphisms had an important role in the osteoporosis risk. PMID:27446548

  13. Liver X Receptor Gene Polymorphisms in Tuberculosis: Effect on Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li-rong; Yue, Jun; Zhao, Yan-lin; Xiao, He-ping

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The Liver X receptors (LXRs), Liver X receptor A (LXRA) and Liver X receptor B (LXRB), regulate lipid metabolism and antimicrobial response. LXRs have a crucial role in the control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). Lacking LXRs mice is more susceptibility to infection M.tb, developing higher bacterial burdens and an increase in the size and number of granulomatous lesions. We aimed to assess the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in LXRs and risk of tuberculosis. Methods We sequenced the LXRs genes to detect SNPs and to examine genotypic frequencies in 600 patients and 620 healthy controls to investigate for associations with tuberculosis (TB) in the Chinese Han population. DNA re-sequencing revealed eight common variants in the LXRs genes. Results The G allele of rs1449627 and the T allele of rs1405655 demonstrated an increased risk of developing TB (p<0.001, p = 0.002), and the T allele of rs3758673, the T allele of rs2279238, and the C allele of rs1449626 in LXRA and the C allele of rs17373080, the G allele of rs2248949, and the C allele of rs1052677 in LXRB were protective against TB patients compared to healthy controls (p = 0.0002, p = 0.006, p<0.001, p = 0.004, p = 0.008, p = 0.003, respectively). All SNP genotypes were significantly associated with TB. An estimation of the frequencies of haplotypes revealed two potential risk haplotypes,GGCG in LXRB (p = 0.004,) and TTCG in LXRA (p<0.001, p = 0.004). Moreover, three protective haplotypes, TTAT and CCAT in LXRA and CATC in LXRB, were significantly “protective” (p = 0.008, p<0.001, p = 0.031) for TB. Furthermore, we determined that the LXRs SNPs were nominally associated with the clinical pattern of disease. Conclusions Our study data supported that LXRs play a fundamental role in the genetic susceptibility to TB and to different clinical patterns of disease. Thus, further investigation is required in larger populations and in

  14. Expression of the human ABCC6 gene is induced by retinoids through the retinoid X receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Ratajewski, Marcin; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Pulaski, Lukasz . E-mail: lpulaski@cbm.pan.pl

    2006-12-01

    Mutations in the human ABCC6 gene are responsible for the disease pseudoxanthoma elasticum, although Physiological function or substrate of the gene product (an ABC transporter known also as MRP6) is not known. We found that the expression of this gene in cells of hepatic origin (where this gene is predominantly expressed in the body) is significantly upregulated by retinoids, acting as agonists of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) rather than the retinoid A receptor (RAR). The direct involvement of this nuclear receptor in the transcriptional regulation of ABCC6 gene expression was confirmed by transient transfection and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. This constitutes the first direct proof of previously suggested involvement of nuclear hormone receptors in ABCC6 gene expression and the first identification of a transcription factor which may be relevant to regulation of ABCC6 level in tissues and in some PXE patients.

  15. Leptin receptor gene polymorphisms in severely pre-eclamptic women.

    PubMed

    Rigó, János; Szendei, György; Rosta, Klára; Fekete, Andrea; Bögi, Krisztina; Molvarec, Attila; Rónai, Zsolt; Vér, Agota

    2006-09-01

    Variants of the leptin receptor gene (LEPR) may modulate the effect of elevated serum leptin levels in pre-eclampsia. The aim of our study was to evaluate the LEPR gene polymorphisms Lys109Arg (A109G) and Gln223Arg (A223G) in severely pre-eclamptic women. In a case-control study, we analyzed blood samples from 124 severely pre-eclamptic patients and 107 healthy control women by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The Pearson chi2 test was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The association was adjusted for maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index and primiparity with logistic regression analysis. Pregnant women with the LEPR 223G allele (223A/G or 223G/G genotype) had almost double the risk of developing severe pre-eclampsia compared with patients with the 223A/A genotype (adjusted OR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.07-3.41). Genotype variants of LEPR A109G alone did not affect the risk of severe pre-eclampsia. Haplotype estimation of A109G and A223G polymorphisms of the LEPR gene revealed that the G-A haplotype versus other pooled haplotypes was significantly less common in the pre-eclamptic group (p < 0.01), while the G-G haplotype versus others was overrepresented among severely pre-eclamptic patients (p < 0.01), compared with controls. In conclusion, our data indicate that LEPR A223G polymorphism may individually modify the risk of severe pre-eclampsia. PMID:17071538

  16. Olfactory Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Nonallergic Vasomotor Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Jonathan A.; Zhang, Ge; Jin, Li; Abbott, Carol; Nebert, Daniel W.

    2009-01-01

    We sought a genotype-phenotype association: between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in olfactory receptor (OR) genes from the two largest OR gene clusters and odor-triggered nonallergic vasomotor rhinitis (nVMR). In the initial pedigree screen, using transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) analysis, six SNPs showed “significant” p-values between 0.0449 and 0.0043. In a second case-control population, the previously identified six SNPs did not re-emerge, whereas four new SNPs showed p-values between 0.0490 and 0.0001. Combining both studies, none of the SNPs in the TDT analysis survived the Bonferroni correction. In the population study, one SNP showed an empirical p-value of 0.0066 by shuffling cases and controls with 105 replicates; however, the p-value for this SNP was 0.83 in the pedigree study. This study emphasizes that underpowered studies having p-values between <0.05 and 0.0001 should be regarded as inconclusive and require further replication before concluding the study is “informative.” However, we believe that our hypothesis that an association between OR genotypes and the nVMR phenotype remains feasible. Future studies using either a genomewide association study of all OR gene-pseudogene regions throughout the genome—at the current recommended density of 2.5 to 5 kb per tag SNP—or studies incorporating microarray analyses of the entire “OR genome” in well-characterized nVMR patients are required. PMID:18446592

  17. Functional Characterization of Soybean Glyma04g39610 as a Brassinosteroid Receptor Gene and Evolutionary Analysis of Soybean Brassinosteroid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Suna; Tao, Ping; Xu, Feng; Wu, Aiping; Huo, Weige; Wang, Jinxiang

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BR) play important roles in plant growth and development. Although BR receptors have been intensively studied in Arabidopsis, the BR receptors in soybean remain largely unknown. Here, in addition to the known receptor gene Glyma06g15270 (GmBRI1a), we identified five putative BR receptor genes in the soybean genome: GmBRI1b, GmBRL1a, GmBRL1b, GmBRL2a, and GmBRL2b. Analysis of their expression patterns by quantitative real-time PCR showed that they are ubiquitously expressed in primary roots, lateral roots, stems, leaves, and hypocotyls. We used rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) to clone GmBRI1b (Glyma04g39160), and found that the predicted amino acid sequence of GmBRI1b showed high similarity to those of AtBRI1 and pea PsBRI1. Structural modeling of the ectodomain also demonstrated similarities between the BR receptors of soybean and Arabidopsis. GFP-fusion experiments verified that GmBRI1b localizes to the cell membrane. We also explored GmBRI1b function in Arabidopsis through complementation experiments. Ectopic over-expression of GmBRI1b in Arabidopsis BR receptor loss-of-function mutant (bri1-5 bak1-1D) restored hypocotyl growth in etiolated seedlings; increased the growth of stems, leaves, and siliques in light; and rescued the developmental defects in leaves of the bri1-6 mutant, and complemented the responses of BR biosynthesis-related genes in the bri1-5 bak1-D mutant grown in light. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that the six BR receptor genes in soybean resulted from three gene duplication events during evolution. Phylogenetic analysis classified the BR receptors in dicots and monocots into three subclades. Estimation of the synonymous (Ks) and the nonsynonymous substitution rate (Ka) and selection pressure (Ka/Ks) revealed that the Ka/Ks of BR receptor genes from dicots and monocots were less than 1.0, indicating that BR receptor genes in plants experienced purifying selection during evolution. PMID:27338344

  18. Functional Characterization of Soybean Glyma04g39610 as a Brassinosteroid Receptor Gene and Evolutionary Analysis of Soybean Brassinosteroid Receptors.

    PubMed

    Peng, Suna; Tao, Ping; Xu, Feng; Wu, Aiping; Huo, Weige; Wang, Jinxiang

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BR) play important roles in plant growth and development. Although BR receptors have been intensively studied in Arabidopsis, the BR receptors in soybean remain largely unknown. Here, in addition to the known receptor gene Glyma06g15270 (GmBRI1a), we identified five putative BR receptor genes in the soybean genome: GmBRI1b, GmBRL1a, GmBRL1b, GmBRL2a, and GmBRL2b. Analysis of their expression patterns by quantitative real-time PCR showed that they are ubiquitously expressed in primary roots, lateral roots, stems, leaves, and hypocotyls. We used rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) to clone GmBRI1b (Glyma04g39160), and found that the predicted amino acid sequence of GmBRI1b showed high similarity to those of AtBRI1 and pea PsBRI1. Structural modeling of the ectodomain also demonstrated similarities between the BR receptors of soybean and Arabidopsis. GFP-fusion experiments verified that GmBRI1b localizes to the cell membrane. We also explored GmBRI1b function in Arabidopsis through complementation experiments. Ectopic over-expression of GmBRI1b in Arabidopsis BR receptor loss-of-function mutant (bri1-5 bak1-1D) restored hypocotyl growth in etiolated seedlings; increased the growth of stems, leaves, and siliques in light; and rescued the developmental defects in leaves of the bri1-6 mutant, and complemented the responses of BR biosynthesis-related genes in the bri1-5 bak1-D mutant grown in light. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that the six BR receptor genes in soybean resulted from three gene duplication events during evolution. Phylogenetic analysis classified the BR receptors in dicots and monocots into three subclades. Estimation of the synonymous (Ks) and the nonsynonymous substitution rate (Ka) and selection pressure (Ka/Ks) revealed that the Ka/Ks of BR receptor genes from dicots and monocots were less than 1.0, indicating that BR receptor genes in plants experienced purifying selection during evolution. PMID:27338344

  19. Identification of Putative Chemosensory Receptor Genes from the Athetis dissimilis Antennal Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Junfeng; Song, Yueqin; Li, Wenliang; Shi, Jie; Wang, Zhenying

    2016-01-01

    Olfaction plays a crucial role in insect population survival and reproduction. Identification of the genes associated with the olfactory system, without the doubt will promote studying the insect chemical communication system. In this study, RNA-seq technology was used to sequence the antennae transcriptome of Athetis dissimilis, an emerging crop pest in China with limited genomic information, with the purpose of identifying the gene set involved in olfactory recognition. Analysis of the transcriptome of female and male antennae generated 13.74 Gb clean reads in total from which 98,001 unigenes were assembled, and 25,930 unigenes were annotated. Total of 60 olfactory receptors (ORs), 18 gustatory receptors (GRs), and 12 ionotropic receptors (IRs) were identified by Blast and sequence similarity analyzes. One obligated olfactory receptor co-receptor (Orco) and four conserved sex pheromone receptors (PRs) were annotated in 60 ORs. Among the putative GRs, five genes (AdisGR1, 6, 7, 8 and 94) clustered in the sugar receptor family, and two genes (AdisGR3 and 93) involved in CO2 detection were identified. Finally, AdisIR8a.1 and AdisIR8a.2 co-receptors were identified in the group of candidate IRs. Furthermore, expression levels of these chemosensory receptor genes in female and male antennae were analyzed by mapping the Illumina reads. PMID:26812239

  20. Cooperative demethylation by JMJD2C and LSD1 promotes androgen receptor-dependent gene expression.

    PubMed

    Wissmann, Melanie; Yin, Na; Müller, Judith M; Greschik, Holger; Fodor, Barna D; Jenuwein, Thomas; Vogler, Christine; Schneider, Robert; Günther, Thomas; Buettner, Reinhard; Metzger, Eric; Schüle, Roland

    2007-03-01

    Posttranslational modifications of histones, such as methylation, regulate chromatin structure and gene expression. Recently, lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), the first histone demethylase, was identified. LSD1 interacts with the androgen receptor and promotes androgen-dependent transcription of target genes by ligand-induced demethylation of mono- and dimethylated histone H3 at Lys 9 (H3K9) only. Here, we identify the Jumonji C (JMJC) domain-containing protein JMJD2C as the first histone tridemethylase regulating androgen receptor function. JMJD2C interacts with androgen receptor in vitro and in vivo. Assembly of ligand-bound androgen receptor and JMJD2C on androgen receptor-target genes results in demethylation of trimethyl H3K9 and in stimulation of androgen receptor-dependent transcription. Conversely, knockdown of JMJD2C inhibits androgen-induced removal of trimethyl H3K9, transcriptional activation and tumour cell proliferation. Importantly, JMJD2C colocalizes with androgen receptor and LSD1 in normal prostate and in prostate carcinomas. JMJD2C and LSD1 interact and both demethylases cooperatively stimulate androgen receptor-dependent gene transcription. In addition, androgen receptor, JMJD2C and LSD1 assemble on chromatin to remove methyl groups from mono, di and trimethylated H3K9. Thus, our data suggest that specific gene regulation requires the assembly and coordinate action of demethylases with distinct substrate specificities. PMID:17277772

  1. Identification of Putative Chemosensory Receptor Genes from the Athetis dissimilis Antennal Transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Dong, Junfeng; Song, Yueqin; Li, Wenliang; Shi, Jie; Wang, Zhenying

    2016-01-01

    Olfaction plays a crucial role in insect population survival and reproduction. Identification of the genes associated with the olfactory system, without the doubt will promote studying the insect chemical communication system. In this study, RNA-seq technology was used to sequence the antennae transcriptome of Athetis dissimilis, an emerging crop pest in China with limited genomic information, with the purpose of identifying the gene set involved in olfactory recognition. Analysis of the transcriptome of female and male antennae generated 13.74 Gb clean reads in total from which 98,001 unigenes were assembled, and 25,930 unigenes were annotated. Total of 60 olfactory receptors (ORs), 18 gustatory receptors (GRs), and 12 ionotropic receptors (IRs) were identified by Blast and sequence similarity analyzes. One obligated olfactory receptor co-receptor (Orco) and four conserved sex pheromone receptors (PRs) were annotated in 60 ORs. Among the putative GRs, five genes (AdisGR1, 6, 7, 8 and 94) clustered in the sugar receptor family, and two genes (AdisGR3 and 93) involved in CO2 detection were identified. Finally, AdisIR8a.1 and AdisIR8a.2 co-receptors were identified in the group of candidate IRs. Furthermore, expression levels of these chemosensory receptor genes in female and male antennae were analyzed by mapping the Illumina reads. PMID:26812239

  2. Gene Expression Switching of Receptor Subunits in Human Brain Development

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Shira, Ossnat; Maor, Ronnie; Chechik, Gal

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic receptors in the human brain consist of multiple protein subunits, many of which have multiple variants, coded by different genes, and are differentially expressed across brain regions and developmental stages. The brain can tune the electrophysiological properties of synapses to regulate plasticity and information processing by switching from one protein variant to another. Such condition-dependent variant switch during development has been demonstrated in several neurotransmitter systems including NMDA and GABA. Here we systematically detect pairs of receptor-subunit variants that switch during the lifetime of the human brain by analyzing postmortem expression data collected in a population of donors at various ages and brain regions measured using microarray and RNA-seq. To further detect variant pairs that co-vary across subjects, we present a method to quantify age-corrected expression correlation in face of strong temporal trends. This is achieved by computing the correlations in the residual expression beyond a cubic-spline model of the population temporal trend, and can be seen as a nonlinear version of partial correlations. Using these methods, we detect multiple new pairs of context dependent variants. For instance, we find a switch from GLRA2 to GLRA3 that differs from the known switch in the rat. We also detect an early switch from HTR1A to HTR5A whose trends are negatively correlated and find that their age-corrected expression is strongly positively correlated. Finally, we observe that GRIN2B switch to GRIN2A occurs mostly during embryonic development, presumably earlier than observed in rodents. These results provide a systematic map of developmental switching in the neurotransmitter systems of the human brain. PMID:26636753

  3. Expression of glucocorticoid and progesterone nuclear receptor genes in archival breast cancer tissue

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Robert A; Lea, Rod A; Curran, Joanne E; Weinstein, Stephen R; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2003-01-01

    Background Previous studies in our laboratory have shown associations of specific nuclear receptor gene variants with sporadic breast cancer. In order to investigate these findings further, we conducted the present study to determine whether expression levels of the progesterone and glucocorticoid nuclear receptor genes vary in different breast cancer grades. Methods RNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded archival breast tumour tissue and converted into cDNA. Sample cDNA underwent PCR using labelled primers to enable quantitation of mRNA expression. Expression data were normalized against the 18S ribosomal gene multiplex and analyzed using analysis of variance. Results Analysis of variance indicated a variable level of expression of both genes with regard to breast cancer grade (P = 0.00033 for glucocorticoid receptor and P = 0.023 for progesterone receptor). Conclusion Statistical analysis indicated that expression of the progesterone nuclear receptor is elevated in late grade breast cancer tissue. PMID:12559052

  4. Genetic manipulation to analyze pheromone responses: knockouts of multiple receptor genes.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Tomohiro

    2013-01-01

    Gene targeting in the mouse is an essential technique to study gene function in vivo. Multigene families encoding vomeronasal receptor (VR) type 1 and type 2 consist of ~300 intact genes, which are clustered at multiple loci in the mouse genome. To understand the function of VRs and neurons expressing a particular VR in vivo, individual endogenous receptor genes can be manipulated by conventional gene targeting to create loss-of-function mutations or to visualize neurons and their axons expressing the VR. Multiple receptor genes in a cluster can also be deleted simultaneously by chromosome engineering, allowing analysis of function of a particular VR subfamily. Here, we describe protocols for conventional gene targeting and chromosome engineering for deleting a large genomic region in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. PMID:24014359

  5. Allelic association of human dopamine D sub 2 receptor gene in alcoholism

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, K.; Sheridan, P.J.; Montgomery, A.; Jagadeeswaran, P.; Nogami, H.; Briggs, A.H. ); Noble, E.P.; Ritchie, T.; Cohn, J.B. )

    1990-04-18

    In a blinded experiment, the authors report the first allelic association of the dopamine D{sub 2} receptor gene in alcoholism. From 70 brain samples of alcoholics and nonalcoholics, DNA was digested with restriction endonucleases and probed with a clone that contained the entire 3{prime} coding exon, the polyadenylation signal, and approximately 16.4 kilobases of noncoding 3{prime} sequence of the human dopamine D{sub 2} receptor gene ({lambda}hD2G1). In the present samples, the presence of A1 allele of the dopamine D{sub 2} receptor gene correctly classified 77% of alcoholics, and its absence classified 72% of nonalcoholics. The polymorphic pattern of this receptor gene suggests that a gene that confers susceptibility to at least one form of alcoholism is located on the q22-q23 region of chromosome 11.

  6. Glucocorticoids down-regulate beta 1-adrenergic-receptor expression by suppressing transcription of the receptor gene.

    PubMed Central

    Kiely, J; Hadcock, J R; Bahouth, S W; Malbon, C C

    1994-01-01

    The expression of beta 2-adrenergic receptors is up-regulated by glucocorticoids. In contrast, beta 1-adrenergic receptors display glucocorticoid-induced down-regulation. In rat C6 glioma cells, which express both of these subtypes of beta-adrenergic receptors, the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone stimulates no change in the total beta-adrenergic receptor content, but rather shifts the beta 1:beta 2 ratio from 80:20 to 50:50. Radioligand binding and immunoblotting demonstrate a sharp decline in beta 1-adrenergic receptor expression. Metabolic labelling of cells with [35S]-methionine in tandem with immunoprecipitation by beta 1-adrenergic-receptor-specific antibodies reveals a sharp decline in the synthesis of the receptor within 48 h for cells challenged with glucocorticoid. Steady-state levels of beta 1-adrenergic-receptor mRNA declined from 0.47 to 0.26 amol/microgram of total cellular RNA within 2 h of dexamethasone challenge, as measured by DNA-excess solution hybridization. The stability of receptor mRNA was not influenced by glucocorticoid; the half-lives of the beta 1- and beta 2-subtype mRNAs were 1.7 and 1.5 h respectively. Nuclear run-on assays revealed the basis for the down-regulation of receptor expression, i.e. a sharp decline in the relative rate of transcription for the beta 1-adrenergic-receptor gene in nuclei from dexamethasone-treated as compared with vehicle-treated cells. These data demonstrate transcriptional suppression as a molecular explanation for glucocorticoid-induced down-regulation of beta 1-adrenergic receptors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 6 PMID:8092990

  7. Identification of Modulators of the Nuclear Receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α (PPARα) in a Mouse Liver Gene Expression Compendium

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nuclear receptor family member peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is activated by therapeutic hypolipidemic drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals to regulate genes involved in lipid transport and catabolism. Chronic activation of PPARα in rodents inc...

  8. Positive association between a DNA sequence variant in the serotonin 2A receptor gene and schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Inayama, Y.; Yoneda, H.; Sakai, T.

    1996-02-16

    Sixty-two patients with schizophrenia and 96 normal controls were investigated for genetic association with restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in the serotonin receptor genes. A positive association between the serotonin 2A receptor gene (HTR2A) and schizophrenia was found, but not between schizophrenia and the serotonin 1A receptor gene. The positive association we report here would suggest that the DNA region with susceptibility to schizophrenia lies in the HTR2A on the long arm of chromosome 13. 15 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Differential regulation of interleukin-8 gene transcription by death receptor 3 (DR3) and type I TNF receptor (TNFRI).

    PubMed

    Su, Wenlynn B; Chang, Ying-Hsin; Lin, Wan-Wan; Hsieh, Shie-Liang

    2006-02-01

    TL1A induces interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion in human peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophage in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Overexpression of its cognate receptor DR3 can induce a higher amount of IL-8 protein secretion than that induced by TNFRI even though both receptors activate IL-8 gene transcription in a similar fashion. The underlying mechanism for the regulation of the IL-8 gene transcription by DR3 has not been investigated yet. Here, we used HEK293 cells as a model system to dissect the possible signaling components that are involved in the regulation of DR3-mediated IL-8 gene expression. Although both DR3 and TNFRI activated TRAF2 and NF-kappaB to induce IL-8 gene transcription, the kinase cascades that transduce signals for DR3- and TNFRI-induced IL-8 gene transcription are different. The axis TAK1/ASK1-MKK4/MKK7-JNK2 is responsible for DR3-mediated IL-8 gene expression whereas the axis ASK1-MKK4-JNK1/JNK2/p38MAPK is the choice for TNFRI-mediated activation of IL-8 gene expression. This indicates that the downstream signaling pathways of DR3 and TNFRI for IL-8 secretion are divergent even though both receptors contain death-domain and induce IL-8 secretion via TRAF2. PMID:16324699

  10. Targeting human melanoma neoantigens by T cell receptor gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Leisegang, Matthias; Kammertoens, Thomas; Uckert, Wolfgang; Blankenstein, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    In successful cancer immunotherapy, T cell responses appear to be directed toward neoantigens created by somatic mutations; however, direct evidence that neoantigen-specific T cells cause regression of established cancer is lacking. Here, we generated T cells expressing a mutation-specific transgenic T cell receptor (TCR) to target different immunogenic mutations in cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) that naturally occur in human melanoma. Two mutant CDK4 isoforms (R24C, R24L) similarly stimulated T cell responses in vitro and were analyzed as therapeutic targets for TCR gene therapy. In a syngeneic HLA-A2-transgenic mouse model of large established tumors, we found that both mutations differed dramatically as targets for TCR-modified T cells in vivo. While T cells expanded efficiently and produced IFN-γ in response to R24L, R24C failed to induce an effective antitumor response. Such differences in neoantigen quality might explain why cancer immunotherapy induces tumor regression in some individuals, while others do not respond, despite similar mutational load. We confirmed the validity of the in vivo model by showing that the melan-A-specific (MART-1-specific) TCR DMF5 induces rejection of tumors expressing analog, but not native, MART-1 epitopes. The described model allows identification of those neoantigens in human cancer that serve as suitable T cell targets and may help to predict clinical efficacy. PMID:26808500

  11. Association study of dopamine D3 receptor gene and schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, J.L.; Billett, E.A.; Macciardi, F.M.

    1995-12-18

    Several groups have reported an association between schizophrenia and the MscI polymorphism in the first exon of the dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3). We studied this polymorphism using a North American sample (117 patients plus 188 controls) and an Italian sample (97 patients plus 64 controls). In the first part of the study, we compared allele frequencies of schizophrenia patients and unmatched controls and observed a significant difference in the total sample (P = 0.01). The second part of the study involved a case control approach in which each schizophrenia patient was matched to a control of the same sex, and of similar age and ethnic background. The DRD3 allele frequencies of patients and controls revealed no significant difference between the two groups in the Italian (N = 53) or the North American (N = 54) matched populations; however, when these two matched samples were combined, a significant difference was observed (P = 0.026). Our results suggest that the MscI polymorphism may be associated with schizophrenia in the populations studied. 32 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. Penguins reduced olfactory receptor genes common to other waterbirds

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qin; Wang, Kai; Lei, Fumin; Yu, Dan; Zhao, Huabin

    2016-01-01

    The sense of smell, or olfaction, is fundamental in the life of animals. However, penguins (Aves: Sphenisciformes) possess relatively small olfactory bulbs compared with most other waterbirds such as Procellariiformes and Gaviiformes. To test whether penguins have a reduced reliance on olfaction, we analyzed the draft genome sequences of the two penguins, which diverged at the origin of the order Sphenisciformes; we also examined six closely related species with available genomes, and identified 29 one-to-one orthologous olfactory receptor genes (i.e. ORs) that are putatively functionally conserved and important across the eight birds. To survey the 29 one-to-one orthologous ORs in penguins and their relatives, we newly generated 34 sequences that are missing from the draft genomes. Through the analysis of totaling 378 OR sequences, we found that, of these functionally important ORs common to other waterbirds, penguins have a significantly greater percentage of OR pseudogenes than other waterbirds, suggesting a reduction of olfactory capability. The penguin-specific reduction of olfactory capability arose in the common ancestor of penguins between 23 and 60 Ma, which may have resulted from the aquatic specializations for underwater vision. Our study provides genetic evidence for a possible reduction of reliance on olfaction in penguins. PMID:27527385

  13. Penguins reduced olfactory receptor genes common to other waterbirds.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qin; Wang, Kai; Lei, Fumin; Yu, Dan; Zhao, Huabin

    2016-01-01

    The sense of smell, or olfaction, is fundamental in the life of animals. However, penguins (Aves: Sphenisciformes) possess relatively small olfactory bulbs compared with most other waterbirds such as Procellariiformes and Gaviiformes. To test whether penguins have a reduced reliance on olfaction, we analyzed the draft genome sequences of the two penguins, which diverged at the origin of the order Sphenisciformes; we also examined six closely related species with available genomes, and identified 29 one-to-one orthologous olfactory receptor genes (i.e. ORs) that are putatively functionally conserved and important across the eight birds. To survey the 29 one-to-one orthologous ORs in penguins and their relatives, we newly generated 34 sequences that are missing from the draft genomes. Through the analysis of totaling 378 OR sequences, we found that, of these functionally important ORs common to other waterbirds, penguins have a significantly greater percentage of OR pseudogenes than other waterbirds, suggesting a reduction of olfactory capability. The penguin-specific reduction of olfactory capability arose in the common ancestor of penguins between 23 and 60 Ma, which may have resulted from the aquatic specializations for underwater vision. Our study provides genetic evidence for a possible reduction of reliance on olfaction in penguins. PMID:27527385

  14. Ultraviolet B suppresses vitamin D receptor gene expression in keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Courtois, S J; Segaert, S; Degreef, H; Bouillon, R; Garmyn, M

    1998-05-01

    Keratinocytes not only produce vitamin D3 in response to ultraviolet B light (UVB) and convert 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D) but also possess the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and respond to 1,25(OH)2D. We characterized the regulation of the expression of the VDR gene in primary human keratinocytes following UVB irradiation. We report a marked dose-dependent down-regulation of the VDR mRNA and protein within a few hours after irradiation. This occurs independently of de novo protein synthesis and is not due to a change in the half-life of the VDR mRNA. Interestingly, treatment of the cells with sodium salicylate, caffeic acid phenethyl ester and tosylphenylchloromethylketone inhibited this down-regulation. Our results strongly suggest the existence of a feedback mechanism in that UVB initiates vitamin D synthesis in keratinocytes and at the same time limits VDR abundance. They also provide a rational explanation for the reported lack of any additive effect between 1,25(OH)2D and UVB phototherapy in the treatment of psoriasis. PMID:9600069

  15. The vitamin D receptor gene is associated with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Donald J; Refsum, Helga; Warden, Donald R; Medway, Christopher; Wilcock, Gordon K; Smith, A David

    2011-10-24

    Vitamin D may have a role in brain function. Low levels have been frequently associated with cognitive decline and may contribute to diseases of the nervous system. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is widely expressed in human brain. Vitamin D appears to be neuroprotective and may regulate inflammation in the brain. We examined two VDR polymorphisms, Apa1 and Taq1. We used DNA from 255 Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases and 260 cognitively screened elderly controls from the longitudinal cohort of the Oxford Project to Investigate Memory and Ageing (OPTIMA). The presence of each of the linked alleles, Apa1 T and Taq1 G, was associated with the risk of AD, particularly in people <75 years old: odds ratios ≥3.0 and p≤0.005. We also found preliminary evidence of interactions associated with AD between these polymorphisms and two other genes involved in the regulation of inflammation, interleukin-10 (IL10) and dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH): synergy factors ≥3.4, uncorrected p<0.05. These associations are biologically plausible and are consistent with a role for vitamin D in AD. Nevertheless, we consider this to be a hypothesis-generating study, which needs to be replicated in a larger dataset. PMID:21911036

  16. Identification and Expression Analysis of Putative Chemosensory Receptor Genes in Microplitis mediator by Antennal Transcriptome Screening

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shan-Ning; Peng, Yong; Lu, Zi-Yun; Dhiloo, Khalid Hussain; Gu, Shao-Hua; Li, Rui-Jun; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Guo, Yu-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Host-seeking, ovipositional behavior and mating of insects are controlled mainly by odor perception through sensory organs such as antennae. Antennal chemoreception is extremely important for insect survival. Several antennal chemosensory receptors are involved in mediating the odor detection in insects, especially the odorant receptors (ORs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs), to ensure the specificity of the olfactory sensory neuron responses. In the present study, we identified the chemosensory receptor gene repertoire of the parasitoid wasp Microplitis mediator, a generalist endoparasitoid that infests more than 40 types of Lepidopterous larvae and is widely distributed in the Palaearctic region. By transcriptome sequencing of male and female antennae we identified 60 candidate odorant receptors, six candidate ionotropic receptors and two gustatory receptors in M. mediator. The full-length sequences of these putative chemosensory receptor genes were obtained by using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR (RACE-PCR) method. We also conducted reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) combined with real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) for investigating the expression profiles of these chemosensory receptor genes in olfactory and non-olfactory tissues. The tissue- and sex-biased expression patterns may provide insights into the roles of the chemosensory receptor in M. mediator. Our findings support possible future study of the chemosensory behavior of M. mediator at the molecular level. PMID:26078716

  17. Profiling of olfactory receptor gene expression in whole human olfactory mucosa.

    PubMed

    Verbeurgt, Christophe; Wilkin, Françoise; Tarabichi, Maxime; Gregoire, Françoise; Dumont, Jacques E; Chatelain, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory perception is mediated by a large array of olfactory receptor genes. The human genome contains 851 olfactory receptor gene loci. More than 50% of the loci are annotated as nonfunctional due to frame-disrupting mutations. Furthermore haplotypic missense alleles can be nonfunctional resulting from substitution of key amino acids governing protein folding or interactions with signal transduction components. Beyond their role in odor recognition, functional olfactory receptors are also required for a proper targeting of olfactory neuron axons to their corresponding glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. Therefore, we anticipate that profiling of olfactory receptor gene expression in whole human olfactory mucosa and analysis in the human population of their expression should provide an opportunity to select the frequently expressed and potentially functional olfactory receptors in view of a systematic deorphanization. To address this issue, we designed a TaqMan Low Density Array (Applied Biosystems), containing probes for 356 predicted human olfactory receptor loci to investigate their expression in whole human olfactory mucosa tissues from 26 individuals (13 women, 13 men; aged from 39 to 81 years, with an average of 67±11 years for women and 63±12 years for men). Total RNA isolation, DNase treatment, RNA integrity evaluation and reverse transcription were performed for these 26 samples. Then 384 targeted genes (including endogenous control genes and reference genes specifically expressed in olfactory epithelium for normalization purpose) were analyzed using the same real-time reverse transcription PCR platform. On average, the expression of 273 human olfactory receptor genes was observed in the 26 selected whole human olfactory mucosa analyzed, of which 90 were expressed in all 26 individuals. Most of the olfactory receptors deorphanized to date on the basis of sensitivity to known odorant molecules, which are described in the literature, were found in the

  18. Profiling of Olfactory Receptor Gene Expression in Whole Human Olfactory Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Tarabichi, Maxime; Gregoire, Françoise; Dumont, Jacques E.; Chatelain, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory perception is mediated by a large array of olfactory receptor genes. The human genome contains 851 olfactory receptor gene loci. More than 50% of the loci are annotated as nonfunctional due to frame-disrupting mutations. Furthermore haplotypic missense alleles can be nonfunctional resulting from substitution of key amino acids governing protein folding or interactions with signal transduction components. Beyond their role in odor recognition, functional olfactory receptors are also required for a proper targeting of olfactory neuron axons to their corresponding glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. Therefore, we anticipate that profiling of olfactory receptor gene expression in whole human olfactory mucosa and analysis in the human population of their expression should provide an opportunity to select the frequently expressed and potentially functional olfactory receptors in view of a systematic deorphanization. To address this issue, we designed a TaqMan Low Density Array (Applied Biosystems), containing probes for 356 predicted human olfactory receptor loci to investigate their expression in whole human olfactory mucosa tissues from 26 individuals (13 women, 13 men; aged from 39 to 81 years, with an average of 67±11 years for women and 63±12 years for men). Total RNA isolation, DNase treatment, RNA integrity evaluation and reverse transcription were performed for these 26 samples. Then 384 targeted genes (including endogenous control genes and reference genes specifically expressed in olfactory epithelium for normalization purpose) were analyzed using the same real-time reverse transcription PCR platform. On average, the expression of 273 human olfactory receptor genes was observed in the 26 selected whole human olfactory mucosa analyzed, of which 90 were expressed in all 26 individuals. Most of the olfactory receptors deorphanized to date on the basis of sensitivity to known odorant molecules, which are described in the literature, were found in the

  19. A novel human gene encoding a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR15) is located on chromosome 3

    SciTech Connect

    Heiber, M.; Marchese, A.; O`Dowd, B.F.

    1996-03-05

    We used sequence similarities among G-protein-coupled receptor genes to discover a novel receptor gene. Using primers based on conserved regions of the opioid-related receptors, we isolated a PCR product that was used to locate the full-length coding region of a novel human receptor gene, which we have named GPR15. A comparison of the amino acid sequence of the receptor gene, which we have named GPR15. A comparison of the amino acid sequence of the receptor encoded by GPR15 with other receptors revealed that it shared sequence identity with the angiotensin II AT1 and AT2 receptors, the interleukin 8b receptor, and the orphan receptors GPR1 and AGTL1. GPR15 was mapped to human chromosome 3q11.2-q13.1. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  20. A nonsense mutation in the LDL receptor gene leads to familial hypercholesterolemia in the Druze sect

    SciTech Connect

    Landsberger, D.; Meiner, V.; Reshef, A.; Leitersdorf, E. ); Levy, Yishai ); Westhytzen, D.R. van der; Coetzee, G.A. )

    1992-02-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the LDL receptor gene. Here the authors characterize and LDL receptor mutation that is associated with a distinct haplotype and causes FH in the Druze, a small Middle Eastern Islamic sect with a high degree of inbreeding. The mutation was found in FH families from two distinct Druze villages from the Golan Heights (northern Israel). It was not found either in another Druze FH family residing in a different geographical area nor in eight Arab and four Jewish FH heterozygote index cases whose hypercholesterolemia cosegregates with an identical LDL receptor gene haplotype. The mutation, a single-base substitution, results in a termination codon in exon 4 of the LDL receptor gene that encodes for the fourth repeat of the binding domain of the mature receptor. It can be diagnosed by allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization of PCR-amplified DNA from FH patients.

  1. Phenotypical characterization of the rat striatal neurons expressing the D1 dopamine receptor gene.

    PubMed Central

    Le Moine, C; Normand, E; Bloch, B

    1991-01-01

    In situ hybridization experiments were performed in rat brain sections from normal and 6-hydroxydopamine-treated rats in order to map and identify the neurons expressing the D1 receptor gene in the striatum and the substantia nigra. Procedures of combined in situ hybridization, allowing the simultaneous detection of two mRNAs in the same section or in adjacent sections, were used to characterize the phenotypes of the neurons expressing the D1 receptor gene. D1 receptor mRNA was found in neurons all over the caudate-putamen, the accumbens nucleus, and the olfactory tubercle but not in the substantia nigra. In the caudate-putamen and accumbens nucleus, most of the neurons containing D1 receptor mRNA were characterized as medium-sized substance P neurons and distinct from those containing D2 receptor mRNA. Nevertheless, 15-20% of the substance P neurons did not contain D1 receptor mRNA. The neurons containing preproenkephalin A mRNA did not contain D1 receptor mRNA but contained D2 receptor mRNA. A small number of cholinergic and somatostatinergic neurons exhibited a weak reaction for D1 receptor mRNA. These results demonstrate that dopamine acts on efferent striatal neurons through expression of distinct receptors--namely, D1 and D2 in separate cell populations (substance P and preproenkephalin A neurons, respectively)--and can also act on nonprojecting neurons through D1 receptor expression. Images PMID:1827915

  2. Observations on the Evolution of the Melanocortin Receptor Gene Family: Distinctive Features of the Melanocortin-2 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Dores, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The melanocortin receptors (MCRs) are a gene family in the rhodopsin class of G protein-coupled receptors. Based on the analysis of several metazoan genome databases it appears that the MCRs are only found in chordates. The presence of five genes in the family (i.e., mc1r, mc2r, mc3r, mc4r, mc5r) in representatives of the tetrapods indicates that the gene family is the result of two genome duplication events and one local gene duplication event during the evolution of the chordates. The MCRs are activated by melanocortin ligands (i.e., ACTH, α-MSH, β-MSH, γ-MSH, δ-MSH) which are all derived from the polypeptide hormone/neuropeptide precursor, POMC, and as a result the functional evolution of the MCRs is intimately associated with the co-evolution of POMC endocrine and neuronal circuits. This review will consider the origin of the MCRs, and discuss the evolutionary relationship between MC2R, MC5R, and MC4R. In addition, this review will analyze the functional evolution of the mc2r gene in light of the co-evolution of the MRAP (Melanocortin-2 Receptor Accessory Protein) gene family. PMID:23596380

  3. The D2 dopamine receptor gene as a determinant of reward deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Blum, K; Sheridan, P J; Wood, R C; Braverman, E R; Chen, T J; Cull, J G; Comings, D E

    1996-01-01

    The dopaminergic system, and in particular the dopamine D2 receptor, has been profoundly implicated in reward mechanisms in the brain. Dysfunction of the D2 dopamine receptors leads to aberrant substance seeking behaviour (alcohol, drug, tobacco, and food) and other related behaviours (pathological gambling, Tourette's syndrome, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). We propose that variants of the D2 dopamine receptor gene are important common genetic determinants of the 'reward deficiency syndrome'. PMID:8774539

  4. Identification of microsatellite markers linked to the human leptin receptor gene on chromosome 1

    SciTech Connect

    Winick, J.D.; Friedman, J.M.; Stoffel, M.

    1996-08-15

    This report describes the localization of the human leptin receptor gene to human chromosome 1 using polymerase chain reaction of somatic cell hybrids. Leptin is a secreted protein important in the regulation of body weight. 16 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Specific repertoire of olfactory receptor genes in the male germ cells of several mammalian species

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderhaeghen, P.; Schurmans, S.; Vassart, G.; Parmentier, M.

    1997-02-01

    Olfactory receptors constitute the largest family among G protein-coupled receptors, with up to 1000 members expected. We have previously shown that genes belonging to this family were expressed in the male germ line from both dog and human. We have subsequently demonstrated the presence of one of the corresponding olfactory receptor proteins during dog spermatogenesis and in mature sperm cells. In this study, we investigated whether the unexpected pattern of expression of olfactory receptors in the male germ line was conserved in other mammalian species. Using reverse transcription-PCR with primers specific for the olfactory receptor gene family, about 20 olfactory receptor cDNA fragments were cloned from the testis of each mammalian species tested. As a whole, they displayed no sequence specificity compared to other olfactory receptors, but highly homologous, possibly orthologous, genes were amplified from different species. Finally, their pattern of expression, as determined by RNase protection assay, revealed that many but not all of these receptors were expressed predominantly in testis. The male germ line from each mammalian species tested is thus characterized by a specific repertoire of olfactory receptors, which display a pattern of expression suggestive of their potential implication in the control of sperm maturation, migration, or fertilization. 34 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Olfactory receptor-like genes are located in the human major histocompatibility complex

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, W.; Liu, Y.C.; Parimoo, S.

    1995-05-01

    The murine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) includes sequences that are responsible for haplotype-specific odor types that, in turn, influence mating preference. The authors report that there are several olfactory receptor genes or pseudogenes in the Class I region of the human MHC. At least one of these genes is intact, appears to encode an mRNA, and is quite homologous to a previously reported murine olfactory receptor. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  7. CC chemokine receptor 5 gene polymorphisms in beryllium disease.

    PubMed

    Sato, H; Silveira, L; Spagnolo, P; Gillespie, M; Gottschall, E B; Welsh, K I; du Bois, R M; Newman, L S; Maier, L A

    2010-08-01

    CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is expressed on type-1 T-helper cells, which are involved in the pathogenesis of the granulomatous lung disease chronic beryllium disease (CBD). CCR5 gene (CCR5) polymorphisms are associated with sarcoidosis severity. The present study explores associations between CCR5 polymorphisms and CBD and its disease progression. Eight CCR5 polymorphisms were genotyped in CBD (n = 88), beryllium sensitisation (BeS; n = 86) and beryllium-exposed nondiseased controls (n = 173) using PCR with sequence-specific primers. Pulmonary function and bronchoalveolar lavage data were examined for associations with genotypes. There were no significant differences in genotype and allele frequency between CBD, BeS individuals and controls. In CBD, associations were found with decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity and the CCR5 -3458 thymidine (T)T genotype (p<0.0001), and an increase in alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference at rest (p = 0.003) and at maximum exercise (p = 0.01) and the -5663 adenine allele. Increased bronchoalveolar lavage lymphocyte numbers were associated with CCR5 -2459 guanine/-2135T (p = 0.01) only in the combined CBD and BeS group. This is the first study showing that CCR5 polymorphisms are associated with worsening pulmonary function over time in CBD, suggesting that CCR5 is important in the progression of pulmonary function in CBD. Further studies would be useful to clarify the mechanism whereby CCR5 polymorphisms affect progression of CBD. PMID:20075058

  8. Cloning of human genes encoding novel G protein-coupled receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Marchese, A.; Docherty, J.M.; Heiber, M.

    1994-10-01

    We report the isolation and characterization of several novel human genes encoding G protein-coupled receptors. Each of the receptors contained the familiar seven transmembrane topography and most closely resembled peptide binding receptors. Gene GPR1 encoded a receptor protein that is intronless in the coding region and that shared identity (43% in the transmembrane regions) with the opioid receptors. Northern blot analysis revealed that GPR1 transcripts were expressed in the human hippocampus, and the gene was localized to chromosome 15q21.6. Gene GPR2 encoded a protein that most closely resembled an interleukin-8 receptor (51% in the transmembrane regions), and this gene, not expressed in the six brain regions examined, was localized to chromosome 17q2.1-q21.3. A third gene, GPR3, showed identity (56% in the transmembrane regions) with a previously characterized cDNA clone from rat and was localized to chromosome 1p35-p36.1. 31 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Dopamine Receptor Gene Expression in Human Amygdaloid Nuclei: Elevated D4 Receptor mRNAs in Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Lianbin; Szebeni, Katalin; Szebeni, Attila; Klimek, Violetta; Stockmeier, Craig A; Karolewicz, Beata; Kalbfleisch, John; Ordway, Gregory A

    2008-01-01

    Previous findings from this laboratory demonstrating changes in dopamine (DA) transporter and D2 receptors in the amygdaloid complex of subjects with major depression indicate that disruption of dopamine neurotransmission to the amygdala may contribute to behavioral symptoms associated with depression. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was used to investigate the regional distribution of gene expression of DA receptors in the human amygdala. In addition, relative levels of mRNA of DA receptors in the basal amygdaloid nucleus were measured postmortem in subjects with major depression and normal control subjects. All five subtypes of DA receptor mRNA were detected in all amygdaloid subnuclei, although D1, D2, and D4 receptor mRNAs were more abundant than D3 and D5 mRNAs by an order of magnitude. The highest level of D1 mRNA was found in the central nucleus, whereas D2 mRNA was the most abundant in the basal nucleus. Levels of D4 mRNA were highest in the basal and central nuclei. In the basal nucleus, amounts of D4, but not D1 or D2, mRNAs were significantly higher in subjects with major depression and depressed suicide victims, as compared to control subjects. These findings demonstrate that the D1, D2 and D4 receptors are the major subtypes of DA receptors in the human amygdala. Elevated DA receptor gene expression in depressive subjects further implicates altered dopaminergic transmission in the amygdala in depression. PMID:18371940

  10. Structure and chromosomal localization of the human antidiuretic hormone receptor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Seibold, A.; Brabet, P.; Rosenthal, W.; Birnbaumer, M. )

    1992-11-01

    Applying a genomic DNA-expression approach, the authors cloned the gene and cDNA coding for the human antidiuretic hormone receptor, also called vasopressin V2 receptor' (V2R). The nucleotide sequence of both cloned DNAs provided the information to elucidate the structure of the isolated transcriptional unit. The structure of this gene is unusual in that it is the first G protein-coupled receptor gene that contains two very small intervening sequences, the second of which separates the region encoding the seventh transmembrane region from the rest of the open reading frame. The sequence information was used to synthesize appropriate oligonucleotides to be used as primers in the PCR. The V2R gene was localized by PCR using DNA from hybrid cells as template. The gene was found to reside in the q28-qter portion of the human X chromosome, a region identified as the locus for congential nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. 27 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Molecular Pathways: Breaking the Epithelial Cancer Barrier for Chimeric Antigen Receptor and T-cell Receptor Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hinrichs, Christian S

    2016-04-01

    Adoptive transfer of T cells genetically engineered to express a tumor-targeting chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) or T-cell receptor (TCR) can mediate cancer regression in some patients. CARs are synthetic single-chain proteins that use antibody domains to target cell surface antigens. TCRs are natural heterodimeric proteins that can target intracellular antigens through recognition of peptides bound to human leukocyte antigens. CARs have shown promise in B-cell malignancies and TCRs in melanoma, but neither approach has achieved clear success in an epithelial cancer. Treatment of epithelial cancers may be particularly challenging because of a paucity of target antigens expressed by carcinomas and not by important healthy tissues. In addition, epithelial cancers may be protected by inhibitory ligands and soluble factors in the tumor microenvironment. One strategy to overcome these negative regulators is to modulate expression of T-cell genes to enhance intrinsic T-cell function. Programmable nucleases, which can suppress inhibitory genes, and inducible gene expression systems, which can enhance stimulatory genes, are entering clinical testing. Other work is delineating whether control of genes for immune checkpoint receptors (e.g.,PDCD1, CTLA4) and cytokine and TCR signaling regulators (e.g.,CBLB, CISH, IL12, IL15) can increase the antitumor activity of therapeutic T cells.Clin Cancer Res; 22(7); 1559-64. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27037253

  12. Co-regulation of a large and rapidly evolving repertoire of odorant receptor genes

    PubMed Central

    Kambere, Marijo B; Lane, Robert P

    2007-01-01

    The olfactory system meets niche- and species-specific demands by an accelerated evolution of its odorant receptor repertoires. In this review, we describe evolutionary processes that have shaped olfactory and vomeronasal receptor gene families in vertebrate genomes. We emphasize three important periods in the evolution of the olfactory system evident by comparative genomics: the adaptation to land in amphibian ancestors, the decline of olfaction in primates, and the delineation of putative pheromone receptors concurrent with rodent speciation. The rapid evolution of odorant receptor genes, the sheer size of the repertoire, as well as their wide distribution in the genome, presents a developmental challenge: how are these ever-changing odorant receptor repertoires coordinated within the olfactory system? A central organizing principle in olfaction is the specialization of sensory neurons resulting from each sensory neuron expressing only ~one odorant receptor allele. In this review, we also discuss this mutually exclusive expression of odorant receptor genes. We have considered several models to account for co-regulation of odorant receptor repertoires, as well as discussed a new hypothesis that invokes important epigenetic properties of the system. PMID:17903278

  13. Cloning of the cDNA and gene for a human D sub 2 dopamine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.K.; Makam, H.; Stofko, R.E.; Bunzow, J.R.; Civelli, O. ); Marchionni, M.A.; Alfano, M.; Frothingham, L.; Fischer, J.B.; Burke-Howie, K.J.; Server, A.C. )

    1989-12-01

    A clone encoding a human D{sub 2} dopamine receptor was isolated from a pituitary cDNA library and sequenced. The deduced protein sequence is 96% identical with that of the cloned rat receptor with one major difference: the human receptor contains an additional 29 amino acids in its putative third cytoplasmic loop. Southern blotting demonstrated the presence of only one human D{sub 2} receptor gene. Two overlapping phage containing the gene were isolated and characterized. DNA sequence analysis of these clones showed that the coding sequence is interrupted by six introns and that the additional amino acids present in the human pituitary receptor are encoded by a single exon of 87 base pairs. The involvement of this sequence in alternative splicing and its biological significance are discussed.

  14. Orphan nuclear receptor oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) plays a key role in hepatic cannabinoid receptor type 1-mediated induction of CYP7A1 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaochen; Kim, Don-Kyu; Lee, Ji-Min; Park, Seung Bum; Jeong, Won-Il; Kim, Seong Heon; Lee, In-Kyu; Lee, Chul-Ho; Chiang, John Y L; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2015-09-01

    Bile acids are primarily synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and have important roles in dietary lipid absorption and cholesterol homoeostasis. Detailed roles of the orphan nuclear receptors regulating cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis, have not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, we report that oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) is a novel transcriptional regulator of CYP7A1 expression. Activation of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 receptor) signalling induced ERRγ-mediated transcription of the CYP7A1 gene. Overexpression of ERRγ increased CYP7A1 expression in vitro and in vivo, whereas knockdown of ERRγ attenuated CYP7A1 expression. Deletion analysis of the CYP7A1 gene promoter and a ChIP assay revealed an ERRγ-binding site on the CYP7A1 gene promoter. Small heterodimer partner (SHP) inhibited the transcriptional activity of ERRγ and thus regulated CYP7A1 expression. Overexpression of ERRγ led to increased bile acid levels, whereas an inverse agonist of ERRγ, GSK5182, reduced CYP7A1 expression and bile acid synthesis. Finally, GSK5182 significantly reduced hepatic CB1 receptor-mediated induction of CYP7A1 expression and bile acid synthesis in alcohol-treated mice. These results provide the molecular mechanism linking ERRγ and bile acid metabolism. PMID:26348907

  15. Expression of the transferrin receptor gene during the process of mononuclear phagocyte maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Hirata, T.; Bitterman, P.B.; Mornex, J.; Crystal, R.G.

    1986-02-15

    The expression of transferrin receptors by blood monocytes, human alveolar macrophages, and in vitro matured macrophages was evaluated by immunofluorescence, radioligand binding, and Northern analysis, using the monoclonal anti-human transferrin receptor antibody OKT9, (/sup 125/I)-labeled human transferrin and a (/sup 32/P)-labeled human transferrin receptor cDNA probe, respectively. By immunofluorescence, the majority of alveolar macrophages expressed transferrin receptors (86 +/- 3%). The radioligand binding assay demonstrated the affinity constant (K/sub a/) of the alveolar macrophage transferrin receptor was 4.4 +/- 0.7 x 10/sup 8/ M/sup -1/, and the number of receptors per cell was 4.4 +/- 1.2 x 10/sup 4/. In marked contrast, transferrin receptors were not present on the surface or in the cytoplasm of blood monocytes, the precursors of the alveolar macrophages. However, when monocytes were cultured in vitro and allowed to mature, > 80% expressed transferrin receptors by day 6, and the receptors could be detected by day 3. Consistent with these observations, a transferrin receptor mRNA with a molecular size of 4.9 kb was demonstrated in alveolar macrophages and in vitro matured macrophages but not in blood monocytes. Thus, although blood monocytes do not express the transferrin receptor gene, it is expressed by mature macrophages, an event that probably occurs relatively early in the process of monocyte differentiation to macrophages.

  16. Estrogen Receptor beta binds Sp1 and recruits a Corepressor Complex to the Estrogen Receptor alpha Gene Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Bartella, V; Rizza, P; Barone, I; Zito, D; Giordano, F; Giordano, C; Catalano, S; Mauro, L; Sisci, D; Panno, ML; Fuqua, SA; Andò, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    Human estrogen receptors (ERs) alpha and beta are crucially involved in the regulation of mammary growth and development. Normal breast tissues display a prevalently expression of ER beta than ER alpha, which drastically increases during breast tumorogenesis. So, it is reasonable to assume how a dysregulation of the two estrogen receptor subtypes may induce breast cancer development. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the opposite role played by the two estrogen receptors on tumor cell growth remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we have demonstrated that ER beta overexpression in breast cancer cells decreases cell proliferation and down-regulates ER alpha mRNA and protein content along with a concomitant repression of estrogen-regulated genes. Transient transfection experiments, using a vector containing the human ER alpha promoter region, showed that elevated levels of the ER beta down-regulated basal ER alpha promoter activity. Furthermore, side-directed mutagenesis and deletion analysis have revealed that the proximal GC-rich motifs at −223 and −214 is crucial for the ER beta-induced ER alpha down-regulation in breast cancer cells. This occurred through ER beta-Sp1 protein-protein interaction within the ER alpha promoter region and the recruitment of a corepressor complex containing NCoR/SMRT (nuclear receptor corepressor/silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor), accompanied by hypoacetylation of histone H4 and displacement of RNA polymerase II. Silencing of NCoR gene expression by RNA interference reversed the down-regulatory effect of ER beta on ER alpha gene expression and cell proliferation. Our results provide evidence for a novel mechanism by which overexpression of ER beta through NCoR is able to down regulate ER alpha gene expression, thus inhibiting ER alpha’s driving role on breast cancer cell growth. PMID:22622808

  17. Identification of a null mutation in the human dopamine D4 receptor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Noethen, M.M.; Cichon, S.; Hebebrand, J.

    1994-09-01

    Dopamine receptors belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors. Five different dopamine receptor genes have thus far been identified. These receptors are classified into two main subfamilies: D1, which includes the D1 and D5 receptors, and D2, which includes the D2, D3, and D4 receptors. The dopamine D4 receptor is of great interest for research into neuropsychiatric disorders and psychopharmacology in light of the fact that it binds the antipsychotic medication clozapine with higher affinity than does any other dopamine receptor. In addition, among the dopamine receptors, the D4 receptor shows a uniquely high degree of genetic variation in the human population. We identified a new 13 bp deletion in exon 1 of the D4 gene. This frameshift creates a terminator codon at amino acid position 98. mRNA isolated from brain tissue of two heterozygous persons showed both alleles to be expressed. The deletion occurs with a frequency of 2% in the German population. One person was identified to be homozygous for the deletion. Interestingly, he has a normal intelligence and did not exhibit a major psychiatric disorder as defined by DSM III-R. The 13 bp deletion is the first mutation resulting in premature translation termination reported for a dopamine receptor gene so far. This mutation is a good candidate to test for potential effects on disease and/or individual response to pharmacotherapy. Association studies in patients with various psychiatric illnesses and differences in response to clozapine are underway.

  18. The Association of Polymorphisms in Leptin/Leptin Receptor Genes and Ghrelin/Ghrelin Receptor Genes With Overweight/Obesity and the Related Metabolic Disturbances: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ghalandari, Hamid; Hosseini-Esfahani, Firoozeh; Mirmiran, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    Context: Leptin and ghrelin are two important appetite and energy balance-regulating peptides. Common polymorphisms in the genes coding these peptides and their related receptors are shown to be associated with body weight, different markers of obesity and metabolic abnormalities. This review article aims to investigate the association of common polymorphisms of these genes with overweight/obesity and the metabolic disturbances related to it. Evidence Acquisition: The keywords leptin, ghrelin, polymorphism, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), obesity, overweight, Body Mass Index, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (MeSH headings) were used to search in the following databases: Pubmed, Sciencedirect (Elsevier), and Google scholar. Overall, 24 case-control studies, relevant to our topic, met the criteria and were included in the review. Results: The most prevalent leptin/leptin receptor genes (LEP/LEPR) and ghrelin/ghrelin receptor genes (GHRL/GHSR) single nucleotide polymorphisms studied were LEP G-2548A, LEPR Q223R, and Leu72Met, respectively. Nine studies of the 17 studies on LEP/LEPR, and three studies of the seven studies on GHRL/GHSR showed significant relationships. Conclusions: In general, our study suggests that the association between LEP/LEPR and GHRL/GHSR with overweight/obesity and the related metabolic disturbances is inconclusive. These results may be due to unidentified gene-environment interactions. More investigations are needed to further clarify this association. PMID:26425125

  19. Positive and negative regulation of odor receptor gene choice in Drosophila by acj6.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lei; Goldman, Aaron L; Carlson, John R

    2009-10-14

    Little is known about how individual olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) select, from among many odor receptor genes, which genes to express. Abnormal chemosensory jump 6 (Acj6) is a POU domain transcription factor essential for the specification of ORN identity and odor receptor (Or) gene expression in the Drosophila maxillary palp, one of the two adult olfactory organs. However, the mechanism by which Acj6 functions in this process has not been investigated. Here, we systematically examine the role of Acj6 in the maxillary palp and in a major subset of antennal ORNs. We define an Acj6 binding site by a reiterative in vitro selection process. The site is found upstream of Or genes regulated by Acj6, and Acj6 binds to the site in Or promoters. Mutational analysis shows that the site is essential for Or regulation in vivo. Surprisingly, a novel ORN class in acj6 adults is found to arise from ectopic expression of a larval Or gene, which is repressed in wild type via an Acj6 binding site. Thus, Acj6 acts directly in the process of receptor gene choice; it plays a dual role, positive and negative, in the logic of the process, and acts in partitioning the larval and adult receptor repertoires. PMID:19828808

  20. Elevated Resistin Gene Expression in African American Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vallega, Karin A.; Liu, NingNing; Myers, Jennifer S.; Yu, Kaixian; Sang, Qing-Xiang Amy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction African American (AA) women diagnosed with breast cancer are more likely to have aggressive subtypes. Investigating differentially expressed genes between patient populations may help explain racial health disparities. Resistin, one such gene, is linked to inflammation, obesity, and breast cancer risk. Previous studies indicated that resistin expression is higher in serum and tissue of AA breast cancer patients compared to Caucasian American (CA) patients. However, resistin expression levels have not been compared between AA and CA patients in a stage- and subtype-specific context. Breast cancer prognosis and treatments vary by subtype. This work investigates differential resistin gene expression in human breast cancer tissues of specific stages, receptor subtypes, and menopause statuses in AA and CA women. Methods Differential gene expression analysis was performed using human breast cancer gene expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. We performed inter-race resistin gene expression level comparisons looking at receptor status and stage-specific data between AA and CA samples. DESeq was run to test for differentially expressed resistin values. Results Resistin RNA was higher in AA women overall, with highest values in receptor negative subtypes. Estrogen-, progesterone-, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2- negative groups showed statistically significant elevated resistin levels in Stage I and II AA women compared to CA women. In inter-racial comparisons, AA women had significantly higher levels of resistin regardless of menopause status. In whole population comparisons, resistin expression was higher among Stage I and III estrogen receptor negative cases. In comparisons of molecular subtypes, resistin levels were significant higher in triple negative than in luminal A breast cancer. Conclusion Resistin gene expression levels were significantly higher in receptor negative subtypes, especially estrogen receptor negative cases in AA

  1. Multimodality Imaging of Gene Transfer with a Receptor-Based Reporter Gene

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ron; Parry, Jesse J.; Akers, Walter J.; Berezin, Mikhail Y.; El Naqa, Issam M.; Achilefu, Samuel; Edwards, W. Barry; Rogers, Buck E.

    2010-01-01

    Gene therapy trials have traditionally used tumor and tissue biopsies for assessing the efficacy of gene transfer. Non-invasive imaging techniques offer a distinct advantage over tissue biopsies in that the magnitude and duration of gene transfer can be monitored repeatedly. Human somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2) has been used for the nuclear imaging of gene transfer. To extend this concept, we have developed a somatostatin receptor–enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion construct (SSTR2-EGFP) for nuclear and fluorescent multimodality imaging. Methods An adenovirus containing SSTR2-EGFP (AdSSTR2-EGFP) was constructed and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. SCC-9 human squamous cell carcinoma cells were infected with AdEGFP, AdSSTR2, or AdSSTR2-EGFP for in vitro evaluation by saturation binding, internalization, and fluorescence spectroscopy assays. In vivo biodistribution and nano-SPECT imaging studies were conducted with mice bearing SCC-9 tumor xenografts directly injected with AdSSTR2-EGFP or AdSSTR2 to determine the tumor localization of 111In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-Tyr3-octreotate. Fluorescence imaging was conducted in vivo with mice receiving intratumoral injections of AdSSTR2, AdSSTR2-EGFP, or AdEGFP as well as ex vivo with tissues extracted from mice. Results The similarity between AdSSTR2-EGFP and wild-type AdSSTR2 was demonstrated in vitro by the saturation binding and internalization assays, and the fluorescence emission spectra of cells infected with AdSSTR2-EGFP was almost identical to the spectra of cells infected with wild-type AdEGFP. Biodistribution studies demonstrated that the tumor uptake of 111In-DTPA-Tyr3-octreotate was not significantly different (P > 0.05) when tumors (n = 5) were injected with AdSSTR2 or AdSSTR2-EGFP but was significantly greater than the uptake in control tumors. Fluorescence was observed in tumors injected with AdSSTR2-EGFP and AdEGFP in vivo and ex vivo but not in tumors injected with AdSSTR2

  2. PET/CT imaging of human somatostatin receptor 2 (hsstr2) as reporter gene for gene therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, M.; Gazdhar, A.; Weitzel, T.; Schmid, R.; Krause, T.

    2006-12-01

    Localized information on region-selective gene expression in small animals is widely obtained by use of reporter genes inducing light emission. Using these reporter genes for imaging deep inside the human body fluorescent probes are hindered by attenuation, scattering and possible fluorescence quenching. This can be overcome by use of radio-peptide receptors as reporter genes. Therefore, the feasibility of the somatostatin receptor 2 expression vector system for expression imaging was checked against a control vector containing luciferase gene. For in vivo transduction of vector DNA into the rat forelimb muscles the in vivo electroporation technique was chosen because of its high regio-selectivity. The gene expression was imaged by high-sensitive CCD camera (luciferase activity) and by PET/CT using a Ga-68-DOTATOC as radio peptide probe. The relative sstr2 expression was enhanced by gene transduction at maximum to a factor of 15. The PET/CT images could be fully quantified. The above demonstrated feasibility of radio-peptide PET/CT reporter gene imaging may serve in the future as a tool for full quantitative understanding of regional gene expression, especially in large animals and humans.

  3. Targeting the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor enhances gene transfer to human airway epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Drapkin, Paola T.; O’Riordan, Catherine R.; Yi, Su Min; Chiorini, John A.; Cardella, Jonathan; Zabner, Joseph; Welsh, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Developing gene therapy for cystic fibrosis has been hindered by limited binding and endocytosis of vectors by human airway epithelia. Here we show that the apical membrane of airway epithelia express the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), or a 7-residue peptide derived from this protein (u7-peptide), bound the receptor and stimulated apical endocytosis. Both ligands enhanced gene transfer by nonspecifically bound adenovirus and adeno-associated virus vectors and by a modified adenovirus vector that had been coupled to the u7-peptide. These data provide the first evidence that targeting an apical receptor can circumvent the two most important barriers to gene transfer in airway epithelia. Thus, the uPA/uPAR system may offer significant advantages for delivering genes and other pharmaceuticals to airway epithelia. PMID:10712430

  4. Targeting the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor enhances gene transfer to human airway epithelia.

    PubMed

    Drapkin, P T; O'Riordan, C R; Yi, S M; Chiorini, J A; Cardella, J; Zabner, J; Welsh, M J

    2000-03-01

    Developing gene therapy for cystic fibrosis has been hindered by limited binding and endocytosis of vectors by human airway epithelia. Here we show that the apical membrane of airway epithelia express the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), or a 7-residue peptide derived from this protein (u7-peptide), bound the receptor and stimulated apical endocytosis. Both ligands enhanced gene transfer by nonspecifically bound adenovirus and adeno-associated virus vectors and by a modified adenovirus vector that had been coupled to the u7-peptide. These data provide the first evidence that targeting an apical receptor can circumvent the two most important barriers to gene transfer in airway epithelia. Thus, the uPA/uPAR system may offer significant advantages for delivering genes and other pharmaceuticals to airway epithelia. PMID:10712430

  5. Transcription factor assembly on the nicotinic receptor beta4 subunit gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Scofield, Michael D; Brüschweiler-Li, Lei; Mou, Zhongming; Gardner, Paul D

    2008-04-16

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are involved in a plethora of fundamental biological processes ranging from muscle contraction to formation of memories. The receptors are pentameric proteins whose subunits are encoded by distinct genes. Subunit composition of a mature nicotinic receptor is governed in part by the transcriptional regulation of each subunit gene. Here, using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we report the interaction of the transcription factors Sp1, Sp3, c-Jun and Sox10 with the beta4 subunit gene promoter in neuronal-like cell lines and rodent brain tissue. Our results corroborate previous in-vitro data demonstrating that these transcription factors interact with the beta4 promoter. Taken together, these data suggest that Sp1, Sp3, c-Jun and Sox10 regulate expression of the beta4 subunit gene in the mammalian brain. PMID:18382288

  6. Identification of Gene Markers for Activation of the Nuclear Receptor Pregnane X Receptor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many environmentally-relevant chemicals and drugs activate the nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR). Activation of PXR in the mouse liver can lead to increases in liver weight in part through increased hepatocyte replication similar to chemicals that activate other nuclear ...

  7. Genes encoding putative natural killer cell C-type lectin receptors in teleostean fishes

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Akie; Mayer, Werner E.; Overath, Peter; Klein, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Mammalian natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes that express receptors specific for MHC class I molecules. The NK cell receptors belong to two structurally unrelated families, the killer cell Ig-like receptors and the killer cell C-type lectin receptors. We describe a cDNA clone derived from the bony (cichlid) fish Paralabidochromis chilotes and show that it encodes a protein related to the CD94/NK cell group 2 (NKG2) subfamily of the killer cell C-type lectin receptors. The gene encoding this receptor in a related species, Oreochromis niloticus, has a similar structure to the human CD94/NKG2 genes and is a member of a multigene cluster that resembles the mammalian NK cell gene complex. Thus, the CD94/NKG2 subfamily of NK cell receptors must have arisen before the divergence of fish and tetrapods and may have retained its function (possibly monitoring the expression of MHC class I molecules) for >400 million years. PMID:12802013

  8. 5-HT2 Receptor Regulation of Mitochondrial Genes: Unexpected Pharmacological Effects of Agonists and Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Jennifer L; Wills, Lauren P; McOmish, Caitlin E; Demireva, Elena Y; Gingrich, Jay A; Beeson, Craig C; Schnellmann, Rick G

    2016-04-01

    In acute organ injuries, mitochondria are often dysfunctional, and recent research has revealed that recovery of mitochondrial and renal functions is accelerated by induction of mitochondrial biogenesis (MB). We previously reported that the nonselective 5-HT2 receptor agonist DOI [1-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)propan-2-amine] induced MB in renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs). The goal of this study was to determine the role of 5-HT2 receptors in the regulation of mitochondrial genes and oxidative metabolism in the kidney. The 5-HT2C receptor agonist CP-809,101 [2-[(3-chlorophenyl)methoxy]-6-(1-piperazinyl)pyrazine] and antagonist SB-242,084 [6-chloro-2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-N-[6-[(2-methyl-3-pyridinyl)oxy]-3-pyridinyl]-1H-indole-1-carboxyamide dihydrochloride] were used to examine the induction of renal mitochondrial genes and oxidative metabolism in RPTCs and in mouse kidneys in the presence and absence of the 5-HT2C receptor. Unexpectedly, both CP-809,101 and SB-242,084 increased RPTC respiration and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) mRNA expression in RPTCs at 1-10 nM. In addition, CP-809,101 and SB-242,084 increased mRNA expression of PGC-1α and the mitochondrial proteins NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) β subcomplex 8 in mice. These compounds increased mitochondrial genes in RPTCs in which the 5-HT2C receptor was downregulated with small interfering RNA and in the renal cortex of mice lacking the 5-HT2C receptor. By contrast, the ability of these compounds to increase PGC-1α mRNA and respiration was blocked in RPTCs treated with 5-HT2A receptor small interfering RNA or the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist eplivanserin. In addition, the 5-HT2A receptor agonist NBOH-2C-CN [4-[2-[[(2-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]amino]ethyl]-2,5-dimethoxybenzonitrile] increased RPTC respiration at 1-100 nM. These results suggest that agonism of the 5-HT2A receptor induces MB and that the classic 5-HT2C receptor agonist CP

  9. The nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor contribute to the impact of fipronil on hepatic gene expression linked to thyroid hormone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Roques, Béatrice B; Leghait, Julien; Lacroix, Marlène Z; Lasserre, Frédéric; Pineau, Thierry; Viguié, Catherine; Martin, Pascal G P

    2013-10-01

    Fipronil is described as a thyroid disruptor in rat. Based on the hypothesis that this results from a perturbation of hepatic thyroid hormone metabolism, our goal was to investigate the pathways involved in fipronil-induced liver gene expression regulations. First, we performed a microarray screening in the liver of rats treated with fipronil or vehicle. Fipronil treatment led to the upregulation of several genes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics, including the cytochrome P450 Cyp2b1, Cyp2b2 and Cyp3a1, the carboxylesterases Ces2 and Ces6, the phase II enzymes Ugt1a1, Sult1b1 and Gsta2, and the membrane transporters Abcc2, Abcc3, Abcg5, Abcg8, Slco1a1 and Slco1a4. Based on a large overlap with the target genes of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR), we postulated that these two nuclear receptors are involved in mediating the effects of fipronil on liver gene expression in rodents. We controlled that liver gene expression changes induced by fipronil were generally reproduced in mice, and then studied the effects of fipronil in wild-type, CAR- and PXR-deficient mice. For most of the genes studied, the gene expression modulations were abolished in the liver of PXR-deficient mice and were reduced in the liver of CAR-deficient mice. However, CAR and PXR activation in mouse liver was not associated with a marked increase of thyroid hormone clearance, as observed in rat. Nevertheless, our data clearly indicate that PXR and CAR are key modulators of the hepatic gene expression profile following fipronil treatment which, in rats, may contribute to increase thyroid hormone clearance. PMID:23962444

  10. Molecular Characterization of the Aphis gossypii Olfactory Receptor Gene Families

    PubMed Central

    Walker, William B.; Li, Jianhong; Wang, Guirong

    2014-01-01

    The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, is a polyphagous pest that inflicts great damage to cotton yields worldwide. Antennal olfaction, which is extremely important for insect survival, mediates key behaviors such as host preference, mate choice, and oviposition site selection. In insects, odor detection is mediated by odorant receptors (ORs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs), which ensure the specificity of the olfactory sensory neuron responses. In this study, our aim is to identify chemosensory receptors in the cotton aphid genome, as a means to uncover olfactory encoding of the polyphagous feeding habits as well as to aid the discovery of new targets for behavioral interference. We identified a total of 45 candidate ORs and 14 IRs in the cotton aphid genome. Among the candidate AgoORs, 9 are apparent pseudogenes, while 19 can be clustered with ORs from the pea aphid, forming 16 AgoOR/ApOR orthologous subgroups. Among the candidate IRs, we identified homologs of the two highly conserved co-receptors IR8a and IR25a; no AgoIR retain the complete glutamic acid binding domain, suggesting that putative AgoIRs bind different ligands. Our results provide the necessary information for functional characterization of the chemosensory receptors of A. gossypii, with potential for new or refined applications of semiochemicals-based control of this pest insect. PMID:24971460

  11. Regulation of the human thromboxane A2 receptor gene in human megakaryoblastic MEG-01 cells.

    PubMed

    Saffak, T; Schäfer, S; Haas, C; Nüsing, R M

    2003-11-01

    Thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) is an important mediator for platelet aggregation and blood vessel constriction. TXA(2) receptor (TP receptor) is expressed in different cell types including smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells and platelets. Expression level of TP receptor may modulate the action of TXA(2) on target cells. In megakaryoblastic MEG-01 cells, a cell line representing a model for platelet precursor cells, addition of phorbolester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) caused an increase in transcriptional activity of TP receptor gene promoter. Within 20 h a rise in expression of TP receptor mRNA and protein was observed. The effect of TPA was concentration-dependent and was blocked by specific inhibitors of protein kinase C. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that the increase in TP receptor expression appeared to be one of the earliest events in the course of TPA-induced maturation of MEG-01 cells. Stimulation of the protein kinase A pathway by incubation with forskolin or IBMX caused a decrease in transcriptional activity. Promoter deletion experiments indicated that the responsive elements for protein kinase A and C are located upstream and downstream, respectively, of -700 bp of the TP receptor gene. These experiments indicate that the expression of the human thromboxane receptor is differently regulated in platelet precursor cells by the protein kinase A and C pathway. PMID:14580363

  12. Massive losses of taste receptor genes in toothed and baleen whales.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ping; Zheng, Jinsong; Rossiter, Stephen J; Wang, Ding; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-06-01

    Taste receptor genes are functionally important in animals, with a surprising exception in the bottlenose dolphin, which shows extensive losses of sweet, umami, and bitter taste receptor genes. To examine the generality of taste gene loss, we examined seven toothed whales and five baleen whales and sequenced the complete repertoire of three sweet/umami (T1Rs) and ten bitter (T2Rs) taste receptor genes. We found all amplified T1Rs and T2Rs to be pseudogenes in all 12 whales, with a shared premature stop codon in 10 of the 13 genes, which demonstrated massive losses of taste receptor genes in the common ancestor of whales. Furthermore, we analyzed three genome sequences from two toothed whales and one baleen whale and found that the sour taste marker gene Pkd2l1 is a pseudogene, whereas the candidate salty taste receptor genes are intact and putatively functional. Additionally, we examined three genes that are responsible for taste signal transduction and found the relaxation of functional constraints on taste signaling pathways along the ancestral branch leading to whales. Together, our results strongly suggest extensive losses of sweet, umami, bitter, and sour tastes in whales, and the relaxation of taste function most likely arose in the common ancestor of whales between 36 and 53 Ma. Therefore, whales represent the first animal group to lack four of five primary tastes, probably driven by the marine environment with high concentration of sodium, the feeding behavior of swallowing prey whole, and the dietary switch from plants to meat in the whale ancestor. PMID:24803572

  13. Massive Losses of Taste Receptor Genes in Toothed and Baleen Whales

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ping; Zheng, Jinsong; Rossiter, Stephen J.; Wang, Ding; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-01-01

    Taste receptor genes are functionally important in animals, with a surprising exception in the bottlenose dolphin, which shows extensive losses of sweet, umami, and bitter taste receptor genes. To examine the generality of taste gene loss, we examined seven toothed whales and five baleen whales and sequenced the complete repertoire of three sweet/umami (T1Rs) and ten bitter (T2Rs) taste receptor genes. We found all amplified T1Rs and T2Rs to be pseudogenes in all 12 whales, with a shared premature stop codon in 10 of the 13 genes, which demonstrated massive losses of taste receptor genes in the common ancestor of whales. Furthermore, we analyzed three genome sequences from two toothed whales and one baleen whale and found that the sour taste marker gene Pkd2l1 is a pseudogene, whereas the candidate salty taste receptor genes are intact and putatively functional. Additionally, we examined three genes that are responsible for taste signal transduction and found the relaxation of functional constraints on taste signaling pathways along the ancestral branch leading to whales. Together, our results strongly suggest extensive losses of sweet, umami, bitter, and sour tastes in whales, and the relaxation of taste function most likely arose in the common ancestor of whales between 36 and 53 Ma. Therefore, whales represent the first animal group to lack four of five primary tastes, probably driven by the marine environment with high concentration of sodium, the feeding behavior of swallowing prey whole, and the dietary switch from plants to meat in the whale ancestor. PMID:24803572

  14. Natural killer cell receptor genes in the family Equidae: not only Ly49.

    PubMed

    Futas, Jan; Horin, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells have important functions in immunity. NK recognition in mammals can be mediated through killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and/or killer cell lectin-like Ly49 receptors. Genes encoding highly variable NK cell receptors (NKR) represent rapidly evolving genomic regions. No single conservative model of NKR genes was observed in mammals. Single-copy low polymorphic NKR genes present in one mammalian species may expand into highly polymorphic multigene families in other species. In contrast to other non-rodent mammals, multiple Ly49-like genes appear to exist in the horse, while no functional KIR genes were observed in this species. In this study, Ly49 and KIR were sought and their evolution was characterized in the entire family Equidae. Genomic sequences retrieved showed the presence of at least five highly conserved polymorphic Ly49 genes in horses, asses and zebras. These findings confirmed that the expansion of Ly49 occurred in the entire family. Several KIR-like sequences were also identified in the genome of Equids. Besides a previously identified non-functional KIR-Immunoglobulin-like transcript fusion gene (KIR-ILTA) and two putative pseudogenes, a KIR3DL-like sequence was analyzed. In contrast to previous observations made in the horse, the KIR3DL sequence, genomic organization and mRNA expression suggest that all Equids might produce a functional KIR receptor protein molecule with a single non-mutated immune tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM) domain. No evidence for positive selection in the KIR3DL gene was found. Phylogenetic analysis including rhinoceros and tapir genomic DNA and deduced amino acid KIR-related sequences showed differences between families and even between species within the order Perissodactyla. The results suggest that the order Perissodactyla and its family Equidae with expanded Ly49 genes and with a potentially functional KIR gene may represent an interesting model for evolutionary biology of

  15. A complement receptor locus: genes encoding C3b/C4b receptor and C3d/Epstein-Barr virus receptor map to 1q32.

    PubMed

    Weis, J H; Morton, C C; Bruns, G A; Weis, J J; Klickstein, L B; Wong, W W; Fearon, D T

    1987-01-01

    The alternative or classical pathways for complement system component C3 may be triggered by microorganisms and antigen-antibody complexes. In particular, an activated fragment of C3, C3b, covalently attaches to microorganisms or antigen-antibody complexes, which in turn bind to the C3b receptor, also known as complement receptor 1. The genes encoding the proteins that constitute the C3-activating enzymes have been cloned and mapped to a "complement activation" locus in the major histocompatibility complex, and we demonstrate in this study such a locus on the long arm of chromosome 1 at band 1q32. PMID:3782802

  16. Sulfotransferase genes: Regulation by nuclear receptors in response to xeno/endo-biotics

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Susumu; Negishi, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    Pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR), members of the nuclear receptor superfamily, are two major xeno-sensing transcription factors. They can be activated by a broad range of lipophilic xenobiotics including therapeutics drugs. In addition to xenobiotics, endogenous compounds such as steroid hormones and bile acids can also activate PXR and/or CAR. These nuclear receptors regulate genes that encode enzymes and transporters that metabolize and excrete both xenobiotics and endobiotics. Sulfotransferases (SULTs) are a group of these enzymes and sulfate xenobiotics for detoxification. In general, inactivation by sulfation constitutes the mechanism to maintain homeostasis of endobiotics. Thus, deciphering the molecular mechanism by which PXR and CAR regulate SULT genes is critical for understanding the roles of SULTs in the alterations of physiological and pathophysiological processes caused by drug treatment or environmental exposures. PMID:24025090

  17. Form follows function - the three-dimensional structure of antigen receptor gene loci.

    PubMed

    Fugmann, Sebastian D

    2014-04-01

    Antigen receptor genes are assembled during lymphocyte development from individual gene segments by a somatic gene rearrangement process named V(D)J recombination. This process is tightly regulated to ensure the generation of an unbiased broad primary repertoire of immunoglobulins and T cell receptors, and to prevent aberrant recombination products that could initiate lymphomagenesis. One important mode of regulation that has recently been discovered for the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene locus is the adoption of distinct three-dimensional structures of the locus. Changes in the spatial conformation are thought to ensure the appropriate access of the V(D)J recombinase machinery at each developmental stage, and the formation of extensive chromosome loops has been implicated in allowing equal access to widely dispersed gene elements. PMID:24549092

  18. The Relationship Between Gene Polymorphism of Leptin and Leptin Receptor and Growth Hormone Deficiency.

    PubMed

    He, Jinshui; Fang, Yanling; Lin, Xinfu; Zhou, Huowang; Zhu, Shaobo; Zhang, Yugui; Yang, Huicong; Ye, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a major cause of congenital short stature. GHD patients have significantly decreased serum leptin levels, which are regulated by gene polymorphism of leptin and leptin receptor. This study thus investigated the relationship between gene polymorphism and susceptibility to GHD. MATERIAL AND METHODS A case-control study was performed using 180 GHD children in addition to 160 healthy controls. After the extraction of whole genomic DNA, the genotypes of leptin and leptin receptor gene loci were analyzed by sequencing for single-nucleotide polymorphism. RESULTS The frequency distribution of all alleles identified in leptin gene (loci rs7799039) and leptin receptor gene (loci rs1137100 and rs1137101) fit Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. There was a significant difference in allele frequency at loci rs7799039 or rs1137101, as individuals with heterozygous GA allele had lower (rs7799039) or higher (rs1137101) GHD risk. No significant difference in allele frequency was discovered at loci rs1137100 (p>0.05), which was unrelated to GHD susceptibility. CONCLUSIONS Gene polymorphism of leptin (loci rs7799039) and leptin receptor (loci rs1137101) are correlated with GHD susceptibility. PMID:26915772

  19. The Relationship Between Gene Polymorphism of Leptin and Leptin Receptor and Growth Hormone Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    He, Jinshui; Fang, Yanling; Lin, Xinfu; Zhou, Huowang; Zhu, Shaobo; Zhang, Yugui; Yang, Huicong; Ye, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a major cause of congenital short stature. GHD patients have significantly decreased serum leptin levels, which are regulated by gene polymorphism of leptin and leptin receptor. This study thus investigated the relationship between gene polymorphism and susceptibility to GHD. Material/Methods A case-control study was performed using 180 GHD children in addition to 160 healthy controls. After the extraction of whole genomic DNA, the genotypes of leptin and leptin receptor gene loci were analyzed by sequencing for single-nucleotide polymorphism. Results The frequency distribution of all alleles identified in leptin gene (loci rs7799039) and leptin receptor gene (loci rs1137100 and rs1137101) fit Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. There was a significant difference in allele frequency at loci rs7799039 or rs1137101, as individuals with heterozygous GA allele had lower (rs7799039) or higher (rs1137101) GHD risk. No significant difference in allele frequency was discovered at loci rs1137100 (p>0.05), which was unrelated to GHD susceptibility. Conclusions Gene polymorphism of leptin (loci rs7799039) and leptin receptor (loci rs1137101) are correlated with GHD susceptibility. PMID:26915772

  20. Molecular characterization of a mouse prostaglandin D receptor and functional expression of the cloned gene.

    PubMed

    Hirata, M; Kakizuka, A; Aizawa, M; Ushikubi, F; Narumiya, S

    1994-11-01

    Prostanoid receptors belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors with seven transmembrane domains. By taking advantage of nucleotide sequence homology among the prostanoid receptors, we have isolated and identified a cDNA fragment and its gene encoding a mouse prostaglandin (PG) D receptor by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and gene cloning. This gene codes for a polypeptide of 357 amino acids, with a calculated molecular weight of 40,012. The deduced amino acid sequence has a high degree of similarity with the mouse PGI receptor and the EP2 subtype of the PGE receptor, which together form a subgroup of the prostanoid receptors. Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing the gene showed a single class of binding sites for [#H]PGD2 with a Kd of 40 nM. This binding was displaced by unlabeled ligands in the following order: PGD2 > BW 245C (a PGD agonist) > BW A868C (a PGD antagonist) > STA2 (a thromboxane A2 agonist). PGE2, PGF2 alpha, and iloprost showed little displacement activity at concentrations up to 10 microM. PGD2 and BW 245C also increased cAMP levels in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the receptor, in a concentration-dependent manner. BW A868C showed a partial agonist activity in the cAMP assay. Northern blotting analysis with mouse poly(A)+ RNA identified a major mRNA species of 3.5 kb that was most abundantly expressed in the ileum, followed by lung, stomach, and uterus. PMID:7972033

  1. MAPPING OF TOLL LIKE RECEPTOR (TLR) GENES IN RAINBOW TROUT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of transmembrane proteins that recognize conserved pathogen structures to induce innate immune effector molecules. In vertebrates, TLRs can distinguish among classes of pathogens and serve an important role in orchestrating the appropriate adaptive immune resp...

  2. Ecdysone Receptor-Based Gene Switches for Applications in Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are a number of circumstances in which it is advantageous to use an inducible gene regulation system, the most obvious being when introducing transgenes whose constitutive expression is detrimental or even lethal to the host plants. The selective induction of gene expression is typically accom...

  3. Identification of liver receptor homolog-1 as a novel regulator of apolipoprotein AI gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Delerive, Philippe; Galardi, Cristin M; Bisi, John E; Nicodeme, Edwige; Goodwin, Bryan

    2004-10-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) has been reported to play a role in bile acid biosynthesis and reverse cholesterol transport. In this study, we examined the role of LRH-1 in the regulation of the apolipoprotein AI (APOAI) gene. Using RNA interference and adenovirus-mediated overexpression, we show that LRH-1 directly regulates APOAI gene transcription. Transient transfection experiments and EMSAs revealed that LRH-1 directly regulates APOAI transcription by binding to an LRH-1 response element located in the proximal APOAI promoter region. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that LRH-1 binds to the human APO AI promoter in vivo. Finally, we show that the transcriptional repressor SHP (small heterodimer partner) suppressed APOAI gene expression by inhibiting LRH-1 transcriptional activity. Taken together, our results demonstrate that LRH-1 is a novel regulator of APOAI transcription and underscore the role of this receptor in cholesterol homeostasis. PMID:15218078

  4. Mineralocorticoid receptor interaction with SP1 generates a new response element for pathophysiologically relevant gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Meinel, Sandra; Ruhs, Stefanie; Schumann, Katja; Strätz, Nicole; Trenkmann, Kay; Schreier, Barbara; Grosse, Ivo; Keilwagen, Jens; Gekle, Michael; Grossmann, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-induced transcription factor belonging to the steroid receptor family and involved in water-electrolyte homeostasis, blood pressure regulation, inflammation and fibrosis in the renocardiovascular system. The MR shares a common hormone-response-element with the glucocorticoid receptor but nevertheless elicits MR-specific effects including enhanced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression via unknown mechanisms. The EGFR is a receptor tyrosine kinase that leads to activation of MAP kinases, but that can also function as a signal transducer for other signaling pathways. In the present study, we mechanistically investigate the interaction between a newly discovered MR- but not glucocorticoid receptor- responsive-element (=MRE1) of the EGFR promoter, specificity protein 1 (SP1) and MR to gain general insights into MR-specificity. Biological relevance of the interaction for EGFR expression and consequently for different signaling pathways in general is demonstrated in human, rat and murine vascular smooth muscle cells and cells of EGFR knockout mice. A genome-wide promoter search for identical binding regions followed by quantitative PCR validation suggests that the identified MR-SP1–MRE1 interaction might be applicable to other genes. Overall, a novel principle of MR-specific gene expression is explored that applies to the pathophysiologically relevant expression of the EGFR and potentially also to other genes. PMID:23821666

  5. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida haem receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Naka, H; Hirono, I; Aoki, T

    2005-02-01

    A haem receptor gene from Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (formerly known as Pasteurella piscicida) has been cloned, sequenced and analysed for its function. The gene, designated as pph, has an open reading frame consisting of 2154 bp, a predicted 718 amino acid residues and exists as a single copy. It is homologous with the haem receptors of Vibrio anguillarum hupA, V. cholerae hutA, V. mimicus mhuA and V. vulnificus hupA at 32.7, 32.7, 45.6 and 30.9%, respectively, and is highly conserved, consisting of a Phe-Arg-Ala-Pro sequence (FRAP), an iron transport related molecule (TonB) and a Asn-Pron-Asn-Leu sequence (NPNL), binding motifs associated with haem receptors. As a single gene knockout mutant P. damselae subsp. piscicida was able to bind haem in the absence of pph, suggesting that other receptors may be involved in its iron transport system. This study shows that the P. damselae subsp. piscicida pph belongs to the haem receptor family, is conserved and that its iron-binding system may involve more than one receptor. PMID:15705153

  6. Early vertebrate chromosome duplications and the evolution of the neuropeptide Y receptor gene regions

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background One of the many gene families that expanded in early vertebrate evolution is the neuropeptide (NPY) receptor family of G-protein coupled receptors. Earlier work by our lab suggested that several of the NPY receptor genes found in extant vertebrates resulted from two genome duplications before the origin of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) and one additional genome duplication in the actinopterygian lineage, based on their location on chromosomes sharing several gene families. In this study we have investigated, in five vertebrate genomes, 45 gene families with members close to the NPY receptor genes in the compact genomes of the teleost fishes Tetraodon nigroviridis and Takifugu rubripes. These correspond to Homo sapiens chromosomes 4, 5, 8 and 10. Results Chromosome regions with conserved synteny were identified and confirmed by phylogenetic analyses in H. sapiens, M. musculus, D. rerio, T. rubripes and T. nigroviridis. 26 gene families, including the NPY receptor genes, (plus 3 described recently by other labs) showed a tree topology consistent with duplications in early vertebrate evolution and in the actinopterygian lineage, thereby supporting expansion through block duplications. Eight gene families had complications that precluded analysis (such as short sequence length or variable number of repeated domains) and another eight families did not support block duplications (because the paralogs in these families seem to have originated in another time window than the proposed genome duplication events). RT-PCR carried out with several tissues in T. rubripes revealed that all five NPY receptors were expressed in the brain and subtypes Y2, Y4 and Y8 were also expressed in peripheral organs. Conclusion We conclude that the phylogenetic analyses and chromosomal locations of these gene families support duplications of large blocks of genes or even entire chromosomes. Thus, these results are consistent with two early vertebrate tetraploidizations forming a

  7. Dopamine D4 receptor gene polymorphism and personality traits in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Persson, M L; Wasserman, D; Geijer, T; Frisch, A; Rockah, R; Michaelovsky, E; Apter, A; Weizman, A; Jönsson, E G; Bergman, H

    2000-01-01

    An association between long alleles of a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the dopamine receptor D4 gene and the extraversion related personality traits Excitement and Novelty Seeking has been reported in healthy subjects. In an attempt to replicate the previous findings, 256 healthy Caucasian volunteers were analysed for a potential relationship between the dopamine receptor D4 exon III VNTR polymorphism and Extraversion as assessed by the Revised Neo Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R). The present study did not yield evidence for an association between Extraversion and the dopamine receptor D4 polymorphism. PMID:11009073

  8. Juvenile hormone and its receptor, methoprene-tolerant, control the dynamics of mosquito gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Zhen; Saha, Tusar T.; Roy, Sourav; Shin, Sang Woon; Backman, Tyler W. H.; Girke, Thomas; White, Kevin P.; Raikhel, Alexander S.

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile hormone III (JH) plays a key role in regulating the reproduction of female mosquitoes. Microarray time-course analysis revealed dynamic changes in gene expression during posteclosion (PE) development in the fat body of female Aedes aegypti. Hierarchical clustering identified three major gene clusters: 1,843 early-PE (EPE) genes maximally expressed at 6 h PE, 457 mid-PE (MPE) genes at 24 h PE, and 1,815 late-PE (LPE) genes at 66 h PE. The RNAi microarray screen for the JH receptor Methoprene-tolerant (Met) showed that 27% of EPE and 40% of MPE genes were up-regulated whereas 36% of LPE genes were down-regulated in the absence of this receptor. Met repression of EPE and MPE and activation of LPE genes were validated by an in vitro fat-body culture experiment using Met RNAi. Sequence motif analysis revealed the consensus for a 9-mer Met-binding motif, CACGC/TGA/GT/AG. Met-binding motif variants were overrepresented within the first 300 bases of the promoters of Met RNAi–down-regulated (LPE) genes but not in Met RNAi–up-regulated (EPE) genes. EMSAs using a combination of mutational and anti-Met antibody supershift analyses confirmed the binding properties of the Met consensus motif variants. There was a striking temporal separation of expression profiles among major functional gene groups, with carbohydrate, lipid, and xenobiotics metabolism belonging to the EPE and MPE clusters and transcription and translation to the LPE cluster. This study represents a significant advancement in the understanding of the regulation of gene expression by JH and its receptor Met during female mosquito reproduction. PMID:23633570

  9. Generation of systemin signaling in tobacco by transformation with the tomato systemin receptor kinase gene

    PubMed Central

    Scheer, Justin M.; Pearce, Gregory; Ryan, Clarence A.

    2003-01-01

    The tomato systemin receptor, SR160, a plasma membrane-bound, leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase that signals systemic plant defense, and the brassinolide (BL) receptor, BRI1, that regulates developmental processes, have been shown recently to have identical amino acid sequences. We report herein that tobacco, a solanaceous species that does not express a systemin precursor gene nor responds to systemin, when transformed with the SR160 receptor gene, expresses the gene in suspension-cultured cells, evidenced by mRNA and protein analyses and photoaffinity-labeling experiments. Additionally, systemin induced an alkalinization response in the transgenic tobacco cells similar to that found in tomato cells, but not in WT cells. The gain in function in tobacco cells indicates that early steps of the systemin signaling pathway found in tomato are present in tobacco cells. A tomato line, cu-3, in which a mutation in the BRI1 gene has rendered the plant nonfunctional in BL signaling, exhibits a severely reduced response to systemin. In leaves of WT tomato plants, BL strongly and reversibly antagonized systemic signaling by systemin. The results suggest that the systemin-mediated systemic defense response may have evolved in some solanaceous species by co-opting the BRI1 receptor and associated components for defense signaling. PMID:12900501

  10. Sequence variation in the androgen receptor gene is not a common determinant of male sexual orientation.

    PubMed Central

    Macke, J P; Hu, N; Hu, S; Bailey, M; King, V L; Brown, T; Hamer, D; Nathans, J

    1993-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that DNA sequence variation in the androgen receptor gene plays a causal role in the development of male sexual orientation, we have (1) measured the degree of concordance of androgen receptor alleles in 36 pairs of homosexual brothers, (2) compared the lengths of polyglutamine and polyglycine tracts in the amino-terminal domain of the androgen receptor in a sample of 197 homosexual males and 213 unselected subjects, and (3) screened the the entire androgen receptor coding region for sequence variation by PCR and denaturing gradient-gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and/or single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis in 20 homosexual males with homosexual or bisexual brothers and one homosexual male with no homosexual brothers, and screened the amino-terminal domain of the receptor for sequence variation in an additional 44 homosexual males, 37 of whom had one or more first- or second-degree male relatives who were either homosexual or bisexual. These analyses show that (1) homosexual brothers are as likely to be discordant as concordant for androgen receptor alleles; (2) there are no large-scale differences between the distributions of polyglycine or polyglutamine tract lengths in the homosexual and control groups; and (3) coding region sequence variation is not commonly found within the androgen receptor gene of homosexual men. The DGGE screen identified two rare amino acid substitutions, ser205-to-arg and glu793-to-asp, the biological significance of which is unknown. Images Figure 2 PMID:8213813

  11. Gene set of chemosensory receptors in the polyembryonic endoparasitoid Macrocentrus cingulum

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Tofael; Zhang, Tiantao; Wang, Zhenying; He, Kanglai; Bai, Shuxiong

    2016-01-01

    Insects are extremely successful animals whose odor perception is very prominent due to their sophisticated olfactory system. The main chemosensory organ, antennae play a critical role in detecting odor in ambient environment before initiating appropriate behavioral responses. The antennal chemosensory receptor genes families have been suggested to be involved in olfactory signal transduction pathway as a sensory neuron response. The Macrocentrus cingulum is deployed successfully as a biological control agent for corn pest insects from the Lepidopteran genus Ostrinia. In this research, we assembled antennal transcriptomes of M. cingulum by using next generation sequencing to identify the major chemosensory receptors gene families. In total, 112 olfactory receptors candidates (79 odorant receptors, 20 gustatory receptors, and 13 ionotropic receptors) have been identified from the male and female antennal transcriptome. The sequences of all of these transcripts were confirmed by RT-PCR, and direct DNA sequencing. Expression profiles of gustatory receptors in olfactory and non-olfactory tissues were measured by RT-qPCR. The sex-specific and sex-biased chemoreceptors expression patterns suggested that they may have important functions in sense detection which behaviorally relevant to odor molecules. This reported result provides a comprehensive resource of the foundation in semiochemicals driven behaviors at molecular level in polyembryonic endoparasitoid. PMID:27090020

  12. Sequence variation in the androgen receptor gene is not a common determinant of male sexual orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Macke, J.P.; Nathans, J.; King, V.L. ); Hu, N.; Hu, S.; Hamer, D.; Bailey, M. ); Brown, T. )

    1993-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that DNA sequence variation in the androgen receptor gene plays a causal role in the development of male sexual orientation, the authors have (1) measured the degree of concordance of androgen receptor alleles in 36 pairs of homosexual brothers, (2) compared the lengths of polyglutamine and polyglycine tracts in the amino-terminal domain of the androgen receptor in a sample of 197 homosexual males and 213 unselected subjects, and (3) screened the entire androgen receptor coding region for sequence variation by PCR and denaturing gradient-gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and/or single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis in 20 homosexual males with homosexual or bisexual brothers and one homosexual male with no homosexual brothers, and screened the amino-terminal domain of the receptor for sequence variation in an additional 44 homosexual males, 37 of whom had one or more first- or second-degree male relatives who were either homosexual or bisexual. These analyses show that (1) homosexual brothers are as likely to be discordant as concordant for androgen receptor alleles; (2) there are no large-scale differences between the distributions of polyglycine or polyglutamine tract lengths in the homosexual and control groups; and (3) coding region sequence variation is not commonly found within the androgen receptor gene of homosexual men. The DGGE screen identified two rare amino acid substitutions, ser[sup 205] -to-arg and glu[sup 793]-to-asp, the biological significance of which is unknown. 32 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Gene set of chemosensory receptors in the polyembryonic endoparasitoid Macrocentrus cingulum.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Tofael; Zhang, Tiantao; Wang, Zhenying; He, Kanglai; Bai, Shuxiong

    2016-01-01

    Insects are extremely successful animals whose odor perception is very prominent due to their sophisticated olfactory system. The main chemosensory organ, antennae play a critical role in detecting odor in ambient environment before initiating appropriate behavioral responses. The antennal chemosensory receptor genes families have been suggested to be involved in olfactory signal transduction pathway as a sensory neuron response. The Macrocentrus cingulum is deployed successfully as a biological control agent for corn pest insects from the Lepidopteran genus Ostrinia. In this research, we assembled antennal transcriptomes of M. cingulum by using next generation sequencing to identify the major chemosensory receptors gene families. In total, 112 olfactory receptors candidates (79 odorant receptors, 20 gustatory receptors, and 13 ionotropic receptors) have been identified from the male and female antennal transcriptome. The sequences of all of these transcripts were confirmed by RT-PCR, and direct DNA sequencing. Expression profiles of gustatory receptors in olfactory and non-olfactory tissues were measured by RT-qPCR. The sex-specific and sex-biased chemoreceptors expression patterns suggested that they may have important functions in sense detection which behaviorally relevant to odor molecules. This reported result provides a comprehensive resource of the foundation in semiochemicals driven behaviors at molecular level in polyembryonic endoparasitoid. PMID:27090020

  14. Localization of the receptor gene for type D simian retroviruses on human chromosome 19.

    PubMed Central

    Sommerfelt, M A; Williams, B P; McKnight, A; Goodfellow, P N; Weiss, R A

    1990-01-01

    Simian retrovirus (SRV) serotypes 1 to 5 are exogenous type D viruses causing immune suppression in macaque monkeys. These viruses exhibit receptor interference with each other, with two endogenous type D viruses of the langur (PO-1-Lu) and squirrel monkey, and with two type C retroviruses, feline endogenous virus (RD114/CCC) and baboon endogenous virus (BaEV), indicating that each utilizes the same cell surface receptor (M. A. Sommerfelt and R. A. Weiss, Virology 176:58-69, 1990). Vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotype particles bearing envelope glycoproteins of RD114, BaEV, and the seven SRV strains were employed to detect receptors expressed in human-rodent somatic cell hybrids segregating human chromosomes. The only human chromosome common to all the susceptible hybrids was chromosome 19. By using hybrids retaining different fragments of chromosome 19, a provisional subchromosomal localization of the receptor gene was made to 19q13.1-13.2. Antibodies previously reported to be specific to a BaEV receptor (L. Thiry, J. Cogniaux-Leclerc, R. Olislager, S. Sprecher-Goldberger, and P. Burkens, J. Virol. 48:697-708, 1983) did not block BaEV, RD114, or SRV pseudotypes or syncytia. Antibodies to known surface markers determined by genes mapped to chromosome 19 did not block virus-receptor interaction. The identity of the receptor remains to be determined. PMID:2173788

  15. Improving lipoprotein profiles by liver-directed gene transfer of low density lipoprotein receptor gene in hypercholesterolaemia mice.

    PubMed

    Ou, Hailong; Zhang, Qinghai; Zeng, Jia

    2016-06-01

    The defect of low density lipoprotein receptor disturbs cholesterol metabolism and causes familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). In this study, we directly delivered exogenous Ldlr gene into the liver of FH model mice (Ldlr(-/-)) by lentiviral gene transfer system. The results showed that the Ldlr gene controlled by hepatocyte-specific human thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) promoter successfully and exclusively expressed in livers.We found that, although, the content of high density lipoprotein in serum was not significantly affected by the Ldlr gene expression, the serum low density lipoprotein level was reduced by 46%, associated with a 30% and 28% decrease in triglyceride and total cholesterol, respectively, compared to uninjected Ldlr(-/-) mice. Moreover, the TBG directed expression of Ldlr significantly decreased the lipid accumulation in liver and reduced plaque burden in aorta (32%). Our results indicated that the hepatocyte-specific expression of Ldlr gene strikingly lowered serum lipid levels and resulted in amelioration of hypercholesterolaemia. PMID:27350674

  16. Possible association between the prolactin receptor gene and callous-unemotional traits among aggressive children.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Yuko; Zai, Clement C; Nowrouzi, Behdin; Shaikh, Sajid A; Kennedy, James L; Beitchman, Joe H

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the possible association between prolactin (PRL) system genes and callous-unemotional (CU) traits in childhood-onset aggression. Two markers for the PRL peptide gene and three markers for the prolactin receptor (PRLR) gene were genotyped. The participants were assessed on the CU subscale using five items from the Antisocial Process Screening Device. Genotype analysis showed nominally significant results with PRLR_rs187490 (uncorrected P=0.01), with the GG genotype associated with higher CU scores. This is the first paper to evaluate the relationship of PRL system genes with CU traits in childhood-onset aggression. PMID:26513615

  17. Evidence for a previously unidentified upstream exon in the human oestrogen receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Keaveney, M; Klug, J; Dawson, M T; Nestor, P V; Neilan, J G; Forde, R C; Gannon, F

    1991-02-01

    The presence of a previously unidentified exon upstream of the originally described human oestrogen receptor (hOR) gene is demonstrated. This is shown to be spliced to the 5' untranslated region of the previously designated exon I. The resulting genomic structure of the human gene is thus in agreement with the structure of the mouse OR gene and highlights the conservation of an 18 amino acid upstream open-reading frame formed from the above splicing event. Taken in conjunction with previous publications this would suggest that the hOR gene is a complex transcriptional unit that contains two promoters. PMID:2015052

  18. Potential of GRID2 receptor gene for preventing TNF-induced neurodegeneration in autism.

    PubMed

    Kalkan, Zeynep; Durasi, İlknur Melis; Sezerman, Ugur; Atasever-Arslan, Belkis

    2016-05-01

    Autism is one of the most common subtypes of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent studies suggested a relationship between immune-dependent coding genes and ASD, indicating that long term neuroimmunological anomalies affect brain development and synaptic transmission among neural networks. Furthermore, various studies focused on biomarker potential of TNF-α in autism. Ionotropic receptors are also studied as potential marker for autism since altered gene expression levels are observed in autistic patients. GRID2 is a candidate ionotropic receptor which is involved glutamate transfer. In this study, to propose TNF-α dependent cellular processes involved in autism aetiology in relation to GRID2 we performed a bioinformatic network analysis and identified potential pathways and genes that are involved in TNF-α induced changes at GRID2 receptor levels. As a result, we ascertained the GRID2 receptor gene as a candidate gene and further studied the association between GRID2 expression levels and TNF-induced neurodegeneration. Our bioinformatic analyses and experimental results revealed that TNF-α regulates GRID2 gene expression by activating Cdc42 and GOPC genes. Moreover, increased TNF-α levels leads to increase of caspase-3 protein levels triggering neuronal apoptosis leading to neuronal deficiency, which is one of the major symptoms of autism. The study is the first to show the role of TNF-α in regulation of GRID2 gene expression and its signalling pathway. As a result, GRID2 gene can be a suppressor in TNF-induced neurodegeneration which may help to understand the main factors leading to autism. PMID:27019035

  19. Mutations in Melanocortin-3 Receptor Gene and Human Obesity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z; Tao, Y-X

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity calls for novel therapeutic targets. The melanocortin-3 receptor (MC3R) has been increasingly recognized as an important regulator of energy homeostasis and MC3R has been intensively analyzed in molecular genetic studies for obesity-related traits. Twenty-seven MC3R mutations and two common polymorphic variants have been identified so far in different cohorts. The mutant MC3Rs demonstrate multiple defects in functional analysis and can be cataloged into different classes according to receptor life cycle based classification system. Although the pathogenic role of MC3R in human obesity remains controversial, recent findings in the noncanonical signaling pathway of MC3R mutants have provided new insights. Potential therapeutic strategies for obesity related to MC3R mutations are highlighted. PMID:27288827

  20. The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Complex and the Control of Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Beischlag, Timothy V.; Morales, J. Luis; Hollingshead, Brett D.; Perdew, Gary H.

    2008-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that controls the expression of a diverse set of genes. The toxicity of the potent AhR ligand 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin is almost exclusively mediated through this receptor. However, the key alterations in gene expression that mediate toxicity are poorly understood. It has been established through characterization of AhR-null mice that the AhR has a required physiological function, yet how endogenous mediators regulate this orphan receptor remains to be established. A picture as to how the AhR/ARNT heterodimer actually mediates gene transcription is starting to emerge. The AhR/ARNT complex can alter transcription both by binding to its cognate response element and through tethering to other transcription factors. In addition, many of the coregulatory proteins necessary for AhR-mediated transcription have been identified. Cross talk between the estrogen receptor and the AhR at the promoter of target genes appears to be an important mode of regulation. Inflammatory signaling pathways and the AhR also appear to be another important site of cross talk at the level of transcription. A major focus of this review is to highlight experimental efforts to characterize nonclassical mechanisms of AhR-mediated modulation of gene transcription. PMID:18540824

  1. Differentiation of Murine Embryonic Stem Cells Induces Progesterone Receptor Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Sauter, Carley N.; McDermid, Rebecca L.; Weinberg, Amy L.; Greco, Tamara L.; Xu, Xiaojie; Murdoch, Fern E.; Fritsch, Michael K.

    2005-01-01

    The role of steroid hormone receptors in very early embryonic development remains unknown. Clearly, expression during organogenesis is important for tissue-specific development. However, progesterone receptor (PR) and estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ), are expressed during early development through the blastocyst stage in mice and other species, and yet are not essential for embryonic viability. We have utilized the mouse embryonic stem (mES) cell model to investigate the regulated expression of these receptors during differentiation. Surprisingly, one of the earliest changes in gene expression in response to a differentiation signal observed is PR gene induction. It parallels the time course of expression for the patterning genes Hoxb1 and Hoxa5. Unexpectedly, PR gene expression is not regulated in an estrogen dependent manner by endogenous ERs or by transiently overexpressed ERα. Our results suggest a potentially novel mechanism of PR gene regulation within mES cells compared to adult tissues and the possibility of unique targets of PR action during early mES cell differentiation PMID:16223481

  2. The 5' region of the human thromboxane A(2) receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Saffak, T; Nüsing, R M

    2002-07-01

    Thromboxane is an important modulator of hemostasis and smooth muscle tonus and signals via G-protein-coupled thromboxane receptor. Previously, we characterized the TP receptor gene and suggested the presence of three promoter regions within the gene. The aim of the present study was to examine the regulation of transcriptional gene expression. By primer extension experiments the major transcription initiation site was shown to be a doublet at -160/165 bp upstream of the ATG codon in human megakaryoblastic MEG-01 cells, endothelial ECV 304 cells and in human myometrium smooth muscle cells. In the erythroleukemic HEL 1 cells transcription initiation site was identified at -10 bp. Transcriptional activity of the three 5'flanking regions of TP receptor gene representing the putative promoter regions was evaluated by transfection of MEG-01 cells with chimeric constructs containing luciferase gene-encoding sequence. Promoter region I displayed highest transcriptional activity and RT-PCR analysis confirmed the transcription of TP receptor mRNA driven by promoter I. Although, weak transcriptional activity was also observed regarding promoter region II, we were unable to amplify cDNA fragments representing promoter II-driven mRNA synthesis. Considering promoter region III, transcriptional activity was barely detectable. Various deletions of the 3.9 kb promoter I region revealed a size-dependent transcriptional activity. Further, for full activity a 'core' promoter corresponding to the region from -160/165 to -588 bp appeared to be necessary for full transcriptional activity of promoter 1. PMID:12213432

  3. Differential expression of olfactory genes in the southern house mosquito and insights into unique odorant receptor gene isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Walter S.; Choo, Young-Moo; Xu, Pingxi; da Silva, Cherre S. B.; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, has one of the most acute and eclectic olfactory systems of all mosquito species hitherto studied. Here, we used Illumina sequencing to identify olfactory genes expressed predominantly in antenna, mosquito’s main olfactory organ. Less than 50% of the trimmed reads generated by high-quality libraries aligned to a transcript, but approximately 70% of them aligned to the genome. Differential expression analysis, which was validated by quantitative real-time PCR on a subset of genes, showed that approximately half of the 48 odorant-binding protein genes were enriched in antennae, with the other half being predominantly expressed in legs. Similar patterns were observed with chemosensory proteins, “plus-C” odorant-binding proteins, and sensory neuron membrane proteins. Transcripts for as many as 43 ionotropic receptors were enriched in female antennae, thus making the ionotropic receptor family the largest of antennae-rich olfactory genes, second only to odorant receptor (OR) genes. As many as 177 OR genes have been identified, including 36 unique transcripts. The unique OR genes differed from previously annotated ORs in internal sequences, splice variants, and extended N or C terminus. One of the previously unknown transcripts was validated by cloning and functional expression. When challenged with a large panel of physiologically relevant compounds, CquiOR95b responded in a dose-dependent manner to ethyl 2-phenylacteate, which was demonstrated to repel Culex mosquitoes, and secondarily to citronellal, a known insect repellent. This transcriptome study led to identification of key molecular components and a repellent for the southern house mosquito. PMID:24167245

  4. Linkage analysis of schizophrenia with five dopamine receptor genes in nine pedigrees

    SciTech Connect

    Coon, H.; Byerley, W.; Holik, J.; Hoff, M.; Myles-Worsley, M.; Plaetke, R. ); Lannfelt, L. ); Sokoloff, P.; Schwartz, J.C. ); Waldo, M.; Freedman, R. )

    1993-02-01

    Alterations in dopamine neurotransmission have been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia for nearly 2 decades. Recently, the genes for five dopamine receptors have been cloned and characterized, and genetic and physical map information has become available. Using these five loci as candidate genes, the authors have tested for genetic linkage to schizophrenia in nine multigenerational families which include multiple affected individuals. In addition to testing conservative disease models, the have used a neurophysiological indicator variable, the P50 auditory evoked response. Deficits in gating of the P50 response have been shown to segregate with schizophrenia in this sample and may identify carriers of gene(s) predisposing for schizophrenia. Linkage results were consistently negative, indicating that a defect at any of the actual receptor sites is unlikely to be a major contributor to schizophrenia in the nine families studied. 47 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  5. Oxytocin and Vasopressin Receptor Gene Polymorphisms: Role in Social and Psychiatric Traits

    PubMed Central

    Aspé-Sánchez, Mauricio; Moreno, Macarena; Rivera, Maria Ignacia; Rossi, Alejandra; Ewer, John

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) are two phylogenetically conserved neuropeptides that have been implicated in a wide range of social behaviors. Although a large body of research, ranging from rodents to humans, has reported on the effects of OXT and AVP administration on affiliative and trust behaviors, and has highlighted the genetic contributions of OXT and AVP receptor polymorphisms to both social behaviors and to diseases related to social deficits, the consequences of peptide administration on psychiatric symptoms, and the impact of receptor polymorphisms on receptor function, are still unclear. Despite the exciting advances that these reports have brought to social neuroscience, they remain preliminary and suffer from the problems that are inherent to monogenetic linkage and association studies. As an alternative, some studies are using polygenic approaches, and consider the contributions of other genes and pathways, including those involving DA, 5-HT, and reelin, in addition to OXT and AVP; a handful of report are also using genome-wide association studies. This review summarizes findings on the associations between OXT and AVP receptor polymorphism, social behavior, and psychiatric diseases. In addition, we discuss reports on the interactions of OXT and AVP receptor genes and genes involved in other pathways (such as those of dopamine, serotonin, and reelin), as well as research that has shed some light on the impact of gene polymorphisms on the volume, connectivity, and activation of specific neural structures, differential receptor expression, and plasma levels of the OXT and AVP peptides. We hope that this effort will be helpful for understanding the studies performed so far, and for encouraging the inclusion of other candidate genes not explored to date. PMID:26858594

  6. Oxytocin and Vasopressin Receptor Gene Polymorphisms: Role in Social and Psychiatric Traits.

    PubMed

    Aspé-Sánchez, Mauricio; Moreno, Macarena; Rivera, Maria Ignacia; Rossi, Alejandra; Ewer, John

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) are two phylogenetically conserved neuropeptides that have been implicated in a wide range of social behaviors. Although a large body of research, ranging from rodents to humans, has reported on the effects of OXT and AVP administration on affiliative and trust behaviors, and has highlighted the genetic contributions of OXT and AVP receptor polymorphisms to both social behaviors and to diseases related to social deficits, the consequences of peptide administration on psychiatric symptoms, and the impact of receptor polymorphisms on receptor function, are still unclear. Despite the exciting advances that these reports have brought to social neuroscience, they remain preliminary and suffer from the problems that are inherent to monogenetic linkage and association studies. As an alternative, some studies are using polygenic approaches, and consider the contributions of other genes and pathways, including those involving DA, 5-HT, and reelin, in addition to OXT and AVP; a handful of report are also using genome-wide association studies. This review summarizes findings on the associations between OXT and AVP receptor polymorphism, social behavior, and psychiatric diseases. In addition, we discuss reports on the interactions of OXT and AVP receptor genes and genes involved in other pathways (such as those of dopamine, serotonin, and reelin), as well as research that has shed some light on the impact of gene polymorphisms on the volume, connectivity, and activation of specific neural structures, differential receptor expression, and plasma levels of the OXT and AVP peptides. We hope that this effort will be helpful for understanding the studies performed so far, and for encouraging the inclusion of other candidate genes not explored to date. PMID:26858594

  7. A comparison of reptilian and avian olfactory receptor gene repertoires: Species-specific expansion of group γ genes in birds

    PubMed Central

    Steiger, Silke S; Kuryshev, Vladimir Y; Stensmyr, Marcus C; Kempenaers, Bart; Mueller, Jakob C

    2009-01-01

    Background The detection of odorants is mediated by olfactory receptors (ORs). ORs are G-protein coupled receptors that form a remarkably large protein superfamily in vertebrate genomes. We used data that became available through recent sequencing efforts of reptilian and avian genomes to identify the complete OR gene repertoires in a lizard, the green anole (Anolis carolinensis), and in two birds, the chicken (Gallus gallus) and the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Results We identified 156 green anole OR genes, including 42 pseudogenes. The OR gene repertoire of the two bird species was substantially larger with 479 and 553 OR gene homologs in the chicken and zebra finch, respectively (including 111 and 221 pseudogenes, respectively). We show that the green anole has a higher fraction of intact OR genes (~72%) compared with the chicken (~66%) and the zebra finch (~38%). We identified a larger number and a substantially higher proportion of intact OR gene homologs in the chicken genome than previously reported (214 versus 82 genes and 66% versus 15%, respectively). Phylogenetic analysis showed that lizard and bird OR gene repertoires consist of group α, θ and γ genes. Interestingly, the vast majority of the avian OR genes are confined to a large expansion of a single branch (the so called γ-c clade). An analysis of the selective pressure on the paralogous genes of each γ-c clade revealed that they have been subjected to adaptive evolution. This expansion appears to be bird-specific and not sauropsid-specific, as it is lacking from the lizard genome. The γ-c expansions of the two birds do not intermix, i.e., they are lineage-specific. Almost all (group γ-c) OR genes mapped to the unknown chromosome. The remaining OR genes mapped to six homologous chromosomes plus three to four additional chromosomes in the zebra finch and chicken. Conclusion We identified a surprisingly large number of potentially functional avian OR genes. Our data supports recent

  8. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and steroid receptor status among Saudi women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Nemenqani, Dalal M; Karam, Rehab A; Amer, Mona G; Abd El Rahman, Tamer M

    2015-03-10

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a mediator for the cellular effects of vitamin D and interacts with other cell signaling pathways that influence cancer development. We evaluated the associations of the FOK1 and Taq1 VDR polymorphisms and breast cancer risk and possible effect modification by steroid receptor status of the tumor. This case-control study includes 95 breast cancer patients and 100 age-matched controls. Genotyping for VDR FOK1 and Taq1 polymorphisms was performed using polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism. Level of 25(OH)D in serum was determined using ELISA. Immunohistochemical studies were performed for estrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR). The frequencies of ff genotype were significantly increased in the breast cancer group compared to the control group. Carriers of the f allele were significantly more likely to develop BC. We observed a statistically significant interaction for the Fok1 polymorphism and ER status. Our results demonstrated that FOK1 f. genotype and f allele have an important role in breast cancer risk in Saudi patients. PMID:25560187

  9. Urokinase receptor is a multifunctional protein: influence of receptor occupancy on macrophage gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Rao, N K; Shi, G P; Chapman, H A

    1995-01-01

    Binding of urokinase to the glycolipid-anchored urokinase receptor (uPAR) has been implicated in macrophage differentiation. However, no biochemical markers of differentiation have yet been directly linked to uPAR occupancy. As extensive changes in proteolytic profile characterize monocytic differentiation, we have examined the role of uPAR occupancy on protease expression by differentiating phagocytes. Antibodies to either urokinase or to uPAR that prevent receptor binding inhibited induction of cathepsin B in cultured monocytes and both cathepsin B and 92-kD gelatinase mRNA and protein in phorbol diester-stimulated myeloid cells. Mannosamine, an inhibitor of glycolipid anchor assembly, also blocked protease expression. Anti-catalytic urokinase antibodies, excess inactive urokinase, or aprotinin had no effect, indicating that receptor occupancy per se regulated protease expression. Antibodies to the integrins CD11a and CD29 or to the glycolipid-anchored proteins CD14 and CD55 also had no effect. Protease induction was independent of matrix attachment. Antibodies to urokinase or uPAR affected neither the decrease in cathepsin G nor the increase in tumor necrosis factor-alpha in phorbol ester-stimulated cells. These data establish that uPAR is a multifunctional receptor, not only promoting pericellular proteolysis and matrix attachment, but also effecting cysteine- and metallo-protease expression during macrophage differentiation. Images PMID:7615819

  10. Identification of N-terminal receptor activity-modifying protein residues important for calcitonin gene-related peptide, adrenomedullin, and amylin receptor function.

    PubMed

    Qi, Tao; Christopoulos, George; Bailey, Richard J; Christopoulos, Arthur; Sexton, Patrick M; Hay, Debbie L

    2008-10-01

    Calcitonin-family receptors comprise calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CL) or calcitonin receptor and receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP) pairings. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors are CL/RAMP1, whereas adrenomedullin (AM) receptors are CL/RAMP2 (AM1 receptor) or CL/RAMP3 (AM2 receptor). Amylin (Amy) receptors are RAMP hetero-oligomers with the calcitonin receptor (AMY1, AMY2, and AMY3, respectively). How RAMPs change G protein-coupled receptor pharmacology is not fully understood. We exploited sequence differences between RAMP1 and RAMP3 to identify individual residues capable of altering receptor pharmacology. Alignment of human RAMPs revealed eight residues that are conserved in RAMP2 and RAMP3 but are different in RAMP1. We hypothesized that residues in RAMP2 and RAMP3, but not RAMP1, are responsible for making CL/RAMP2 and CL/RAMP3 AM receptors. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we introduced individual RAMP3 residues into RAMP1 and vice versa in these eight positions. Mutant or wild-type RAMPs were transfected into Cos7 cells with CL or the insert-negative form of the calcitonin receptor [CT(a)]. Agonist-stimulated cAMP production and cell-surface expression of constructs were measured. Position 74 in RAMP1 and RAMP3 was critical for determining AM potency and affinity, and Phe93 in RAMP1 was an important contributor to alphaCGRP potency at CGRP receptors. Mutant RAMP/CT(a) receptor complexes displayed different phenotypes. It is noteworthy that RAMP1 S103N and W74E mutations led to enhanced rAmy potency, probably related to increased cell-surface expression of these complexes. This differs from the effect on CL-based receptors where expression was unchanged. Targeted substitution has emphasized the importance of position 74 in RAMP1/RAMP3 as a key determinant of AM pharmacology. PMID:18593822

  11. Genetic basis of endocrine disease 4: The spectrum of mutations in the androgen receptor gene that causes androgen resistance

    SciTech Connect

    McPhaul, M.J.; Marcelli, M.; Zoppi, S.; Griffin, J.E.; Wilson, J.D. )

    1993-01-01

    Mutations in the androgen receptor gene cause phenotypic abnormalities of male sexual development that range from a female phenotype (complete testicular feminization) to that of undervirilized or infertile men. Using the tools of molecular biology, the authors have analyzed androgen receptor gene mutations in 31 unrelated subjects with androgen resistance syndromes. Most of the defects are due to nucleotide changes that cause premature termination codons or single amino acid substitutions within the open reading frame encoding the androgen receptor, and the majority of these substitutions are localized in three regions of the androgen receptor: the DNA-binding domain and two segments of the androgen-binding domain. Less frequently, partial or complete gene deletions have been identified. Functional studies and immunoblot assays of the androgen receptors in patients with androgen resistance indicate that in most cases the phenotypic abnormalities are the result of impairment of receptor function or decreases in receptor abundance or both. 34 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Targeting the oncogenic Met receptor by antibodies and gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Vigna, E; Comoglio, P M

    2015-04-01

    The receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a tyrosine kinase encoded by the Met oncogene, has a crucial role in cancer growth, invasion and metastasis. It is a validated therapeutic target for 'personalized' treatment of a number of malignancies. Therapeutic tools prompting selective, robust and highly effective Met inhibition potentially represent a major step in the battle against cancer. Antibodies targeting either Met or its ligand HGF, although challenging, demonstrate to be endowed with promising features. Here we briefly review and discuss the state of the art in the field. PMID:24882574

  13. No association of primary Sjögren's syndrome with Fcγ receptor gene variants.

    PubMed

    Haldorsen, K; Appel, S; Le Hellard, S; Bruland, O; Brun, J G; Omdal, R; Kristjansdottir, G; Theander, E; Fernandes, C P D; Kvarnström, M; Eriksson, P; Rönnblom, L; Herlenius, M W; Nordmark, G; Jonsson, R; Bolstad, A I

    2013-06-01

    The genetic background of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is partly shared with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Immunoglobulin G Fc receptors are important for clearance of immune complexes. Fcγ receptor variants and gene deletion have been found to confer SLE risk. In this study, four Fcγ receptor single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one copy number variation (CNV) were studied. Swedish and Norwegian pSS patients (N=527) and controls (N=528) were genotyped for the Fcγ receptor gene variant FCGR2A H131R (rs1801274) by the Illumina GoldenGate assay. FCGR3A F158V (rs396991) was analysed in 488 patients and 485 controls, FCGR3B rs447536 was analysed in 471 patients and 467 controls, and FCGR3B rs448740 was analysed in 478 cases and 455 controls, using TaqMan SNP genotyping assays. FCGR3B CNV was analysed in 124 patients and 139 controls using a TaqMan copy number assay. None of the SNPs showed any association with pSS. Also, no FCGR3B CNV association was detected. The lack of association of pSS with Fcγ receptor gene variants indicates that defective immune complex clearance may not be as important in pSS pathogenesis as in SLE, and may point to important differences between SLE and pSS. PMID:23552400

  14. Comparison of lentiviral and sleeping beauty mediated αβ T cell receptor gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Field, Anne-Christine; Vink, Conrad; Gabriel, Richard; Al-Subki, Roua; Schmidt, Manfred; Goulden, Nicholas; Stauss, Hans; Thrasher, Adrian; Morris, Emma; Qasim, Waseem

    2013-01-01

    Transfer of tumour antigen-specific receptors to T cells requires efficient delivery and integration of transgenes, and currently most clinical studies are using gamma retroviral or lentiviral systems. Whilst important proof-of-principle data has been generated for both chimeric antigen receptors and αβ T cell receptors, the current platforms are costly, time-consuming and relatively inflexible. Alternative, more cost-effective, Sleeping Beauty transposon-based plasmid systems could offer a pathway to accelerated clinical testing of a more diverse repertoire of recombinant high affinity T cell receptors. Nucleofection of hyperactive SB100X transposase-mediated stable transposition of an optimised murine-human chimeric T cell receptor specific for Wilm's tumour antigen from a Sleeping Beauty transposon plasmid. Whilst transfer efficiency was lower than that mediated by lentiviral transduction, cells could be readily enriched and expanded, and mediated effective target cells lysis in vitro and in vivo. Integration sites of transposed TCR genes in primary T cells were almost randomly distributed, contrasting the predilection of lentiviral vectors for transcriptionally active sites. The results support exploitation of the Sleeping Beauty plasmid based system as a flexible and adaptable platform for accelerated, early-phase assessment of T cell receptor gene therapies. PMID:23840834

  15. Comparison of Lentiviral and Sleeping Beauty Mediated αβ T Cell Receptor Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Field, Anne-Christine; Vink, Conrad; Gabriel, Richard; Al-Subki, Roua; Schmidt, Manfred; Goulden, Nicholas; Stauss, Hans; Thrasher, Adrian; Morris, Emma; Qasim, Waseem

    2013-01-01

    Transfer of tumour antigen-specific receptors to T cells requires efficient delivery and integration of transgenes, and currently most clinical studies are using gamma retroviral or lentiviral systems. Whilst important proof-of-principle data has been generated for both chimeric antigen receptors and αβ T cell receptors, the current platforms are costly, time-consuming and relatively inflexible. Alternative, more cost-effective, Sleeping Beauty transposon-based plasmid systems could offer a pathway to accelerated clinical testing of a more diverse repertoire of recombinant high affinity T cell receptors. Nucleofection of hyperactive SB100X transposase-mediated stable transposition of an optimised murine-human chimeric T cell receptor specific for Wilm’s tumour antigen from a Sleeping Beauty transposon plasmid. Whilst transfer efficiency was lower than that mediated by lentiviral transduction, cells could be readily enriched and expanded, and mediated effective target cells lysis in vitro and in vivo. Integration sites of transposed TCR genes in primary T cells were almost randomly distributed, contrasting the predilection of lentiviral vectors for transcriptionally active sites. The results support exploitation of the Sleeping Beauty plasmid based system as a flexible and adaptable platform for accelerated, early-phase assessment of T cell receptor gene therapies. PMID:23840834

  16. Developmentally Regulated Expression of the Nerve Growth Factor Receptor Gene in the Periphery and Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, C. R.; Martinez, Humberto J.; Black, Ira B.; Chao, Moses V.

    1987-05-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) regulates development and maintenance of function of peripheral sympathetic and sensory neurons. A potential role for the trophic factor in brain has been detected only recently. The ability of a cell to respond to NGF is due, in part, to expression of specific receptors on the cell surface. To study tissue-specific expression of the NGF receptor gene, we have used sensitive cRNA probes for detection of NGF receptor mRNA. Our studies indicate that the receptor gene is selectively and specifically expressed in sympathetic (superior cervical) and sensory (dorsal root) ganglia in the periphery, and by the septum-basal forebrain centrally, in the neonatal rat in vivo. Moreover, examination of tissues from neonatal and adult rats reveals a marked reduction in steady-state NGF receptor mRNA levels in sensory ganglia. In contrast, a 2- to 4-fold increase was observed in the basal forebrain and in the sympathetic ganglia over the same time period. Our observations suggest that NGF receptor mRNA expression is developmentally regulated in specific areas of the nervous system in a differential fashion.

  17. Sequence and diversity of rabbit T-cell receptor gamma chain genes

    SciTech Connect

    Isono, T.; Kim, C.J.; Seto, A.

    1995-03-01

    The nucleotide sequences of one constant (C), six variable (V), and two joining (J) gene segments coding for the rabbit T-cell receptor gamma chain (Tcrg) were determined by directly sequencing fragments amplified by the cassette-ligation mediated polymerase chain reaction. The Tcrg-C gene segment did not encode a cysteine residue for connection to the Tcr delta chain in the connecting region, and two variant forms of the Tcrg-C gene segment were generated by alternative splicing, like the human Tcrg-C2 gene. Five of six rabbit Tcrg-V gene segments belonged to the same family and displayed similarity to five productive human Tcrg-V1 family genes as well as the mouse Tcrg-V5 gene. The remaining rabbit Tcrg-V gene segment displayed similarity to the human Tcrg-V3 gene. Both rabbit Tcrg-J gene segments displayed similarity to the human Tcrg-J2.1 and 2.3, respectively. These findings suggested that the genomic organization of rabbit Tcrg genes is more similar to that of human than of mouse Tcrg genes. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. An evolutionarily mobile antigen receptor variable region gene: Doubly rearranging NAR-TcR genes in sharks

    PubMed Central

    Criscitiello, Michael F.; Saltis, Mark; Flajnik, Martin F.

    2006-01-01

    Distinctive Ig and T cell receptor (TcR) chains define the two major lineages of vertebrate lymphocyte yet similarly recognize antigen with a single, membrane-distal variable (V) domain. Here we describe the first antigen receptor chain that employs two V domains, which are generated by separate VDJ gene rearrangement events. These molecules have specialized “supportive” TcRδV domains membrane-proximal to domains with most similarity to IgNAR V. The ancestral NAR V gene encoding this domain is hypothesized to have recombined with the TRD locus in a cartilaginous fish ancestor >200 million years ago and encodes the first V domain shown to be used in both Igs and TcRs. Furthermore, these data support the view that γ/δ TcRs have for long used structural conformations recognizing free antigen. PMID:16549799

  19. Association of a nicotinic receptor gene polymorphism with spontaneous eyeblink rates

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Tamami; Kuriyama, Chiho; Himichi, Toshiyuki; Nomura, Michio

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous eyeblink rates greatly vary among individuals from several blinks to a few dozen blinks per minute. Because dopamine agonists immediately increase the blink rate, individual differences in blink rate are used as a behavioral index of central dopamine functioning. However, an association of the blink rate with polymorphisms in dopamine-related genes has yet not been found. In this study, we demonstrated that a genetic variation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor CHRNA4 (rs1044396) increased the blink rate while watching a video. A receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that the blink rate predicts a genetic variation in the nicotinic receptor gene with a significant discrimination level (0.66, p < 0.004). The present study suggests that differences in sensitivity to acetylcholine because of the genetic variation of the nicotinic receptor are associated with individual differences in spontaneous eye blink rate. PMID:25729002

  20. Mapping toll-like receptor signaling pathway genes of Zhikong scallop ( Chlamys farreri) with FISH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bosong; Zhao, Liang; Liao, Huan; Cheng, Jie; Lian, Shanshan; Li, Xuan; Huang, Xiaoting; Bao, Zhenmin

    2015-12-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in the innate immune system. Studies on TLR signaling pathway genes in Zhikong scallop ( Chlamys farreri) have mainly focused on sequence analysis and expression profiling, no research has been carried out on their localization. The chromosomal position of TLR signaling pathway genes can be valuable for assemblying scallop genome and analysizing gene regulatory networks. In the present study, five key TLR signaling pathway genes ( CfTLR, CfMyd88, CfTRAF6, CfNFκB, and CfIκB) containing bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) were isolated and physically mapped through fluorescence in situ hybridization on five non-homologous chromosome pairs, showing a similar distribution to another five model species. The isolation and mapping of these key immune genes of C. farreri will aid to the research on innate immunity, assignment of interested genes to chromosomes, and integration of physical, linkage and cytogenetic maps of this species.

  1. The human insulin receptor substrate-1 gene (IRS1) is localized on 2q36

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiyama, Masaki; Matsufuji, Senya; Hayashi, Shin-ichi; Furusaka, Akihiro; Tanaka, Teruji ); Inazawa, J.; Nakamura, Yusuke ); Ariyama, Takeshi ); Wands, J.R. )

    1994-03-01

    The chromosomal localization of some of the genes participating in the insulin signaling pathway is known. The insulin and insulin receptor genes have been mapped to chromosomes 11 and 19, respectively. To identify the chromosomal localization of the human IRS1 gene, the fluorescence in situ hybridization technique was employed with Genomic Clone B-10. A total of 50 metaphase cells exhibiting either single or double spots of hybridization signals were examined. Among them, 32 showed the specific signals on 2q36. Therefore, the authors assigned the human IRS1 gene to 2q36. The genes for homeobox sequence (HOX4), fibronectin 1, alkaline phosphatase (intestinal), transition protein 1, villin 1, collagen (type IV), Waardenburg syndrome (type 1), alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase, and glucagon have been localized in the vicinity of the IRS1 gene.

  2. Identification of a Bitter-Taste Receptor Gene Repertoire in Different Lagomorphs Species

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Ana M.; Marques, Andreia T.; Fontanesi, Luca; Thulin, Carl-Gustaf; Sales-Baptista, Elvira; Araújo, Susana S.; Almeida, André M.

    2016-01-01

    The repertoires of bitter-taste receptor (T2R) gene have been described for several animal species, but these data are still scarce for Lagomorphs. The aim of the present work is to identify potential repertoires of T2R in several Lagomorph species, covering a wide geographical distribution. We studied these genes in Lepus timidus, L. europaeus, Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus, Romerolagus diazi, and Sylvilagus floridanus, using O. cuniculus cuniculus as control species for PCR and DNA sequencing. We studied the identities of the DNA sequences and built the corresponding phylogenetic tree. Sequencing was successful for both subspecies of O. cuniculus for all T2R genes studied, for five genes in Lepus, and for three genes in R. diazi and S. floridanus. We describe for the first time the partial repertoires of T2R genes for Lagomorphs species, other than the common rabbit. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that sequence proximity levels follow the established taxonomic classification. PMID:27092177

  3. Identification of a Bitter-Taste Receptor Gene Repertoire in Different Lagomorphs Species.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ana M; Marques, Andreia T; Fontanesi, Luca; Thulin, Carl-Gustaf; Sales-Baptista, Elvira; Araújo, Susana S; Almeida, André M

    2016-01-01

    The repertoires of bitter-taste receptor (T2R) gene have been described for several animal species, but these data are still scarce for Lagomorphs. The aim of the present work is to identify potential repertoires of T2R in several Lagomorph species, covering a wide geographical distribution. We studied these genes in Lepus timidus, L. europaeus, Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus, Romerolagus diazi, and Sylvilagus floridanus, using O. cuniculus cuniculus as control species for PCR and DNA sequencing. We studied the identities of the DNA sequences and built the corresponding phylogenetic tree. Sequencing was successful for both subspecies of O. cuniculus for all T2R genes studied, for five genes in Lepus, and for three genes in R. diazi and S. floridanus. We describe for the first time the partial repertoires of T2R genes for Lagomorphs species, other than the common rabbit. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that sequence proximity levels follow the established taxonomic classification. PMID:27092177

  4. Reappraisal of the serotonin 5-HT(1B) receptor gene in alcoholism: of mice and men.

    PubMed

    Gorwood, Philip; Aissi, Franck; Batel, Philippe; Adès, Jean; Cohen-Salmon, Charles; Hamon, Michel; Boni, Claudette; Lanfumey, Laurence

    2002-01-01

    Because pharmacological and genetic data supported the idea that serotonin receptors of the 5-HT(1B) type can play a modulatory role in alcohol consumption in both human and rodents, the 5-HT(1B) receptor gene is considered as a candidate gene for alcohol dependence. However, contradictory results have been reported as a positive association between alcohol dependence, and either the 861C or the 861G allele of the G861C polymorphism of the 5-HT(1B) receptor gene can be found in the literature. Further investigations in a population of 136 male alcoholics compared with 72 male control subjects demonstrated that none of these alleles was actually associated with alcohol dependence. In addition, in contrast with previous results of the literature, ethanol intake under free choice conditions (i.e., ethanol solution vs. water) was found to be similar in 5-HT(1B)-/- knock mice and paired wild-type controls. The 5-HT(1B) receptor gene may thus not be a key component in the genetic background underlying alcohol dependence in human and alcohol preference in rodents, although these results should be considered as preliminary according to the small size of our sample. PMID:11827742

  5. Methylation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene Promoter in Preschoolers: Links with Internalizing Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parade, Stephanie H.; Ridout, Kathryn K.; Seifer, Ronald; Armstrong, David A.; Marsit, Carmen J.; McWilliams, Melissa A.; Tyrka, Audrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that early adversity is linked to methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene, "NR3C1," which is a key regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Yet no prior work has considered the contribution of methylation of "NR3C1" to emerging behavior problems and psychopathology in…

  6. Comparison of synganglion neuropeptides, neuropeptide receptors and neurotransmitter receptors and their gene expression in response to feeding in Ixodes scapularis (Ixodidae) vs. Ornithodoros turicata (Argasidae).

    PubMed

    Egekwu, N; Sonenshine, D E; Garman, H; Barshis, D J; Cox, N; Bissinger, B W; Zhu, J; M Roe, R

    2016-02-01

    Illumina GAII high-throughput sequencing was used to compare expressed genes for female synganglion neuropeptides, neuropeptide receptors and neurotransmitter receptors of the soft tick Ornithodoros turicata with the hard tick Ixodes scapularis. Gene ontology molecular level three mapping revealed no significant differences amongst the same categories represented in O. turicata and I. scapularis. Transcripts predicting 22 neuropeptides or their receptors in the O. turicata synganglion were similar to annotations for 23 neuropeptides or receptors previously identified from I scapularis, with minor exceptions. A transcript predicting ecdysis triggering hormone receptor was identified in O. turicata; transcripts encoding for proprotein convertase and glycoprotein B were identified in both species. Transcripts predicting the same neurotransmitter receptors were found in the synganglion of both species. Gene expression of the transcripts showed numerous differences in response to feeding. Major differences were observed in expression of genes believed important in regulating slow vs. rapid feeding, blood water elimination, cuticle synthesis plasticity and in signalling reproductive activity. Although the glutamate receptor was strongly upregulated in both species, the gamma aminobutyric acid receptor, which inhibits glutamate, was upregulated significantly only in I. scapularis. These differences are consistent with the slow vs. rapid action of the pharyngeal pump in the two species. PMID:26783017

  7. Somatic and germline mutations of the TSH receptor gene in thyroid diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Van Sande, J.; Parma, J.; Tonacchera, M.

    1995-09-01

    Under physiological circumstances, thyrotropin (TSH) is the primary hormone that controls thyroid function and growth. TSH acts by binding to its receptor at the basolateral membrane of thyroid follicular cells. The TSH receptor is a member of the large family of G protein-coupled receptors, which share a similar structural pattern: seven transmembrane segments connected by three extra and three intracellular loops. Together with the receptors for other glycoprotein hormones LH/CG and FSH, the TSH receptor has a long aminoterminal domain that has been shown to encode the specificity for hormone recognition and binding. The G protein-coupled receptors share a common mode of intracellular signalling: They control the on/off state of a variety of trimeric G proteins (G{alpha}{beta}{gamma}) by stimulating the exchange of GDP for GTP on the {alpha} subunit (G{alpha}). The result is that G{alpha} or G{beta}{gamma}, after dissociation of the trimer, will interact with downstream effectors of the receptor. In the case of the TSH receptor, the main G protein involved is Gs, which activates adenylyl cyclase via Gs{alpha}. In some species, including man, the TSH receptor is also capable of activating phospholipase C (via Gq), thus stimulating the production of diacylglycerol and inositolphosphate (IP{sub 3}). However, higher concentrations of TSH are required to activate phospholipase C, compared with adenylyl cyclase. As a consequence, the main second messenger of TSH effects on the human thyroid is cyclic AMP. The present review will summarize recent findings identifying mutations of the TSH receptor gene as a cause for thyroid diseases. 59 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Meiotic recombination generates rich diversity in NK cell receptor genes, alleles, and haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Norman, Paul J; Abi-Rached, Laurent; Gendzekhadze, Ketevan; Hammond, John A; Moesta, Achim K; Sharma, Deepti; Graef, Thorsten; McQueen, Karina L; Guethlein, Lisbeth A; Carrington, Christine V F; Chandanayingyong, Dasdayanee; Chang, Yih-Hsin; Crespí, Catalina; Saruhan-Direskeneli, Güher; Hameed, Kamran; Kamkamidze, Giorgi; Koram, Kwadwo A; Layrisse, Zulay; Matamoros, Nuria; Milà, Joan; Park, Myoung Hee; Pitchappan, Ramasamy M; Ramdath, D Dan; Shiau, Ming-Yuh; Stephens, Henry A F; Struik, Siske; Tyan, Dolly; Verity, David H; Vaughan, Robert W; Davis, Ronald W; Fraser, Patricia A; Riley, Eleanor M; Ronaghi, Mostafa; Parham, Peter

    2009-05-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells contribute to the essential functions of innate immunity and reproduction. Various genes encode NK cell receptors that recognize the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class I molecules expressed by other cells. For primate NK cells, the killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) are a variable and rapidly evolving family of MHC Class I receptors. Studied here is KIR3DL1/S1, which encodes receptors for highly polymorphic human HLA-A and -B and comprises three ancient allelic lineages that have been preserved by balancing selection throughout human evolution. While the 3DS1 lineage of activating receptors has been conserved, the two 3DL1 lineages of inhibitory receptors were diversified through inter-lineage recombination with each other and with 3DS1. Prominent targets for recombination were D0-domain polymorphisms, which modulate enhancer function, and dimorphism at position 283 in the D2 domain, which influences inhibitory function. In African populations, unequal crossing over between the 3DL1 and 3DL2 genes produced a deleted KIR haplotype in which the telomeric "half" was reduced to a single fusion gene with functional properties distinct from its 3DL1 and 3DL2 parents. Conversely, in Eurasian populations, duplication of the KIR3DL1/S1 locus by unequal crossing over has enabled individuals to carry and express alleles of all three KIR3DL1/S1 lineages. These results demonstrate how meiotic recombination combines with an ancient, preserved diversity to create new KIR phenotypes upon which natural selection acts. A consequence of such recombination is to blur the distinction between alleles and loci in the rapidly evolving human KIR gene family. PMID:19411600

  9. Meiotic recombination generates rich diversity in NK cell receptor genes, alleles, and haplotypes

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Paul J.; Abi-Rached, Laurent; Gendzekhadze, Ketevan; Hammond, John A.; Moesta, Achim K.; Sharma, Deepti; Graef, Thorsten; McQueen, Karina L.; Guethlein, Lisbeth A.; Carrington, Christine V.F.; Chandanayingyong, Dasdayanee; Chang, Yih-Hsin; Crespí, Catalina; Saruhan-Direskeneli, Güher; Hameed, Kamran; Kamkamidze, Giorgi; Koram, Kwadwo A.; Layrisse, Zulay; Matamoros, Nuria; Milà, Joan; Park, Myoung Hee; Pitchappan, Ramasamy M.; Ramdath, D. Dan; Shiau, Ming-Yuh; Stephens, Henry A.F.; Struik, Siske; Tyan, Dolly; Verity, David H.; Vaughan, Robert W.; Davis, Ronald W.; Fraser, Patricia A.; Riley, Eleanor M.; Ronaghi, Mostafa; Parham, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells contribute to the essential functions of innate immunity and reproduction. Various genes encode NK cell receptors that recognize the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class I molecules expressed by other cells. For primate NK cells, the killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) are a variable and rapidly evolving family of MHC Class I receptors. Studied here is KIR3DL1/S1, which encodes receptors for highly polymorphic human HLA-A and -B and comprises three ancient allelic lineages that have been preserved by balancing selection throughout human evolution. While the 3DS1 lineage of activating receptors has been conserved, the two 3DL1 lineages of inhibitory receptors were diversified through inter-lineage recombination with each other and with 3DS1. Prominent targets for recombination were D0-domain polymorphisms, which modulate enhancer function, and dimorphism at position 283 in the D2 domain, which influences inhibitory function. In African populations, unequal crossing over between the 3DL1 and 3DL2 genes produced a deleted KIR haplotype in which the telomeric “half” was reduced to a single fusion gene with functional properties distinct from its 3DL1 and 3DL2 parents. Conversely, in Eurasian populations, duplication of the KIR3DL1/S1 locus by unequal crossing over has enabled individuals to carry and express alleles of all three KIR3DL1/S1 lineages. These results demonstrate how meiotic recombination combines with an ancient, preserved diversity to create new KIR phenotypes upon which natural selection acts. A consequence of such recombination is to blur the distinction between alleles and loci in the rapidly evolving human KIR gene family. PMID:19411600

  10. Expression of somatostatin receptor genes and acetylcholine receptor development in rat skeletal muscle during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Peng, M; Conforti, L; Millhorn, D E

    1998-05-01

    Our laboratory reported previously that somatostatin (SST) is transiently expressed in rat motoneurons during the first 14 days after birth. We investigated the possibility that the SST receptor (SSTR) is expressed in skeletal muscle. We found that two of the five subtypes of SSTR (SSTR3 and SSTR4) are expressed in skeletal muscle with a time course that correlates with the transient expression of SST in motoneurons. In addition, SSTR2A is expressed from birth to adulthood in skeletal muscle. Both SSTR2A and SSTR4 are also expressed in L6 cells, a skeletal muscle cell line. Somatostatin acting through its receptors has been shown to stimulate tyrosine phosphatase activity in a number of different tissues. We found that several proteins (50, 65, 90, 140, 180 and 200 kDa) exhibited a reduced degree of tyrosine phosphorylation following SST treatment. Inhibition of tyrosine phosphatase activity with sodium orthovanadate increased expression of the nicotinic acetyl-choline receptor (nAChR) epsilon subunit mRNA by three fold. Somatostatin reversed the elevated epsilon mRNA following orthovanadate treatment. These findings show that SSTR is expressed in skeletal muscle and that SST acting via the SSTR regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and expression of the epsilon subunit of the AChR in the rat skeletal muscle. PMID:9852305

  11. Identification of potential regulatory motifs in odorant receptor genes by analysis of promoter sequences

    PubMed Central

    Michaloski, Jussara S.; Galante, Pedro A.F.

    2006-01-01

    Mouse odorant receptors (ORs) are encoded by >1000 genes dispersed throughout the genome. Each olfactory neuron expresses one single OR gene, while the rest of the genes remain silent. The mechanisms underlying OR gene expression are poorly understood. Here, we investigated if OR genes share common cis-regulatory sequences in their promoter regions. We carried out a comprehensive analysis in which the upstream regions of a large number of OR genes were compared. First, using RLM-RACE, we generated cDNAs containing the complete 5′-untranslated regions (5′-UTRs) for a total number of 198 mouse OR genes. Then, we aligned these cDNA sequences to the mouse genome so that the 5′ structure and transcription start sites (TSSs) of the OR genes could be precisely determined. Sequences upstream of the TSSs were retrieved and browsed for common elements. We found DNA sequence motifs that are overrepresented in the promoter regions of the OR genes. Most motifs resemble O/E-like sites and are preferentially localized within 200 bp upstream of the TSSs. Finally, we show that these motifs specifically interact with proteins extracted from nuclei prepared from the olfactory epithelium, but not from brain or liver. Our results show that the OR genes share common promoter elements. The present strategy should provide information on the role played by cis-regulatory sequences in OR gene regulation. PMID:16902085

  12. Genomic imprinting of the human serotonin-receptor (HTR2) gene involved in development of retinoblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Mitsuo V.; Nagayoshi, Mariko; Shimuzu, Takashi

    1996-11-01

    Epidemiological and genetic studies of retinoblastoma (RB) suggested that imprinted genes might be genetically linked to the RB gene. In this study, we found that the human serotonin-receptor, HTR2, gene, which had been mapped nearby the RB gene on chromosome 13, was expressed only in human fibroblasts with a maternal allele and not in cells without a maternal allele. The 5{prime} genomic region of the human HTR2 gene was cloned by PCR-mediated method. Only the 5{prime} region of the gene was methylated in cells with the maternal gene, and it was not methylated in cells without the maternal gene. A polymorphism of PvuII site of the gene was also found and useful for the segregation analysis in a family of an RB patient and for analysis of loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 13 in tumor and its parental origin. These results suggest that the human HTR2 gene might be affected by genomic imprinting and that exclusive expression of the maternal HTR2 gene may be associated with the delayed occurrence of RB, which had lost the maternal chromosome 13. 33 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. The T cell receptor beta genes of Xenopus.

    PubMed

    Chretien, I; Marcuz, A; Fellah, J; Charlemagne, J; Du Pasquier, L

    1997-03-01

    cDNA of the T cell receptor beta (TCRB) have been isolated from the anuran amphibian Xenopus and they show strong structural homology to TCRB sequences of other vertebrates. Ten BV families, two D segments, ten J segments, and a single C region have been defined so far. Each V family consists of one to two members per haploid genome. A unique feature of the Xenopus TCRB constant region is the lack of N-linked carbohydrate glycosylation sites. The recombination signal sequences suggest that the mechanism of rearrangements are identical to those of mammals. The locus is inherited in a diploid manner despite the pseudotetraploidy of the Xenopus laevis and X. gilli used in this study. PMID:9079820

  14. Effects of prenatal and postnatal depression, and maternal stroking, at the glucocorticoid receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Murgatroyd, C; Quinn, J P; Sharp, H M; Pickles, A; Hill, J

    2015-01-01

    In animal models, prenatal and postnatal stress is associated with elevated hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) reactivity mediated via altered glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene expression. Postnatal tactile stimulation is associated with reduced HPA reactivity mediated via increased GR gene expression. In this first study in humans to examine the joint effects of prenatal and postnatal environmental exposures, we report that GR gene (NR3C1) 1-F promoter methylation in infants is elevated in the presence of increased maternal postnatal depression following low prenatal depression, and that this effect is reversed by self-reported stroking of the infants by their mothers over the first weeks of life. PMID:25942041

  15. Polo-like kinase 2 gene expression is regulated by the orphan nuclear receptor estrogen receptor-related receptor gamma (ERRgamma).

    PubMed

    Park, Yun-Yong; Kim, Seok-Ho; Kim, Yong Joo; Kim, Sun Yee; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Seung Bum; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2007-10-12

    Estrogen receptor-related receptor gamma (ERRgamma) is a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcriptional activators. To date, the target genes and physiological functions of ERRgamma are not well understood. In the current study, we identify that Plk2 is a novel target of ERRgamma. Northern blot analysis showed that overexpression of ERRgamma induced Plk2 expression in cancer cell lines. ERRgamma activated the Plk2 gene promoter, and deletion and mutational analysis of the Plk2 promoter revealed that the ERRgamma-response region is located between nucleotides (nt) -2327 and -2229 and -441 and -432 (relative to the transcriptional start site at +1). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis demonstrated that ERRgamma binds directly to the Plk2 promoter. Overexpression of ERRgamma in the presence of the mitotic inhibitor nocodazole significantly decreased apoptosis, and induced S-phase cell cycle progression through the induction of Plk2 expression. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Plk2 is a novel target of ERRgamma, and suggest that this interaction is crucial for cancer cell proliferation. PMID:17706602

  16. Neuronal-type alpha-bungarotoxin receptors and the alpha 5-nicotinic receptor subunit gene are expressed in neuronal and nonneuronal human cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Chini, B; Clementi, F; Hukovic, N; Sher, E

    1992-01-01

    alpha-Bungarotoxin (alpha Bgtx) is a toxin known to interact with muscle nicotinic receptors and with some neuronal nicotinic receptors. We show that alpha Bgtx binding sites are also expressed in nonmuscle and nonneuronal human cells, including small cell lung carcinoma and several epithelial cell lines. These receptors are immunologically related to the alpha Bgtx receptors of unknown function described in the nervous system and in the IMR32 neuroblastoma cell line and are distinct from muscle nicotinic receptors. We have also cloned from IMR32 cells the human alpha 5-nicotinic receptor subunit, which is supposed to participate in the formation of alpha Bgtx receptors. Transcripts corresponding to the alpha 5-subunit gene were found not only in neuroblastoma cells but also in all the cell lines expressing alpha Bgtx receptors, with the exception of the TE671 cell line, whose nicotinic receptor subunits are of the muscle type. We conclude that both alpha Bgtx receptors and the alpha 5-nicotinic subunit gene are not neuron-specific, as previously thought, but are expressed in a number of human cell lines of various origin. Images PMID:1542648

  17. Identification and evolution of two insulin receptor genes involved in Tribolium castaneum development and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Sang, Ming; Li, Chengjun; Wu, Wei; Li, Bin

    2016-07-10

    The insulin and insulin-like signaling (IIS) pathway exists in a wide range of organisms from mammals to invertebrates and regulates several vital physiological functions. A phylogenetic analysis have indicated that insulin receptors have been duplicated at least twice among vertebrates, whereas only one duplication occurred in insects before the differentiation of Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, and Hemiptera. Thus, we cloned two putative insulin receptor genes, T.cas-ir1 and T.cas-ir2, from T. castaneum and determined that T.cas-ir1 is most strongly expressed during the late adult and early pupal stages, whereas T.cas-ir2 is most strongly expressed during the late larval stage. We found that larval RNAi against T.cas-ir1 and T.cas-ir2 causes 100% and 42.0% insect death, respectively, and that parental RNAi against T.cas-ir1 and T.cas-ir2 leads to 100% and 33.3% reductions in beetle fecundity, respectively. The hatching rate of ds-ir2 insects was 66.2%. Moreover, RNAi against these two genes increased the expression of the pkc, foxo, jnk, cdc42, ikk, and mekk genes but decreased erk gene expression. Despite these similarities, these two genes act via distinct regulatory pathways. These results indicate that these two receptors have functionally diverged with respect to the development and reproduction of T. castaneum, even though they retain some common regulatory signaling pathways. PMID:26923187

  18. Distinct, genome-wide, gene-specific selectivity patterns of four glucocorticoid receptor coregulators.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dai-Ying; Ou, Chen-Yin; Chodankar, Rajas; Siegmund, Kimberly D; Stallcup, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones that bind to and activate the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which then positively or negatively regulates transcription of many genes that govern multiple important physiological pathways such as inflammation and metabolism of glucose, fat and bone. The remodeling of chromatin and regulated assembly or disassembly of active transcription complexes by GR and other DNA-binding transcription factors is mediated and modulated by several hundred transcriptional coregulator proteins. Previous studies focusing on single coregulators demonstrated that each coregulator is required for regulation of only a subset of all the genes regulated by a steroid hormone. We hypothesized that the gene-specific patterns of coregulators may correspond to specific physiological pathways such that different coregulators modulate the pathway-specificity of hormone action, thereby providing a mechanism for fine tuning of the hormone response. We tested this by direct comparison of multiple coregulators, using siRNA to deplete the products of four steroid hormone receptor coregulator genes (CCAR1, CCAR2, CALCOCO1 and ZNF282). Global analysis of glucocorticoid-regulated gene expression after siRNA mediated depletion of coregulators confirmed that each coregulator acted in a selective and gene-specific manner and demonstrated both positive and negative effects on glucocorticoid-regulated expression of different genes. We identified several classes of hormone-regulated genes based on the effects of coregulator depletion. Each coregulator supported hormonal regulation of some genes and opposed hormonal regulation of other genes (coregulator-modulated genes), blocked hormonal regulation of a second class of genes (coregulator-blocked genes), and had no effect on hormonal regulation of a third gene class (coregulator-independent genes). In spite of previously demonstrated physical and functional interactions among these four coregulators, the majority

  19. A polymorphism in the nuclear receptor coactivator 7 gene and breast cancer susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Süllner, Julia; Lattrich, Claus; Häring, Julia; Görse, Regina; Ortmann, Olaf; Treeck, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear receptor coactivator 7 (NCoA7) gene codes for an estrogen receptor-associated protein that plays a significant role in the cellular response to estrogens. Given that NCoA7 is expressed in the mammary gland, alterations in this gene may affect breast cancer risk. In this study, we compared the genotype and allele frequencies of the missense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1567, located in the coding region of the NCoA7 gene and resulting in an amino acid exchange from asparagine to glutamine, in 305 women with sporadic breast cancer and 346 women without any malignancy. Statistical analysis of the observed frequencies did not reveal a significant difference between the cancer and control groups, nor did a comparison between histological breast cancer subgroups. In conclusion, the results of our phenotype-genotype association study indicate that NCoA7 SNP rs1567 does not affect breast cancer susceptibility. PMID:22740868

  20. A polymorphism in the nuclear receptor coactivator 7 gene and breast cancer susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    SÜLLNER, JULIA; LATTRICH, CLAUS; HÄRING, JULIA; GÖRSE, REGINA; ORTMANN, OLAF; TREECK, OLIVER

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear receptor coactivator 7 (NCoA7) gene codes for an estrogen receptor-associated protein that plays a significant role in the cellular response to estrogens. Given that NCoA7 is expressed in the mammary gland, alterations in this gene may affect breast cancer risk. In this study, we compared the genotype and allele frequencies of the missense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1567, located in the coding region of the NCoA7 gene and resulting in an amino acid exchange from asparagine to glutamine, in 305 women with sporadic breast cancer and 346 women without any malignancy. Statistical analysis of the observed frequencies did not reveal a significant difference between the cancer and control groups, nor did a comparison between histological breast cancer subgroups. In conclusion, the results of our phenotype-genotype association study indicate that NCoA7 SNP rs1567 does not affect breast cancer susceptibility. PMID:22740868

  1. Polymorphism in the melatonin receptor gene in buffalo populations of the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Machado, E B; Souza, B B; Guimarães, R C; Azevedo, J S N; Gonçalves, E C; Ribeiro, H F L; Rolim Filho, S T; Silva Filho, E

    2016-01-01

    Buffalo farming in Brazil is increasing, as is the challenge of identifying molecular markers that will improve productivity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze single nucleotide polymorphisms of the receptor gene for the hormone melatonin in buffaloes from northern Brazil by polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) and restriction fragment length polymorphism assays. The PCR products exhibited a cutting point for HpaI at the 318th position of the gene, indicating a transition substitution (T↔C). This substitution was synonymic, and did not alter the stability of the mRNA structure. Allelic and genotypic frequencies differed between the populations studied, and all of the populations demonstrated endogamy and were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Therefore, the HpaI restriction marker in the melatonin receptor gene cannot be used for genetic improvement, but is an excellent marker for population genetic studies. PMID:27173294

  2. NMDA receptor gene variations as modifiers in Huntington disease: a replication study.

    PubMed

    Saft, Carsten; Epplen, Jörg T; Wieczorek, Stefan; Landwehrmeyer, G Bernhard; Roos, Raymund A C; de Yebenes, Justo Garcia; Dose, Matthias; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Craufurd, David; Arning, Larissa

    2011-01-01

    Several candidate modifier genes which, in addition to the pathogenic CAG repeat expansion, influence the age at onset (AO) in Huntington disease (HD) have already been described. The aim of this study was to replicate association of variations in the N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subtype genes GRIN2A and GRIN2B in the "REGISTRY" cohort from the European Huntington Disease Network (EHDN). The analyses did replicate the association reported between the GRIN2A rs2650427 variation and AO in the entire cohort. Yet, when subjects were stratified by AO subtypes, we found nominally significant evidence for an association of the GRIN2A rs1969060 variation and the GRIN2B rs1806201 variation. These findings further implicate the N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subtype genes as loci containing variation associated with AO in HD. PMID:21989477

  3. Short-chain fructooligosaccharide regulates hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and farnesoid X receptor target gene expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Fukasawa, Tomoyuki; Kamei, Asuka; Watanabe, Yuki; Koga, Jinichiro; Abe, Keiko

    2010-06-01

    Prebiotic short-chain fructooligosaccharide (scFOS) is known to have various beneficial effects in humans and animals. Using a nutrigenomic approach, we have previously identified marker genes for the intestinal immunomodulatory and lipid-lowering effects of scFOS. The present study aimed to predict novel physiological effects of scFOS through nutrigenomic analyses. DNA microarray analysis revealed that administration of scFOS changed the expression of the nuclear receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) target genes in the rat liver. Gene expression analysis provided some new interesting hypotheses, for instance, the possible improvement of bile secretion via FXR target genes, and regulation of amino acid metabolism and the urea cycle via PPARalpha and/or FXR target genes. Our findings clearly indicated that nutrigenomics may make it possible to screen for novel physiological effects of dietary ingredients. PMID:20465258

  4. Smallest bitter taste receptor (T2Rs) gene repertoire in carnivores.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ling-Ling; Shi, Peng

    2013-06-01

    Bitter taste reception is presumably associated with dietary selection, preventing animals from ingesting potentially harmful compounds. Accordingly, carnivores, who encounter these toxic substances less often, should have fewer genes associated with bitter taste reception compared with herbivores and omnivores. To investigate the genetic basis of bitter taste reception, we confirmed bitter taste receptor (T2R) genes previously found in the genome sequences of two herbivores (cow and horse), two omnivores (mouse and rat) and one carnivore (dog). We also identified, for the first time, the T2R repertoire from the genome of other four carnivore species (ferret, giant panda, polar bear and cat) and detected 17-20 bitter receptor genes from the five carnivore genomes, including 12-16 intact genes, 0-1 partial but putatively functional genes, and 3-8 pseudogenes. Both the intact T2R genes and the total T2R gene number among carnivores were the smallest among the tested species, supporting earlier speculations that carnivores have fewer T2R genes, herbivores an intermediate number, and omnivores the largest T2R gene repertoire. To further explain the genetic basis for this disparity, we constructed a phylogenetic tree, which showed most of the T2R genes from the five carnivores were one-to-one orthologs across the tree, suggesting that carnivore T2Rs were conserved among mammals. Similarly, the small carnivore T2R family size was likely due to rare duplication events. Collectively, these results strengthen arguments for the connection between T2R gene family size, diet and habit. PMID:23776004

  5. Structural and phylogenetic analysis of the MHC class I-like Fc receptor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Kandil, Eman; Ishibashi, Teruo; Kasahara, Masanori

    1995-06-01

    The intestinal epithelium of neonatal mice and rats expresses an Fc receptor that mediates selective uptake of IgG in mothers`milk. This receptor (FcRn), which helps newborn animals to acquire passive immunity, is an MHC class I-like heterodimer made up of a heavy chain and {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin. In the present study, we determined the genomic structure of a mouse gene (FcRn) encoding the heavy of FcRn. The overall exon-intron organization of the Fcrn gene was similar to that of the Fcrn gene, thus providing structural evidence that Fcrn os a bona fide class I gene. The 5{prime}-flanking region of the Fcrn gene contained the binding motifs for two cytokine-inducible transcription factors, NF-IL6 and NF1. However, regulatory elements found in MHC class I genes (enhancer A, enhancer B, and the IFN response element) were absent. Phylogenetic tree analysis suggested that, like the MICA, AZGP1, and CD1 genes, the Fcrn gene diverged form MHC class I genes after the emergence of amphibians but before the split of placental and marsupial mammals. Consistent with this result, Southern blot analysis with a mouse Fcrn cDNA probe detected cross-hybridizing bands in various mammalian species and chickens. Sequence analysis of the Fcrn gene isolated from eight mouse strains showed that the membrane-distal domain of FcRn has at least three amino acid variants. The fact that Fcrn is a single copy gene indicates that it is expressed in both the neonatal intestine and the fetal yolk sac. 74 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Inflammatory and steroid receptor gene methylation in the human amnion and decidua.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Carolyn M; Sykes, Shane D; Pan, Xin; Pringle, Kirsty G; Lumbers, Eugenie R; Hirst, Jonathan J; Zakar, Tamas

    2013-04-01

    Correct timing of parturition requires inflammatory gene activation in the gestational tissues at term and repression during pregnancy. Promoter methylation at CpG dinucleotides represses gene activity; therefore, we examined the possibility that DNA methylation is involved in the regulation of labour-associated genes in human pregnancy. Amnion and decidua were collected at 11-17 weeks of gestation and at term following elective Caesarean delivery or spontaneous labour. Methylation of the inflammatory genes PTGS2, BMP2, NAMPT and CXCL2 was analysed using the Methyl-Profiler PCR System and bisulphite sequencing. Methylation of the glucocorticoid, progesterone and oestrogen receptor genes, involved in the hormonal regulation of gestational tissue function, and the expression of the DNA methyltransferases DNMT1, -3A and -3B were also determined. Variable proportions of inflammatory and steroid receptor gene copies, to a maximum of 50.9%, were densely methylated in both tissues consistent with repression. Densely methylated copy proportions were significantly different between genes showing no relationship with varying expression during pregnancy, between tissues and in individuals. Methylated copy proportions of all genes in amnion and most genes in decidua were highly correlated in individuals. DNMT1 and -3A were expressed in both tissues with significantly higher levels in the amnion at 11-17 weeks than at term. We conclude that the unmethylated portion of gene copies is responsible for the full range of regulated expression in the amnion and decidua during normal pregnancy. Dense methylation of individually variable gene copy proportions happens in the first trimester amnion influenced by sequence context and affected strongly by individual circumstances. PMID:23393306

  7. Stepwise loss of motilin and its specific receptor genes in rodents.

    PubMed

    He, Jing; Irwin, David M; Chen, Rui; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Specific interactions among biomolecules drive virtually all cellular functions and underlie phenotypic complexity and diversity. Biomolecules are not isolated particles, but are elements of integrated interaction networks, and play their roles through specific interactions. Simultaneous emergence or loss of multiple interacting partners is unlikely. If one of the interacting partners is lost, then what are the evolutionary consequences for the retained partner? Taking advantages of the availability of the large number of mammalian genome sequences and knowledge of phylogenetic relationships of the species, we examined the evolutionary fate of the motilin (MLN) hormone gene, after the pseudogenization of its specific receptor, MLN receptor (MLNR), on the rodent lineage. We speculate that the MLNR gene became a pseudogene before the divergence of the squirrel and other rodents about 75 mya. The evolutionary consequences for the MLN gene were diverse. While an intact open reading frame for the MLN gene, which appears functional, was preserved in the kangaroo rat, the MLN gene became inactivated independently on the lineages leading to the guinea pig and the common ancestor of the mouse and rat. Gain and loss of specific interactions among biomolecules through the birth and death of genes for biomolecules point to a general evolutionary dynamic: gene birth and death are widespread phenomena in genome evolution, at the genetic level; thus, once mutations arise, a stepwise process of elaboration and optimization ensues, which gradually integrates and orders mutations into a coherent pattern. PMID:19696113

  8. Organization of the mouse 5-HT3 receptor gene and functional expression of two splice variants.

    PubMed

    Werner, P; Kawashima, E; Reid, J; Hussy, N; Lundström, K; Buell, G; Humbert, Y; Jones, K A

    1994-10-01

    The structure of the mouse 5-HT3 receptor gene, 5-HT3R-A, is most similar to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) genes, in particular to the gene encoding the neuronal nAChR subunit alpha 7. These genes share among other things the location of three adjacent introns, suggesting that 5-HT3R-A and nAChR genes arose from a common precursor gene. The alternative use of two adjacent splice acceptor sites in intron 8 creates, in addition to the original 5-HT3R-A cDNA (5-HT3R-AL), a shorter isoform (5-HT3R-AS) which lacks six codons in the segment that translates into the major intracellular domain. This splice consensus sequence is not found in human genomic DNA. In mouse, we demonstrate by RNAse protection assay that 5-HT3R-AS mRNA is approximately 5 times more abundant than 5-HT3R-AL mRNA in both neuroblastoma cell lines and neuronal tissues. We used the Semliki Forest virus expression system for electrophysiological characterization of 5-HT3R-AS and 5-HT3R-AL in mammalian cells. No differences in electrophysiological characteristics, such as voltage dependence, desensitization kinetics, or unitary conductance were found between homomeric 5-HT3R-AS and 5-HT3R-AL receptors. Their properties are very similar to those of 5-HT3 receptors in mouse neuroblastoma cell lines. PMID:7854052

  9. Identification and Functional Analysis of Pheromone and Receptor Genes in the B3 Mating Locus of Pleurotus eryngii

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung-Hee; Kang, Young Min; Im, Chak Han; Ali, Asjad; Kim, Sun Young; Je, Hee-Jeong; Kim, Min-Keun; Rho, Hyun Su; Lee, Hyun Sook; Kong, Won-Sik; Ryu, Jae-San

    2014-01-01

    Pleurotus eryngii has recently become a major cultivated mushroom; it uses tetrapolar heterothallism as a part of its reproductive process. Sexual development progresses only when the A and B mating types are compatible. Such mating incompatibility occasionally limits the efficiency of breeding programs in which crossing within loci-shared strains or backcrossing strategies are employed. Therefore, understanding the mating system in edible mushroom fungi will help provide a short cut in the development of new strains. We isolated and identified pheromone and receptor genes in the B3 locus of P. eryngii and performed a functional analysis of the genes in the mating process by transformation. A genomic DNA library was constructed to map the entire mating-type locus. The B3 locus was found to contain four pheromone precursor genes and four receptor genes. Remarkably, receptor PESTE3.3.1 has just 34 amino acid residues in its C-terminal cytoplasmic region; therefore, it seems likely to be a receptor-like gene. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (real-time qRT-PCR) revealed that most pheromone and receptor genes showed significantly higher expression in monokaryotic cells than dikaryotic cells. The pheromone genes PEphb3.1 and PEphb3.3 and the receptor gene PESTE3.3.1 were transformed into P5 (A3B4). The transformants were mated with a tester strain (A4B4), and the progeny showed clamp connections and a normal fruiting body, which indicates the proposed role of these genes in mating and fruiting processes. This result also confirms that PESTE3.3.1 is a receptor gene. In this study, we identified pheromone and receptor genes in the B3 locus of P. eryngii and found that some of those genes appear to play a role in the mating and fruiting processes. These results might help elucidate the mechanism of fruiting differentiation and improve breeding efficiency. PMID:25133513

  10. [Severe type A insulin resistance syndrome due to a mutation in the insulin receptor gene].

    PubMed

    Ros, P; Colino-Alcol, E; Grasso, V; Barbetti, F; Argente, J

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance syndromes without lipodystrophy are an infrequent and heterogeneous group of disorders with variable clinical phenotypes, associated with hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. The three conditions related to mutations in the insulin receptor gene are leprechaunism or Donohue syndrome, Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, and Type A syndrome. A case is presented on a patient diagnosed with type A insulin resistance, defined by the triad of extreme insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans, and hyperandrogenism, carrying a heterozygous mutation in exon 19 of the insulin receptor gene coding for its tyrosine kinase domain that is crucial for the catalytic activity of the receptor. The molecular basis of the syndrome is reviewed, focusing on the structure-function relationships of the insulin receptor, knowing that the criteria for survival are linked to residual insulin receptor function. It is also pointed out that, although type A insulin resistance appears to represent a somewhat less severe condition, these patients have a high morbidity and their treatment is still unsatisfactory. PMID:25027621

  11. Expression of apoptosis-related genes in liver-specific growth hormone receptor gene-disrupted mice is sex dependent.

    PubMed

    Gesing, Adam; Wang, Feiya; List, Edward O; Berryman, Darlene E; Masternak, Michal M; Lewinski, Andrzej; Karbownik-Lewinska, Malgorzata; Kopchick, John J; Bartke, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is a process that affects life span and health. Mice with liver-specific disruption of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene (ie, Ghr gene) liver-specific growth hormone receptor knockout [LiGHRKO] mice), as opposed to mice with global deletion of the Ghr gene (GHRKO; Ghr-/-), are characterized by severe hepatic steatosis and lack of improved insulin sensitivity. We have previously shown that levels of proapoptotic factors are decreased in long-lived and insulin-sensitive GHRKO mice. In the current study, expression of specific apoptosis-related genes was assessed in brains, kidneys, and livers of male and female LiGHRKO and wild-type mice using real-time PCR. In the brain, expression of Caspase 3, Caspase 9, Smac/DIABLO, and p53 was decreased in females compared with males. Renal expression of Caspase 3 and Noxa also decreased in female mice. In the liver, no differences were seen between males and females. Also, no significant genotype effects were detected in the examined organs. Lack of significant genotype effect in kidneys contrasts with previous observations in GHRKO mice. Apparently, global GHR deletion induces beneficial changes in apoptotic factors, whereas liver-specific GHR disruption does not. Furthermore, sexual dimorphism may play an important role in regulating apoptosis during liver-specific suppression of the somatotrophic signaling. PMID:24550353

  12. Genes expressed in the brain define three distinct neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Nef, P; Oneyser, C; Alliod, C; Couturier, S; Ballivet, M

    1988-01-01

    Four genes encode the related protein subunits that assemble to form the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) at the motor endplate of vertebrates. We have isolated from the chicken genome four additional members of the same gene family whose protein products, termed alpha 2, alpha 3, alpha 4 and n alpha (non-alpha) probably define three distinct neuronal nAChR subtypes. The neuronal nAChR genes have identical structures consisting of six protein-coding exons and specify proteins that are best aligned with the chicken endplate alpha subunit, whose gene we have also characterized. mRNA transcripts encoding alpha 4 and n alpha are abundant in embryonic and in adult avian brain, whereas alpha 2 and alpha 3 transcripts are much scarcer. The same set of neuronal genes probably exists in all vertebrates since their counterparts have also been identified in the rat genome. Images PMID:3267226

  13. Methuselah/Methuselah-like G protein-coupled receptors constitute an ancient metazoan gene family

    PubMed Central

    de Mendoza, Alexandre; Jones, Jeffery W.; Friedrich, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Inconsistent conclusions have been drawn regarding the phylogenetic age of the Methuselah/Methuselah-like (Mth/Mthl) gene family of G protein-coupled receptors, the founding member of which regulates development and lifespan in Drosophila. Here we report the results from a targeted homolog search of 39 holozoan genomes and phylogenetic analysis of the conserved seven transmembrane domain. Our findings reveal that the Mth/Mthl gene family is ancient, has experienced numerous extinction and expansion events during metazoan evolution, and acquired the current definition of the Methuselah ectodomain during its exceptional expansion in arthropods. In addition, our findings identify Mthl1, Mthl5, Mthl14, and Mthl15 as the oldest Mth/Mthl gene family paralogs in Drosophila. Future studies of these genes have the potential to define ancestral functions of the Mth/Mthl gene family. PMID:26915348

  14. Diet shapes the evolution of the vertebrate bitter taste receptor gene repertoire.

    PubMed

    Li, Diyan; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2014-02-01

    Vertebrate Tas2r taste receptors bind to bitter compounds, which are typically poisonous, to elicit bitter sensation to prevent the ingestion of toxins. Previous studies noted a marked variation in the number of Tas2r genes among species, but the underlying cause is unclear. To address this question, we compile the Tas2r gene repertoires from 41 mammals, 4 birds, 2 reptiles, 1 amphibian, and 6 fishes. The number of intact Tas2r genes varies from 0 in the bottlenose dolphin to 51 in the Western clawed frog, with numerous expansions and contractions of the gene family throughout vertebrates, especially among tetrapods. The Tas2r gene number in a species correlates with the fraction of plants in its diet. Because plant tissues contain more toxic compounds than animal tissues do, our observation supports the hypothesis that dietary toxins are a major selective force shaping the diversity of the Tas2r repertoire. PMID:24202612

  15. Lack of imprinting of the human dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Cichon, S.; Noethen, M.M.; Propping, P.; Wolf, H.K.

    1996-04-09

    The term genomic imprinting has been used to refer to the differential expression of genetic material depending on whether it has come from the male or female parent. In humans, the chromosomal region 11p15.5 has been shown to contain 2 imprinted genes (H19 and IGF2). The gene for the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4), which is of great interest for research into neuropsychiatric disorders and psychopharmacology, is also located in this area. In the present study, we have examined the imprinting status of the DRD4 gene in brain tissue of an epileptic patient who was heterozygous for a 12 bp repeat polymorphism in exon 1 of the DRD4 gene. We show that both alleles are expressed in equivalent amounts. We therefore conclude that the DRD4 gene is not imprinted in the human brain. 30 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Diet Shapes the Evolution of the Vertebrate Bitter Taste Receptor Gene Repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Li, Diyan; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrate Tas2r taste receptors bind to bitter compounds, which are typically poisonous, to elicit bitter sensation to prevent the ingestion of toxins. Previous studies noted a marked variation in the number of Tas2r genes among species, but the underlying cause is unclear. To address this question, we compile the Tas2r gene repertoires from 41 mammals, 4 birds, 2 reptiles, 1 amphibian, and 6 fishes. The number of intact Tas2r genes varies from 0 in the bottlenose dolphin to 51 in the Western clawed frog, with numerous expansions and contractions of the gene family throughout vertebrates, especially among tetrapods. The Tas2r gene number in a species correlates with the fraction of plants in its diet. Because plant tissues contain more toxic compounds than animal tissues do, our observation supports the hypothesis that dietary toxins are a major selective force shaping the diversity of the Tas2r repertoire. PMID:24202612

  17. Exchange factors directly activated by cAMP mediate melanocortin 4 receptor-induced gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Glas, Evi; Mückter, Harald; Gudermann, Thomas; Breit, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Gs protein-coupled receptors regulate many vital body functions by activation of cAMP response elements (CRE) via cAMP-dependent kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of the CRE binding protein (CREB). Melanocortin 4 receptors (MC4R) are prototypical Gs-coupled receptors that orchestrate the hypothalamic control of food-intake and metabolism. Remarkably, the significance of PKA for MC4R-induced CRE-dependent transcription in hypothalamic cells has not been rigorously interrogated yet. In two hypothalamic cell lines, we observed that blocking PKA activity had only weak or no effects on reporter gene expression. In contrast, inhibitors of exchange factors directly activated by cAMP-1/2 (EPAC-1/2) mitigated MC4R-induced CRE reporter activation and mRNA induction of the CREB-dependent genes c-fos and thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Furthermore, we provide first evidence that extracellular-regulated kinases-1/2 (ERK-1/2) activated by EPACs and not PKA are the elusive CREB kinases responsible for MC4R-induced CREB/CRE activation in hypothalamic cells. Overall, these data emphasize the pivotal role of EPACs rather than PKA in hypothalamic gene expression elicited by a prototypical Gs-coupled receptor. PMID:27612207

  18. Esophageal Cancer Related Gene-4 (ECRG4) Interactions with the Innate Immunity Receptor Complex

    PubMed Central

    Podvin, Sonia; Dang, Xitong; Meads, Morgan; Kurabi, Arwa; Costantini, Todd; Eliceiri, Brian P.; Baird, Andrew; Coimbra, Raul

    2014-01-01

    Objective and design The human c2orf40 gene encodes a tumor suppressor gene called esophageal cancer-related gene-4 (ECRG4) with pro- and anti-inflammatory activities that depend on cell surface processing. Here, we investigated its physical and functional association with the innate immunity receptor complex. Methods Interactions between ECRG4 and the innate immunity receptor complex were assessed by flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy, co-immunoprecipitation. Phage display was used for ligand-targeting to cells that over express the TLR4-MD2-CD14. Results Immunoprecipitation and immunohistochemical studies demonstrate a physical interaction between ECRG4 and TLR4-MD2-CD14 on human granulocytes. Flow cytometry shows ECRG4 on the cell surface of a subset of CD14+ and CD16+ leukocytes. In a cohort of trauma patients, the C-terminal 16 amino acid domain of ECRG4 (ECRG4133–148), appears processed and shed, presumably at a thrombin-like consensus sequence. Phage targeting this putative ligand shows that this peptide sequence can internalizes into cells through the TLR4/CD14/MD2 complex but modulates inflammation through non-canonical, NFκB signal transduction. Conclusions ECRG4 is present on the surface of human monocytes and granulocytes. Its interaction with the human innate immunity receptor complex supports a role for cell surface activation of ECRG4 during inflammation and implicates this receptor in its mechanism of action. PMID:25511108

  19. Molecular cloning and characterization of a Toll receptor gene from Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Srisuk, Chutima; Longyant, Siwaporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Sithigorngul, Paisarn; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin

    2014-02-01

    Toll receptors are cell surface molecules acting as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that have been implicated in the signaling pathway of innate immune responses. In this study, the full-length cDNA of a Toll receptor gene of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, designated MrToll, was successfully isolated using designed degenerate primers and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The MrToll gene sequence contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2799 nucleotides encoding a protein of 932 amino acid residues. The protein contained distinct structural motifs of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, including an extracellular domain containing 15 leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), a transmembrane segment of 23 amino acids, and a cytoplasmic Toll/interleukin-1R (TIR) domain of 139 residues. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MrToll and Toll receptor of Marsupenaeus japonicus (MjToll) evolved closely. However, the MrToll ORF demonstrated only 48-49% identity with shrimp Toll1, suggesting that MrToll isolated from a palaemonid shrimp might belong to a novel class of Toll receptors in shrimp. The transcripts of the MrToll gene were constitutively expressed in various tissues, with high levels in hemocytes, the stomach and muscle. A reverse transcriptase PCR assay demonstrated that the expression patterns of MrToll were distinctly modulated after Aeromonas caviae stimulation, with significant enhancement at 3-12 h post-challenge and a decline to basal levels at 24 h post-challenge. In addition, when MrToll-silenced shrimp were challenged with A. caviae, there was a significant increase in mortality and bacterial CFU counts. These results suggest that MrToll might be involved in host innate defense, especially against the pathogen A. caviae. PMID:24398262

  20. Molecular Background of Estrogen Receptor Gene Expression in Endometriotic Cells.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Masao; Taniguchi, Fuminori; Harada, Tasuku

    2016-07-01

    The molecular background of estrogen receptor (ER) expression is important to understand the pathophysiology of the high estrogen environment in endometriosis. However, the molecular details have not been fully understood. The objective of this study is to evaluate the molecular background of ERα and ERβ messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in endometriotic cells. The following summarizes our observations: (1) ERα mRNA expression in endometriotic cells was estimated to be approximately one-tenth of that in endometrial cells. (2) Three mRNAs, which include 3 different 5'-untranslated exons tagged to an open reading frame of wild-type ERα, were detected. (3) Expression of ERβ mRNA depends mostly on 0N promoter and includes 2 open reading frames: one for a wild-type ERβ1 and another for a splice variant ERβ2. (4) Expression of ERβ1 mRNA was approximately 40-fold higher than that in endometrial cells. (5) Expression of ERβ2 mRNA was almost at a comparable level of the ERβ1. 9 (6) ERα and ERβ mRNAs are equivalently expressed in endometriotic cells. These observations show the molecular background of ER mRNA expression in endometriotic cells and provide a clue to further understanding the estrogen-dependent pathophysiology leading to clinical application in endometriosis. PMID:26704524

  1. Endothelial Protein C Receptor Gene Variants and Risk of Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Anastasiou, Georgia; Politou, Marianna; Rallidis, Loukianos; Grouzi, Elisavet; Karakitsos, Petros; Merkouri, Efrosini; Travlou, Anthi; Gialeraki, Argyri

    2016-03-01

    Endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) is a candidate mediator in the pathogenesis of thrombosis, as several data in the literature indicate that polymorphisms such as EPCR 4678G/C and 4600A/G are associated with either protective effect or increased risk of thrombosis, respectively. We investigated the prevalence of these polymorphisms in patients with thrombotic disorders as well as their impact on the risk of thrombosis, the age of first thrombotic episode, and recurrence. The prevalence of the rare EPCR alleles 4600G and 4678C was comparable in patients and controls. However, in a subset analysis, we observed that 4600G allele was more prevalent among patients who developed thrombosis at younger age (<35 years). Moreover, the prevalence of 4678C allele was significantly lower in younger patients compared to older patients. Neither polymorphism seemed to have an impact on recurrence regardless of age. Soluble EPCR levels were elevated in 4600AG patients compared to controls while 4678CC patients presented with lower levels of soluble form of EPCR compared to carriers of at least 1 4678G allele. Our data suggest that either the lack of the protective EPCR 4678C allele or the presence of EPCR 4600G allele may be associated with earlier development of thrombosis. PMID:25760048

  2. Dopamine inhibits somatolactin gene expression in tilapia pituitary cells through the dopamine D2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Quan; Lian, Anji; He, Qi

    2016-07-01

    Dopamine (DA) is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of vertebrates and possesses key hypophysiotropic functions. Early studies have shown that DA has a potent inhibitory effect on somatolactin (SL) release in fish. However, the mechanisms responsible for DA inhibition of SL gene expression are largely unknown. To this end, tilapia DA type-1 (D1) and type-2 (D2) receptor transcripts were examined in the neurointermediate lobe (NIL) of the tilapia pituitary by real-time PCR. In tilapia, DA not only was effective in inhibiting SL mRNA levels in vivo and in vitro, but also could abolish pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)- and salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH)-stimulated SL gene expression at the pituitary level. In parallel studies, the specific D2 receptor agonists quinpirole and bromocriptine could mimic the DA-inhibited SL gene expression. Furthermore, the D2 receptor antagonists domperidone and (-)-sulpiride could abolish the SL response to DA or the D2 agonist quinpirole, whereas D1 receptor antagonists SCH23390 and SKF83566 were not effective in this respect. In primary cultures of tilapia NIL cells, D2 agonist quinpirole-inhibited cAMP production could be blocked by co-treatment with the D2 antagonist domperidone and the ability of forskolin to increase cAMP production was also inhibited by quinpirole. Using a pharmacological approach, the AC/cAMP pathway was shown to be involved in quinpirole-inhibited SL mRNA expression. These results provide evidence that DA can directly inhibit SL gene expression at the tilapia pituitary level via D2 receptor through the AC/cAMP-dependent mechanism. PMID:26970582

  3. Arsenic disruption of steroid receptor gene activation: Complex dose-response effects are shared by several steroid receptors.

    PubMed

    Bodwell, Jack E; Gosse, Julie A; Nomikos, Athena P; Hamilton, Joshua W

    2006-12-01

    Chronic intake of arsenic (As) has been associated with increased risk of cancer, diabetes, developmental and reproductive problems, and cardiovascular disease. Recent studies suggest increased health risks with drinking water levels as low as 5-10 ppb. We previously reported that As disrupts glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mediated transcription in a very complex fashion. Low As levels (0.1-0.7 microM) stimulated transcription, whereas slightly higher levels (1-3 microM) were inhibitory. The DNA binding domain (DBD) was the minimal region of GR required for the response to As. Mutations in the DBD that alter the conformation of the dimerization domain (D-loop) to a DNA-bound GR conformation abolished the stimulatory effect and enhanced the inhibitory response to As. Here we report that receptors for progesterone (PR) and mineralocorticoids display a complex As response similar to that of the GR, suggesting a common mechanism for this effect. The complex response to As is not due to altered steroid or receptor levels. Moreover, a well-characterized GR dimerization mutant displayed a wild-type biphasic response to As for several divergent reporter genes, suggesting that dimerization is not critical for the response to As. Fluorescence polarization studies with purified PR and GR demonstrated that the specific PR/GR-DNA interaction is not altered in the presence of As. These results indicate that the numerous and diverse human health effects associated with As exposure may be mediated, at least in part, through its ability to simultaneously disrupt multiple hormone receptor systems. PMID:17173375

  4. Arsenic Disruption of Steroid Receptor Gene Activation: Complex Dose-Response Effects Are Shared by Several Steroid Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Bodwell, Jack E.; Gosse, Julie A.; Nomikos, Athena P.; Hamilton, Joshua W.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic intake of arsenic (As) has been associated with increased risk of cancer, diabetes, developmental and reproductive problems, and cardiovascular disease. Recent studies suggest increased health risks with drinking water levels as low as 5–10 ppb. We previously reported that As disrupts glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mediated transcription in a very complex fashion. Low As levels (0.1 to 0.7 μM) stimulated transcription whereas slightly higher levels (1 to 3 μM) were inhibitory. The DNA Binding Domain (DBD) was the minimal region of GR required for the response to As. Mutations in the DBD that alter the conformation of the dimerization domain (D-Loop) to a DNA-bound GR conformation abolished the stimulatory effect and enhanced the inhibitory response to As. Here we report that receptors for progesterone (PR) and mineralocorticoids (MR) display a similar complex As response as the GR, suggesting a common mechanism for this effect. The complex response to As is not due to altered steroid or receptor levels. Moreover, a well-characterized GR dimerization mutant displayed a wild-type biphasic response to As for several divergent reporter genes, suggesting that dimerization is not critical for the response to As. Fluorescence polarization studies with purified PR and GR demonstrated that the specific PR/GR-DNA interaction is not altered in the presence of As. These results indicate that the numerous and diverse human health effects associated with As exposure maybe mediated, at least in part, through its ability to simultaneously disrupt multiple hormone receptor systems. PMID:17173375

  5. Concerted Gene Expression of Hippocampal Steroid Receptors during Spatial Learning in Male Wistar Rats: A Correlation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lubec, Gert; Korz, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal and gonadal steroid receptor activities are significantly involved and interact in the regulation of learning, memory and stress. Thus, a coordinated expression of steroid receptor genes during a learning task can be expected. Although coexpression of steroid receptors in response to behavioral tasks has been reported the correlative connection is unclear. According to the inverted U-shape model of the impact of stress upon learning and memory we hypothesized that glucocorticoid (GR) receptor expression should be correlated to corticosterone levels in a linear or higher order manner. Other cognition modulating steroid receptors like estrogen receptors (ER) should be correlated to GR receptors in a quadratic manner, which describes a parabola and thus a U-shaped connection. Therefore, we performed a correlational meta-analyis of data of a previous study (Meyer and Korz, 2013a) of steroid receptor gene expressions during spatial learning, which provides a sufficient data basis in order to perform such correlational connections. In that study male rats of different ages were trained in a spatial holeboard or remained untrained and the hippocampal gene expression of different steroid receptors as well as serum corticosterone levels were measured. Expressions of mineralocorticoid (MR) and GR receptors were positively and linearly correlated with blood serum corticosterone levels in spatially trained but not in untrained animals. Training induced a cubic (best fit) relationship between mRNA levels of estrogen receptor α (ERα) and androgen receptor (AR) with MR mRNA. GR gene expression was linearly correlated with MR expression under both conditions. ERα m RNA levels were negatively and linearily and MR and GR gene expressions were cubicely correlated with reference memory errors (RME). Due to only three age classes correlations with age could not be performed. The findings support the U-shape theory of steroid receptor interaction, however the cubic fit

  6. Genes controlling receptors for ecotropic and xenotropic type C virus in Mus cervicolor and Mus musculus.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, T H; Rapp, U R

    1979-01-01

    Gene loci controlling cell surface receptors for murine leukemia virus were studied by using murine X Chinese hamster hybrid cells. Hybrids which exclusively segregate murine chromosomes were made by fusing Mus cervicolor and Mus musculus lymphocytes to hamster fibroblasts. Sensitivity to Moloney murine leukemia virus infecotion and specific binding of the envelope glycoprotein of Rauscher murine leukemia virus (gp70) cosegregate and isozyme analysis show an association with chromosome 5 in both species. With the possible exception of one clone, no evidence was found for a proviral integration site independent of chromosome 5. Evidence is presented for additional unlinked ectropic and xenotropic receptors independent of chromosome 5. PMID:219245

  7. Expression of the rat muscarinic receptor gene m3 in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Voith, G; Kramm, H; Zündorf, I; Winkler, T; Dingermann, T

    1998-10-01

    We functionally expressed the rat muscarinic m3 receptor (rm3) in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum under the control of the homologous discoidin I gamma promoter. Cells transfected with the authentic rm3 receptor gene expressed about 100 functional receptor molecules per cell, corresponding to a Bmax for [3H]-NMS of 36 +/- 9 fmol/mg of protein in isolated membranes. Genetic fusion of the Dictyostelium contact site A (csA) leader peptide to the amino terminus of rm3 increased the receptor expression by about 17-fold. Remarkable, in [3H]-NMS ligand binding experiments performed with whole cells no characteristic saturable binding was observed and there was no significant difference in [3H]-NMS binding to whole cells of rm3 and csA/rm3 transformants. The recombinant rm3 receptor showed an about 10-fold higher affinity to the M3-selective antagonist p-F-HHSiD compared to the M2-selective antagonist AQ-RA 741, suggesting that membranes derived from transgenic D. discoideum cells may be useful for the search of new subtype-specific muscarinic receptor ligands. PMID:9812338

  8. Co-regulated gene expression by oestrogen receptor α and liver receptor homolog-1 is a feature of the oestrogen response in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chun-Fui; Flach, Koen D.; Alexi, Xanthippi; Fox, Stephen P.; Ottaviani, Silvia; Thiruchelvam, Paul T.R.; Kyle, Fiona J.; Thomas, Ross S.; Launchbury, Rosalind; Hua, Hui; Callaghan, Holly B.; Carroll, Jason S.; Charles Coombes, R.; Zwart, Wilbert; Buluwela, Laki; Ali, Simak

    2013-01-01

    Oestrogen receptor α (ERα) is a nuclear receptor that is the driving transcription factor expressed in the majority of breast cancers. Recent studies have demonstrated that the liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1), another nuclear receptor, regulates breast cancer cell proliferation and promotes motility and invasion. To determine the mechanisms of LRH-1 action in breast cancer, we performed gene expression microarray analysis following RNA interference for LRH-1. Interestingly, gene ontology (GO) category enrichment analysis of LRH-1–regulated genes identified oestrogen-responsive genes as the most highly enriched GO categories. Remarkably, chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq) to identify genomic targets of LRH-1 showed LRH-1 binding at many ERα binding sites. Analysis of select binding sites confirmed regulation of ERα−regulated genes by LRH-1 through binding to oestrogen response elements, as exemplified by the TFF1/pS2 gene. Finally, LRH-1 overexpression stimulated ERα recruitment, while LRH-1 knockdown reduced ERα recruitment to ERα binding sites. Taken together, our findings establish a key role for LRH-1 in the regulation of ERα target genes in breast cancer cells and identify a mechanism in which co-operative binding of LRH-1 and ERα at oestrogen response elements controls the expression of oestrogen-responsive genes. PMID:24049078

  9. Androgen Receptor Repression of GnRH Gene Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Brayman, Melissa J.; Pepa, Patricia A.; Berdy, Sara E.

    2012-01-01

    Alterations in androgen levels lead to reproductive defects in both males and females, including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, anovulation, and infertility. Androgens have been shown to down-regulate GnRH mRNA levels through an androgen receptor (AR)-dependent mechanism. Here, we investigate how androgen regulates expression from the GnRH regulatory region in the GT1-7 cell line, a model of GnRH neurons. A synthetic androgen, R1881, repressed transcription from the GnRH promoter (GnRH-P) in an AR-dependent manner, and liganded AR associated with the chromatin at the GnRH-P in live GT1-7 cells. The three known octamer-binding transcription factor-1 (Oct-1) binding sites in GnRH-P were required for AR-mediated repression, although other sequences were also involved. Although a multimer of the consensus Oct-1 binding site was not repressed, a multimer of the cluster of Oct-1, Pre-B cell leukemia transcription factor (Pbx)/Prep, and NK2 homeobox 1 (Nkx2.1) binding sites, found at −106/−91 in GnRH-P, was sufficient for repression. In fact, overexpression of any of these factors disrupted the androgen response, indicating that a balance of factors in this tripartite complex is required for AR repression. AR bound to this region in EMSA, indicating a direct interaction of AR with DNA or with other transcription factors bound to GnRH-P at this sequence. Collectively, our data demonstrate that GnRH transcription is repressed by AR via multiple sequences in GnRH-P, including three Oct-1 binding sites, and that this repression requires the complex interaction of several transcription factors. PMID:22074952

  10. Characterization of leptin receptor gene in Bubalus bubalis and association analysis with body measurement traits.

    PubMed

    De Matteis, Giovanna; Scatà, Maria Carmela; Catillo, Gennaro; Terzano, Giuseppina Maria; Grandoni, Francesco; Napolitano, Francesco

    2015-06-01

    Leptin has a pleiotropic effect on regulating appetite, energy metabolism, growth, reproduction, body composition and immunity. This property supports leptin and its receptor as candidate genes for evaluating genetic polymorphisms to associate with growth, milk yield and other economic traits. The aim of this study is to characterize the leptin receptor gene in Bubalus bubalis, to identify single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites in different coding and non-coding regions and to analyse potential associations between SNPs identified and the body measurements traits of growing buffalo heifers. A group of 64 animals were genotyped by direct sequencing and twenty-eight SNPs were detected. A sequence analysis revealed the presence of nine interesting SNPs in gene sequence. The association analysis of polymorphisms with the body measurements traits of growing buffalo heifers shows significant statistical effects on chest depth and sacrum height. Therefore according to the results obtained from this study, the leptin receptor gene appears to have potential effects on the body measurement traits of Bubalus bubalis. PMID:25431006

  11. Sweet Taste Receptor Gene Variation and Aspartame Taste in Primates and Other Species

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xia; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Maehashi, Kenji; Li, Weihua; Lim, Raymond; Brand, Joseph G.; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Reed, Danielle R.; Thai, Chloe

    2011-01-01

    Aspartame is a sweetener added to foods and beverages as a low-calorie sugar replacement. Unlike sugars, which are apparently perceived as sweet and desirable by a range of mammals, the ability to taste aspartame varies, with humans, apes, and Old World monkeys perceiving aspartame as sweet but not other primate species. To investigate whether the ability to perceive the sweetness of aspartame correlates with variations in the DNA sequence of the genes encoding sweet taste receptor proteins, T1R2 and T1R3, we sequenced these genes in 9 aspartame taster and nontaster primate species. We then compared these sequences with sequences of their orthologs in 4 other nontasters species. We identified 9 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R2 and 32 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R3 that distinguish aspartame tasters and nontasters. Molecular docking of aspartame to computer-generated models of the T1R2 + T1R3 receptor dimer suggests that species variation at a secondary, allosteric binding site in the T1R2 protein is the most likely origin of differences in perception of the sweetness of aspartame. These results identified a previously unknown site of aspartame interaction with the sweet receptor and suggest that the ability to taste aspartame might have developed during evolution to exploit a specialized food niche. PMID:21414996

  12. Association of Toll-like receptors 2, 3, and 4 genes polymorphisms with periapical pathosis risk

    PubMed Central

    Özan, Ülkü; Ocak, Zeynep; Özan, Fatih; Oktay, Elif-Aybala; Şahman, Halil; Yikilgan, İhsan; Oruçoğlu, Hasan; Er, Kürşat

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the role of gene variations of Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2, 3, and 4 on genetic susceptibility to periapical pathosis. Material and Methods One hundred patients were included in the study and divided into two groups as follows; Control Group (n=50) that have root canal treatment and no periapical lesion, Patient Group (n=50) that have root canal treatment and periapical lesion. TLR2 Arg753Gln, TLR3 (c.1377C/T) and TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms were genotyped by using PCR-RFLP. Genotypical analysis of control and patient groups were investigated to disclose whether there is any association between periapical lesions and gene variations. Results There are no significant statistical differences between control and patient groups according to TLR 2 and 4 gene sequence. On the contrary, CC allele detected 74% for TLR 3 in patient group, and this difference was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.005). Conclusions According to these results, it can be suggested that patients with Toll-like receptor 3 gene polymorphisms could be susceptible to periapical pathosis. Key words:Toll-like receptors, periapical pathosis, endodontics. PMID:27031066

  13. Polymorphism and genetic mapping of the human oxytocin receptor gene on chromosome 3

    SciTech Connect

    Michelini, S.; Urbanek, M.; Goldman, D.

    1995-06-19

    Centrally administered oxytocin has been reported to facilitate affiliative and social behaviors, in functional harmony with its well-known peripheral effects on uterine contraction and milk ejection. The biological effects of oxytocin could be perturbed by mutations occurring in the sequence of the oxytocin receptor gene, and it would be of interest to establish the position of this gene on the human linkage map. Therefore we identified a polymorphism at the human oxytocin receptor gene. A portion of the 3{prime} untranslated region containing a 30 bp CA repeat was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), revealing a polymorphism with two alleles occurring with frequencies of 0.77 and 0.23 in a sample of Caucasian CEPH parents (n = 70). The CA repeat polymorphism we detected was used to map the human oxytocin receptor to chromosome 3p25-3p26, in a region which contains several important genes, including loci for Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) and renal cell carcinoma. 53 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Association study between schizophrenia and dopamine D3 receptor gene polymorphism

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Toshihisa; Takahashi, Makoto; Maeda, Masaya

    1996-07-26

    Crocq et al. reported the existence of an association between schizophrenia and homozygosity of a BalI polymorphism in the first exon of the dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) gene. In response to this report, further studies were conducted; however, these studies yielded conflicting results. In the present study, we examined 100 unrelated Japanese schizophrenics and 100 normal controls to determine any association between this polymorphism and schizophrenia. Results suggest that neither allele nor genotype frequencies of the DRD3 gene in the schizophrenics as a whole are significantly different from those of the controls. Further, we found no association between any allele or genotype and any clinical subtype based on family history of schizophrenia and age-at-onset. A significantly high frequency of homozygosity of a dopamine D3 receptor gene allele was not observed in the schizophrenics as a whole, or in clinical subtypes. Our results suggest that an association between the dopamine D3 receptor gene and schizophrenia is unlikely to exist. 26 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Lack of association between dopamine D4 receptor gene and schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Toshihisa; Kameda, K.; Ihda, S.

    1995-12-18

    An intriguing property of the dopamine D4 receptor gene is a hypervariable segment in the coding region characterized by a varying number of direct imperfect 48 bp repeats (2-8 or 10 repeats) in the third exon of the gene. The authors analyzed 70 unrelated schizophrenics and 70 normal controls to determine the allele and genotype frequencies created by length polymorphism of dopamine D4 receptor gene. All patients and controls were unrelated and from the Japanese population. Patients were divided into three groups with regard to age at onset, familial loading, and severity of symptoms assessed strictly with Manchester scale. There were no statistically significant differences if the distributions of alleles and genotypes were analyzed in consideration of those clinical subtypes. Lichter and colleagues [1993] have reported that at least 25 haplotypes exist for this polymorphic region of the dopamine receptor D4 gene. In this study only the alleles created by length polymorphism were analyzed, and further investigation to determine the haplotypes of patients and controls on using a much larger sample size will be required. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Systematic analysis of dopamine receptor genes (DRD1-DRD5) in antipsychotic-induced weight gain.

    PubMed

    Müller, D J; Zai, C C; Sicard, M; Remington, E; Souza, R P; Tiwari, A K; Hwang, R; Likhodi, O; Shaikh, S; Freeman, N; Arenovich, T; Heinz, A; Meltzer, H Y; Lieberman, J A; Kennedy, J L

    2012-04-01

    Antipsychotic-induced weight gain has emerged as a serious complication in the treatment of patients with most antipsychotics. We have conducted the first in-depth examination of dopamine receptor genes in antipsychotic-induced weight gain. A total of 206 patients (139 of European descent and 56 African Americans) who underwent treatment for chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were evaluated after on average over 6 weeks of treatment. Thirty-six tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one variable-number tandem repeat, spanning the five dopamine receptor genes (DRD1-DRD5) were analyzed. In the total sample, we found a nominally significant association between the DRD2 rs1079598 marker and weight change using a cutoff of 7% gain (P=0.03). When stratifying the sample according to ethnicity and antipsychotics with highest risk for weight gain, we found significant associations in three DRD2 SNPs: rs6277 (C957T), rs1079598 and rs1800497 (TaqIA). The other genes were primarily negative. We provide evidence that dopamine receptor DRD2 gene variants might be associated with antipsychotic-induced weight gain in chronic schizophrenia patients. PMID:20714340

  17. An altered repertoire of T cell receptor V gene expression by rheumatoid synovial fluid T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Lunardi, C; Marguerie, C; So, A K

    1992-12-01

    The pattern of T cell receptor V gene expression by lymphocytes from rheumatoid synovial fluid and paired peripheral blood samples was compared using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay. Eight rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients who had varying durations of disease (from 2 to 20 years) were studied. In all patients there was evidence of a different pattern of V gene expression between the two compartments. Significantly increased expression of at least one V alpha or V beta gene family by synovial fluid T cells was observed in all the patients studied. Three different V alpha (V alpha 10, 15 and 18) and three V beta (V beta 4, 5 and 13) families were commonly elevated. Sequencing of synovial V beta transcripts demonstrated that the basis of increased expression of selected V gene families in the synovial fluid was due to the presence of dominant clonotypes within those families, which constituted up to 53% of the sequences isolated from one particular synovial V gene family. There were considerable differences in the NDJ sequences found in synovial and peripheral blood T cell receptor (TCR) transcripts of the same V beta gene family. These data suggest that the TCR repertoire in the two compartments differs, and that antigen-driven expansion of particular synovial T cell populations is a component of rheumatoid synovitis, and is present in all stages of the disease. PMID:1458680

  18. Effects of retinoic acid on growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor gene expression and growth hormone secretion in rat anterior pituitary cells.

    PubMed

    Maliza, Rita; Fujiwara, Ken; Tsukada, Takehiro; Azuma, Morio; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2016-06-30

    Retinoic acid (RA) is an important signaling molecule in embryonic development and adult tissue. The actions of RA are mediated by the nuclear receptors retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR), which regulate gene expression. RAR and RXR are widely expressed in the anterior pituitary gland. RA was reported to stimulate growth hormone (GH) gene expression in the anterior pituitary cells. However, current evidence is unclear on the role of RA in gene expression of growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor (Ghrh-r), growth hormone secretagogue receptor (Ghs-r) and somatostatin receptors (Sst-rs). Using isolated anterior pituitary cells of rats, we examined the effects of RA on gene expression of these receptors and GH release. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA; 10(-6) M) for 24 h increased gene expression levels of Ghrh-r and Ghs-r; however, expressions of Sst-r2 and Sst-r5 were unchanged. Combination treatment with the RAR-agonist Am80 and RXR-agonist PA024 mimicked the effects of ATRA on Ghrh-r and Ghs-r gene expressions. Exposure of isolated pituitary cells to ATRA had no effect on basal GH release. In contrast, ATRA increased growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)- and ghrelin-stimulated GH release from cultured anterior pituitary cells. Our results suggest that expressions of Ghrh-r and Ghs-r are regulated by RA through the RAR-RXR receptor complex and that RA enhances the effects of GHRH and ghrelin on GH release from the anterior pituitary gland. PMID:27052215

  19. Diversity and impact of rare variants in genes encoding the platelet G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Jones, Matthew L; Norman, Jane E; Morgan, Neil V; Mundell, Stuart J; Lordkipanidzé, Marie; Lowe, Gillian C; Daly, Martina E; Simpson, Michael A; Drake, Sian; Watson, Steve P; Mumford, Andrew D

    2015-04-01

    Platelet responses to activating agonists are influenced by common population variants within or near G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) genes that affect receptor activity. However, the impact of rare GPCR gene variants is unknown. We describe the rare single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in the coding and splice regions of 18 GPCR genes in 7,595 exomes from the 1,000-genomes and Exome Sequencing Project databases and in 31 cases with inherited platelet function disorders (IPFDs). In the population databases, the GPCR gene target regions contained 740 SNVs (318 synonymous, 410 missense, 7 stop gain and 6 splice region) of which 70 % had global minor allele frequency (MAF) < 0.05 %. Functional annotation using six computational algorithms, experimental evidence and structural data identified 156/740 (21 %) SNVs as potentially damaging to GPCR function, most commonly in regions encoding the transmembrane and C-terminal intracellular receptor domains. In 31 index cases with IPFDs (Gi-pathway defect n=15; secretion defect n=11; thromboxane pathway defect n=3 and complex defect n=2) there were 256 SNVs in the target regions of 15 stimulatory platelet GPCRs (34 unique; 12 with MAF< 1 % and 22 with MAF≥ 1 %). These included rare variants predicting R122H, P258T and V207A substitutions in the P2Y12 receptor that were annotated as potentially damaging, but only partially explained the platelet function defects in each case. Our data highlight that potentially damaging variants in platelet GPCR genes have low individual frequencies, but are collectively abundant in the population. Potentially damaging variants are also present in pedigrees with IPFDs and may contribute to complex laboratory phenotypes. PMID:25567036

  20. Diversity and impact of rare variants in genes encoding the platelet G protein-coupled receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Matthew L.; Norman, Jane E.; Morgan, Neil V.; Mundell, Stuart J.; Lordkipanidzé, Marie; Lowe, Gillian C.; Daly, Martina E.; Simpson, Michael A.; Drake, Sian; Watson, Steve P.; Mumford, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Platelet responses to activating agonists are influenced by common population variants within or near G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) genes that affect receptor activity. However, the impact of rare GPCR gene variants is unknown. We describe the rare single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in the coding and splice regions of 18 GPCR genes in 7,595 exomes from the 1,000-genomes and Exome Sequencing Project databases and in 31 cases with inherited platelet function disorders (IPFDs). In the population databases, the GPCR gene target regions contained 740 SNVs (318 synonymous, 410 missense, 7 stop gain and 6 splice region) of which 70% had global minor allele frequency (MAF) < 0.05%. Functional annotation using six computational algorithms, experimental evidence and structural data identified 156/740 (21%) SNVs as potentially damaging to GPCR function, most commonly in regions encoding the transmembrane and C-terminal intracellular receptor domains. In 31 index cases with IPFDs (Gi-pathway defect n=15; secretion defect n=11; thromboxane pathway defect n=3 and complex defect n=2) there were 256 SNVs in the target regions of 15 stimulatory platelet GPCRs (34 unique; 12 with MAF<1% and 22 with MAF≥1%). These included rare variants predicting R122H, P258T and V207A substitutions in the P2Y12 receptor that were annotated as potentially damaging, but only partially explained the platelet function defects in each case. Our data highlight that potentially damaging variants in platelet GPCR genes have low individual frequencies, but are collectively abundant in the population. Potentially damaging variants are also present in pedigrees with IPFDs and may contribute to complex laboratory phenotypes. PMID:25567036

  1. Pituitary and Brain Dopamine D2 Receptors Regulate Liver Gene Sexual Dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Maria Cecilia; Ornstein, Ana Maria; Luque, Guillermina Maria; Perez Millan, Maria Ines; Garcia-Tornadu, Isabel; Rubinstein, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Liver sexual gene dimorphism, which depends mainly on specific patterns of GH secretion, may underlie differential susceptibility to some liver diseases. Because GH and prolactin secretion are regulated by dopaminergic pathways, we studied the participation of brain and lactotrope dopamine 2 receptors (D2Rs) on liver gene sexual dimorphism, to explore a link between the brain and liver gene expression. We used global D2R knockout mice (Drd2−/−) and conducted a functional dissection strategy based on cell-specific Drd2 inactivation in neurons (neuroDrd2KO) or pituitary lactotropes. Disruption of neuronal D2Rs (which impaired the GH axis) decreased most of male or female-predominant class I liver genes and increased female–predominant class II genes in males, consistent with the positive (class I) or negative (class II) regulation of these genes by GH. Notably, sexual dimorphism was lost for class I and II genes in neuroDrd2KO mice. Disruption of lactotrope D2Rs did not modify class I or II genes in either sex, because GH axis was preserved. But surprisingly, 1 class II gene (Prlr) and female-predominant class I genes were markedly up-regulated in lacDrd2KO females, pointing to direct or indirect effects of prolactin in the regulation of selected female-predominant liver genes. This suggestion was strengthened in the hyperprolactinemic Drd2−/− female mouse, in which increased expression of the same 4 liver genes was observed, despite a decreased GH axis. We hereby demonstrate endocrine-mediated D2R actions on sexual dimorphic liver gene expression, which may be relevant during chronic dopaminergic medications in psychiatric disease. PMID:25545383

  2. Molecular evolution of the odorant and gustatory receptor genes in lepidopteran insects: implications for their adaptation and speciation.

    PubMed

    Engsontia, Patamarerk; Sangket, Unitsa; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan; Satasook, Chutamas

    2014-08-01

    Lepidoptera (comprised of butterflies and moths) is one of the largest groups of insects, including more than 160,000 described species. Chemoreception plays important roles in the adaptation of these species to a wide range of niches, e.g., plant hosts, egg-laying sites, and mates. This study investigated the molecular evolution of the lepidopteran odorant (Or) and gustatory receptor (Gr) genes using recently identified genes from Bombyx mori, Danaus plexippus, Heliconius melpomene, Plutella xylostella, Heliothis virescens, Manduca sexta, Cydia pomonella, and Spodoptera littoralis. A limited number of cases of large lineage-specific gene expansion are observed (except in the P. xylostella lineage), possibly due to selection against tandem gene duplication. There has been strong purifying selection during the evolution of both lepidopteran odorant and gustatory genes, as shown by the low ω values estimated through CodeML analysis, ranging from 0.0093 to 0.3926. However, purifying selection has been relaxed on some amino acid sites in these receptors, leading to sequence divergence, which is a precursor of positive selection on these sequences. Signatures of positive selection were detected only in a few loci from the lineage-specific analysis. Estimation of gene gains and losses suggests that the common ancestor of the Lepidoptera had fewer Or genes compared to extant species and an even more reduced number of Gr genes, particularly within the bitter receptor clade. Multiple gene gains and a few gene losses occurred during the evolution of Lepidoptera. Gene family expansion may be associated with the adaptation of lepidopteran species to plant hosts, especially after angiosperm radiation. Phylogenetic analysis of the moth sex pheromone receptor genes suggested that chromosomal translocations have occurred several times. New sex pheromone receptors have arisen through tandem gene duplication. Positive selection was detected at some amino acid sites predicted to be

  3. Comprehensive gene expression analysis of rice aleurone cells: probing the existence of an alternative gibberellin receptor.

    PubMed

    Yano, Kenji; Aya, Koichiro; Hirano, Ko; Ordonio, Reynante Lacsamana; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2015-02-01

    Current gibberellin (GA) research indicates that GA must be perceived in plant nuclei by its cognate receptor, GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1). Recognition of GA by GID1 relieves the repression mediated by the DELLA protein, a model known as the GID1-DELLA GA perception system. There have been reports of potential GA-binding proteins in the plasma membrane that perceive GA and induce α-amylase expression in cereal aleurone cells, which is mechanistically different from the GID1-DELLA system. Therefore, we examined the expression of the rice (Oryza sativa) α-amylase genes in rice mutants impaired in the GA receptor (gid1) and the DELLA repressor (slender rice1; slr1) and confirmed their lack of response to GA in gid1 mutants and constitutive expression in slr1 mutants. We also examined the expression of GA-regulated genes by genome-wide microarray and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses and confirmed that all GA-regulated genes are modulated by the GID1-DELLA system. Furthermore, we studied the regulatory network involved in GA signaling by using a set of mutants defective in genes involved in GA perception and gene expression, namely gid1, slr1, gid2 (a GA-related F-box protein mutant), and gamyb (a GA-related trans-acting factor mutant). Almost all GA up-regulated genes were regulated by the four named GA-signaling components. On the other hand, GA down-regulated genes showed different expression patterns with respect to GID2 and GAMYB (e.g. a considerable number of genes are not controlled by GAMYB or GID2 and GAMYB). Based on these observations, we present a comprehensive discussion of the intricate network of GA-regulated genes in rice aleurone cells. PMID:25511432

  4. Genomic architecture of MHC-linked odorant receptor gene repertoires among 16 vertebrate species.

    PubMed

    Santos, Pablo Sandro Carvalho; Kellermann, Thomas; Uchanska-Ziegler, Barbara; Ziegler, Andreas

    2010-09-01

    The recent sequencing and assembly of the genomes of different organisms have shown that almost all vertebrates studied in detail so far have one or more clusters of genes encoding odorant receptors (OR) in close physical linkage to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). It has been postulated that MHC-linked OR genes could be involved in MHC-influenced mate choice, comprising both pre- as well as post-copulatory mechanisms. We have therefore carried out a systematic comparison of protein sequences of these receptors from the genomes of man, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, rhesus macaque, mouse, rat, dog, cat, cow, pig, horse, elephant, opossum, frog and zebra fish (amounting to a total of 559 protein sequences) in order to identify OR families exhibiting evolutionarily conserved MHC linkage. In addition, we compared the genomic structure of this region within these 16 species, accounting for presence or absence of OR gene families, gene order, transcriptional orientation and linkage to the MHC or framework genes. The results are presented in the form of gene maps and phylogenetic analyses that reveal largely concordant repertoires of gene families, at least among tetrapods, although each of the eight taxa studied (primates, rodents, ungulates, carnivores, proboscids, marsupials, amphibians and teleosts) exhibits a typical architecture of MHC (or MHC framework loci)-linked OR genes. Furthermore, the comparison of the genomic organization of this region has implications for phylogenetic relationships between closely related taxa, especially in disputed cases such as the evolutionary history of even- and odd-toed ungulates and carnivores. Finally, the largely conserved linkage between distinct OR genes and the MHC supports the concept that particular alleles within a given haplotype function in a concerted fashion during self-/non-self-discrimination processes in reproduction. PMID:20680261

  5. Identification of natural killer cell receptor genes in the genome of the marsupial Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii).

    PubMed

    van der Kraan, Lauren E; Wong, Emily S W; Lo, Nathan; Ujvari, Beata; Belov, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Within the mammalian immune system, natural killer (NK) cells contribute to the first line of defence against infectious agents and tumours. Their activity is regulated, in part, by cell surface NK cell receptors. NK receptors can be divided into two unrelated, but functionally analogous superfamilies based on the structure of their extracellular ligand-binding domains. Receptors belonging to the C-type lectin superfamily are predominantly encoded in the natural killer complex (NKC), while receptors belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily are predominantly encoded in the leukocyte receptor complex (LRC). Natural killer cell receptors are emerging as a rapidly evolving gene family which can display significant intra- and interspecific variation. To date, most studies have focused on eutherian mammals, with significantly less known about the evolution of these receptors in marsupials. Here, we describe the identification of 43 immunoglobulin domain-containing LRC genes in the genome of the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), the largest remaining marsupial carnivore and only the second marsupial species to be studied. We also identify orthologs of NKC genes KLRK1, CD69, CLEC4E, CLEC1B, CLEC1A and an ortholog of an opossum NKC receptor. Characterisation of these regions in a second, distantly related marsupial provides new insights into the dynamic evolutionary histories of these receptors in mammals. Understanding the functional role of these genes is also important for the development of therapeutic agents against Devil Facial Tumour Disease, a contagious cancer that threatens the Tasmanian devil with extinction. PMID:23007952

  6. Chromosomal localization of the human V3 pituitary vasopressin receptor gene (AVPR3) to 1q32

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau-Merck, M.F.; Derre, J.; Berger, R.

    1995-11-20

    Vasopressin exerts its physiological effects on liver metabolism, fluid osmolarity, and corticotrophic response to stress through a set of at least three receptors, V1a, V2, and V3 (also called V1b), respectively. These receptors constitute a distinct group of the superfamily of G-protein-coupled cell surface receptors. When bound to vasopressin, they couple to G proteins activating phospholipase C for the V1a and V3 types and adenylate cyclase for the V2. The vasopressin receptor subfamily also includes the receptor for oxytocin, a structurally related hormone that signals through the activation of phospholipase C. The chromosomal position of the V2 receptor gene has been assigned to Xq28-qter by PCR-based screening of somatic cell hybrids, whereas the oxytocin receptor gene has been mapped to chromosome 3q26.2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The chromosomal location of the V1a gene is currently unknown. We recently cloned the cDNA and the gene coding for the human pituitary-specific V3 receptor (HGMW-approved symbol AVPR3). We report here the chromosomal localization of this gene by two distinct in situ hybridization techniques using radioactive and fluorescent probes. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Regulation of AMPA Receptor Function by the Human Memory-Associated Gene KIBRA

    PubMed Central

    Makuch, Lauren; Volk, Lenora; Anggono, Victor; Johnson, Richard C.; Yu, Yilin; Duning, Kerstin; Kremerskothen, Joachim; Xia, Jun; Takamiya, Kogo; Huganir, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    KIBRA has recently been identified as a gene associated with human memory performance. Despite the elucidation of the role of KIBRA in several diverse processes in non-neuronal cells, the molecular function of KIBRA in neurons is unknown. We found that KIBRA directly binds to the protein interacting with C-kinase 1 (PICK1) and forms a complex with α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptors (AMPARs), the major excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the brain. KIBRA knockdown accelerates the rate of AMPAR recycling following N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor induced internalization. Genetic deletion of KIBRA in mice impairs both long-term depression and long-term potentiation at hippocampal Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses. Moreover, KIBRA knockout mice have severe deficits in contextual fear learning and memory. These results indicate that KIBRA regulates higher brain function by regulating AMPAR trafficking and synaptic plasticity. PMID:21943600

  8. Transferrin protein nanospheres: a nanoplatform for receptor-mediated cancer cell labeling and gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Michael A.; Spurlin, Tighe A.; Tona, Alessandro; Elliott, John T.; Halter, Michael; Plant, Anne L.

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents preliminary results on the use of transferrin protein nanospheres (TfpNS) for targeting cancer cells in vitro. Protein nanospheres represent an easily prepared and modifiable nanoplatform for receptor-specific targeting, molecular imaging and gene delivery. Rhodamine B isothiocyanate conjugated TfpNS (RBITC-TfpNS) show significantly enhanced uptake in vitro in SK-MEL-28 human malignant melanoma cells known to overexpress transferrin receptors compared to controls. RBITCTfpNS labeling of the cancer cells is due to transferrin receptor-mediated uptake, as demonstrated by competitive inhibition with native transferrin. Initial fluorescence microscopy studies indicate GFP plasmid can be transfected into melanoma cells via GFP plasmid encapsulated by TfpNS.

  9. Regulation of gene expression in ovarian cancer cells by luteinizing hormone receptor expression and activation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Since a substantial percentage of ovarian cancers express gonadotropin receptors and are responsive to the relatively high concentrations of pituitary gonadotropins during the postmenopausal years, it has been suggested that receptor activation may contribute to the etiology and/or progression of the neoplasm. The goal of the present study was to develop a cell model to determine the impact of luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor (LHR) expression and LH-mediated LHR activation on gene expression and thus obtain insights into the mechanism of gonadotropin action on ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) carcinoma cells. Methods The human ovarian cancer cell line, SKOV-3, was stably transfected to express functional LHR and incubated with LH for various periods of time (0-20 hours). Transcriptomic profiling was performed on these cells to identify LHR expression/activation-dependent changes in gene expression levels and pathways by microarray and qRT-PCR analyses. Results Through comparative analysis on the LHR-transfected SKOV-3 cells exposed to LH, we observed the differential expression of 1,783 genes in response to LH treatment, among which five significant families were enriched, including those of growth factors, translation regulators, transporters, G-protein coupled receptors, and ligand-dependent nuclear receptors. The most highly induced early and intermediate responses were found to occupy a network impacting transcriptional regulation, cell growth, apoptosis, and multiple signaling transductions, giving indications of LH-induced apoptosis and cell growth inhibition through the significant changes in, for example, tumor necrosis factor, Jun and many others, supportive of the observed cell growth reduction in in vitro assays. However, other observations, e.g. the substantial up-regulation of the genes encoding the endothelin-1 subtype A receptor, stromal cell-derived factor 1, and insulin-like growth factor II, all of which are potential therapeutic

  10. Deviation from major codons in the Toll-like receptor genes is associated with low Toll-like receptor expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Fei; Cao, Weiping; Chan, Edmund; Tay, Puei Nam; Cahya, Florence Feby; Zhang, Haifeng; Lu, Jinhua

    2005-01-01

    Microbial structures activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and TLR-mediated cell signalling elicits and regulates host immunity. Most TLRs are poorly expressed but the underlying expression mechanism is not clear. Examination TLR sequences revealed that most human TLR genes deviated from using major human codons. CD14 resembles TLRs in sequence but its gene preferentially uses major codons. Indeed, CD14 expression on monocytes was higher than expression of TLR1 and TLR2. The TLR9 gene is abundant in major codons and it also showed higher expression than TLR1, TLR2 and TLR7 in transfected 293T cells. Change of the 5′-end 302 base pairs of the TLR2 sequence into major human codons markedly increased TLR2 expression, which led to increased TLR2-mediated constitutive nuclear factor-κB activation. Change of the 5′-end 381 base pairs of the CD14 sequence into prevalent TLR codons markedly reduced CD14 expression. These results collectively show that the deviation of TLR sequences from using major codons dictates the low TLR expression and this may protect the host against excessive inflammation and tissue damages. PMID:15606798

  11. Differential expression of genes for aromatase and estrogen receptor during the gonadal development in chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Nakabayashi, O; Kikuchi, H; Kikuchi, T; Mizuno, S

    1998-04-01

    In birds, differentiation of embryonic gonads is not as strictly determined by the genetic sex as it is in mammals, and can be influenced by early manipulation with a sex steroid hormone. Thus administration of an aromatase inhibitor induces testis development in the genetic female, and administration of estrogen induces a left ovotestis in the genetic male embryo. Another feature of avian gonadogenesis is that only the left ovary develops in most species. Molecular mechanisms underlying these features at the level of gene expression have not been elucidated. In this paper, we present evidence that a gene for aromatase cytochrome P-450, an enzyme required for the last step in the synthesis of estradiol-17beta, is expressed in medullae of the left and right gonads of a female chicken embryo, but not in those of a male chicken embryo, and that an estrogen receptor gene is expressed only in epithelium (and cortex later, in the female) of the left, not the right, gonad of both sexes, but the expression in the male left gonad is temporary and restricted to an early stage of development. Differential expression of these two genes serves well to explain the above features of gonadal development in birds. Furthermore, in ovo administration of estradiol-17beta from the 5th to the 14th day of incubation does not cause expression of the estrogen receptor gene in the right gonad of chicken embryos of either sex, suggesting that the absence of expression of the estrogen receptor gene in the right gonad is not the result of down-regulation, but may be regarded as an important cause of the unilateral ovarian development. PMID:9584834

  12. Genetic Variations in the Human Cannabinoid Receptor Gene Are Associated with Happiness

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko; Yamakawa, Kaori; Fukuyama, Seisuke; Shinoda, Jun; Yamada, Jitsuhiro; Ohira, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Happiness has been viewed as a temporary emotional state (e.g., pleasure) and a relatively stable state of being happy (subjective happiness level). As previous studies demonstrated that individuals with high subjective happiness level rated their current affective states more positively when they experience positive events, these two aspects of happiness are interrelated. According to a recent neuroimaging study, the cytosine to thymine single-nucleotide polymorphism of the human cannabinoid receptor 1 gene is associated with sensitivity to positive emotional stimuli. Thus, we hypothesized that our genetic traits, such as the human cannabinoid receptor 1 genotypes, are closely related to the two aspects of happiness. In Experiment 1, 198 healthy volunteers were used to compare the subjective happiness level between cytosine allele carriers and thymine-thymine carriers of the human cannabinoid receptor 1 gene. In Experiment 2, we used positron emission tomography with 20 healthy participants to compare the brain responses to positive emotional stimuli of cytosine allele carriers to that of thymine-thymine carriers. Compared to thymine-thymine carriers, cytosine allele carriers have a higher subjective happiness level. Regression analysis indicated that the cytosine allele is significantly associated with subjective happiness level. The positive mood after watching a positive film was significantly higher for the cytosine allele carriers compared to the thymine-thymine carriers. Positive emotion-related brain region such as the medial prefrontal cortex was significantly activated when the cytosine allele carriers watched the positive film compared to the thymine-thymine carriers. Thus, the human cannabinoid receptor 1 genotypes are closely related to two aspects of happiness. Compared to thymine-thymine carriers, the cytosine allele carriers of the human cannabinoid receptor 1 gene, who are sensitive to positive emotional stimuli, exhibited greater magnitude

  13. Control of Energy Balance by Hypothalamic Gene Circuitry Involving Two Nuclear Receptors, Neuron-Derived Orphan Receptor 1 and Glucocorticoid Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Gyun; Lee, Bora; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kim, Juhee; Lee, Soo-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) regulate diverse physiological processes, including the central nervous system control of energy balance. However, the molecular mechanisms for the central actions of NRs in energy balance remain relatively poorly defined. Here we report a hypothalamic gene network involving two NRs, neuron-derived orphan receptor 1 (NOR1) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which directs the regulated expression of orexigenic neuropeptides agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in response to peripheral signals. Our results suggest that the anorexigenic signal leptin induces NOR1 expression likely via the transcription factor cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), while the orexigenic signal glucocorticoid mobilizes GR to inhibit NOR1 expression by antagonizing the action of CREB. Also, NOR1 suppresses glucocorticoid-dependent expression of AgRP and NPY. Consistently, relative to wild-type mice, NOR1-null mice showed significantly higher levels of AgRP and NPY and were less responsive to leptin in decreasing the expression of AgRP and NPY. These results identify mutual antagonism between NOR1 and GR to be a key rheostat for peripheral metabolic signals to centrally control energy balance. PMID:23897430

  14. Control of energy balance by hypothalamic gene circuitry involving two nuclear receptors, neuron-derived orphan receptor 1 and glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Gyun; Lee, Bora; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kim, Juhee; Lee, Seunghee; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Lee, Jae W

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) regulate diverse physiological processes, including the central nervous system control of energy balance. However, the molecular mechanisms for the central actions of NRs in energy balance remain relatively poorly defined. Here we report a hypothalamic gene network involving two NRs, neuron-derived orphan receptor 1 (NOR1) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which directs the regulated expression of orexigenic neuropeptides agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in response to peripheral signals. Our results suggest that the anorexigenic signal leptin induces NOR1 expression likely via the transcription factor cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), while the orexigenic signal glucocorticoid mobilizes GR to inhibit NOR1 expression by antagonizing the action of CREB. Also, NOR1 suppresses glucocorticoid-dependent expression of AgRP and NPY. Consistently, relative to wild-type mice, NOR1-null mice showed significantly higher levels of AgRP and NPY and were less responsive to leptin in decreasing the expression of AgRP and NPY. These results identify mutual antagonism between NOR1 and GR to be a key rheostat for peripheral metabolic signals to centrally control energy balance. PMID:23897430

  15. Structure and chromosomal localization of the gene (BDKRB2) encoding human bradykinin B{sub 2} receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Jian-Xing Ma; Dan-Zhao Wang; Limei Chen

    1994-09-15

    The bradykinin B{sub 2} receptor (BDKRB2) has high affinity for the intact kinins, which mediate a wide spectrum of biological effects, including pain, inflammation, vasodilation, and smooth muscle contraction and relaxation. In the present study, the authors have cloned and sequenced the gene encoding human bradykinin B{sub 2} receptor from a human genomic library. The B{sub 2} receptor gene contains three exons separated by two introns. The first and second exons are noncoding, while the third exon contains the full-length coding region, which encodes a protein of 364 amino acids forming 7 transmembrane domains. The human B{sub 2} gene shares high sequence identity with rat and mouse B{sub 2} receptor genes and significant similarity with the gene encoding the angiotensin II type I receptor in the nucleotide sequence and exon-intron arrangement. In the 5` flanking region, a consensus TATA box and several putative transcription factor-binding sites have been identified. Genomic Southern blot analysis showed that the B{sub 2} receptor is encoded by a single-copy gene that was localized to chromosome 14q32 by in situ hybridization. In a Southern blot analysis following reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction, the human B{sub 2} receptor was found to be expressed in most human tissues. 30 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Ovarian steroids regulate tachykinin and tachykinin receptor gene expression in the mouse uterus

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Francisco M; Pintado, C Oscar; Pennefather, Jocelyn N; Patak, Eva; Candenas, Luz

    2009-01-01

    Background In the mouse uterus, pregnancy is accompanied by changes in tachykinin and tachykinin receptor gene expression and in the uterotonic effects of endogenous tachykinins. In this study we have investigated whether changes in tachykinin expression and responses are a result of changes in ovarian steroid levels. Methods We quantified the mRNAs of tachykinins and tachykinin receptors in uteri from ovariectomized mice and studied their regulation in response to estrogen and progesterone using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Early (3 h) and late (24 h) responses to estrogen were evaluated and the participation of the estrogen receptors (ER), ERalpha and ERbeta, was analyzed by treating mice with propylpyrazole triol, a selective ERalpha agonist, or diarylpropionitrile, a selective agonist of ERbeta. Results All genes encoding tachykinins (Tac1, Tac2 and Tac4) and tachykinin receptors (Tacr1, Tacr2 and Tacr3) were expressed in uteri from ovariectomized mice. Estrogen increased Tac1 and Tacr1 mRNA after 3 h and decreased Tac1 and Tac4 expression after 24 h. Tac2 and Tacr3 mRNA levels were decreased by estrogen at both 3 and 24 h. Most effects of estrogen were also observed in animals treated with propylpyrazole triol. Progesterone treatment increased the levels of Tac2. Conclusion These results show that the expression of tachykinins and their receptors in the mouse uterus is tightly and differentially regulated by ovarian steroids. Estrogen effects are mainly mediated by ERalpha supporting an essential role for this estrogen receptor in the regulation of the tachykinergic system in the mouse uterus. PMID:19627578

  17. Individual differences in flow proneness are linked to a dopamine D2 receptor gene variant.

    PubMed

    Gyurkovics, Mate; Kotyuk, Eszter; Katonai, Eniko Rozsa; Horvath, Erzsebet Zsofia; Vereczkei, Andrea; Szekely, Anna

    2016-05-01

    Flow is a special mental state characterized by deep concentration that occurs during the performance of optimally challenging tasks. In prior studies, proneness to experience flow has been found to be moderately heritable. In the present study, we investigated whether individual differences in flow proneness are related to a polymorphism of the dopamine D2 receptor coding gene (DRD2 C957T rs6277). This polymorphism affects striatal D2 receptor availability, a factor that has been shown to be related to flow proneness. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the association between this trait and a specific gene variant. In a sample of 236 healthy Hungarian adults, we found that CC homozygotes report higher flow proneness than do T allele carriers, but only during mandatory activities (i.e., studying and working), not during leisure time. We discuss implications of this result, e.g., the potential mediators of the relationship. PMID:26954487

  18. Enhancement of gene transactivation activity of androgen receptor by hepatitis B virus X protein

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Yanyan; Chen Wenling; Ma, W.-L. Maverick; Chang Chawnshang; Ou, J.-H. James . E-mail: jamesou@hsc.usc.edu

    2007-07-05

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) is a regulatory protein that is required for efficient replication of HBV in its natural host. In this report, we demonstrate by co-immunoprecipitation experiments that HBx can physically bind to the androgen receptor (AR), which is a nuclear hormone receptor that is expressed in many different tissues including the liver. This observation is further supported by confocal microscopy, which reveals that HBx can alter the subcellular localization of the AR both in the presence and in the absence of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Further studies indicate that HBx can enhance the gene transactivation activity of AR by enhancing its DNA binding activity in a DHT-dependent manner. However, HBx does not remain associated with AR on the DNA. As AR can regulate the expression of a number of cellular genes, our results raise the possibility that HBV pathogenesis may be mediated in part via the interaction between HBx and AR.

  19. Role of recombination activating genes in the generation of antigen receptor diversity and beyond.

    PubMed

    Nishana, Mayilaadumveettil; Raghavan, Sathees C

    2012-12-01

    V(D)J recombination is the process by which antibody and T-cell receptor diversity is attained. During this process, antigen receptor gene segments are cleaved and rejoined by non-homologous DNA end joining for the generation of combinatorial diversity. The major players of the initial process of cleavage are the proteins known as RAG1 (recombination activating gene 1) and RAG2. In this review, we discuss the physiological function of RAGs as a sequence-specific nuclease and its pathological role as a structure-specific nuclease. The first part of the review discusses the basic mechanism of V(D)J recombination, and the last part focuses on how the RAG complex functions as a sequence-specific and structure-specific nuclease. It also deals with the off-target cleavage of RAGs and its implications in genomic instability. PMID:23039142

  20. Diversity in the Toll-like receptor genes of the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii).

    PubMed

    Cui, Jian; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Belov, Katherine

    2015-03-01

    The Tasmanian devil is an endangered marsupial species that has survived several historical bottlenecks and now has low genetic diversity. Here we characterize the Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes and their diversity in the Tasmanian devil. TLRs are a key innate immune gene family found in all animals. Ten TLR genes were identified in the Tasmanian devil genome. Unusually low levels of diversity were found in 25 devils from across Tasmania. We found two alleles at TLR2, TLR3 and TLR6. The other seven genes were monomorphic. The insurance population, which safeguards the species from extinction, has successfully managed to capture all of these TLR alleles, but concerns remain for the long-term survival of this species. PMID:25563844

  1. Regulation of the vitamin D receptor gene by environment, genetics and epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Saccone, Donovan; Asani, Furaha; Bornman, Liza

    2015-05-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) plays a pivotal role as a mediator of 1α,25(OH)2D signalling. Besides its role in calcium homeostasis, ligand- bound VDR supports immunity and cell cycle control. While VDR regulates numerous genes across the genome, much remains to be learned about the regulation of the VDR gene itself. Hindered VDR expression and function have a broad impact, contributing to diverse diseases, including cancer, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes and tuberculosis. A better understanding of the three main factors regulating the VDR, namely environment, genetics and epigenetics, may facilitate the development of improved strategies for treatment and prevention of diseases associated with impaired VDR function. This review aims to illuminate the complex interaction and contributions of the three levels of VDR gene regulation to endorse consideration of all three regulatory factors when studying gene regulation. PMID:25682935

  2. Androgen Receptor Gene Polymorphism, Aggression, and Reproduction in Tanzanian Foragers and Pastoralists

    PubMed Central

    Butovskaya, Marina L.; Lazebny, Oleg E.; Vasilyev, Vasiliy A.; Dronova, Daria A.; Karelin, Dmitri V.; Mabulla, Audax Z. P.; Shibalev, Dmitri V.; Shackelford, Todd K.; Fink, Bernhard; Ryskov, Alexey P.

    2015-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) gene polymorphism in humans is linked to aggression and may also be linked to reproduction. Here we report associations between AR gene polymorphism and aggression and reproduction in two small-scale societies in northern Tanzania (Africa)—the Hadza (monogamous foragers) and the Datoga (polygynous pastoralists). We secured self-reports of aggression and assessed genetic polymorphism of the number of CAG repeats for the AR gene for 210 Hadza men and 229 Datoga men (aged 17–70 years). We conducted structural equation modeling to identify links between AR gene polymorphism, aggression, and number of children born, and included age and ethnicity as covariates. Fewer AR CAG repeats predicted greater aggression, and Datoga men reported more aggression than did Hadza men. In addition, aggression mediated the identified negative relationship between CAG repeats and number of children born. PMID:26291982

  3. Distribution of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genes in Poles.

    PubMed

    Majorczyk, E; Łuszczek, W; Nowak, I; Pawlik, A; Wiśniewski, A; Jasek, M; Kuśnierczyk, P

    2008-08-01

    Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) present on natural killer cells and minor subpopulations of T cells recognize class I human leucocyte antigen (HLA) molecules on the surface of target cells. Humans differ by the presence or absence of some KIR genes on their chromosomes. As KIRs are important for the outcome of tissue transplantation (particularly for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation) and possibly for pregnancy and autoimmune diseases, knowledge of the KIR gene distribution in a given human population is of practical value. Therefore, we tested 363 healthy individuals from Western Poland for the presence or absence of KIR genes. Results are compared with those published for other human populations. KIR gene frequencies in Poles are close to these in other Caucasoids but different from those in Asian and African populations, and particularly distant from those in Australian Aborigines. PMID:18976447

  4. Group I Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor-Mediated Gene Transcription and Implications for Synaptic Plasticity and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hansen; Zhuo, Min

    2012-01-01

    Stimulation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) initiates a wide variety of signaling pathways. Group I mGluR activation can regulate gene expression at both translational and transcriptional levels, and induces translation or transcription-dependent synaptic plastic changes in neurons. The group I mGluR-mediated translation-dependent neural plasticity has been well reviewed. In this review, we will highlight group I mGluR-induced gene transcription and its role in synaptic plasticity. The signaling pathways (PKA, CaMKs, and MAPKs) which have been shown to link group I mGluRs to gene transcription, the relevant transcription factors (CREB and NF-κB), and target proteins (FMRP and ARC) will be documented. The significance and future direction for characterizing group I mGluR-mediated gene transcription in fragile X syndrome, schizophrenia, drug addiction, and other neurological disorders will also be discussed. PMID:23125836

  5. Gene receptor polymorphism as a risk factor for BMD deterioration in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Stergioti, E; Deligeoroglou, E; Economou, E; Tsitsika, A; Dimopoulos, K D; Daponte, A; Katsioulis, A; Creatsas, G

    2013-07-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a serious eating disorder that is associated with decreased bone mineral density and greater lifetime risk for fractures. This case-controlled study, analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms of genes encoding vitamin D receptor, estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1), collagen type I and calcitonin receptor (CTR). Relationships between genotype and body mass index, cycling status and lumbar spine bone mineral density (LBMD) were determined in 40 adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched controls. The distribution of CTR-AluI genotypes differed between groups, but this polymorphism was not associated with LBMD Z-score. Distribution of ESR1-XbaI genotypes did not differ between groups, but the AA genotype was associated with decreased LBMD Z-score (≤-1) (OR = 24.79, 95% CI, 1.01-606.08). Carriers of the A allele were more likely to have decreased LBMD Z-scores compared with carriers of the G allele (OR = 4.12, 95% CI, 1.23-13.85, p = 0.022). In conclusion, our study shows that anorexic patients with wild-type genotype ESR-XbaI receptor are in greater risk for decreased BMD in relation to those with the mutated gene. Prompt recognition of these patients is crucial because early administration of the proper therapeutic treatment may contribute to the prevention of adverse sequelae on bone metabolism. PMID:23772785

  6. Gene silencing of HIV chemokine receptors using ribozymes and single-stranded antisense RNA.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Amer; Zheng, Richard; Parlett, Terry; Shi, Xiaoju; Balaraman, Priyadhashini; Cheloufi, Sihem; Murphy, Brendan; Guntermann, Christine; Eagles, Peter

    2006-03-01

    The chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR5 are required for HIV-1 to enter cells, and the progression of HIV-1 infection to AIDS involves a switch in the co-receptor usage of the virus from CCR5 to CXCR4. These receptors therefore make attractive candidates for therapeutic intervention, and we have investigated the silencing of their genes by using ribozymes and single-stranded antisense RNAs. In the present study, we demonstrate using ribozymes that a depletion of CXCR4 and CCR5 mRNAs can be achieved simultaneously in human PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cells), cells commonly used by the virus for infection and replication. Ribozyme activity leads to an inhibition of the cell-surface expression of both CCR5 and CXCR4, resulting in a significant inhibition of HIV-1 replication when PBMCs are challenged with the virus. In addition, we show that small single-stranded antisense RNAs can also be used to silence CCR5 and CXCR4 genes when delivered to PBMCs. This silencing is caused by selective degradation of receptor mRNAs. PMID:16293105

  7. Gene silencing of HIV chemokine receptors using ribozymes and single-stranded antisense RNA

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Amer; Zheng, Richard; Parlett, Terry; Shi, Xiaoju; Balaraman, Priyadhashini; Cheloufi, Sihem; Murphy, Brendan; Guntermann, Christine; Eagles, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR5 are required for HIV-1 to enter cells, and the progression of HIV-1 infection to AIDS involves a switch in the co-receptor usage of the virus from CCR5 to CXCR4. These receptors therefore make attractive candidates for therapeutic intervention, and we have investigated the silencing of their genes by using ribozymes and single-stranded antisense RNAs. In the present study, we demonstrate using ribozymes that a depletion of CXCR4 and CCR5 mRNAs can be achieved simultaneously in human PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cells), cells commonly used by the virus for infection and replication. Ribozyme activity leads to an inhibition of the cell-surface expression of both CCR5 and CXCR4, resulting in a significant inhibition of HIV-1 replication when PBMCs are challenged with the virus. In addition, we show that small single-stranded antisense RNAs can also be used to silence CCR5 and CXCR4 genes when delivered to PBMCs. This silencing is caused by selective degradation of receptor mRNAs. PMID:16293105

  8. The dopamine D sub 2 receptor locus as a modifying gene in neuropsychiatric disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Comings, D.E.; Comings, B.G.; Muhleman, D.; Dietz, G.; Shahbahrami, B.; Tast, D.; Knell, E.; Kocsis, P.; Baumgarten, R.; Kovacs, B.W.; Gysin, R.; Flanagan, S.D. ); Levy, D.L. ); Smith, M. ); Klein, D.N. ); MacMurray, J.; Tosk, J.M. ); Sverd, J. Cornell Univ. Medical College, Manhasset, NY ); Borison, R.L.; Evans, D.D. )

    1991-10-02

    The A1 allele of the Taq I polymorphism of the dopamine D{sub 2} receptor (DRD2) gene has been earlier reported to occur in 69% of alcoholics, compared with 20% of controls. Other research has reported no significant difference in the prevalence of the A1 allele in alcoholics vs controls and no evidence that the DRD2 gene was linked to alcoholism. The authors hypothesized that these seemingly conflicting results might be because increases in the prevalence of the A1 allele may not be specific to alcoholism. Thus, they examined other disorders frequently associated with alcoholism or those believed to involve defects in dopaminergic neurotransmission.

  9. Association study of schizophrenia and IL-2 receptor {beta} chain gene

    SciTech Connect

    Nimgaonkar, V.L.; Yang, Z.W.; Zhang, X.R.; Brar, J.S.

    1995-10-09

    A case-control association study was conducted in Caucasian patients with schizophrenia (DSM-III-R, n = 42) and unaffected controls (n = 47) matched for ethnicity and area of residence. Serum interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) concentrations, as well as a dinucleotide repeat polymorphism in the IL-2RP chain gene, were examined in both groups. No significant differences in IL-2R concentrations or in the distribution of the polymorphism were noted. This study does not support an association between schizophrenia and the IL-2RP gene locus, contrary to the suggestive evidence from linkage analysis in multicase families. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Localization of the gene for the ciliary neutrotrophic factor receptor (CNTFR) to human chromosome 9

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, D.H.; Jones, C.; Patterson, D. Univ. of Colorado Health Science Center, Denver, CO ); Britt, D.E.; Jackson, C.L. )

    1993-09-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has recently been found to be important for the survival of motor neurons and has shown activity in animal models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). CNTF therefore holds promise as a treatment for ALS, and it and its receptor (CNTFR) are candidates for a gene involved in familial ALS. The CNTFR gene was mapped to chromosome 9 by PCR on a panel of human/CHO somatic cell hybrids and localized to 9p13 by PCR on a panel of radiation hybrids. 18 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. Linkage disequilibrium between the beta frequency of the human EEG and a GABAA receptor gene locus

    PubMed Central

    Porjesz, Bernice; Almasy, Laura; Edenberg, Howard J.; Wang, Kongming; Chorlian, David B.; Foroud, Tatiana; Goate, Alison; Rice, John P.; O'Connor, Sean J.; Rohrbaugh, John; Kuperman, Samuel; Bauer, Lance O.; Crowe, Raymond R.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Hesselbrock, Victor; Conneally, P. Michael; Tischfield, Jay A.; Li, Ting-Kai; Reich, Theodore; Begleiter, Henri

    2002-01-01

    Human brain oscillations represent important features of information processing and are highly heritable. A common feature of beta oscillations (13–28 Hz) is the critical involvement of networks of inhibitory interneurons as pacemakers, gated by γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) action. Advances in molecular and statistical genetics permit examination of quantitative traits such as the beta frequency of the human electroencephalogram in conjunction with DNA markers. We report a significant linkage and linkage disequilibrium between beta frequency and a set of GABAA receptor genes. Uncovering the genes influencing brain oscillations provides a better understanding of the neural function involved in information processing. PMID:11891318

  12. Dopamine D4 receptor gene DRD4 and its association with psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Ptácek, Radek; Kuzelová, Hana; Stefano, George B

    2011-09-01

    Dopamine receptors control neural signals that modulates behavior. Dopamine plays an important role in normal attention; that is the reason for studying the genes of the dopaminergic system, mainly in connection with disorders of attention. DRD4 influences the postsynaptic action of dopamine and is implicated in many neurological processes, exhibits polymorphism and is one of the most studied genes in connection with psychiatric disorders. Associations were found with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), substance dependences, several specific personality traits, and reaction to stress. These findings have implications for pharmacogenetics. This article reviews the principle published associations of DRD4 variants with psychiatric disorders. PMID:21873960

  13. Are serotonin 3A and 3B receptor genes associated with suicidal behavior in schizophrenia subjects?

    PubMed

    Souza, Renan P; De Luca, Vincenzo; Manchia, Mirko; Kennedy, James L

    2011-02-11

    Suicide is a major contributor to the morbidity and mortality of schizophrenia, accounting for approximately 10% of deaths in these patients. Genetic factors have been reported to modulate the risk for suicide, although the precise mechanism and magnitude of the genetic contribution are unknown. Further, suicide attempters present abnormalities in the serotonergic system. We evaluated whether genetic variants in the serotonin receptors HTR3A (rs897692, rs1150226, rs1176724, rs2276302, rs3737457, rs897687 and rs1176713) and HTR3B (rs3758987, rs10502180, rs11606194, rs17116121, rs1176744, rs17116138, rs2276307, rs3782025 and rs1176761) were susceptibility components for suicidal behavior in 154 Caucasians schizophrenia subjects (20.1% of suicide attempters). In a second step, we compared haplotype and gene-gene interaction approaches because both genes are located in the chromosome 11q23 approximately 28Kbp apart. We did not observe allelic or genotypic associations. Six haplotypes were nominally significant associated with suicide. Gene-gene interaction using Helix Tree software showed two nominally significant interactions reproduced by haplotype association. Likewise, haplotypes composed by the markers included in the best multidimensional reduction three-locus model were nominally significant. Our results suggest that HTR3A and HTR3B polymorphisms may not play a major role in the susceptibility for suicidal behavior in schizophrenia subjects. Moreover, gene-gene interaction and haplotype association may have consistent results for genes located in the same chromosome. PMID:21184810

  14. The neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}7 subunit gene: Cloning, mapping, structure, and targeting in mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Orr-Urtreger, A.; Baldini, A.; Beaudet, A.L.

    1994-09-01

    The neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}7 subunit is a member of a family of ligand-gated ion channels, and is the only subunit know to bind {alpha}-bungarotoxin in mammalian brain. {alpha}-Bungarotoxin binding sites are known to be more abundant in the hippocampus of mouse strains that are particularly sensitive to nicotine-induced seizures. The {alpha}7 receptor is highly permeable to calcium, which could suggest a role in synaptic plasticity in the nervous system. Auditory gating deficiency, an abnormal response to a second auditory stimulus, is characteristic of schizophrenia. Mouse strains that exhibit a similar gating deficit have reduced hippocampal expression of the {alpha}7 subunit. We have cloned and sequenced the full length cDNA for the mouse {alpha}7 gene (Acra-7) and characterized its gene structure. The murine {alpha}7 shares amino acid identity of 99% and 93% with the rat and human {alpha}7 subunits, respectively. Using an interspecies backcross panel, the murine gene was mapped to chromosome 7 near the p locus, a region syntenic with human chromosome 15; the human gene (CHRNA7) was confirmed to map to 15q13-q14 by FISH. To generate a mouse {alpha}7 mutant by homologous recombination, we have constructed a replacement vector which will delete transmembrane domains II-IV and the cytoplasmic domain from the gene product. Recombinant embryonic stem (ES) cell clones were selected and used to develop mouse chimeras that are currently being bred to obtain germline transmission.

  15. Hypoxia induces PDK4 gene expression through induction of the orphan nuclear receptor ERRγ.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ja Hee; Kim, Eun-Jin; Kim, Don-Kyu; Lee, Ji-Min; Park, Seung Bum; Lee, In-Kyu; Harris, Robert A; Lee, Mi-Ock; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2012-01-01

    Multiple cellular signaling pathways that control metabolism and survival are activated when cell are incubated under hypoxic conditions. Activation of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1 promotes expression of genes that increase the capacity to cope with the stress imposed by a reduced oxygen environment. Here we show that the orphan nuclear receptor estrogen related receptor γ (ERRγ) plays a critical role in hypoxia-mediated activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) gene expression. ERRγ mRNA and protein levels were increased by hypoxia or desferrioxamine (DFO) treatment in hepatoma cell lines. Co-expression of HIF-1α and β increased ERRγ promoter activity as well as mRNA expression, while knockdown of endogenous HIF-1α reduced the hypoxia-mediated induction of ERRγ. In addition, hypoxia also increased the promoter activity and mRNA level of PDK4 in HepG2 cells. Adenovirus mediated-overexpression of ERRγ specifically increased PDK4 gene expression, while ablation of endogenous ERRγ significantly decreased hypoxia-mediated induction of PDK4 gene expression. Finally, GSK5182, an inverse agonist of ERRγ, strongly inhibited the hypoxia-mediated induction of PDK4 protein and promoter activity. Regulation of the transcriptional activity of ERRγ may provide a therapeutic approach for the regulation of PDK4 gene expression under hypoxia. PMID:23050013

  16. Modulation of adipogenesis-related gene expression by estrogen-related receptor gamma during adipocytic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Mayumi; Ijichi, Nobuhiro; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Takeda, Satoru; Inoue, Satoshi

    2009-02-01

    Estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRgamma) is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates cellular energy metabolism by modulating gene expression involved in oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in brown adipose tissue and heart. However, the physiological role of ERRgamma in adipogenesis and the development of white adipose tissue has not been well studied. Here we show that ERRgamma was up-regulated in murine mesenchyme-derived cells, especially in ST2 and C3H10T1/2 cells, at mRNA levels under the adipogenic differentiation condition including the inducer of cAMP, glucocorticoid, and insulin. The up-regulation of ERRgamma mRNA was also observed in inguinal white adipose and brown adipose tissues of mice fed a high-fat diet. Gene knockdown by ERRgamma-specific siRNA results in mRNA down-regulation of adipogenic marker genes including fatty acid binding protein 4, PPARgamma, and PGC-1beta in a preadipocyte cell line 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and mesenchymal ST2 and C3H10T1/2 cells in the adipogenesis medium. In contrast, stable expression of ERRgamma in 3T3-L1 cells resulted in up-regulation of these adipogenic marker genes under the adipogenic condition. These results suggest that ERRgamma positively regulate the adipocyte differentiation with modulating the expression of various adipogenesis-related genes. PMID:18809516

  17. Hypoxia Induces PDK4 Gene Expression through Induction of the Orphan Nuclear Receptor ERRγ

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Min; Park, Seung Bum; Lee, In-Kyu; Harris, Robert A.; Lee, Mi-Ock; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2012-01-01

    Multiple cellular signaling pathways that control metabolism and survival are activated when cell are incubated under hypoxic conditions. Activation of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1 promotes expression of genes that increase the capacity to cope with the stress imposed by a reduced oxygen environment. Here we show that the orphan nuclear receptor estrogen related receptor γ (ERRγ) plays a critical role in hypoxia–mediated activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) gene expression. ERRγ mRNA and protein levels were increased by hypoxia or desferrioxamine (DFO) treatment in hepatoma cell lines. Co-expression of HIF-1α and β increased ERRγ promoter activity as well as mRNA expression, while knockdown of endogenous HIF-1α reduced the hypoxia-mediated induction of ERRγ. In addition, hypoxia also increased the promoter activity and mRNA level of PDK4 in HepG2 cells. Adenovirus mediated-overexpression of ERRγ specifically increased PDK4 gene expression, while ablation of endogenous ERRγ significantly decreased hypoxia-mediated induction of PDK4 gene expression. Finally, GSK5182, an inverse agonist of ERRγ, strongly inhibited the hypoxia-mediated induction of PDK4 protein and promoter activity. Regulation of the transcriptional activity of ERRγ may provide a therapeutic approach for the regulation of PDK4 gene expression under hypoxia. PMID:23050013

  18. Farnesoid X receptor directly regulates xenobiotic detoxification genes in the long-lived Little mice

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanjun; Jin, Jingling; Iakova, Polina; Hernandez, Julio Cesar; Jawanmardi, Nicole; Sullivan, Emily; Guo, Grace L.; Timchenko, Nikolai A.; Darlington, Gretchen J.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of xenobiotic metabolism pathways has been linked to lifespan extension in different models of aging. However, the mechanisms underlying activation of xenobiotic genes remain largely unknown. Here we showed that although FXR mRNA levels do not change significantly, FXR (farnesoid X receptor, Nr1h4) protein levels are elevated in the livers of the long-lived Little mice, leading to increased DNA binding activity of FXR. Hepatic FXR expression is sex-dependent in wild-type mice but not in Little mice, implying that up-regulation of FXR might be dependent on the reduction of growth hormone in Little mice. Growth hormone treatment decreased hepatic expression of FXR and xenobiotic genes Abcb1a, Fmo3 and Gsta2 in both wild-type and Little mice, suggesting an association between FXR and xenobiotic gene expression. We found that Abcb1a is transactivated by FXR via direct binding of FXR/retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) heterodimer to a response element at the proximal promoter. FXR also positively controls Fmo3 and Gsta2 expression through direct interaction with the response elements in these genes. Our study demonstrates that xenobiotic genes are direct transcriptional targets of FXR and suggests that FXR signaling may play a critical role in the lifespan extension observed in Little mice. PMID:24007921

  19. Detection of circulating tumor cells using GeneScan analysis for antigen receptor gene rearrangements in canine lymphoma patients

    PubMed Central

    HIYOSHI-KANEMOTO, Saaya; GOTO-KOSHINO, Yuko; FUKUSHIMA, Kenjiro; TAKAHASHI, Masashi; KANEMOTO, Hideyuki; UCHIDA, Kazuyuki; FUJINO, Yasuhito; OHNO, Koichi; TSUJIMOTO, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) serves as a prognostic marker and indicator of disease relapse, as well as a means of evaluating treatment efficacy in human and canine lymphoma patients. As an extension of our previous study for the construction of clinically useful GeneScan system, we utilized the GeneScan system for detecting CTCs in canine lymphoma patients. Samples from the primary lesion and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from 32 dogs with lymphoma at initial diagnosis. All samples were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for antigen receptor gene rearrangements (PARR) followed by GeneScan analysis. Common clonal rearrangements with identical amplified fragments were detected in both the primary lesion and PBMCs in 19 of the 32 dogs (59.4%). However, the detection rate of CTCs varied among the anatomical classification of lymphoma studied. GeneScan analysis following PARR would facilitate studies on determining the clinical significance of CTCs in canine lymphoma patients. PMID:26888583

  20. Identification of chemical modulators of the constitutive activated receptor (CAR) in a gene expression compendium

    PubMed Central

    Oshida, Keiyu; Vasani, Naresh; Jones, Carlton; Moore, Tanya; Hester, Susan; Nesnow, Stephen; Auerbach, Scott; Geter, David R.; Aleksunes, Lauren M.; Thomas, Russell S.; Applegate, Dawn; Klaassen, Curtis D.; Corton, J. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear receptor family member constitutive activated receptor (CAR) is activated by structurally diverse drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals leading to transcriptional regulation of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and transport. Chronic activation of CAR increases liver cancer incidence in rodents, whereas suppression of CAR can lead to steatosis and insulin insensitivity. Here, analytical methods were developed to screen for chemical treatments in a gene expression compendium that lead to alteration of CAR activity. A gene expression biomarker signature of 83 CAR-dependent genes was identified using microarray profiles from the livers of wild-type and CAR-null mice after exposure to three structurally-diverse CAR activators (CITCO, phenobarbital, TCPOBOP). A rank-based algorithm (Running Fisher’s algorithm (p-value ≤ 10-4)) was used to evaluate the similarity between the CAR biomarker signature and a test set of 28 and 32 comparisons positive or negative, respectively, for CAR activation; the test resulted in a balanced accuracy of 97%. The biomarker signature was used to identify chemicals that activate or suppress CAR in an annotated mouse liver/primary hepatocyte gene expression database of ~1850 comparisons. CAR was activated by 1) activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in wild-type but not AhR-null mice, 2) pregnane X receptor (PXR) activators in wild-type and to lesser extents in PXR-null mice, and 3) activators of PPARα in wild-type and PPARα-null mice. CAR was consistently activated by five conazole fungicides and four perfluorinated compounds. Comparison of effects in wild-type and CAR-null mice showed that the fungicide propiconazole increased liver weight and hepatocyte proliferation in a CAR-dependent manner, whereas the perfluorinated compound perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) increased these endpoints in a CAR-independent manner. A number of compounds suppressed CAR coincident with increases in markers of

  1. Identification of chemical modulators of the constitutive activated receptor (CAR) in a gene expression compendium.

    PubMed

    Oshida, Keiyu; Vasani, Naresh; Jones, Carlton; Moore, Tanya; Hester, Susan; Nesnow, Stephen; Auerbach, Scott; Geter, David R; Aleksunes, Lauren M; Thomas, Russell S; Applegate, Dawn; Klaassen, Curtis D; Corton, J Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear receptor family member constitutive activated receptor (CAR) is activated by structurally diverse drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals leading to transcriptional regulation of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and transport. Chronic activation of CAR increases liver cancer incidence in rodents, whereas suppression of CAR can lead to steatosis and insulin insensitivity. Here, analytical methods were developed to screen for chemical treatments in a gene expression compendium that lead to alteration of CAR activity. A gene expression biomarker signature of 83 CAR-dependent genes was identified using microarray profiles from the livers of wild-type and CAR-null mice after exposure to three structurally-diverse CAR activators (CITCO, phenobarbital, TCPOBOP). A rank-based algorithm (Running Fisher's algorithm (p-value ≤ 10(-4))) was used to evaluate the similarity between the CAR biomarker signature and a test set of 28 and 32 comparisons positive or negative, respectively, for CAR activation; the test resulted in a balanced accuracy of 97%. The biomarker signature was used to identify chemicals that activate or suppress CAR in an annotated mouse liver/primary hepatocyte gene expression database of ~1850 comparisons. CAR was activated by 1) activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in wild-type but not AhR-null mice, 2) pregnane X receptor (PXR) activators in wild-type and to lesser extents in PXR-null mice, and 3) activators of PPARα in wild-type and PPARα-null mice. CAR was consistently activated by five conazole fungicides and four perfluorinated compounds. Comparison of effects in wild-type and CAR-null mice showed that the fungicide propiconazole increased liver weight and hepatocyte proliferation in a CAR-dependent manner, whereas the perfluorinated compound perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) increased these endpoints in a CAR-independent manner. A number of compounds suppressed CAR coincident with increases in markers of

  2. Determination of ligand-binding specificity by alternative splicing: Two distinct growth factor receptors encoded by a single gene

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, T.; Bottaro, D.P.; Fleming, T.P.; Smith, C.L.; Chan, A.M.L.; Aaronson, S.A. ); Burgess, W.H. )

    1992-01-01

    Expression cDNA cloning and structural analysis of the human keratinocyte growth factor receptor (KGFR) revealed identity with one of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors encoded by the bek gene (FGFR-2), except for a divergent stretch of 49 amino acids in their extracellular domains. Binding assays demonstrated that the KGFR was a high-affinity receptor for both KGF and acidic FGF, while FGFR-2 showed high affinity for basic and acidic FGF but no detectable binding by KGF. Genomic analysis of the bek gene revealed two alternative exons responsible for the region of divergence between the two receptors. The KGFR transcript was specific to epithelial cells, and it appeared to be differentially regulated with respect to the alternative FGFR-2 transcript. Thus, two growth factor receptors with different ligand-binding specificities and expression patterns are encoded by alternative transcripts of the same gene.

  3. Molecular Characterization and Sex Distribution of Chemosensory Receptor Gene Family Based on Transcriptome Analysis of Scaeva pyrastri

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Ming; Zhu, Xiu-Yun; He, Peng; Xu, Lu; Sun, Liang; Chen, Li; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Deng, Dao-Gui

    2016-01-01

    Chemosensory receptors play key roles in insect behavior. Thus, genes encoding these receptors have great potential for use in integrated pest management. The hover fly Scaeva pyrastri (L.) is an important pollinating insect and a natural enemy of aphids, mainly distributed in the Palearctic and Nearctic regions. However, a systematic identification of their chemosensory receptor genes in the antennae has not been reported. In the present study, we assembled the antennal transcriptome of S. pyrastri by using Illumina sequencing technology. Analysis of the transcriptome data identified 60 candidate chemosensory genes, including 38 for odorant receptors (ORs), 16 for ionotropic receptors (IRs), and 6 for gustatory receptors (GRs). The numbers are similar to those of other Diptera species, suggesting that we were able to successfully identify S. pyrastri chemosensory genes. We analyzed the expression patterns of all genes by using reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), and found that some genes exhibited sex-biased or sex-specific expression. These candidate chemosensory genes and their tissue expression profiles provide information for further studies aimed at fully understanding the molecular basis behind chemoreception-related behaviors in S. pyrastri. PMID:27171401

  4. Molecular Characterization and Sex Distribution of Chemosensory Receptor Gene Family Based on Transcriptome Analysis of Scaeva pyrastri.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Ming; Zhu, Xiu-Yun; He, Peng; Xu, Lu; Sun, Liang; Chen, Li; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Deng, Dao-Gui; Zhang, Ya-Nan

    2016-01-01

    Chemosensory receptors play key roles in insect behavior. Thus, genes encoding these receptors have great potential for use in integrated pest management. The hover fly Scaeva pyrastri (L.) is an important pollinating insect and a natural enemy of aphids, mainly distributed in the Palearctic and Nearctic regions. However, a systematic identification of their chemosensory receptor genes in the antennae has not been reported. In the present study, we assembled the antennal transcriptome of S. pyrastri by using Illumina sequencing technology. Analysis of the transcriptome data identified 60 candidate chemosensory genes, including 38 for odorant receptors (ORs), 16 for ionotropic receptors (IRs), and 6 for gustatory receptors (GRs). The numbers are similar to those of other Diptera species, suggesting that we were able to successfully identify S. pyrastri chemosensory genes. We analyzed the expression patterns of all genes by using reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), and found that some genes exhibited sex-biased or sex-specific expression. These candidate chemosensory genes and their tissue expression profiles provide information for further studies aimed at fully understanding the molecular basis behind chemoreception-related behaviors in S. pyrastri. PMID:27171401

  5. AB46. Screening and identification for the target genes of androgen receptor in mouse Sertoli cells

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Yaoting; Mou, Lisha; Zhang, Qiaoxia; Yang, Lihua; Wang, Yadong; Cai, Zhiming

    2014-01-01

    Androgen and androgen receptor (AR) play important roles in spermatogenesis, yet detailed androgen/AR signals in Sertoli cells remain unclear. To identify AR target genes in Sertoli cells, we analyzed the gene expression profiles of testis between mice lacking AR in Sertoli cells (S-AR) and their littermate wild-type (WT) mice. Digital gene expression analysis identified 2,276 genes downregulated and 2,865 genes upregulated in the S-AR mice testis compared to WT ones. To further nail down the difference within Sertoli cells, we first constructed Sertoli cell line TM4 with stably transfected AR (named as TM4/AR) and found androgens failed to transactivate AR in Sertoli TM4 and TM4/AR cells. Interestingly, additional transient transfection of AR-cDNA resulted in significant androgen responsiveness with TM4/AR cells showing ten times more androgen sensitivity than TM4 cells. In the condition where maximal androgen response was demonstrated, we then analyzed gene expression and found the expression levels of 2313 genes were changed more than twofold by transient transfection of AR-cDNA in the presence of testosterone. Among these genes, 603 androgen-/AR-regulated genes, including 164 up-regulated and 439 down-regulated, were found in both S-AR mice testis and TM4/AR cells. Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2B (Ube2b) is one of the regulated genes from the digital gene expression analysis. The expression of UBE2B was decreased in the testes of the S-AR mice analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunofluorescence. The up-regulation of Ube2b gene by testosterone was further demonstrated by Western blot and qRT-PCR in TM4 cells. Moreover, luciferase assay, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay validated that the ligand-bound AR activated Ube2b transcription via directly binding to the androgen-responsive element of the Ube2b promoter. In vitro analyses showed that testosterone increased UBE2B expression and activated H2A

  6. Insulin receptor-like ectodomain genes and splice variants are found in both arthropods and human brain cDNA

    PubMed Central

    VÄSTERMARK, Åke; RASK-ANDERSEN, Mathias; SAWANT, Rahul S.; REITER, Jill L.; SCHIÖTH, Helgi B.; WILLIAMS, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Truncated receptor ectodomains have been described for several classes of cell surface receptors, including those that bind to growth factors, cytokines, immunoglobulins, and adhesion molecules. Soluble receptor isoforms are typically generated by proteolytic cleavage of the cell surface receptor or by alternative splicing of RNA transcripts arising from the same gene encoding the full-length receptor. Both the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the insulin receptor (INSR) families produce soluble receptor splice variants in vertebrates and truncated forms of insulin receptor-like sequences have previously been described in Drosophila. The EGFR and INSR ectodomains share significant sequence homology with each other suggestive of a common evolutionary origin. We discovered novel truncated insulin receptor-like variants in several arthropod species. We performed a phylogenetic analysis of the conserved extracellular receptor L1 and L2 subdomains in invertebrate species. While the segregation of insulin receptor-like L1 and L2 domains indicated that an internal domain duplication had occurred only once, the generation of truncated insulin receptor-like sequences has occurred multiple times. The significance of this work is the previously unknown and widespread occurrence of truncated isoforms in arthropods, signifying that these isoforms play an important functional role, potentially related to such isoforms in mammals. PMID:27375681

  7. Role of the Ada adaptor complex in gene activation by the glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Henriksson, A; Almlöf, T; Ford, J; McEwan, I J; Gustafsson, J A; Wright, A P

    1997-01-01

    We have shown that the Ada adaptor complex is important for the gene activation capacity of the glucocorticoid receptor in yeast. The recently isolated human Ada2 protein also increases the potency of the receptor protein in mammalian cells. The Ada pathway is of key significance for the tau1 core transactivation domain (tau1c) of the receptor, which requires Ada for activity in vivo and in vitro. Ada2 can be precipitated from nuclear extracts by a glutathione S-transferase-tau1 fusion protein coupled to agarose beads, and a direct interaction between Ada2 and tau1c can be shown by using purified proteins. This interaction is strongly reduced by a mutation in tau1c that reduces transactivation activity. Mutations affecting the Ada complex do not reverse transcriptional squelching by the tau1 domain, as they do for the VP16 transactivation domain, and thus these powerful acidic activators differ in at least some important aspects of gene activation. Mutations that reduce the activity of the tau1c domain in wild-type yeast strains cause similar reductions in ada mutants that contain little or no Ada activity. Thus, gene activation mechanisms, in addition to the Ada pathway, are involved in the activity of the tau1c domain. PMID:9154805

  8. Ethylene and pollination decrease transcript abundance of an ethylene receptor gene in Dendrobium petals.

    PubMed

    Thongkum, Monthathip; Burns, Parichart; Bhunchoth, Anjana; Warin, Nuchnard; Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan; van Doorn, Wouter G

    2015-03-15

    We studied the expression of a gene encoding an ethylene receptor, called Ethylene Response Sensor 1 (Den-ERS1), in the petals of Dendrobium orchid flowers. Transcripts accumulated during the young floral bud stage and declined by the time the flowers had been open for several days. Pollination or exposure to exogenous ethylene resulted in earlier flower senescence, an increase in ethylene production and a lower Den-ERS1 transcript abundance. Treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an inhibitor of the ethylene receptor, decreased ethylene production and resulted in high transcript abundance. The literature indicates two kinds of ethylene receptor genes with regard to the effects of ethylene. One group shows ethylene-induced down-regulated transcription, while the other has ethylene-induced up-regulation. The present gene is an example of the first group. The 5' flanking region showed binding sites for Myb and myb-like, homeodomain, MADS domain, NAC, TCP, bHLH and EIN3-like transcription factors. The binding site for the EIN3-like factor might explain the ethylene effect on transcription. A few other transcription factors (RAV1 and NAC) seem also related to ethylene effects. PMID:25590685

  9. Sequence Analysis of Bitter Taste Receptor Gene Repertoires in Different Ruminant Species.

    PubMed

    Monteiro Ferreira, Ana; Tomás Marques, Andreia; Bhide, Mangesh; Cubric-Curik, Vlatka; Hollung, Kristin; Knight, Christopher Harold; Raundrup, Katrine; Lippolis, John; Palmer, Mitchell; Sales-Baptista, Elvira; Araújo, Susana Sousa; de Almeida, André Martinho

    2015-01-01

    Bitter taste has been extensively studied in mammalian species and is associated with sensitivity to toxins and with food choices that avoid dangerous substances in the diet. At the molecular level, bitter compounds are sensed by bitter taste receptor proteins (T2R) present at the surface of taste receptor cells in the gustatory papillae. Our work aims at exploring the phylogenetic relationships of T2R gene sequences within different ruminant species. To accomplish this goal, we gathered a collection of ruminant species with different feeding behaviors and for which no genome data is available: American bison, chamois, elk, European bison, fallow deer, goat, moose, mouflon, muskox, red deer, reindeer and white tailed deer. The herbivores chosen for this study belong to different taxonomic families and habitats, and hence, exhibit distinct foraging behaviors and diet preferences. We describe the first partial repertoires of T2R gene sequences for these species obtained by direct sequencing. We then consider the homology and evolutionary history of these receptors within this ruminant group, and whether it relates to feeding type classification, using MEGA software. Our results suggest that phylogenetic proximity of T2R genes corresponds more to the traditional taxonomic groups of the species rather than reflecting a categorization by feeding strategy. PMID:26061084

  10. Twisting integrin receptors increases endothelin-1 gene expression in endothelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J.; Fabry, B.; Schiffrin, E. L.; Wang, N.; Ingber, D. E. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    A magnetic twisting stimulator was developed based on the previously published technique of magnetic twisting cytometry. Using ligand-coated ferromagnetic microbeads, this device can apply mechanical stresses with varying amplitudes, duration, frequencies, and waveforms to specific cell surface receptors. Biochemical and biological responses of the cells to the mechanical stimulation can be assayed. Twisting integrin receptors with RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp)-containing peptide-coated beads increased endothelin-1 (ET-1) gene expression by >100%. In contrast, twisting scavenger receptors with acetylated low-density lipoprotein-coated beads or twisting HLA antigen with anti-HLA antibody-coated beads did not lead to alterations in ET-1 gene expression. In situ hybridization showed that the increase in ET-1 mRNA was localized in the cells that were stressed with the RGD-coated beads. Blocking stretch-activated ion channels with gadolinium, chelating Ca2+ with EGTA, or inhibiting tyrosine phosphorylation with genistein abolished twist-induced ET-1 mRNA elevation. Abolishing cytoskeletal tension with an inhibitor of the myosin ATPase, with an inhibitor of myosin light chain kinase, or with an actin microfilament disrupter blocked twisted-induced increases in ET-1 expression. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the molecular structural linkage of integrin-cytoskeleton is an important pathway for stress-induced ET-1 gene expression.

  11. Evidence for an indirect transcriptional regulation of glucose-6-phosphatase gene expression by liver X receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Grempler, Rolf . E-mail: rolfgrempler@yahoo.de; Guenther, Susanne; Steffensen, Knut R.; Nilsson, Maria; Barthel, Andreas; Schmoll, Dieter

    2005-12-16

    Liver X receptor (LXR) paralogues {alpha} and {beta} (LXR{alpha} and LXR{beta}) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor family and have oxysterols as endogenous ligands. LXR activation reduces hepatic glucose production in vivo through the inhibition of transcription of the key gluconeogenic enzymes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase). In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of G6Pase gene expression by LXR. Both T0901317, a synthetic LXR agonist, and the adenoviral overexpression of either LXR{alpha} or LXR{beta} suppressed G6Pase gene expression in H4IIE hepatoma cells. However, compared to the suppression of G6Pase expression seen by insulin, the decrease of G6Pase mRNA by LXR activation was delayed and was blocked by cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis. These observations, together with the absence of a conserved LXR-binding element within the G6Pase promoter, suggest an indirect inhibition of G6Pase gene expression by liver X receptors.

  12. Isolation and characterization of the brassinosteroid receptor gene (GmBRI1) from Glycine max.

    PubMed

    Wang, Miao; Sun, Shi; Wu, Cunxiang; Han, Tianfu; Wang, Qingyu

    2014-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) constitute a group of steroidal phytohormones that contribute to a wide range of plant growth and development functions. The genetic modulation of BR receptor genes, which play major roles in the BR signaling pathway, can create semi-dwarf plants that have great advantages in crop production. In this study, a brassinosteroid insensitive gene homologous with AtBRI1 and other BRIs was isolated from Glycine max and designated as GmBRI1. A bioinformatic analysis revealed that GmBRI1 shares a conserved kinase domain and 25 tandem leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) that are characteristic of a BR receptor for BR reception and reaction and bear a striking similarity in protein tertiary structure to AtBRI1. GmBRI1 transcripts were more abundant in soybean hypocotyls and could be upregulated in response to exogenous BR treatment. The transformation of GmBRI1 into the Arabidopsis dwarf mutant bri1-5 restored the phenotype, especially regarding pod size and plant height. Additionally, this complementation is a consequence of a restored BR signaling pathway demonstrated in the light/dark analysis, root inhibition assay and BR-response gene expression. Therefore, GmBRI1 functions as a BR receptor to alter BR-mediated signaling and is valuable for improving plant architecture and enhancing the yield of soybean. PMID:24599079

  13. Growth hormone receptor gene mutations in two Italian patients with Laron Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fassone, L; Corneli, G; Bellone, S; Camacho-Hübner, C; Aimaretti, G; Cappa, M; Ubertini, G; Bona, G

    2007-05-01

    Laron Syndrome (LS) represents a condition characterized by GH insensitivity caused by molecular defects in the GH receptor (GHR) gene or in the post-receptor signalling pathway. We report the molecular characterization of two unrelated Italian girls from Sicily diagnosed with LS. The DNA sequencing of the GHR gene revealed the presence of different nonsense mutations, occurring in the same background haplotype. The molecular defects occurred in the extracellular domain of the GHR leading to a premature termination signal and to a truncated non-functional receptor. In one patient, a homozygous G to T transversion, in exon 6, led to the mutation GAA to TAA at codon 180 (E180X), while in the second patient a homozygous C to T transition in exon 7 was detected, causing the CGA to TAA substitution at codon 217 (R217X). Both probands presented the polymorphisms Gly168Gly and Ile544Leu in a homozygous state in exons 6 and 10, respectively. The E180X represents a novel defect of the GHR gene, while the R217X mutation has been previously reported in several patients from different ethnic backgrounds but all from countries located in the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern region. PMID:17598975

  14. Mutated human androgen receptor gene detected in a prostatic cancer patient is also activated by estradiol

    SciTech Connect

    Elo, J.P.; Kvist, L.; Leinonen, K.; Isomaa, V.

    1995-12-01

    Androgens are necessary for the development of prostatic cancer. The mechanisms by which the originally androgen-dependent prostatic cancer cells are relieved of the requirement to use androgen for their growth are largely unknown. The human prostatic cancer cell line LNCaP has been shown to contain a point mutation in the human androgen receptor gene (hAR), suggesting that changes in the hAR may contribute to the abnormal hormone response of prostatic cells. To search for point mutations in the hAR, we used single strand conformation polymorphism analysis and a polymerase chain reaction direct sequencing method to screen 23 prostatic cancer specimens from untreated patients, 6 prostatic cancer specimens from treated patients, and 11 benign prostatic hyperplasia specimens. One mutation was identified in DNA isolated from prostatic cancer tissue, and the mutation was also detected in the leukocyte DNA of the patient and his offspring. The mutation changed codon 726 in exon E from arginine to leucine and was a germ line mutation. The mutation we found in exon E of the hAR gene does not alter the ligand binding specificity of the AR, but the mutated receptor was activated by estradiol to a significantly greater extent than the wild-type receptor. The AR gene mutation described in this study might be one explanation for the altered biological activity of prostatic cancer. 36 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Sequence Analysis of Bitter Taste Receptor Gene Repertoires in Different Ruminant Species

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro Ferreira, Ana; Tomás Marques, Andreia; Bhide, Mangesh; Cubric-Curik, Vlatka; Hollung, Kristin; Knight, Christopher Harold; Raundrup, Katrine; Lippolis, John; Palmer, Mitchell; Sales-Baptista, Elvira; Araújo, Susana Sousa; de Almeida, André Martinho

    2015-01-01

    Bitter taste has been extensively studied in mammalian species and is associated with sensitivity to toxins and with food choices that avoid dangerous substances in the diet. At the molecular level, bitter compounds are sensed by bitter taste receptor proteins (T2R) present at the surface of taste receptor cells in the gustatory papillae. Our work aims at exploring the phylogenetic relationships of T2R gene sequences within different ruminant species. To accomplish this goal, we gathered a collection of ruminant species with different feeding behaviors and for which no genome data is available: American bison, chamois, elk, European bison, fallow deer, goat, moose, mouflon, muskox, red deer, reindeer and white tailed deer. The herbivores chosen for this study belong to different taxonomic families and habitats, and hence, exhibit distinct foraging behaviors and diet preferences. We describe the first partial repertoires of T2R gene sequences for these species obtained by direct sequencing. We then consider the homology and evolutionary history of these receptors within this ruminant group, and whether it relates to feeding type classification, using MEGA software. Our results suggest that phylogenetic proximity of T2R genes corresponds more to the traditional taxonomic groups of the species rather than reflecting a categorization by feeding strategy. PMID:26061084

  16. The Sigma-2 Receptor and Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 are Different Binding Sites Derived From Independent Genes

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Uyen B.; Mavlyutov, Timur A.; Chu, Ming-Liang; Yang, Huan; Schulman, Amanda; Mesangeau, Christophe; McCurdy, Christopher R.; Guo, Lian-Wang; Ruoho, Arnold E.

    2015-01-01

    The sigma-2 receptor (S2R) is a potential therapeutic target for cancer and neuronal diseases. However, the identity of the S2R has remained a matter of debate. Historically, the S2R has been defined as (1) a binding site with high affinity to 1,3-di-o-tolylguanidine (DTG) and haloperidol but not to the selective sigma-1 receptor ligand (+)-pentazocine, and (2) a protein of 18–21 kDa, as shown by specific photolabeling with [3H]-Azido-DTG and [125I]-iodoazido-fenpropimorph ([125I]-IAF). Recently, the progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), a 25 kDa protein, was reported to be the S2R (Nature Communications, 2011, 2:380). To confirm this identification, we created PGRMC1 knockout NSC34 cell lines using the CRISPR/Cas9 technology. We found that in NSC34 cells devoid of or overexpressing PGRMC1, the maximum [3H]-DTG binding to the S2R (Bmax) as well as the DTG-protectable [125I]-IAF photolabeling of the S2R were similar to those of wild-type control cells. Furthermore, the affinities of DTG and haloperidol for PGRMC1 (KI = 472 μM and 350 μM, respectively), as determined in competition with [3H]-progesterone, were more than 3 orders of magnitude lower than those reported for the S2R (20–80 nM). These results clarify that PGRMC1 and the S2R are distinct binding sites expressed by different genes. PMID:26870805

  17. Taste and odorant receptors of the coelacanth--a gene repertoire in transition.

    PubMed

    Picone, Barbara; Hesse, Uljana; Panji, Sumir; Van Heusden, Peter; Jonas, Mario; Christoffels, Alan

    2014-09-01

    G-protein coupled chemosensory receptors (GPCR-CRs) aid in the perception of odors and tastes in vertebrates. So far, six GPCR-CR families have been identified that are conserved in most vertebrate species. Phylogenetic analyses indicate differing evolutionary dynamics between teleost fish and tetrapods. The coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae belongs to the lobe-finned fishes, which represent a phylogenetic link between these two groups. We searched the genome of L. chalumnae for GPCR-CRs and found that coelacanth taste receptors are more similar to those in tetrapods than in teleost fish: two coelacanth T1R2s co-segregate with the tetrapod T1R2s that recognize sweet substances, and our phylogenetic analyses indicate that the teleost T1R2s are closer related to T1R1s (umami taste receptors) than to tetrapod T1R2s. Furthermore, coelacanths are the first fish with a large repertoire of bitter taste receptors (58 T2Rs). Considering current knowledge on feeding habits of coelacanths the question arises if perception of bitter taste is the only function of these receptors. Similar to teleost fish, coelacanths have a variety of olfactory receptors (ORs) necessary for perception of water-soluble substances. However, they also have seven genes in the two tetrapod OR subfamilies predicted to recognize airborne molecules. The two coelacanth vomeronasal receptor families are larger than those in teleost fish, and similar to tetrapods and form V1R and V2R monophyletic clades. This may point to an advanced development of the vomeronasal organ as reported for lungfish. Our results show that the intermediate position of Latimeria in the phylogeny is reflected in its GPCR-CR repertoire. PMID:24106203

  18. Association of adenosine receptor gene polymorphisms and in vivo adenosine A1 receptor binding in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Hohoff, Christa; Garibotto, Valentina; Elmenhorst, David; Baffa, Anna; Kroll, Tina; Hoffmann, Alana; Schwarte, Kathrin; Zhang, Weiqi; Arolt, Volker; Deckert, Jürgen; Bauer, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    Adenosine A1 receptors (A1ARs) and the interacting adenosine A2A receptors are implicated in neurological and psychiatric disorders. Variants within the corresponding genes ADORA1 and ADORA2A were shown associated with pathophysiologic alterations, particularly increased anxiety. It is unknown so far, if these variants might modulate the A1AR distribution and availability in different brain regions. In this pilot study, the influence of ADORA1 and ADORA2A variants on in vivo A1AR binding was assessed with the A1AR-selective positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand [(18)F]CPFPX in brains of healthy humans. Twenty-eight normal control subjects underwent PET procedures to calculate the binding potential BPND of [(18)F]CPFPX in cerebral regions and to assess ADORA1 and ADORA2A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effects on regional BPND data. Our results revealed SNPs of both genes associated with [(18)F]CPFPX binding to the A1AR. The strongest effects that withstood even Bonferroni correction of multiple SNP testing were found in non-smoking subjects (N=22) for ADORA2A SNPs rs2236624 and rs5751876 (corr. Pall<0.05). SNP alleles previously identified at risk for increased anxiety like the rs5751876 T-allele corresponded to consistently higher A1AR availability in all brain regions. Our data indicate for the first time that variation of A1AR availability was associated with ADORA SNPs. The finding of increased A1AR availability in regions of the fear network, particularly in ADORA2A risk allele carriers, strongly warrants evaluation and replication in further studies including individuals with increased anxiety. PMID:24943643

  19. Association of estrogen receptor β and estrogen-related receptor α gene polymorphisms with bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Shoukry, Amira; Shalaby, Sally M; Etewa, Rasha L; Ahmed, Hanan S; Abdelrahman, Hossam M

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the possible association of AluI and RsaI polymorphisms of estrogen receptor β (ER-β) gene and 23-bp nucleotide repeat polymorphism of estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) gene with bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Egyptian women. Two-hundred postmenopausal osteoporotic women as cases and 180 healthy age-matched postmenopausal women as controls were genotyped by PCR fragment length polymorphism for AluI, allele-specific PCR for RsaI, and by sizing of PCR products on agarose gels for ERRα repeats. sRANKL levels were estimated by ELISA. BMD measurements for spine and femoral neck were performed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. A significant difference between women with osteoporosis and controls regarding allele and genotype distributions of AluI G/A (OR 2.37, 95 % CI 1.77-3.18 and p < 0.001 for A allele) and ERRα polymorphisms (for the two repeats allele OR 2.08, 95 % CI 1.09-4.00, and p = 0.02). Osteoporotic women with the AluI AA + GA genotype or with the EERα 2,2 genotype had significantly lower BMD than did women with the other genotypes. Moreover, there was a significant increase of the mean values of sRANKL in carriers of AluI A, RsaI A alleles and in patients having 2,2 genotypes of ERRα (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.02, respectively). We demonstrated an association of ER-β AluI G/A and ERRα 23-repeats polymorphisms with BMD in postmenopausal Egyptian women. A possible effect of ER-β and ERRα polymorphisms on the levels of sRANKL was estimated. PMID:25903400

  20. Temporal patterns of odorant receptor gene expression in adult and aged mice.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mona; Vaes, Evelien; Mombaerts, Peter

    2013-11-01

    In the mouse, the sense of smell relies predominantly on the expression of ~1200 odorant receptor (OR) genes in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE). Each mature olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) in the MOE is thought to express just one of these OR genes; conversely, an OR gene is expressed in thousands to tens of thousands of OSNs per mouse. Here, we have characterized temporal patterns of OR gene expression in a cohort of inbred C57BL6/N mice from the Aged Rodent Colonies of the National Institute on Aging. We applied the NanoString multiplex platform to quantify RNA abundance for 531 OR genes in whole olfactory mucosa (WOM) tissue samples. The five study groups were females aged 2, 6, 12, 18, and 31 months (mo). We classified the 531 temporal patterns using a step-down quadratic regression method for time course analysis. The majority of OR genes (58.4%) are classified as flat: there is no significant difference from a horizontal line within this time window. There are 32.8% of OR genes with a downward profile, 7.2% with an upward profile, and 1.7% with a convex or concave profile. But the magnitude of these decreases and increases tends to be small: only 4.3% of OR genes are differentially expressed (DE) at 31 mo compared to 2 mo. Interestingly, the variances of NanoString counts for individual OR genes are homogeneous among the age groups. Our analyses of these 15,930 OR gene expression data of C57BL6/N mice that were raised and housed under well-controlled conditions indicate that OR gene expression at the MOE level is intrinsically stable. PMID:23962816

  1. Association analysis of GABA receptor subunit genes on 5q33 with heroin dependence in a Chinese male population.

    PubMed

    Loh, E W; Tang, N L S; Lee, D T S; Liu, S I; Stadlin, Alfreda

    2007-06-01

    GABAA receptor subunit genes clustered on 5q33 play a role in the development of alcoholism and methamphetamine use disorder without psychosis. The present study explored the possible contribution of the same subunit genes to the development of heroin dependence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the GABAA receptor subunits GABRB2, GABRA6, GABRA1, and GABRG2 were examined in 178 male Han Chinese heroin-dependent and 170 male control subjects. A significant difference in allele frequency for the SNP rs211014 in the GABAAgamma2 receptor subunit gene between cases and controls was identified (P = 0.015). A possible mechanism for the involvement of the GABA receptor subunit genes on 5q33 in the development of heroin dependence is discussed. PMID:17440936

  2. Insulin Receptor Substrate Adaptor Proteins Mediate Prognostic Gene Expression Profiles in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Marc A.; Ibrahim, Yasir H.; Oh, Annabell S.; Fagan, Dedra H.; Byron, Sara A.; Sarver, Aaron L.; Lee, Adrian V.; Shaw, Leslie M.; Fan, Cheng; Perou, Charles M.; Yee, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Therapies targeting the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) have not been developed with predictive biomarkers to identify tumors with receptor activation. We have previously shown that the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) adaptor proteins are necessary for linking IGF1R to downstream signaling pathways and the malignant phenotype in breast cancer cells. The purpose of this study was to identify gene expression profiles downstream of IGF1R and its two adaptor proteins. IRS-null breast cancer cells (T47D-YA) were engineered to express IRS-1 or IRS-2 alone and their ability to mediate IGF ligand-induced proliferation, motility, and gene expression determined. Global gene expression signatures reflecting IRS adaptor specific and primary vs. secondary ligand response were derived (Early IRS-1, Late IRS-1, Early IRS-2 and Late IRS-2) and functional pathway analysis examined. IRS isoforms mediated distinct gene expression profiles, functional pathways, and breast cancer subtype association. For example, IRS-1/2-induced TGFb2 expression and blockade of TGFb2 abrogated IGF-induced cell migration. In addition, the prognostic value of IRS proteins was significant in the luminal B breast tumor subtype. Univariate and multivariate analyses confirmed that IRS adaptor signatures correlated with poor outcome as measured by recurrence-free and overall survival. Thus, IRS adaptor protein expression is required for IGF ligand responses in breast cancer cells. IRS-specific gene signatures represent accurate surrogates of IGF activity and could predict response to anti-IGF therapy in breast cancer. PMID:26991655

  3. Functional Expression of Two Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors from cDNA Clones Identifies a Gene Family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulter, Jim; Connolly, John; Deneris, Evan; Goldman, Dan; Heinemann, Steven; Patrick, Jim

    1987-11-01

    A family of genes coding for proteins homologous to the α subunit of the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor has been identified in the rat genome. These genes are transcribed in the central and peripheral nervous systems in areas known to contain functional nicotinic receptors. In this paper, we demonstrate that three of these genes, which we call alpha3, alpha4, and beta2, encode proteins that form functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Oocytes expressing either alpha3 or alpha4 protein in combination with the beta2 protein produced a strong response to acetylcholine. Oocytes expressing only the alpha4 protein gave a weak response to acetylcholine. These receptors are activated by acetylcholine and nicotine and are blocked by Bungarus toxin 3.1. They are not blocked by α -bungarotoxin, which blocks the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Thus, the receptors formed by the alpha3, alpha4, and beta2 subunits are pharmacologically similar to the ganglionic-type neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. These results indicate that the alpha3, alpha4, and beta2 genes encode functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits that are expressed in the brain and peripheral nervous system.

  4. Regulation of T cell receptor beta gene rearrangements and allelic exclusion by the helix-loop-helix protein, E47.

    PubMed

    Agata, Yasutoshi; Tamaki, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Shuji; Ikawa, Tomokatsu; Masuda, Kyoko; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Murre, Cornelis

    2007-12-01

    Allelic exclusion of antigen-receptor genes is ensured primarily by monoallelic locus activation upon rearrangement and subsequently by feedback inhibition of continued rearrangement. Here, we demonstrated that the basic helix-loop-helix protein, E47, promoted T cell receptor beta (TCRbeta) gene rearrangement by directly binding to target gene segments to increase chromatin accessibility in a dosage-sensitive manner. Feedback signaling abrogated E47 binding, leading to a decline in accessibility. Conversely, enforced expression of E47 induced TCRbeta gene rearrangement by antagonizing feedback inhibition. Thus, the abundance of E47 is rate limiting in locus activation, and feedback signaling downregulates E47 activity to ensure allelic exclusion. PMID:18093539

  5. The human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN) gene is located in the chromosome 2q14 region

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, D.; Jones, C.; Hart, I.; Bleskan, J.; Berger, R.; Geyer, D. ); Eisenberg, S.P. ); Smith, M.F. Jr.; Arend, W.P. )

    1993-01-01

    The gene for human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN) has been assigned to chromosome 2 on the basis of Southern blot analysis of a series of human-Chinese hamster cell hybrids. Using a yeast artificial chromosome containing the IL1RN gene as a probe, the human IL1RN gene was localized to the long arm of chromosome 2 at band 2q14.2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. This site is near the positions of genes for human IL-l[alpha], IL-1[beta], and types I and II IL-1 receptors, as reported by other laboratories. 23 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor β2 subunit gene implicated in a systems-based candidate gene study of smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Conti, David V.; Lee, Won; Li, Dalin; Liu, Jinghua; Van Den Berg, David; Thomas, Paul D.; Bergen, Andrew W.; Swan, Gary E.; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Lerman, Caryn

    2008-01-01

    Although the efficacy of pharmacotherapy for tobacco dependence has been previously demonstrated, there is substantial variability among individuals in treatment response. We performed a systems-based candidate gene study of 1295 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 58 genes within the neuronal nicotinic receptor and dopamine systems to investigate their role in smoking cessation in a bupropion placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. Putative functional variants were supplemented with tagSNPs within each gene. We used global tests of main effects and treatment interactions, adjusting the P-values for multiple correlated tests. An SNP (rs2072661) in the 3′ UTR region of the β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit (CHRNB2) has an impact on abstinence rates at the end of treatment (adjusted P = 0.01) and after a 6-month follow-up period (adjusted P = 0.0002). This latter P-value is also significant with adjustment for the number of genes tested. Independent of treatment at 6-month follow-up, individuals carrying the minor allele have substantially decreased the odds of quitting (OR = 0.31; 95% CI 0.18–0.55). Effect of estimates indicate that the treatment is more effective for individuals with the wild-type (OR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.20–3.81) compared with individuals carrying the minor allele (OR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.32–2.19), although this difference is only suggestive (P = 0.10). Furthermore, this SNP demonstrated a role in the time to relapse (P = 0.0002) and an impact on withdrawal symptoms at target quit date (TQD) (P = 0.0009). Overall, while our results indicate strong evidence for CHRNB2 in ability to quit smoking, these results require replication in an independent sample. PMID:18593715

  7. Genome-wide landscape of liver X receptor chromatin binding and gene regulation in human macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The liver X receptors (LXRs) are oxysterol sensing nuclear receptors with multiple effects on metabolism and immune cells. However, the complete genome-wide cistrome of LXR in cells of human origin has not yet been provided. Results We performed ChIP-seq in phorbol myristate acetate-differentiated THP-1 cells (macrophage-type) after stimulation with the potent synthetic LXR ligand T0901317 (T09). Microarray gene expression analysis was performed in the same cellular model. We identified 1357 genome-wide LXR locations (FDR < 1%), of which 526 were observed after T09 treatment. De novo analysis of LXR binding sequences identified a DR4-type element as the major motif. On mRNA level T09 up-regulated 1258 genes and repressed 455 genes. Our results show that LXR actions are focused on 112 genomic regions that contain up to 11 T09 target genes per region under the control of highly stringent LXR binding sites with individual constellations for each region. We could confirm that LXR controls lipid metabolism and transport and observed a strong association with apoptosis-related functions. Conclusions This first report on genome-wide binding of LXR in a human cell line provides new insights into the transcriptional network of LXR and its target genes with their link to physiological processes, such as apoptosis. The gene expression microarray and sequence data have been submitted collectively to the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo under accession number GSE28319. PMID:22292898

  8. Expanding Duplication of Free Fatty Acid Receptor-2 (GPR43) Genes in the Chicken Genome

    PubMed Central

    Meslin, Camille; Desert, Colette; Callebaut, Isabelle; Djari, Anis; Klopp, Christophe; Pitel, Frédérique; Leroux, Sophie; Martin, Pascal; Froment, Pascal; Guilbert, Edith; Gondret, Florence; Lagarrigue, Sandrine; Monget, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Free fatty acid receptors (FFAR) belong to a family of five G-protein coupled receptors that are involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism, so that their loss of function increases the risk of obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the expansion of genes encoding paralogs of FFAR2 in the chicken, considered as a model organism for developmental biology and biomedical research. By estimating the gene copy number using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, genomic DNA resequencing, and RNA sequencing data, we showed the existence of 23 ± 1.5 genes encoding FFAR2 paralogs in the chicken genome. The FFAR2 paralogs shared an identity from 87.2% up to 99%. Extensive gene conversion was responsible for this high degree of sequence similarities between these genes, and this concerned especially the four amino acids known to be critical for ligand binding. Moreover, elevated nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution ratios on some amino acids within or in close-vicinity of the ligand-binding groove suggest that positive selection may have reduced the effective rate of gene conversion in this region, thus contributing to diversify the function of some FFAR2 paralogs. All the FFAR2 paralogs were located on a microchromosome in a same linkage group. FFAR2 genes were expressed in different tissues and cells such as spleen, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, abdominal adipose tissue, intestine, and lung, with the highest rate of expression in testis. Further investigations are needed to determine whether these chicken-specific events along evolution are the consequence of domestication and may play a role in regulating lipid metabolism in this species. PMID:25912043

  9. Distribution of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors genes in the Italian Caucasian population

    PubMed Central

    Bontadini, A; Testi, M; Cuccia, MC; Martinetti, M; Carcassi, C; Chiesa, A; Cosentini, E; Dametto, E; Frison, S; Iannone, AM; Lombardo, C; Malagoli, A; Mariani, M; Mariotti, L; Mascaretti, L; Mele, L; Miotti, V; Nesci, S; Ozzella, G; Piancatelli, D; Romeo, G; Tagliaferri, C; Vatta, S; Andreani, M; Conte, R

    2006-01-01

    Background Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are a family of inhibitory and activatory receptors that are expressed by most natural killer (NK) cells. The KIR gene family is polymorphic: genomic diversity is achieved through differences in gene content and allelic polymorphism. The number of KIR loci has been reported to vary among individuals, resulting in different KIR haplotypes. In this study we report the genotypic structure of KIRs in 217 unrelated healthy Italian individuals from 22 immunogenetics laboratories, located in the northern, central and southern regions of Italy. Methods Two hundred and seventeen DNA samples were studied by a low resolution PCR-SSP kit designed to identify all KIR genes. Results All 17 KIR genes were observed in the population with different frequencies than other Caucasian and non-Caucasian populations; framework genes KIR3DL3, KIR3DP1, KIR2DL4 and KIR3DL2 were present in all individuals. Sixty-five different profiles were found in this Italian population study. Haplotype A remains the most prevalent and genotype 1, with a frequency of 28.5%, is the most commonly observed in the Italian population. Conclusion The Italian Caucasian population shows polymorphism of the KIR gene family like other Caucasian and non-Caucasian populations. Although 64 genotypes have been observed, genotype 1 remains the most frequent as already observed in other populations. Such knowledge of the KIR gene distribution in populations is very useful in the study of associations with diseases and in selection of donors for haploidentical bone marrow transplantation. PMID:17069649

  10. GABAA receptor subunit gene expression in human prefrontal cortex: comparison of schizophrenics and controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akbarian, S.; Huntsman, M. M.; Kim, J. J.; Tafazzoli, A.; Potkin, S. G.; Bunney, W. E. Jr; Jones, E. G.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics is hypoactive and displays changes related to inhibitory, GABAergic neurons, and GABAergic synapses. These changes include decreased levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the enzyme for GABA synthesis, upregulation of muscimol binding, and downregulation of benzodiazepine binding to GABAA receptors. Studies in the visual cortex of nonhuman primates have demonstrated that gene expression for GAD and for several GABAA receptor subunit polypeptides is under control of neuronal activity, raising the possibility that similar mechanisms in the hypoactive prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics may explain the abnormalities in GAD and in GABAA receptor regulation. In the present study, which is the first of its type on human cerebral cortex, levels of mRNAs for six GABAA receptor subunits (alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 5, beta 1, beta 2, gamma 2) and their laminar expression patterns were analyzed in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics and matched controls, using in situ hybridization histochemistry and densitometry. Three types of laminar expression pattern were observed: mRNAs for the alpha 1, beta 2, and gamma 2 subunits, which are the predominant receptor subunits expressed in the mature cortex, were expressed at comparatively high levels by cells of all six cortical layers, but most intensely by cells in lower layer III and layer IV. mRNAs for the alpha 2, alpha 5, and beta 1 subunits were expressed at lower levels; alpha 2 and beta 1 were expressed predominantly by cells in layers II, III, and IV; alpha 5 was expressed predominantly in layers IV, V, and VI. There were no significant changes in overall mRNA levels for any of the receptor subunits in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics, and the laminar expression pattern of all six receptor subunit mRNAs did not differ between schizophrenics and controls. Because gene expression for GABAA receptor subunits is not consistently altered in the prefrontal cortex of

  11. Opposite regulation of cocaine-induced intracellular signaling and gene expression by dopamine D1 and D3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhua; Xu, Ming

    2006-08-01

    Repeated exposure to cocaine induces persistent neuroadaptations that involve alterations in cellular signaling and gene expression mediated by dopamine (DA) receptors in the brain. Both dopamine D1 and D3 receptors mediate cocaine-induced behaviors and they are also coexpressed in the same neurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and caudoputamen (CPu). We have investigated whether these two receptors coordinately regulate intracellular signaling and gene expression after acute and repeated cocaine administration. We found that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation and c-fos induction in the CPu following an acute cocaine administration is mediated by the D1 receptor and inhibited by the D3 receptor. ERK activation is necessary for acute cocaine-induced expression of fos family genes that include c-fos, fosB, and fra2. Furthermore, potential target genes of cAMP response element-binding (CREB) protein and/or AP-1 transcription complex, including dynorphin, neogenin, and synaptotagmin VII, are also oppositely regulated by D1 and D3 receptors after repeated cocaine injections. Lastly, such regulation requires proper ERK activation. These results suggest that D1 and D3 receptors oppositely regulate target gene expression by regulating ERK activation after cocaine administration. PMID:17105899

  12. Methylation Status of Vitamin D Receptor Gene Promoter in Benign and Malignant Adrenal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pilon, Catia; Rebellato, Andrea; Urbanet, Riccardo; Guzzardo, Vincenza; Cappellesso, Rocco; Sasano, Hironobu; Fassina, Ambrogio

    2015-01-01

    We previously showed a decreased expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) mRNA/protein in a small group of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) tissues, suggesting the loss of a protective role of VDR against malignant cell growth in this cancer type. Downregulation of VDR gene expression may result from epigenetics events, that is, methylation of cytosine nucleotide of CpG islands in VDR gene promoter. We analyzed methylation of CpG sites in the VDR gene promoter in normal adrenals and adrenocortical tumor samples. Methylation of CpG-rich 5′ regions was assessed by bisulfite sequencing PCR using bisulfite-treated DNA from archival microdissected paraffin-embedded adrenocortical tissues. Three normal adrenals and 23 various adrenocortical tumor samples (15 adenomas and 8 carcinomas) were studied. Methylation in the promoter region of VDR gene was found in 3/8 ACCs, while no VDR gene methylation was observed in normal adrenals and adrenocortical adenomas. VDR mRNA and protein levels were lower in ACCs than in benign tumors, and VDR immunostaining was weak or negative in ACCs, including all 3 methylated tissue samples. The association between VDR gene promoter methylation and reduced VDR gene expression is not a rare event in ACC, suggesting that VDR epigenetic inactivation may have a role in adrenocortical carcinogenesis. PMID:26843863

  13. Adenoviral-Mediated Imaging of Gene Transfer Using a Somatostatin Receptor-Cytosine Deaminase Fusion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Lears, Kimberly A.; Parry, Jesse J.; Andrews, Rebecca; Nguyen, Kim; Wadas, Thaddeus J.; Rogers, Buck E.

    2015-01-01

    Suicide gene therapy is a process by which cells are administered a gene that encodes a protein capable of converting a nontoxic prodrug into an active toxin. Cytosine deaminase (CD) has been widely investigated as a means of suicide gene therapy due to the enzyme’s ability to convert the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) into the toxic compound 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). However, the extent of gene transfer is a limiting factor in predicting therapeutic outcome. The ability to monitor gene transfer, non-invasively, would strengthen the efficiency of therapy. In this regard, we have constructed and evaluated a replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) containing the human somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2) fused with a C-terminal yeast CD gene for the non-invasive monitoring of gene transfer and therapy. The resulting Ad (AdSSTR2-yCD) was evaluated in vitro in breast cancer cells to determine the function of the fusion protein. These studies demonstrated that the both the SSTR2 and yCD were functional in binding assays, conversion assays, and cytotoxicity assays. In vivo studies similarly demonstrated the functionality using conversion assays, biodistribution studies, and small animal positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging studies. In conclusion, the fusion protein has been validated as useful for the non-invasive imaging of yCD expression and will be evaluated in the future for monitoring yCD-based therapy. PMID:25837665

  14. Avian olfactory receptor gene repertoires: evidence for a well-developed sense of smell in birds?

    PubMed

    Steiger, Silke S; Fidler, Andrew E; Valcu, Mihai; Kempenaers, Bart

    2008-10-22

    Among vertebrates, the sense of smell is mediated by olfactory receptors (ORs) expressed in sensory neurons within the olfactory epithelium. Comparative genomic studies suggest that the olfactory acuity of mammalian species correlates positively with both the total number and the proportion of functional OR genes encoded in their genomes. In contrast to mammals, avian olfaction is poorly understood, with birds widely regarded as relying primarily on visual and auditory inputs. Here, we show that in nine bird species from seven orders (blue tit, Cyanistes caeruleus; black coucal, Centropus grillii; brown kiwi, Apteryx australis; canary, Serinus canaria; galah, Eolophus roseicapillus; red jungle fowl, Gallus gallus; kakapo, Strigops habroptilus; mallard, Anas platyrhynchos; snow petrel, Pagodroma nivea), the majority of amplified OR sequences are predicted to be from potentially functional genes. This finding is somewhat surprising as one previous report suggested that the majority of OR genes in an avian (red jungle fowl) genomic sequence are non-functional pseudogenes. We also show that it is not the estimated proportion of potentially functional OR genes, but rather the estimated total number of OR genes that correlates positively with relative olfactory bulb size, an anatomical correlate of olfactory capability. We further demonstrate that all the nine bird genomes examined encode OR genes belonging to a large gene clade, termed gamma-c, the expansion of which appears to be a shared characteristic of class Aves. In summary, our findings suggest that olfaction in birds may be a more important sense than generally believed. PMID:18628122

  15. The complete inventory of receptors encoded by the rat natural killer cell gene complex

    PubMed Central

    Flornes, Line M.; Nylenna, Øyvind; Saether, Per C.; Daws, Michael R.; Dissen, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The natural killer cell gene complex (NKC) encodes receptors belonging to the C-type lectin superfamily expressed primarily by NK cells and other leukocytes. In the rat, the chromosomal region that starts with the Nkrp1a locus and ends with the Ly49i8 locus is predicted to contain 67 group V C-type lectin superfamily genes, making it one of the largest congregation of paralogous genes in vertebrates. Based on physical proximity and phylogenetic relationships between these genes, the rat NKC can be divided into four major parts. We have previously reported the cDNA cloning of the majority of the genes belonging to the centromeric Nkrp1/Clr cluster and the two telomeric groups, the Klre1–Klri2 and the Ly49 clusters. Here, we close the gap between the Nkrp1/Clr and the Klre1–Klri2 clusters by presenting the cDNA cloning and transcription patterns of eight genes spanning from Cd69 to Dectin1, including the novel Clec2m gene. The definition, organization, and evolution of the rat NKC are discussed. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00251-010-0455-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20544345

  16. Latitudinal Clines of the Human Vitamin D Receptor and Skin Color Genes.

    PubMed

    Tiosano, Dov; Audi, Laura; Climer, Sharlee; Zhang, Weixiong; Templeton, Alan R; Fernández-Cancio, Monica; Gershoni-Baruch, Ruth; Sánchez-Muro, José Miguel; El Kholy, Mohamed; Hochberg, Zèev

    2016-01-01

    The well-documented latitudinal clines of genes affecting human skin color presumably arise from the need for protection from intense ultraviolet radiation (UVR) vs. the need to use UVR for vitamin D synthesis. Sampling 751 subjects from a broad range of latitudes and skin colors, we investigated possible multilocus correlated adaptation of skin color genes with the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR), using a vector correlation metric and network method called BlocBuster. We discovered two multilocus networks involving VDR promoter and skin color genes that display strong latitudinal clines as multilocus networks, even though many of their single gene components do not. Considered one by one, the VDR components of these networks show diverse patterns: no cline, a weak declining latitudinal cline outside of Africa, and a strong in- vs. out-of-Africa frequency pattern. We confirmed these results with independent data from HapMap. Standard linkage disequilibrium analyses did not detect these networks. We applied BlocBuster across the entire genome, showing that our networks are significant outliers for interchromosomal disequilibrium that overlap with environmental variation relevant to the genes' functions. These results suggest that these multilocus correlations most likely arose from a combination of parallel selective responses to a common environmental variable and coadaptation, given the known Mendelian epistasis among VDR and the skin color genes. PMID:26921301

  17. Global Analysis of Predicted G Protein−Coupled Receptor Genes in the Filamentous Fungus, Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Ilva E.; Pacentine, Itallia V.; Lim, Andrew; Guerrero, Nayeli; Krystofova, Svetlana; Li, Liande; Michkov, Alexander V.; Servin, Jacqueline A.; Ahrendt, Steven R.; Carrillo, Alexander J.; Davidson, Liza M.; Barsoum, Andrew H.; Cao, Jackie; Castillo, Ronald; Chen, Wan-Ching; Dinkchian, Alex; Kim, Stephanie; Kitada, Sho M.; Lai, Taffani H.; Mach, Ashley; Malekyan, Cristin; Moua, Toua R.; Torres, Carlos Rojas; Yamamoto, Alaina; Borkovich, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    G protein−coupled receptors (GPCRs) regulate facets of growth, development, and environmental sensing in eukaryotes, including filamentous fungi. The largest predicted GPCR class in these organisms is the Pth11-related, with members similar to a protein required for disease in the plant pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. However, the Pth11-related class has not been functionally studied in any filamentous fungal species. Here, we analyze phenotypes in available mutants for 36 GPCR genes, including 20 Pth11-related, in the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. We also investigate patterns of gene expression for all 43 predicted GPCR genes in available datasets. A total of 17 mutants (47%) possessed at least one growth or developmental phenotype. We identified 18 mutants (56%) with chemical sensitivity or nutritional phenotypes (11 uniquely), bringing the total number of mutants with at least one defect to 28 (78%), including 15 mutants (75%) in the Pth11-related class. Gene expression trends for GPCR genes correlated with the phenotypes observed for many mutants and also suggested overlapping functions for several groups of co-transcribed genes. Several members of the Pth11-related class have phenotypes and/or are differentially expressed on cellulose, suggesting a possible role for this gene family in plant cell wall sensing or utilization. PMID:26464358

  18. The emergence of the vasopressin and oxytocin hormone receptor gene family lineage: Clues from the characterization of vasotocin receptors in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus).

    PubMed

    Mayasich, Sally A; Clarke, Benjamin L

    2016-01-15

    The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is a jawless vertebrate at an evolutionary nexus between invertebrates and jawed vertebrates. Lampreys are known to possess the arginine vasotocin (AVT) hormone utilized by all non-mammalian vertebrates. We postulated that the lamprey would possess AVT receptor orthologs of predecessors to the arginine vasopressin (AVP)/oxytocin (OXT) family of G protein-coupled receptors found in mammals, providing insights into the origins of the mammalian V1A, V1B, V2 and OXT receptors. Among the earliest animals to diverge from the vertebrate lineage in which these receptors are characterized is the jawed, cartilaginous elephant shark, which has genes orthologous to all four mammalian receptor types. Therefore, our work was aimed at helping resolve the critical gap concerning the outcomes of hypothesized large-scale (whole-genome) duplication events. We sequenced one partial and four full-length putative lamprey AVT receptor genes and determined their mRNA expression patterns in 15 distinct tissues. Phylogenetically, three of the full-coding genes possess structural characteristics of the V1 clade containing the V1A, V1B and OXT receptors. Another full-length coding gene and the partial sequence are part of the V2 clade and appear to be most closely related to the newly established V2B and V2C receptor subtypes. Our synteny analysis also utilizing the Japanese lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum) genome supports the recent proposal that jawless and jawed vertebrates shared one-round (1R) of WGD as the most likely scenario. PMID:26764211

  19. Role of constitutive androstane receptor in Toll-like receptor-mediated regulation of gene expression of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters.

    PubMed

    Shah, Pranav; Guo, Tao; Moore, David D; Ghose, Romi

    2014-01-01

    Impairment of drug disposition in the liver during inflammation has been attributed to downregulation of gene expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and drug transporters. Inflammatory responses in the liver are primarily mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We have recently shown that activation of TLR2 or TLR4 by lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), respectively, leads to the downregulation of gene expression of DMEs/transporters. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this downregulation is not fully understood. The xenobiotic nuclear receptors, pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), regulate the expression of DMEs/transporter genes. Downregulation of DMEs/transporters by LTA or LPS was associated with reduced expression of PXR and CAR genes. To determine the role of CAR, we injected CAR(+/+) and CAR(-/-) mice with LTA or LPS, which significantly downregulated (~40%-60%) RNA levels of the DMEs, cytochrome P450 (Cyp)3a11, Cyp2a4, Cyp2b10, uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1a1, amine N-sulfotransferase, and the transporter, multidrug resistance-associated protein 2, in CAR(+/+) mice. Suppression of most of these genes was attenuated in LTA-treated CAR(-/-) mice. In contrast, LPS-mediated downregulation of these genes was not attenuated in CAR(-/-) mice. Induction of these genes by mouse CAR activator 1,4-bis-[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene was sustained in LTA- but not in LPS-treated mice. Similar observations were obtained in humanized CAR mice. We have replicated these results in primary hepatocytes as well. Thus, LPS can downregulate DME/transporter genes in the absence of CAR, whereas the effect of LTA on these genes is attenuated in the absence of CAR, indicating the potential involvement of CAR in LTA-mediated downregulation of DME/transporter genes. PMID:24194512

  20. In vivo gene therapy for hyperlipidemia: phenotypic correction in Watanabe rabbits by hepatic delivery of the rabbit LDL receptor gene.

    PubMed Central

    Li, J; Fang, B; Eisensmith, R C; Li, X H; Nasonkin, I; Lin-Lee, Y C; Mims, M P; Hughes, A; Montgomery, C D; Roberts, J D

    1995-01-01

    Elevations of plasma total or LDL cholesterol are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Efforts directed at preventing and treating cardiovascular disease have often focused on reducing the levels of these substances in the blood. The Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic Rabbit, which has exceedingly high plasma cholesterol levels resulting from an LDL receptor deficiency, provides an excellent animal model for testing new treatments. A recombinant adenoviral vector containing the rabbit LDL receptor cDNA was administered to Watanabe rabbits. Plasma total cholesterol levels in the treated animals were reduced from 825.5 +/- 69.8 (mean +/- SD) to 247.3 +/- 61.5 mg/dl 6 d after infusion. These animals also demonstrated a 300-400% increase in plasma levels of HDL cholesterol and apo AI 10 d after treatment. As a result, the LDL:HDL ratio exhibited a dramatic decrease. Because only the rabbit LDL receptor gene was used for treatment, the results strongly suggest that the elevations of plasma HDL cholesterol and apo AI were secondary to a reduction in plasma total cholesterol in the treated animals. These results suggest an inverse relationship between plasma LDL and HDL cholesterol levels and imply that reduction of LDL cholesterol levels may have a beneficial effect on plasma HDL cholesterol. PMID:7860759

  1. In vivo gene therapy for hyperlipidemia: phenotypic correction in Watanabe rabbits by hepatic delivery of the rabbit LDL receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Fang, B; Eisensmith, R C; Li, X H; Nasonkin, I; Lin-Lee, Y C; Mims, M P; Hughes, A; Montgomery, C D; Roberts, J D

    1995-02-01

    Elevations of plasma total or LDL cholesterol are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Efforts directed at preventing and treating cardiovascular disease have often focused on reducing the levels of these substances in the blood. The Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic Rabbit, which has exceedingly high plasma cholesterol levels resulting from an LDL receptor deficiency, provides an excellent animal model for testing new treatments. A recombinant adenoviral vector containing the rabbit LDL receptor cDNA was administered to Watanabe rabbits. Plasma total cholesterol levels in the treated animals were reduced from 825.5 +/- 69.8 (mean +/- SD) to 247.3 +/- 61.5 mg/dl 6 d after infusion. These animals also demonstrated a 300-400% increase in plasma levels of HDL cholesterol and apo AI 10 d after treatment. As a result, the LDL:HDL ratio exhibited a dramatic decrease. Because only the rabbit LDL receptor gene was used for treatment, the results strongly suggest that the elevations of plasma HDL cholesterol and apo AI were secondary to a reduction in plasma total cholesterol in the treated animals. These results suggest an inverse relationship between plasma LDL and HDL cholesterol levels and imply that reduction of LDL cholesterol levels may have a beneficial effect on plasma HDL cholesterol. PMID:7860759

  2. Cell surface modulation of gene expression in brain cells by down regulation of glucocorticoid receptors

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, J.F.; de Vellis, J.

    1981-02-01

    The concentration of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH; sn-glycerol-3-phosphate:NAD/sup +/ 2-oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.8) had previously been determined to be regulated by glucocorticoids in rat brain cells in vivo and in cell culture. We now demonstrate that concanavalin A (Con A) can inhibit the induction of GPDH in a dose-dependent manner in C6 rat glioma cells and in primary cultures of rat brain oligodendrocytes. The inhibition specifically prevents the appearance of new molecules of GPDH, although Con A does not significantly inhibit protein synthesis in these cells, nor does it affect the activity of another solube enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase. The ability to block enzyme induction is not limited to Con A, because other lectins also inhibit induction. The molecular mechanism by which Con A inhibits GPDH induction appears to be by the down regulation of the cytoplasmic glucocorticoid receptors, because exposure to Con A results in the loss of more than 90% of the receptor activity. Con A does not inhibit the receptor assay and no direct interaction between the receptor and Con A could be demonstrated. This down regulation is not tumor cell specific and appears to be a general phenomenon, because it occurs in normal oligodendrocytes and even in normal astrocytes (a cell type in which the gene for GPDH is not expressed). The down regulation of glucocorticoid receptors in normal brain cells suggests two important corollaries. First, it demonstrates the existence of a rate-limiting step controlling the glucocorticoid-dependent gene expression in brain cells and possibly represents a regulatory site common to all glucocorticoid target cells. Second, it suggests that the response to glucocorticoids of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes can be regulated in vivo by cell surface contact with endogenous lectins, neighboring cells, or both.

  3. Association between Tourette Syndrome and the Dopamine D3 Receptor Gene Rs6280

    PubMed Central

    He, Fan; Zheng, Yi; Huang, Huan-Huan; Cheng, Yu-Hang; Wang, Chuan-Yue

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tourette syndrome (TS) is a complex, heterozygous genetic disorder. The number of molecular genetic studies have investigated several candidate genes, particularly those implicated in the dopamine system. The dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) gene has been considered as a candidate gene in TS. There was not any report about the association study of TS and DRD3 gene in Han Chinese population. We combined a case–control genetic association analysis and nuclear pedigrees transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) analysis to investigate the association between DRD3 gene rs6280 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and TS in a Han Chinese population. Methods: A total of 160 TS patients was diagnosed by the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The DRD3 gene rs6280 SNPs were genotyped by TaqMan SNP genotyping assay technique in all subjects. We used a case–control genetic association analysis to compare the difference in genotype and allele frequencies between 160 TS patients and 90 healthy controls. At the same time, we used TDT analysis to identify the DRD3 gene rs6280 transmission disequilibrium among 101 nuclear pedigrees. Results: The genotype and allele frequency of DRD3 gene rs6280 SNPs had no statistical difference between control group (90) and TS group (160) (χ2 = 3.647, P = 0.161; χ2 = 0.643, P = 0.423) using Chi-squared test. At the basis of the 101 nuclear pedigrees, TDT analysis showed no transmission disequilibrium of DRD3 gene rs6280 SNPs (χ2 = 0; P = 1). Conclusions: Our findings provide no evidence for an association between DRD3 gene rs6280 and TS in the Han Chinese population. PMID:25698199

  4. Mutational analysis of the thyrotropin receptor gene in sporadic and familial feline thyrotoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Pearce, S H; Foster, D J; Imrie, H; Myerscough, N; Beckett, G J; Thoday, K L; Kendall-Taylor, P

    1997-12-01

    The characterization of a spontaneous animal model equivalent to a human form of thyrotoxicosis would provide a useful resource for the investigation of the human disorder. Feline thyrotoxicosis is the only common form of hyperthyroidism found in domestic or laboratory animals, but its etiopathogenesis remains poorly defined. We have used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify codons 480-640 of the previously uncharacterized feline thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) gene, and have determined the DNA sequence in this transmembrane domain region. We have analyzed single stranded conformational polymorphisms in thyroid DNA from 11 sporadic cases of feline thyrotoxicosis and leukocyte DNA from two cases of familial feline thyrotoxicosis. We have also determined the DNA sequence of this region of the TSHR in five of the cases of sporadic feline thyrotoxicosis and the two familial thyrotoxic cats. The normal feline TSHR sequence between codons 480-640 is highly homologous to that of other mammalian TSHRs, with 95%, 92%, and 90% amino acid identity between the feline receptor and canine, human, and bovine TSHRs, respectively. Thyroid gland DNA from 11 cats with sporadic thyrotoxicosis did not have mutations in this region of the TSHR gene. Leukocyte DNA from two littermates with familial feline thyrotoxicosis did not harbor mutations of this region of the TSHR gene. These studies suggest that TSHR gene mutations are not a common cause of feline thyrotoxicosis. PMID:9459639

  5. Increased hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression and effects of pharmacologic 5-HT2A receptor inactivation in obese A{sup y} mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nonogaki, Katsunori . E-mail: knonogaki-tky@umin.ac.jp; Nozue, Kana; Oka, Yoshitomo

    2006-12-29

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) 2A receptors contribute to the effects of 5-HT on platelet aggregation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, and are reportedly involved in decreases in plasma levels of adiponectin, an adipokine, in diabetic subjects. Here, we report that systemic administration of sarpogrelate, a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, suppressed appetite and increased hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, corticotropin releasing hormone, 5-HT2C, and 5-HT1B receptor gene expression. A{sup y} mice, which have ectopic expression of the agouti protein, significantly increased hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression in association with obesity compared with wild-type mice matched for age. Systemic administration of sarpogrelate suppressed overfeeding, body weight gain, and hyperglycemia in obese A{sup y} mice, whereas it did not increase plasma adiponectin levels. These results suggest that obesity increases hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression, and pharmacologic inactivation of 5-HT2A receptors inhibits overfeeding and obesity in A{sup y} mice, but did not increase plasma adiponectin levels.

  6. Lack of Association between Oxytocin Receptor (OXTR) Gene Polymorphisms and Alexithymia: Evidence from Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Min Jung; Kim, Wonji; Kang, Jee In; Namkoong, Kee; Kim, Se Joo

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin receptor gene single nucleotide polymorphisms have been associated with structural and functional alterations in brain regions, which involve social-emotional processing. Therefore, oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms may contribute to individual differences in alexithymia, which is considered to be a dysfunction of emotional processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between oxytocin receptor gene single nucleotide polymorphisms or haplotypes and alexithymia in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. We recruited 355 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (234 men, 121 women). Alexithymia was measured by using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. We performed single-marker and haplotype association analyses with eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs237885, rs237887, rs2268490, rs4686301, rs2254298, rs13316193, rs53576, and rs2268498) in the oxytocin receptor gene. There were no significant associations between any of the eight single nucleotide polymorphism of the oxytocin receptor gene and alexithymia. In addition, a six-locus haplotype block (rs237885-rs237887-rs2268490-rs4686301-rs2254298-rs13316193) was not significantly associated with alexithymia. These findings suggest that genetic variations in the oxytocin receptor gene may not explain a significant part of alexithymia in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. PMID:26599592

  7. Impact of gene polymorphisms of gonadotropins and their receptors on human reproductive success.

    PubMed

    Casarini, Livio; Santi, Daniele; Marino, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Gonadotropins and their receptors' genes carry several single-nucleotide polymorphisms resulting in endocrine genotypes modulating reproductive parameters, diseases, and lifespan leading to important implications for reproductive success and potential relevance during human evolution. Here we illustrate common genotypes of the gonadotropins and gonadotropin receptors' genes and their clinical implications in phenotypes relevant for reproduction such as ovarian cycle length, age of menopause, testosterone levels, polycystic ovary syndrome, and cancer. We then discuss their possible role in human reproduction and adaptation to the environment. Gonadotropins and their receptors' variants are differently distributed among human populations. Some hints suggest that they may be the result of natural selection that occurred in ancient times, increasing the individual chance of successful mating, pregnancy, and effective post-natal parental cares. The gender-related differences in the regulation of the reproductive endocrine systems imply that many of these genotypes may lead to sex-dependent effects, increasing the chance of mating and reproductive success in one sex at the expenses of the other sex. Also, we suggest that sexual conflicts within the FSH and LH-choriogonadotropin receptor genes contributed to maintain genotypes linked to subfertility among humans. Because the distribution of polymorphic markers results in a defined geographical pattern due to human migrations rather than natural selection, these polymorphisms may have had only a weak impact on reproductive success. On the contrary, such genotypes could acquire relevant consequences in the modern, developed societies in which parenthood attempts often occur at a later age, during a short, suboptimal reproductive window, making clinical fertility treatments necessary. PMID:26370242

  8. Antimullerian Hormone and Its Receptor Gene Expression in Prenatally Androgenized Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Daneshian, Zahra; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Zarkesh, Maryam; Norooz Zadeh, Mahsa; Mahdian, Reza; Zadeh Vakili, Azita

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) levels reflect the number of small antral follicles in ovaries and expression changes of AMH and its receptor are suspected to be involved in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate gene expression of AMH and its receptor in immature and adult rats prenatally exposed to androgen excess. Materials and Methods: Six pregnant Wistar rats in the experimental group were treated by subcutaneous injection of 5 mg free testosterone on day 20 of pregnancy, while controls (n = 6) received only 500 mL of solvent. Female pups of each mother were randomly divided into three groups as day 0 (newborn), 10-day old and days 75-85 (adult). RNAs were extracted from ovarian tissues and relative expression levels for AMH and its receptor genes were measured using TaqMan Real-Time PCR. Serum AMH and testosterone levels were measured using ELISA method. Results: Relative AMH expression decreased in newborns, 10-day olds and adults (0.806, 0.443 and 0.809 fold, respectively). AMHR expression was higher in newborns and adults (1.432 and 1.057 fold, respectively), while it decreased by 0.263 fold in 10-day olds, although none of them were significant (P > 0.05). In addition, AMH levels were consistent with the results of gene expression. Testosterone hormone levels from 10 day-olds to adults were significantly increased in both study groups (P = 0.016). Conclusions: While AMH receptor expression was higher in experimental rats, their serum concentrations of AMH were decreased. Further researches with greater sample sizes and measurement of bioactive forms of hormones are recommended to confirm the findings of this study. PMID:25745494

  9. New insights on human T cell development by quantitative T cell receptor gene rearrangement studies and gene expression profiling

    PubMed Central

    Dik, Willem A.; Pike-Overzet, Karin; Weerkamp, Floor; de Ridder, Dick; de Haas, Edwin F.E.; Baert, Miranda R.M.; van der Spek, Peter; Koster, Esther E.L.; Reinders, Marcel J.T.; van Dongen, Jacques J.M.; Langerak, Anton W.; Staal, Frank J.T.

    2005-01-01

    To gain more insight into initiation and regulation of T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement during human T cell development, we analyzed TCR gene rearrangements by quantitative PCR analysis in nine consecutive T cell developmental stages, including CD34+ lin− cord blood cells as a reference. The same stages were used for gene expression profiling using DNA microarrays. We show that TCR loci rearrange in a highly ordered way (TCRD-TCRG-TCRB-TCRA) and that the initiating Dδ2-Dδ3 rearrangement occurs at the most immature CD34+CD38−CD1a− stage. TCRB rearrangement starts at the CD34+CD38+CD1a− stage and complete in-frame TCRB rearrangements were first detected in the immature single positive stage. TCRB rearrangement data together with the PTCRA (pTα) expression pattern show that human TCRβ-selection occurs at the CD34+CD38+CD1a+ stage. By combining the TCR rearrangement data with gene expression data, we identified candidate factors for the initiation/regulation of TCR recombination. Our data demonstrate that a number of key events occur earlier than assumed previously; therefore, human T cell development is much more similar to murine T cell development than reported before. PMID:15928199

  10. Orthologs of Human Disease Associated Genes and RNAi Analysis of Silencing Insulin Receptor Gene in Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zan; Teng, Xiaolu; Chen, Maohua; Li, Fei

    2014-01-01

    The silkworm, Bombyx mori L., is an important economic insect that has been domesticated for thousands of years to produce silk. It is our great interest to investigate the possibility of developing the B. mori as human disease model. We searched the orthologs of human disease associated genes in the B. mori by bi-directional best hits of BLAST and confirmed by searching the OrthoDB. In total, 5006 genes corresponding to 1612 kinds of human diseases had orthologs in the B. mori, among which, there are 25 genes associated with diabetes mellitus. Of these, we selected the insulin receptor gene of the B. mori (Bm-INSR) to study its expression in different tissues and at different developmental stages and tissues. Quantitative PCR showed that Bm-INSR was highly expressed in the Malpighian tubules but expressed at low levels in the testis. It was highly expressed in the 3rd and 4th instar larvae, and adult. We knocked down Bm-INSR expression using RNA interference. The abundance of Bm-INSR transcripts were dramatically reduced to ~4% of the control level at 6 days after dsRNA injection and the RNAi-treated B. mori individuals showed apparent growth inhibition and malformation such as abnormal body color in black, which is the typical symptom of diabetic patients. Our results demonstrate that B. mori has potential use as an animal model for diabetic mellitus research. PMID:25302617

  11. Expression of five acetylcholine receptor subunit genes in Brugia malayi adult worms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ben-Wen; Rush, Amy C.; Weil, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are required for body movement in parasitic nematodes and are targets of “classical” anthelmintic drugs such as levamisole and pyrantel and of newer drugs such as tribendimidine and derquantel. While neurotransmission explains the effects of these drugs on nematode movement, their effects on parasite reproduction are unexplained. The levamisole AChR type (L-AChRs) in Caenorhabditis elegans is comprised of five subunits: Cel-UNC-29, Cel-UNC-38, Cel-UNC-63, Cel-LEV-1 and Cel-LEV-8. The genome of the filarial parasite Brugia malayi contains nine AChRs subunits including orthologues of Cel-unc-29, Cel-unc-38, and Cel-unc-63. We performed in situ hybridization with RNA probes to localize the expression of five AChR genes (Bm1_35890-Bma-unc-29, Bm1_20330-Bma-unc-38, Bm1_38195-Bma-unc-63, Bm1_48815-Bma-acr-26 and Bm1_40515-Bma-acr-12) in B. malayi adult worms. Four of these genes had similar expression patterns with signals in body muscle, developing embryos, spermatogonia, uterine wall adjacent to stretched microfilariae, wall of Vas deferens, and lateral cord. Three L-AChR subunit genes (Bma-unc-29, Bma-unc-38 and Bma-unc-63) were expressed in body muscle, which is a known target of levamisole. Bma-acr-12 was co-expressed with these levamisole subunit genes in muscle, and this suggests that its protein product may form receptors with other alpha subunits. Bma-acr-26 was expressed in male muscle but not in female muscle. Strong expression signals of these genes in early embryos and gametes in uterus and testis suggest that AChRs may have a role in nervous system development of embryogenesis and spermatogenesis. This would be consistent with embryotoxic effects of drugs that target these receptors in filarial worms. Our data show that the expression of these receptor genes is tightly regulated with regard to localization in adult worms and developmental stage in embryos and gametes. These results may help to explain the broad effects

  12. Thyroid hormone resistance: a novel mutation in thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRB) gene - case report.

    PubMed

    Işık, Emregül; Beck Peccoz, Paolo; Campi, Irene; Özön, Alev; Alikaşifoğlu, Ayfer; Gönç, Nazlı; Kandemir, Nurgün

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormone resistance (THR) is a dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by reduced sensitivity to thyroid hormones. It is usually caused by mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRB) gene. In the present report, we describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics and genetic analysis of patients with a novel THRB gene mutation. The index patient had been misdiagnosed as hyperthyroidism and treated with antithyroid drugs since eight days of age. Thyroid hormone results showed that thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH) was never suppressed despite elevated thyroid hormone levels, and there was no symptom suggesting hyperthyroidism. A heterozygous mutation at codon 350 located in exon 9 of the THRB gene was detected in all the affected members of the family. It is important to consider thyroid hormone levels in association with TSH levels to prevent inappropriate treatment and the potential complications, such as clinical hypothyroidism or an increase in goiter size. PMID:24217081

  13. COUP-TF gene: a structure unique for the steroid/thyroid receptor superfamily.

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, H H; Wang, L H; Tsai, S; O'Malley, B W; Tsai, M J

    1990-01-01

    Two different genomic genes for the COUP-transcription factor, COUP-TF I and COUP-TF II, have been isolated from a human cosmid genomic library using a [32P]-labeled cDNA probe. Data obtained from Southern blot analysis of these cosmid clones indicated that two closely related genes exist in the human genome and have a similar genomic organization. The genes are similar in the hormone and DNA binding domains but diverge from one another in the N-terminal region. Using DNA sequencing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques we have determined that the structure of COUP-TF I consists only of three exons and two introns. Surprisingly, both zinc fingers (i.e., F1 and F2) are located in the first exon. Therefore, COUP-TF I is unique among the members of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor superfamily which have been described to date. Images PMID:2263450

  14. Mutation Analysis of the LH Receptor Gene in Leydig Cell Adenoma and Hyperplasia and Functional and Biochemical Studies of Activating Mutations of the LH Receptor Gene

    PubMed Central

    Lumbroso, Serge; Verhoef-Post, Miriam; Richter-Unruh, Annette; Looijenga, Leendert H. J.; Funaro, Ada; Beishuizen, Auke; van Marle, André; Drop, Stenvert L. S.; Themmen, Axel P. N.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Germline and somatic activating mutations in the LH receptor (LHR) gene have been reported. Objective: Our objective was to perform mutation analysis of the LHR gene of patients with Leydig cell adenoma or hyperplasia. Functional studies were conducted to compare the D578H-LHR mutant with the wild-type (WT)-LHR and the D578G-LHR mutant, a classic cause of testotoxicosis. The three main signal transduction pathways in which LHR is involved were studied. Patients: We describe eight male patients with gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty due to Leydig cell adenoma or hyperplasia. Results: The D578H-LHR mutation was found in the adenoma or nodule with hyperplasia in all but two patients. D578H-LHR displayed a constitutively increased but noninducible production of cAMP, led to a very high production of inositol phosphates, and induced a slight phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK in the absence of human chorionic gonadotropin. The D578G-LHR showed a response intermediate between WT-LHR and the D578H-LHR. Subcellular localization studies showed that the WT-LHR was almost exclusively located at the cell membrane, whereas the D578H-LHR showed signs of internalization. D578H-LHR was the only receptor to colocalize with early endosomes in the absence of human chorionic gonadotropin. Conclusions: Although several LHR mutations have been reported in testotoxicosis, the D578H-LHR mutation, which has been found only as a somatic mutation, appears up until now to be specifically responsible for Leydig cell adenomas. This is reflected by the different activation of the signal transduction pathways, when compared with the WT-LHR or D578G-LHR, which may explain the tumorigenesis in the D578H mutant. PMID:21490077

  15. Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with human directed social behavior in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Kis, Anna; Bence, Melinda; Lakatos, Gabriella; Pergel, Enikő; Turcsán, Borbála; Pluijmakers, Jolanda; Vas, Judit; Elek, Zsuzsanna; Brúder, Ildikó; Földi, Levente; Sasvári-Székely, Mária; Miklósi, Adám; Rónai, Zsolt; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2014-01-01

    The oxytocin system has a crucial role in human sociality; several results prove that polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor gene are related to complex social behaviors in humans. Dogs' parallel evolution with humans and their adaptation to the human environment has made them a useful species to model human social interactions. Previous research indicates that dogs are eligible models for behavioral genetic research, as well. Based on these previous findings, our research investigated associations between human directed social behaviors and two newly described (-212AG, 19131AG) and one known (rs8679684) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory regions (5' and 3' UTR) of the oxytocin receptor gene in German Shepherd (N = 104) and Border Collie (N = 103) dogs. Dogs' behavior traits have been estimated in a newly developed test series consisting of five episodes: Greeting by a stranger, Separation from the owner, Problem solving, Threatening approach, Hiding of the owner. Buccal samples were collected and DNA was isolated using standard protocols. SNPs in the 3' and 5' UTR regions were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction based techniques followed by subsequent electrophoresis analysis. The gene-behavior association analysis suggests that oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms have an impact in both breeds on (i) proximity seeking towards an unfamiliar person, as well as their owner, and on (ii) how friendly dogs behave towards strangers, although the mediating molecular regulatory mechanisms are yet unknown. Based on these results, we conclude that similarly to humans, the social behavior of dogs towards humans is influenced by the oxytocin system. PMID:24454713

  16. Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} modulates the expression of adipogenesis-related genes during adipocyte differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ijichi, Nobuhiro; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Yagi, Ken; Okazaki, Yasushi; Inoue, Satoshi . E-mail: INOUE-GER@h.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2007-07-06

    Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} (ERR{alpha}) is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates cellular energy metabolism by modulating gene expression involved in fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis in brown adipose tissue. However, the physiological role of ERR{alpha} in adipogenesis and white adipose tissue development has not been well studied. Here, we show that ERR{alpha} and ERR{alpha}-related transcriptional coactivators, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) coactivator-1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}) and PGC-1{beta}, can be up-regulated in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes at mRNA levels under the adipogenic differentiation condition including the inducer of cAMP, glucocorticoid, and insulin. Gene knockdown by ERR{alpha}-specific siRNA results in mRNA down-regulation of fatty acid binding protein 4, PPAR{gamma}, and PGC-1{alpha} in 3T3-L1 cells in the adipogenesis medium. ERR{alpha} and PGC-1{beta} mRNA expression can be also up-regulated in another preadipocyte lineage DFAT-D1 cells and a pluripotent mesenchymal cell line C3H10T1/2 under the differentiation condition. Furthermore, stable expression of ERR{alpha} in 3T3-L1 cells up-regulates adipogenic marker genes and promotes triglyceride accumulation during 3T3-L1 differentiation. These results suggest that ERR{alpha} may play a critical role in adipocyte differentiation by modulating the expression of various adipogenesis-related genes.

  17. The farnesoid X receptor induces fetuin-B gene expression in human hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Takeshi; Walczak, Robert; Caron, Sandrine; Duhem, Christian; Vidal, Vincent; Darteil, Raphaël; Staels, Bart

    2007-01-01

    FXR (farnesoid X receptor), a nuclear receptor activated by BAs (bile acids), is a key factor in the regulation of BA, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. The recent development of synthetic FXR agonists and knockout mouse models has accelerated the discovery of FXR target genes. In the present study, we identify human fetuin-B as a novel FXR target gene. Treatment with FXR agonists increased fetuin-B expression in human primary hepatocytes and in the human hepatoma HepG2 cell line. In contrast, fetuin-B expression was not responsive to FXR agonist treatment in murine primary hepatocytes. Fetuin-B induction by FXR agonist was abolished upon FXR knockdown by siRNA (small interfering RNA). In addition to the previously described P1 promoter, we show that the human fetuin-B gene is also transcribed from an alternative promoter, termed P2. Transcription via the P2 promoter was induced by FXR agonist treatment, whereas P1 promoter activity was not sensitive to FXR agonist treatment. Two putative FXR-response elements [IR-1 (inverted repeat-1)] were identified in the region –1.6 kb upstream of the predicted P2 transcriptional start site. Both motifs bound FXR–RXR (retinoid X receptor) complexes in vitro and were activated by FXR in transient transfection reporter assays. Mutations in the IR-1 sites abolished FXR–RXR binding and activation. Taken together, these results identify human fetuin-B as a new FXR target gene in human hepatocytes. PMID:17655523

  18. Modulation of Macrophage Gene Expression via Liver X Receptor α Serine 198 Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chaowei; Hussein, Maryem A.; Shrestha, Elina; Leone, Sarah; Aiyegbo, Mohammed S.; Lambert, W. Marcus; Pourcet, Benoit; Cardozo, Timothy; Gustafson, Jan-Ake; Fisher, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    In mouse models of atherosclerosis, normalization of hyperlipidemia promotes macrophage emigration and regression of atherosclerotic plaques in part by liver X receptor (LXR)-mediated induction of the chemokine receptor CCR7. Here we report that LXRα serine 198 (S198) phosphorylation modulates CCR7 expression. Low levels of S198 phosphorylation are observed in plaque macrophages in the regression environment where high levels of CCR7 expression are observed. Consistent with these findings, CCR7 gene expression in human and mouse macrophages cell lines is induced when LXRα at S198 is nonphosphorylated. In bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), we also observed induction of CCR7 by ligands that promote nonphosphorylated LXRα S198, and this was lost in LXR-deficient BMDMs. LXRα occupancy at the CCR7 promoter is enhanced and histone modifications associated with gene repression are reduced in RAW264.7 cells expressing nonphosphorylated LXRα (RAW-LXRα S198A) compared to RAW264.7 cells expressing wild-type (WT) phosphorylated LXRα (RAW-LXRα WT). Expression profiling of ligand-treated RAW-LXRα S198A cells compared to RAW-LXRα WT cells revealed induction of cell migratory and anti-inflammatory genes and repression of proinflammatory genes. Modeling of LXRα S198 in the nonphosphorylated and phosphorylated states identified phosphorylation-dependent conformational changes in the hinge region commensurate with the presence of sites for protein interaction. Therefore, gene transcription is regulated by LXRα S198 phosphorylation, including that of antiatherogenic genes such as CCR7. PMID:25825525

  19. Novel epididymis-specific mRNAs downregulated by HE6/Gpr64 receptor gene disruption.

    PubMed

    Davies, Ben; Behnen, Martina; Cappallo-Obermann, Heike; Spiess, Andrej-Nikolai; Theuring, Franz; Kirchhoff, Christiane

    2007-05-01

    Targeted disruption of the epididymis-specific HE6/Gpr64 receptor gene in mice led to male infertility. In order to characterize the phenotype at a molecular level, we compared the gene expression patterns of wild type (wt) versus knockout (KO) caput epididymides. The caput region of KO males, although morphologically normal, nevertheless showed an aberrant expression pattern. Combining micro array analysis, differential library screening, Northern blot analysis and quantitative RT-PCR, we found that the knockout of the HE6/Gpr64 receptor was mainly associated with the downregulation of genes specific to the initial segment. The list of KO downregulated transcripts comprised Enpp2/autotaxin, the lipocalins 8 and 9, the beta-defensin Defb42, cystatins 8 and 12, as well as the membrane proteins Adam (A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease) 28, claudin-10, EAAC1, and the novel Me9. Clusterin/ApoJ and osteopontin/Spp1 mRNAs, on the other hand, were upregulated in the KO tissues. The Me9 transcript was studied in further detail, and we report here a cluster of related epididymis-specific genes. Me9 is specifically expressed in the initial segment and is representative of a novel and highly conserved mammalian gene family. The family consists of single-exon genes only; intron-containing paralogs have not yet been ascertained. The cloned cDNA sequences predicted hydrophobic polytopic membrane proteins containing the DUF716 motif. Protein expression was shown in the rodent caput epididymidis but remained uncertain in primates. PMID:17034053

  20. Modulation of Macrophage Gene Expression via Liver X Receptor α Serine 198 Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chaowei; Hussein, Maryem A; Shrestha, Elina; Leone, Sarah; Aiyegbo, Mohammed S; Lambert, W Marcus; Pourcet, Benoit; Cardozo, Timothy; Gustafson, Jan-Ake; Fisher, Edward A; Pineda-Torra, Ines; Garabedian, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    In mouse models of atherosclerosis, normalization of hyperlipidemia promotes macrophage emigration and regression of atherosclerotic plaques in part by liver X receptor (LXR)-mediated induction of the chemokine receptor CCR7. Here we report that LXRα serine 198 (S198) phosphorylation modulates CCR7 expression. Low levels of S198 phosphorylation are observed in plaque macrophages in the regression environment where high levels of CCR7 expression are observed. Consistent with these findings, CCR7 gene expression in human and mouse macrophages cell lines is induced when LXRα at S198 is nonphosphorylated. In bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), we also observed induction of CCR7 by ligands that promote nonphosphorylated LXRα S198, and this was lost in LXR-deficient BMDMs. LXRα occupancy at the CCR7 promoter is enhanced and histone modifications associated with gene repression are reduced in RAW264.7 cells expressing nonphosphorylated LXRα (RAW-LXRα S198A) compared to RAW264.7 cells expressing wild-type (WT) phosphorylated LXRα (RAW-LXRα WT). Expression profiling of ligand-treated RAW-LXRα S198A cells compared to RAW-LXRα WT cells revealed induction of cell migratory and anti-inflammatory genes and repression of proinflammatory genes. Modeling of LXRα S198 in the nonphosphorylated and phosphorylated states identified phosphorylation-dependent conformational changes in the hinge region commensurate with the presence of sites for protein interaction. Therefore, gene transcription is regulated by LXRα S198 phosphorylation, including that of antiatherogenic genes such as CCR7. PMID:25825525

  1. Body Mass Index is Associated with Gene Methylation in Estrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hair, Brionna Y.; Troester, Melissa A.; Edmiston, Sharon N.; Parrish, Eloise A.; Robinson, Whitney R.; Wu, Michael C.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Swift-Scanlan, Theresa; Conway, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Background Although obesity is associated with breast cancer incidence and prognosis, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Identification of obesity-associated epigenetic changes in breast tissue may advance mechanistic understanding of breast cancer initiation and progression. The goal of this study, therefore, was to investigate associations between obesity and gene methylation in breast tumors. Methods Using the Illumina GoldenGate Cancer I Panel, we estimated the association between body mass index (BMI) and gene methylation in 345 breast tumor samples from Phase I of the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population based case-control study. Multivariable linear regression was used to identify sites that were differentially methylated by BMI. Stratification by tumor estrogen receptor status was also conducted. Results In the majority of the 935 probes analyzed (87%), the average beta value increased with obesity (BMI ≥ 30). Obesity was significantly associated with differential methylation (false discovery rate q-value < 0.05) in just 2 gene loci in breast tumor tissue overall and in 21 loci among estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors. Obesity was associated with methylation of genes that function in immune response, cell growth, and DNA repair. Conclusions Obesity is associated with altered methylation overall, and with hypermethylation among ER-positive tumors in particular, suggesting that obesity may influence the methylation of genes with known relevance to cancer. Some of these differences in methylation by obese status may influences levels of gene expression within breast cells. Impact If our results are validated, obesity-associated methylation sites could serve as targets for prevention and treatment research. PMID:25583948

  2. Association of vitamin D receptor gene variants with polycystic ovary syndrome: A case control study

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Touraj; Majidzadeh-A, Keivan; Farahani, Hamid; Mirakhorli, Mojgan; Dabiri, Reza; Nobakht, Hossein; Asadi, Asadollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vitamin D and insulin play an important role in susceptibility to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and therefore vitamin D receptor (VDR), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and insulin receptor (INSR) gene variants might be involved in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the possible associations between polymorphisms in VDR, PTH, and INSR genes and the risk of PCOS. Materials and Methods: VDR, PTH, and INSR gene variants were genotyped in 35 women with PCOS and 35 controls using Polymerase chain reaction – Restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Furthermore, serum levels of glucose and insulin were measured in all participants. Results: No significant differences were observed for the VDR FokI, VDR Tru9I, VDR TaqI, PTH DraII, INSR NsiI, and INSR PmlI gene polymorphisms between the women with PCOS and controls. However, after adjustment for confounding factors, the VDR BsmI “Bb” genotype and the VDR ApaI "Aa" genotype were significantly under transmitted to the patients (p= 0.016; OR= 0.250; 95% CI= 0.081-0.769, and p= 0.017; OR= 0.260; 95% CI= 0.086-0.788, respectively). Furthermore, in the women with PCOS, insulin levels were lower in the participants with the INSR NsiI "NN" genotype compared with those with the "Nn + nn" genotypes (P= 0.045). Conclusion: The results showed an association between the VDR gene BsmI and ApaI polymorphisms and PCOS risk. These data also indicated that the INSR "NN" genotype was a marker of decreased insulin in women with PCOS. Our findings, however, do not lend support to the hypothesis that PTH gene DraII variant plays a role in susceptibility to PCOS. PMID:27141540

  3. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) affects hormone receptor activity, steroidogenesis, and expression of endocrine-related genes in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Du, Guizhen; Hu, Jialei; Huang, Hongyu; Qin, Yufeng; Han, Xiumei; Wu, Di; Song, Ling; Xia, Yankai; Wang, Xinru

    2013-02-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a widespread and persistent chemical in the environment. We investigated the endocrine-disrupting effects of PFOS using a combination of in vitro and in vivo assays. Reporter gene assays were used to detect receptor-mediated (anti-)estrogenic, (anti-)androgenic, and (anti-)thyroid hormone activities. The effect of PFOS on steroidogenesis was assessed both at hormone levels in the supernatant and at expression levels of hormone-induced genes in the H295R cell. A zebrafish-based short-term screening method was developed to detect the effect of PFOS on endocrine function in vivo. The results indicate that PFOS can act as an estrogen receptor agonist and thyroid hormone receptor antagonist. Exposure to PFOS decreased supernatant testosterone (T), increased estradiol (E2) concentrations in H295R cell medium and altered the expression of several genes involved in steroidogenesis. In addition, PFOS increased early thyroid development gene (hhex and pax8) expression in a concentration-dependent manner, decreased steroidogenic enzyme gene (CYP17, CYP19a, CYP19b) expression, and changed the expression pattern of estrogen receptor production genes (esr1, esr2b) after 500 µg/L PFOS treatment in zebrafish embryos. These results indicate that PFOS has the ability to act as an endocrine disruptor both in vitro and in vivo by disrupting the function of nuclear hormone receptors, interfering with steroidogenesis, and altering the expression of endocrine-related genes in zebrafish embryo. PMID:23074026

  4. FGF receptor genes and breast cancer susceptibility: results from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, D; Pineda, S; Michailidou, K; Herranz, J; Pita, G; Moreno, L T; Alonso, M R; Dennis, J; Wang, Q; Bolla, M K; Meyer, K B; Menéndez-Rodríguez, P; Hardisson, D; Mendiola, M; González-Neira, A; Lindblom, A; Margolin, S; Swerdlow, A; Ashworth, A; Orr, N; Jones, M; Matsuo, K; Ito, H; Iwata, H; Kondo, N; Hartman, M; Hui, M; Lim, W Y; T-C Iau, P; Sawyer, E; Tomlinson, I; Kerin, M; Miller, N; Kang, D; Choi, J-Y; Park, S K; Noh, D-Y; Hopper, J L; Schmidt, D F; Makalic, E; Southey, M C; Teo, S H; Yip, C H; Sivanandan, K; Tay, W-T; Brauch, H; Brüning, T; Hamann, U; Dunning, A M; Shah, M; Andrulis, I L; Knight, J A; Glendon, G; Tchatchou, S; Schmidt, M K; Broeks, A; Rosenberg, E H; van't Veer, L J; Fasching, P A; Renner, S P; Ekici, A B; Beckmann, M W; Shen, C-Y; Hsiung, C-N; Yu, J-C; Hou, M-F; Blot, W; Cai, Q; Wu, A H; Tseng, C-C; Van Den Berg, D; Stram, D O; Cox, A; Brock, I W; Reed, M W R; Muir, K; Lophatananon, A; Stewart-Brown, S; Siriwanarangsan, P; Zheng, W; Deming-Halverson, S; Shrubsole, M J; Long, J; Shu, X-O; Lu, W; Gao, Y-T; Zhang, B; Radice, P; Peterlongo, P; Manoukian, S; Mariette, F; Sangrajrang, S; McKay, J; Couch, F J; Toland, A E; Yannoukakos, D; Fletcher, O; Johnson, N; Silva, I dos Santos; Peto, J; Marme, F; Burwinkel, B; Guénel, P; Truong, T; Sanchez, M; Mulot, C; Bojesen, S E; Nordestgaard, B G; Flyer, H; Brenner, H; Dieffenbach, A K; Arndt, V; Stegmaier, C; Mannermaa, A; Kataja, V; Kosma, V-M; Hartikainen, J M; Lambrechts, D; Yesilyurt, B T; Floris, G; Leunen, K; Chang-Claude, J; Rudolph, A; Seibold, P; Flesch-Janys, D; Wang, X; Olson, J E; Vachon, C; Purrington, K; Giles, G G; Severi, G; Baglietto, L; Haiman, C A; Henderson, B E; Schumacher, F; Le Marchand, L; Simard, J; Dumont, M; Goldberg, M S; Labrèche, F; Winqvist, R; Pylkäs, K; Jukkola-Vuorinen, A; Grip, M; Devilee, P; Tollenaar, R A E M; Seynaeve, C; García-Closas, M; Chanock, S J; Lissowska, J; Figueroa, J D; Czene, K; Eriksson, M; Humphreys, K; Darabi, H; Hooning, M J; Kriege, M; Collée, J M; Tilanus-Linthorst, M; Li, J; Jakubowska, A; Lubinski, J; Jaworska-Bieniek, K; Durda, K; Nevanlinna, H; Muranen, T A; Aittomäki, K; Blomqvist, C; Bogdanova, N; Dörk, T; Hall, P; Chenevix-Trench, G; Easton, D F; Pharoah, P D P; Arias-Perez, J I; Zamora, P; Benítez, J; Milne, R L

    2014-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Genome-wide association studies have identified FGFR2 as a breast cancer susceptibility gene. Common variation in other fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors might also modify risk. We tested this hypothesis by studying genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and imputed SNPs in FGFR1, FGFR3, FGFR4 and FGFRL1 in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Methods: Data were combined from 49 studies, including 53 835 cases and 50 156 controls, of which 89 050 (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) were of European ancestry, 12 893 (6269 cases and 6624 controls) of Asian and 2048 (1116 cases and 932 controls) of African ancestry. Associations with risk of breast cancer, overall and by disease sub-type, were assessed using unconditional logistic regression. Results: Little evidence of association with breast cancer risk was observed for SNPs in the FGF receptor genes. The strongest evidence in European women was for rs743682 in FGFR3; the estimated per-allele odds ratio was 1.05 (95% confidence interval=1.02–1.09, P=0.0020), which is substantially lower than that observed for SNPs in FGFR2. Conclusion: Our results suggest that common variants in the other FGF receptors are not associated with risk of breast cancer to the degree observed for FGFR2. PMID:24548884

  5. Ku proteins function as corepressors to regulate farnesoid X receptor-mediated gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, Masae; Kunimoto, Masaaki; Nishizuka, Makoto; Osada, Shigehiro; Imagawa, Masayoshi

    2009-12-18

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR; NR1H4) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and regulates the expression of genes involved in enterohepatic circulation and the metabolism of bile acids. Based on functional analyses, nuclear receptors are divided into regions A-F. To explore the cofactors interacting with FXR, we performed a pull-down assay using GST-fused to the N-terminal A/B region and the C region, which are required for the ligand-independent transactivation and DNA-binding, respectively, of FXR, and nuclear extracts from HeLa cells. We identified DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), Ku80, and Ku70 as FXR associated factors. These proteins are known to have an important role in DNA repair, recombination, and transcription. DNA-PKcs mainly interacted with the A/B region of FXR, whereas the Ku proteins interacted with the C region and with the D region (hinge region). Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that the Ku proteins associated with FXR on the bile salt export pump (BSEP) promoter. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ectopic expression of the Ku proteins decreased the promoter activity and expression of BSEP gene mediated by FXR. These results suggest that the Ku proteins function as corepressors for FXR.

  6. The AAV9 receptor and its modification to improve in vivo lung gene transfer in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Christie L.; Vandenberghe, Luk H.; Bell, Peter; Limberis, Maria P.; Gao, Guang-Ping; Van Vliet, Kim; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Wilson, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 9 are candidates for in vivo gene delivery to many organs, but the receptor(s) mediating these tropisms have yet to be defined. We evaluated AAV9 uptake by glycans with terminal sialic acids (SAs), a common mode of cellular entry for viruses. We found, however, that AAV9 binding increased when terminal SA was enzymatically removed, suggesting that galactose, which is the most commonly observed penultimate monosaccharide to SA, may mediate AAV9 transduction. This was confirmed in mutant CHO Pro-5 cells deficient in the enzymes involved in glycoprotein biogenesis, as well as lectin interference studies. Binding of AAV9 to glycans with terminal galactose was demonstrated via glycan binding assays. Co-instillation of AAV9 vector with neuraminidase into mouse lung resulted in exposure of terminal galactose on the apical surface of conducting airway epithelial cells, as shown by lectin binding and increased transduction of these cells, demonstrating the possible utility of this vector in lung-directed gene transfer. Increasing the abundance of the receptor on target cells and improving vector efficacy may improve delivery of AAV vectors to their therapeutic targets. PMID:21576824

  7. Polymorphisms of the sigma(1) receptor gene in schizophrenia: An association study.

    PubMed

    Ohmori, O; Shinkai, T; Suzuki, T; Okano, C; Kojima, H; Terao, T; Nakamura, J

    2000-02-01

    Possible involvement of sigma receptors in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia has been suggested. In this study we searched systematically for polymorphisms in the 5'-franking region of the sigma(1) receptor. Genetic variation in this region could reduce the expression of the gene, and this suggestion is compatible with findings of reduced sigma binding sites in several cortical regions of schizophrenia. We confirmed G-241T and G-240T polymorphisms; these two consecutive polymorphisms were resolved to be in complete linkage disequilibrium with each other by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. We also identified the A61C (Gln2Pro) polymorphism, which was in almost complete linkage disequilibrium with G-241T/G-240T. There was no significant difference in the distribution of alleles or overall genotypes of the polymorphisms between schizophrenic patients (n = 129) and controls (n = 140). We found slight increased homozygosity for T-241/T-240 and C61 in patients compared with controls using multiple comparison (p = 0. 045). However, the significance did not remain when a Bonferroni correction was made (p = 0.135). These results do not support that the sigma(1) receptor gene plays a major role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Am. J. Med. Genet. (Neuropsychiatr. Genet.) 96:118-122, 2000. PMID:10686564

  8. Expression of a Drosophila melanogaster acetylcholine receptor-related gene in the central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, S.C.; Rosenthal, L.S.; Kammermeyer, K.L.; Potter, M.B.; Nelson, D.J.

    1988-02-01

    The authors isolated Drosophila melanogaster genomic sequences with nucleotide and amino acid sequence homology to subunits of vertebrate acetylcholine receptor by hybridization with a Torpedo acetylcholine receptor subunit cDNA probe. Five introns are present in the portion of the Drosophila gene encoding the unprocessed protein and are positionally conserved relative to the human acetylcholine receptor alpha-subunit gene. The Drosophila genomic clone hybridized to salivary gland polytene chromosome 3L within region 64B and was termed AChR64B. A 3-kilobasae poly(A)-containing transcript complementary to the AChR64B clone was readily detectable by RNA blot hybridizations during midembryogenesis, during metamorphosis, and in newly enclosed adults. AChR64B transcripts were localized to the cellular regions of the central nervous system during embryonic, larval, pupal, and adult stages of development. During metamorphosis, a temporal relationship between the morphogenesis of the optic lobe and expression of AChR64B transcripts was observed.

  9. Latitudinal Clines of the Human Vitamin D Receptor and Skin Color Genes

    PubMed Central

    Tiosano, Dov; Audi, Laura; Climer, Sharlee; Zhang, Weixiong; Templeton, Alan R.; Fernández-Cancio, Monica; Gershoni-Baruch, Ruth; Sánchez-Muro, José Miguel; El Kholy, Mohamed; Hochberg, Zèev

    2016-01-01

    The well-documented latitudinal clines of genes affecting human skin color presumably arise from the need for protection from intense ultraviolet radiation (UVR) vs. the need to use UVR for vitamin D synthesis. Sampling 751 subjects from a broad range of latitudes and skin colors, we investigated possible multilocus correlated adaptation of skin color genes with the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR), using a vector correlation metric and network method called BlocBuster. We discovered two multilocus networks involving VDR promoter and skin color genes that display strong latitudinal clines as multilocus networks, even though many of their single gene components do not. Considered one by one, the VDR components of these networks show diverse patterns: no cline, a weak declining latitudinal cline outside of Africa, and a strong in- vs. out-of-Africa frequency pattern. We confirmed these results with independent data from HapMap. Standard linkage disequilibrium analyses did not detect these networks. We applied BlocBuster across the entire genome, showing that our networks are significant outliers for interchromosomal disequilibrium that overlap with environmental variation relevant to the genes’ functions. These results suggest that these multilocus correlations most likely arose from a combination of parallel selective responses to a common environmental variable and coadaptation, given the known Mendelian epistasis among VDR and the skin color genes. PMID:26921301

  10. The ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid receptor gene family of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lin-Lin; Cui, Ying-Jun; Lang, Guo-Jun; Zhang, Ming-Yan; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2010-09-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a very important inhibitory neurotransmitter in both vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems. GABA receptors (GABARs) are known to be the molecular targets of a class of insecticides. Members of the GABAR gene family of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, a model insect of Lepidoptera, have been identified and characterized in this study. All putative silkworm GABAR cDNAs were cloned using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Bombyx mori appears to have the largest insect GABAR gene family known to date, including three RDL, one LCCH3, and one GRD subunit. The silkworm RDL1 gene has RNA-editing sites, and the RDL1 and RDL3 genes possess alternative splicing. These mRNA modifications enhance the diversity of the silkworm's GABAR gene family. In addition, truncated transcripts were found for the RDL1 and LCCH3 genes. In particular, the three RDL subunits may have arisen from two duplication events. PMID:20924418

  11. A cluster of olfactory receptor genes linked to frugivory in bats.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Sara; Bekaert, Michaël; Goodbla, Alisha; Murphy, William J; Dávalos, Liliana M; Teeling, Emma C

    2014-04-01

    Diversity of the mammalian olfactory receptor (OR) repertoire has been globally reshaped by niche specialization. However, little is known about the variability of the OR repertoire at a shallower evolutionary timeframe. The vast bat radiation exhibits an extraordinary variety of trophic and sensory specializations. Unlike other mammals, bats possess a unique and diverse OR gene repertoire. We elucidated whether the evolution of the OR gene repertoire can be linked to ecological niche specializations, such as sensory modalities and diet. The OR gene repertoires of 27 bat species spanning the chiropteran radiation were amplified and sequenced. For each species, intact and nonfunctional genes were assessed, and the OR gene abundances in each gene family were analyzed and compared. We identified a unique OR pattern linked to the frugivorous diet of New World fruit-eating bats and a similar convergent pattern in the Old World fruit-eating bats. Our results show a strong association between niche specialization and OR repertoire diversity even at a shallow evolutionary timeframe. PMID:24441035

  12. Association Study of Two Cannabinoid Receptor Genes, CNR1 and CNR2, with Methamphetamine Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Okahisa, Y; Kodama, M; Takaki, M; Inada, T; Uchimura, N; Yamada, M; Iwata, N; Iyo, M; Sora, I; Ozaki, N; Ujike, H

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that the endocannabinoid system plays significant roles in the vulnerability to psychiatric disorders including drug abuse. To examine the possible association of the CNR1 and CNR2 genes, which encode cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, with methamphetamine dependence, we investigated three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs806379, rs1535255, rs2023239) in intron 2 of the CNR1 gene and a nonsynonymous SNP, Q63R, in the CNR2 gene. The study samples consisted of 223 patients with methamphetamine dependence and 292 age- and sex- matched controls. There were no significant differences between the patients and controls in genotypic or allelic distribution of any SNP of the CNR1 and CNR2 genes. We also analyzed the clinical features of methamphetamine dependence. Rs806379 of the CNR1 gene showed a significant association with the phenotype of latency of psychosis after the first consumption of methamphetamine. Patients with the T allele or T-positive genotypes (T/T or A/T) may develop a rapid onset of psychosis after methamphetamine abuse. The present study suggests a possibility that genetic variants of the CNR1 gene may produce a liability to the complication of psychotic state after abuse of methamphetamine; however, our findings need to be confirmed by future replications. PMID:21886587

  13. Characterization of horse (Equus caballus) T-cell receptor beta chain genes

    SciTech Connect

    Schrenzel, M.D.; Watson, J.L.; Ferrick, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    Genes encoding the horse (Equus caballus) T-cell receptor beta chain (TCRB) were cloned and characterized. Of 33 cDNA clones isolated from the mesenteric lymph node, 30 had functionally rearranged gene segments, and three contained germline sequences. Sixteen unique variable segments (TCRBV), 14 joining genes (TCRBJ), and two constant region genes (TCRBC) were identified. Horse TCRBV were grouped into nine families based on similarity to human sequences. TCRBV2 and TCRBV12 were the most commonly represented horse families. Analysis of predicted protein structure revealed the presence of conserved regions similar to those seen in TCRB of other species. A decanucleotide promoter sequence homologous to those found in humans and mice was located in the 5{prime} untranslated region of one horse gene. Germline sequences included the 5{prime} region of the TCRBD2 gene with flanking heptamer/nonamer recombination signals and portions of the TCRBJ2-C2 intro. Southern blot hybridizations demonstrated restriction fragment length polymorphisms at the TCRBC locus among different horse breeds.

  14. Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia syndrome associated with mutations in the human insulin receptor gene: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Yohei; Iwahashi, Hiromi; Mineo, Ikuo; Fukui, Kenji; Fukuhara, Atsunori; Iwamoto, Ryuya; Imagawa, Akihisa; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2015-01-01

    Insulinoma and insulin or insulin receptor (IR) autoantibodies are the main causes of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in adults, but the exact cause in other cases remains obscure. This study is to determine the genetic basis of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in two cases without the above abnormalities. Sequence analysis of IR gene in two patients with adult-onset hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia and their relatives were performed, and the mutant gene observed in one case was analyzed. Both cases had normal levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting hyperinsulinemia, low insulin sensitivity, and hypoglycemia with excessive insulin secretion during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Both reported adult-onset postprandial hypoglycemic symptoms. In one patient, a missense mutation (Arg256Cys) was detected in both alleles of the IR gene, and his parents had the same mutation in only one allele but no hypoglycemia. The other had a novel nonsense mutation (Trp1273X) followed by a mutation (Gln1274Lys) in one allele, and his 9-year old son had the same mutation in one allele, together with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia during OGTT. Overexpression experiments of the mutant gene found in Case 1 in mammalian cells showed abnormal processing of the IR protein and demonstrated reduced function of Akt/Erk phosphorylation by insulin in the cells. In two cases of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in adults, we found novel mutations in IR gene considered to be linked to hypoglycemia. We propose a disease entity of adult-onset hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia syndrome associated with mutations in IR gene. PMID:25753915

  15. Human T-cell receptor v{beta} gene polymorphism and multiple sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, S.; Charmley, P.; Birchfield, R.I.; Concannon, P.

    1995-04-01

    Population-based genetic associations have been reported between RFLPs detected with probes corresponding to the genes encoding the {beta} chain of the T-cell receptor for antigen (RCRB) and a variety of autoimmune disorders. In the case of multiple sclerosis (MS), these studies have localized a putative disease-associated gene to a region of {approximately}110 kb in length, located within the TCRB locus. In the current study, all 14 known TCRBV (variable region) genes within the region of localization were mapped and identified. The nucleotide sequences of these genes were determined in a panel of six MS patients and six healthy controls, who were human-leukocyte antigen and TCRB-RFLP haplotype matched. Nine of the 14 TCRBV genes studied showed evidence of polymorphism. PCR-based assays for each of these polymorphic genes were developed, and allele and genotype frequencies were determined in a panel of DNA samples from 48 MS patients and 60 control individuals. No significant differences in allele, genotype, or phenotype frequencies were observed between the MS patients and controls for any of the 14 TCRBV-gene polymorphisms studied. In light of the extensive linkage disequilibrium across the region studied, the saturating numbers of polymorphisms examined, and the direct sequence analysis of all BV genes in the region, these results suggest that it is unlikely that germ-line polymorphism in the TCRBV locus makes a major contribution to MS susceptibility. The TCRBV coding region-specific markers generated in these studies, as well as the approach of testing for associations with specific functionally relevant polymorphic sites within individual BV genes, should be useful in the evaluation of the many reported disease associations involving the human TCRB region. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. Unliganded Thyroid Hormone Receptor α Regulates Developmental Timing via Gene Repression in Xenopus tropicalis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jinyoung; Suzuki, Ken-ichi T.; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Shewade, Leena; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) receptor (TR) expression begins early in development in all vertebrates when circulating TH levels are absent or minimal, yet few developmental roles for unliganded TRs have been established. Unliganded TRs are expected to repress TH-response genes, increase tissue responsivity to TH, and regulate the timing of developmental events. Here we examined the role of unliganded TRα in gene repression and development in Xenopus tropicalis. We used transcription activator-like effector nuclease gene disruption technology to generate founder animals with mutations in the TRα gene and bred them to produce F1 offspring with a normal phenotype and a mutant phenotype, characterized by precocious hind limb development. Offspring with a normal phenotype had zero or one disrupted TRα alleles, and tadpoles with the mutant hind limb phenotype had two truncated TRα alleles with frame shift mutations between the two zinc fingers followed by 40–50 mutant amino acids and then an out-of-frame stop codon. We examined TH-response gene expression and early larval development with and without exogenous TH in F1 offspring. As hypothesized, mutant phenotype tadpoles had increased expression of TH-response genes in the absence of TH and impaired induction of these same genes after exogenous TH treatment, compared with normal phenotype animals. Also, mutant hind limb phenotype animals had reduced hind limb and gill responsivity to exogenous TH. Similar results in methimazole-treated tadpoles showed that increased TH-response gene expression and precocious development were not due to early production of TH. These results indicate that unliganded TRα delays developmental progression by repressing TH-response genes. PMID:25456067

  17. Characterization of the 5' flanking region of the human D1A dopamine receptor gene.

    PubMed Central

    Minowa, M T; Minowa, T; Monsma, F J; Sibley, D R; Mouradian, M M

    1992-01-01

    To study how the expression of the D1A dopamine receptor gene is regulated, a human genomic clone was isolated by using a rat cDNA as probe. A 2.3-kilobase genomic fragment spanning -2571 through -236 relative to the adenosine of the first methionine codon was sequenced. The gene has an intron of 116 base pairs in the 5' noncoding region, nucleotides -599 through -484 as determined by S1 mapping and reverse transcription-PCR. It has multiple transcription initiation sites located between -1061 and -1040. The promoter region lacks a TATA box and a CAAT box, is rich in G+C content, and has multiple putative binding sites for transcription factor Sp1. Thus, the promoter region of the human D1A gene has features of "housekeeping" genes. However, it also has consensus sequences for AP1 and AP2 binding sites and a putative cAMP response element. The ability of four deletion mutants of the 2.3-kilobase fragment to modulate transcription of the heterologous chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene in the promoterless plasmid pCAT-Basic was determined. All mutants demonstrated substantial transcriptional activity in the murine neuroblastoma cell line NS20Y, which expresses the D1A gene endogenously. Transient expression assays suggested the presence of a positive modulator between nucleotides -1340 and -1102, and a negative modulator between -1730 and -1341. The four genomic fragments had no or very low transcriptional activity in NB41A3, C6, and Hep G2 cells, which are not known to express this gene. Thus, the human D1A gene belongs to the category of tissue-specific, regulated genes that have housekeeping-type promoters. Images PMID:1557411

  18. Homozygosity for a dominant negative thyroid hormone receptor gene responsible for generalized resistance to thyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Ono, S; Schwartz, I D; Mueller, O T; Root, A W; Usala, S J; Bercu, B B

    1991-11-01

    Generalized resistance to thyroid hormones (GRTH) commonly results from mutations in the T3-binding domain of the c-erbA beta thyroid hormone receptor gene. We have reported on a novel deletion mutation in c-erbA beta in a kindred, S, with GRTH. One patient from this kindred was the product of a consanguineous union from two affected members and was homozygous for the beta-receptor defect. This patient at 3.5 weeks of age had unprecedented elevations of TSH, free T4, and free T3 (TSH, 389 mU/L; free T4, 330.8 pmol/L; free T3, 82,719 fmol/L). He displayed a complex mixture of tissue-specific hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. He had delayed growth (height age, 1 3/12 yr at chronological age 2 9/12 yr) and skeletal maturation (bone age, 4 months), and developmental delay (developmental age, 8 months), but he was quite tachycardic. The homozygous patient of kindred S is markedly different from a recently reported patient with no c-erbA beta-receptor. This difference indicates that a dominant negative form of c-erbA beta in man can inhibit at least some thyroid hormone action mediated by the c-erbA alpha-receptors. PMID:1682340

  19. Involvement of calcitonin gene-related peptide and receptor component protein in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Sardi, Claudia; Zambusi, Laura; Finardi, Annamaria; Ruffini, Francesca; Tolun, Adviye A.; Dickerson, Ian M.; Righi, Marco; Zacchetti, Daniele; Grohovaz, Fabio; Provini, Luciano; Furlan, Roberto; Morara, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP) inhibits microglia inflammatory activation in vitro. We here analyzed the involvement of CGRP and Receptor Component Protein (RCP) in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Alpha-CGRP deficiency increased EAE scores which followed the scale alpha-CGRP null > heterozygote > wild type. In wild type mice, CGRP delivery into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 1) reduced chronic EAE (C-EAE) signs, 2) inhibited microglia activation (revealed by quantitative shape analysis), and 3) did not alter GFAP expression, cell density, lymphocyte infiltration, and peripheral lymphocyte production of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-17, IL-2, and IL-4. RCP (probe for receptor involvement) was expressed in white matter microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and vascular-endothelial cells: in EAE, also in infiltrating lymphocytes. In relapsing–remitting EAE (R-EAE) RCP increased during relapse, without correlation with lymphocyte density. RCP nuclear localization (stimulated by CGRP in vitro) was I) increased in microglia and decreased in astrocytes (R-EAE), and II) increased in microglia by CGRP CSF delivery (C-EAE). Calcitonin like receptor was rarely localized in nuclei of control and relapse mice. CGRP increased in motoneurons. In conclusion, CGRP can inhibit microglia activation in vivo in EAE. CGRP and its receptor may represent novel protective factors in EAE, apparently acting through the differential cell-specific intracellular translocationof RCP. PMID:24746422

  20. Atlantic salmon possesses two clusters of type I interferon receptor genes on different chromosomes, which allows for a larger repertoire of interferon receptors than in zebrafish and mammals.

    PubMed

    Sun, Baojian; Greiner-Tollersrud, Linn; Koop, Ben F; Robertsen, Børre

    2014-12-01

    Mammalian type I interferons (IFNs) signal through a receptor composed of the IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 chains. In zebrafish two-cysteine IFNs utilize a receptor composed of CRFB1 and CRFB5, while four-cysteine IFNs signal through a receptor formed by CRFB2 and CRFB5. In the present work two CRFB clusters were identified in different chromosomes of Atlantic salmon. Genes of three CRFB5s, one CRFB1, one CRFB2 and the novel CRFB5x were identified, cloned and studied functionally. All CRFBs were expressed in 10 different organs, but the relative expression of CRFBs varied. Mx-reporter assay was used to study which CRFBs might be involved in receptors for salmon IFNa, IFNb and IFNc. The results of Mx-reporter assays suggest that IFNa signals through a receptor composed of CRFB1a as the long chain and either CRFB5a, CRFB5b or CRFB5c as the short chain; IFNc signals through a receptor with CRFB5a or CRFB5c as the short chain while IFNb may signal through a receptor with CRFB5x as a short chain. Taken together, the present work demonstrates that Atlantic salmon has a more diverse repertoire of type I IFN receptors compared to zebrafish or mammals. PMID:25149134

  1. Immunophenotypic and antigen receptor gene rearrangement analysis in T cell neoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    The author reviews the immunophenotypic profiles displayed by the major clinicopathologic categories of T cell neoplasia, the immunophenotypic criteria useful in the immunodiagnosis of T cell neoplasia, and the contributions made by antigen receptor gene rearrangement analysis to the understanding of T cell neoplasia. Neoplasms belonging to distinct clinicopathologic categories of T cell neoplasia often exhibit characteristic immunophenotypic profiles. Approximately 80% of lymphoblastic lymphomas and 20% of acute lymphoblastic leukemias express phenotypes consistent with prethymic and intrathymic stages of T cell differentiation, including intranuclear terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. Cutaneous T cell lymphomas of mycosis fungoides type usually express pan-T cell antigens CD2, CD5, and CD3, often lack the pan-T cell antigen CD7, and usually express the mature, peripheral helper subset phenotype, CD4+ CD8-. Cutaneous T cell lymphomas of nonmycosis fungoides type and peripheral T cell lymphomas often lack one or more pan-T cell antigens and, in addition, occasionally express the anomalous CD4+ CD8+ or CD4- CD8- phenotypes. T gamma-lymphoproliferative disease is divisable into two broad categories: those cases that are CD3 antigen positive and exhibit clonal T cell receptor beta chain (TCR-beta) gene rearrangements and those cases that are CD3 antigen negative and exhibit the TCR-beta gene germline configuration. Human T cell lymphotropic virus-I (HTLV-I) associated Japanese, Carribean, and sporadic adult T cell leukemia/lymphomas usually express pan-T cell antigens, the CD4+ CD8- phenotype, and various T cell-associated activation antigens, including the interleukin-2 receptor (CD25). Immunophenotypic criteria useful in the immunodiagnosis of T cell neoplasia include, in increasing order of utility, T cell predominance, T cell subset antigen restriction, anomalous T cell subset antigen expression, and deletion of one or more pan-T cell antigens. Only in

  2. Estrogen and progesterone receptor-binding sites on the chicken vitellogenin II gene: synergism of steroid hormone action.

    PubMed

    Cato, A C; Heitlinger, E; Ponta, H; Klein-Hitpass, L; Ryffel, G U; Bailly, A; Rauch, C; Milgrom, E

    1988-12-01

    The chicken vitellogenin II gene is transcriptionally activated by estrogens. In transient transfection experiments in human T47D cells that contain receptors for various steroids, we showed estradiol, progestin, and androgen responses of a chimeric chicken vitellogenin II construct. This construct consists of DNA sequences from -626 to -590 upstream of the start of transcription of the chicken vitellogenin gene linked to the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter driving the transcription of the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene. Treatment of the transfected T47D cells with a combination of estradiol and the progestin R5020 led to a superinduction of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity, showing a synergistic action of these two steroids. This synergism was not observed upon treatment of the transfected cells with estradiol and the androgen dihydrotestosterone. Using point mutations in the vitellogenin gene fragment, we showed in functional and in in vitro DNase I footprinting assays with a purified progesterone receptor that, for the synergistic action of estradiol and R5020 to occur, the progesterone receptor must be bound to the vitellogenin gene fragment. The progesterone receptor-binding site was localized at -610 to -590, close to the consensus sequence (-626 to -613) for estrogen receptor binding and function. We therefore demonstrate here that two different steroid hormones can be functionally synergistic through the interaction of their corresponding receptors with two different binding sites adjacent to one another. PMID:3244357

  3. Estrogen and progesterone receptor-binding sites on the chicken vitellogenin II gene: synergism of steroid hormone action.

    PubMed Central

    Cato, A C; Heitlinger, E; Ponta, H; Klein-Hitpass, L; Ryffel, G U; Bailly, A; Rauch, C; Milgrom, E

    1988-01-01

    The chicken vitellogenin II gene is transcriptionally activated by estrogens. In transient transfection experiments in human T47D cells that contain receptors for various steroids, we showed estradiol, progestin, and androgen responses of a chimeric chicken vitellogenin II construct. This construct consists of DNA sequences from -626 to -590 upstream of the start of transcription of the chicken vitellogenin gene linked to the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter driving the transcription of the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene. Treatment of the transfected T47D cells with a combination of estradiol and the progestin R5020 led to a superinduction of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity, showing a synergistic action of these two steroids. This synergism was not observed upon treatment of the transfected cells with estradiol and the androgen dihydrotestosterone. Using point mutations in the vitellogenin gene fragment, we showed in functional and in in vitro DNase I footprinting assays with a purified progesterone receptor that, for the synergistic action of estradiol and R5020 to occur, the progesterone receptor must be bound to the vitellogenin gene fragment. The progesterone receptor-binding site was localized at -610 to -590, close to the consensus sequence (-626 to -613) for estrogen receptor binding and function. We therefore demonstrate here that two different steroid hormones can be functionally synergistic through the interaction of their corresponding receptors with two different binding sites adjacent to one another. Images PMID:3244357

  4. Lack of association between dopamine D2 receptor gene Cys311 variant and schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Toshihisa; Fukushima, Noboru; Takahashi, Makoto; Kameda, Kensuke; Ihda, Shin

    1996-04-09

    Itokawa et al. reported identifying one missense nucleotide mutation from C to G resulting in a substitution of serine with cysteine at codon 311 in the third intracellular loop of the dopamine D2 receptor in schizophrenics. Arinami et al. reported finding a positive association between the Cys311 variant and schizophrenia. In response to the report by Arinami et al. we examined 106 unrelated Japanese schizophrenics and 106 normal controls to determine if there is any association of the Cys311 variant with schizophrenia. However, we found no statistically significant differences in allelic frequencies of Cys311 between schizophrenia and normal controls. The present results as well as those of all previous studies except for that of Arinami et al. indicated that an association between the dopamine D2 receptor gene and schizophrenia is unlikely to exist. 24 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Estrogen-related receptor gamma modulates energy metabolism target genes in human trophoblast.

    PubMed

    Poidatz, D; Dos Santos, E; Brulé, A; De Mazancourt, P; Dieudonné, M N

    2012-09-01

    Placenta growth and functions depend on correct trophoblast migration, proliferation, and differentiation. The placenta has a critical role in gas and nutrient transport. To accomplish these numerous functions, the placenta depends on a highly efficient energy metabolism control. Recent studies showed that the orphan nuclear receptor Estrogen-Related Receptor gamma (ERRγ) is highly expressed in human placentas. As ERRγ has been described as a major energy metabolism regulator, we investigated ERRγ expression and putative roles on energy homeostasis in human trophoblast from first trimester placentas. First, we showed that ERRγ expression level increased during pregnancy and that ERRγ was more abundant in villous than in extravillous trophoblasts. We also observed that ERRγ expression increased during trophoblast differentiation. Second, we demonstrated that mitochondrial biogenesis and expression of some energy metabolism target genes decreased when ERRγ expression was impaired. Altogether, these results suggest that ERRγ could be implicated in the energy metabolism regulation of human trophoblasts. PMID:22763271

  6. Association study between the dopamine D4 receptor gene and schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Petronis, A.; Macciardi, F.; Athanassiades, A.; Paterson, A.D.

    1995-10-09

    The dopamine D4 receptor is of major interest in schizophrenia research due to its high affinity for the atypical neuroleptic clozapine and a high degree of variability in the receptor gene (DRD4). Although several genetic linkage analyses performed on schizophrenia multiplex families from different regions of the world have either excluded or failed to prove that DRD4 is a major genetic factor for the development of schizophrenia, analyses for moderate predisposing effects are still of significant interest. We performed a study examining differences in allele frequencies of 4 different DRD4 polymorphisms in schizophrenia patients and age, sex, and ethnic origin matched controls. None of these 4 polymorphisms showed evidence for genetic association with schizophrenia, although a trend towards excess of the allele with 7 repeats in the (48){sub n} bp exon III polymorphism was observed. Complexities in the DRD4 genetic investigation and further analytic approaches are discussed. 18 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. The human gene for neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 (NTRK2) is located on chromosome 9 but is not the familial dysautonomia gene

    SciTech Connect

    Slaugenhaupt, S.A. |; Liebert, C.B.; Lucente, D.E.

    1995-02-10

    The neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 (NTRK2) gene is a member of the trk family of tyrosine protein kinases, which encode receptors for the nerve growth factor-related proteins known as neurotrophins. The neurotrophins and their receptors have long been considered candidate genes for familial dysautonomia (FD), a hereditary sensory neuropathy resulting from the congenital loss of both sensory and autonomic neurons. The DYS gene has recently been mapped to human chromosome 9q31-q33, and therefore we set out to determine the chromosomal localization of the candidate gene NTRK2. A mouse trkB probe was hybridized to both somatic cell hybrids containing human chromosome 9 and a human chromosome 9 flow-sorted cosmid library. The human homologue of trkB, NTRK2, was assigned to chromosome 9. To localize the NTRK2 gene further, a dinucleotide repeat polymorphism was identified within a cosmid that contains NTRK2 exon sequences. This marker was genotyped in the CEPH reference pedigrees and places the NTRK2 gene near D9S1 on the proximal long arm of human chromosome 9. The NTRK2 gene is located approximately 22 cm proximal to DYS and shows several recombinants in disease families. Therefore, the NTRK2 gene can now be excluded as a candidate gene for familial dysautonomia. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Association between the Dopamine Receptor D5 Gene and the Liability to Substance Dependence in Males: A Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanyukov, Michael M.; Maher, Brion S.; Ferrell, Robert E.; Devlin, Bernard; Marazita, Mary L.; Kirillova, Galina P.

    2001-01-01

    The heritability of substance dependence (SD) liability is based on polymorphisms at the genes that are likely to be related to the function of the central nervous system. We have recently shown an association between the dopamine D5 receptor gene and SD liability. We report herein a replication of this association in an independent case-control…

  9. Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Down Syndrome: Effects of the Dopamine Receptor D4 Gene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Gina Marie; Spanó, Goffredina; Edgin, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    This study examined individual differences in ADHD symptoms and executive function (EF) in children with Down syndrome (DS) in relation to the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene, a gene often linked to ADHD in people without DS. Participants included 68 individuals with DS (7-21 years), assessed through laboratory tasks, caregiver reports, and…

  10. Radiation induction of the receptor tyrosine kinase gene Ptk-3 in normal rat astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Sakuma, S.; Hideyuki, S.; Akihiro, I.

    1995-07-01

    Radiation-induced gene expression was examined in rat astrocyte cultures using differential display of mRNA via reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. A 0.3-kb cDNA that was consistently observed in irradiated cultures but not in unirradiated cultures was cloned and sequenced. It was found to be identical to Ptk-3, a receptor tyrosine kinase gene identified recently. The protein encoded by Ptk-3 is a member of a novel class of receptor tyrosine kinases whose extracellular domain contains regions of homology with coagulation factors V and VIII and complement component C1. Northern blot analysis revealed that the expression of Ptk-3 was increased in rat astrocytes by 0.5 h after exposure to 10 Gy and remained at the same elevated level for at least 24 h. The maximum increase occurred after 5 Gy cloning studies indicated the presence of at least two Ptk-3 mRNA transcripts, which are probable the result of an alternative splicing mechanism. The short isoform lacks a 37 amino acid sequence in the glycine/proline-rich juxtamembrane region. The splicing pattern of the Ptk-3 gene was not altered by radiation. However, the ratios of the longer to the shorter mRNA transcripts differed between adult cortex, neonatal cortex and in vitro astrocyte cultures. 36 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Genomic organization of the mouse fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (Fgfr3) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Castro, A.V.; Wilson, J.; Altherr, M.R.

    1995-11-20

    The fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (Fgfr3) protein is a tyrosine kinase receptor involved in the signal transduction of various fibroblast growth factors. Recent studies suggest its important role in normal development. In humans, mutation in Fgfr3 is responsible for growth disorders such as achondroplasia, hypoachondroplasia, and thanatophoric dysplasia. Here, we report the complete genomic organization of the mouse Fgfr3 gene. The murine gene spans approximately 15 kb and consists of 19 exons and 18 introns. One major and one minor transcription initiation site were identified. Position +1 is located 614 nucleotides upstream from the ATG initiation codon. The translation initiation and termination sites are located in exons 2 and 19, respectively. Five Sp1 sites, two AP2 sites, one Zeste site, and one Krox 24 site were observed in the 5{prime}-flanking region. The Fgfr3 promoter appears to be contained within a CpG island and, as is common in genes having multiple Sp1-binding sites, lacks a TATA box. 35 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. A frequent polymorphism in the coding exon of the human cannabinoid receptor (CNR1) gene.

    PubMed

    Gadzicki, D; Müller-Vahl, K; Stuhrmann, M

    1999-08-01

    The central cannabinoid receptor (CB1) mediates the pharmacological activities of cannabis, the endogenous agonist anandamide and several synthetic agonists. The cloning of the human cannabinoid receptor (CNR1) gene facilitates molecular genetic studies in disorders like Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), Parkinsons disease, Alzheimers disease or other neuro psychiatric or neurological diseases, which may be predisposed or influenced by mutations or variants in the CNR1 gene. We detected a frequent silent mutation (1359G-->A) in codon 453 (Thr) of the CNR1 gene that turned out to be a common polymorphism in the German population. Allele frequencies of this polymorphism are 0.76 and 0.24, respectively. We developed a simple and rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay by artificial creation of a Msp I restriction site in amplified wild-type DNA (G-allele), which is destroyed by the silent mutation (A-allele). The intragenic CNR1 polymorphism 1359(G/A) should be useful for association studies in neuro psychiatric disorders which may be related to anandamide metabolism disturbances. PMID:10441206

  13. Computational design of a Zn2+ receptor that controls bacterial gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, M. A.; Looger, L. L.; Hellinga, H. W.

    2003-09-01

    The control of cellular physiology and gene expression in response to extracellular signals is a basic property of living systems. We have constructed a synthetic bacterial signal transduction pathway in which gene expression is controlled by extracellular Zn2+. In this system a computationally designed Zn2+-binding periplasmic receptor senses the extracellular solute and triggers a two-component signal transduction pathway via a chimeric transmembrane protein, resulting in transcriptional up-regulation of a -galactosidase reporter gene. The Zn2+-binding site in the designed receptor is based on a four-coordinate, tetrahedral primary coordination sphere consisting of histidines and glutamates. In addition, mutations were introduced in a secondary coordination sphere to satisfy the residual hydrogen-bonding potential of the histidines coordinated to the metal. The importance of the secondary shell interactions is demonstrated by their effect on metal affinity and selectivity, as well as protein stability. Three designed protein sequences, comprising two distinct metal-binding positions, were all shown to bind Zn2+ and to function in the cell-based assay, indicating the generality of the design methodology. These experiments demonstrate that biological systems can be manipulated with computationally designed proteins that have drastically altered ligand-binding specificities, thereby extending the repertoire of genetic control by extracellular signals.

  14. An S receptor kinase gene in self-compatible Brassica napus has a 1-bp deletion.

    PubMed Central

    Goring, D R; Glavin, T L; Schafer, U; Rothstein, S J

    1993-01-01

    S locus glycoprotein (SLG) and S locus receptor kinase (SRK) cDNAs were isolated from an S allele present in a number of self-compatible Brassica napus lines. This A10 allele did not segregate with self-incompatibility in crosses involving other self-incompatible B. napus lines. The SLG-A10 cDNA was found to contain an intact open reading frame and was predicted to encode an SLG protein with sequence similarities to those previously associated with phenotypically strong self-incompatibility reactions. SLG-A10 transcripts were detected in the developing stigma at steady state levels even higher than those detected for SLG alleles linked with self-incompatibility. Analysis of the corresponding SRK-A10 cDNA showed that it was very similar to other S locus receptor kinase genes and was expressed predominantly in the stigma. However, a 1-bp deletion was detected in the SRK gene toward the 3' end of the SLG homology domain. This deletion would lead to premature termination of translation and the production of a truncated SRK protein. The A10 allele was determined to represent a B. oleracea S allele based on its segregation pattern with the B. oleracea S24 allele when both these alleles were present in the same B. napus background. These results suggest that a functional SRK gene is required for Brassica self-incompatibility. PMID:8518554

  15. Transcriptional regulation of the human TR2 orphan receptor gene by nuclear factor 1-A

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y.-L.; Wang, Y.-H.; Lee, H.-J. . E-mail: hjlee@mail.ndhu.edu.tw

    2006-11-17

    The human testicular receptor 2 (TR2), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, has no identified ligand yet. Previous evidence demonstrated that a 63 bp DNA fragment, named the promoter activating cis-element (PACE), has been identified as a positive regulatory region in the 5' promoter region of the human TR2 gene. In the present report, the human nuclear factor 1-A (NF1-A) was identified as a transcriptional activator to recognize the center of the PACE, called the PACE-C. NF1-A could bind to the 18 bp PACE-C region, and enhance about 13- to 17-fold of the luciferase reporter gene activity via the PACE-C in dose-dependent and orientation-independent manners. This transcriptional activation was further confirmed by real-time RT-PCR assay. In conclusion, our results indicated that NF1-A transcription factor plays an important role in the transcriptional activation of the TR2 gene expression via the PACE-C in the minimal promoter region.

  16. Mutational analysis of the luteinizing hormone receptor gene in two individuals with Leydig cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Canto, Patricia; Söderlund, Daniela; Ramón, Guillermo; Nishimura, Elisa; Méndez, Juan Pablo

    2002-03-01

    Inactivating mutations of the luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) gene in males induce Leydig cell agenesis or hypoplasia, while activating mutations cause testotoxicosis. Recently, it was demonstrated that a somatic heterozygous activating mutation of the LHR gene (Asp578His), limited to the tumor, was the cause of Leydig cell adenomas in three unrelated patients. We describe the molecular study of two unrelated boys with gonadotropin-independent hypersecretion of testosterone due to Leydig cell adenomas. Genomic DNA was extracted from the tumor, the adjacent normal testis tissue, and blood leukocytes. Both individuals exhibited an heterozygous missense mutation, limited only to the tumor, consisting of a guanine (G) to cytosine (C) substitution at codon 578 (GAT to CAT), turning aspartic acid into histidine. The presence of the same mutation in different ethnic groups demonstrates the existence of a mutational hot spot in the LHR gene. Indeed, this mutation occurs at the conserved aspartic acid residue at amino acid 578, where a substitution by glycine is the most common mutation observed in testotoxicosis and where a substitution by tyrosine has been linked to a more severe clinical phenotype where diffuse Leydig cell hyperplasia is found. Our results confirm the fact that somatic activating mutations of gonadotropin receptors are involved in gonadal tumorigenesis. PMID:11857565

  17. The genetics of addiction: alcohol-dependence and D3 dopamine receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Gorwood, P; Limosin, F; Batel, P; Duaux, E; Gouya, L; Adès, J

    2001-11-01

    Alcohol-dependence is a complex phenotype, with behavioral, psychological, pharmacological, medical and social dimensions. Aggregation studies, adoption and twin researches have demonstrated that the vulnerability to alcohol-dependence is at least in part linked to genetic factors, the genetic vulnerability to alcoholism being mainly not substance-specific. There are numerous candidate genes, but the D3 dopamine receptor is specifically located in the limbic area, and in particular in the nucleus accumbens, which are involved in reward and reinforcement behavior. Furthermore, a previous collaborative study showed that homozygosity for the Ball DRD3 locus was more frequently observed in opiate dependent patients with high sensation seeking scores. In this study, we analyzed the distribution of Ball DRD3 polymorphism in a new sample of 131 French male alcoholic-patients (DSM III-R criteria) and 68 healthy controls matched for sex and origins. Although we replicated the higher sensation seeking score in alcohol-dependent patients with comorbid dependence, we found no significant difference in the DRD3 gene polymorphism between controls and alcoholic patients, regardless of sensation seeking score, addictive or psychiatric comorbidity, alcoholism typology, and clinical specificities of alcoholism. There is good evidence that gene coding for the dopamine receptor D3 does not play a major role in the genetic vulnerability to alcoholism. PMID:11762133

  18. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) gene deficiency impairs urine concentration in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Shizheng; Gao, Min; Liu, Jia; Jia, Xiao; Han, Qifei; Zheng, Senfeng; Miao, Yifei; Li, Shuo; Weng, Haoyu; Xia, Xuan; Du, Shengnan; Wu, Wanfu; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Guan, Youfei

    2014-02-11

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily. FXR is mainly expressed in liver and small intestine, where it plays an important role in bile acid, lipid, and glucose metabolism. The kidney also has a high FXR expression level, with its physiological function unknown. Here we demonstrate that FXR is ubiquitously distributed in renal tubules. FXR agonist treatment significantly lowered urine volume and increased urine osmolality, whereas FXR knockout mice exhibited an impaired urine concentrating ability, which led to a polyuria phenotype. We further found that treatment of C57BL/6 mice with chenodeoxycholic acid, an FXR endogenous ligand, significantly up-regulated renal aquaporin 2 (AQP2) expression, whereas FXR gene deficiency markedly reduced AQP2 expression levels in the kidney. In vitro studies showed that the AQP2 gene promoter contained a putative FXR response element site, which can be bound and activated by FXR, resulting in a significant increase of AQP2 transcription in cultured primary inner medullary collecting duct cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that FXR plays a critical role in the regulation of urine volume, and its activation increases urinary concentrating capacity mainly via up-regulating its target gene AQP2 expression in the collecting ducts. PMID:24464484

  19. Orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 participates in human apolipoprotein A5 gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Kwang-Hoon

    2010-01-29

    The orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 (NR4A1) has been reported to play a crucial role in the modulation of diverse metabolic processes in liver. Here, we reported the identification of human apolipoprotein A5 (ApoA5), which implicated in lowering plasma triglyceride levels, as a novel target gene of Nur77. Nur77 induced the human ApoA5 promoter activity. Using 5'-deletion and mutagenesis of human ApoA5 promoter analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, it was shown that Nur77 directly regulated human ApoA5 gene expression by binding to a Nur77 response element (AAAGGTCA) located in the proximal human ApoA5 promoter region. In addition, we demonstrated that blocking of Nur77 transcriptional activity via overexpression of dominant negative Nur77 suppressed human ApoA5 promoter activity and mRNA expression in human hepatoma cells, HepG2. Taken together, our results demonstrated that Nur77 is a novel regulator of human ApoA5 gene expression and provide a new insight into the role of this orphan nuclear receptor in lipoprotein metabolism and triglyceride homeostasis.

  20. Vampire bats exhibit evolutionary reduction of bitter taste receptor genes common to other bats.

    PubMed

    Hong, Wei; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-08-01

    The bitter taste serves as an important natural defence against the ingestion of poisonous foods and is thus believed to be indispensable in animals. However, vampire bats are obligate blood feeders that show a reduced behavioural response towards bitter-tasting compounds. To test whether bitter taste receptor genes (T2Rs) have been relaxed from selective constraint in vampire bats, we sampled all three vampire bat species and 11 non-vampire bats, and sequenced nine one-to-one orthologous T2Rs that are assumed to be functionally conserved in all bats. We generated 85 T2R sequences and found that vampire bats have a significantly greater percentage of pseudogenes than other bats. These results strongly suggest a relaxation of selective constraint and a reduction of bitter taste function in vampire bats. We also found that vampire bats retain many intact T2Rs, and that the taste signalling pathway gene Calhm1 remains complete and intact with strong functional constraint. These results suggest the presence of some bitter taste function in vampire bats, although it is not likely to play a major role in food selection. Together, our study suggests that the evolutionary reduction of bitter taste function in animals is more pervasive than previously believed, and highlights the importance of extra-oral functions of taste receptor genes. PMID:24966321

  1. Molecular Characterization and Tissue Distribution of Estrogen Receptor Genes in Domestic Yak

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Mei; Xiong, Xian-Rong; Lan, Dao-liang; Li, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen and its receptors are essential hormones for normal reproductive function in males and females during developmental stage. To better understand the effect of estrogen receptor (ER) gene in yak (Bos grunniens), reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out to clone ERα and ERβ genes. Bioinformatics methods were used to analyze the evolutionary relationship between yaks and other species, and real-time PCR was performed to identify the mRNA expression of ERα and ERβ. Sequence analysis showed that the ER open reading frames (ORFs) encoded 596 and 527 amino acid proteins. The yak ERα and ERβ shared 45.3% to 99.5% and 53.9% to 99.1% protein sequence identities with other species homologs, respectively. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that ERα and ERβ were expressed in a variety of tissues, but the expression level of ERα was higher than that of ERβ in all tissues, except testis. The mRNA expression of ERα was highest in the mammary gland, followed by uterus, oviduct, and ovary, and lowest in the liver, kidney, lung, testis, spleen, and heart. The ERβ mRNA level was highest in the ovary; intermediary in the uterus and oviduct; and lowest in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, mammary gland, and testis. The identification and tissue distribution of ER genes in yaks provides a foundation for the further study on their biological functions. PMID:25358360

  2. Transactivation of the proximal promoter of human oxytocin gene by TR4 orphan receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.-P.; Lee, Y.-F.; Chang, C.; Lee, H.-J. . E-mail: hjlee@mail.ndhu.edu.tw

    2006-12-08

    The human testicular receptor 4 (TR4) shares structural homology with members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Some other members of this superfamily were able to regulate the transcriptional activity of the human oxytocin (OXT) promoter by binding to the first DR0 regulatory site. However, little investigation was conducted systematically in the study of the second dDR4 site of OXT proximal promoter, and the relationship between the first and the second sites of OXT promoter. Here, we demonstrated for the first time that TR4 could increase the proximal promoter activity of the human OXT gene via DR0, dDR4, and OXT (both DR0 and dDR4) elements, respectively. TR4 might induce OXT gene expression through the OXT element in a dose-dependent manner. However, there is no synergistic effect between DR0 and dDR4 elements during TR4 transactivation. Taken together, these results suggested that TR4 should be one of important regulators of OXT gene expression.

  3. Genetic imaging of the association of oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphisms with positive maternal parenting

    PubMed Central

    Michalska, Kalina J.; Decety, Jean; Liu, Chunyu; Chen, Qi; Martz, Meghan E.; Jacob, Suma; Hipwell, Alison E.; Lee, Steve S.; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Waldman, Irwin D.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Well-validated models of maternal behavior in small-brain mammals posit a central role of oxytocin in parenting, by reducing stress and enhancing the reward value of social interactions with offspring. In contrast, human studies are only beginning to gain insights into how oxytocin modulates maternal behavior and affiliation. Methods: To explore associations between oxytocin receptor genes and maternal parenting behavior in humans, we conducted a genetic imaging study of women selected to exhibit a wide range of observed parenting when their children were 4–6 years old. Results: In response to child stimuli during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), hemodynamic responses in brain regions that mediate affect, reward, and social behavior were significantly correlated with observed positive parenting. Furthermore, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs53576 and rs1042778) in the gene encoding the oxytocin receptor were significantly associated with both positive parenting and hemodynamic responses to child stimuli in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and hippocampus. Conclusions: These findings contribute to the emerging literature on the role of oxytocin in human social behavior and support the feasibility of tracing biological pathways from genes to neural regions to positive maternal parenting behaviors in humans using genetic imaging methods. PMID:24550797

  4. Vampire bats exhibit evolutionary reduction of bitter taste receptor genes common to other bats

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Wei; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-01-01

    The bitter taste serves as an important natural defence against the ingestion of poisonous foods and is thus believed to be indispensable in animals. However, vampire bats are obligate blood feeders that show a reduced behavioural response towards bitter-tasting compounds. To test whether bitter taste receptor genes (T2Rs) have been relaxed from selective constraint in vampire bats, we sampled all three vampire bat species and 11 non-vampire bats, and sequenced nine one-to-one orthologous T2Rs that are assumed to be functionally conserved in all bats. We generated 85 T2R sequences and found that vampire bats have a significantly greater percentage of pseudogenes than other bats. These results strongly suggest a relaxation of selective constraint and a reduction of bitter taste function in vampire bats. We also found that vampire bats retain many intact T2Rs, and that the taste signalling pathway gene Calhm1 remains complete and intact with strong functional constraint. These results suggest the presence of some bitter taste function in vampire bats, although it is not likely to play a major role in food selection. Together, our study suggests that the evolutionary reduction of bitter taste function in animals is more pervasive than previously believed, and highlights the importance of extra-oral functions of taste receptor genes. PMID:24966321

  5. Evolution of the sweet taste receptor gene Tas1r2 in bats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huabin; Zhou, Yingying; Pinto, C Miguel; Charles-Dominique, Pierre; Galindo-González, Jorge; Zhang, Shuyi; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2010-11-01

    Taste perception is an important component of an animal's fitness. The identification of vertebrate taste receptor genes in the last decade has enabled molecular genetic studies of the evolution of taste perception in the context of the ecology and dietary preferences of organisms. Although such analyses have been conducted in a number of species for bitter taste receptors, a similar analysis of sweet taste receptors is lacking. Here, we survey the sole sweet taste-specific receptor gene Tas1r2 in 42 bat species that represent all major lineages of the order Chiroptera, one of the most diverse groups of mammals in terms of diet. We found that Tas1r2 is under strong purifying selection in the majority of the bats studied, with no significant difference in the strength of the selection between insect eaters and fruit eaters. However, Tas1r2 is a pseudogene in all three vampire bat species and the functional relaxation likely started in their common ancestor, probably due to the exclusive feeding of vampire bats on blood and their reliance on infrared sensors rather than taste perception to locate blood sources. Our survey of available genome sequences, together with previous reports, revealed additional losses of Tas1r2 in horse, cat, chicken, zebra finch, and western clawed frog, indicating that sweet perception is not as conserved as previously thought. Nonetheless, we found no common dietary pattern among the Tas1r2-lacking vertebrates, suggesting different causes for the losses of Tas1r2 in different species. The complexity of the ecological factors that impact the evolution of Tas1r2 calls for a better understanding of the physiological roles of sweet perception in different species. PMID:20558596

  6. WT1-specific T cell receptor gene therapy: improving TCR function in transduced T cells.

    PubMed

    Stauss, Hans J; Thomas, Sharyn; Cesco-Gaspere, Michela; Hart, Daniel P; Xue, Shao-An; Holler, Angelika; King, Judy; Wright, Graham; Perro, Mario; Pospori, Constantina; Morris, Emma

    2008-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of antigen-specific T lymphocytes is an attractive form of immunotherapy for haematological malignancies and cancer. The difficulty of isolating antigen-specific T lymphocytes for individual patients limits the more widespread use of adoptive T cell therapy. The demonstration that cloned T cell receptor (TCR) genes can be used to produce T lymphocyte populations of desired specificity offers new opportunities for antigen-specific T cell therapy. The first trial in humans demonstrated that TCR gene-modified T cells persisted for an extended time period and reduced tumor burden in some patients. The WT1 protein is an attractive target for immunotherapy of leukemia and solid cancer since elevated expression has been demonstrated in AML, CML, MDS and in breast, colon and ovarian cancer. In the past, we have isolated high avidity CTL specific for a WT1-derived peptide presented by HLA-A2 and cloned the TCR alpha and beta genes of a WT1-specific CTL line. The genes were inserted into retroviral vectors for transduction of human peripheral blood T lymphocytes of leukemia patients and normal donors. The treatment of leukemia-bearing NOD/SCID mice with T cells transduced with the WT1-specific TCR eliminated leukemia cells in the bone marrow of most mice, while treatment with T cells transduced with a TCR of irrelevant specificity did not diminish the leukemia burden. In order to improve the safety and efficacy of TCR gene therapy, we have developed lentiviral TCR gene transfer. In addition, we employed strategies to enhance TCR expression while avoiding TCR mis-pairing. It may be possible to generate dominant TCR constructs that can suppress the expression of the endogenous TCR on the surface of transduced T cells. The development of new TCR gene constructs holds great promise for the safe and effective delivery of TCR gene therapy for the treatment of malignancies. PMID:17855129

  7. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and the risk for female reproductive cancers: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mun, Myung-Jin; Kim, Tae-Hee; Hwang, Ji-Young; Jang, Won-Cheoul

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and the risks for various breast and ovarian cancers have been reported in many epidemiological studies. However, the associations between VDR gene polymorphisms and the risk for each type of cancer are unclear. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the associations between VDR gene polymorphisms and female reproductive cancers. A systematic review was performed with the PubMed Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases up to April 2014 using the search terms "vitamin D receptor or VDR" and "variant or polymorphism or SNP" with terms for breast, ovarian, cervical, endometrial, uterine, and vaginal cancers. A meta-analysis with the pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals was carried out to assess the associations between VDR polymorphisms (Cdx-2, FokI, BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI) and the risks for reproductive cancers under the heterozygous, homozygous, dominant, and recessive models with fixed or random effects models. Six ovarian cancer studies (13 individual studies involving 4107 cases and 6661 controls) and 29 breast cancer studies (38 individual studies involving 16,453 cases and 22,044 controls) were included in our meta-analysis. Our results indicate that the FokI polymorphism was related to increased risks for breast and ovarian cancers, whereas the BsmI polymorphism was associated with a decreased risk for developing these cancers. Our comprehensive meta-analysis indicated that the FokI and BsmI VDR gene polymorphisms may be significantly associated with gynecological cancers. We suggest monitoring VDR gene polymorphisms as potential biomarkers in patients with gynecological malignancy. PMID:25882760

  8. Interaction between Calpain 5, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta genes: a polygenic approach to obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sáez, María E; Grilo, Antonio; Morón, Francisco J; Manzano, Luis; Martínez-Larrad, María T; González-Pérez, Antonio; Serrano-Hernando, Javier; Ruiz, Agustín; Ramírez-Lorca, Reposo; Serrano-Ríos, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Context Obesity is a multifactorial disorder, that is, a disease determined by the combined effect of genes and environment. In this context, polygenic approaches are needed. Objective To investigate the possibility of the existence of a crosstalk between the CALPAIN 10 homologue CALPAIN 5 and nuclear receptors of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors family. Design Cross-sectional, genetic association study and gene-gene interaction analysis. Subjects The study sample comprise 1953 individuals, 725 obese (defined as body mass index ≥ 30) and 1228 non obese subjects. Results In the monogenic analysis, only the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) gene was associated with obesity (OR = 1.43 [1.04–1.97], p = 0.027). In addition, we have found a significant interaction between CAPN5 and PPARD genes (p = 0.038) that reduces the risk for obesity in a 55%. Conclusion Our results suggest that CAPN5 and PPARD gene products may also interact in vivo. PMID:18657264

  9. Expression of major guidance receptors is differentially regulated in spinal commissural neurons transfated by mammalian Barh genes.

    PubMed

    Kawauchi, Daisuke; Muroyama, Yuko; Sato, Tatsuya; Saito, Tetsuichiro

    2010-08-15

    During development, commissural neurons in the spinal cord project their axons across the ventral midline, floor plate, via multiple interactions among temporally controlled molecular guidance cues and receptors. The transcriptional regulation of commissural axon-associated receptors, however, is not well characterized. Spinal dorsal cells are transfated into commissural neurons by misexpression of Mbh1, a Bar-class homeobox gene. We examined the function of another Bar-class homeobox gene, Mbh2, and how Mbh1 and Mbh2 modulate expression of the receptors, leading to midline crossing of axons. Misexpression of Mbh1 and Mbh2 showed the same effects in the spinal cord. The competence of spinal dorsal cells to become commissural neurons was dependent on the embryonic stage, during which misexpression of the Mbh genes was able to activate guidance receptor genes such as Rig1 and Nrp2. Misexpression of Lhx2, which has been recently shown to be involved in Rig1 expression, activated Rig1 but not Nrp2, and was less effective in generating commissural neurons. Moreover, expression of Lhx2 was activated by and required the Mbh genes. These findings have revealed a transcriptional cascade, in which Lhx2-dependent and -independent pathways leading to expression of guidance receptors branch downstream of the Mbh genes. PMID:20599893

  10. A new member of the cytokine receptor gene family maps on chromosome 21 at less than 35 kb from IFNAR

    SciTech Connect

    Lutfalla, G.; Uze, G.; Gardiner, K.

    1993-05-01

    A full-length cDNA corresponding to a gene mapping to the D21S58 locus was cloned. The encoded protein, called CRF2-4, was shown to be a typical class II member of the cytokine receptor family. The gene encoding CRF2-4 spans more than 30 kb. Its intron/exon structure was determined and shown to be conserved with all other members of the cytokine receptor family. The physical distance between the CRF2-4 gene and its IFNAR neighbor has been narrowed to less than 35 kb. 41 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. No association between androgen or vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dunning, A M; McBride, S; Gregory, J; Durocher, F; Foster, N A; Healey, C S; Smith, N; Pharoah, P D; Luben, R N; Easton, D F; Ponder, B A

    1999-11-01

    Endogenous hormone exposure is known to alter breast cancer susceptibility and genes responsive to such hormones are plausible candidates for predisposition genes. We have examined polymorphisms in genes for two members of the nuclear receptor superfamily which are expressed in breast tissue and known to moderate rates of cell proliferation in a case-control association study: the androgen receptor (AR) and the vitamin D receptor (VDR). We have used two series of Caucasian female breast cancer cases, one incident and one prevalent, and compared both with two sets of matched controls from the East Anglian region of Britain. Since the results are similar in the two series we have combined them. The AR poly[Gly](n) and poly[Gln](n) tracts were genotyped in a total of 508 female breast cancer cases and 426 controls. The VDR TaqI polymorphism was analysed in 951 cases and 627 controls drawn from the same population series. There were no significant differences between cases and controls for either the AR or VDR polymorphisms. Compared with individuals with two short alleles (<22 repeats) of the AR poly[Gln](n) tract, the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for individuals with one or two long alleles were 0.82 (95% CI 0.62-1.09) and 1.31 (95% CI 0.87-1.97), respectively. Heterozygotes and homozygotes for the VDR TaqI cutting site had odds ratios of 1.01 (95% CI 0.81-1.27) and 0.97 (95% CI 0.71-1.32), respectively. None of the AR or VDR polymorphisms investigated has a major effect on risk of breast cancer in the British population. PMID:10545416

  12. Oxytocin Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Human Directed Social Behavior in Dogs (Canis familiaris)

    PubMed Central

    Lakatos, Gabriella; Pergel, Enikő; Turcsán, Borbála; Pluijmakers, Jolanda; Vas, Judit; Elek, Zsuzsanna; Brúder, Ildikó; Földi, Levente; Sasvári-Székely, Mária; Miklósi, Ádám; Rónai, Zsolt; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2014-01-01

    The oxytocin system has a crucial role in human sociality; several results prove that polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor gene are related to complex social behaviors in humans. Dogs' parallel evolution with humans and their adaptation to the human environment has made them a useful species to model human social interactions. Previous research indicates that dogs are eligible models for behavioral genetic research, as well. Based on these previous findings, our research investigated associations between human directed social behaviors and two newly described (−212AG, 19131AG) and one known (rs8679684) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory regions (5′ and 3′ UTR) of the oxytocin receptor gene in German Shepherd (N = 104) and Border Collie (N = 103) dogs. Dogs' behavior traits have been estimated in a newly developed test series consisting of five episodes: Greeting by a stranger, Separation from the owner, Problem solving, Threatening approach, Hiding of the owner. Buccal samples were collected and DNA was isolated using standard protocols. SNPs in the 3′ and 5′ UTR regions were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction based techniques followed by subsequent electrophoresis analysis. The gene–behavior association analysis suggests that oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms have an impact in both breeds on (i) proximity seeking towards an unfamiliar person, as well as their owner, and on (ii) how friendly dogs behave towards strangers, although the mediating molecular regulatory mechanisms are yet unknown. Based on these results, we conclude that similarly to humans, the social behavior of dogs towards humans is influenced by the oxytocin system. PMID:24454713

  13. Global Developmental Gene Programing Involves a Nuclear Form of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor-1 (FGFR1).

    PubMed

    Terranova, Christopher; Narla, Sridhar T; Lee, Yu-Wei; Bard, Jonathan; Parikh, Abhirath; Stachowiak, Ewa K; Tzanakakis, Emmanuel S; Buck, Michael J; Birkaya, Barbara; Stachowiak, Michal K

    2015-01-01

    Genetic studies have placed the Fgfr1 gene at the top of major ontogenic pathways that enable gastrulation, tissue development and organogenesis. Using genome-wide sequencing and loss and gain of function experiments the present investigation reveals a mechanism that underlies global and direct gene regulation by the nuclear form of FGFR1, ensuring that pluripotent Embryonic Stem Cells differentiate into Neuronal Cells in response to Retinoic Acid. Nuclear FGFR1, both alone and with its partner nuclear receptors RXR and Nur77, targets thousands of active genes and controls the expression of pluripotency, homeobox, neuronal and mesodermal genes. Nuclear FGFR1 targets genes in developmental pathways represented by Wnt/β-catenin, CREB, BMP, the cell cycle and cancer-related TP53 pathway, neuroectodermal and mesodermal programing networks, axonal growth and synaptic plasticity pathways. Nuclear FGFR1 targets the consensus sequences of transcription factors known to engage CREB-binding protein, a common coregulator of transcription and established binding partner of nuclear FGFR1. This investigation reveals the role of nuclear FGFR1 as a global genomic programmer of cell, neural and muscle development. PMID:25923916

  14. Repression of DNA-binding dependent glucocorticoid receptor-mediated gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Muzikar, Katy A.; Nickols, Nicholas G.; Dervan, Peter B.

    2009-01-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) affects the transcription of genes involved in diverse processes, including energy metabolism and the immune response, through DNA-binding dependent and independent mechanisms. The DNA-binding dependent mechanism occurs by direct binding of GR to glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) at regulatory regions of target genes. The DNA-binding independent mechanism involves binding of GR to transcription factors and coactivators that, in turn, contact DNA. A small molecule that competes with GR for binding to GREs could be expected to affect the DNA-dependent pathway selectively by interfering with the protein-DNA interface. We show that a DNA-binding polyamide that targets the consensus GRE sequence binds the glucocorticoid-induced zipper (GILZ) GRE, inhibits expression of GILZ and several other known GR target genes, and reduces GR occupancy at the GILZ promoter. Genome-wide expression analysis of the effects of this polyamide on a set of glucocorticoid-induced and -repressed genes could help to elucidate the mechanism of GR regulation for these genes. PMID:19805343

  15. Cardiomyocyte-Specific Deletion of the Vitamin D Receptor Gene Results in Cardiac Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Songcang; Law, Christopher S.; Grigsby, Christopher L.; Olsen, Keith; Hong, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Yan; Yeghiazarians, Yerem; Gardner, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Background A variety of studies carried out using either human subjects or laboratory animals suggest that vitamin D and its analogues possess important beneficial activity in the cardiovascular system. Using Cre-Lox technology we have selectively deleted the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene in the cardiac myocyte in an effort to better understand the role of vitamin D in regulating myocyte structure and function. Methods and Results Targeted deletion of exon 4 coding sequence in the VDR gene resulted in an increase in myocyte size and left ventricular weight/body weight versus controls both at baseline and following a 7-day infusion of isoproterenol. There was no increase in interstitial fibrosis. These knockout mice demonstrated a reduction in end diastolic and end systolic volume by echocardiography, activation of the fetal gene program (i.e. increased atrial natriuretic peptide and alpha skeletal actin gene expression) and increased expression of MCIP 1, a direct downstream target of calcineurin/NFAT signaling. Treatment of neonatal cardiomyocytes with 1,25- dihydroxyvitamin D partially reduced isoproterenol-induced MCIP 1 mRNA and protein levels and MCIP 1 gene promoter activity. Conclusions Collectively, these studies demonstrate that the vitamin D-VDR signaling system possesses direct, anti-hypertrophic activity in the heart. This appears to involve, at least in part, suppression of the pro-hypertrophic calcineurin/NFAT/MCIP 1 pathway. These studies identify a potential mechanism to account for the reported beneficial effects of vitamin D in the cardiovascular system. PMID:21947295

  16. Non random usage of T cell receptor alpha gene expression in atopy using anchored PCR.

    PubMed

    Mansur, A H; Gelder, C M; Holland, D; Campell, D A; Griffin, A; Cunliffe, W; Markham, A F; Morrison, J F

    1996-01-01

    The T cell receptor (TCR) alpha beta heterodimer recognises antigenic peptide fragments presented by Class II MHC. This interaction initiates T cell activation and cytokine release with subsequent recruitment of inflammatory cells. Previous work from our group suggests a qualitative difference in variable alpha gene expression in atopy as compared to non atopic controls. In this study we examine TCR alpha repertoire using anchored PCR to provide a quantitative assessment of the V alpha and J alpha repertoire. One atopic (DRB1*0701,DRB1*15: DRB4*0101, DRB5*01: DQB1* 0303, DQB1*601/2) and one non-atopic (DRB1*0701,DRB1*03011/2: DRB4*01, DRB3*0x: DQB1* 0303, DQB1*0201/2) control were studied. Variable gene usage was markedly limited in the atopic individual. V alpha 1, 3, 8 accounted for 60% and J alpha 12, 31 30% of the gene usage. There was evidence of preferential V alpha-J alpha gene pairing and clonal expansion. We conclude that there is a marked non random TCR alpha gene distribution in atopy using both V alpha family and anchored PCR. This may be due in part to antigen driven clonal expansion. PMID:9095269

  17. Meta-analysis of primary target genes of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors

    PubMed Central

    Heinäniemi, Merja; Uski, J Oskari; Degenhardt, Tatjana; Carlberg, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are known for their critical role in the development of diseases, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and cancer. Here, an in silico screening method is presented, which incorporates experiment- and informatics-derived evidence, such as DNA-binding data of PPAR subtypes to a panel of PPAR response elements (PPREs), PPRE location relative to the transcription start site (TSS) and PPRE conservation across multiple species, for more reliable prediction of PPREs. Results In vitro binding and in vivo functionality evidence agrees with in silico predictions, validating the approach. The experimental analysis of 30 putative PPREs in eight validated PPAR target genes indicates that each gene contains at least one functional, strong PPRE that occurs without positional bias relative to the TSS. An extended analysis of the cross-species conservation of PPREs reveals limited conservation of PPRE patterns, although PPAR target genes typically contain strong or multiple medium strength PPREs. Human chromosome 19 was screened using this method, with validation of six novel PPAR target genes. Conclusion An in silico screening approach is presented, which allows increased sensitivity of PPAR binding site and target gene detection. PMID:17650321

  18. Variable expressivity and mutation databases: The androgen receptor gene mutations database.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, B; Beitel, L K; Trifiro, M A

    2001-05-01

    For over 50 years genetics has presumed that variations in phenotypic expression have, for the most part, been the result of alterations in genotype. The importance and value of mutation databases has been based on the premise that the same gene or allelic variation in a specific gene that has been proven to determine a specific phenotype, will always produce the same phenotype. However, recent evidence has shown that so called "simple" Mendelian disorders or monogenic traits are often far from simple, exhibiting phenotypic variation (variable expressivity) that cannot be explained solely by a gene or allelic alteration. The AR gene mutations database now lists 25 cases where different degrees of androgen insensitivity are caused by identical mutations in the androgen receptor gene. In five of these cases the phenotypic variability is due to somatic mosaicism, that is, somatic mutations that occur in only certain cells of androgen-sensitive tissue. Recently, a number of other cases of variable expressivity have also been linked to somatic mosaicism. The impact of variable expressivity due to somatic mutations and mosaicism on mutation databases is discussed. In particular, the effect of an organism exhibiting genetic heterogeneity within its tissues, and the possibility of an organism's genotype changing over its lifetime, are considered to have important implications for mutation databases in the future. PMID:11317353

  19. Transcriptional regulation of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 gene by liver receptor homolog-1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eui Sup; Seo, Hyun Jung; Back, Su Sun; Han, Seung Ho; Jeong, Yeon Ji; Lee, Jin Wook; Choi, Soo Young; Han, Kyuhyung

    2015-09-01

    Factors that modulate cholesterol levels have major impacts on cardiovascular disease. Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) functions as a sterol transporter mediating intestinal cholesterol absorption and counter-balancing hepatobiliary cholesterol excretion. The liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH-1) had been shown to regulate genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport. To study whether human NPC1L1 gene is regulated transcriptionally by LRH-1, we have analyzed evolutionary conserved regions (ECRs) in HepG2 cells. One ECR was found to be responsive to the LRH-1. Through deletion studies, LRH-1 response element was identified and the binding of LRH-1 was demonstrated by EMSA and ChIP assays. When SREBP2, one of several transcription factors which had been shown to regulate NPC1L1 gene, was co-expressed with LRH-1, synergistic transcriptional activation resulted. In conclusion, we have identified LRH-1 response elements in NPC1L1 gene and propose that LRH-1 and SREBP may play important roles in regulating NPC1L1 gene. PMID:25739390

  20. No evidence of major effects in several Toll-like receptor gene polymorphisms in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Jaen, Olivier; Petit-Teixeira, Elisabeth; Kirsten, Holger; Ahnert, Peter; Semerano, Luca; Pierlot, Céline; Cornelis, Francois; Boissier, Marie-Christophe; Falgarone, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The objective was to study the potential genetic contribution of Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). TLRs bind to pathogen-associated molecular patterns, and TLR genes influence both proinflammatory cytokine production and autoimmune responses. Host–pathogen interactions are involved in RA physiopathology. Methods We tested SNPs of five TLR genes (TLR9, TLR2, TLR6, TLR1, and TLR4) in a cohort of 100 French families with RA. Genotypes were analyzed using the transmission disequilibrium test. As TLR2, TLR6, and TLR1 are located on chromosome 4, we determined the haplotype relative risk. Analyses were performed in subgroups defined by status for rheumatoid factor, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide autoantibodies, and erosions. Results We found no disequilibrium in allele transmission for any of the SNPs of the five TLR genes. In subgroup analyses, no associations were detected linking TLR9, TLR2, or TLR9/TLR2 to rheumatoid factor, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide autoantibodies, or erosions. Haplotype analysis of the polymorphisms showed no haplotype associations in any of the subgroups. Conclusions We found no evidence of major effects of TLR gene polymorphisms in RA, although we tested different TLR phenotypes. Moreover, no associations were noted with autoantibody production or erosions. PMID:19134200

  1. Vitamin D receptor gene ApaI polymorphism and breast cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shayang; Guo, Lei; Li, Yan; Wang, Shouman

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) principally mediates the anticancer activities of vitamin D. Many studies investigated the association between VDR gene ApaI polymorphism and breast cancer, but the results were inconclusive. We performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the association between VDR gene ApaI polymorphism and breast cancer. Twelve studies with a total of 8,254 subjects were identified from PubMed and Wanfang databases. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to assess the association. The meta-analysis indicated that VDR gene ApaI polymorphism was not associated with risk of breast cancer (a vs. A: OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.91-1.04, P = 0.378; aa vs. AA: OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.85-1.10, P = 0.618; aa vs. AA + Aa: OR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.89-1.12, P = 0.972; aa + Aa vs. AA: OR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.82-1.11, P = 0.550). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity further showed that VDR gene ApaI polymorphism was not associated with risk of breast cancer in both Asians and Caucasians. These data from the meta-analysis indicate that VDR gene ApaI polymorphism is not associated with breast cancer susceptibility. PMID:24048755

  2. T-cell receptor gene homologs are present in the most primitive jawed vertebrates.

    PubMed Central

    Rast, J P; Litman, G W

    1994-01-01

    The phylogenetic origins of T-cell immunity and T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) genes have not been established. A PCR approach using short, minimally degenerate oligodeoxynucleotide primers complementing conserved variable region segments amplifies TCR-like products from the genomic DNA of Heterodontus francisci (horned shark), a representative phylogenetically primitive cartilaginous fish. One of these products has been used as a probe to screen a Heterodontus spleen cDNA library and a clone was identified that is most related at the nucleotide sequence and predicted peptide levels to higher vertebrate TCR beta-chain genes. Genomic analyses of the TCR homologs indicate that recombining variable and joining region segments as well as constant region exons are encoded by extensive gene families, organized in the multicluster form, characteristic of both the immunoglobulin heavy- and light-chain gene loci in the cartilaginous fishes. Greater numbers of homologous products were identified when a probe complementing the putative constant region of the TCR homolog was used to screen the same cDNA library. A high degree of intergenic variation is associated with the putative variable region segments of these isolates. Direct evidence is presented for TCR-like genes, which presumably are associated with T-cell function, at the earliest stages in the phylogenetic emergence of jawed vertebrates. Images PMID:7937749

  3. Transcriptional regulation of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 gene by liver receptor homolog-1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eui Sup; Seo, Hyun Jung; BacK, Su Sun; Han, Seung Ho; Jeong, Yeon Ji; Lee, Jin Wook; Choi, Soo Young; Han, Kyuhyung

    2015-01-01

    Factors that modulate cholesterol levels have major impacts on cardiovascular disease. Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) functions as a sterol transporter mediating intestinal cholesterol absorption and counter-balancing hepatobiliary cholesterol excretion. The liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH-1) had been shown to regulate genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport. To study whether human NPC1L1 gene is regulated transcriptionally by LRH-1, we have analyzed evolutionary conserved regions (ECRs) in HepG2 cells. One ECR was found to be responsive to the LRH-1. Through deletion studies, LRH-1 response element was identified and the binding of LRH-1 was demonstrated by EMSA and ChIP assays. When SREBP2, one of several transcription factors which had been shown to regulate NPC1L1 gene, was co-expressed with LRH-1, synergistic transcriptional activation resulted. In conclusion, we have identified LRH-1 response elements in NPC1L1 gene and propose that LRH-1 and SREBP may play important roles in regulating NPC1L1 gene. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(9): 513-518] PMID:25739390

  4. Isolation and characterization of CXC receptor genes in a range of elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Goostrey, Anna; Jones, Gareth; Secombes, Christopher J

    2005-01-01

    The CXC group of chemokines exert their cellular effects via the CXCR group of G-protein coupled receptors. Six CXCR genes have been identified in humans (CXCR1-6), and homologues to some of these have been isolated from a range of vertebrate species. Here we isolate and characterize CXCR genes from a range of elasmobranch species. One CXCR1/2 gene fragment isolated from Scyliorhinus caniculus (lesser spotted catshark), and two CXCR1/2 copies from each of the elasmobranchs, Cetorhinus maximus (basking shark), Carcharodon carcharias (great white shark), and Raja naevus (cuckoo ray), exhibit high similarity to both CXCR1 and CXCR2. The two copies evident in the cuckoo ray and lamniform sharks provide strong evidence of CXCR1/2 lineage specific duplication in rays and sharks. A CXCR fragment isolated from Lamna ditropis (salmon shark) shows high similarity to a range of CXCR4 genes and strong clustering with CXCR4 gene homologues was apparent during phylogenetic reconstruction. PMID:15572071

  5. Sequence analysis of two genomic regions containing the KIT and the FMS receptor tyrosine kinase genes

    SciTech Connect

    Andre, C.; Hampe, A.; Lachaume, P.

    1997-01-15

    The KIT and FMS tyrosine kinase receptors, which are implicated in the control of cell growth and differentiation, stem through duplications from a common ancestor. We have conducted a detailed structural analysis of the two loci containing the KIT and FMS genes. The sequence of the {approximately}90-kb KIT locus reveals the position and size of the 21 introns and of the 5{prime} regulatory region of the KIT gene. The introns and the 3{prime}-untranslated parts of KIT and FMS have been analyzed in parallel. Comparison of the two sequences shows that, while introns of both genes have extensively diverged in size and sequence, this divergence is, at least in part, due to intron expansion through internal duplications, as suggested by the discrete extant analogies. Repetitive elements as well as exon predictions obtained using the GRAIL and GENEFINDER programs are described in detail. These programs led us to identify a novel gene, designated SMF, immediately downstream of FMS, in the opposite orientation. This finding emphasizes the gene-rich characteristic of this genomic region. 49 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and arylhydrocarbon receptor agonists: Different toxicity and target gene expression.

    PubMed

    Wahl, M; Guenther, R; Yang, L; Bergman, A; Straehle, U; Strack, S; Weiss, C

    2010-10-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) accumulate in the environment and in humans. PBDEs are developmental neurotoxicants, disturb the endocrine system and induce tumors in rodents. However, underlying mechanisms of PBDE toxicity are still insufficiently understood. Some reports demonstrated activation but also inhibition of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) by PBDEs based on expression of its target gene cyp1A1. In the present study, we used different PBDE congeners (BDE47, 99, 153 and 209) and analyzed their effects on AhR signaling in various cell lines and zebrafish embryos. Furthermore, we performed microarray experiments in rat hepatoma cells to compare changes in gene expression induced by either BDE47 or the AhR agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrabromo-dibenzofuran (TBDF). PBDEs did not activate but rather inhibited AhR signaling and specifically induced malformations in zebrafish embryos, which differ from those provoked by AhR agonists. Furthermore, BDE47 and TBDF differentially regulated global gene expression in hepatoma cells. Hence, PBDEs and AhR agonists trigger different toxicity and target gene expression. Several novel target genes of BDE47 and TBDF were identified and verified by RT-PCR. TBDF induced expression of the transcriptional regulators Sim2 and RevErbbeta whereas BDE47 specifically deregulated expression of two subunits of the cytochrome c oxidase complex, cox6a2 and cox4i2, which might be linked to its toxicity. PMID:20566336

  7. Analysis of the murine Dtk gene identifies conservation of genomic structure within a new receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.M.; Crosier, K.E.; Crosier, P.S.

    1996-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase Dtk/Tyro 3/Sky/rse/brt/tif is a member of a new subfamily of receptors that also includes Axl/Ufo/Ark and Eyk/Mer. These receptors are characterized by the presence of two immunoglobulin-like loops and two fibronectin type III repeats in their extracellular domains. The structure of the murine Dtk gene has been determined. The gene consists of 21 exons that are distributed over 21 kb of genomic DNA. An isoform of Dtk is generated by differential splicing of exons from the 5{prime} region of the gene. The overall genomic structure of Dtk is virtually identical to that determined for the human UFO gene. This particular genomic organization is likely to have been duplicated and closely maintained throughout evolution. 38 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Cisplatin induces neuronal activation and increases central AMPA and NMDA receptor subunit gene expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Holland, Ruby A; Leonard, John J; Kensey, Nicholas A; Hannikainen, Paavali A; De Jonghe, Bart C

    2014-09-01

    Although rats and mice do not vomit, these species are widely studied as models of energy balance and sickness behavior. Previous work has shown that rats exhibit similar neuroanatomical activation of brain and visceral afferent pathways following cisplatin chemotherapy compared to vomiting species. However, the neural response to cisplatin in mice is understudied. Here, food intake, body weight, and central c-Fos immunofluorescence were analyzed in the hindbrains of male C57BL/6 mice following IP saline or cisplatin (5mg/kg, and 20mg/kg doses). As glutamate receptor signaling is classically linked to inhibitory feeding pathways in the rodent, gene expression of selected α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor subunits were assessed in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC), parabrachial nucleus (PBN), amygdala, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). Our results show dose-dependent reductions in food intake and body weight following cisplatin treatment, as well as increases in cisplatin-induced c-Fos in the PBN and throughout the DVC. Quantitative PCR analysis shows cisplatin-induced increases in NMDA receptor subunit expression, particularly NR2B, in the DVC, PBN, BNST, and amygdala. In addition, upregulation of AMPA receptor subunits (GluA1 and/or GluA2) were observed in all regions examined except the amygdala. Taken together, these results suggest similar neural pathways mediating cisplatin effects in mice compared to other well-studied species, which are likely mediated by central upregulation of AMPA and NMDA receptors. PMID:24582677

  9. Androgen Receptor Structure, Function and Biology: From Bench to Bedside

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Rachel A; Grossmann, Mathis

    2016-01-01

    The actions of androgens such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone are mediated via the androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-dependent nuclear transcription factor and member of the steroid hormone nuclear receptor family. Given its widespread expression in many cells and tissues, the AR has a diverse range of biological actions including important roles in the development and maintenance of the reproductive, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, immune, neural and haemopoietic systems. AR signalling may also be involved in the development of tumours in the prostate, bladder, liver, kidney and lung. Androgens can exert their actions via the AR in a DNA binding-dependent manner to regulate target gene transcription, or in a non-DNA binding-dependent manner to initiate rapid, cellular events such as the phosphorylation of 2nd messenger signalling cascades. More recently, ligand-independent actions of the AR have also been identified. Given the large volume of studies relating to androgens and the AR, this review is not intended as an extensive review of all studies investigating the AR, but rather as an overview of the structure, function, signalling pathways and biology of the AR as well as its important role in clinical medicine, with emphasis on recent developments in this field. PMID:27057074

  10. A familial case of congenital hypothyroidism caused by a homozygous mutation of the thyrotropin receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Bretones, P; Duprez, L; Parma, J; David, M; Vassart, G; Rodien, P

    2001-10-01

    Most of the time congenital hypothyroidism appears as a sporadic disease. In addition to the rare defects in hormonosynthesis associated with goiters, the causes of congenital hypothyroidism include agenesis and ectopy of the thyroid gland. The study of some familial cases has allowed the identification of a few genes responsible for congenital hypothyroidism. We report here a familial case of congenital hypothyroidism, transmitted as a recessive trait, and caused by a homozygous mutation in the thyrotropin receptor (TSH-R). The initial diagnosis of thyroid agenesis, based on the absence of tracer uptake on scintiscan, was incorrect, because ultrasound examination identified severely hypoplastic thyroid tissue in the cervical region. PMID:11716047

  11. Isolation, characterization, and expression analyses of ecdysone receptor 1, ecdysone receptor 2 and ultraspiracle genes in varroa destructor mite

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The varroa mite, Varroa destructor, is a honeybee ectoparasite considered the most important pest in apiaries throughout the US. Ecdysone receptor is a hormone secreted by the prothoracic gland of insects that controls ecdysis and stimulates metamorphosis. The ecdysone receptor is a nuclear receptor...

  12. Gene Expression Patterns Associated with Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor (PPAR) Signaling in the Longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo (Korean Cattle)

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Dajeong; Chai, Han-Ha; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Cho, Yong-Min; Choi, Jung-Woo; Kim, Nam-Kuk

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue deposited within muscle fibers, known as intramuscular fat (IMF or marbling), is a major determinant of meat quality and thereby affects its economic value. The biological mechanisms that determine IMF content are therefore of interest. In this study, 48 genes involved in the bovine peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway, which is involved in lipid metabolism, were investigated to identify candidate genes associated with IMF in the longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo (Korean cattle). Ten genes, retinoid X receptor alpha, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), phospholipid transfer protein, stearoyl-CoA desaturase, nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group H member 3, fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3), carnitine palmitoyltransferase II, acyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase long chain (ACADL), acyl-Coenzyme A oxidase 2 branched chain, and fatty acid binding protein 4, showed significant effects with regard to IMF and were differentially expressed between the low- and high-marbled groups (p<0.05). Analysis of the gene co-expression network based on Pearson’s correlation coefficients identified 10 up-regulated genes in the high-marbled group that formed a major cluster. Among these genes, the PPARG-FABP4 gene pair exhibited the strongest correlation in the network. Glycerol kinase was found to play a role in mediating activation of the differentially expressed genes. We categorized the 10 significantly differentially expressed genes into the corresponding downstream pathways and investigated the direct interactive relationships among these genes. We suggest that fatty acid oxidation is the major downstream pathway affecting IMF content. The PPARG/RXRA complex triggers activation of target genes involved in fatty acid oxidation resulting in increased triglyceride formation by ATP production. Our findings highlight candidate genes associated with the IMF content of the loin muscle of Korean cattle and provide insight into the

  13. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor gene diversity in the Tibetan ethnic minority group of China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bo-feng; Wang, Hong-dan; Shen, Chun-mei; Deng, Ya-jun; Yang, Guang; Wu, Qing-ju; Xu, Peng; Qin, Hai-xia; Fan, Shuan-liang; Huang, Ping; Deng, Li-bin; Lucas, Rudolf; Wang, Zhen-Yuan

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene polymorphisms in the Tibetan ethnic minority of China. To that purpose, we have studied KIR gene frequencies and genotype diversities of 16 KIR genes and three pseudogenes (2DL1, 2DL2, 2DL3, 2DL4, 2DL5A, 2DL5B, 2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS3, 2DS4*001/002, 2DS4*003-007, 2DS5, 3DL1, 3DL2, 3DL3, 3DS1, 2DP1, 3DP1*001/002/004, and 3DP1*003) in a population sample of 102 unrelated healthy individuals of the Tibetan population living in Lhasa city, Tibet Autonomous Region of China. Tibetans mainly live in "the roof of the world," the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China and surrounding areas stretching from central Asia in the North and West to Myanmar and mainland China in the East, and India, Nepal, and Bhutan to the south. KIR gene frequencies and statistical parameters of Tibetan ethnic minority were calculated. Fifteen KIR genes were observed in the 102 tested Tibetan individuals with different frequencies. The allelic frequencies of the 15 KIR genes ranged from 0.06 to 0.86. In addition, KIR 2DL1, 2DL4, 3DL2, and 3DL3 were found to be present in every individual. Variable gene content, together with allelic polymorphisms, can result in individualized human KIR genotypes and haplotypes, with the A haplotypes being predominantly observed. The results of tested linkage disequilibrium (LD) among KIR genes demonstrated that KIR genes present a wide range of linkage disequilibrium. Moreover, a comparison of the population data of our study with previously published population data of other ethnic groups or areas was performed. The differences of allelic frequency distribution in KIR2DL2, 2DL3, 2DL5, 3DL1, 2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS3, 3DS1, and 2DP1 were statistically significant among different populations using the statistical method of the standard χ(2) test. In conclusion, the results of the present study can be valuable for enriching the Chinese ethnical gene information resources of the KIR gene pool and for

  14. Interleukin-1-induced gene expression requires the membrane-raft-dependent internalization of the interleukin-1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Windheim, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) binding to its receptor triggers signaling events at the plasma membrane that are essential but not sufficient for the induction of the IL-1-dependent gene expression. In addition, the ligand-induced endocytosis of the IL-1 receptor and signaling events that are initiated after the internalization of the IL-1 receptor presumably involving signaling endosomes are critical for the IL-1-induced gene expression. In this study, we investigate the role of membrane domains, commonly denoted as lipid rafts, in the IL-1-induced signal transduction. We demonstrate that the internalization of the IL-1 receptor depends on the integrity of lipid rafts and that the disruption of lipid rafts strongly reduces the IL-1-induced gene expression. Interestingly, the IL-1-dependent signaling events activated at the plasma membrane are not influenced by the disruption of lipid rafts suggesting that IL-1 signaling is initiated in a non-raft domain of the plasma membrane. Subsequently, the IL-1 receptor is translocated to lipid rafts where receptor endocytosis occurs to enable the internalization-dependent IL-1 signaling to activate the IL-1-induced gene expression. PMID:27327966

  15. Developmental regulation of the estrogen receptor and the estrogen responsiveness of five yolk protein genes in the avian liver.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, M I; O'Malley, P J; Krust, A; Burch, J B

    1987-01-01

    The magnitude of the expression of five yolk protein genes in the avian liver in response to exogenous estradiol is shown to be developmentally regulated. Though each of these yolk protein genes gains the capacity to respond to estradiol during embryonic development, we demonstrate that maximal responses for the different genes are achieved at distinct ages between 1 and 6 weeks after hatching. This observation prompted us to look for possible correlations between yolk protein gene expression and changes in the expression of estrogen receptors that might also occur after hatching. We discovered that indeed the maximal level of nuclear estrogen receptors (assayed following the administration of estradiol) increases progressively over this same period of development from approximately 1000 receptors per cell at 1 week after hatching to approximately 3500 receptors per cell at 6 weeks after hatching. The latter number represents the fully mature state, as comparable levels of receptors are present in the livers of egg-laying hens. Thus, though increases in the expression of estrogen receptors during embryonic liver development have previously been reported, our results indicate that the changes that occur after hatching are quantitatively far more significant to the developmental program for this transcription factor. PMID:3479803

  16. Mutation scan of the D1 dopamine receptor gene in 22 cases of bipolar I disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, M.; Coon, H.; Holik, J.; Hoff, M.

    1995-04-24

    In a previous study we found suggestive evidence of linkage between manic-depressive illness (MDI) in eight multiplex pedigrees and D5S62, a DNA marker mapping to the telomeric region of 5q. As the D1 dopamine receptor gene (DRDI) maps to this region and as alterations in dopaminergic neurotransmission have been indirectly implicated in the pathogenesis of MDI, we directly searched for mutations in the coding region of the DRDI gene in 22 unrelated cases of bipolar I (BPI) disorder derived from multiplex families. Using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, we did not observe any abnormal SSCP variants in the BPI cases that differed from controls. 30 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Arg924X homozygous mutation in insulin receptor gene in a Tunisian patient with Donohue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Azzabi, Ons; Jilani, Houweyda; Rejeb, Imen; Siala, Nadia; Elaribi, Yasmina; Hizem, Syrine; Selmi, Ines; Halioui, Sonia; Lascols, Olivier; Jemaa, Lamia Ben; Maherzi, Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    Donohue syndrome (DS) is a rare and lethal autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the insulin receptor (INSR) gene, manifesting marked insulin resistance, severe growth retardation, hypertrichosis, and characteristic dysmorphic features. We describe a new case of Donohue syndrome born at 37 weeks' gestation of unrelated parents and presented with intra-uterine growth retardation, nipple hypertrophy, macropenis, distended abdomen, hirsutism and dysmorphic features. The clinical course showed failure to thrive, and episodes of alternating hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Laboratory tests revealed direct hyperbilirubinemia. The diagnosis of Donohue syndrome was established based on the above clinical characteristics and determination of the INSR mutation. He was found to have homozygous nonsense mutation c. 2270 C>T (Arg924X) at exon 14 of the INSR gene. He later developed enterocolitis and died at 3 months old. Prenatal diagnosis was performed for the family via chorionic villous biopsy. We try to explain gastrointestinal dysfunction seen in our patient. PMID:26974131

  18. No Association between Oxytocin Receptor (OXTR) Gene Polymorphisms and Experimentally Elicited Social Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Apicella, Coren L.; Cesarini, David; Johannesson, Magnus; Dawes, Christopher T.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Wallace, Björn; Beauchamp, Jonathan; Westberg, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Background Oxytocin (OXT) has been implicated in a suite of complex social behaviors including observed choices in economic laboratory experiments. However, actual studies of associations between oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene variants and experimentally elicited social preferences are rare. Methodology/Principal Findings We test hypotheses of associations between social preferences, as measured by behavior in two economic games, and 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the OXTR gene in a sample of Swedish twins (n = 684). Two standard economic games, the dictator game and the trust game, both involving real monetary consequences, were used to elicit such preferences. After correction for multiple hypothesis testing, we found no significant associations between any of the 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and behavior in either of the games. Conclusion We were unable to replicate the most significant association reported in previous research between the amount donated in a dictator game and an OXTR genetic variant. PMID:20585395

  19. Ontogeny of the long form of leptin receptor gene expression in the porcine ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Smolinska, N; Kaminski, T; Siawrys, G; Przala, J

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is a polypeptide hormone produced predominantly in adipocytes. It has been found to be implicated in the regulation of satiety and energy homeostasis. A role for leptin in reproduction was later suggested by findings that this hormone may be involved in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis via endocrine, paracrine and/or autocrine pathways. The objective of the study was to investigate the ontogeny of the long isoform of leptin receptor (OB-Rb) gene in porcine ovarian follicles. The expression of OB-Rb gene was detected in porcine primordial, primary, secondary and antral follicles by in situ hybridization. In summary, our data suggest that leptin might have a direct effect on porcine follicles and plays an important role in the follicular development. PMID:23691582

  20. Endocrine parameters and phenotypes of the growth hormone receptor gene disrupted (GHR-/-) mouse.

    PubMed

    List, Edward O; Sackmann-Sala, Lucila; Berryman, Darlene E; Funk, Kevin; Kelder, Bruce; Gosney, Elahu S; Okada, Shigeru; Ding, Juan; Cruz-Topete, Diana; Kopchick, John J

    2011-06-01

    Disruption of the GH receptor (GHR) gene eliminates GH-induced intracellular signaling and, thus, its biological actions. Therefore, the GHR gene disrupted mouse (GHR-/-) has been and is a valuable tool for helping to define various parameters of GH physiology. Since its creation in 1995, this mouse strain has been used by our laboratory and others for numerous studies ranging from growth to aging. Some of the most notable discoveries are their extreme insulin sensitivity in the presence of obesity. Also, the animals have an extended lifespan, which has generated a large number of investigations into the roles of GH and IGF-I in the aging process. This review summarizes the many results derived from the GHR-/- mice. We have attempted to present the findings in the context of current knowledge regarding GH action and, where applicable, to discuss how these mice compare to GH insensitivity syndrome in humans. PMID:21123740

  1. Structure and chromosomal localization of the murine coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Wen; Ghosh, Ruma; Finberg, Robert W; Bergelson, Jeffrey M

    2003-04-01

    We analyzed BAC genomic clones encoding the murine coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (mCAR). The mCAR gene is situated on the distal portion of murine chromosome 16, and is composed of at least eight exons, with intron-exon boundaries similar to those reported for the human CAR gene. We previously described two cDNAs encoding mCAR isoforms: the extracellular and transmembrane portions of both are encoded by exons 1-6; the cytoplasmic domain of mCAR 1 is encoded by exon 7, whereas mCAR 2 results from an RNA splice linking the proximal portion of exon 7 to an alternative exon 8. RT-PCR analysis of the mCAR RNA 5'-terminus suggests that transcription may begin 141-161 nucleotides upstream of the ATG translational start site. PMID:12823902

  2. Glucocorticoid receptor gene haplotype structure and steroid therapy outcome in IBD patients

    PubMed Central

    Mwinyi, Jessica; Wenger, Christa; Eloranta, Jyrki J; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To study whether the glucocorticoid receptor (GR/NR3C1) gene haplotypes influence the steroid therapy outcome in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: We sequenced all coding exons and flanking intronic sequences of the NR3C1 gene in 181 IBD patients, determined the single nucleotide polymorphisms, and predicted the NR3C1 haplotypes. Furthermore, we investigated whether certain NR3C1 haplotypes are significantly associated with steroid therapy outcomes. RESULTS: We detected 13 NR3C1 variants, which led to the formation of 17 different haplotypes with a certainty of > 95% in 173 individuals. The three most commonly occurring haplotypes were included in the association analysis of the influence of haplotype on steroid therapy outcome or IBD activity. None of the NR3C1 haplotypes showed statistically significant association with glucocorticoid therapy success. CONCLUSION: NR3C1 haplotypes are not related to steroid therapy outcome. PMID:20712049

  3. Multiple Thyrotropin β-Subunit and Thyrotropin Receptor-Related Genes Arose during Vertebrate Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Maugars, Gersende; Dufour, Sylvie; Cohen-Tannoudji, Joëlle; Quérat, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is composed of a specific β subunit and an α subunit that is shared with the two pituitary gonadotropins. The three β subunits derive from a common ancestral gene through two genome duplications (1R and 2R) that took place before the radiation of vertebrates. Analysis of genomic data from phylogenetically relevant species allowed us to identify an additional Tshβ subunit-related gene that was generated through 2R. This gene, named Tshβ2, present in cartilaginous fish, little skate and elephant shark, and in early lobe-finned fish, coelacanth and lungfish, was lost in ray-finned fish and tetrapods. The absence of a second type of TSH receptor (Tshr) gene in these species suggests that both TSHs act through the same receptor. A novel Tshβ sister gene, named Tshβ3, was generated through the third genomic duplication (3R) that occurred early in the teleost lineage. Tshβ3 is present in most teleost groups but was lostin tedraodontiforms. The 3R also generated a second Tshr, named Tshrb. Interestingly, the new Tshrb was translocated from its original chromosomic position after the emergence of eels and was then maintained in its new position. Tshrb was lost in tetraodontiforms and in ostariophysians including zebrafish although the latter species have two TSHs, suggesting that TSHRb may be dispensable. The tissue distribution of duplicated Tshβs and Tshrs was studied in the European eel. The endocrine thyrotropic function in the eel would be essentially mediated by the classical Tshβ and Tshra, which are mainly expressed in the pituitary and thyroid, respectively. Tshβ3 and Tshrb showed a similar distribution pattern in the brain, pituitary, ovary and adipose tissue, suggesting a possible paracrine/autocrine mode of action in these non-thyroidal tissues. Further studies will be needed to determine the binding specificity of the two receptors and how these two TSH systems are interrelated. PMID:25386660

  4. Multiple thyrotropin β-subunit and thyrotropin receptor-related genes arose during vertebrate evolution.

    PubMed

    Maugars, Gersende; Dufour, Sylvie; Cohen-Tannoudji, Joëlle; Quérat, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is composed of a specific β subunit and an α subunit that is shared with the two pituitary gonadotropins. The three β subunits derive from a common ancestral gene through two genome duplications (1R and 2R) that took place before the radiation of vertebrates. Analysis of genomic data from phylogenetically relevant species allowed us to identify an additional Tshβ subunit-related gene that was generated through 2R. This gene, named Tshβ2, present in cartilaginous fish, little skate and elephant shark, and in early lobe-finned fish, coelacanth and lungfish, was lost in ray-finned fish and tetrapods. The absence of a second type of TSH receptor (Tshr) gene in these species suggests that both TSHs act through the same receptor. A novel Tshβ sister gene, named Tshβ3, was generated through the third genomic duplication (3R) that occurred early in the teleost lineage. Tshβ3 is present in most teleost groups but was lostin tedraodontiforms. The 3R also generated a second Tshr, named Tshrb. Interestingly, the new Tshrb was translocated from its original chromosomic position after the emergence of eels and was then maintained in its new position. Tshrb was lost in tetraodontiforms and in ostariophysians including zebrafish although the latter species have two TSHs, suggesting that TSHRb may be dispensable. The tissue distribution of duplicated Tshβs and Tshrs was studied in the European eel. The endocrine thyrotropic function in the eel would be essentially mediated by the classical Tshβ and Tshra, which are mainly expressed in the pituitary and thyroid, respectively. Tshβ3 and Tshrb showed a similar distribution pattern in the brain, pituitary, ovary and adipose tissue, suggesting a possible paracrine/autocrine mode of action in these non-thyroidal tissues. Further studies will be needed to determine the binding specificity of the two receptors and how these two TSH systems are interrelated. PMID:25386660

  5. Increased glutamate receptor gene expression in the cerebral cortex of insulin induced hypoglycemic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Joseph, A; Antony, S; Paulose, C S

    2008-10-01

    Hypoglycemia causes brain fuel deprivation, resulting in functional brain failure and brain death. It is a serious complication of insulin therapy in diabetic patients. A single intrafemoral dose of streptozotocin was administered to induce diabetes. Hypoglycemia was induced by appropriate doses of insulin s.c. in control and diabetic rats. Glutamate content and glutamate receptor kinetics were studied using [3H]glutamate. [3H]MK 801 was used to study the NMDA receptor kinetics. NMDA2B and metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) 5 subunits receptor gene expressions were done using real time PCR. There was a significant (P<0.001) increase in the glutamate content in the cerebral cortex of hypoglycemic and diabetic rats when compared with control with more glutamate content in the hypoglycemic group. Scatchard analysis using [3H]glutamate and [3H]MK 801 in the cerebral cortex showed a significant (P<0.001) increase in the maximal binding (Bmax) in both hypoglycemic and diabetic rats when compared with control with no significant change in equilibrium dissociation constant. The glutamate and NMDA receptor binding parameters were significantly (P<0.001) enhanced in the hypoglycemic rats compared with hyperglycemic rats. Real time PCR analysis also showed a significant increase (P<0.001) in the gene expression of NMDA2B and mGluR5 subunits of glutamate receptor. This increased gene expression of NMDA2B and mGluR5 glutamate receptor subunits confirmed the enhanced mRNA of receptor subunits and subsequently at the protein level from the receptor kinetic studies. The enhanced glutamate receptors were more prominent in hypoglycemic group which is of significance in this study. Up-regulation of glutamate leads to Ca2+ overload in cells, potentially leading to cell damage and death. This functional damage during hypoglycemia is suggested to contribute to cognitive and memory deficits which has immense clinical relevance in the therapeutic management of diabetes. PMID:18761060

  6. Evidence for adaptive evolution of olfactory receptor genes in 9 bird species.

    PubMed

    Steiger, Silke S; Fidler, Andrew E; Mueller, Jakob C; Kempenaers, Bart

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that positive selection, in particular selection favoring a change in the protein sequence, plays a role in the evolution of olfactory receptor (OR) gene repertoires in fish and mammals. ORs are 7-transmembrane domain (TM) proteins, members of the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily in vertebrate genomes, and responsible for odorant binding and discrimination. OR gene repertoires in birds are surprisingly large and diverse, suggesting that birds have a keen olfactory sense. The aim of this study is to investigate signatures of positive selection in an expanded OR clade (group-gamma-c) that seems to be a characteristic of avian genomes. Using maximum-likelihood methods that estimate the d(N)/d(S) ratios and account for the effects of recombination, we show here that there is evidence for positive selection in group-gamma-c partial OR coding sequences of 9 bird species that are likely to have different olfactory abilities: the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus), the black coucal (Centropus grillii), the brown kiwi (Apteryx australis), the canary (Serinus canaria), the galah (Eolophus roseicapillus), the kakapo (Strigops habroptilus), the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), the red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus), and the snow petrel (Pagodroma nivea). Positively selected codons were predominantly located in TMs, which in other vertebrates are involved in odorant binding. Our data suggest that 1) at least some avian OR genes have been subjected to adaptive evolution, 2) the extent of such adaptive evolution differs between bird species, and 3) positive selective pressures may have been stronger on the group-gamma-c OR genes of species that have well-developed olfactory abilities. PMID:19965911

  7. Multiple cholinergic nicotinic receptor genes affect nicotine dependence risk in African and European Americans

    PubMed Central

    Saccone, Nancy L.; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Wang, Jen C.; Grucza, Richard A.; Breslau, Naomi; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Johnson, Eric O.; Rice, John P.; Goate, Alison M.; Bierut, Laura J.

    2010-01-01

    Several independent studies show that the chromosome 15q25.1 region, which contains the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster, harbors variants strongly associated with nicotine dependence, other smoking behaviors, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We investigated whether variants in other cholinergic nicotinic receptor subunit (CHRN) genes affect risk for nicotine dependence in a new sample of African-Americans (N = 710). We also analyzed this African-American sample together with a European-American sample (N=2062, 1608 of which have been previously studied), allowing for differing effects in the two populations. Cases are current nicotine-dependent smokers and controls are non-dependent smokers. Variants in or near CHRND-CHRNG, CHRNA7, and CHRNA10 show modest association with nicotine dependence risk in the African-American sample. In addition, CHRNA4, CHRNB3-CHRNA6, and CHRNB1 show association in at least one population. CHRNG and CHRNA4 harbor SNPs that have opposite directions of effect in the two populations. In each of the population samples, these loci substantially increase the trait variation explained, although no loci meet Bonferroni-corrected significance in the African-American sample alone. The trait variation explained by three key associated SNPs in CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 is 1.9% in European-Americans and also 1.9% in African-Americans; this increases to 4.5% in EAs and 7.3% in AAs when we add six variants representing associations at other CHRN genes. Multiple nicotinic receptor subunit genes outside of chromosome 15q25 are likely to be important in the biological processes and development of nicotine dependence, and some of these risks may be shared across diverse populations. PMID:20584212

  8. Association of leptin receptor gene Gln223Arg polymorphism with susceptibility to colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Arkani, Maral; Safaei, Akram; Pourhoseingholi, Mohamad Amin; Mohebbi, Seyed Reza; Fatemi, Seyed Reza; Vafaei, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Aim Leptin is a 16 kDa polypeptide hormone which secreted by adipose tissue and has an important role in energy balance, insulin pathway and inflammation, because of that it may play an important role in colorectal cancer (CRC). Leptin exerts its effect through the leptin receptor (LEPR) a member of the class I cytokine receptor family. Background We have investigated whether glutamine to arginine substitution (Gln223Arg) in exon 6 of the leptin receptor gene, has implications for susceptibility to CRC. Patients and methods Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction enzyme digestion (RFLP) was performed to evaluate the association between the Gln223Arg polymorphism of the LEPR and CRC risk in a case-control study in 346 subjects involving 173 cases with CRC and 173 controls. Results There was no statistically evidence of significant difference in genotype and allele frequencies between the cases with CRC and controls for the Gln223Arg polymorphism of LEPR, before or after adjusting for confounders (age, BMI, sex, and smoking status). Furthermore, no significant difference was observed between the CRC cases and controls by BMI, sex and smoking status. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the LEPR Gln223Arg polymorphism is not associated with the risk of CRC in Iranian population. PMID:24834182

  9. Odorant receptor gene expression changes during the parr-smolt transformation in Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Dukes, J P; Deaville, R; Bruford, M W; Youngson, A F; Jordan, W C

    2004-09-01

    The ability of salmon to home accurately to their natal stream to spawn has long intrigued biologists and has important consequences for the maintenance of population structure in these species. It is known that olfaction is crucial to homing, and that the transition from the freshwater to the marine environment (the parr-smolt transformation; PST) is a period of increased olfactory sensitivity and learning, resulting in a permanent memory of natal site odours that is retained, at least in part, in peripheral sensory neurones. These odours are then used as cues by sexually maturing fish on their homeward migration. We used quantitative polymerase chain reaction techniques to demonstrate transient increases in expression of odorant receptor transcripts (of up to fifty-fold over pre-PST levels) coincident with PST. Both olfactory (SORB) and vomeronasal receptors (SVRA and SVRC) are involved, which suggests that the fish learn both environmental odours and semiochemicals (pheromones). Receptor expression varies between families and changes over time indicating both genetic differences in odour stimuli and multiple periods of olfactory sensitivity. We suggest that changes in OR gene expression may have a role in homing behaviour and thus the maintenance of population structure in Atlantic salmon. PMID:15315695

  10. New single nucleotide variation in the promoter region of androgen receptor (AR) gene in hypospadic patients

    PubMed Central

    Borhani, Nasim; Ghaffari Novin, Marefat; Manoochehri, Mehdi; Rouzrokh, Mohsen; Kazemi, Bahram; Koochaki, Ameneh; Hosseini, Ahmad; Masteri Farahani, Reza; Omrani, Mir Davood

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital abnormalities in the male which is characterized by altered development of urethra, foreskin and ventral surface of the penis. Androgen receptor gene plays a critical role in the development of the male genital system by mediating the androgens effects. Objective: In present study, we looked for new variations in androgen receptor promoter and screened its exon 1 for five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in healthy and hypospadias Iranian men. Materials and Methods: In our study, at first DNA was extracted from patients (n=100) and controls (n=100) blood samples. Desired fragments of promoter and exon 1 were amplified using polymerase chain reaction. The promoter region was sequenced for the new variation and exone 1 screened for five SNPs (rs139767835, rs78686797, rs62636528, rs62636529, rs145326748) using restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Results: The results showed a new single nucleotide variation (C→T) at -480 of two patients’ promoter region (2%). None of the mentioned SNPs were detected in patients and controls groups (0%). Conclusion: This finding indicates that new single nucleotide polymorphism in androgen receptor promoter may have role in etiology of hypospadias and development of this anomaly. This article extracted from Ph.D. thesis. (Nasim Borhani) PMID:24799883

  11. PACAP receptor gene polymorphism impacts fear responses in the amygdala and hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Jennifer Strafford; Almli, Lynn M.; Fani, Negar; Gutman, David A.; Bradley, Bekh; Norrholm, Seth D.; Reiser, Emily; Ely, Timothy D.; Dhanani, Rahim; Glover, Ebony M.; Jovanovic, Tanja; Ressler, Kerry J.

    2014-01-01

    We have recently found higher circulating levels of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a highly traumatized cohort of women but not men. Furthermore, a single nucleotide polymorphism in the PACAP receptor gene ADCYAP1R1, adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 receptor type 1, was associated with individual differences in PTSD symptoms and psychophysiological markers of fear and anxiety. The current study outlines an investigation of individual differences in brain function associated with ADCYAP1R1 genotype. Forty-nine women who had experienced moderate to high levels of lifetime trauma participated in a functional MRI task involving passive viewing of threatening and neutral face stimuli. Analyses focused on the amygdala and hippocampus, regions that play central roles in the pathophysiology of PTSD and are known to have high densities of PACAP receptors. The risk genotype was associated with increased reactivity of the amygdala and hippocampus to threat stimuli and decreased functional connectivity between the amygdala and hippocampus. The findings indicate that the PACAP system modulates medial temporal lobe function in humans. Individual differences in ADCYAP1R1 genotype may contribute to dysregulated fear circuitry known to play a central role in PTSD and other anxiety disorders. PMID:24516127

  12. Reactivation of apolipoprotein II gene transcription by cycloheximide reveals two steps in the deactivation of estrogen receptor-mediated transcription.

    PubMed

    Sensel, M G; Binder, R; Lazier, C B; Williams, D L

    1994-03-01

    In this report, we describe apolipoprotein II (apoII) gene expression in cell lines derived by stable expression of the chicken estrogen receptor in LMH chicken hepatoma cells. In cell lines expressing high levels of receptor (LMH/2A), apoII gene expression is increased by estrogen 300-fold compared with levels in the receptor-deficient parent LMH line. LMH/2A cells show apoII mRNA induction and turnover kinetics similar to those in chicken liver. Inhibition of protein synthesis with cycloheximide (CHX) or puromycin following estrogen withdrawal superinduces apoII mRNA without affecting apoII mRNA stability. Superinduction is due to an estrogen-independent reactivation of apoII gene transcription. The apoII gene can be reactivated by CHX for up to 24 h following hormone withdrawal, suggesting that the gene is in a repressed yet transcriptionally competent state. These results reveal two distinct events necessary for termination of estrogen receptor-mediated transcription. The first event, removal of hormone, is sufficient to stop transcription when translation is ongoing. The second event is revealed by the CHX-induced superinduction of apoII mRNA following hormone withdrawal. This superinduction suggests that deactivation of estrogen receptor-mediated transcription requires a labile protein. Furthermore, reactivation of apoII gene expression by CHX and estrogen is additive, suggesting that estrogen is unable to overcome repression completely. Thus, a labile protein may act to repress estrogen receptor-mediated transcription of the apoII gene. PMID:8114707

  13. The D4 dopamine receptor gene maps on 11p proximal to HRAS

    SciTech Connect

    Petronis, A.; Kennedy, J.L.; Van Tol, H.H.M. ); Lichter, J.B.; Livak, K.J. )

    1993-10-01

    The dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) is of high interest in neuropsychiatric illness due to its anatomical distribution in the limbic system and its relatively high affinity for the atypical antipsychotic clozapine. Also, D4 receptors are expressed in cardiac tissue, and D4 maps in the same region as the inherited cardiac disease referred to as Long QT syndrome. DRD4 was genetically mapped near the tip of the short arm of chromosome 11, close to the oncogene Harvey-RAS (HRAS). Multipoint linkage analysis of several large families could not define the location of DRD4 proximal versus distal to HRAS, although it was evident that DRD4 was located distal to the gene for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). A proximal localization of DRD4 relative to HRAS was thus demonstrated. The localization is inferred from a single recombination event, and additional studies on families segregating analyzed polymorphisms would be valuable. Exact order of the genes on 11p15 will greatly assist the resolving power of linkage studies in this region, as applied to neuropsychiatric diseases, as well as Long QT syndrome and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

  14. Mutations of the Nogo-66 receptor (RTN4R) gene in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sinibaldi, Lorenzo; De Luca, Alessandro; Bellacchio, Emanuele; Conti, Emanuela; Pasini, Augusto; Paloscia, Claudio; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Caltagirone, Carlo; Pizzuti, Antonio; Dallapiccola, Bruno

    2004-12-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZD) or schizoaffective disorders are quite common features in patients with DiGeorge/velo-cardio-facial syndrome (DGS/VCFS) as a result of chromosome 22q11.2 aploinsufficiency. We evaluated the Nogo-66 receptor gene (RTN4R), which maps within the DGS/VCFS critical region, as a potential candidate for schizophrenia susceptibility. RTN4R encodes for a functional cell surface receptor, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked protein, with multiple leucine-rich repeats (LRR), which is implicated in axonal growth inhibition. One hundred and twenty unrelated Italian schizophrenic patients were screened for mutations in the RTN4R gene using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC). Three mutant alleles were detected, including two missense changes (c.355C>T; R119W and c.587G>A; R196H), and one synonymous codon variant (c.54G>A; L18L). The two schizophrenic patients with the missense changes were strongly resistant to the neuroleptic treatment at any dosage. Both missense changes were absent in 300 control subjects. Molecular modeling revealed that both changes lead to putative structural alterations of the native protein. PMID:15532024

  15. Multiple Functions of Let-23, a Caenorhabditis Elegans Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Gene Required for Vulval Induction

    PubMed Central

    Aroian, R. V.; Sternberg, P. W.

    1991-01-01

    The let-23 gene, which encodes a putative tyrosine kinase of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor subfamily, has multiple functions during Caenorhabditis elegans development. We show that let-23 function is required for vulval precursor cells (VPCs) to respond to the signal that induces vulval differentiation: a complete loss of let-23 function results in no induction. However, some let-23 mutations that genetically reduce but do not eliminate let-23 function result in VPCs apparently hypersensitive to inductive signal: as many as five of six VPCs can adopt vulval fates, in contrast to the three that normally do. These results suggest that the let-23 receptor tyrosine kinase controls two opposing pathways, one that stimulates vulval differentiation and another that negatively regulates vulval differentiation. Furthermore, analysis of 16 new let-23 mutations indicates that the let-23 kinase functions in at least five tissues. Since various let-23 mutant phenotypes can be obtained independently, the let-23 gene is likely to have tissue-specific functions. PMID:2071015

  16. Odorant receptors can mediate axonal identity and gene choice via cAMP-independent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Grosmaitre, Xavier; Feinstein, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Odorant receptors (ORs) control several aspects of cell fate in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), including singular gene choice and axonal identity. The mechanisms of OR-induced axon guidance have been suggested to principally rely on G-protein signalling. Here, we report that for a subset of OSNs, deleting G proteins or altering their levels of signalling does not affect axonal identity. Signalling-deficient ORs or surrogate receptors that are unable to couple to Gs/Golf still provide axons with distinct identities and the anterior–posterior targeting of axons does not correlate with the levels of cAMP produced by genetic modifications. In addition, we refine the models of negative feedback by showing that ectopic ORs can be robustly expressed without suppressing endogenous gene choice. In conclusion, our results uncover a new feature of ORs, showing that they can instruct axonal identity and regulate olfactory map formation independent of canonical G-protein signalling and cAMP production. PMID:27466441

  17. The origin of the p.E180 growth hormone receptor gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Ostrer, Harry

    2016-06-01

    Laron syndrome, an autosomal recessive condition of extreme short stature, is caused by the absence or dysfunction of the growth hormone receptor. A recurrent mutation in the GHR gene, p.E180, did not alter the encoded amino acid, but activated a cryptic splice acceptor resulting in a receptor protein with an 8-amino acid deletion in the extracellular domain. This mutation has been observed among Sephardic Jews and among individuals in Ecuador, Brazil and Chile, most notably in a large genetic isolate in Loja, Ecuador. A common origin has been postulated based on a shared genetic background of markers flanking this mutation, suggesting that the Lojanos (and others) may have Sephardic (Converso) Jewish ancestry. Analysis of the population structure of Lojanos based on genome-wide analysis demonstrated European, Sephardic Jewish and Native American ancestry in this group. X-autosomal comparison and monoallelic Y chromosomal and mitochondrial genetic analysis demonstrated gender-biased admixture between Native American women and European and Sephardic Jewish men. These findings are compatible with the co-occurrence of the Inquisition and the colonization of the Americas, including Converso Jews escaping the Inquisition in the Iberian Peninsula. Although not found among Lojanos, Converso Jews also brought founder mutations to contemporary Hispanic and Latino populations in the BRCA1 (c.68_69delAG) and BLM (c.2207_2212delATCTGAinsTAGATTC) genes. PMID:26277320

  18. Odorant receptors can mediate axonal identity and gene choice via cAMP-independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Movahedi, Kiavash; Grosmaitre, Xavier; Feinstein, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Odorant receptors (ORs) control several aspects of cell fate in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), including singular gene choice and axonal identity. The mechanisms of OR-induced axon guidance have been suggested to principally rely on G-protein signalling. Here, we report that for a subset of OSNs, deleting G proteins or altering their levels of signalling does not affect axonal identity. Signalling-deficient ORs or surrogate receptors that are unable to couple to Gs/Golf still provide axons with distinct identities and the anterior-posterior targeting of axons does not correlate with the levels of cAMP produced by genetic modifications. In addition, we refine the models of negative feedback by showing that ectopic ORs can be robustly expressed without suppressing endogenous gene choice. In conclusion, our results uncover a new feature of ORs, showing that they can instruct axonal identity and regulate olfactory map formation independent of canonical G-protein signalling and cAMP production. PMID:27466441

  19. Serotonin receptor 2C gene polymorphism associated with post-stroke depression in Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Tang, W K; Tang, N; Liao, C D; Liang, H J; Mok, V C T; Ungvari, G S; Wong, K S

    2013-01-01

    The serotonin receptor 2C (HTR2C) gene has been shown to play a pivotal role in major depression. We examined the association between post-stroke depression (PSD) and polymorphism in HTR2C. A cohort of 223 patients with acute lacunar stroke admitted to the stroke unit of a university-affiliated regional hospital in Hong Kong was recruited. Three months after the onset of the index stroke, a research assistant administered the locally validated 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. PSD was defined as a geriatric depression scale score of 7 or above. Possible confounding factors, including previous history of stroke, severity of stroke, level of social support, and recent life events, were investigated. All patients were genotyped for polymorphisms of HTR2C. Separate analyses were performed for males and females. Sixty-one patients were found to have PSD. There were significant associations between the HTR2C gene and PSD status in the male patients, but not in the female ones. After adjusting for possible confounders, the rs12837651 T allele (odds ratio = 4.020) and the rs2192371 G allele (odds ratio = 2.866) were found to be significantly associated with PSD in males. Genetic variation in HTR2C receptors appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of PSD in Chinese males. PMID:23765961

  20. Resequencing of the auxiliary GABAB receptor subunit gene KCTD12 in chronic tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Sand, P. G.; Langguth, B.; Itzhacki, J.; Bauer, A.; Geis, S.; Cárdenas-Conejo, Z. E.; Pimentel, V.; Kleinjung, T.

    2012-01-01

    Tinnitus is a common and often incapacitating hearing disorder marked by the perception of phantom sounds. Susceptibility factors remain largely unknown but GABAB receptor signaling has long been implicated in the response to treatment and, putatively, in the etiology of the disorder. We hypothesized that variation in KCTD12, the gene encoding an auxiliary subunit of GABAB receptors, could help to predict the risk of developing tinnitus. Ninety-five Caucasian outpatients with a diagnosis of chronic tinnitus were systematically screened for mutations in the KCTD12 open reading frame and the adjacent 3′ untranslated region by Sanger sequencing. Allele frequencies were determined for 14 known variants of which three (rs73237446, rs34544607, and rs41287030) were polymorphic. When allele frequencies were compared to data from a large reference population of European ancestry, rs34544607 was associated with tinnitus (p = 0.04). However, KCTD12 genotype did not predict tinnitus severity (p = 0.52) and the association with rs34544607 was weakened after screening 50 additional cases (p = 0.07). Pending replication in a larger cohort, KCTD12 may act as a risk modifier in chronic tinnitus. Issues that are yet to be addressed include the effects of neighboring variants, e.g., in the KCTD12 gene regulatory region, plus interactions with variants of GABAB1 and GABAB2. PMID:22654739

  1. The evolution of vertebrate somatostatin receptors and their gene regions involves extensive chromosomal rearrangements

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Somatostatin and its related neuroendocrine peptides have a wide variety of physiological functions that are mediated by five somatostatin receptors with gene names SSTR1-5 in mammals. To resolve their evolution in vertebrates we have investigated the SSTR genes and a large number of adjacent gene families by phylogeny and conserved synteny analyses in a broad range of vertebrate species. Results We find that the SSTRs form two families that belong to distinct paralogons. We observe not only chromosomal similarities reflecting the paralogy relationships between the SSTR-bearing chromosome regions, but also extensive rearrangements between these regions in teleost fish genomes, including fusions and translocations followed by reshuffling through intrachromosomal rearrangements. These events obscure the paralogy relationships but are still tractable thanks to the many genomes now available. We have identified a previously unrecognized SSTR subtype, SSTR6, previously misidentified as either SSTR1 or SSTR4. Conclusions Two ancestral SSTR-bearing chromosome regions were duplicated in the two basal vertebrate tetraploidizations (2R). One of these ancestral SSTR genes generated SSTR2, -3 and -5, the other gave rise to SSTR1, -4 and -6. Subsequently SSTR6 was lost in tetrapods and SSTR4 in teleosts. Our study shows that extensive chromosomal rearrangements have taken place between related chromosome regions in teleosts, but that these events can be resolved by investigating several distantly related species. PMID:23194088

  2. Association analysis of class II cytokine and receptor genes in vitiligo patients.

    PubMed

    Traks, Tanel; Karelson, Maire; Reimann, Ene; Rätsep, Ranno; Silm, Helgi; Vasar, Eero; Kõks, Sulev; Kingo, Külli

    2016-05-01

    The loss of melanocytes in vitiligo is mainly attributed to defective autoimmune mechanisms and lately autoinflammatory mediators have become more emphasized. Among these, a number of class II cytokines and their receptors have displayed altered expression patterns in vitiligo. Thus, we selected 30 SNPs from the regions of respective genes to be genotyped in Estonian case-control sample (109 and 328 individuals, respectively). For more precise analyses, patients were divided into subgroups based on vitiligo progression activity, age of onset, sex, occurrence of vitiligo among relatives, extent of depigmented areas, appearance of Köbner's phenomenon, existence of halo nevi, occurrence of spontaneous repigmentation, and amount of thyroid peroxidase antibodies. No associations appeared in whole vitiligo group. In subgroups, several allelic and haplotype associations were found. The strongest involved SNPs rs12301088 (near IL26 gene), that was associated with familial vitiligo and existence of halo nevi, and rs2257167 (IFNAR1 gene), that was associated with female vitiligo. Additionally, haplotypes consisting of rs12301088 and rs12321603 alleles (IL26-IL22 genes), that were associated with familial vitiligo and existence of halo nevi. In conclusion, several genetic associations with vitiligo subphenotypes were revealed and functional explanations to these remain to be determined in respective studies. PMID:26429320

  3. mRNA expression profiles of calmodulin and liver receptor homolog-1 genes in chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z-C; Xiao, L-H; Wang, Y; Chen, S-Y; Yang, Z-Q; Zhao, X-L; Zhu, Q; Liu, Y-P

    2012-01-01

    Calmodulin (CALM), a calcium-binding protein, is expressed in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis; it plays a pivotal role in the reproductive system by regulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone signaling. Downstream of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal signaling pathways, liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) is involved in female gonadal hormone synthesis. In the chicken, although the two genes are known to be associated with reproductive traits, the interaction between gonadotropins and gonadal steroids remains unclear. We used quantitative real-time PCR to quantify the tissular (hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary, liver, kidney, oviduct, heart) and ontogenetic (12, 18, 32, and 45 weeks) mRNA expression profiles of CALM and LRH-1 in Erlang Mountainous chickens to determine their roles in the endocrine control of fertility, and compared these profiles with expression in Roman chickens. We found that the relative expressions of CALM and LRH-1 genes had the highest levels in the pituitary and ovary at 32 weeks. The expression level of CALM mRNA in the pituitary of Roman chickens was significantly higher than that in Erlang Mountainous chickens at 32 and 45 weeks, while the LRH-1 transcript level in the ovaries of Roman chickens was significantly lower than that of Erlang Mountainous chickens at 32 and 45 weeks. In summary, the transcript levels of CALM and LRH-1 genes are associated with chicken reproductive traits; in addition, we found that the CALM gene is the key regulator in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal signaling network. PMID:23079841

  4. The D4 receptor gene and mood disorders: An association study

    SciTech Connect

    Macciardi, F.; Cavalini, M.C.; Petronis, A.

    1994-09-01

    The problem of a gene-disease association is of major relevance in the current research of Psychiatric Disorders, mostly because of the lack of unequivocal results obtained with the linkage approach. However, some points of an association study must also be carefully considered, namely the statistical methodology and the strategy to select a gene to be tested. The gene coding for the D4 receptor (DRD4) might be theoretically relevant as a component of the genetic susceptibility for mood disorders. We now know that DRD4 has at least 2 functional polymorphisms in the coding regions of the gene, in exon 3 and exon 1, thus conferring etiologic relevance to a potentially positive association. In our work, we investigated the DRD4 genotypes of the 3rd and 1st exon for 93 patients with bipolar disorder and 57 patients with major depression, recurrent disorder. Patients have been diagnosed either by traditional DSMIII-R criteria or by clustering their lifetime psychopathological symptomatology. A random control group consisted of 151 subjects. A significant association has been found with DRD4 exon 3 genotypes, revealing an increase of genotypes 2-4 in Bipolar patients (chi-square=23.07, df=12, p=0.02). Even though a definitive confirmation of our finding requires an independent replication of the study, this result emphasizes the importance of DRD4 in mood disorders.

  5. Lineage-Specific Loss of Function of Bitter Taste Receptor Genes in Humans and Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Go, Yasuhiro; Satta, Yoko; Takenaka, Osamu; Takahata, Naoyuki

    2005-01-01

    Since the process of becoming dead genes or pseudogenes (pseudogenization) is irreversible and can occur rather rapidly under certain environmental circumstances, it is one plausible determinant for characterizing species specificity. To test this evolutionary hypothesis, we analyzed the tempo and mode of duplication and pseudogenization of bitter taste receptor (T2R) genes in humans as well as in 12 nonhuman primates. The results show that primates have accumulated more pseudogenes than mice after their separation from the common ancestor and that lineage-specific pseudogenization becomes more conspicuous in humans than in nonhuman primates. Although positive selection has operated on some amino acids in extracellular domains, functional constraints against T2R genes are more relaxed in primates than in mice and this trend has culminated in the rapid deterioration of the bitter-tasting capability in humans. Since T2R molecules play an important role in avoiding generally bitter toxic and harmful substances, substantial modification of the T2R gene repertoire is likely to reflect different responses to changes in the environment and to result from species-specific food preference during primate evolution. PMID:15744053

  6. Intraarticular expression of biologically active interleukin 1-receptor-antagonist protein by ex vivo gene transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Bandara, G; Mueller, G M; Galea-Lauri, J; Tindal, M H; Georgescu, H I; Suchanek, M K; Hung, G L; Glorioso, J C; Robbins, P D; Evans, C H

    1993-01-01

    Gene therapy offers a radical different approach to the treatment of arthritis. Here we have demonstrated that two marker genes (lacZ and neo) and cDNA coding for a potentially therapeutic protein (human interleukin 1-receptor-antagonist protein; IRAP or IL-1ra) can be delivered, by ex vivo techniques, to the synovial lining of joints; intraarticular expression of IRAP inhibited intraarticular responses to interleukin 1. To achieve this, lapine synoviocytes were first transduced in culture by retroviral infection. The genetically modified synovial cells were then transplanted by intraarticular injection into the knee joints of rabbits, where they efficiently colonized the synovium. Assay of joint lavages confirmed the in vivo expression of biologically active human IRAP. With allografted cells, IRAP expression was lost by 12 days after transfer. In contrast, autografted synoviocytes continued to express IRAP for approximately 5 weeks. Knee joints expressing human IRAP were protected from the leukocytosis that otherwise follows the intraarticular injection of recombinant human interleukin 1 beta. Thus, we report the intraarticular expression and activity of a potentially therapeutic protein by gene-transfer technology; these experiments demonstrate the feasibility of treating arthritis and other joint disorders with gene therapy. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8248169

  7. Mutational analysis of the androgen receptor gene in two Chinese families with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome

    PubMed Central

    WANG, SONG; XU, HAIKUN; AN, WEI; ZHU, DECHUN; LI, DEJUN

    2016-01-01

    Androgens are essential for normal male sex differentiation and are responsible for the normal development of male secondary sexual characteristics at puberty. The physiological effects of androgens are mediated by the androgen receptor (AR). Mutations in the AR gene are the most common cause of androgen insensitivity syndrome. The present study undertook a genetic analysis of the AR gene in two unrelated families affected by complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) in China. In family 1, a previously reported nonsense mutation (G-to-A; p.W751X) was identified in exon 5 of the AR gene. In addition, a novel missense mutation was detected in exon 6 of the AR gene from family 2; this mutation resulted in a predicted amino acid change from phenylalanine to serine at codon 804 (T-to-C; p.F804S) in the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of AR. Computer simulation of the structural changes generated by the p.F804S substitution revealed marked conformational alterations in the hydrophobic core responsible for the stability and function of the AR-LBD. In conclusion, the present study identified two mutations from two unrelated Chinese families affected by CAIS. The novel mutation (p.F804S) may provide insights into the molecular mechanism underlying CAIS. Furthermore, it expands on the number of mutational hot spots in the international AR mutation database, which may be useful in the future for prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling. PMID:27284311

  8. The retinoid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORA) gene and fear-related psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark W.; Wolf, Erika J.; Logue, Mark W.; Baldwin, Clinton T.

    2013-01-01

    Background This study followed on findings from a recent genome-wide association study of PTSD that implicated the retinoid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORA) gene (Logue et al, 2012) by examining its relationship to broader array of disorders. Methods Using data from the same cohort (N = 540), we analyzed patterns of association between 606 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the RORA gene and comorbidity factors termed fear, distress (i.e., internalizing factors) and externalizing. Results Results showed that rs17303244 was associated with the fear component of internalizing (i.e., defined by symptoms of panic, agoraphobia, specific phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder) at a level of significance that withstood correction for gene-wide multiple testing. Limitations The primary limitations were the modest size of the cohort and the absence of a replication sample. Conclusions Results add to a growing literature implicating the RORA gene in a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders and offer new insight into possible molecular mechanisms of the effects of traumatic stress on the brain and the role of genetic factors in those processes. PMID:24007783

  9. Screening of GABA(A)-receptor gene mutations in primary dystonia.

    PubMed

    Shang, H; Lang, D; Burgunder, J-M; Kaelin-Lang, A

    2007-10-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that GABA-ergic neurotransmission plays a role in the pathogenesis of primary dystonia in humans. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that mutations in the GABRA1, GABRB3, and GABRG2 genes encoding the alpha1, beta3, and gamma subunits of the GABA(A) receptor are involved in familial primary dystonia. All exons and exon-intron boundaries of the above genes were amplified by PCR from genomic DNA in 28 patients who had primary dystonia and a positive family history but had no mutation in any other genes known to be involved in primary dystonia. The PCR products were analyzed by single strand conformation polymorphism followed by sequencing of variant conformers compared with normal controls (n = 54). We found no mutations in these genes. We did, however, find a new polymorphism, 559 + 80G>A in intron 5 of GABRA1, and we also confirmed several that were previously reported, including 315C>T in exon 3 and 588C>T in exon 5 of GABRG2, but there were no significant differences between controls and patients in the allele and genotype frequencies of these polymorphisms. In conclusion, mutations of GABRA1, GABRB3, and GABRG2 appear not to play a major role in the development of familial primary dystonia. PMID:17880575

  10. Gene-environment interaction between the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene and parenting behaviour on children's theory of mind.

    PubMed

    Wade, Mark; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2015-12-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) is the ability to interpret and understand human behaviour by representing the mental states of others. Like many human capacities, ToM is thought to develop through both complex biological and socialization mechanisms. However, no study has examined the joint effect of genetic and environmental influences on ToM. This study examined how variability in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and parenting behavior--two widely studied factors in ToM development-interacted to predict ToM in pre-school-aged children. Participants were 301 children who were part of an ongoing longitudinal birth cohort study. ToM was assessed at age 4.5 using a previously validated scale. Parenting was assessed through observations of mothers' cognitively sensitive behaviours. Using a family-based association design, it was suggestive that a particular variant (rs11131149) interacted with maternal cognitive sensitivity on children's ToM (P = 0.019). More copies of the major allele were associated with higher ToM as a function of increasing cognitive sensitivity. A sizeable 26% of the variability in ToM was accounted for by this interaction. This study provides the first empirical evidence of gene-environment interactions on ToM, supporting the notion that genetic factors may be modulated by potent environmental influences early in development. PMID:25977357

  11. Season of Birth and Dopamine Receptor Gene Associations with Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking and Reproductive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Dan T. A.; Campbell, Benjamin; MacKillop, James; Lum, J. Koji; Wilson, David S.

    2007-01-01

    Background Season of birth (SOB) has been associated with many physiological and psychological traits including novelty seeking and sensation seeking. Similar traits have been associated with genetic polymorphisms in the dopamine system. SOB and dopamine receptor genetic polymorphisms may independently and interactively influence similar behaviors through their common effects on the dopaminergic system. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on a sample of 195 subjects, we examined whether SOB was associated with impulsivity, sensation seeking and reproductive behaviors. Additionally we examined potential interactions of dopamine receptor genes with SOB for the same set of traits. Phenotypes were evaluated using the Sociosexual Orientation Inventory, the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, the Eysenck Impulsivity Questionnaire, the Sensation Seeking Scale, and the Delay Discounting Task. Subjects were also asked about their age at first sex as well as their desired age at the birth of their first child. The dopamine gene polymorphisms examined were Dopamine Receptor D2 (DRD2) TaqI A and D4 (DRD4) 48 bp VNTR. Primary analyses included factorial gender×SOB ANOVAs or binary logistic regression models for each dependent trait. Secondary analysis extended the factorial models by also including DRD2 and DRD4 genotypes as independent variables. Winter-born males were more sensation seeking than non-winter born males. In factorial models including both genotype and season of birth as variables, two previously unobserved effects were discovered: (1) a SOB×DRD4 interaction effect on venturesomeness and (2) a DRD2×DRD4 interaction effect on sensation seeking. Conclusion These results are consistent with past findings that SOB is related to sensation seeking. Additionally, these results provide tentative support for the hypothesis that SOB modifies the behavioral expression of dopaminergic genetic polymorphism. These findings suggest that SOB should be included in future studies of

  12. Efficient transcription of the human angiotensin II type 2 receptor gene requires intronic sequence elements.

    PubMed Central

    Warnecke, C; Willich, T; Holzmeister, J; Bottari, S P; Fleck, E; Regitz-Zagrosek, V

    1999-01-01

    To investigate mechanisms of human angiotensin II type 2 receptor (hAT2) gene regulation we functionally characterized the promoter and downstream regions of the gene. 5'-Terminal deletion mutants from -1417/+100 to -46/+100 elicited significant but low functional activity in luciferase reporter gene assays with PC12W cells. Inclusion into the promoter constructs of intron 1 and the transcribed region of the hAT2 gene up to the translation start enhanced luciferase activity 6.7+/-1.6-fold and 11.6+/-1.7-fold (means+/-S.E.M.) respectively, whereas fusion of the promoter to the spliced 5' untranslated region of hAT2 cDNA did not, which indicated an enhancement caused by intronic sequence elements. Reverse transcriptase-mediated PCR confirmed that the chimaeric hAT2-luciferase mRNA was regularly spliced in PC12W cells. A Northern blot analysis of transfected cells showed levels of luciferase mRNA expression consistent with the respective enzyme activities. Mapping of intron 1 revealed that a 12 bp sequence in the centre of the intron was required for the increase in promoter activity, whereas the 5' adjacent intronic region mediated a decrease in luciferase activity. Mutation of the 12 bp region led to altered protein binding and markedly decreased luciferase activity. Cloned into a promoterless luciferase vector, a 123 bp intron 1 fragment was able to direct reporter gene expression to the same activity as occurred in conjunction with the 5' flanking region. These results indicate that sequence elements in intron 1 are necessary for efficient transcription of hAT2. In reporter gene assays, intron 1 might by itself function as a promoter and initiate transcription from an alternative start point. PMID:10229654

  13. The cyclic AMP receptor protein is the main activator of pectinolysis genes in Erwinia chrysanthemi.

    PubMed

    Reverchon, S; Expert, D; Robert-Baudouy, J; Nasser, W

    1997-06-01

    The main virulence factors of the phytopathogenic bacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi are pectinases that cleave pectin, a major constituent of the plant cell wall. Although physiological studies suggested that pectinase production in Erwinia species is subjected to catabolite repression, the direct implication of the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) in this regulation has never been demonstrated. To investigate the role of CRP in pectin catabolism, we cloned the E. chrysanthemi crp gene by complementation of an Escherichia coli crp mutation and then constructed E. chrysanthemi crp mutants by reverse genetics. The carbohydrate fermentation phenotype of the E. chrysanthemi crp mutants is similar to that of an E. coli crp mutant. Furthermore, these mutants are unable to grow on pectin or polygalacturonate as the sole carbon source. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the E. chrysanthemi crp gene revealed the presence of a 630-bp open reading frame (ORF) that codes for a protein highly similar to the CRP of E. coli. Using a crp::uidA transcriptional fusion, we demonstrated that the E. chrysanthemi CRP represses its own expression, probably via a mechanism similar to that described for the E. coli crp gene. Moreover, in the E. chrysanthemi crp mutants, expression of pectinase genes (pemA, pelB, pelC, pelD, and pelE) and of genes of the intracellular part of the pectin degradation pathway (ogl, kduI, and kdgT), which are important for inducer formation and transport, is dramatically reduced in induced conditions. In contrast, expression of pelA, which encodes a pectate lyase important for E. chrysanthemi pathogenicity, seems to be negatively regulated by CRP. The E. chrysanthemi crp mutants have greatly decreased maceration capacity in potato tubers, chicory leaves, and celery petioles as well as highly diminished virulence on saintpaulia plants. These findings demonstrate that CRP plays a crucial role in expression of the pectinolysis genes and in the pathogenicity of E

  14. CAG Repeat Number in the Androgen Receptor Gene and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Madjunkova, S; Eftimov, A; Georgiev, V; Petrovski, D; Dimovski, AJ; Plaseska-Karanfilska, D

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men. The effects of androgens on prostatic tissue are mediated by the androgen receptor (AR) gene. The 5′ end of exon 1 of the AR gene includes a polymorphic CAG triplet repeat that numbers between 10 to 36 in the normal population. The length of the CAG repeats is inversely related to the transactivation function of the AR gene. There is controversy over association between short CAG repeat numbers in the AR gene and PC. This retrospective case-control study evaluates the possible effect of short CAG repeats on the AR gene in prostate cancer risk in Macedonian males. A total of 392 male subjects, 134 PC patients, 106 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 152 males from the general Macedonian population were enrolled in this study. The CAG repeat length was determined by fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of exon1 of the AR gene followed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) on a genetic analyzer. The mean repeat length in PC patients was 21.5 ± 2.65, in controls 22.28 ± 2.86 (p = 0.009) and in BPH patients 22.1 ± 2.52 (p = 0.038). Short CAG repeats (<19) were found in 21.64% of PC patients vs. 9.43% in BPH patients (p = 0.0154). We also found an association of low Gleason score (<7) with short CAG repeat (<19) in PC patients (p = 0.0306), and no association between the age at diagnosis of PC and BPH and CAG repeat length. These results suggest that reduced CAG repeat length may be associated with increased prostate cancer risk in Macedonian men. PMID:24052720

  15. RNA Editing of Androgen Receptor Gene Transcripts in Prostate Cancer Cells*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Harryl D.; Jasavala, Rohini J.; Hinkson, Izumi; Fitzgerald, Latricia D.; Trimmer, James S.; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Wright, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    Reactivation of the androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway represents a critical step in the growth and survival of androgen-independent (AI) prostate cancer (CaP). In this study we show the DU145 and PC3 AI human CaP cell lines respond to androgens and require AR expression for optimal proliferation in vitro. Interestingly, AR gene transcripts in DU145 and PC3 cells harbored a large number of single base pair nucleotide transitions that resulted in missense mutations in selected AR codons. The most notable lesion detected in AR gene transcripts included the oncogenic codon 877T→A gain-of-function mutation. Surprisingly, AR gene transcript nucleotide transitions were not genome-encoded substitutions, but instead the mutations co-localized to putative A-to-I, U-to-C, C-to-U, and G-to-A RNA editing sites, suggesting the lesions were mediated through RNA editing mechanisms. Higher levels of mRNA encoding the A-to-I RNA editing enzymes ADAR1 and ADARB1 were observed in DU145 and PC3 cells relative to the androgen-responsive LNCaP and 22Rv1 human CaP cell lines, which correlated with higher levels of AR gene transcript A-to-I editing detected in DU145 and PC3 cells. Our results suggest that AR gene transcripts are targeted by different RNA editing enzymes in DU145 and PC3 cells. Thus RNA editing of AR gene transcripts may contribute to the etiology of hormone-refractory phenotypes in advanced stage AI CaP. PMID:18708348

  16. Association of sweet taste receptor gene polymorphisms with dental caries experience in school children.

    PubMed

    Haznedaroğlu, Eda; Koldemir-Gündüz, Meliha; Bakır-Coşkun, Nur; Bozkuş, Hasan M; Çağatay, Penbe; Süsleyici-Duman, Belgin; Menteş, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Sweet taste is a powerful factor influencing food acceptance. The peripheral taste response to sugar is mediated by the TAS1R2/TAS1R3 taste receptors. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between TAS1R2 (rs35874116 or rs9701796) and/or TAS1R3 (rs307355) single nucleotide polymorphisms with dental caries experience in schoolchildren. A total of 184 schoolchildren aged between 7 and 12 years (101 girls, 83 boys) were included in the study. Genomic DNA was extracted from saliva samples and the genotypes were identified by qPCR. The genotype frequencies were as follows: 6.6% for homozygous wild type, 41.8% for heterozygous and 51.6% for homozygous polymorphic genotype carriers of TAS1R2 gene rs35874116; 27.8% for heterozygous and 72.2% for homozygous polymorphic genotype carriers of TAS1R2 gene rs9701796, and 83.1% for homozygous wild type and 16.9% for heterozygous genotype carriers of TAS1R3 gene rs307355 polymorphism. A significant association was observed between total caries experience (dft + DMFT - decayed filled primary teeth + decayed, missing and filled permanent teeth) and TAS1R2 rs35874116 (p = 0.008) and TAS1R3 rs307355 (p = 0.04) gene polymorphisms but not for TAS1R2 gene rs9701796 polymorphism. TAS1R3 gene rs307355 polymorphism has been found to be an independent risk factor for dental caries experience by logistic regression analysis and to have increased the risk of caries. Moderate caries experience (4-7 caries) was found to be associated with TAS1R3 rs307355 heterozygous genotype, whereas high-risk caries experience (>8 caries) was found to be associated with TAS1R2 rs35874116 homozygous polymorphic genotype. PMID:25924601

  17. Enhancement of p53 gene transfer efficiency in hepatic tumor mediated by transferrin receptor through trans-arterial delivery.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qin; Teng, Gao-Jun; Zhang, Yue; Niu, Huan-Zhang; Zhu, Guang-Yu; An, Yan-Li; Yu, Hui; Li, Guo-Zhao; Qiu, Ding-Hong; Wu, Chuan-Ging

    2008-02-01

    Transferrin-DNA complex mediated by transferrin receptor in combination with interventional trans-arterial injection into a target organ may be a duel-target-oriented delivery means to achieve an efficient gene therapy. In this study, transferrin receptor expression in normal human hepatocyte and two hepatocellular-carcinoma cells (Huh7/SK-Hep1) was determined. p53-LipofectAMINE with different amounts of transferrin was transfected into the cells and the gene transfection efficiency was evaluated. After VX2 rabbit hepatocarcinoma model was established, the transferrin-p53-LipofectAMINE complex was delivered into the hepatic artery via interventional techniques to analyze the therapeutic p53 gene transfer efficiency in vivo by Western blot, immunohistochemical/immunofluorescence staining analysis and survival time. The results were transferrin receptor expression in Huh7 and SK-Hep1 cells was higher than in normal hepatocyte. Transfection efficiency of p53 was increased in vitro in both Huh7 and SK-Hep1 cells with increasing transferrin in a dose-dependent manner. As compared to intravenous administration, interventional injection of p53-gene complex into hepatic tumor mediated by transferrin-receptor, could enhance the gene transfer efficiency in vivo as evaluated by Western blot, immunohistochemical/immunofluorenscence staining analyses and improved animal survival (H = 12.567, p = 0.0019). These findings show the transferrin-transferrin receptor system combined with interventional techniques enhanced p53-gene transfer to hepatic tumor and the duel-target-oriented gene delivery may be an effective approach for gene therapy. PMID:18347429

  18. On the organization of human T-cell receptor loci: log-periodic distribution of T-cell receptor gene segments

    PubMed Central

    Toor, Amir A.; Toor, Abdullah A.; Rahmani, Mohamed; Manjili, Masoud H.

    2016-01-01

    The human T-cell repertoire is complex and is generated by the rearrangement of variable (V), diversity (D) and joining (J) segments on the T-cell receptor (TCR) loci. The T-cell repertoire demonstrates self-similarity in terms clonal frequencies when defined by V, D and J gene segment usage; therefore to determine whether the structural ordering of these gene segments on the TCR loci contributes to the observed clonal frequencies, the TCR loci were examined for self-similarity and periodicity in terms of gene segment organization. Logarithmic transformation of numeric sequence order demonstrated that the V and J gene segments for both T-cell receptor α (TRA) and β (TRB) loci are arranged in a self-similar manner when the spacing between the adjacent segments was considered as a function of the size of the neighbouring gene segment, with an average fractal dimension of approximately 1.5. Accounting for the gene segments occurring on helical DNA molecules with a logarithmic distribution, sine and cosine functions of the log-transformed angular coordinates of the start and stop nucleotides of successive TCR gene segments showed an ordered progression from the 5′ to the 3′ end of the locus, supporting a log-periodic organization. T-cell clonal frequency estimates, based on V and J segment usage, from normal stem cell donors were plotted against the V and J segment on TRB locus and demonstrated a periodic distribution. We hypothesize that this quasi-periodic variation in gene-segment representation in the T-cell clonal repertoire may be influenced by the location of the gene segments on the periodic-logarithmically scaled TCR loci. Interactions between the two strands of DNA in the double helix may influence the probability of gene segment usage by means of either constructive or destructive interference resulting from the superposition of the two helices. PMID:26763333

  19. A large-scale candidate gene analysis of mood disorders: evidence of neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor and opioid receptor signaling dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Deo, Anthony J.; Huang, Yung-yu; Hodgkinson, Colin A.; Xin, Yurong; Oquendo, Maria A.; Dwork, Andrew J.; Arango, Victoria; Brent, David A.; Goldman, David; Mann, J. John; Haghighi, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite proven heritability, little is known about the genetic architecture of mood disorders. Although a number of family and case–control studies have examined the genetics of mood disorders, none have carried out joint linkage-association studies and sought to validate the results with gene expression analyses in an independent cohort. Methods We present findings from a large candidate gene study that combines linkage and association analyses using families and singletons, providing a systematic candidate gene investigation of mood disorder. For this study, 876 individuals were recruited, including 83 families with 313 individuals and 563 singletons. This large-scale candidate gene analysis included 130 candidate genes implicated in addictive and other psychiatric disorders. These data showed significant genetic associations for 28 of these candidate genes, although none remained significant after correction for multiple testing. To evaluate the functional significance of these 28 candidate genes in mood disorders, we examined the transcriptional profiles of these genes within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate for 21 cases with mood disorders and 25 nonpsychiatric controls, and carried out a pathway analysis to identify points of high connectivity suggestive of particular molecular pathways that may be dysregulated. Results Two primary gene candidates were supported by the linkage-association, gene expression profiling, and network analysis: neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor, type 2 (NTRK2), and the opioid receptor, κ1 (OPRK1). Conclusion This study supports a role for NTRK2 and OPRK1 signaling in the pathophysiology of mood disorder. The unique approach incorporating evidence from multiple experimental and computational modalities enhances confidence in these findings. PMID:23277131

  20. Extreme expansion of the olfactory receptor gene repertoire in African elephants and evolutionary dynamics of orthologous gene groups in 13 placental mammals

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Atsushi; Touhara, Kazushige

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory receptors (ORs) detect odors in the environment, and OR genes constitute the largest multigene family in mammals. Numbers of OR genes vary greatly among species—reflecting the respective species' lifestyles—and this variation i